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1

[The resting heart rate].  

PubMed

Assessment of resting heart rate is frequently performed and is easy, reliable and inexpensive. Heart rate is used in many algorithms to assess the prognosis of acutely ill patients. Elevated resting heart rate is independently related to the development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature all-cause mortality. Adding heart rate to cardiovascular prediction models does not lead to improved prediction of vascular events or mortality. Beta blockers and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers decrease heart rate (and blood pressure) and lower the risk of premature mortality in patients with heart failure or recent myocardial infarction. In two recent randomised trials, ivabradine specifically decreased heart rate (but not blood pressure) and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with heart failure or coronary artery disease, decreased left ventricular function and resting heart rate of ? 70 beats/minute. Selective heart rate reduction is a potential treatment option to decrease cardiovascular risk. PMID:24666528

Bemelmans, Remy H H; Visseren, Frank L J

2014-01-01

2

Heart Rate Variability during Exercise Performed below and above Ventilatory Threshold  

Microsoft Academic Search

COTTIN, F., C. MEDIGUE, P.-M. LEPRETRE, Y. PAPELIER, J.-P. KORALSZTEIN, and V. BILLAT. Heart Rate Variability during Exercise Performed below and above Ventilatory Threshold. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 594 - 600, 2004. Purpose: To examine whether differences in heart rate variability (HRV) can distinguish sub- from supra-ventilatory-threshold exercise and whether the exercise duration at supra-threshold

FRANCOIS COTTIN; CLAIRE MEDIGUE; PIERRE-MARIE LEPRETRE; YVES PAPELIER; JEAN-PIERRE KORALSZTEIN; VERONIQUE BILLAT

2004-01-01

3

Heart rate, anxiety and performance of residents during a simulated critical clinical encounter: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background High-fidelity patient simulation has been praised for its ability to recreate lifelike training conditions. The degree to which high fidelity simulation elicits acute emotional and physiologic stress among participants – and the influence of acute stress on clinical performance in the simulation setting – remain areas of active exploration. We examined the relationship between residents’ self-reported anxiety and a proxy of physiologic stress (heart rate) as well as their clinical performance in a simulation exam using a validated assessment of non-technical skills, the Ottawa Crisis Resource Management Global Rating Scale (Ottawa GRS). Methods This was a prospective observational cohort study of emergency medicine residents at a single academic center. Participants managed a simulated clinical encounter. Anxiety was assessed using a pre- and post-simulation survey, and continuous cardiac monitoring was performed on each participant during the scenario. Performance in the simulation scenario was graded by faculty raters using a critical actions checklist and the Ottawa GRS instrument. Results Data collection occurred during the 2011 academic year. Of 40 eligible residents, 34 were included in the analysis. The median baseline heart rate for participants was 70 beats per minute (IQR: 62 – 78). During the simulation, the median maximum heart rate was 140 beats per minute (IQR: 137 – 151). The median minimum heart rate during simulation was 81 beats per minute (IQR: 72 – 92), and mean heart rate was 117 beats per minute (95% CI: 111 – 123). Pre- and post-simulation anxiety scores were equal (mean 3.3, IQR: 3 to 4). The minimum and maximum Overall Ottawa GRS scores were 2.33 and 6.67, respectively. The median Overall score was 5.63 (IQR: 5.0 to 6.0). Of the candidate predictors of Overall performance in a multivariate logistic regression model, only PGY status showed statistical significance (P?=?0.02). Conclusions Simulation is associated with physiologic stress, and heart rate elevation alone correlates poorly with both perceived stress and performance. Non-technical performance in the simulation setting may be more closely tied to one’s level of clinical experience than to perceived or actual stress. PMID:25064689

2014-01-01

4

Heart rate performance curve during incremental cycle ergometer exercise in healthy young male subjects.  

PubMed

In 1992 Conconi et al. (20) presented an indirect and noninvasive method for the determination of anaerobic threshold (AnT) in an incremental field test for runners. This noninvasive method for the determination of anaerobic threshold is dependent on the occurrence of a deflection of the heart rate performance curve (HRPC). The aim of our study was to evaluate the degree and direction of the deflection of the HRPC and the relationship of the heart rate threshold (HRT) to the lactate turn point in a group of 227 healthy young subjects (age: 23 +/- 4 yr). The subjects were divided into three groups by means of second degree polynomial fitting (GI: regular deflection, kHR > 0.1; G II: no deflection, 0 < kHR < 0.1; G II: inverse deflection, k < -0.1). No significant differences between the groups were found in the anthropometric data or in the power output and the blood lactate concentration at both the first (LTP1) and second (LTP2) lactate turn points and at maximum performance (Pmax). Using the method of Conconi et al. (20), 85.9% of the subjects showed a "regular" deflection, 6.2% showed no deflection at all, and 7.9% showed even an inverted deflection of the HRPC. An HRT could be obtained in both G I and G III, and power output at HRT was not significantly different in comparison to that at the LTP2. No HRT could be assessed in G II. The heart rate at HRT and the LTP2 were significantly lower in G III compared with G I. The phenomenon of heart rate break point may be attractive in training regulation, but its application is limited because a heart rate deflection cannot be found even in young subjects in some cases. PMID:9219203

Hofmann, P; Pokan, R; von Duvillard, S P; Seibert, F J; Zweiker, R; Schmid, P

1997-06-01

5

Heart Rate and Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to discover and learn about heart rate and the function of the heart. The students will investigate whether their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; develop an understanding of why their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; use data to develop an explanation of why their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; be aware of the effect of exercise on respiration; and be able to describe the major function of the heart.

Mr. Mike Peterson (Frazer Public School)

1999-07-01

6

Heart Rate Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

1990-01-01

7

The effect of heart rate variability biofeedback on performance psychology of basketball players.  

PubMed

Coping with pressure and anxiety is an ineluctable demand of sports performance. Heart rate variability (HRV) Biofeedback (BFB) shall be used as a tool for self regulating physiological responses resulting in improved psycho physiological interactions. For further analysis, the present study has been designed to examine the relationship between anxiety and performance and also effectiveness of biofeedback protocol to create stress-eliciting situation in basketball players. Thirty basketball players of university level and above (both male and female) aged 18-28 years, who scored a minimum of 20 in state trait anxiety inventory, were randomly divided into three equal groups- Experimental (Biofeedback) group, Placebo group and Control (No Treatment) group. The BFB group received HRV BFB training for 10 consecutive days for 20 min that included breathing at individual's resonant frequency through a pacing stimulus; Placebo group was shown motivational video clips for 10 consecutive days for 10 min, whereas No Treatment Control group was not given any intervention. Two way repeated measure ANOVA was applied to analyze the differences within and between the groups. Anxiety, coping self-efficacy, heart rate variability, respiration rate, and performance (dribbling, passing and shooting) at session 1, 10 and 1 month follow up were statistically significant in each group along with interaction of group and time (p < 0.001). Also, all the measures showed statistically significant inter group difference (p < 0.05). The findings are harmonious with existing data on HRV BFB as a strategy for dealing with anxiety. The Placebo group showed improvement in self efficacy and performance post training. The Control group showed no change in any variable except performance. The results of the study support the idea that HRV BFB lowers the anxiety and thus there seems to be a potential association between HRV BFB and performance optimization. PMID:22402913

Paul, Maman; Garg, Kanupriya

2012-06-01

8

The performance and reliability of wavelet denoising for Doppler ultrasound fetal heart rate signal preprocessing.  

PubMed

The present paper deals with the performance and the reliability of a Wavelet Denoising method for Doppler ultrasound Fetal Heart Rate (FHR) recordings. It displays strong evidence that the denoising process extracts the actual noise components. The analysis is approached with three methods. First, the power spectrum of the denoised FHR displays more clearly an 1/fa scaling law, i.e. the characteristic of fractal time series. Second, the rescaled scale analysis technique reveals a Hurst exponent at the range of 0.7-0.8 that corresponds to a long memory persistent process. Moreover, the variance of the Hurst exponent across time scales is smaller at the denoised signal. Third, a chaotic attractor reconstructed with the embedding dimension technique becomes evident at the denoised signals, while it is completely obscured at the unfiltered ones. PMID:10179728

Papadimitriou, S; Papadopoulos, V; Gatzounas, D; Tzigounis, V; Bezerianos, A

1997-01-01

9

Relationships between heart rate and physiological parameters of performance in top-level water polo players.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to measure the heart rate (HR) response of eight elite water polo players during the four 7-min quarters of the game and to check for relationships with the physiological parameters of performance ([Formula: see text]O2max, Th1vent, Th2vent). Each athlete performed a [Formula: see text]O2max treadmill test and played a water polo game wearing a heart rate monitor. The game fatigue index was calculated as the ratio of the fourth-quarter HR to the first-quarter HR: HR4/HR1. The results showed a slight decrease in fourth-quarter HR compared with the first quarter, with the mean four-quarter HR equal to 79.9±4.2% of HRmax. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed [Formula: see text]O2max to be the main explanatory factor of game intensity, i.e. game HR expressed in %HRreserve (R=0.88, P<0.01). We observed that higher aerobic capacity resulted in higher game intensity. We also observed a decrease in the playing intensity in the fourth quarter compared with the first, likely due to very high game involvement. We concluded that high aerobic capacity seems necessary to ensure high game intensity in water polo. This suggests that coaches should encourage their athletes to reach a minimum level of [Formula: see text]O2max and that HR monitoring could be of great interest in the control of water polo training sessions. PMID:24917687

Galy, O; Ben Zoubir, S; Hambli, M; Chaouachi, A; Hue, O; Chamari, K

2014-03-01

10

Heart rate, arterial distensibility, and optimal performance of the arterial tree.  

PubMed

In this study we explore the ability of a previously developed model of pulsatile flow for explaining the observed reduction of arterial distensibility with heart rate. The parameters relevant for the analysis are arterial wall distensibility together with permeability and reflection coefficients of the end capillaries. A non-specific artery and the ensemble of tissues supplied by that artery were considered in the model. The blood current within that artery was equalized to the sum of all micro currents in the tissues supplied by that artery. A formula emerged that relates changes in arterial distensibility with heart rate, and also with some particular aspects of microcirculation. Then, that formula was tested with data of distensibilities of the radial and carotid arteries observed at the heart rates of 63, 90, and 110 b.p.m. The formula correctly predicted the trend of decreased distensibility with heart rate for both arteries. Moreover, due to the fact that the carotid artery supplies the brain, and because the Blood-Brain barrier is highly restrictive to colloids in the blood, for the carotid artery the formula predicted a less marked decrease in distensibility than in the case of the radial artery feeding muscle tissue, which has a greater permeability to colloids, a trend that was confirmed by data. It was found that reduction of arterial distensibility with heart rate was greater in arteries that supply end capillaries with high permeability and low reflection coefficients. PMID:25110165

Silva, Carla; Reis, A Heitor

2014-09-22

11

Effect of increasing heart rate on Doppler indices of left ventricular performance in healthy men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—To investigate the effects of heart rate on the Doppler measurements of left ventricular function and to determine the normal pattern of rate dependency.Setting—University hospital specialising in internal medicine.Participants—14 healthy male volunteers 10 of whom were studied.Intervention: Transoesophageal atrial pacing.Main outcome measures—At paced rates of 70, 80, and 90 ppm the ratio of early to late peak transmitral flow velocity

T Oniki; Y Hashimoto; S Shimizu; T Kakuta; M Yajima; F Numano

1992-01-01

12

Performance limits of ICA-based heart rate identification techniques in imaging photoplethysmography.  

PubMed

Imaging photoplethysmography is a relatively new technique for extracting biometric information from video images of faces. This is useful in non-invasive monitoring of patients including neonates or the aged, with respect to sudden infant death syndrome, sleep apnoea, pulmonary disease, physical or mental stress and other cardio-vascular conditions. In this paper, we investigate the limits of detection of the heart rate (HR) while reducing the video quality. We compare the performance of three independent component analysis (ICA) methods (JADE, FastICA, RADICAL), autocorrelation with signal conditioning techniques and identify the most robust approach. We discuss sources of increasing error and other limiting conditions in three situations of reduced signal-to-noise ratio: one where the area of the analyzed face is decreased from 100 to 5%, another where the face area is progressively re-sampled down to a single RGB pixel and one where the HR signal is severely reduced with respect to the boundary noise. In most cases, the cardiac pulse rate can be reliably and accurately detected from videos containing only 5% facial area or from a face occupying just 4?pixels or containing only 5% of the facial HR modulation. PMID:25501390

Mannapperuma, Kavan; Holton, Benjamin D; Lesniewski, Peter J; Thomas, John C

2015-01-01

13

Seasonal changes in physical performance and heart rate variability in high level futsal players.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the changes in physical performance and resting heart rate variability (HRV) in professional futsal players during the pre-season and in-season training periods. 11 athletes took part in the study (age=24.3±2.9 years; height=176.3±5.2 cm; weight=76.1±6.3 kg), and performed a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test [6×40 m (20+20 m with a 180° change of direction) sprints separated by 20 s of passive recovery] and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) at 3 different moments (M1=beginning of pre-season; M2=end of pre-season; M3=mid in-season). The HRV indices were assessed at the same moments. After the short pre-season (3-week), mean RSA time (RSAmean) (M1=7.43±0.2 s; M2=7.24±0.2 s; P=0.003), decrement in RSA performance (RSAdecrement) (M1=6.7±0.3%; M2=5.0±0.9%; P=0.001), and Yo-Yo IR1 distance (M1=1.244±298 m; M2=1.491±396 m; P=0.002) were significantly improved (P<0.05). During the in-season (i. e., M3), performance in Yo-Yo IR1 and RSAmean were maintained. In contrast, RSAbest (M2=6.89±0.2 to M3=6.69±0.3; P=0.001) was improved and RSAdecrement (M2=5.0±0.9% to M3=6.6±0.9%; P=0.001) was impaired. At M2, there was an increase in HRV vagal-related indices compared with M1 that was maintained at M3. In conclusion, after a short pre-season, futsal players improved their RSA and Yo-Yo IR1 performance with concomitant improvements in HRV. These indices were maintained during the in-season period while RSAbest was improved and RSAdecrement impaired. Frequent monitoring of these performances and HRV indices may assist with identification of individual training adaptations and/or early signs of maladaption. PMID:23143705

Oliveira, R S; Leicht, A S; Bishop, D; Barbero-Álvarez, J C; Nakamura, F Y

2013-05-01

14

Blood lactate, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion responses of elite surf lifesavers to high-performance competition.  

PubMed

A paucity of empirical research exists into surf lifesaving competition from which coaches and athletes may formulate training and recovery strategies. Seventeen (male=9; female=8) high-performance surf lifesavers (21.2+/-3.9 years) contested multiple rounds of team and individual events at a 2-day surf lifesaving competition. Individual events consisted of the multi-discipline ironman (IRON), paddle board (BOARD) and surf swim (SWIM). Blood lactate (BLa), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were determined following heats, semi-finals and final. IRON HR and RPE following semi-finals (153.0+/-21.6beatsmin(-1) and 14.4+/-1.5) and final (171.0+/-9.1beatsmin(-1) and 19.1+/-0.2) were greater than heats (141.8+/-17.2beatsmin(-1) and 12.0+/-1.9; p<0.05) and final BLa (10.5+/-2.8mmolL(-1)) was greater than heats (5.8+/-3.6mmolL(-1); p<0.05). BOARD BLa and HR were greater after the final (9.0+/-2.8mmolL(-1) and 159.0+/-19.9beatsmin(-1)) compared to heats (4.7+/-2.4mmolL(-1) and 133.0+/-17.1beatsmin(-1); p<0.05). No significant differences were identified for SWIM. RPE-HR relationships were identified for pooled IRON and BOARD results following semi-finals (0.668; p<0.05) and finals (r=0.741; p<0.05). In conclusion, high-performance surf lifesavers employ race strategies with all-out maximal exercise limited to semi-finals and finals. PMID:18162440

Sinclair, Wade H; Kerr, Rebecca M; Spinks, Warwick L; Leicht, Anthony S

2009-01-01

15

Age and gender dependent heart rate circadian model development and performance verification on the proarrhythmic drug case study  

PubMed Central

Background There are two main reasons for drug withdrawals at the various levels of the development path – hepatic and cardiac toxicity. The latter one is mainly connected with the proarrhythmic potency and according to the present practice is supposed to be recognized at the pre-clinical (in vitro and animal in vivo) or clinical level (human in vivo studies). There are, although, some limitations to all the above mentioned methods which have led to novel in vitro – in vivo extrapolation methods being introduced. With the use of in silico implemented mathematical and statistical modelling it is possible to translate the in vitro findings into the human in vivo situation at the population level. Human physiology is influenced by many parameters and one of them which needs to be properly accounted for is a heart rate which follows the circadian rhythm. We described such phenomenon statistically which enabled the improved assessment of the drug proarrhythmic potency. Methods A publicly available data set describing the circadian changes of the heart rate of 18 healthy subjects, 5 males (average age 36, range 26–45) and 13 females (average age 34, range 20–50) was used for the heart rate model development. External validation was done with the use of a clinical research database containing heart rate measurements derived from 67 healthy subjects, 34 males and 33 females (average age 33, range 17–72). The developed heart rate model was then incorporated into the ToxComp platform to simulate the impact of circadian variation in the heart rate on QTc interval. The usability of the combined models was assessed with moxifloxacin (MOXI) as a model drug. Results The developed heart rate model fitted well, both to the training data set (RMSE = 128 ms and MAPE = 12.3%) and the validation data set (RMSE = 165 ms and MAPE = 17.1%). Simulations performed at the population level proved that the combination of the IVIVE platform and the population variability description allows for the precise prediction of the circadian variation of drugs proarrhythmic effect. Conclusions It can be concluded that a flexible and practically useful model describing the heart rate circadian variation has been developed and its performance was verified. PMID:23394137

2013-01-01

16

Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate  

MedlinePLUS

Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Sep 4,2014 Blood pressure and heart rate are not the same. Learn ... last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

17

Heart Rates of Elite Synchronized Swimmers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heart rates were recorded by radiotelemetry in ten elite and national-class synchronized swimmers as they performed competitive figures of high degrees of difficulty. The focus was on changes in heart rates and electrocardiogram patterns for each body position, especially those requiring facial immersion and breath-holding. (Author/MT)

Gemma, Karen Erickson; Wells, Christine L.

1987-01-01

18

Heart rate reduction and longevity in mice.  

PubMed

Heart rate correlates inversely with life span across all species, including humans. In patients with cardiovascular disease, higher heart rate is associated with increased mortality, and such patients benefit from pharmacological heart rate reduction. However, cause-and-effect relationships between heart rate and longevity, notably in healthy individuals, are not established. We therefore prospectively studied the effects of a life-long pharmacological heart rate reduction on longevity in mice. We hypothesized, that the total number of cardiac cycles is constant, and that a 15 % heart rate reduction might translate into a 15 % increase in life span. C57BL6/J mice received either placebo or ivabradine at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day in drinking water from 12 weeks to death. Heart rate and body weight were monitored. Autopsy was performed on all non-autolytic cadavers, and parenchymal organs were evaluated macroscopically. Ivabradine reduced heart rate by 14 % (median, interquartile range 12-15 %) throughout life, and median life span was increased by 6.2 % (p = 0.01). Body weight and macroscopic findings were not different between placebo and ivabradine. Life span was not increased to the same extent as heart rate was reduced, but nevertheless significantly prolonged by 6.2 %. PMID:25589054

Gent, Sabine; Kleinbongard, Petra; Dammann, Philip; Neuhäuser, Markus; Heusch, Gerd

2015-03-01

19

Heart rate variability: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable reflection of the many physiological factors modulating the normal rhythm of the\\u000a heart. In fact, they provide a powerful means of observing the interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous\\u000a systems. It shows that the structure generating the signal is not only simply linear, but also involves nonlinear contributions.\\u000a Heart rate (HR) is

U. Rajendra Acharya; Paul K. Joseph; N. Kannathal; Choo Min Lim; Jasjit S. Suri

2006-01-01

20

Regulation of Human Heart Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to measure heart rate accurately. Then students design and carry out an experiment to test the effects of an activity or stimulus on heart rate, analyze and interpret the data, and present their experiments in a poster session. In this activity students learn about both cardiac physiology and experimental method.

Ingrid Waldron

21

Heart rate variability in mice with coronary heart disease  

E-print Network

Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat fluctuation of the heart rate, is a non-invasive test that measures the autonomic regulation of the heart. Assessment of HRV has been shown to predict the risk of mortality ...

Zapanta, Laurence (Laurence F.)

2005-01-01

22

Sensitivity of Monthly Heart Rate and Psychometric Measures for Monitoring Physical Performance in Highly Trained Young Handball Players.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine whether monthly resting heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and psychometric measures can be used to monitor changes in physical performance in highly-trained adolescent handball players. Data were collected in 37 adolescent players (training 10±2.1?h.wk(-1)) on 11 occasions from September to May during the in-season period, and included an estimation of training status (resting HR and HRV, the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire), and 3 physical performance tests (a 10-m sprint, a counter movement jump and a graded aerobic intermittent test, 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test). The sensitivity of HR and psychometric measures to changes in physical performance was poor (performance measures. The specificity was however strong (>?75%), irrespective of the markers and the performance measures. Finally, the difference in physical performance between players with better vs. worse estimated training status were all almost certainly trivial. The present results highlight the limitation of monthly measures of resting HR, HRV and perceived mood and fatigue for predicting in-season changes in physical performance in highly-trained adolescent handball players. This suggests that more frequent monitoring might be required, and/or that other markers might need to be considered. PMID:25429552

Buchheit, M

2014-11-27

23

Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients  

SciTech Connect

We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.

1987-01-01

24

The Effects of an Intervention Strategy on Children's Heart Rates and Skill Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of a fitness infusion instructional strategy (FI) on children's activity levels and skill performance scores. This strategy included aerobic activity within the skill practice tasks and game play. In other words, students performed short bouts of activity between the practice and…

Ignico, Arlene; Corson, Arleen; Vidoni, Carla

2006-01-01

25

Assessment of gravitational stress on heart rate variability during maneuvers on high performance jet flights.  

PubMed

The Push-Pull Effect (PPE) is a physiological phenomenon defined as a reduction of +Gz tolerance induced by a previous exposure to a -Gz acceleration, that may lead to loss of consciousness. Aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the cardiac rhythm changes associated with PPE during real flights. Data were collected in 3 pilots during flights on the Aermacchi MB- 339-CD aircraft. In each flight, lasting about 60 minutes, ECG, respiration and 3D accelerations were recorded by a new smart garment (the MagIC System). The flight protocol included a maneuver eliciting a reference +5Gz acceleration for 15 seconds (Ref+5G), followed, after a while, by a push-pull maneuver with a profile characterized by a 5-s acceleration at -1Gz (PP-1G) and, with a 1G/s onset, by 15 seconds at +5Gz (PP+5G), so to induce the push-pull gravitational stress. From each ECG recording, a beat-by-beat RR Interval (RRI) series was derived. RRI mean, standard deviation (SDNN) and the RRI Root Mean Square of Successive Difference (RMSSD) were estimated in each pilot during the Ref+5G and the PP+5G maneuvers. As compared with Ref+5G, all pilots displayed significant reductions in RRI mean, SDNN and RMSSD during PP+5G. These findings are compatible with a PP-induced enhancement in the sympathetic drive to the heart -as shown by the reduction in RRI mean and SDNN- and a concomitant deactivation of the parasympathetic control as shown by the reduction in RMSSD. PMID:21097262

Di Rienzo, Marco; Castiglioni, Paolo; Meriggi, Paolo; Rizzo, Francesco; Trivelloni, Pierandrea; Cacopardo, Salvatore; Guadagno, Anton Giulio

2010-01-01

26

HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND 24-HOUR MINIMUM HEART RATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heart rate variability (HRV) indices based on 24-hour electrocardiograph recordings have been used in clinical research studies to assess the aggregate activity of the autonomic nervous system. While 24-hour HRV is generally considered non-invasive, use in research protocols typically involves cons...

27

The contribution of coping-related variables and heart rate variability to visual search performance under pressure.  

PubMed

Visual search performance under pressure is explored within the predictions of the neurovisceral integration model. The experimental aims of this study were: 1) to investigate the contribution of coping-related variables to baseline, task, and reactivity (task-baseline) high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and 2) to investigate the contribution of coping-related variables and HF-HRV to visual search performance under pressure. Participants (n=96) completed self-report measures of coping-related variables (emotional intelligence, coping style, perceived stress intensity, perceived control of stress, coping effectiveness, challenge and threat, and attention strategy) and HF-HRV was measured during a visual search task under pressure. The data show that baseline HF-HRV was predicted by a trait coping-related variable, task HF-HRV was predicted by a combination of trait and state coping-related variables, and reactivity HF-HRV was predicted by a state coping-related variable. Visual search performance was predicted by coping-related variables but not by HF-HRV. PMID:25481358

Laborde, Sylvain; Lautenbach, Franziska; Allen, Mark S

2015-02-01

28

Effects of In-Water Passive Recovery on Sprint Swimming Performance and Heart Rate in Adolescent Swimmers  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that sprint swimming performance is enhanced by in-water passive recovery (IN) after sprint swimming bouts in well-trained adolescent swimmers. Using a randomized crossover study design, twelve well-trained adolescent swimmers performed two tests at the swimming pool after preliminary testing. They performed 5 bouts of 100m all-out swimming separated by 5 minutes of passive rest. Their individual in- or out-of-water passive recovery condition was randomized on the first day. In their second visit to the swimming pool the opposite recovery condition was indicated. More than 60% of the subjects which rested in-water were faster in the 5th bout when compared to the OUT group. However, no significant differences were found in blood lactate when IN and OUT were compared. After the first bout peak heart rate (HR peak) was lower in subsequent bouts for IN recovery when compared with OUT (p < 0.001). Thus, coaches and researchers should take into account that IN passive recovery may decrease loss of performance and diminish HR peak during sprint swimming bouts. This is particularly important given the use that many coaches give to HR as a tool in daily training. Key points In-water passive recovery minimizes the loss of performance during high intensity swimming Maximal HR is significantly reduced by in-water recovery Coaches should take this information into account when using HR to control swimming intensity Future research should study long-term effects induced by in-water passive recovery PMID:25435791

Casuso, Rafael A.; Martínez-López, Emilio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Ruiz-Cazalilla, Irene; Cruz-Díaz, David; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

2014-01-01

29

Effects of in-water passive recovery on sprint swimming performance and heart rate in adolescent swimmers.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that sprint swimming performance is enhanced by in-water passive recovery (IN) after sprint swimming bouts in well-trained adolescent swimmers. Using a randomized crossover study design, twelve well-trained adolescent swimmers performed two tests at the swimming pool after preliminary testing. They performed 5 bouts of 100m all-out swimming separated by 5 minutes of passive rest. Their individual in- or out-of-water passive recovery condition was randomized on the first day. In their second visit to the swimming pool the opposite recovery condition was indicated. More than 60% of the subjects which rested in-water were faster in the 5th bout when compared to the OUT group. However, no significant differences were found in blood lactate when IN and OUT were compared. After the first bout peak heart rate (HR peak) was lower in subsequent bouts for IN recovery when compared with OUT (p < 0.001). Thus, coaches and researchers should take into account that IN passive recovery may decrease loss of performance and diminish HR peak during sprint swimming bouts. This is particularly important given the use that many coaches give to HR as a tool in daily training. Key pointsIn-water passive recovery minimizes the loss of performance during high intensity swimmingMaximal HR is significantly reduced by in-water recoveryCoaches should take this information into account when using HR to control swimming intensityFuture research should study long-term effects induced by in-water passive recovery. PMID:25435791

Casuso, Rafael A; Martínez-López, Emilio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Ruiz-Cazalilla, Irene; Cruz-Díaz, David; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

2014-12-01

30

Heart Rate-Defined Phases of Attention, Look Duration, and Infant Performance in the Paired-Comparison Paradigm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented paired-comparison familiarization-novelty recognition task to 4-month-olds. Found that peak look duration during pretest and familiarization periods predicted recognition performance. Recognition was unaffected by choice-trial length. Longer gaze durations during pretest and familiarization were associated with more time in heart…

Colombo, John; Richman, W. Allen; Shaddy, D. Jill; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Maikranz, Julie M.

2001-01-01

31

Nonlinear analysis of the performance and reliability of wavelet singularity detection based denoising for Doppler ultrasound fetal heart rate signals.  

PubMed

Many studies on the physiology of the cardiovascular system revealed that nonlinear chaotic dynamics govern the generation of the heart rate signal. This is also valid for the fetal heart rate (FHR) variability, where however the variability is affected by many more factors and is significantly more complicated than for the adult case. Recently an adaptive wavelet denoising method for the Doppler ultrasound FHR recordings has been introduced. In this paper the performance and reliability of that method is confirmed by the observation that for the wavelet denoised FHR signal, a deterministic nonlinear structure, which was concealed by the noise, becomes apparent. It provides strong evidence that the denoising process removes actual noise components and can therefore be utilized for the improvement of the signal quality. Hence by observing after denoising a significant improvement of the 'chaoticity' of the FHR signal we obtain strong evidence for the reliability and efficiency of the wavelet based denoising method. The estimation of the chaoticity of the FHR signal before and after the denoising is approached with three nonlinear analysis methods. First, the rescaled scale analysis (RSA) technique reveals that the denoising process increases the Hurst exponent parameter as happens when additive noise is removed from a chaotic signal. Second, the nonlinear prediction error evaluated with radial basis function (RBF) prediction networks is significantly lower at the denoised signal. The significant gain in predictability can be attributed to the drastic reduction of the additive noise from the signal by the denoising algorithm. Moreover, the evaluation of the correlation coefficient between actual and neural network predicted values as a function of the prediction time displays characteristics of chaos only for the denoised signal. Third, a chaotic attractor, reconstructed with the embedding dimension technique, becomes evident for the denoised signal, while it is completely obscured for the original signals. The correlation dimension of the reconstructed attractor for the denoised signal tends to reach a value independent of the embedding dimension, a sign of deterministic chaotic signal. In contrast for the original signal the correlation dimension increases steadily with the embedding dimension, a fact that indicates strong contribution of noise. PMID:10075130

Papadimitriou, S; Bezerianos, A

1999-01-01

32

Spider heart-rates and locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A non-invasive, laser\\/fibre-optic, technique was developed to measure the heartrates of active unrestrained spiders. The heart-rates of 15 species were measured before, during and after activity.2.Maximum heart-rate varied between species. A possible association between maximum heartrate and prey-catching behaviour is proposed. Within a species, body-weight had no significant effect on maximum heart-rate. InArgyroneta, mature males had significantly higher maximum heart-rates

Clive Bromhall

1987-01-01

33

Increased heteroscedasticity of heart rate in fatal heart failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Healthy human heart rate is known to fluctuate in a highly complex manner, displaying complexity characteristics such as those shared by physical systems at a critical state. It is, however, widely believed that chronic heart failure reduces this complexity and that heart rate data from chronic-heart-failure patients can be used for the validation of complexity measures and paradigms applicable both to heart rate and more generally to assess any system's complexity. Here, we counter the above belief, showing an increase in fluctuations and in complexity of heart rate in chronic-heart-failure patients, in particular those at risk of death. This is supported by evidence of increased non-Gaussianity and heteroscedasticity resulting from the emergence of a characteristic correlation scale in the magnitude correlation landscape.

Struzik, Z. R.; Kiyono, K.; Hayano, J.; Watanabe, E.; Yamamoto, Y.

2008-04-01

34

How to Take Your Heart Rate  

MedlinePLUS

... effective for your body. How to Take Your Heart Rate Taking your pulse during physical activity allows ... You should exercise to stay within your target heart range. www.move.va.gov Age (years) 50% ( ...

35

Scale Invariant Properties in Heart Rate Signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of heart beat is controlled by autonomic nervous system: accelerated by the sympathetic system and slowed by the parasympathetic system. Scaling properties in heart rate are usually related to the intrinsic dynamics of this physiological regulatory system. The two packages calculating local exponent spectra: Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima and Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (accessible from Physionet home page http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/101/23/e215) are tested, and then used to investigate the spectrum of singularity exponents in series of heart rates obtained from patients suffering from reduced left ventricle systolic function. It occurs that this state of a heart could be connected to some perturbation in the regulatory system, because the heart rate appears to be less controlled than in a healthy human heart. The multifractality in the heart rate signal is weakened: the spectrum is narrower and moved to higher values what indicate the higher activity of the sympatethic nervous system.

Makowiec, D.; Dudkowska, A.; Zwierz, M.; Galaska, R.; Rynkiewicz, A.

2006-05-01

36

Heart Physiology Lab Part 1: Pulse Rate  

E-print Network

Heart Physiology Lab Part 1: Pulse Rate Measure your pulse in each of the following conditions (in in the class. You may use Table 1 in the Heart Physiology Worksheet for this, if you wish. Once you have all of the class averages for each measurement. You may use Graph 1 in the Heart Physiology Worksheet for this

Loughry, Jim

37

Long?term Cardiovascular Risks Associated With an Elevated Heart Rate: The Framingham Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Higher heart rate has been associated with an adverse prognosis, but most prior studies focused on individuals with known cardiovascular disease or examined a limited number of outcomes. We sought to examine the association of baseline heart rate with both fatal and nonfatal outcomes during 2 decades of follow?up. Methods and Results Our study included 4058 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 55 years, 56% women). Cox models were performed with multivariable adjustment for clinical risk factors and physical activity. A total of 708 participants developed incident cardiovascular disease (303 heart failure, 343 coronary heart disease, and 216 stroke events), 48 received a permanent pacemaker, and 1186 died. Baseline heart rate was associated with incident cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15 per 1 SD [11 bpm] increase in heart rate, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.24, P=0.0002), particularly heart failure (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.48, P<0.0001). Higher heart rate was also associated with higher all?cause (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.24, P<0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.33, P=0.01). Spline analyses did not suggest a lower threshold beyond which the benefit of a lower heart rate abated or increased. In contrast, individuals with a higher heart rate had a lower risk of requiring permanent pacemaker placement (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.79, P=0.001). Conclusions Individuals with a higher heart rate are at elevated long?term risk for cardiovascular events, in particular, heart failure, and all?cause death. On the other hand, a higher heart rate is associated with a lower risk of future permanent pacemaker implantation. PMID:24811610

Ho, Jennifer E.; Larson, Martin G.; Ghorbani, Anahita; Cheng, Susan; Coglianese, Erin E.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

38

Acoustically based fetal heart rate monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acoustically based fetal heart rate monitor permits an expectant mother to perform the fetal Non-Stress Test in her home. The potential market would include the one million U.S. pregnancies per year requiring this type of prenatal surveillance. The monitor uses polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2) piezoelectric polymer film for the acoustic sensors, which are mounted in a seven-element array on a cummerbund. Evaluation of the sensor ouput signals utilizes a digital signal processor, which performs a linear prediction routine in real time. Clinical tests reveal that the acoustically based monitor provides Non-Stress Test records which are comparable to those obtained with a commercial ultrasonic transducer.

Baker, Donald A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.

1991-01-01

39

Orthostatic heart rate and blood pressure in adolescents: reference ranges.  

PubMed

This descriptive population study of 307 public high school students, ages 15 to 17 years, was performed to establish reference ranges for orthostatic changes in heart rate and blood pressure in adolescents, and to identify influential variables. Noninvasive measurements of blood pressure and heart rate were obtained. Reference ranges for orthostatic heart rate change in this population at 2 minutes were -2 to +41 beats per minute and at 5 minutes were -1 to +48 beats per minute. Orthostatic blood pressure changes were within the adult range for 98% of adolescents tested. One-third of participants experienced orthostatic symptoms during testing. In conclusion, this study shows that orthostatic symptoms and large orthostatic heart rate changes occur in adolescents. This suggests that the current orthostatic heart rate criterion aiding the diagnosis of adult orthostatic intolerance syndromes is likely not appropriate for adolescents and should be reevaluated. PMID:20197269

Skinner, Joline E; Driscoll, Sherilyn W; Porter, Co-Burn J; Brands, Chad K; Pianosi, Paolo T; Kuntz, Nancy L; Nelson, Dawn E; Burkhardt, Barbara E; Bryant, Sandra C; Fischer, Philip R

2010-10-01

40

A New Approach to Detect Congestive Heart Failure Using Short-Term Heart Rate Variability Measures  

PubMed Central

Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has quantified the functioning of the autonomic regulation of the heart and heart's ability to respond. However, majority of studies on HRV report several differences between patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and healthy subjects, such as time-domain, frequency domain and nonlinear HRV measures. In the paper, we mainly presented a new approach to detect congestive heart failure (CHF) based on combination support vector machine (SVM) and three nonstandard heart rate variability (HRV) measures (e.g. SUM_TD, SUM_FD and SUM_IE). The CHF classification model was presented by using SVM classifier with the combination SUM_TD and SUM_FD. In the analysis performed, we found that the CHF classification algorithm could obtain the best performance with the CHF classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 100%, 100%, 100%, respectively. PMID:24747432

Wang, Qian; Zhou, GuangMin; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Qing

2014-01-01

41

Heart rate dynamics during three forms of meditation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was designed to quantify and compare the instantaneous heart rate dynamics and cardiopulmonary interactions during sequential performance of three meditation protocols with different breathing patterns. Background: We analyzed beat-to-beat heart rate and continuous breathing signals from 10 experienced meditators (4 females; 6 males; mean age 42 years; range 29–55 years) during three traditional interventions: relaxation response, breath

C.-K. Peng; Isaac C. Henry; Joseph E. Mietus; Jeffrey M. Hausdorff; Gurucharan Khalsa; Herbert Benson; Ary L. Goldberger

2004-01-01

42

Ear Acupressure, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Insomnia  

PubMed Central

This high-tech “teleacupuncture study” describes a neurovegetative ear acupressure effect in patients with chronic insomnia by using heart rate variability analysis. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) measurements in 31 patients (mean age?±?SD: 54.3?±?10.6 years) were performed under standardized conditions in Harbin, China, and the data analysis was performed in Graz, Austria. Similar to our previous clinical and basic teleacupuncture research works, the electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded by an HRV Medilog AR12 system during ear acupressure of the Shenmen point on the left ear. HR decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during and after acupressure stimulation. The effect was not visible after the first stimulation, rather it appeared in the phase following the second acupressure stimulation (10 min after the first stimulation). Total HRV showed significant stimulation-dependent increases (P < 0.05), immediately after each acupressure stimulation with a maximum after the third stimulation (20 min after the first stimulation), but there was no long-lasting effect. The present results can serve as a solid basis for the further investigations of auricular point stimulation for noninvasive complementary use in treating insomnia. PMID:23476702

Wang, Lu; Cheng, Weiping; Sun, Zhongren; Xu, Yangyang; Cheng, Guangyu; Kuang, Haixue

2013-01-01

43

Heart Rate Variability and Blood Pressure during Dynamic and Static Exercise at Similar Heart Rate Levels  

PubMed Central

Aim was to elucidate autonomic responses to dynamic and static (isometric) exercise of the lower limbs eliciting the same moderate heart rate (HR) response. Method: 23 males performed two kinds of voluntary exercise in a supine position at similar heart rates: static exercise (SE) of the lower limbs (static leg press) and dynamic exercise (DE) of the lower limbs (cycling). Subjective effort, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), rate pressure product (RPP) and the time between consecutive heart beats (RR-intervals) were measured. Time-domain (SDNN, RMSSD), frequency-domain (power in the low and high frequency band (LFP, HFP)) and geometric measures (SD1, SD2) as well as non-linear measures of regularity (approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn) and correlation dimension D2) were calculated. Results: Although HR was similar during both exercise conditions (88±10 bpm), subjective effort, SBP, DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly enhanced during SE. HRV indicators representing overall variability (SDNN, SD 2) and vagal modulated variability (RMSSD, HFP, SD 1) were increased. LFP, thought to be modulated by both autonomic branches, tended to be higher during SE. ApEn and SampEn were decreased whereas D2 was enhanced during SE. It can be concluded that autonomic control processes during SE and DE were qualitatively different despite similar heart rate levels. The differences were reflected by blood pressure and HRV indices. HRV-measures indicated a stronger vagal cardiac activity during SE, while blood pressure response indicated a stronger sympathetic efferent activity to the vessels. The elevated vagal cardiac activity during SE might be a response mechanism, compensating a possible co-activation of sympathetic cardiac efferents, as HR and LF/HF was similar and LFP tended to be higher. However, this conclusion must be drawn cautiously as there is no HRV-marker reflecting “pure” sympathetic cardiac activity. PMID:24349546

Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Stoll, Regina; Kreuzfeld, Steffi

2013-01-01

44

Heart-rate pulse-shift detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector circuit accurately separates and counts phase-shift pulses over wide range of basic pulse-rate frequency, and also provides reasonable representation of full repetitive EKG waveform. Single telemeter implanted in small animal monitors not only body temperature but also animal movement and heart rate.

Anderson, M.

1974-01-01

45

Discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability measures for chronic heart failure detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the discrimination power of standard long-term heart rate variability (HRV) measures\\u000a for the diagnosis of chronic heart failure (CHF). The authors performed a retrospective analysis on four public Holter databases,\\u000a analyzing the data of 72 normal subjects and 44 patients suffering from CHF. To assess the discrimination power of HRV measures,\\u000a an

Paolo Melillo; Roberta Fusco; Mario Sansone; Marcello Bracale; Leandro Pecchia

2011-01-01

46

Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

47

Toward quantitative fetal heart rate monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring during labor is motivated by the clinical experience that fetal distress causes loss of FHR variation and the occurrence of decelerations late during uterine contraction. This practice is of uncertain clinical benefit, perhaps because the interpretation is qualitative. We have developed new quantitative measures and analyzed cardiotocograph records from 148 consecutive patients, 44

Hanqing Cao; Douglas E. Lake; James E. Ferguson; Christian A. Chisholm; M. Pamela Griffin; J. Randall Moorman

2006-01-01

48

Determination of the survival rate in patients with congestive heart failure stratified by 123 I-MIBG imaging: a meta-analysis from the studies performed in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The goals of this meta-analysis were to determine survival rates in patients with heart failure (HF) assessed by 123I-MIBG imaging results using recently published studies and to determine the prognostic value of 123I-MIBG imaging.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We reviewed published cohort studies carried out in Japan that compared the prognosis of patients with their 123I-MIBG activity quantified as late heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H\\/M) or

Yoichi Kuwabara; Nagara Tamaki; Tomoaki Nakata; Shohei Yamashina; Junichi Yamazaki

2011-01-01

49

Gaussian Mixture Model of Heart Rate Variability  

PubMed Central

Heart rate variability (HRV) is an important measure of sympathetic and parasympathetic functions of the autonomic nervous system and a key indicator of cardiovascular condition. This paper proposes a novel method to investigate HRV, namely by modelling it as a linear combination of Gaussians. Results show that three Gaussians are enough to describe the stationary statistics of heart variability and to provide a straightforward interpretation of the HRV power spectrum. Comparisons have been made also with synthetic data generated from different physiologically based models showing the plausibility of the Gaussian mixture parameters. PMID:22666386

Costa, Tommaso; Boccignone, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Mario

2012-01-01

50

Atrial and ventricular fetal heart rate patterns in isolated congenital complete heart block detected by magnetocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atrial and ventricular fetal heart rate tracings from a patient with isolated congenital complete heart block treated with dexamethasone showed a remarkable degree of correlation and greater reactivity for the ventricular than the atrial fetal heart rate. Ventriculophasic sinus arrhythmia was present continually in the atrial fetal heart rate tracings. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179:258-60.)

Ronald T. Wakai; Arthur C. Leuthold; Chester B. Martin

1998-01-01

51

Heart rate variability during cycloergometric exercise or judo wrestling eliciting the same heart rate level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared heart rate variability (HRV) in ten male judokas between two types of exercise eliciting the same near-maximal average heart rate (HR): judo wrestling vs. cycloergometric bout. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were recorded during (1) a 4-min judo randori (wrestling); (2) a 4-min cycloergometric exercise eliciting maximal oxygen consumption ( V?O 2MAX). Time series were analyzed both by short

François Cottin; François Durbin; Yves Papelier

2004-01-01

52

Heart Rate Variability – A Historical Perspective  

PubMed Central

Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate or the duration of the R–R interval – the heart period, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool. The temporal fluctuations in heart rate exhibit a marked synchrony with respiration (increasing during inspiration and decreasing during expiration – the so called respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) and are widely believed to reflect changes in cardiac autonomic regulation. Although the exact contributions of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system to this variability are controversial and remain the subject of active investigation and debate, a number of time and frequency domain techniques have been developed to provide insight into cardiac autonomic regulation in both health and disease. It is the purpose of this essay to provide an historical overview of the evolution in the concept of HRV. Briefly, pulse rate was first measured by ancient Greek physicians and scientists. However, it was not until the invention of the “Physician’s Pulse Watch” (a watch with a second hand that could be stopped) in 1707 that changes in pulse rate could be accurately assessed. The Rev. Stephen Hales (1733) was the first to note that pulse varied with respiration and in 1847 Carl Ludwig was the first to record RSA. With the measurement of the ECG (1895) and advent of digital signal processing techniques in the 1960s, investigation of HRV and its relationship to health and disease has exploded. This essay will conclude with a brief description of time domain, frequency domain, and non-linear dynamic analysis techniques (and their limitations) that are commonly used to measure HRV. PMID:22144961

Billman, George E.

2011-01-01

53

Passive fetal heart rate monitoring apparatus and method with enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for acquiring signals emitted by a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats and determining a fetal heart rate. Multiple sensor signals are outputted by a passive fetal heart rate monitoring sensor. Multiple parallel nonlinear filters filter these multiple sensor signals to identify fetal heart beats in the signal data. A processor determines a fetal heart rate based on these identified fetal heart beats. The processor includes the use of a figure of merit weighting of heart rate estimates based on the identified heart beats from each filter for each signal. The fetal heart rate thus determined is outputted to a display, storage, or communications channel. A method for enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination includes acquiring signals from a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats from the signals by multiple parallel nonlinear filtering, and determining a fetal heart rate based on the identified fetal heart beats. A figure of merit operation in this method provides for weighting a plurality of fetal heart rate estimates based on the identified fetal heart beats and selecting the highest ranking fetal heart rate estimate.

Zahorian, Stephen A. (Inventor); Livingston, David L. (Inventor); Pretlow, III, Robert A. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

54

Analysis of Heart Rate Variability Using Time-Varying Filtering of Heart Transplanted Patients  

E-print Network

Analysis of Heart Rate Variability Using Time-Varying Filtering of Heart Transplanted Patients the heart rate variability (HRV), obtained by using the time-varying integral pulse frequency modulation (TVIPFM) which is well adapted to the exercise stress testing. We consider that the mean heart period

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

55

Eur Heart J . Author manuscript Chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves systolic function of  

E-print Network

Eur Heart J . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves systolic function of the reperfused heart through a dual mechanism involving a direct mechanical effect the adaptations of left ventricular function and calcium handling to chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Influence of transrectal and transabdominal ultrasound examination on salivary cortisol, heart rate, and heart rate variability in mares.  

PubMed

Pregnancy diagnostics in equine reproduction are routinely performed using transrectal ultrasonography, although it is also possible to visualize the fetus by transabdominal ultrasound examinations from the 90th day of gestation onward. We hypothesized that ultrasound examinations may stress the mare and that the gestational stage status and lactation may influence the mare's stress reaction. To investigate the stress reaction, 25 thoroughbred mares of different age, pregnancy and lactational status underwent a transrectal examination. In pregnant mares, an additional transabdominal examination was performed. Salivary cortisol concentration, mean heart rate, and heart rate variability of mares were assessed to evaluate the reactions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and of the autonomic nervous system. Significant differences were observed between lactating and nonlactating mares; with a lower responsiveness to stress in lactating mares. The transrectal ultrasound examination in nonlactating mares induced a significant increase in salivary cortisol (P < 0.05), and in the heart rate variability parameter, ratio of low to high frequencies (P < 0.05). This reflects an activation of the HPA axis and a shift to more sympathetic dominance. In contrast, a transabdominally performed pregnancy check did not induce an activation of the HPA axis over basal level but increased the mean heart rate and low to high frequency ratio. The results of this study indicate that checks of advanced pregnancies can be easily performed by transabdominal ultrasonography. With regard to animal welfare, this technique should be preferred during midgestation in nonlactating mares. PMID:25529317

Schönbom, Hanno; Kassens, Ana; Hopster-Iversen, Charlotte; Klewitz, Jutta; Piechotta, Marion; Martinsson, Gunilla; Kißler, Andreas; Burger, Dominik; Sieme, Harald

2015-03-01

57

A healthy heart is not a metronome: an integrative review of the heart's anatomy and heart rate variability  

PubMed Central

Heart rate variability (HRV), the change in the time intervals between adjacent heartbeats, is an emergent property of interdependent regulatory systems that operate on different time scales to adapt to challenges and achieve optimal performance. This article briefly reviews neural regulation of the heart, and its basic anatomy, the cardiac cycle, and the sinoatrial and atrioventricular pacemakers. The cardiovascular regulation center in the medulla integrates sensory information and input from higher brain centers, and afferent cardiovascular system inputs to adjust heart rate and blood pressure via sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent pathways. This article reviews sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on the heart, and examines the interpretation of HRV and the association between reduced HRV, risk of disease and mortality, and the loss of regulatory capacity. This article also discusses the intrinsic cardiac nervous system and the heart-brain connection, through which afferent information can influence activity in the subcortical and frontocortical areas, and motor cortex. It also considers new perspectives on the putative underlying physiological mechanisms and properties of the ultra-low-frequency (ULF), very-low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), and high-frequency (HF) bands. Additionally, it reviews the most common time and frequency domain measurements as well as standardized data collection protocols. In its final section, this article integrates Porges' polyvagal theory, Thayer and colleagues' neurovisceral integration model, Lehrer et al.'s resonance frequency model, and the Institute of HeartMath's coherence model. The authors conclude that a coherent heart is not a metronome because its rhythms are characterized by both complexity and stability over longer time scales. Future research should expand understanding of how the heart and its intrinsic nervous system influence the brain. PMID:25324790

Shaffer, Fred; McCraty, Rollin; Zerr, Christopher L.

2014-01-01

58

Heart Rate Responses During Singles and Doubles Tennis Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monitoring of heart rates of 17 adult male tennis players during singles and doubles competition revealed that subjects playing singles games reached an average of 61 percent of their maximal heart rate, while, in doubles competition, they reached only 33 percent of maximal heart rate. (Author/CB)

Morgans, Leland F.; And Others

1987-01-01

59

What's Normal? -- Temperature, Gender, and Heart Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Allen L. Shoemaker of Calvin College, describes a dataset on body temperature, gender, and heart rate. The data is taken from a paper in the "Journal of the American Medical Association" that examined whether humans' true body temperature was 98.6 degrees. It addresses concepts like true means, confidence intervals, t-statistics, t-tests, the normal distribution, and regression. The author states that "it helps students to grasp concepts about true means, confidence intervals and t-statistics." This is a nice introduction into how statistics can be used in the medical field.

Shoemaker, Allen L.

60

Toward quantitative fetal heart rate monitoring.  

PubMed

Continuous electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring during labor is motivated by the clinical experience that fetal distress causes loss of FHR variation and the occurrence of decelerations late during uterine contraction. This practice is of uncertain clinical benefit, perhaps because the interpretation is qualitative. We have developed new quantitative measures and analyzed cardiotocograph records from 148 consecutive patients, 44 of whom had at least one "nonreassuring" epoch. In multivariate regression models, measures of deceleration and variability were significantly associated with the obstetrician's diagnosis (receiver operating characteristic area 0.84, p < 0.05). This approach may be useful clinically. PMID:16402610

Cao, Hanqing; Lake, Douglas E; Ferguson, James E; Chisholm, Christian A; Griffin, M Pamela; Moorman, J Randall

2006-01-01

61

A Performance of the Heart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the heart works is found in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" and connects to Life Sciences Core and Component Ideas, From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes (NRC 2012). By the end of grade 2, students should understand that all organisms have external parts, which they use in various ways to seek, find, and take…

Williams, Joan; McCauley, Joyce; Grumble, Melissa

2013-01-01

62

Heart rate variability to assess combat readiness.  

PubMed

Chronic fatigue/physical exhaustion (FPE) impacts combat readiness but is difficult to identify. We tested the hypothesis that resting heart rate variability (HRV), including both time- and frequency-domain assessments, would correlate with hydration status and aerobic capacity in military recruit-age men and women with varying fitness levels. Cardiac interbeat intervals were recorded using a heart R-R monitor during 20 minutes of quiet, supine rest with paced breathing (0.25 Hz). HRV metrics included average R-R interval (RRIavg), R-R interval standard deviation (RRISD), the percentage of adjacent R-R intervals varying by > or = 50 ms (pNN50), and integrated areas of R-R interval spectral power at the high (0.15-0.4 Hz) (RRIHF) and low (0.04-0.15 Hz) (RRILF) frequencies. Treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), segmental bioimpedance estimates of total body water (TBW), and urine specific gravity (USG) were also assessed. All dependent variables of interest were within expected ranges, although absolute ranges of individual values were considerable. RRI correlated with VO2 max (r = 0.49; p < 0.001), with TBW (r = 0.38; p < 0.001), and inversely with USG (r = -0.23; p = 0.02). RRISD correlated with VO2 max (r = 0.21; p = 0.03), but not with TBW or USG. pNN50 correlated inversely with USG (r = -0.21; p = 0.03) but not with VO2 max or TBW. R-R interval spectral power at the high and low frequencies did not correlate with VO2 max, TBW, or USG. We have demonstrated that fitness level and hydration status may affect cardiac function via changes in autonomic tone, highlighting the potential of field-based assessment of heart rate variability metrics to identify FPE and other aspects of combat readiness. PMID:20731279

Fogt, Donovan L; Cooper, Paige J; Freeman, Christine N; Kalns, John E; Cooke, William H

2009-05-01

63

?1Adrenergic Receptors Maintain Fetal Heart Rate and Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Adrenergic receptor (?AR) activation has been shown to maintain heart rate during hypoxia and to rescue the fetus from the fetal lethality that occurs in the absence of norepinephrine. This study examines whether the same subtype of ?AR is responsible for survival and heart rate regulation. It also investigates which ?ARs are located on the early fetal heart and whether

Rashmi Chandra; Andrea L. Portbury; Alisa Ray; Margie Ream; Marybeth Groelle; Dona M. Chikaraishi

2006-01-01

64

Children's Heart Rate Reactivity Responses to Three School Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated effects of 3 routine classroom arithmetic and reading tasks upon the heart rate reactivity of 30 fifth grade children. Results indicated that some children showed large increases in heart rates during the three tasks, and that these children should be considered at risk for coronary heart disease. (Author/TE)

Sharpley, Christopher F.; And Others

1989-01-01

65

Impaired heart rate recovery indices in psoriasis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The heart rate recovery index (HRRI) is an indicator of autonomic nervous system function and is an independent prognostic risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the heart rate recovery indices in patients with psoriasis. Material/methods Thirty-three psoriasis patients (22 male; mean age 41±11 years) and 26 healthy individuals (15 male; mean age 39±11 years) as a control group were included in the study. Baseline electrocardiography, transthoracic echocardiographic examinations, and exercise stress tests were performed in psoriasis and control groups. The heart rate recovery of the psoriasis group at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes after maximal exercise were calculated and compared to those of the control group. Results Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of psoriasis and control groups including age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and echocardiographic parameters were similar. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the psoriasis group (p<0.05). Heart rate recovery at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes after maximal exercise were found to be significantly lower in the psoriasis group (p<0.05). Additionally, baseline heart rates before exercise were significantly higher in the psoriasis group (p<0.05). Conclusions We found that impaired HRRI in psoriasis patients, which indicates the underlying autonomic nervous system dysfunction, is a pathophysiologic mechanism for increased cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:24584215

Yuksel, Esra Pancar; Yuksel, Serkan; Yenercag, Mustafa; Soylu, Korhan; Aydin, Fatma; Senturk, Nilgun; Yucel, Huriye; Canturk, Tayyar; Turanli, Ahmet Y.

2014-01-01

66

Music structure determines heart rate variability of singers.  

PubMed

Choir singing is known to promote wellbeing. One reason for this may be that singing demands a slower than normal respiration, which may in turn affect heart activity. Coupling of heart rate variability (HRV) to respiration is called Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). This coupling has a subjective as well as a biologically soothing effect, and it is beneficial for cardiovascular function. RSA is seen to be more marked during slow-paced breathing and at lower respiration rates (0.1 Hz and below). In this study, we investigate how singing, which is a form of guided breathing, affects HRV and RSA. The study comprises a group of healthy 18 year olds of mixed gender. The subjects are asked to; (1) hum a single tone and breathe whenever they need to; (2) sing a hymn with free, unguided breathing; and (3) sing a slow mantra and breathe solely between phrases. Heart rate (HR) is measured continuously during the study. The study design makes it possible to compare above three levels of song structure. In a separate case study, we examine five individuals performing singing tasks (1-3). We collect data with more advanced equipment, simultaneously recording HR, respiration, skin conductance and finger temperature. We show how song structure, respiration and HR are connected. Unison singing of regular song structures makes the hearts of the singers accelerate and decelerate simultaneously. Implications concerning the effect on wellbeing and health are discussed as well as the question how this inner entrainment may affect perception and behavior. PMID:23847555

Vickhoff, Björn; Malmgren, Helge; Aström, Rickard; Nyberg, Gunnar; Ekström, Seth-Reino; Engwall, Mathias; Snygg, Johan; Nilsson, Michael; Jörnsten, Rebecka

2013-01-01

67

Music structure determines heart rate variability of singers  

PubMed Central

Choir singing is known to promote wellbeing. One reason for this may be that singing demands a slower than normal respiration, which may in turn affect heart activity. Coupling of heart rate variability (HRV) to respiration is called Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). This coupling has a subjective as well as a biologically soothing effect, and it is beneficial for cardiovascular function. RSA is seen to be more marked during slow-paced breathing and at lower respiration rates (0.1 Hz and below). In this study, we investigate how singing, which is a form of guided breathing, affects HRV and RSA. The study comprises a group of healthy 18 year olds of mixed gender. The subjects are asked to; (1) hum a single tone and breathe whenever they need to; (2) sing a hymn with free, unguided breathing; and (3) sing a slow mantra and breathe solely between phrases. Heart rate (HR) is measured continuously during the study. The study design makes it possible to compare above three levels of song structure. In a separate case study, we examine five individuals performing singing tasks (1–3). We collect data with more advanced equipment, simultaneously recording HR, respiration, skin conductance and finger temperature. We show how song structure, respiration and HR are connected. Unison singing of regular song structures makes the hearts of the singers accelerate and decelerate simultaneously. Implications concerning the effect on wellbeing and health are discussed as well as the question how this inner entrainment may affect perception and behavior. PMID:23847555

Vickhoff, Björn; Malmgren, Helge; Åström, Rickard; Nyberg, Gunnar; Ekström, Seth-Reino; Engwall, Mathias; Snygg, Johan; Nilsson, Michael; Jörnsten, Rebecka

2013-01-01

68

gHRV: Heart rate variability analysis made easy.  

PubMed

In this paper, the gHRV software tool is presented. It is a simple, free and portable tool developed in python for analysing heart rate variability. It includes a graphical user interface and it can import files in multiple formats, analyse time intervals in the signal, test statistical significance and export the results. This paper also contains, as an example of use, a clinical analysis performed with the gHRV tool, namely to determine whether the heart rate variability indexes change across different stages of sleep. Results from tests completed by researchers who have tried gHRV are also explained: in general the application was positively valued and results reflect a high level of satisfaction. gHRV is in continuous development and new versions will include suggestions made by testers. PMID:24854108

Rodríguez-Liñares, L; Lado, M J; Vila, X A; Méndez, A J; Cuesta, P

2014-08-01

69

Qigong Effects on Heart Rate Variability and Peripheral Vasomotor Responses.  

PubMed

Population aging is occurring worldwide, and preventing cardiovascular event in older people is a unique challenge. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week qigong (eight-form moving meditation) training program on the heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor response of middle-aged and elderly people in the community. This was a quasi-experimental study that included the pre-test, post-test, and nonequivalent control group designs. Seventy-seven participants (experimental group = 47; control group = 30) were recruited. The experimental group performed 30 min of eight-form moving meditation 3 times per week for 12 weeks, and the control group continued their normal daily activities. After 12 weeks, the interaction effects indicated that compared with the control group, the experimental group exhibited significantly improved heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor responses. PMID:24869492

Chang, Mei-Ying

2014-05-27

70

The effect of magnesium sulfate on fetal heart rate parameters: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to determine the effect of magnesium sulfate on fetal heart rate baseline value, variability, and acceleration-deceleration pattern. Study Design: Normal, nonlaboring pregnant patients at >30 weeks’ gestation were recruited. Baseline fetal heart rate monitoring for 1 hour was performed. After an 800-kcal meal, patients were randomized to receive either an intravenous loading dose of 6 g of

Mordechai Hallak; Juan Martinez-Poyer; Michael L. Kruger; Sonia Hassan; Sean C. Blackwell; Yoram Sorokin

1999-01-01

71

Heart rate variability in left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure: effects and implications of drug treatment.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To review the importance of heart rate variability analysis in left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure and to assess the effects of drug treatment. In patients with left ventricular dysfunction or heart failure, a low heart rate variability is a strong predictor of a low probability of survival. Because drug treatment in these patients has rapidly changed over the past two decades, the effect of these drugs on heart rate variability needs special attention. DESIGN--A study of published reports to give an overview of heart rate variability in patients with left ventricular dysfunction or heart failure and how it is affected by drug treatment. RESULTS--Analysis of heart rate variability provides an easily obtained early marker for progression of disease. It seems to be more closely related to the degree of neurohumoral activation than to haemodynamic variables. Cardiovascular drugs may either stimulate or inhibit the degree of neurohumoral activation, and the effects of pharmacological intervention can be closely monitored with this method. CONCLUSIONS--The analysis of heart rate variability, including spectral analysis, is a novel non-invasive way to obtain potentially useful clinical information in patients with reduced left ventricular function. The effects of drug treatment on heart rate variability are in general consistent with their long-term effects in left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. PMID:7857731

Tuininga, Y S; van Veldhuisen, D J; Brouwer, J; Haaksma, J; Crijns, H J; Man in't Veld, A J; Lie, K I

1994-01-01

72

Statistical physics of human heart rate in health and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex phenomena know several benchmarks, or ’hard’ and to date unsatisfactorily understood problems. Human heart rate control\\u000a is such a complexity benchmark in biophysics, consistently defying full explanation. In our recent work, heart rate regulation\\u000a by the autonomic nervous system has been shown to display remarkable fundamental properties of scale-invariance of extreme\\u000a value statistics [1] in healthy heart rate fluctuations,

Ken Kiyono; Yoshiharu Yamamoto; Zbigniew R. Struzik

73

Dissociation of heart rate variability and heart rate recovery in well-trained athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between aerobic fitness, volume of physical activity (PA), heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) in a group of well-trained endurance athletes. Nineteen endurance athletes participated in this study and had aerobic capacities that placed them above the 99th percentile based on normative values (VO(2max): 67.1 ± 2 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). HRV was obtained via an EKG collected during supine rest and reported as high-frequency (HF), low-frequency (LF), and total power (TP). Natural log (ln) transformation was applied when variables violated assumptions of normality. HRR recovery was reported as the reduction in heart rate from peak exercise to the heart rate 1 min after cessation of exercise and PA was estimated from a questionnaire. HRR was significantly correlated with PA and VO(2max) (r = 0.67, P = 0.003 and 0.51, P = 0.039, respectively), but not with any index of HRV. Age was significantly correlated with lnHF (r = -0.49, P = 0.033), lnLF/lnHF (r = 0.48, P = 0.037), and normalized units (NU) of LF (r = 0.47, P = 0.042) and HF (r = -0.47, P = 0.042). Stepwise regression revealed that the strongest predictor of HRR was PA (R (2) = 0.45) and that VO(2max) did not add significant predictive value to the model. The relationship between HRV and age is evident in well-trained endurance athletes, whereas the relationship between HRV and PA/aerobic fitness is not. The maintained relationship between HRR and PA/aerobic fitness suggests that HRR may be a better marker of fitness-related differences in autonomic control in this population. PMID:22124525

Lee, C Matthew; Mendoza, Albert

2012-07-01

74

Double blind crossover comparison of the effects of dual chamber pacing (DDD) and ventricular rate adaptive (VVIR) pacing on neuroendocrine variables, exercise performance, and symptoms in complete heart block.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare the effects of dual chamber pacing (DDD) and ventricular rate adaptive pacing (activity sensing) (VVIR) in patients with complete heart block. DESIGN--Double blind crossover comparison with one month in each pacing mode. PATIENTS--10 consecutive patients aged 23-74 presenting with complete anterograde atrioventricular block at rest and on exercise and with an intact atrial rate response received Synergyst I (Medtronic) pacemakers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Symptom scores, maximal exercise performance on a treadmill, and the plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. RESULTS--No significant differences were identified between pacing modes in symptom scores for dyspnoea, fatigue, and mood disturbance; exercise time; and maximal oxygen consumption. One patient with intact ventriculoatrial conduction developed pacemaker syndrome during VVIR pacing. Resting plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide were raised in complete heart block and were restored to normal by DDD pacing but not by VVIR pacing. Resting plasma catecholamine concentrations were normal in complete heart block and in both pacing modes. During exercise the increase in the concentrations of all three hormones was similar in both pacing modes. CONCLUSIONS--In patients with complete anterograde and retrograde atrioventricular block, symptoms and maximal exercise performance were no better during DDD than during VVIR pacing. PMID:1827588

Oldroyd, K G; Rae, A P; Carter, R; Wingate, C; Cobbe, S M

1991-01-01

75

Biophysical characterization of the underappreciated and important relationship between heart rate variability and heart rate.  

PubMed

Heart rate (HR) variability (HRV; beat-to-beat changes in the R-wave to R-wave interval) has attracted considerable attention during the past 30+ years (PubMed currently lists >17 000 publications). Clinically, a decrease in HRV is correlated to higher morbidity and mortality in diverse conditions, from heart disease to fetal distress. It is usually attributed to fluctuation in cardiac autonomic nerve activity. We calculated HRV parameters from a variety of cardiac preparations (including humans, living animals, Langendorff-perfused heart, and single sinoatrial nodal cell) in diverse species, combining this with data from previously published articles. We show that regardless of conditions, there is a universal exponential decay-like relationship between HRV and HR. Using 2 biophysical models, we develop a theory for this and confirm that HRV is primarily dependent on HR and cannot be used in any simple way to assess autonomic nerve activity to the heart. We suggest that the correlation between a change in HRV and altered morbidity and mortality is substantially attributable to the concurrent change in HR. This calls for re-evaluation of the findings from many articles that have not adjusted properly or at all for HR differences when comparing HRV in multiple circumstances. PMID:25225208

Monfredi, Oliver; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Johnsen, Anne-Berit; Inada, Shin; Schneider, Heiko; Wang, Ruoxi; Nirmalan, Mahesh; Wisloff, Ulrik; Maltsev, Victor A; Lakatta, Edward G; Zhang, Henggui; Boyett, Mark R

2014-12-01

76

Contactless and Unobtrusive Measurement of Heart Rate in Home Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current technology trends, such as ubiquitous computing and calm technology, call for novel unobtrusive sensors. The commonly used heart rate monitoring techniques require direct contact to the patient which makes the patient well aware of the sensors. In this paper, a novel method for detecting the distance of an approaching patient and for measuring his or her heart rate with

Mari Zakrzewski; Arto Kolinummi; Jukka Vanhala

2006-01-01

77

Heart rate variability associated with particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked fine particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary mortality, yet underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect changes in cardiac autonomic function and risk of sudden cardiac death. This study evaluated changes in mean heart rate and HRV in human beings associated with changes in exposure to particulate air pollution. Methods:

C. Arden Pope; Richard L. Verrier; Eric G. Lovett; Andrew C. Larson; Mark E. Raizenne; Richard E. Kanner; Joel Schwartz; G. Martin Villegas; Diane R. Gold; Douglas W. Dockery

1999-01-01

78

Heart rate-based lactate minimum test: a reproducible method  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To find the individual intensity for aerobic endurance training, the lactate minimum test (LMT) seems to be a promising method. LMTs described in the literature consist of speed or work rate-based protocols, but for training prescription in daily practice mostly heart rate is used. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility of a new heart

M. Strupler; G Mueller; C. Perret

2009-01-01

79

Development of Heart Rate Circadian Rhythm in Chickens *, R. Akiyamab  

E-print Network

in the chicken, and includes rhythms in daily egg laying, calling at dawn, and daily changes in physiological of heart rate in embryos and hatchlings Fertile eggs of broiler chickens that were brought from a localDevelopment of Heart Rate Circadian Rhythm in Chickens K. Moriyaa *, R. Akiyamab , E.M. Dzialowskic

Burggren, Warren

80

Heart Rate Turbulence Denoising Using Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart Rate Turbulence (HRT) is the transient ac- celeration and subsequent deceleration of the heart rate after a premature ventricular complex (PVC), and it has been shown to be a strong risk stratification criterion in patients with cardiac disease. In order to reduce the noise level of the HRT signal, con- ventional measurements of HRT use a patient-averaged template of

JL Rojo-Álvarez; O Barquero-Pérez; I Mora-Jiménez; E Everss; A. B. Rodríguez-González; A García-Alberola

81

Exaggerated heart rate oscillations during two meditation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report extremely prominent heart rate oscillations associated with slow breathing during specific traditional forms of Chinese Chi and Kundalini Yoga meditation techniques in healthy young adults. We applied both spectral analysis and a novel analytic technique based on the Hilbert transform to quantify these heart rate dynamics. The amplitude of these oscillations during meditation was significantly greater than in

C.-K Peng; Joseph E Mietus; Yanhui Liu; Gurucharan Khalsa; Pamela S Douglas; Herbert Benson; Ary L Goldberger

1999-01-01

82

Chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves systolic function of the reperfused heart through a dual mechanism involving a direct  

E-print Network

Chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves systolic function of the reperfused heart.berdeaux@inserm.fr inserm-00500900,version1-12Jul2010 Author manuscript, published in "European heart journal 2010 function and calcium handling to chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine in the reperfused heart

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Respiratory modulation and baroreflex control of heart rate in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During everyday life, gravity constantly stresses the human circulation by diminishing venous return in the upright position. This induces baroreflex-mediated cardiovascular adjustments that are aimed to prevent the blood pressure from falling. In weightlessness, gravitational pressure gradients do not arise in the circulation so that baroreflex function remains chronically unchallenged. This may contribute to the development of post spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate respiratory modulation and baroreflex control of heart rate after a week of weightlessness in space. We tested the hypothesis that cardiovascular control in space will be similar to the baseline supine condition on Earth. We studied nine male cosmonauts during seven different space missions aboard the ISS (age 40 - 52 yrs, height 1.69 - 1.85 m, weight 67 - 90 kg). Data collection was performed between 30 and 45 days before launch in the standing and supine positions, and after 8 days in space. Cosmonauts were carefully trained to perform in-flight data collection by themselves. They were instructed to pace their breathing to a fixed rate of 12 breaths per minute (0.2 Hz) for a total duration of 3 minutes. The electrocardiogram and beat-by-beat finger arterial blood pressure were recorded at 1-kHz sample rate. Respiratory rate was evaluated using an abdominal pressure sensor. We used power spectral analysis to calculate respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as well as the low-frequency (0.04 - 0.15 Hz) powers of spontaneous oscillations in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was estimated in the time domain using cross-correlation analysis. As expected, there was a rise in heart rate upon assuming the standing position before space- flight (59 ± 6 to 79 ± 11 beats per min; p ¡ 0.001). This was accompanied by an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (84 ± 6 to 93 ± 6 mmHg; p ¡ 0.001). Standing up further induced a marked increase in the low-frequency powers of systolic blood pressure oscillations (8 ± 7 to 17 ± 11 mmHg2; p = 0.018), whereas those in heart rate remained unchanged (445 ± 512 to 621 ± 799 ms2; p = 0.315). Alternatively, there was a reduction in RSA from 546 ± 167 ms2 to 158 ± 298 ms2 and in spontaneous BRS from 14 ± 5 ms/mmHg to 6 ± 2 ms/mmHg upon changing from supine to standing (both p ¡ 0.001). After a week of weightlessness in space, heart rate (61 ± 8 beats per min) and mean blood pressure (83 ± 6 mmHg) returned to the pre-flight supine values. This was also true for the low-frequency powers of systolic blood pressure (7 ± 4 mmHg2) and of heart rate (741 ± 716 ms2), as well as for RSA (465 ± 269 ms2) and spontaneous BRS (14 ± 4 ms/mmHg). It is concluded that cardiovascular control after one week in space corresponds to the pre-flight supine condition. This is characterized by a chronically increased vagal-cardiac outflow and suppressed sympathetic vasomotor modulation compared with the standing position on Earth. This kind of chronic baroreflex unloading is likely to contribute to post-spaceflight functional impairment of orthostatic blood pressure control.

Verheyden, Bart; Couckuyt, Kurt; Liu, Jiexin; Aubert, Andre

84

Thermal Acclimation of Heart Rates in Reptilian Embryos  

PubMed Central

In many reptiles, the thermal regimes experienced by eggs in natural nests vary as a function of ambient weather and location, and this variation has important impacts on patterns of embryonic development. Recent advances in non-invasive measurement of embryonic heart rates allow us to answer a long-standing puzzle in reptilian developmental biology: Do the metabolic and developmental rates of embryos acclimate to local incubation regimes, as occurs for metabolic acclimation by post-hatching reptiles? Based on a strong correlation between embryonic heart rate and oxygen consumption, we used heart rates as a measure of metabolic rate. We demonstrate acclimation of heart rates relative to temperature in embryos of one turtle, one snake and one lizard species that oviposit in relatively deep nests, but found no acclimation in another lizard species that uses shallow (and hence, highly thermally variable) nests. Embryonic thermal acclimation thus is widespread, but not ubiquitous, within reptiles. PMID:21179473

Du, Wei-Guo; Ye, Hua; Zhao, Bo; Warner, Daniel A.; Shine, Richard

2010-01-01

85

Heart rates in the captive, free-ranging beaver.  

PubMed

1. Heart rates of beaver (Castor canadensis) under free-ranging captive conditions for active behaviors and resting in water (approximately 121 beats/min) were significantly (P less than 0.01) higher than for resting on land (100 beats/min). 2. Although no transient recovery tachycardia was evident in swimming heart rates following diving, average swimming heart rates were higher (127 beats/min) after diving than after other precursor behaviors (123 beats/min). 3. Beaver exhibited bradycardia when sleeping (75 beats/min), diving (61 beats/min), and when threatened on land (57 beats/min). 4. The respiratory sinus arrhythmia indicated a respiratory rate of 15 breaths/min. 5. Cold temperatures (approximately 0 degree C) elicited higher heart rates than did warmer temperatures (approximately 20 degrees C) in active, non-diving behaviors (P less than 0.05). PMID:2906827

Swain, U G; Gilbert, F F; Robinette, J D

1988-01-01

86

Optimized Treatment and Heart Rate Reduction in Chronic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome that leads to poor outcome in advanced forms. The neurohormonal blockade modifies this natural history; however, it is often suboptimal. Objective The aim of this study is to assess at what percentage cardiologists used to treating HF can prescribe target doses of drugs of proven efficacy. Methods A total of 104 outpatients with systolic dysfunction were consecutively enrolled, all under stabilized treatment. Demographic and treatment data were evaluated and the doses achieved were verified. The findings are shown as percentages and correlations are made between different variables. Results The mean age of patients was 64.1 ± 14.2 years, with SBP =115.4 ± 15.3, HR = 67.8 ± 9.4 bpm, weight = 76.0 ± 17.0 kg and sinus rhythm (90.4%). As for treatment, 93.3% received a RAS blocker (ACEI 52.9%), all received beta-blockers (BB), the most often prescribed being carvedilol (92.3%). As for the doses: 97.1% of those receiving an ARB were below the optimal dose and of those who received ACEI, 52.7% received an optimized dose. As for the BB, target doses were prescribed to 76.0% of them. In this group of patients, most with BB target dose, it can be seen that 36.5% had HR ? 70 bpm in sinus rhythm. Conclusion Cardiologists used to treating HF can prescribe target doses of ACEI and BB to most patients. Even though they receive the recommended doses, about one third of patients persists with HR > 70 bpm and should have their treatment optimized. PMID:24100693

Moreno, Irineu Blanco; Del Carlo, Carlos Henrique; Pereira-Barretto, Antônio Carlos

2013-01-01

87

Heart rate and estimated energy expenditure during ballroom dancing.  

PubMed Central

Ten competitive ballroom dance couples performed simulated competitive sequences of Modern and Latin American dance. Heart rate was telemetered during the dance sequences and related to direct measures of oxygen uptake and heart rate obtained while walking on a treadmill. Linear regression was employed to estimate gross and net energy expenditures of the dance sequences. A multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures on the dance factor was applied to the data to test for interaction and main effects on the sex and dance factors. Overall mean heart rate values for the Modern dance sequence were 170 beats.min-1 and 173 beats.min-1 for males and females respectively. During the Latin American sequence mean overall heart rate for males was 168 beats.min-1 and 177 beats.min-1 for females. Predicted mean gross values of oxygen consumption for the males were 42.8 +/- 5.7 ml.kg-1 min-1 and 42.8 +/- 6.9 ml.kg-1 min-1 for the Modern and Latin American sequences respectively. Corresponding gross estimates of oxygen consumption for the females were 34.7 +/- 3.8 ml.kg-1 min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 ml.kg-1 min-1. Males were estimated to expand 54.1 +/- 8.1 kJ.min-1 of energy during the Modern sequence and 54.0 +/- 9.6 kJ.min-1 during the Latin American sequence, while predicted energy expenditure for females was 34.7 +/- 3.8 kJ.min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 kJ.min-1 for Modern and Latin American dance respectively. The results suggested that both males and females were dancing at greater than 80% of their maximum oxygen consumption. A significant difference between males and females was observed for predicted gross and net values of oxygen consumption (in L.min-1 and ml.kg-1 min-1). PMID:3167503

Blanksby, B A; Reidy, P W

1988-01-01

88

Signal processing methodologies for an acoustic fetal heart rate monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and development is presented of real time signal processing methodologies for the detection of fetal heart tones within a noise-contaminated signal from a passive acoustic sensor. A linear predictor algorithm is utilized for detection of the heart tone event and additional processing derives heart rate. The linear predictor is adaptively 'trained' in a least mean square error sense on generic fetal heart tones recorded from patients. A real time monitor system is described which outputs to a strip chart recorder for plotting the time history of the fetal heart rate. The system is validated in the context of the fetal nonstress test. Comparisons are made with ultrasonic nonstress tests on a series of patients. Comparative data provides favorable indications of the feasibility of the acoustic monitor for clinical use.

Pretlow, Robert A., III; Stoughton, John W.

1992-01-01

89

Method of Discriminant Gravity Tolerance using Heart Rate Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When returning on the earth by the space flight, the space deconditioning may be developed. As this countermeasure, the artificial gravity load device using the centrifuge is proposed in the space station. But the gravity load might cause the faint, and safe gravity load is uncertainty. We proposed that discriminate strength of gravity tolerance using heart rate variability time series. Step function was inputted to AR model estimated from heart rate variability time series during rest or under light gravity load, and strength of the gravity tolerance was discriminated by the step response function. On the result, discriminant accuracy was 87.5% by using heart rate variability time series when gravity load of 1.0 G was added to the human lying on the supine. Therefore, possibility of discriminant of gravity tolerance was obtained by using heart rate variability time series when sympathetic hyperactivity. Discriminant of the gravity tolerance is expected before countermeasure of space deconditioning is executed.

Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Takada, Hiroki; Iwase, Satoshi

90

Increases in Heart Rate during an Air Pollution Episode  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses whether air pollution increases resting heart rates in 2,681 men and women aged 25-64 years who participated in the MONICA (monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascula r disease) Augsburg cohort. Increases in heart rate were observed during the air pollution episode in January 1985 compared with non-episode days adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors and meteorologic parameters.

Annette Peters; Siegfried Perz; Angela Dfiring; Jutta Stieber; Wolfgang Koenig; H.-Erich Wichmann

91

Heart rate monitoring and control in altered gravity conditions.  

PubMed

On the basis of indirect evidences it has been hypothesized that during space missions the almost complete absence of gravity might impair the baroreflex control of circulation. In the first part of this paper we report results obtained from a series of experiments carried out to directly verify this hypothesis during the 16-day STS 107 Shuttle flight. Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity was assessed in four astronauts before flight (baseline) and at days 0-1, 6-7 and 12-13 during flight, both at rest and while performing moderate exercise. Our results indicate that at rest the baroreflex sensitivity significantly increased in the early flight phase, as compared to pre-flight values and tended to return to baseline in the mid-late phase of flight. During exercise, baroreflex sensitivity was lower than at rest, without any difference among pre-flight and in-flight values. These findings seem to exclude the hypothesis of an impairment of the baroreflex control of heart rate during exposure to microgravity, at least over a time window of 16 days. In the second part of the paper we propose a novel textile-based methodology for heart rate and other vital signs monitoring during gravity stress. The positive results obtained from its use during parachute jumps support the use of smart garments for the unobtrusive assessment of physiological parameters in extreme environments. PMID:18003559

Di Rienzo, M; Parati, G; Rizzo, F; Meriggi, P; Merati, G; Faini, A; Castiglioni, P

2007-01-01

92

Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in women requires further study.

Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

1994-01-01

93

Discriminating noise from chaos in heart rate variability : application to prognosis in heart failure  

E-print Network

This thesis examines two challenging problems in chaos analysis: distinguishing deterministic chaos and stochastic (noise-induced) chaos, and applying chaotic heart rate variability (HRV) analysis to the prognosis of ...

Arzeno, Natalia M. (Natalia María Arzeno Soltero)

2007-01-01

94

Heart Rate Recovery in Asymptomatic Patients with Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease patients with right bundle-branch block (RBBB) have diverse clinical presentation and prognosis, depending on left ventricular (LV) function. Autonomic disorder can be an early marker of heart involvement. The heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise may identify autonomic dysfunction, with impact on therapeutic strategies. This study was designed to assess the HRR after symptom-limited exercise testing in asymptomatic Chagas disease patients with RBBB without ventricular dysfunction compared to patients with indeterminate form of Chagas disease and healthy controls. Methods One hundred and forty-nine subjects divided into 3 groups were included. A control group was comprised of healthy individuals; group 1 included patients in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease; and group 2 included patients with complete RBBB with or without left anterior hemiblock, and normal ventricular systolic function. A symptom-limited exercise test was performed and heart rate (HR) response to exercise was assessed. HRR was defined as the difference between HR at peak exercise and 1 min following test termination. Results There were no differences in heart-rate profile during exercise between healthy individuals and patients in indeterminate form, whereas patients with RBBB had more prevalence of chronotropic incompetence, lower exercise capacity and lower HRR compared with patients in indeterminate form and controls. A delayed decrease in the HR after exercise was found in 17 patients (15%), 9% in indeterminate form and 24% with RBBB, associated with older age, worse functional capacity, impaired chronotropic response, and ventricular arrhythmias during both exercise and recovery. By multivariable analysis, the independent predictors of a delayed decrease in the HRR were age (odds ratio [OR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 1.21; p?=?0.010) and presence of RBBB (OR 3.97; 95% CI 1.05 to 15.01; p?=?0.042). Conclusions A small proportion (15%) of asymptomatic Chagas patients had attenuated HRR after exercise, being more prevalent in patients with RBBB compared with patients in indeterminate form and controls. PMID:24979699

de Alencar, Maria Clara Noman; Rocha, Manoel Otávio da Costa; Lima, Márcia Maria de Oliveira; Costa, Henrique Silveira; Sousa, Giovane Rodrigo; Carneiro, Renata de Carvalho Bicalho; Silva, Guilherme Canabrava Rodrigues; Brandão, Fernando Vieira; Kreuser, Lucas Jordan; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira

2014-01-01

95

Effect of energy drink dose on exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise on caffeine concentration of energy drink. [Methods] The volunteers for this study were 15 male university student. 15 subjects were taken basic physical examinations such as height, weight and BMI before the experiment. Primary tests were examined of VO2max per weight of each subjects by graded exercise test using Bruce protocol. Each of five subject was divided 3 groups (CON, ECG?, ECG?) by matched method based on weight and VO2max per weight what gained of primary test for minimize the differences of exercise capacity and ingestion of each groups. For the secondary tests, the groups of subjects were taken their materials before and after exercise as a blind test. After the ingestion, subjects were experimented on exercise test of VO2max 80% by treadmill until the all-out. Heart rate was measured by 1minute interval, and respiratory variables were analyzed VO2, VE, VT, RR and so on by automatic respiratory analyzer. And exercise exhaustion time was determined by stopwatch. Moreover, HRV was measured after exercise and recovery 3 min. [Results] Among the intake groups, ECG? was showed the longest of exercise exhaustion time more than CON group (p = .05). Result of heart rate during exercise according to intake groups, there was significant differences of each time (p < .001), however, not significant differences of each groups and group verse time (p > .05). Result of RPE during exercise according to intake groups, there was significant differences of each time (p < .001), however, not significant differences of each groups and group verse time (p > .05). [Conclusion] In conclusion, EDG? showed the significant increase of exercise exhaustion time more than CON group (p=.05) and not significant differences in HR, RPE, RER, HRV, HRR, blood pressure (p > .05). Therefore, 2.5 mg/kg-1 ingestion of energy drink might be positive effect to increase exercise performance capacity without side-effect in cardiovascular disease.

An, Sang Min; Park, Jong Suk; Kim, Sang Ho

2014-01-01

96

Automated Fetal Heart Rate Analysis in Labor: Decelerations and Overshoots  

SciTech Connect

Electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) recording is a standard way of monitoring fetal health in labor. Decelerations and accelerations usually indicate fetal distress and normality respectively. But one type of acceleration may differ, namely an overshoot that may atypically reflect fetal stress. Here we describe a new method for detecting decelerations, accelerations and overshoots as part of a novel system for computerized FHR analysis (OxSyS). There was poor agreement between clinicians when identifying these FHR features visually, which precluded setting a gold standard of interpretation. We therefore introduced 'modified' Sensitivity (SE deg.) and 'modified' Positive Predictive Value (PPV deg.) as appropriate performance measures with which the algorithm was optimized. The relation between overshoots and fetal compromise in labor was studied in 15 cases and 15 controls. Overshoots showed promise as an indicator of fetal compromise. Unlike ordinary accelerations, overshoots cannot be considered to be reassuring features of fetal health.

Georgieva, A. E. [Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, Level 3 Women's Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Payne, S. J. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Moulden, M.; Redman, C. W. G. [Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, Level 3 Women's Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom)

2010-10-25

97

Heart rate variability interventions for concussion and rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

The study of heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as an essential component of cardiovascular health, as well as a physiological mechanism by which one can increase the interactive communication between the cardiac and the neurocognitive systems (i.e., the body and the brain). It is well-established that lack of HRV implies cardiopathology, morbidity, reduced quality-of-life, and precipitous mortality. On the positive, optimal HRV has been associated with good cardiovascular health, autonomic nervous system (ANS) control, emotional regulation, and enhanced neurocognitive processing. In addition to health benefits, optimal HRV has been shown to improve neurocognitive performance by enhancing focus, visual acuity and readiness, and by promoting emotional regulation needed for peak performance. In concussed athletes and soldiers, concussions not only alter brain connectivity, but also alter cardiac functioning and impair cardiovascular performance upon exertion. Altered sympathetic and parasympathetic balance in the ANS has been postulated as a critical factor in refractory post concussive syndrome (PCS). This article will review both the pathological aspects of reduced HRV on athletic performance, as well as the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular components of concussion and PCS. Additionally, this article will review interventions with HRV biofeedback (HRV BFB) training as a promising and underutilized treatment for sports and military-related concussion. Finally, this article will review research and promising case studies pertaining to use of HRV BFB for enhancement of cognition and performance, with applicability to concussion rehabilitation. PMID:25165461

Conder, Robert L.; Conder, Alanna A.

2014-01-01

98

Quantification of fetal heart rate regularity using symbolic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fetal heart rate complexity was examined on the basis of RR interval time series obtained in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. In each fetal RR interval time series, short term beat-to-beat heart rate changes were coded in 8bit binary sequences. Redundancies of the 28 different binary patterns were reduced by two different procedures. The complexity of these sequences was quantified using the approximate entropy (ApEn), resulting in discrete ApEn values which were used for classifying the sequences into 17 pattern sets. Also, the sequences were grouped into 20 pattern classes with respect to identity after rotation or inversion of the binary value. There was a specific, nonuniform distribution of the sequences in the pattern sets and this differed from the distribution found in surrogate data. In the course of gestation, the number of sequences increased in seven pattern sets, decreased in four and remained unchanged in six. Sequences that occurred less often over time, both regular and irregular, were characterized by patterns reflecting frequent beat-to-beat reversals in heart rate. They were also predominant in the surrogate data, suggesting that these patterns are associated with stochastic heart beat trains. Sequences that occurred more frequently over time were relatively rare in the surrogate data. Some of these sequences had a high degree of regularity and corresponded to prolonged heart rate accelerations or decelerations which may be associated with directed fetal activity or movement or baroreflex activity. Application of the pattern classes revealed that those sequences with a high degree of irregularity correspond to heart rate patterns resulting from complex physiological activity such as fetal breathing movements. The results suggest that the development of the autonomic nervous system and the emergence of fetal behavioral states lead to increases in not only irregular but also regular heart rate patterns. Using symbolic dynamics to examine the cardiovascular system may thus lead to new insight with respect to fetal development.

van Leeuwen, P.; Cysarz, D.; Lange, S.; Geue, D.; Groenemeyer, D.

2007-03-01

99

Concurrent validity of the Armour39 heart rate monitor strap.  

PubMed

New technology offers potential advantages in physically demanding environments where convenience and comfort are important and accurate and reliable data collection is challenging. Nevertheless, it is important to validate the accuracy and reliability of such biological monitoring systems (BMS) before they are adopted. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the concurrent validity of a new heart rate monitor across a range of exercise intensities and with a large and diverse group of male subjects in a large cohort with diverse physical fitness characteristics. Seventy-five men (age, 23 ± 4 years; height, 181 ± 8 cm; body mass, 83 ± 12 kg; estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 3.16 ± 0.63 [L·min]) volunteered and completed a graded cycle ergometer exercise protocol while heart rate was continuously monitored before, during, and after exercise with the new device (Armour39) and the gold standard (electrocardiogram). The 2-minute stages included sitting, standing, and cycling with 35 W increments until volitional fatigue. The coefficient of determination between mean heart rate values at each stage was R = 0.99, whereas Pearson correlations (r) at each stage were ? 0.99. Heart rates during exercise were typically within 1 beat of each other. The Armour39 BMS, therefore, is an acceptable means for the valid and reliable determination of heart rate under various bodily positions and levels of exertion, including maximal exercise intensity. PMID:23860286

Flanagan, Shawn D; Comstock, Brett A; Dupont, William H; Sterczala, Adam R; Looney, Dave P; Dombrowski, Dylan H; McDermott, Danielle M; Bryce, Alexander; Maladouangdock, Jesse; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Luk, Hui-Ying; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Kraemer, William J

2014-03-01

100

Is the normal heart rate ``chaotic'' due to respiration?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incidence of cardiovascular diseases increases with the growth of the human population and an aging society, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, it is challenging to develop sophisticated methods in order to improve medical diagnostics. The question whether the normal heart rate is chaotic or not is an attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of cardiovascular dynamics and therefore a highly controversial topical challenge. In this contribution we demonstrate that linear and nonlinear parameters allow us to separate completely the data sets of the three groups provided for this controversial topic in nonlinear dynamics. The question whether these time series are chaotic or not cannot be answered satisfactorily without investigating the underlying mechanisms leading to them. We give an example of the dominant influence of respiration on heart beat dynamics, which shows that observed fluctuations can be mostly explained by respiratory modulations of heart rate and blood pressure (coefficient of determination: 96%). Therefore, we recommend reformulating the following initial question: "Is the normal heart rate chaotic?" We rather ask the following: "Is the normal heart rate `chaotic' due to respiration?"

Wessel, Niels; Riedl, Maik; Kurths, Jürgen

2009-06-01

101

Kramers-Moyal Expansion of Heart Rate Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first six Kramers-Moyal coefficients were extracted from human heart rate variability recordings. The method requires the determination of the Markov time and of the proper conditional probability densities. We analyzed heart rate data recorded in a group of ten young, healthy subjects. We obtained non-negligible higher order Kramers-Moyal (K-M) terms in 6 h nighttime parts of the 24 h recordings. This indicates that the data is a non-Gaussian process and probably a correlated signal. The analysis yielded important new insights into the character and distribution of the stochastic processes measured in healthy group. In the night hours, the dominant oscillation in the heart rate is the so called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) -- a physiological phenomenon in which respiration acts as a drive for the heart rate. Certain kinds of pathology may disrupt RSA. We compared nighttime recordings of the healthy group with those recorded in six patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). HCM is generally a pathology of heart cells but abnormalities in autonomic regulation are also observed. Using the higher order Kramers-Moyal coefficients, we analyzed the skewness and kurtosis in the nighttime recordings for the normal subjects.

Petelczyc, M.; ?ebrowski, J. J.; Baranowski, R.

2009-05-01

102

[Changes in heart rate variability after myocardial infarction. Value of Poincareé's diagram].  

PubMed

The variability of the heart rate is reduced after myocardial infarction. It then progressively increases, to return to near normal values after several months. However, these changes in heart rate variability occur at the same time as slowing of the heart rate which makes interpretation difficult. Poincaré's diagram is constructed from a Holter recording plotting each RR interval against the preceding RR interval. The authors have developed a geometric approach to this diagram to evaluate parasympathetic tone for a given heart rate. By measuring the dispersion in height of the Poincaré's diagram, the authors evaluate the shor-term variability for a given RR interval. Two 24 hr Holter recordings were performed in 52 patients at one and two weeks after a myocardial infarction. The dispersion in the height of the Poincaré's diagrams was measured at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles of the total dispersion. The authors have shown an increase in the short-term variability of the shortest RR intervals (1th, 25th and 50th percentiles) which is not observed in the longer RR intervals (75th and 90th percentiles). In conclusion, theres is an increase in the heart rate variability at the shortest RR intervals. This suggests that the recovery of parasympathic tone after myocardial infarction occurs mainly at the fastest heart rates. PMID:8745997

Copie, X; Le Heuzey, J Y; Iliou, M C; Pousset, F; Lavergne, T; Guize, L

1995-11-01

103

Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor  

MedlinePLUS

... method of periodically listening to the fetal heartbeat. Electronic fetal monitoring is a procedure in which instruments ... be checked and recorded more frequently. How is electronic fetal monitoring performed? Electronic fetal monitoring uses special ...

104

Robust efficient estimation of heart rate pulse from video  

PubMed Central

We describe a simple but robust algorithm for estimating the heart rate pulse from video sequences containing human skin in real time. Based on a model of light interaction with human skin, we define the change of blood concentration due to arterial pulsation as a pixel quotient in log space, and successfully use the derived signal for computing the pulse heart rate. Various experiments with different cameras, different illumination condition, and different skin locations were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm. Examples computed with normal illumination show the algorithm is comparable with pulse oximeter devices both in accuracy and sensitivity. PMID:24761294

Xu, Shuchang; Sun, Lingyun; Rohde, Gustavo Kunde

2014-01-01

105

Robust efficient estimation of heart rate pulse from video.  

PubMed

We describe a simple but robust algorithm for estimating the heart rate pulse from video sequences containing human skin in real time. Based on a model of light interaction with human skin, we define the change of blood concentration due to arterial pulsation as a pixel quotient in log space, and successfully use the derived signal for computing the pulse heart rate. Various experiments with different cameras, different illumination condition, and different skin locations were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm. Examples computed with normal illumination show the algorithm is comparable with pulse oximeter devices both in accuracy and sensitivity. PMID:24761294

Xu, Shuchang; Sun, Lingyun; Rohde, Gustavo Kunde

2014-04-01

106

Heart rate variability and drawing impairment in hypoxemic COPD.  

PubMed

We studied 54 patients with hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Mini Mental State Examination and the Mental Deterioration Battery were used for neuropsychological assessment. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed based on 24-h Holter ECG recording. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare HRV parameters of patients performing normally or abnormally on individual neuropsychological tasks. Spearman's rho was used to investigate the correlations between HRV parameters and neuropsychological scores, indexes of health status or COPD severity. Patients with defective performance at copying drawings with landmarks (CDL) test (N = 23) had lower very low frequency (VLF) power with respect to patients with normal performance (N = 31) (24 h: median 213; interquartile range 120-282 vs. 309; 188-431 ms2, p = 0.043; daytime: 202; 111-292 vs. 342; 194-397 ms2, p = 0.039). The CDL score correlated with the VLF power (24 h: rho = 0.27, p = 0.049; daytime: rho = 0.30, p = 0.028), and the normalized low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio (24 h: rho = 0.27, p = 0.05; daytime: rho = 0.33, p = 0.015). Sympathetic modulation decreased for increasing severity of COPD. In conclusion, drawing impairment correlates with depressed sympathetic modulation in patients with COPD, and both might be indexes of COPD severity. PMID:19261365

Antonelli Incalzi, Raffaele; Corsonello, Andrea; Trojano, Luigi; Pedone, Claudio; Acanfora, Domenico; Spada, Aldo; D'Addio, Gianni; Maestri, Roberto; Rengo, Franco; Rengo, Giuseppe

2009-06-01

107

Relationship between laboratory-measured variables and heart rate during an ultra-endurance triathlon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the performance heart rate during an ultra-endurance triathlon and the heart rate corresponding to several demarcation points measured during laboratory-based progressive cycle ergometry and treadmill running. Less than one month before an ultra-endurance triathlon, 21 well-trained ultra-endurance triathletes (mean?±?s: age 35?±?6 years, height 1.77?±?0.05?m, mass 74.0?±?6.9?kg, ??=??4.75?±?0.42?l?·?min) performed

Paul B Laursen; Wade L Knez; Cecilia M Shing; Robert H Langill; Edward C Rhodes; David G Jenkins

2005-01-01

108

Direct observation of homoclinic orbits in human heart rate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homoclinic trajectories of the interbeat intervals between contractions of ventricles of the human heart are identified. The interbeat intervals are extracted from 24-h Holter ECG recordings. Three such recordings are discussed in detail. Mappings of the measured consecutive interbeat intervals are constructed. In the second and in some cases in the fourth iterate of the map of interbeat intervals homoclinic trajectories associated with a hyperbolic saddle are found. The homoclinic trajectories are often persistent for many interbeat intervals, sometimes spanning many thousands of heartbeats. Several features typical for homoclinic trajectories found in other systems were identified, including a signature of the gluing bifurcation. The homoclinic trajectories are present both in recordings of heart rate variability obtained from patients with an increased number of arrhythmias and in cases in which the sinus rhythm is dominant. The results presented are a strong indication of the importance of deterministic nonlinear instabilities in human heart rate variability.

?ebrowski, J. J.; Baranowski, R.

2003-05-01

109

Remote Measurements of Heart and Respiration Rates for Telemedicine  

PubMed Central

Non-contact and low-cost measurements of heart and respiration rates are highly desirable for telemedicine. Here, we describe a novel technique to extract blood volume pulse and respiratory wave from a single channel images captured by a video camera for both day and night conditions. The principle of our technique is to uncover the temporal dynamics of heart beat and breathing rate through delay-coordinate transformation and independent component analysis-based deconstruction of the single channel images. Our method further achieves robust elimination of false positives via applying ratio-variation probability distributions filtering approaches. Moreover, it enables a much needed low-cost means for preventing sudden infant death syndrome in new born infants and detecting stroke and heart attack in elderly population in home environments. This noncontact-based method can also be applied to a variety of animal model organisms for biomedical research. PMID:24115996

Qian, Yi; Tsien, Joe Z.

2013-01-01

110

Inhalation of ultrafine carbon particles alters heart rate and heart rate variability in people with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes may confer an increased risk for the cardiovascular health effects of particulate air pollution, but few human clinical studies of air pollution have included people with diabetes. Ultrafine particles (UFP, ?100 nm in diameter) have been hypothesized to be an important component of particulate air pollution with regard to cardiovascular health effects. Methods 17 never-smoker subjects 30–60 years of age, with stable type 2 diabetes but otherwise healthy, inhaled either filtered air (0–10 particles/cm3) or elemental carbon UFP (~107 particles/cm3, ~50 ug/m3, count median diameter 32 nm) by mouthpiece, for 2 hours at rest, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study design. A digital 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded continuously for 48 hours, beginning 1 hour prior to exposure. Results Analysis of 5-minute segments of the ECG during quiet rest showed reduced high-frequency heart rate variability with UFP relative to air exposure (p?=?0.014), paralleled by non-significant reductions in time-domain heart rate variability parameters. In the analysis of longer durations of the ECG, we found that UFP exposure increased the heart rate relative to air exposure. During the 21- to 45-hour interval after exposure, the average heart rate increased approximately 8 beats per minute with UFP, compared to 5 beats per minute with air (p?=?0.045). There were no UFP effects on cardiac rhythm or repolarization. Conclusions Inhalation of elemental carbon ultrafine particles alters heart rate and heart rate variability in people with type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest that effects may occur and persist hours after a single 2-hour exposure. PMID:25028096

2014-01-01

111

Heart Rate Variability and Drawing Impairment in Hypoxemic COPD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied 54 patients with hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Mini Mental State Examination and the Mental Deterioration Battery were used for neuropsychological assessment. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed based on 24-h Holter ECG recording. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare HRV parameters of patients…

Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Corsonello, Andrea; Trojano, Luigi; Pedone, Claudio; Acanfora, Domenico; Spada, Aldo; D'Addio, Gianni; Maestri, Roberto; Rengo, Franco; Rengo, Giuseppe

2009-01-01

112

Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

2012-01-01

113

ARCHIVAL REPORT Ambulatory and Challenge-Associated Heart Rate  

E-print Network

: Heart rate variability (HRV) measures homeostatic regulation of the autonomic nervous system in response. The dynamic interplay between autonomic components enables efficient cardiovascular responses to both Responses to Real-World Acute Emotional Stress Gülce N. Dikecligil and Lilianne R. Mujica-Parodi Background

Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R.

114

Basic notions of heart rate variability and its clinical applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in the regulation of the physiological processes of the human organism during normal and pathological conditions. Among the techniques used in its evaluation, the heart rate variability (HRV) has arising as a simple and non-invasive measure of the autonomic impulses, representing one of the most promising quantitative markers of the autonomic balance.

Luiz Carlos; Marques VANDERLEI; Carlos Marcelo PASTRE; Rosângela Akemi HOSHI; Moacir Fernandes de GODOY

2009-01-01

115

Robust sensor fusion of unobtrusively measured heart rate.  

PubMed

Contactless vital sign measurement technologies often have the drawback of severe motion artifacts and periods in which no signal is available. However, using several identical or physically different sensors, redundancy can be used to decrease the error in noncontact heart rate estimation, while increasing the time period during which reliable data are available. In this paper, we show for the first time two major results in case of contactless heart rate measurements deduced from a capacitive ECG and optical pulse signals. First, an artifact detection is an essential preprocessing step to allow a reliable fusion. Second, the robust but computationally efficient median already provides good results; however, using a Bayesian approach, and a short time estimation of the variance, best results in terms of difference to reference heart rate and temporal coverage can be achieved. In this paper, six sensor signals were used and coverage increased from 0-90% to 80-94%, while the difference between the estimated heart rate and the gold standard was less than ±2 BPM. PMID:24608065

Wartzek, Tobias; Brüser, Christoph; Walter, Marian; Leonhardt, Steffen

2014-03-01

116

Exploring the Relationship between Fetal Heart Rate and Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A relationship between fetal heart rate (HR) and cognition is explored within the context of infant, child and adult studies where the association is well established. Lack of direct access to the fetus and maturational changes limit research paradigms and response measures for fetal studies. Nevertheless, neural regulation of HR shows a number of…

Kisilevsky, Barbara S.; Hains, Sylvia M. J.

2010-01-01

117

Heart Rate Monitors Promote Physical Education for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National health and fitness data suggests that a significant percentage of children are not on a pathway to leading healthy, physically active lifestyles. Many children are leading sedentary lifestyles due to a lack of opportunity, success, or self-motivation in physical activity. Programs that highlight the use of heart rate monitors offer a…

Tipton, Jan; Sander, Allan N.

2004-01-01

118

Extracting heart rate variability from a wearable reflectance pulse oximeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness and efficiency of combat medics can be greatly improved by increasing the speed and precision with which physiological information is gathered from wounded soldiers. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of extracting accurate heart rate variability (HRV) measurements from photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals recorded by a reflectance-mode pulse oximeter sensor attached to the forehead.

W. Johnston; Y. Mendelson

2005-01-01

119

Wireless network for health monitoring: heart rate and temperature sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of human health, collecting real-time data is vital. A system that can remotely monitor heart rate and body temperature is presented in this paper. The data was collected from a group of volunteers using the sensors developed by the research team to test the system. The Arduino micro-controller is programmed to transmit the data securely to a

Amir Hoshang Kioumars; Liqiong Tang

2011-01-01

120

Relationship between Exercise Heart Rate and Music Tempo Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the predicted positive and linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b) between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference. Initially, 128 undergraduate students (M age = 20.0 years, SD = 0.9) were surveyed to establish their three favorite music artists. A separate experimental group of 29 undergraduates (M age =…

Karageorghis, Costas I.; Jones, Leighton; Low, Daniel C.

2006-01-01

121

DIVING BEHAVIOUR AND HEART RATE IN TUFTED DUCKS (AYTHYA FULIGULA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Diving behaviour and heart rate were monitored in tufted ducks diving under circumstances which simulated various environmental conditions such as feeding under ice in winter. When distance to food was increased on a covered outdoor pond, dive duration increased proportionately, but it was calculated that time available for feeding was reduced during the longer-distance 'extended' dives. There was a

R. STEPHENSON; P. J. BUTLER; A. J. WOAKES

1986-01-01

122

Resting and maximal heart rates in ectothermic vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting and maximal heart rates (HR) in ectothermic vertebrates are generally lower than those in endotherms and vary by more than an order of magnitude interspecifically. Variation of HR transcends phylogeny and is influenced by numerous factors including temperature, activity, gas exchange, intracardiac shunts, pH, posture, and reflexogenic regulation of blood pressure. The characteristic resting HR is rarely the intrinsic

Harvey B Lillywhite; Kevin C Zippel; Anthony P Farrell

1999-01-01

123

An improved method of measuring heart rate using a webcam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring heart rate traditionally requires special equipment and physical contact with the subject. Reliable non-contact and low-cost measurements are highly desirable for convenient and comfortable physiological self-assessment. Previous work has shown that consumer-grade cameras can provide useful signals for remote heart rate measurements. In this paper a simple and robust method of measuring the heart rate using low-cost webcam is proposed. Blood volume pulse is extracted by proper Region of Interest (ROI) and color channel selection from image sequences of human faces without complex computation. Heart rate is subsequently quantified by spectrum analysis. The method is successfully applied under natural lighting conditions. Results of experiments show that it takes less time, is much simpler, and has similar accuracy to the previously published and widely used method of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Benefitting from non-contact, convenience, and low-costs, it provides great promise for popularization of home healthcare and can further be applied to biomedical research.

Liu, Yi; Ouyang, Jianfei; Yan, Yonggang

2014-09-01

124

Heart rate measurement based on a time-lapse image.  

PubMed

Using a time-lapse image acquired from a CCD camera, we developed a non-contact and non-invasive device, which could measure both the respiratory and pulse rate simultaneously. The time-lapse image of a part of the subject's skin was consecutively captured, and the changes in the average image brightness of the region of interest (ROI) were measured for 30s. The brightness data were processed by a series of operations of interpolation as follows a first-order derivative, a low pass filter of 2 Hz, and a sixth-order auto-regressive (AR) spectral analysis. Fourteen sound and healthy female subjects (22-27 years of age) participated in the experiments. Each subject was told to keep a relaxed seating posture with no physical restriction. At the same time, heart rate was measured by a pulse oximeter and respiratory rate was measured by a thermistor placed at the external naris. Using AR spectral analysis, two clear peaks could be detected at approximately 0.3 and 1.2 Hz. The peaks were thought to correspond to the respiratory rate and the heart rate. Correlation coefficients of 0.90 and 0.93 were obtained for the measurement of heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. PMID:17074525

Takano, Chihiro; Ohta, Yuji

2007-10-01

125

The relationship between working memory, reinvestment, and heart rate variability.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence illustrating the negative aspects of reinvestment on everyday life, however its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The main aim of this study was to empirically clarify the relationship between reinvestment and working memory (WM). A secondary aim was to investigate the contribution of high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) to WM. Sixty-two participants took part in a within-subject design in which we measured their WM capacity in a low-pressure and a high-pressure condition while their HF-HRV was measured. In addition, they had to fill out scales assessing their dispositional reinvestment. Results showed that the correlation between reinvestment and WM is negative, exists only in the high-pressure condition, and is specific to the decision component of reinvestment and not the movement component. Moreover, a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that under high pressure resting HF-HRV predicted WM performance above DSRS, whereas DSRS did not predict WM performance above resting HF-HRV. PMID:25449388

Laborde, Sylvain; Furley, Philip; Schempp, Caroline

2015-02-01

126

Heart rate variability analysis during central hypovolemia using wavelet transformation.  

PubMed

Detection of hypovolemia prior to overt hemodynamic decompensation remains an elusive goal in the treatment of critically injured patients in both civilian and combat settings. Monitoring of heart rate variability has been advocated as a potential means to monitor the rapid changes in the physiological state of hemorrhaging patients, with the most popular methods involving calculation of the R-R interval signal's power spectral density (PSD) or use of fractal dimensions (FD). However, the latter method poses technical challenges, while the former is best suited to stationary signals rather than the non-stationary R-R interval. Both approaches are also limited by high inter- and intra-individual variability, a serious issue when applying these indices to the clinical setting. We propose an approach which applies the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to the R-R interval signal to extract information at both 500 and 125 Hz sampling rates. The utility of machine learning models based on these features were tested in assessing electrocardiogram signals from volunteers subjected to lower body negative pressure induced central hypovolemia as a surrogate of hemorrhage. These machine learning models based on DWT features were compared against those based on the traditional PSD and FD, at both sampling rates and their performance was evaluated based on leave-one-subject-out fold cross-validation. Results demonstrate that the proposed DWT-based model outperforms individual PSD and FD methods as well as the combination of these two traditional methods at both sample rates of 500 Hz (p value <0.0001) and 125 Hz (p value <0.0001) in detecting the degree of hypovolemia. These findings indicate the potential of the proposed DWT approach in monitoring the physiological changes caused by hemorrhage. The speed and relatively low computational costs in deriving these features may make it particularly suited for implementation in portable devices for remote monitoring. PMID:23371800

Ji, Soo-Yeon; Belle, Ashwin; Ward, Kevin R; Ryan, Kathy L; Rickards, Caroline A; Convertino, Victor A; Najarian, Kayvan

2013-06-01

127

Impact of Sleep-Disordered Breathing on Heart Rate Turbulence in Heart Failure Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Additionally, heart rate turbulence (HRT) reflects changes in the sinus cycle length of baroreceptor in response to hemodynamic fluctuations after ventricular premature beat. Recent studies have suggested that HRT as a marker of vagal activity has a predictive value of poor prognosis in CHF patients. However, little is known about the relationship between SDB and HRT in CHF patients. Methods and Results In this study, 75 patients with CHF were enrolled. We simultaneously performed Holter ECG during a 24-hr period and portable sleep monitoring at nighttime, and determined the respiratory disturbance index (RDI), HRT (turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS)) during that 24-hr period. These patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of severe SDB: Group A (RDI?30, n?=?17) and Group B (RDI<30, n?=?58). TS was significantly lower in Group A than in Group B across the 24-hr period (nighttime: 3.6±1.1 vs. 6.9±1.3; daytime: 3.7±0.8 vs. 7.0±1.1; all-day: 3.5±0.7 vs. 6.7±0.9% ms/RR, P<0.05, respectively). TO did not differ between the two groups. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between all-day TS and RDI (R?=?–0.257, P?=?0.027). Moreover, in the multiple regression analysis, RDI was an independent factor to determine all-day TS. Conclusions In patients with severe SDB, blunted TS was observed across 24 hours. These results suggest that SDB induce impairment of vagal activity across a 24-hour period and may be associated with poor prognosis in CHF patients. PMID:24968229

Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Takiguchi, Mai; Shimizu, Takeshi; Abe, Satoshi; Sato, Takamasa; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

2014-01-01

128

Nonlinear control of heart rate variability in human infants.  

PubMed Central

Nonlinear analyses of infant heart rhythms reveal a marked rise in the complexity of the electrocardiogram with maturation. We find that normal mature infants (gestation greater than or equal to 35 weeks) have complex and distinctly nonlinear heart rhythms (consistent with recent reports for healthy adults) but that such nonlinearity is lacking in preterm infants (gestation > or = to 27 weeks) where parasympathetic-sympathetic interaction and function are presumed to be less well developed. Our study further shows that infants with clinical brain death and those treated with atropine exhibit a similar lack of nonlinear feedback control. These three lines of evidence support the hypothesis championed by Goldberger et al. [Goldberger, A.L., Rigney, D.R. & West, B.J. (1990) Sci. Am. 262, 43-49] that autonomic nervous system control underlies the nonlinearity and possible chaos of normal heart rhythms. This report demonstrates the acquisition of nonlinear heart rate dynamics and possible chaos in developing human infants and its loss in brain death and with the administration of atropine. It parallels earlier work documenting changes in the variability of heart rhythms in each of these cases and suggests that nonlinearity may provide additional power in characterizing physiological states. PMID:8637921

Sugihara, G; Allan, W; Sobel, D; Allan, K D

1996-01-01

129

Extraction of Heart Rate Variability from Smartphone Photoplethysmograms  

PubMed Central

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a useful clinical tool for autonomic function assessment and cardiovascular diseases diagnosis. It is traditionally calculated from a dedicated medical electrocardiograph (ECG). In this paper, we demonstrate that HRV can also be extracted from photoplethysmograms (PPG) obtained by the camera of a smartphone. Sixteen HRV parameters, including time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear parameters, were calculated from PPG captured by a smartphone for 30 healthy subjects and were compared with those derived from ECG. The statistical results showed that 14 parameters (AVNN, SDNN, CV, RMSSD, SDSD, TP, VLF, LF, HF, LF/HF, nLF, nHF, SD1, and SD2) from PPG were highly correlated (r > 0.7, P < 0.001) with those from ECG, and 7 parameters (AVNN, TP, VLF, LF, HF, nLF, and nHF) from PPG were in good agreement with those from ECG within the acceptable limits. In addition, five different algorithms to detect the characteristic points of PPG wave were also investigated: peak point (PP), valley point (VP), maximum first derivative (M1D), maximum second derivative (M2D), and tangent intersection (TI). The results showed that M2D and TI algorithms had the best performance. These results suggest that the smartphone might be used for HRV measurement.

Peng, Rong-Chao; Zhou, Xiao-Lin; Lin, Wan-Hua; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

2015-01-01

130

Development and preliminary evaluation of an Android based heart rate variability biofeedback system.  

PubMed

The reduced Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is believed to be associated with several diseases such as congestive heart failure, diabetes and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). In these cases, HRV biofeedback may be a potential intervention method to increase HRV which in turn is beneficial to these patients. In this work, a real-time Android biofeedback application based on a Bluetooth enabled ECG and thoracic electrical bioimpedance (respiration) measurement device has been developed. The system performance and usability have been evaluated in a brief study with eight healthy volunteers. The result demonstrates real-time performance of system and positive effects of biofeedback training session by increased HRV and reduced heart rate. Further development of the application and training protocol is ongoing to investigate duration of training session to find an optimum length and interval of biofeedback sessions to use in potential interventions. PMID:25570716

Abtahi, F; Berndtsson, A; Abtahi, S; Seoane, F; Lindecrantz, K

2014-08-01

131

Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Measures of Working Memory at 5 and 10 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We recorded electroencephalogram (EEG; 6-9 Hz) and heart rate (HR) from infants at 5 and 10 months of age during baseline and performance on the looking A-not-B task of infant working memory (WM). Longitudinal baseline-to-task comparisons revealed WM-related increases in EEG power (all electrodes) and EEG coherence (medial frontal-occipital…

Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

2012-01-01

132

Reduction in extracellular muscle volume increases heart rate and blood pressure response to isometric exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To investigate the effect of local dehydration on heart rate and blood pressure during static exercise, six healthy male subjects performed exercise of the calf muscles with different extracellular volumes of the working muscles. Exercise consisted of 5 min of static calf muscle contractions at about 10% of maximal voluntary contraction. The body position during exercise was identical in all

K. Baum; D. Essfeld; J. Stegemann

1990-01-01

133

Heart rate dynamics during three forms of meditation C.-K. Penga,*, Isaac C. Henrya  

E-print Network

Heart rate dynamics during three forms of meditation C.-K. Penga,*, Isaac C. Henrya , Joseph E and cardiopulmonary interactions during sequential performance of three meditation protocols with different breathing experienced meditators (4 females; 6 males; mean age 42 years; range 29­55 years) during three traditional

134

Heart Rate Regulation processed through wavelet analysis and change detection. Some case studies  

E-print Network

Heart Rate Regulation processed through wavelet analysis and change detection. Some case studies-mail: veronique.billat@wanadoo.fr December 29, 2010 Abstract Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indicator of the regulation of the heart engine, Task Force (1996). This study compares the regulation of the heart in two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

TRIBUTE TO STANLEY DODSON Chytrid infection reduces thoracic beat and heart rate  

E-print Network

TRIBUTE TO STANLEY DODSON Chytrid infection reduces thoracic beat and heart rate of Daphnia observed simultaneously the heart rates and compared chytrid infected animals with uninfected gravid and non-gravid ones. We found in uninfected animals a thoracic beat rate of 3.81 ± 018 Hz and a heart rate

Johnson, Pieter

136

Heart Rate Variability and Disease Characteristics in Patients with COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationships\\u000a among HRV and characteristics of COPD are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize HRV in patients with COPD and\\u000a to verify the correlation of HRV measured during rest with disease severity and pulmonary, muscular, and functional impairment.\\u000a Thirty-one patients with

Carlos A. Camillo; Fabio Pitta; Heloíse V. Possani; Marcus V. R. A. Barbosa; Divina S. O. Marques; Vinícius Cavalheri; Vanessa S. Probst; Antonio F. Brunetto

2008-01-01

137

Cyclical variation of blood pressure and heart rate in neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a computerised physiological monitoring system a cyclical variation in blood pressure (waves), with associated changes in heart rate and transcutaneous oxygen, was observed. Twenty five episodes were seen in 10 neonates, with a median gestation of 33 weeks (range 28-42 weeks). Eight neonates had an asphyxial injury. Blood pressure waves had a mean (SD) amplitude of 11.6 (5.6) mm

S Cunningham; S Deere; N McIntosh

1993-01-01

138

Identifying genetic variants for heart rate variability in the acetylcholine pathway.  

PubMed

Heart rate variability is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The acetylcholine pathway plays a key role in explaining heart rate variability in humans. We assessed whether 443 genotyped and imputed common genetic variants in eight key genes (CHAT, SLC18A3, SLC5A7, CHRNB4, CHRNA3, CHRNA, CHRM2 and ACHE) of the acetylcholine pathway were associated with variation in an established measure of heart rate variability reflecting parasympathetic control of the heart rhythm, the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) of normal RR intervals. The association was studied in a two stage design in individuals of European descent. First, analyses were performed in a discovery sample of four cohorts (n?=?3429, discovery stage). Second, findings were replicated in three independent cohorts (n?=?3311, replication stage), and finally the two stages were combined in a meta-analysis (n?=?6740). RMSSD data were obtained under resting conditions. After correction for multiple testing, none of the SNPs showed an association with RMSSD. In conclusion, no common genetic variants for heart rate variability were identified in the largest and most comprehensive candidate gene study on the acetylcholine pathway to date. Future gene finding efforts for RMSSD may want to focus on hypothesis free approaches such as the genome-wide association study. PMID:25384021

Riese, Harriëtte; Muñoz, Loretto M; Hartman, Catharina A; Ding, Xiuhua; Su, Shaoyong; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; van Roon, Arie M; van der Most, Peter J; Lefrandt, Joop; Gansevoort, Ron T; van der Harst, Pim; Verweij, Niek; Licht, Carmilla M M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Nolte, Ilja M; de Geus, Eco J C; Wang, Xiaoling; Snieder, Harold

2014-01-01

139

Estimating mental fatigue based on electroencephalogram and heart rate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of long term mental arithmetic task on psychology are investigated by subjective self-reporting measures and action performance test. Based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), the impacts of prolonged cognitive activity on central nervous system and autonomic nervous system are observed and analyzed. Wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are combined to estimate the change of mental fatigue. Then wavelet packet parameters of EEG which change significantly are extracted as the features of brain activity in different mental fatigue state, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to differentiate two mental fatigue states. The experimental results show that long term mental arithmetic task induces the mental fatigue. The wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are strongly correlated with mental fatigue. The predominant activity of autonomic nervous system of subjects turns to the sympathetic activity from parasympathetic activity after the task. Moreover, the slow waves of EEG increase, the fast waves of EEG and the degree of disorder of brain decrease compared with the pre-task. The SVM algorithm can effectively differentiate two mental fatigue states, which achieves the maximum classification accuracy (91%). The SVM algorithm could be a promising tool for the evaluation of mental fatigue. Fatigue, especially mental fatigue, is a common phenomenon in modern life, is a persistent occupational hazard for professional. Mental fatigue is usually accompanied with a sense of weariness, reduced alertness, and reduced mental performance, which would lead the accidents in life, decrease productivity in workplace and harm the health. Therefore, the evaluation of mental fatigue is important for the occupational risk protection, productivity, and occupational health.

Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin

2010-01-01

140

Experimental heart rate regulation in cycle-ergometer exercises.  

PubMed

The heart rate can be effectively used as a measure of the exercise intensity during long duration cycle-ergometer exercises: precisely controlling the heart rate (HR) becomes crucial especially for athletes or patients with cardiovascular/obesity problems. The aim of this letter is to experimentally show how the nonlocal and nonswitching nonlinear control that has been recently proposed in the literature for the HR regulation in treadmill exercises can be effectively applied to cycle-ergometer exercises at constant cycling speed. The structure of the involved nonlinear model for the HR dynamics in cycle-ergometer exercises is mathematically inspired by the structure of a recently identified and experimentally validated nonlinear model for the HR dynamics in treadmill exercises: the role played by the treadmill speed is played here by the work load while the zero speed case for the treadmill exercise is here translated into the cycling operation under zero work load. Experimental results not only validate the aforementioned nonlinear model but also demonstrate the effectiveness--in terms of precise HR regulation--of an approach which simply generalizes to the nonlinear framework the classical proportional-integral control design. The possibility of online modifying the HR reference on the basis of the heart rate variability (HRV) is also suggested and experimentally motivated. PMID:23086500

Paradiso, Michele; Pietrosanti, Stefano; Scalzi, Stefano; Tomei, Patrizio; Verrelli, Cristiano Maria

2013-01-01

141

System analysis of heart rate control in man.  

PubMed

The dynamic property of the heart rate response to exercise was determined and expressed in the frequency domain to establish a method of examining cardiovascular control function. The response of heart rate to a stimulus was measured at 5-s intervals in nine healthy young volunteers. The stimulus consisted of several runs of two-step exercise practiced in semirandom sequence for 19 min. The weight function of the system was estimated from autocorrelation function of the input signal and cross-correlation function between the input and output signals. The weight function was transformed into a transfer function and its Bode plot diagram was drawn. From the diagram, four dynamic parameters were determined. These parameters are as follows: K is a constant showing the theoretical steady-state increment of heart rate, and T1, T2, T3 are time constants. The values obtained in the present experiment with the healthy young males were: K 46.0 +/- 14.6 beats, T1, 2.12 +/- 0.44, T2, 1.12 +/- 0.16, and T3 0.70 +/- 0.07 min. PMID:993169

Sato, I; Hasegawa, Y; Hotta, K

1976-11-01

142

Poincare Indices for Analyzing Meditative Heart Rate Signals.  

PubMed

Background: Poincare plots are commonly used to study the nonlinear behavior of physiologic signals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the Poincare plot indices of human heart rate signals during meditation. Methods: For this purpose, heart rate time series of eight Chi meditators available in Physionet database were used. Poincare plots with lags of 1 and 6 were constructed, and the ratio of the minor axis to major axis (SD1/SD2) and the area of Poincare plots were calculated for each lag. Results: The results show that the SD1/SD2 ratio increased significantly during meditation compared to that before meditation, especially the index measured from Poincare plots reconstructed with a lag of 6 (p < 0.05). In addition, in both lags, the area of Poincare plots decreased significantly during meditation compared to before meditation (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The comparative dynamic measures of the Poincare plot indices during and before meditation give more insight of the heart rate signals in a specific psychophysiological state. PMID:25355394

Goshvarpour, Atefeh; Goshvarpour, Ateke

2014-10-30

143

Effect of meditation on scaling behavior and complexity of human heart rate variability  

E-print Network

The heart beat data recorded from samples before and during meditation are analyzed using two different scaling analysis methods. These analyses revealed that mediation severely affects the long range correlation of heart beat of a normal heart. Moreover, it is found that meditation induces periodic behavior in the heart beat. The complexity of the heart rate variability is quantified using multiscale entropy analysis and recurrence analysis. The complexity of the heart beat during mediation is found to be more.

Sarkar, A

2006-01-01

144

The loss of circadian heart rate variations in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement and Corridor procedure--comparison to heart transplant patients.  

PubMed

We have presently demonstrated that when added to mitral valve replacement (MVR) the corridor procedure is 75% efficient in restoring and maintaining sinus rhythm in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF), caused by rheumatic mitral valve disease, (follow up 13.9months). In the same patient population, we observed that the typical day-night cycle heart rate (HR) variations were lost and our present study concentrates on this subject. Heart rate variability analysis based on 24-h Holter ECG recording (StrataScan 563 DelMar Avionics) or hospital discharge (12th-14th postoperative days) was performed in 3 patient groups: Group I: Patients with a Corridor procedure added to MVR (12pts, m/f 10/2, mean age 47.3+/-7.5yr); Group II (control): with patients MVR performed through the left atrial approach, without additional antiarrhythmic procedures (10pts, m/f 3/7 mean age 51.5+/-6.7yr), and Group III: heart transplant recipients (5pts, mean age 46.4+/-11.22yr). We analyzed the hourly heart rate over 24-h period divided into three 8-h segments (07-14h; 15-22h and 23-06h). Statistical comparison of mean hourly heart rate values was made between the three time periods of Holter monitoring. The Corridor procedure performed with mitral valve replacement resulted in conversion of sinus rhythm in 75% of patients (Group I), but postoperative heart rate variability analyses based on Holter monitoring disclosed that the mean heart rate was not statistically significantly difficult between the three 8-h segments of the day-night (P>0.05). The same results were found in the group of patients after heart transplant (P>0.05). The same results were found in the group of patients after heart transplant (P>0.05). In the second group (classical MVR), statistically significant differences in mean HR variation existed between the three 8-h intervals (P<0.05), and although atrial fibrillation occurred postoperatively physiologic circadian heart rate variations were preserved. With the Corridor procedure, both atria were surgically and electrically isolated and chronotropic function of the ventricles was restored by creating a small strip of atrial tissue with isolated sinus node and atrio-ventricular node, connected to the ventricles. This technique produced heart denervation nervous system influence, producing the loss of circadian HR variations, similar to the transplanted heart. PMID:11137811

Velimirovic, D B; Pavlovic, S U; Petrovic, P; Neskovic, A; Zivkovic, M; Bojic, M

2001-02-01

145

A comparison of two recorders for obtaining in-flight heart rate data.  

PubMed

: Measurement of mental workload has been widely used for evaluation of aircraft design, mission analysis and assessment of pilot performance during flight operations. Heart rate is the psychophysiological measure that has been most frequently used for this purpose. The risk of interference with flight safety and pilot performance, as well as the generally constrained access to flights, make it difficult for researchers to collect in-flight heart rate data. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate whether small, non-intrusive sports recorders can be used for in-flight data collection for research purposes. Data was collected from real and simulated flights with student pilots using the Polar Team System sports recorder and the Vitaport II, a clinical and research recording device. Comparison of the data shows that in-flight heart rate data from the smaller and less intrusive sports recorder have a correlation of.981 with that from the clinical recorder, thus indicating that the sports recorder is reliable and cost-effective for obtaining heart rate data for many research situations. PMID:17028999

Dahlstrom, Nicklas; Nahlinder, Staffan

2006-09-01

146

Resting Heart Rate and Outcomes in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: Where Do We Currently Stand?  

PubMed Central

Background Data from large epidemiological studies suggest that elevated heart rate is independently associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension and in those with established cardiovascular disease. Clinical trial findings also suggest that the favorable effects of beta-blockers and other heart rate–lowering agents in patients with acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure may be, at least in part, due to their heart rate–lowering effects. Contemporary clinical outcome prediction models such as the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score include admission heart rate as an independent risk factor. Aims This article critically reviews the key epidemiology concerning heart rate and cardiovascular risk, potential mechanisms through which an elevated resting heart rate may be disadvantageous and evaluates clinical trial outcomes associated with pharmacological reduction in resting heart rate. Conclusions Prospective randomised data from patients with significant coronary heart disease or heart failure suggest that intervention to reduce heart rate in those with a resting heart rate >70 bpm may reduce cardiovascular risk. Given the established observational data and randomised trial evidence, it now appears appropriate to include reduction of elevated resting heart rate by lifestyle +/? pharmacological therapy as part of a secondary prevention strategy in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22954325

Menown, Ian BA; Davies, Simon; Gupta, Sandeep; Kalra, Paul R; Lang, Chim C; Morley, Chris; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

2013-01-01

147

Genetic locus on mouse chromosome 7 controls elevated heart rate  

PubMed Central

Elevated heart rate (HR) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The goal of the study was to map HR trait in mice using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis followed by genome-wide association (GWA) analysis. The first approach provides mapping power and the second increases genome resolution. QTL analyses were performed in a C3HeB×SJL backcross. HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured by the tail-cuff plethysmography. HR was ?80 beats/min higher in SJL compared with C3HeB. There was a wide distribution of the HR (536–763 beats/min) in N2 mice. We discovered a highly significant QTL (logarithm of odds = 6.7, P < 0.001) on chromosome 7 (41 cM) for HR in the C3HeB×SJL backcross. In the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (58 strains, n = 5–6/strain) we found that HR (beats/min) ranged from 546 ± 12 in C58/J to 717 ± 7 in MA/MyJ mice. SBP (mmHg) ranged from 99 ± 6 in strain I/LnJ to 151 ± 4 in strain BXA4/PgnJ. GWA analyses were done using the HMDP, which revealed a locus (64.2–65.1 Mb) on chromosome 7 that colocalized with the QTL for elevated HR found in the C3HeB×SJL backcross. The peak association was observed for 17 SNPs that are localized within three GABAA receptor genes. In summary, we used a combined genetic approach to fine map a novel elevated HR locus on mouse chromosome 7. PMID:22589454

Smolock, Elaine M.; Ilyushkina, Irina A.; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Gerloff, Janice; Murashev, Arkady N.; Lusis, Aldons J.

2012-01-01

148

Comparison of Traditional and Alternative Fitness Teaching Formats on Heart Rate Intensity and Perceived Enjoyment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared a traditional and an alternative (skill-fitness- music) fitness teaching format to determine whether there would be differences on Hong Kong middle school students' heart rate intensity and perceived enjoyment. Data from heart rate monitors and student surveys indicated that the two formats did not produce differences in heart rates

Ha, Amy Sau-ching; Heung-Sang Wong, Stephen

2002-01-01

149

Heart rate variability in preterm neonates with and without abnormal cardiorespiratory events.  

E-print Network

Heart rate variability in preterm neonates with and without abnormal cardiorespiratory events The heart rate variability (HRV) of preterm neonates undergoing a polysomnography is ana- lyzed in relation experience abnormal cardiorespiratory events, based only on the heart rate recordings during periods without

150

ORIGINAL PAPER Environment and feeding change the ability of heart rate  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Environment and feeding change the ability of heart rate to predict metabolism 2010 / Published online: 12 August 2010 � Springer-Verlag 2010 Abstract The ability to use heart rate of physiological, behavioral, and environmental states. Keywords Steller sea lion Á Heart rate Á Oxygen consumption

151

ORIGINAL PAPER Environment and feeding change the ability of heart rate  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Environment and feeding change the ability of heart rate to predict metabolism 2010 � Springer-Verlag 2010 Abstract The ability to use heart rate (fh) to predict oxygen consumption, and environmental states. Keywords Steller sea lion Á Heart rate Á Oxygen consumption Á Heat increment of feeding Á

152

Heart rate change as evidence for vaginally elicited orgasm and orgasm intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were a) to further replicate previous findings on vaginal eroticism, using heart rate change as corroborative evidence for the subjective perception of sexual arousal and orgasm; and b) to investigate the correlation between heart rate change and subjective intensity of female orgasm. Heart rate measurements were obtained from ECG tracings. Eleven coitally experienced volunteers were

Heli Alzate; Bernardo Useche; Magdalena Villegas

1989-01-01

153

Validity of a Heart Rate Monitor During Work in the Laboratory and on the Space Shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate heart rate measurement during work is required for many industrial hygiene and ergonomics situations. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of heart rate measurements obtained by a simple, lightweight, commercially available, wrist-worn heart rate monitor (HRM) during work (cycle exercise) sessions conducted in the laboratory and also during the particularly challenging work environment of space

Alan D. Moore; Stuart M. C. Lee; Michael C. Greenisen; Phillip Bishop

1997-01-01

154

Heart rate variability and alternans formation in the heart: The role of feedback in cardiac dynamics.  

PubMed

A beat-to-beat alternation in the action potential duration (APD) of myocytes, i.e. alternans, is believed to be a direct precursor of ventricular fibrillation in the whole heart. A common approach for the prediction of alternans is to construct the restitution curve, which is the nonlinear functional relationship between the APD and the preceding diastolic interval (DI). It was proposed that alternans appears when the magnitude of the slope of the restitution curve exceeds one, known as the restitution hypothesis. However, this restitution hypothesis was derived under the assumption of periodic stimulation, when there is a dependence of the DI on the immediate preceding APD (i.e. feedback). However, under physiological conditions, the heart rate exhibits substantial variations in time, known as heart rate variability (HRV), which introduces deviations from periodic stimulation in the system. In this manuscript, we investigated the role of HRV on alternans formation in isolated cardiac myocytes using numerical simulations of an ionic model of the cardiac action potential. We used this model with two different pacing protocols: a periodic pacing protocol with feedback and a protocol without feedback. We show that when HRV is incorporated in the periodic pacing protocol, it facilitated alternans formation in the isolated cell, but did not significantly change the magnitude of alternans. On the other hand, in the case of the pacing protocol without feedback, alternans formation was prevented, even in the presence of HRV. PMID:24576615

McIntyre, Stephen D; Kakade, Virendra; Mori, Yoichiro; Tolkacheva, Elena G

2014-06-01

155

Combined use of autogenic therapy and biofeedback in training effective control of heart rate by humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were performed on 24 men and women (aged 20-27 yr) in three equal groups who were taught to control their own heart rates by autogenic training and biofeedback under dark and sound-isolated conditions. Group I was parasympathetic dominant, group II was sympathetic dominant, and group III consisted of parasympathetic-dominant subjects and controls who received only biofeedback of their own heart rates. The results corroborate three hypotheses: (1) subjects with para-sympathetic-dominant autonomic profiles perform in a way that is both qualitatively and quantitatively different from subjects with sympathetic-dominant autonomic profiles; (2) tests of interindividual variability yield data relevant to individual performance in visceral learning tasks; and (3) the combined use of autogenic training, biofeedback, and verbal feedback is suitable for conditioning large stable autonomic responses in humans.

Cowings, P. S.

1977-01-01

156

Heart rates increase after hatching in two species of natricine snakes  

PubMed Central

Experimental studies have shown heart rates to decrease from embryo to hatchling stage in turtles, remain steady in skinks, and increase in birds. However, no snake species has been studied in this regard. I recorded heart rate evolution trajectories from embryo to juvenile stage in 78 eggs from two species of European Natricine snakes. Unexpectedly, snakes behaved more like birds than turtles or lizards: heart rates increased after hatching in both N. maura and N. natrix, respectively by 43.92 ± 22.84% and 35.92 ± 24.52%. Heart rate shift was not related to an abrupt elevation of metabolism per se (snakes that increased their heart rates the most sharply grew the least after birth), but rather due to a number of smaller eggs that experienced lower than normal heart rates throughout the incubation and recovered a normal heart rate post-birth. This finding is discussed in the light of hatching synchrony benefits. PMID:24287712

Aubret, Fabien

2013-01-01

157

Heart rates increase after hatching in two species of Natricine snakes.  

PubMed

Experimental studies have shown heart rates to decrease from embryo to hatchling stage in turtles, remain steady in skinks, and increase in birds. However, no snake species has been studied in this regard. I recorded heart rate evolution trajectories from embryo to juvenile stage in 78 eggs from two species of European Natricine snakes. Unexpectedly, snakes behaved more like birds than turtles or lizards: heart rates increased after hatching in both N. maura and N. natrix, respectively by 43.92 ± 22.84% and 35.92 ± 24.52%. Heart rate shift was not related to an abrupt elevation of metabolism per se (snakes that increased their heart rates the most sharply grew the least after birth), but rather due to a number of smaller eggs that experienced lower than normal heart rates throughout the incubation and recovered a normal heart rate post-birth. This finding is discussed in the light of hatching synchrony benefits. PMID:24287712

Aubret, Fabien

2013-01-01

158

TEMPERATURE AND HEART RATE IN PTEROTRACHEA AND TIEDEMANNIA.  

PubMed

1. For the heart rate in Pterotrachea coronata, intermediate temperatures disclose a thermal increment of 11,200 +/-. This value is identical with the one reported by Crozier and Stier for the lamelli-branch, Anodonta. In the pteropod, Tiedemannia neapolitana the same temperatures typically reveal in the heart rate a micro value of 16,200 +/- This agrees quantitatively with 16,300 found by Crozier and Stier for the heart of the slug, Limax maximus. 2. At high temperatures the average value of micro for Pterotrachea is 7,300: for Tiedemannia, 7,400. The corresponding averages at the lower limits are 22,000 and 23,000. 3. The great variability found near the edges of the temperature field are explicable in two ways. During intermissions characteristic of high temperatures and occurring also at low, we can assume a restorative process; while at both the upper and lower limits we may, in addition, find that reactions assume control which under ordinary circumstances never do so. Special evidence indicates that the highest temperatures employed, 27 degrees C., and the lowest, 4 degrees C., caused no irreversible changes in mechanism. 4. The theoretical analysis of the experimental facts makes use of Meyerhof's conception of carbohydrate metabolism and projects the cyclical nature of rhythm into the substrate of control. Assuming as a source of energy an original supply of material O, the value of 22,000 +/- is assigned provisionally to a mobilization hydrolysis while 11,200 +/- and 16,000 +/- are attached to oxidative reactions influenced respectively by OH' and possibly Fe, or some other catalyst. The lowest value, 7,300 +/- is assumed to indicate a synthetic process (lactic acid --> glycogen?), possibly limited by CO(2) excretion. In the present state of our knowledge, this distribution and interpretation seems to account reasonably for the experimental facts, but until we know more about the neurogenic controls, is entitled to rank only as an hypothesis. PMID:19872250

Glaser, O

1925-11-20

159

TEMPERATURE AND HEART RATE IN PTEROTRACHEA AND TIEDEMANNIA  

PubMed Central

1. For the heart rate in Pterotrachea coronata, intermediate temperatures disclose a thermal increment of 11,200 ±. This value is identical with the one reported by Crozier and Stier for the lamelli-branch, Anodonta. In the pteropod, Tiedemannia neapolitana the same temperatures typically reveal in the heart rate a µ value of 16,200 ± This agrees quantitatively with 16,300 found by Crozier and Stier for the heart of the slug, Limax maximus. 2. At high temperatures the average value of µ for Pterotrachea is 7,300: for Tiedemannia, 7,400. The corresponding averages at the lower limits are 22,000 and 23,000. 3. The great variability found near the edges of the temperature field are explicable in two ways. During intermissions characteristic of high temperatures and occurring also at low, we can assume a restorative process; while at both the upper and lower limits we may, in addition, find that reactions assume control which under ordinary circumstances never do so. Special evidence indicates that the highest temperatures employed, 27°C., and the lowest, 4°C., caused no irreversible changes in mechanism. 4. The theoretical analysis of the experimental facts makes use of Meyerhof's conception of carbohydrate metabolism and projects the cyclical nature of rhythm into the substrate of control. Assuming as a source of energy an original supply of material O, the value of 22,000 ± is assigned provisionally to a mobilization hydrolysis while 11,200 ± and 16,000 ± are attached to oxidative reactions influenced respectively by OH' and possibly Fe, or some other catalyst. The lowest value, 7,300 ± is assumed to indicate a synthetic process (lactic acid ? glycogen?), possibly limited by CO2 excretion. In the present state of our knowledge, this distribution and interpretation seems to account reasonably for the experimental facts, but until we know more about the neurogenic controls, is entitled to rank only as an hypothesis. PMID:19872250

Glaser, Otto

1925-01-01

160

Wrapper subset evaluation facilitates the automated detection of diabetes from heart rate variability measures  

E-print Network

Wrapper subset evaluation facilitates the automated detection of diabetes from heart rate, and is associated with many other conditions such as vision loss, heart failure and stroke. Any improvement in early that the detection of diabetes is feasible from heart rate variability measures. D. J. Cornforth, H. F. Jelinek, M. C

Teich, Malvin C.

161

Heart rate effects of intraosseous injections using slow and fast rates of anesthetic solution deposition.  

PubMed

The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a single-blind manner, 3 primary intraosseous injections to 61 subjects using: the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 45 seconds (fast injection); the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection); a conventional syringe injection at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection), in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 3 weeks apart. A pulse oximeter measured heart rate (pulse). The results demonstrated the mean maximum heart rate was statistically higher with the fast intraosseous injection (average 21 to 28 beats/min increase) than either of the 2 slow intraosseous injections (average 10 to 12 beats/min increase). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 slow injections. We concluded that an intraosseous injection of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine with the Wand at a 45-second rate of anesthetic deposition resulted in a significantly higher heart rate when compared with a 4-minute and 45-second anesthetic solution deposition using either the Wand or traditional syringe. PMID:18327970

Susi, Louis; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel; Drum, Melissa

2008-01-01

162

Repolarisation descriptors and heart rate variability in hemodialyzed patients.  

PubMed

T wave morphology (TWM) descriptors derived from Holter electrocardiograms during hemodialysis (HD) are of potential value for cardiac risk assessment in HD patients. Our knowledge on autonomic regulation of TWM descriptors is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between TWM parameters and heart rate variability (HRV) during intradialytic monitoring. In each of 81 patients on maintenance HD, continuous electrocardiograms were recorded 5 times during HD on alternate weeks. TWM descriptors were calculated every 5 seconds in overlapping 10-second ECG segments and Low Frequency (LF) (0.04 Hz to 0.15 Hz), High Frequency (HF) (0.15 Hz to 0.40 Hz) powers of the spectrum of HRV were calculated every five minutes. The calculated values of TWM and HRV were averaged during the first hour of the recordings and subsequently over all recordings in each subject. Analyzable data for HRV and TWM were available in 71 HD patients (aged 61+/-15, 36 % diabetics, 32 % females). LF in normalized units correlated positively with Total Cosine R to T (r=0.374, p=0.001) and negatively with T wave morphology dispersion (r= -0.253, p=0.033) after adjusting for HR. In conclusion, a heart rate independent association between repolarization descriptors and HRV exists in HD patients. Autonomic modulation needs to be considered when using TWM characteristics for risk profiling of HD patients. PMID:25470516

Poulikakos, D; Banerjee, D; Malik, M

2014-12-01

163

Conditioned tolerance to the heart rate effects of smoking.  

PubMed

This study extended our findings that behavioral tolerance to nicotine in animals can be influenced by conditioning to cardiovascular tolerance in humans. Subjects smoked one-half a cigarette during each of five trials. In the ten-minute intersmoking interval the contexts that preceded smoking were varied. Smokers in the Changing group attended to a different five-minute segment of a Sherlock Holmes radio mystery before each trial, while those in the Repeated group listened to the same segment of the tape. Presmoking heart rates were stable across the groups from trials 1 to 5. As predicted, heart rate for subjects who smoked in the same context showed tolerance to smoking from trials 1 to 5 (84.5 to 78 bpm), while subjects who smoked in in the same context showed tolerance to 83.9 bpm). COa levels increased equally for both groups over the five trials. The results of this study suggest tolerance to smoking can be influenced by learning. PMID:1924497

Epstein, L H; Caggiula, A R; Perkins, K A; McKenzie, S J; Smith, J A

1991-05-01

164

Temporal discounting and heart rate reactivity to stress.  

PubMed

Temporal discounting is the reduction of the value of a reinforcer as a function of increasing delay to its presentation. Impulsive individuals discount delayed consequences more rapidly than self-controlled individuals, and impulsivity has been related to substance abuse, gambling, and other problem behaviors. A growing body of literature has identified biological correlates of impulsivity, though little research to date has examined relations between delay discounting and markers of poor health (e.g., cardiovascular reactivity to stress). We evaluated the relation between one aspect of impulsivity, measured using a computerized temporal discounting task, and heart rate reactivity, measured as a change in heart rate from rest during a serial subtraction task. A linear regression showed that individuals who were more reactive to stress responded more impulsively (i.e., discounted delayed reinforcers more rapidly). When results were stratified by gender, the effect was observed for females, but not for males. This finding supports previous research on gender differences in cardiovascular reactivity and suggests that this type of reactivity may be an important correlate of impulsive behavior. PMID:21601618

Diller, James W; Patros, Connor H G; Prentice, Paula R

2011-07-01

165

Heart rate variability in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To gather current information about the effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus on children's cardiac autonomic behavior. DATA SOURCES: The search of articles was conducted on PubMed, Ibecs, Medline, Cochrane, Lilacs, SciELO and PEDro databases using the MeSH terms: "autonomic nervous system", "diabetes mellitus", "child", "type 1 diabetes mellitus", "sympathetic nervous system" and "parasympathetic nervous system", and their respective versions in Portuguese (DeCS). Articles published from January 2003 to February 2013 that enrolled children with 9-12 years old with type 1 diabetes mellitus were included in the review. DATA SYNTHESIS: The electronic search resulted in four articles that approached the heart rate variability in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, showing that, in general, these children present decreased global heart rate variability and vagal activity. The practice of physical activity promoted benefits for these individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus present changes on autonomic modulation, indicating the need for early attention to avoid future complications in this group. PMID:25119762

Gardim, Camila Balsamo; de Oliveira, Bruno Affonso P.; Bernardo, Aline Fernanda B.; Gomes, Rayana Loch; Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes; Lorençoni, Roselene Modolo R.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.

2014-01-01

166

High frequency chest compression effects heart rate variability.  

PubMed

High frequency chest compression (HFCC) supplies a sequence of air pulses through a jacket worn by a patient to remove excessive mucus for the treatment or prevention of lung disease patients. The air pulses produced from the pulse generator propagates over the thorax delivering the vibration and compression energy. A number of studies have demonstrated that the HFCC system increases the ability to clear mucus and improves lung function. Few studies have examined the change in instantaneous heart rate (iHR) and heart rate variability (HRV) during the HFCC therapy. The purpose of this study is to measure the change of HRV with four experimental protocols: (a) without HFCC, (b) during Inflated, (c)HFCC at 6Hz, and (d) HFCC at 21Hz. The nonlinearity and regularity of HRV was assessed by approximate entropy (ApEn), a method used to quantify the complexities and randomness. To compute the ApEn, we sectioned with a total of eight epochs and displayed the ApEn over the each epoch. Our results show significant differences in the both the iHR and HRV between the experimental protocols. The iHR was elevated at both the (c) 6Hz and (d) 21Hz condition from without HFCC (10%, 16%, respectively). We also found that the HFCC system tends to increase the HRV. Our study suggests that monitoring iHR and HRV are very important physiological indexes during HFCC therapy. PMID:18002145

Lee, Jongwon; Lee, Yong W; Warwick, Warren J

2007-01-01

167

A new physiological method for heart rate correction of the QT interval  

PubMed Central

AIM—To reassess QT interval rate correction.?BACKGROUND—The QT interval is strongly and inversely related to heart rate. To compare QT intervals between different subjects with different heart rates requires the application of a QT interval rate correction formula. To date these formulae have inappropriately assumed a fixed relation between QT interval and heart rate. An alternative method of QT interval rate correction that makes no assumptions about the QT interval-heart rate relation is needed.?PROPOSAL—A QT heart rate correction method should maintain or accentuate biological QT interval variability, should totally remove the dependence of the rate corrected QT interval on heart rate, and should be applicable over a wide range of conditions with a wide range of differing autonomic states.?METHODS—QT intervals were obtained at rest and during exercise from subjects expected to have different QT intervals and different QT interval-heart rate relations. A linear regression line was obtained from the exercise test data, and the QT interval at a notional heart rate of 60 and 0 beats/min, termed the QT60 interval, and the QT y intercept obtained by back calculation.?RESULTS—QT60 and QT y intercept values were prolonged in heart failure compared with either left ventricular hypertrophy or controls. There was no relation between heart rate and either QT60 or QT y intercept?CONCLUSIONS—This new physiologically based method of correcting QT interval for heart rate removes the dependence of the corrected QT interval on heart rate, and maintains biological differences.???Keywords: QT interval; heart rate correction PMID:10409533

Davey, P

1999-01-01

168

Contact-free heart rate measurement using multiple video data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a contact-free heart rate measurement method by analyzing sequential images of multiple video data. In the proposed method, skin-like pixels are firstly detected from multiple video data for extracting the color features. These color features are synchronized and analyzed by independent component analysis. A representative component is finally selected among these independent component candidates to measure the HR, which achieves under 2% deviation on average compared with a pulse oximeter in the controllable environment. The advantages of the proposed method include: 1) it uses low cost and high accessibility camera device; 2) it eases users' discomfort by utilizing contact-free measurement; and 3) it achieves the low error rate and the high stability by integrating multiple video data.

Hung, Pang-Chan; Lee, Kual-Zheng; Tsai, Luo-Wei

2013-10-01

169

Heart Rate Variability in Sleep-Related Migraine without Aura  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This is an observational study aimed to investigate the activity of autonomic nervous system during sleep in patients with sleep-related migraine. Methods: Eight consecutive migraineurs without aura were enrolled (6 women and 2 men), aged 30 to 62 years (mean 48.1 ± 9.3 years). Inclusion criteria were: high frequency of attacks (> 5 per month) and occurrence of more than 75% of the attacks during sleep causing an awakening. Patients were compared with a control group of 55 healthy subjects (23 men and 32 women, mean age 54.2 ± 13.0 years), and with a further control group of 8 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patient and controls underwent polysomnography and heart rate variability analysis. Results: A significant reduction of the LF/HF ratio during N2 and N3 sleep stages was observed in migraineurs compared with controls. No differences in sleep macrostructure were observed; cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) time and CAP rate were lower in migraineurs than in controls. Conclusions: These findings indicate a peculiar modification of the autonomic balance during sleep in sleep-related migraine. The reduction of LF/HF ratio in NREM sleep was observed in controls, but it was quantitatively much more evident in migraineurs. Changes in LF/HF could be consequent to an autonomic unbalance which could manifest selectively (or alternatively become more evident) during sleep. These findings, together with the reduction in CAP rate, could be an expression of reduced arousability during sleep in patients with sleep-related migraine. The simultaneous involvement of the autonomic, arousal, and pain systems might suggest involvement of the hypothalamic pathways. Citation: Vollono C; Gnoni V; Testani E; Dittoni S; Losurdo A; Colicchio S; Di Blasi C; Mazza S; Farina B; Della Marca G. Heart rate variability in sleep-related migraine without aura. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(7):707-714. PMID:23853566

Vollono, Catello; Gnoni, Valentina; Testani, Elisa; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Colicchio, Salvatore; Di Blasi, Chiara; Mazza, Salvatore; Farina, Benedetto; Della Marca, Giacomo

2013-01-01

170

Evidence of the influence of respiration on the heart rate variability after human heart transplantation: Role of observation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying heart transplanted patients records provide interesting data since modulation of the heart rate is not due to neural activity. Studying these patients reveals the so called mechanical modulation (MM) that is increased as the exercise intensity is higher. In a recent paper we have introduced the PFM model that relates the observed amplitude of the MM to the ventilation

G. Laouini; A. Cabasson; G. Blain; P. Bonizzi; O. Meste; S. Bermon

2009-01-01

171

Several common variants modulate heart rate, PR interval and QRS duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrocardiographic measures are indicative of the function of the cardiac conduction system. To search for sequence variants that modulate heart rate, PR interval and QRS duration in individuals of European descent, we performed a genome-wide association study in ?10,000 individuals and followed up the top signals in an additional ?10,000 individuals. We identified several genome-wide significant associations (with P <

Daniel F Gudbjartsson; David O Arnar; Gudmar Thorleifsson; Gudmundur Thorgeirsson; Hrafnhildur Stefansdottir; Sigurjon A Gudjonsson; Aslaug Jonasdottir; Ellisiv B Mathiesen; Inger Njølstad; Audhild Nyrnes; Tom Wilsgaard; Erin M Hald; Kristian Hveem; Camilla Stoltenberg; Maja-Lisa Løchen; Augustine Kong; Unnur Thorsteinsdottir; Hilma Holm; Kari Stefansson

2010-01-01

172

Through-wall UWB radar operating within FCC's mask for sensing heart beat and breathing rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive sensing of heart beat and breathing rate using UWB radar within the FCC's mask between 3.1 to 10.6 GHz and operating within -41 dbm\\/MHz has been developed. Compared to existing radars, the EIRP of UWB is much lower and it can also achieve comparable performance with the unique capability of through the wall environment. The UWB radar transceiver system

M. Y. W. Chia; S. W. Leong; C. K. Sim; K. M. Chan

2005-01-01

173

Mechanical heart valves: Changes in patient survival and valve failure rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of patient related variables and mechanical heart valve substitutes on survival and valve failure rates was studied\\u000a in 2,778 patients operated between 1966 and 1986. Of these 48.2% were operated without cardioplegic protection (phase I) and\\u000a 51.8% thereafter (phase II). Mitral vlave replacement (MVR) was performed in 1,257 patients (phase I: 51.58%, phase II: 48.42%);\\u000a aortic valve replacement

T. K. Kaul; J. L. Mercer; D. R. Ramsdale

1992-01-01

174

Effects of DL-propranolol on exercise heart rate and maximal rates of oxygen consumption in Scaphiopus intermontanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lymphatic injection of propranolol (0.2–10 ?g) into toads decreased exercise heart rate in a dose-dependent manner. There was a significant linear corrleation between exercise heart rate and maximal oxygen consumption rates\\u000a

S. S. Hillman

1982-01-01

175

The Effect of Maternal Relaxation Training on Reactivity of Non-Stress Test, Basal Fetal Heart Rate, and Number of Fetal Heart Accelerations: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Relaxation-training, as an anxiety-reducer intervention, plays an important role in fetal health. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of maternal relaxation on stress test (NST), basal fetal heart rate, and number of fetal heart accelerations. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 84 pregnant women were randomly divided into two groups of teaching relaxation and control groups in 2012. In the intervention group, 60-90 minute classes were held every week lasting for 4 weeks. Besides, home practice charts were given to the mothers and researchers controlled the home practices by phone calls every week. The control group received routine prenatal care. In the 4th week, NST was performed in the intervention group 30 minutes before and after the 4th session. In the control group, NST was done in the 4th week. The quantitative variables in the two groups were compared through ANOVA and Chi-square test. Results: The results of paired t-test showed that relaxation could improve the NST results (P=0.01). Mean and standard deviation of basal fetal heart rate was 138.95±8.18 before the intervention and 133.07±6.9 after the intervention. Paired t-test also showed that relaxation reduced the basal fetal heart rate (P=0.001). Mean and standard deviation of the number of fetal heart accelerations was 1.5±0.8 before the intervention and 2.2±0.9 after it. The results of paired t-test also showed that relaxation increased the number of fetal heart accelerations (P=0.001). Conclusions: Relaxation could improve the NST results, reduce the basal fetal heart rate, and increase the number of fetal heart accelerations. Therefore, relaxation is recommended during pregnancy. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012072810418N1 PMID:25553334

Akbarzade, Marzieh; Rafiee, Bahare; Asadi, Nasrin; Zare, Najaf

2015-01-01

176

Hierarchical Structure of Heart Rate Variability in Humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show a hierarchical structure (HS) of the She-Leveque form in the beat-to-beat RR intervals of heart rate variability (HRV) in humans. This structure, first found as an empirical law in turbulent fluid flows, implies further details in the HRV multifractal scaling. We tested HS using daytime RRi data from healthy subjects and heart diseased patients with congestive heart failure and found a universal law C(b) where b characterizes the multifractality of HRV and C is related to a co-dimension parameter of the most violent events in the fluctuation. The potential of diagnosis is discussed based on the characteristics of this finding. To model the HRV phenomenology, we propose a local-feedback-global-cascade (LFGC) model based on the She-Waymire (SW) cascade solution to the HS in fluid turbulence. This model extends from the previous work in that it integrates additive law multiplicatively into the cascade structure. It is an attempt to relate to the cardiovascular physiology which consists of numerous feedback controls that function primarily on the principle of additive law. In particular, the model is based on the same philosophy as the SW cascade that its multifractal dynamics consists of a singular and a modulating component. In the LFGC model, we introduce local feedback to model the dynamics of the modulating effect. The novelty of our model is to incorporate the cascade structure in the scheduling for the feedback control. This model also represents an alternative solution to the HS. We will present the simulation results by the LFGC model and discuss its implication in physiology terms.

Gao, X. Z.; Ching, E. S. C.; Lin, D. C.

2004-03-01

177

Heart Rate and Initial Presentation of Cardiovascular Diseases (Caliber)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Coronary Heart Disease NOS; Unheralded Coronary Death; Intracerebral Haemorrhage; Heart Failure; Ischemic Stroke; Myocardial Infarction; Stroke; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Stable Angina Pectoris; Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Unstable Angina; Cardiac Arrest, Sudden Cardiac Death

2013-09-17

178

Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories  

PubMed Central

The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical sudden reduction in HR after a startle stimulus and higher trait dissociation was identified. Only among these individuals was lower perifilm HR found to indicate higher state dissociation, fear, and anxiety, along with reduced vividness of intrusions. The current findings emphasize how peritraumatic physiological responses relate to emotional reactions and intrusive memory. The moderating role of individual difference in stress defense style was highlighted. PMID:24397333

Chou, Chia-Ying; Marca, Roberto La; Steptoe, Andrew; Brewin, Chris R

2014-01-01

179

Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories.  

PubMed

The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical sudden reduction in HR after a startle stimulus and higher trait dissociation was identified. Only among these individuals was lower perifilm HR found to indicate higher state dissociation, fear, and anxiety, along with reduced vividness of intrusions. The current findings emphasize how peritraumatic physiological responses relate to emotional reactions and intrusive memory. The moderating role of individual difference in stress defense style was highlighted. PMID:24397333

Chou, Chia-Ying; La Marca, Roberto; Steptoe, Andrew; Brewin, Chris R

2014-03-01

180

Correlated and uncorrelated heart rate fluctuations during relaxing visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heart rate variability (HRV) of healthy subjects practicing relaxing visualization is studied by use of three multiscale analysis techniques: the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), the entropy in natural time (ENT) and the average wavelet (AWC) coefficient. The scaling exponent of normal interbeat interval increments exhibits characteristics of the presence of long-range correlations. During relaxing visualization the HRV dynamics change in the sense that two new features emerge independent of each other: a respiration-induced periodicity that often dominates the HRV at short scales (<40 interbeat intervals) and the decrease of the scaling exponent at longer scales (40-512 interbeat intervals). In certain cases, the scaling exponent during relaxing visualization indicates the breakdown of long-range correlations. These characteristics have been previously seen in the HRV dynamics during non-REM sleep.

Papasimakis, N.; Pallikari, F.

2010-05-01

181

Emergence of dynamical complexity related to human heart rate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the refined composite multiscale entropy (MSE) method to a one-dimensional directed small-world network composed of nodes whose states are binary and whose dynamics obey the majority rule. We find that the resulting fluctuating signal becomes dynamically complex. This dynamical complexity is caused (i) by the presence of both short-range connections and long-range shortcuts and (ii) by how well the system can adapt to the noisy environment. By tuning the adaptability of the environment and the long-range shortcuts we can increase or decrease the dynamical complexity, thereby modeling trends found in the MSE of a healthy human heart rate in different physiological states. When the shortcut and adaptability values increase, the complexity in the system dynamics becomes uncorrelated.

Chang, Mei-Chu; Peng, C.-K.; Stanley, H. Eugene

2014-12-01

182

Complex character analysis of heart rate variability following brain asphyxia.  

PubMed

In the present study Renyi entropy and L-Z complexity were used to characterize heart rate variability (HRV) of rats that were suffered from brain asphyxia and ischemia. Two groups of rats were studied: (a) rats (n=5) injected with NAALADase inhibitor, 2-PMPA, which has been proven neuroprotective in asphyxia injury and (b) control subjects (n=5) without medication. Renyi entropy and L-Z complexity of the R-R intervals (RRI) at different experiment stages were investigated in the two groups. The results show that both measures indicate less injury and better recovery in the drug injection group. The dynamic change of 90 min RRI signal after the asphyxia was investigated. The sudden reduction of the two parameters shows their sensitivity to the asphyxia insult. PMID:16129646

Cai, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Yihong; Wei, Lan; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Sijun; Smith, Peter R; Crabtree, Vincent P; Tong, Shanbao; Thakor, Nitish V; Zhu, Yisheng

2006-05-01

183

Wearable depression monitoring system with heart-rate variability.  

PubMed

A wearable depression monitoring system is proposed with an application-specific system-on-chip (SoC) solution. The SoC is designed to accelerate the filtering and feature extraction of heart-rate variability (HRV) from the electrocardiogram (ECG). Thanks to the SoC solution and planar-fashionable circuit board (P-FCB), the monitoring system becomes a low-power wearable system. Its dimension is 14cm × 7cm with 5mm thickness covering the chest band for convenient usage. In addition, with 3.7V 500mAh battery, its lifetime is at least 10 hours. For user's convenience, the system is interfacing to smart phones through Bluetooth communication. With the features of the HRV and Beck depression inventory (BDI), the smart phone application trains and classifies the user's depression scale with 71% of accuracy. PMID:25570021

Roh, Taehwan; Sunjoo Hong; Hoi-Jun Yoo

2014-08-01

184

Effects of physical training on end-diastolic volume and myocardial performance of isolated rat hearts.  

PubMed

We studied the performance of ventricular muscle and cardiac function of hearts from rats conditioned by swimming (CH) and from sedentary rats (SH) in an isolated working heart apparatus modified to measure end-diastolic volume by dye dilution. Instantaneous aortic flow, left ventricular (LV) pressure and oxygen consumption were measured. Heart rate and mean aortic pressure were kept constant, and atrial filling pressure was varied from 5 to 20 cm H2O. Heart weights of SH and CH were equal and end-diastolic pressures and volumes were similar at all atrial pressures. However, ejection fraction, calculated circumferential fiber velocity, peak systolic pressure, peak aortic flow, cardiac output, and stroke work were all greater in CH than in SH, and the differences increased as atrial pressure was increased. Maximal negative dP/dt was greater in CH than SH at all preloads (P less than 0.001). Oxygen consumption of CH was increased in proportion to the increase in work. These results indicate that the improved pumping performance of CH is due to a change in ventricular muscle function. Faster relaxation is a prominent effect of physical training on the rat heart and may foster more complete filling at high heart rates. PMID:140027

Bersohn, M M; Scheuer, J

1977-05-01

185

Heart rate complexity in sinoaortic-denervated mice.  

PubMed

Recently, heart rate (HR) oscillations have been recognised as complex behaviours derived from nonlinear processes. Physiologic complexity theory is based on the idea that healthy systems present high complexity, i.e., nonlinear, fractal variability at multiple scales, with long-range correlations. The loss of complexity in heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Based on the idea that most cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by autonomic imbalance and a decrease in baroreflex sensitivity, we hypothesise that the baroreflex plays an important role in cardiovascular complex behaviour. Mice that had been subjected to sinoaortic denervation (SAD) were implanted with catheters in the femoral artery and jugular vein 5 days prior to the experiment. After recording the baseline arterial pressure (AP), pulse interval (PI) time series were generated from the intervals between consecutive values of diastolic pressure. The complexity of the HRV was determined using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE). The DFA ?1 scaling exponent (a short-term index) was remarkably decreased in the SAD mice (0.79±0.06 vs. 1.13±0.04 for the control mice), whereas SAD slightly increased the ?2 scaling exponent (a long-term index: 1.12±0.03 vs. 1.04±0.02 from control). In the SAD mice, the total MSE was decreased (13.2±1.3) compared to the control mice (18.9±1.4). In conclusion, fractal and regularity structures of HRV are altered is SAD mice, affecting both short- and long-term mechanisms of complexity, suggesting that the baroreceptors play a considerable role in the complex structure of HRV. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25398712

Silva, Luiz Eduardo V; Rodrigues, Fernanda Luciano; de Oliveira, Mauro; Salgado, Hélio Cesar; Fazan, Rubens

2014-11-13

186

Individually coded telemetry: a tool for studying heart rate and behaviour in reindeer calves.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to test the performance of a silver wire modified version of the coded telemetric heart rate monitor Polar Vantage NV (PVNV) and to measure heart rate (HR) in a group of captive reindeer calves during different behaviour. The technical performance of PVNV HR monitors was tested in cold conditions (-30 degrees C) using a pulse generator and the correlation between generated pulse and PVNV values was high (r=0.9957). The accuracy was tested by comparing the HR obtained with the PVNV monitor with the standard ECG, and the correlation was significant (r=0.9965). Both circadian HR and HR related to behavioural pattern were recorded. A circadian rhythm was observed in the HR in reindeer with a minimum during night and early morning hours and maximum at noon and during the afternoon, the average HR of the reindeer calves studied being 42.5 beats/min in February. The behaviour was recorded by focal individual observations and the data was synchronized with the output of the HR monitors. Running differed from all other behavioural categories in HR. Inter-individual differences were seen expressing individual responses to external and internal stimuli. The silver wire modified Polar Vantage NV provides a suitable and reliable tool for measuring heart rate in reindeer, also in natural conditions. PMID:12564543

Eloranta, E; Norberg, H; Nilsson, A; Pudas, T; Säkkinen, H

2002-01-01

187

A new algorithm for wavelet-based heart rate variability analysis  

E-print Network

One of the most promising non-invasive markers of the activity of the autonomic nervous system is Heart Rate Variability (HRV). HRV analysis toolkits often provide spectral analysis techniques using the Fourier transform, which assumes that the heart rate series is stationary. To overcome this issue, the Short Time Fourier Transform is often used (STFT). However, the wavelet transform is thought to be a more suitable tool for analyzing non-stationary signals than the STFT. Given the lack of support for wavelet-based analysis in HRV toolkits, such analysis must be implemented by the researcher. This has made this technique underutilized. This paper presents a new algorithm to perform HRV power spectrum analysis based on the Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform (MODWPT). The algorithm calculates the power in any spectral band with a given tolerance for the band's boundaries. The MODWPT decomposition tree is pruned to avoid calculating unnecessary wavelet coefficients, thereby optimizing execution t...

García, Constantino A; Vila, Xosé; Márquez, David G

2014-01-01

188

Fast tracking of a given heart rate profile in treadmill exercise.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the application of a multi-loop PID controller in an automated treadmill exercise machine. The approach is to design a computer-controlled treadmill control system for the regulation of heart rate (HR) during treadmill exercise. A single-input and multiple-output (SIMO) controller was implemented to fast track a given heart rate profile in treadmill exercise. Two separate single-input and single-output (SISO) PID control systems are initially implemented to modify either the treadmill speed or its angle of inclination in order to achieve a desired HR. The purpose of this paper is to apply a SIMO control system by implementing a control algorithm which includes the two PID controllers working simultaneously to track the desired HR profile. The performance of the SIMO and SISO control systems are compared through the closed loop responses recorded during experimentation. This would also help future development of safe treadmill exercise system. PMID:21096172

Weng, Kaili; Turk, Basil; Dolores, Louis; Nguyen, Tuan N; Celler, Branko; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

2010-01-01

189

Heart Rate Response to a Timed Walk and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the relationship between heart rate response during low-grade physical exertion (6-min walk) with mortality and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in the elderly. Methods: Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study who completed a 6-min walk test were included. We used delta heart rate (difference between postwalk heart rate and resting heart rate) as a measure of chronotropic response and

Saket Girotra; Dalane W. Kitzman; Willem J. Kop; Phyllis K. Stein; John S. Gottdiener; Kenneth J. Mukamal

2012-01-01

190

Effects of drugs on the autonomic control of short-term heart rate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomic nervous system links the brain and the heart. Efferent links in the neural control of the heart consist of sympathetic and parasympathetic (vagal) fibers innervating the sinus node. Because sympathetic and vagal firing alter spontaneous sinus node depolarization, cardiac rate and rhythm convey information about autonomic influences on the heart. The easy availability of ECG rendered possible the

Jean-Luc Elghozi; Arlette Girard; Dominique Laude

2001-01-01

191

Association beween resting heart rate, shear and flow-mediated dilation in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Preclinical data have demonstrated that heart rate (HR) can directly impact vascular endothelial function, in part, through a shear-stress mechanism. This study sought to explore, in humans, the associations between resting heart rate and both shear and endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The brachial artery FMD test was performed in 31 apparently healthy volunteers. Basal (B) and hyperaemic (H) shear were quantified in the following two ways using data from the FMD test: the traditional cumulative shear area under the curve up to peak dilation (Shearcum) method; and our novel method of shear summation (Shearsum), which accounts for HR by summing each individual cardiac cycle shear up to peak dilation. Data were grouped by tertiles based on resting HR as follows: low (LHR = 43-56 beats min(-1); n = 10); middle (MHR = 58-68 beats min(-1); n = 11); and high (HHR = 69-77 beats min(-1); n = 10). Within the LHR group, both B-Shearcum and H-Shearcum were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than B-Shearsum and H-Shearsum, respectively, whereas in the HHR group B-Shearcum and H-Shearcum were significantly lower (P < 0.001) than B-Shearsum and H-Shearsum, respectively. The FMD in the LHR group (8.8 ± 0.8%) was significantly greater than that in both the MHR group (5.5 ± 0.8%; P = 0.009) and the HHR group (5.9 ± 0.8%; P = 0.024). These findings demonstrate the existence of a relationship between heart rate and both shear and endothelial function in humans. Moreover, these findings have implications for considering heart rate as an important physiological variable when quantifying shear and performing the FMD test. PMID:25037565

Fox, Brandon M; Brantley, Lucy; White, Claire; Seigler, Nichole; Harris, Ryan A

2014-10-01

192

Self?Rated Health Predicts Healthcare Utilization in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Heart failure (HF) patients experience impaired functional status, diminished quality of life, high utilization of healthcare resources, and poor survival. Yet, the identification of patient?centered factors that influence prognosis is lacking. Methods and Results We determined the association of 2 measures of self?rated health with healthcare utilization and skilled nursing facility (SNF) admission in a community cohort of 417 HF patients prospectively enrolled between October 2007 and December 2010 from Olmsted County, MN. Patients completed a 12?item Short Form Health Survey (SF?12). Low self?reported physical functioning was defined as a score ?25 on the SF?12 physical component. The first question of the SF?12 was used as a measure of self?rated general health. After 2 years, 1033 hospitalizations, 1407 emergency department (ED) visits, and 19,780 outpatient office visits were observed; 87 patients were admitted to a SNF. After adjustment for confounding factors, an increased risk of hospitalizations (1.52 [1.17 to 1.99]) and ED visits (1.48 [1.04 to 2.11]) was observed for those with low versus moderate?high self?reported physical functioning. Patients with poor and fair self?rated general health also experienced an increased risk of hospitalizations (poor: 1.73 [1.29 to 2.32]; fair: 1.46 [1.14 to 1.87]) and ED visits (poor: 1.73 [1.16 to 2.56]; fair: 1.48 [1.13 to 1.93]) compared with good?excellent self?rated general health. No association between self?reported physical functioning or self?rated general health with outpatient visits and SNF admission was observed. Conclusion In community HF patients, self?reported measures of physical functioning predict hospitalizations and ED visits, indicating that these patient?reported measures may be useful in risk stratification and management in HF. PMID:24870937

Chamberlain, Alanna M.; Manemann, Sheila M.; Dunlay, Shannon M.; Spertus, John A.; Moser, Debra K.; Berardi, Cecilia; Kane, Robert L.; Weston, Susan A.; Redfield, Margaret M.; Roger, Véronique L.

2014-01-01

193

A comparison between computer-controlled and set work rate exercise based on target heart rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods are compared for observing the heart rate (HR), metabolic equivalents, and time in target HR zone (defined as the target HR + or - 5 bpm) during 20 min of exercise at a prescribed intensity of the maximum working capacity. In one method, called set-work rate exercise, the information from a graded exercise test is used to select a target HR and to calculate a corresponding constant work rate that should induce the desired HR. In the other method, the work rate is controlled by a computer algorithm to achieve and maintain a prescribed target HR. It is shown that computer-controlled exercise is an effective alternative to the traditional set work rate exercise, particularly when tight control of cardiovascular responses is necessary.

Pratt, Wanda M.; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Webster, Laurie; Hayes, Judith C.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Harris, Bernard A., Jr.

1991-01-01

194

Rhythmic variation in heart rate and respiration rate during space flight - Apollo 15  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the operational biomedical monitoring for Apollo manned missions, ECG and respiration rate are telemetered at selected intervals to mission control. The data were collected as part of this monitoring program. These data were evaluated for circadian and ultradian rhythmicity because of their uniqueness. The ability to detect and quantitate biorhythms in living systems during space flight is an important aspect of evaluating hypotheses concerning the underlying mechanisms of these phenomena. Circadian variation in heart rate during space flight is demonstrated here. In analyzing generated time series data it has been found that period discrimination is much better than the theoretical limit.

Rummel, J. A.

1974-01-01

195

Knowledge Workers' Perceptions of Performance Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One major purpose of performance appraisals is to determine individual merit, especially where pay for performance systems are employed. Based upon expectancy theory, high performance ratings should entail high merit increases while low performance ratings result in low merit increases. However, it appears that decoupling performance ratings and…

Smith, Alan D.; Rupp, William T.

2004-01-01

196

Sex differences in the fetal heart rate variability indices of twins.  

PubMed

Abstract Aims: To evaluate the differences in linear and complex heart rate dynamics in twin pairs according to fetal sex combination [male-female (MF), male-male (MM), and female-female (FF)]. Methods: Fourteen twin pairs (6 MF, 3 MM, and 5 FF) were monitored between 31 and 36.4 weeks of gestation. Twenty-six fetal heart rate (FHR) recordings of both twins were simultaneously acquired and analyzed with a system for computerized analysis of cardiotocograms. Linear and nonlinear FHR indices were calculated. Results: Overall, MM twins presented higher intrapair average in linear indices than the other pairs, whereas FF twins showed higher sympathetic-vagal balance. MF twins exhibited higher intrapair average in entropy indices and MM twins presented lower entropy values than FF twins considering the (automatically selected) threshold rLu. MM twin pairs showed higher intrapair differences in linear heart rate indices than MF and FF twins, whereas FF twins exhibited lower intrapair differences in entropy indices. Conclusions: The results of this exploratory study suggest that twins have sex-specific differences in linear and nonlinear indices of FHR. MM twins expressed signs of a more active autonomic nervous system and MF twins showed the most active complexity control system. These results suggest that fetal sex combination should be taken into consideration when performing detailed evaluation of the FHR in twins. PMID:24945419

Tendais, Iva; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Gonçalves, Hernâni; Bernardes, João; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Montenegro, Nuno

2014-06-19

197

Changing Geomagnetic Field and Heart Rates Variability in Healthy Volunteers: A Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Climate is an interdisciplinary science that deals with the long-term change in the Sun, and its effects in the near-Earth environment, including possible effects on human health. This paper will present the first results from simultaneous experiments performed at 3 different locations - Sofia, Bulgaria 42° 40' N 23° 20' E; Moscow, Russia 55° 45' N 37° 36‘ E and Arkhangelsk, Russia 64° 34' N / 40° 32' E. Subjects are 5 healthy volunteers, women, mean age 39,4 years. The experiments are part of the project “Heliobiology” (2011 - 2015) that reflects the intense interest towards the influence of solar activity and meteorology on the human health. The aim of the experiments is to study the degree of conjugation of the heart rate variability and the variations of the geomagnetic field. To minimize the experimental bias one and the same hard- and software were applied during the testing. ECG signals were recorder via "KARDI-2", the software package is "Ecosan-2007", both developed by "Medical Computer Systems", Zelenograd, Russia. The duration of the observations ranged from 60 to 120 minutes. A comparison of the dynamics of the minute variations of the heart rate with the horizontal components of the geomagnetic field vector revealed a synchronization of some of the research parameters as well as specific individual differences. Despite of the small sample size (5 subjects per 8 measures), in over 70% of the experimental data a similar patterns of variation of geophysical and heart rate variability were recorded. The experiments discussed involved healthy volunteers, i.e. people that have good adaptation reserves, and the response to variation of geomagnetic field will not push them beyond the physiological norms. The observed effect of synchronization of heart rate fluctuations of healthy subjects with fluctuations of geomagnetic field may give an effective tool to address further one especially interesting problems - the mechanism of geomagnetic sensitivity.

Jordanova, Malina; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Poskotinova, Lilia; Medvedeva, Anna; Uzunov, Todor; Alenikova, Alexandra

198

Can a first-order exponential decay model fit heart rate recovery after resistance exercise?  

PubMed

The time-constant of postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR? ) obtained by fitting heart rate decay curve by a first-order exponential fitting has being used to assess cardiac autonomic recovery after endurance exercise. The feasibility of this model was not tested after resistance exercise (RE). The aim of this study was to test the goodness of fit of the first-order exponential decay model to fit heart rate recovery (HRR) after RE. Ten healthy subjects participated in the study. The experimental sessions occurred in two separated days and consisted of performance of 1 set of 10 repetitions at 50% or 80% of the load achieved on the one-repetition maximum test [low-intensity (LI) and high-intensity (HI) sessions, respectively]. Heart rate (HR) was continuously registered before and during exercise and also for 10 min of recovery. A monoexponential equation was used to fit the HRR curve during the postexercise period using different time windows (i.e. 30, 60, 90, … 600 s). For each time window, (i) HRR? was calculated and (ii) variation of HR explained by the model (R(2) goodness of fit index) was assessed. The HRR? showed stabilization from 360 and 420 s on LI and HI, respectively. Acceptable R(2) values were observed from the 360 s on LI (R(2)  > 0·65) and at all tested time windows on HI (R(2)  > 0·75). In conclusion, this study showed that using a minimum length of monitoring (~420 s) HRR after RE can be adequately modelled by a first-order exponential fitting. PMID:24494748

Bartels-Ferreira, Rhenan; de Sousa, Élder D; Trevizani, Gabriela A; Silva, Lilian P; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Forjaz, Cláudia L M; Lima, Jorge Roberto P; Peçanha, Tiago

2015-03-01

199

Effects of Exercise Training on Heart Rate Variability in Chagas Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker of autonomic dysfunction severity. The effects of physical training on HRV indexes in Chagas heart disease (CHD) are not well established. Objective: To evaluate the changes in HRV indexes in response to physical training in CHD. Methods: Patients with CHD and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, physically inactive, were randomized either to the intervention (IG, N = 18) or control group (CG, N = 19). The IG participated in a 12-week exercise program consisting of 3 sessions/week. Results: Mean age was 49.5 ± 8 years, 59% males, mean LVEF was 36.3 ± 7.8%. Baseline HRV indexes were similar between groups. From baseline to follow-up, total power (TP): 1653 (IQ 625 - 3418) to 2794 (1617 - 4452) ms, p = 0.02) and very low frequency power: 586 (290 - 1565) to 815 (610 - 1425) ms, p = 0.047) increased in the IG, but not in the CG. The delta (post - pre) HRV indexes were similar: SDNN 11.5 ± 30.0 vs. 3.7 ± 25.1 ms. p = 0.10; rMSSD 2 (6 - 17) vs. 1 (21 - 9) ms. p = 0.43; TP 943 (731 - 3130) vs. 1780 (921 - 2743) Hz. p = 0.46; low frequency power (LFP) 1.0 (150 - 197) vs. 60 (111 - 146) Hz. p = 0.85; except for high frequency power, which tended to increase in the IG: 42 (133 - 92) vs. 79 (61 - 328) Hz. p = 0.08). Conclusion: In the studied population, the variation of HRV indexes was similar between the active and inactive groups. Clinical improvement with physical activity seems to be independent from autonomic dysfunction markers in CHD. PMID:25098373

Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Lima, Márcia Maria Oliveira; Nunes, Maria do Carmo Pereira; de Alencar, Maria Clara Noman; Costa, Henrique Silveira; Pinto Filho, Marcelo Martins; Cota, Vitor Emanuel Serafim; Rocha, Manoel Otávio da Costa; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

2014-01-01

200

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 53, NO. 1, JANUARY 2006 1 Recent Advances in Heart Rate Variability  

E-print Network

pathological states such as ischemia and myocardial infarction, heart failure, hyperten- sion, diabetes in Heart Rate Variability Signal Processing and Interpretation OVER the past 30 years, heart rate which issued a seminal paper: "Heart rate variability: standards of measure- ment, physiological

201

Fish Consumption, Sleep, Daily Functioning, and Heart Rate Variability  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: This study investigated the effects of fatty fish on sleep, daily functioning and biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV), vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cells. Moreover the relationship among sleep, daily functioning, HRV, vitamin D status, and levels of EPA+DHA was investigated. Methods: Ninety-five male forensic patients from a secure forensic inpatient facility in the USA were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group. The Fish group received Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February, and the Control group was provided an alternative meal (e.g., chicken, pork, beef), but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet, three times per week during the same period. Sleep (sleep latency, sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, and actual wake time), self-perceived sleep quality and daily functioning, as well as vitamin D status, EPA+DHA, and HRV, were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. Results: There was a significant increase in sleep latency from pre- to post-test in the Control group. The Fish group reported better daily functioning than the Control group during post-test. Fish consumption throughout the wintertime had also an effect on resting HRV and EPA+DHA, but not on vitamin D status. However, at post-test, the vitamin D status in the Fish group was still closer to the level regarded as optimal compared to the Control group. Vitamin D status correlated negatively with actual wake time and positively with sleep efficiency during pre-test, as well as positively with daily functioning and sleep quality during post-test. Finally, HRV correlated negatively with sleep latency and positively with daily functioning. Conclusions: Fish consumption seemed to have a positive impact on sleep in general and also on daily functioning, which may be related to vitamin D status and HRV. Citation: Hansen AL, Dahl L, Olson G, Thornton D, Graff IE, Frøyland L, Thayer JF, Pallesen S. Fish consumption, sleep, daily functioning, and heart rate variability. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):567-575. PMID:24812543

Hansen, Anita L.; Dahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Graff, Ingvild E.; Frøyland, Livar; Thayer, Julian F.; Pallesen, Staale

2014-01-01

202

Relationship of Heart Rate Variability to Sleepiness in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea with and without Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background: Many patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) do not complain of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), possibly due to increased sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) and accompanying heightened alertness. We hypothesized that in patients with OSA, those without subjective EDS (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ESS score < 11) would have higher very low frequency (VLF) heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep, reflecting greater sympathetic heart rate modulation than patients with an ESS score ? 11. Methods: Patients with severe OSA (AHI ? 30: 26 with and 65 without heart failure) were divided into those with and without EDS. Heart rate (HR) signals were acquired in stage 2 sleep during periods of recurrent apneas and hypopneas and submitted to coarse graining spectral analysis, which extracts harmonic, neurally mediated contributions to HRV from total spectral power. Because the apnea-hyperpnea cycle entrains muscle SNA at VLF (0 to 0.04 Hz), VLF power was our principal between-group comparison. Results: Subjects without EDS had higher harmonic VLF power (944 ± 839 vs 447 ± 461 msec2, p = 0.003) than those with EDS, irrespective of the presence or absence of heart failure (1218 ± 944 vs 426 ± 299 msec2, p = 0.043, and 1029 ± 873 vs 503 ± 533 msec2, p = 0.003, respectively). ESS scores correlated inversely with VLF power in all (r = -0.294, p = 0.005) and in heart failure subjects (r = -0.468, p = 0.016). Conclusions: Patients with severe OSA but without EDS have higher VLF-HRV than those with EDS. This finding suggests that patients with severe OSA but without EDS have greater sympathetic modulation of HRV than those with EDS that may reflect elevated adrenergically mediated alertness. Citation: Taranto Montemurro L; Floras JS; Picton P; Kasai T; Alshaer H; Gabriel JM; Bradley TD. Relationship of heart rate variability to sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea with and without heart failure. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):271-276. PMID:24634624

Taranto Montemurro, Luigi; Floras, John S.; Picton, Peter; Kasai, Takatoshi; Alshaer, Hisham; Gabriel, Joseph M.; Bradley, T. Douglas

2014-01-01

203

Short-term Parameters of Heart Rate Variability During Balanced Anaesthesia with Administration of Two Different Inhalation Anaesthetics  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Heart rate variability which denotes variations of the length of consecutive heart cycles has been suggested to reflect the modulation of heart rate by autonomic nervous system. Methods: Sixty four patients of ASA I and ASA II status scheduled for elective abdominal surgical procedures were randomly allocated to group 1 and group 2. Premedication and induction of anaesthesia were performed with same agents. After orotracheal intubation maintenance of balanced anaesthesia was based on administration of same induction agents,opioids and muscle relaxant while delivery of gaseous mixture with sevoflurane in the group 1 (n=32) and isoflurane in the group 2(n=32). Haemodynamic parameters were monitored in perioperative and electrocardiogram was recorded by holter ECG recorder, while the analysis of the parameters were performed by corresponding softwares . Data were presented as mean values of logarithmic (natural logarithm) values of the power of the total spectrum of heart rate variability(TP), mean values of the logarithmic values of low frequency band (LF), mean values of the logarithmic values of high frequency range(HF), and mean values of SD1 and SD2 parameters. Results: Analysis of the values of hemodynamic parameters has shown changes of haemodynamic parameters during perioperative period without significant statistical differences between the groups. Analysis of the logarhitmic values of parameters of heart rate variability of frequency domain has shown changes of the total spectrum power and LF and HF spestra with variations of the values of total power spectrum and individual components of the spectrum of heart rate variability during the balanced anaesthesia with administration of two different inhalation anaesthetics, without statistically significant differences between the groups. Conclusion: The results have shown that during balanced anaesthesia with two different inhalation anaesthetics there are variations of haemodynamic variables and parameters of heart rate variability without statistically significance that could show the difference between the groups and different agents administered. PMID:25568550

Omerbegovi?, Meldijana

2014-01-01

204

Embryonic heart rate and oxygen pulse in two procellariiform seabirds, Diomedea immutabilis and Puffinus pacificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental patterns of embryonic heart rate were measured non-invasively in two procellariiform seabirds, the Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) and wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus), during prepipping and after pipping. The O2 pulse, defined as the O2 consumption per single heart beat, was calculated using the previously reported O2 consumption for these species. The embryonic heart rate of the albatross was not

H. Tazawa; G. Causey Whittow

1994-01-01

205

Impact of the exercise mode on heart rate recovery after maximal exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate recovery 1 min after exercise termination (HRR-1) is a prognostic predictor. However, the influence of the exercise\\u000a mode on HRR-1 is incompletely characterised. Twenty-nine young and healthy subjects and 16 elderly patients with chronic heart\\u000a failure underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using cycle ergometer and treadmill ramp protocols in random order. HRR-1\\u000a and heart rate recovery 2 and 3

Micha Tobias Maeder; Peter Ammann; Hans Rickli; Hans Peter Brunner-La Rocca

2009-01-01

206

Development of a piezopolymer pressure sensor for a portable fetal heart rate monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A piezopolymer pressure sensor has been developed for service in a portable fetal heart rate monitor, which will permit an expectant mother to perform the fetal nonstress test, a standard predelivery test, in her home. Several sensors are mounted in an array on a belt worn by the mother. The sensor design conforms to the distinctive features of the fetal heart tone, namely, the acoustic signature, frequency spectrum, signal amplitude, and localization. The components of a sensor serve to fulfill five functions: signal detection, acceleration cancellation, acoustical isolation, electrical shielding, and electrical isolation of the mother. A theoretical analysis of the sensor response yields a numerical value for the sensor sensitivity, which is compared to experiment in an in vitro sensor calibration. Finally, an in vivo test on patients within the last six weeks of term reveals that nonstress test recordings from the acoustic monitor compare well with those obtained from conventional ultrasound.

Zuckerwar, A. J.; Pretlow, R. A.; Stoughton, J. W.; Baker, D. A.

1993-01-01

207

Heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive measure of cardiac autonomic modulation. Time and frequency domain measures have primarily been examined in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Not only do frequency domain HRV parameters tend to be reduced in T2D, but healthy individuals with low HRV are also more likely to develop T2D. Furthermore, patients with T2D with low HRV have an increased prevalence of complications and risk of mortality compared with those with normal autonomic function. These findings provide support for the use of HRV as a risk indicator in T2D. Exercise is considered an important component to T2D prevention and treatment strategies. To date, few studies have examined the changes in HRV with exercise in T2D. One study showed changes in resting HRV, two studies showed changes in HRV during or following acute stressors, and one study showed no changes in HRV but improvements in baroreflex sensitivity. The most pronounced changes in HRV were realized following the exercise intervention with the greatest frequency of supervised exercise sessions and with the greatest intensity and duration of exercise bouts. These findings suggest that exercise following current American College of Sports Medicine/American Diabetes Association guidelines may be important in the prevention and treatment of T2D to improve autonomic function and reduce the risk of complications and mortality. PMID:24580567

Stuckey, Melanie I; Petrella, Robert J

2013-01-01

208

Heart rate variability: a tool to explore the sleeping brain?  

PubMed Central

Sleep is divided into two main sleep stages: (1) non-rapid eye movement sleep (non-REMS), characterized among others by reduced global brain activity; and (2) rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), characterized by global brain activity similar to that of wakefulness. Results of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, which is widely used to explore autonomic modulation, have revealed higher parasympathetic tone during normal non-REMS and a shift toward sympathetic predominance during normal REMS. Moreover, HRV analysis combined with brain imaging has identified close connectivity between autonomic cardiac modulation and activity in brain areas such as the amygdala and insular cortex during REMS, but no connectivity between brain and cardiac activity during non-REMS. There is also some evidence for an association between HRV and dream intensity and emotionality. Following some technical considerations, this review addresses how brain activity during sleep contributes to changes in autonomic cardiac activity, organized into three parts: (1) the knowledge on autonomic cardiac control, (2) differences in brain and autonomic activity between non-REMS and REMS, and (3) the potential of HRV analysis to explore the sleeping brain, and the implications for psychiatric disorders. PMID:25565936

Chouchou, Florian; Desseilles, Martin

2014-01-01

209

Estimation of human core temperature from sequential heart rate observations.  

PubMed

Core temperature (CT) in combination with heart rate (HR) can be a good indicator of impending heat exhaustion for occupations involving exposure to heat, heavy workloads, and wearing protective clothing. However, continuously measuring CT in an ambulatory environment is difficult. To address this problem we developed a model to estimate the time course of CT using a series of HR measurements as a leading indicator using a Kalman filter. The model was trained using data from 17 volunteers engaged in a 24 h military field exercise (air temperatures 24-36 °C, and 42%-97% relative humidity and CTs ranging from 36.0-40.0 °C). Validation data from laboratory and field studies (N = 83) encompassing various combinations of temperature, hydration, clothing, and acclimation state were examined using the Bland-Altman limits of agreement (LoA) method. We found our model had an overall bias of -0.03 ± 0.32 °C and that 95% of all CT estimates fall within ±0.63 °C (>52 000 total observations). While the model for estimating CT is not a replacement for direct measurement of CT (literature comparisons of esophageal and rectal methods average LoAs of ±0.58 °C) our results suggest it is accurate enough to provide practical indication of thermal work strain for use in the work place. PMID:23780514

Buller, Mark J; Tharion, William J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Montain, Scott J; Kenefick, Robert W; Castellani, John; Latzka, William A; Roberts, Warren S; Richter, Mark; Jenkins, Odest Chadwicke; Hoyt, Reed W

2013-07-01

210

Newborn seizure detection based on heart rate variability.  

PubMed

In this paper, we investigate the use of heart rate variability (HRV) for automatic newborn seizure detection. The proposed method consists of a sequence of processing steps, namely, obtaining HRV from the ECG, extracting a discriminating HRV feature set, selecting an optimal subset from the full feature set, and, finally, classifying the HRV into seizure/nonseizure using a supervised statistical classifier. Due to the fact that HRV signals are nonstationary, a set of time-frequency features from the newborn HRV is proposed and extracted. In order to achieve efficient HRV-based automatic newborn seizure detection, a two-phase wrapper-based feature selection technique is used to select the feature subset with minimum redundancy and maximum class discriminability. Tested on ECG recordings obtained from eight newborns with identified EEG seizure, the proposed HRV-based neonatal seizure detection algorithm achieved 85.7% sensitivity and 84.6% specificity. These results suggest that the HRV is sensitive to changes in the cardioregulatory system induced by the seizure, and therefore, can be used as a basis for an automatic seizure detection. PMID:19628449

Malarvili, M B; Mesbah, Mostefa

2009-11-01

211

Heart rate and heart rate variability in multiparous dairy cows with unassisted calvings in the periparturient period.  

PubMed

Behavioural changes before calving can be monitored on farms; however, predicting the onset of calving is sometimes difficult based only on clinical signs. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) as non-invasive measures of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity were investigated in Holstein-Friesian cows (N=20) with unassisted calvings in the periparturient period to predict the onset of calving and assess the stress associated with calving. R-R-intervals were analysed in 5-min time windows during the following three main periods of measurement: 1) between 0 and 96h before the onset of calving restlessness (prepartum period); 2) during four stages of calving: (I) early first stage; between the onset of calving restlessness and the first abdominal contractions; (II) late first stage (between the first abdominal contractions and the appearance of the amniotic sac); (III) early second stage (between the appearance of the amniotic sac and the appearance of the foetal hooves); (IV) late second stage (between the appearance of the foetal hooves and delivery of the calf), and 3) over 48h following calving (postpartum period). Data collected between 72 and 96h before calving restlessness was used as baseline. Besides HR, Poincaré measures [standard deviation 1 (SD1) and 2 (SD2) and SD2/SD1 ratio], the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) in R-R intervals, the high-frequency (HF) component of HRV and the ratio between the low-frequency (LF) and the HF components (LF/HF ratio) were calculated. Heart rate increased only following the onset of the behavioural signs, peaked before delivery of the calf, then decreased immediately after calving. Parasympathetic indices of HRV (RMSSD, HFnorm and SD1) decreased, whereas sympathovagal indices (LF/HF ratio and SD2/SD1 ratio) increased significantly from baseline between 12 and 24 before the onset of calving restlessness. The same pattern was observed between 0 and 1h before calving restlessness. Following the onset of behavioural signs, parasympathetic activity increased gradually with a parallel shift in sympathovagal balance towards parasympathetic tone, which was possibly a consequence of oxytocin release, which induces an increase in vagus nerve activity. Parasympathetic activity decreased rapidly between 0 and 0.5h following calving and was lower than measured during all other stages of the study, while sympathetic activity peaked during this stage and was higher than measured during any other stages. Between 0 and 4h after calving vagal tone was lower than baseline, whereas sympathovagal balance was higher, reflecting a prolonged physiological challenge caused by calving. Vagal activity decreased, whereas sympathovagal balance shifted towards sympathetic tone with increased live body weight of the calf during the late second stage of calving, suggesting higher levels of stress associated with the higher body weight of calves. All HRV indices, measured either at the late second stage of calving and between 12 and 24h after calving, were affected by the duration of calving. Our results indicate that ANS activity measured by HRV indices is a more immediate indicator of the onset of calving than behaviour or HR, as it changed earlier than when restlessness or elevation in HR could be observed. However, because of the possible effects of other physiological mechanisms (e.g. oxytocin release) on ANS activity it seems to be difficult to measure stress associated with calving by means of HRV between the onset of calving restlessness and delivery. Further research is needed to enable more precise interpretation of the prepartum changes in HR and HRV in dairy cattle. PMID:25449409

Kovács, L; T?zsér, J; Kézér, F L; Ruff, F; Aubin-Wodala, M; Albert, E; Choukeir, A; Szelényi, Z; Szenci, O

2015-02-01

212

Temporal relationship between dynamic heart rate variability and electroencephalographic activity during sleep in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous sleep studies, it has been demonstrated that Poincaré plots of RR intervals, which provide a beat to beat dynamic measure of heart rate variability, have distinctive and characteristic patterns according to sleep stages. This study was designed to evaluate the temporal relationship between heart rate variability and sleep electroencephalographic activity (EEG) by using the Pearson's interbeat autocorrelation coefficients

H. Otzenberger; C. Simon; C. Gronfier; G. Brandenberger

1997-01-01

213

Effects of head-down bed rest on complex heart rate variability: Response to LBNP testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Head-down bed rest is used to model physiological changes during spaceflight. We postulated that bed rest would decrease the degree of complex physiological heart rate variability. We analyzed continuous heart rate data from digitized Holter recordings in eight healthy female volunteers (age 28-34 yr) who underwent a 13-day 6 deg head-down bed rest study with serial lower body negative pressure (LBNP) trials. Heart rate variability was measured on a 4-min data sets using conventional time and frequency domain measures as well as with a new measure of signal 'complexity' (approximate entropy). Data were obtained pre-bed rest (control), during bed rest (day 4 and day 9 or 11), and 2 days post-bed rest (recovery). Tolerance to LBNP was significantly reduced on both bed rest days vs. pre-bed rest. Heart rate variability was assessed at peak LBNP. Heart rate approximate entropy was significantly decreased at day 4 and day 9 or 11, returning toward normal during recovery. Heart rate standard deviation and the ratio of high- to low-power frequency did not change significantly. We conclude that short-term bed rest is associated with a decrease in the complex variability of heart rate during LBNP testing in healthy young adult women. Measurement of heart rate complexity, using a method derived from nonlinear dynamics ('chaos theory'), may provide a sensitive marker of this loss of physiological variability, complementing conventional time and frequency domain statistical measures.

Goldberger, Ary L.; Mietus, Joseph E.; Rigney, David R.; Wood, Margie L.; Fortney, Suzanne M.

1994-01-01

214

Heart rate variability: sleep stage, time of night, and arousal influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral analysis was used to assess heart rate variability in consecutive 5-min epochs during the night in 12 normal adults. Simultaneous time coding of EEG and digitized EKG allowed examination of heart rate variability as a function of sleep stage, time of night and presence of EEG arousal. The results replicated previous studies in showing increases in high frequency components

M. H. Bonnet; D. L. Arand

1997-01-01

215

Heart rate as a sublethal indicator of thermal stress in juvenile freshwater mussels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater mussels (Unionoida) are one of the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in the world. Rising water temperatures, caused by industrial discharges, land development, or climate change can further challenge threatened unionid communities. The direct relationship between heart rate and temperature in ectotherms enables the use of heart rate as an indicator of whole-animal thermal stress. The purpose

Tamara J. Pandolfo; W. Gregory Cope; Consuelo Arellano

2009-01-01

216

Visual evoked potentials, heart rate responses and memory to emotional pictorial stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effects of emotional stimuli on event-related cortical potentials, heart rate, and memory have been extensively studied, the association of these variables in a single study has been neglected. The influence of pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral photographic slides on visual evoked potentials (VEPs), heart rate responses, and free recall, was investigated in 20 normal subjects. VEPs were recorded from

Daniela Palomba; Alessandro Angrilli; Alessio Mini

1997-01-01

217

The Influence of Motor Impairment on Autonomic Heart Rate Modulation among Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of heart rate variability is an important tool for a noninvasive evaluation of the neurocardiac integrity. The present study aims to evaluate the autonomic heart rate modulation in supine and standing positions in 12 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy and 16 children with typical motor development (control group), as well as to…

Zamuner, Antonio Roberto; Cunha, Andrea Baraldi; da Silva, Ester; Negri, Ana Paola; Tudella, Eloisa; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

2011-01-01

218

Heart Rate Level and Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess whether antisocial children are characterized by low heart rate. Method: A meta-analysis was conducted on 45 independent effect sizes of the resting heart rate-antisocial behavior relationship obtained from 40 studies meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were conducted between 1971 to 2002 using a total of 5,868…

Ortiz, Jame; Raine, Adrian

2004-01-01

219

XBee wireless sensor networks for Heart Rate Monitoring in sport training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart Rate Monitors (HRMs) have become widely used since the last two decades. It used as training aid for various types of sports. And the development of new HRMs has evolved rapidly. Thus, in order to determine the exercise intensity of training session or race, HRMs are mainly used. Compared to the other indication of exercise intensity, Heart rate is

N. S. A. Zulkifli; F. K. Che Harun; N. S. Azahar

2012-01-01

220

Clutch Effects Explain Heart Rate Variation in Embryonic Frogs (Cave Coqui, Eleutherodactylus cooki )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few physiological studies to date have focused on whether var- iation among sibling groups during development can account for often large, intraspecific physiological variation. In this study, we measured heart rate in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus cooki throughout its embryonic development and examined heart rate variation among egg clutches com- prising from 10 to 40 eggs. Clutches were collected in

W. Burggren; D. Crossley III; G. Rogowitz; D. Thompson

2003-01-01

221

Open-loop control to achieve linear heart rate increase in the treadmill exercise test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear increase in heart rate was achieved by an open-loop controlled protocol that increases walking speed logarithmically in the treadmill exercise test. These results are reproducible. Such results however, were not achieved by feedback control. This result suggests that open-loop control is the more appropriate protocol for achieving a predetermined heart rate change during exercise

H. Saito; T. Togawa

1998-01-01

222

ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY AS INDICATORS OF CARDIAC AUTONOMIC NEUROPATHY IN DIABETES MELLITUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The aim of this study was to emphasize two different points in our work: 1) The well known importance of (subclinical) postural hypotension and reduced heart rate variability as (early) markers of autonomic neuropathy; 2) and the more controversial influence of diabetic control in their worsening. Methods: Two standard cardiovascular response tests (heart rate variability by respiration and orthostatic

Abdülkadir Koçer; Zekeriya Aktürk; Emin Maden

223

Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the effect of ?g-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and ?g- exercise.

Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

224

Non-contact estimation of heart rate and oxygen saturation using ambient light.  

PubMed

We propose a robust method for automated computation of heart rate (HR) from digital color video recordings of the human face. In order to extract photoplethysmographic signals, two orthogonal vectors of RGB color space are used. We used a dual tree complex wavelet transform based denoising algorithm to reduce artifacts (e.g. artificial lighting, movement, etc.). Most of the previous work on skin color based HR estimation performed experiments with healthy volunteers and focused to solve motion artifacts. In addition to healthy volunteers we performed experiments with child patients in pediatric intensive care units. In order to investigate the possible factors that affect the non-contact HR monitoring in a clinical environment, we studied the relation between hemoglobin levels and HR estimation errors. Low hemoglobin causes underestimation of HR. Nevertheless, we conclude that our method can provide acceptable accuracy to estimate mean HR of patients in a clinical environment, where the measurements can be performed remotely. In addition to mean heart rate estimation, we performed experiments to estimate oxygen saturation. We observed strong correlations between our SpO2 estimations and the commercial oximeter readings. PMID:25657877

Bal, Ufuk

2015-01-01

225

Non-contact estimation of heart rate and oxygen saturation using ambient light  

PubMed Central

We propose a robust method for automated computation of heart rate (HR) from digital color video recordings of the human face. In order to extract photoplethysmographic signals, two orthogonal vectors of RGB color space are used. We used a dual tree complex wavelet transform based denoising algorithm to reduce artifacts (e.g. artificial lighting, movement, etc.). Most of the previous work on skin color based HR estimation performed experiments with healthy volunteers and focused to solve motion artifacts. In addition to healthy volunteers we performed experiments with child patients in pediatric intensive care units. In order to investigate the possible factors that affect the non-contact HR monitoring in a clinical environment, we studied the relation between hemoglobin levels and HR estimation errors. Low hemoglobin causes underestimation of HR. Nevertheless, we conclude that our method can provide acceptable accuracy to estimate mean HR of patients in a clinical environment, where the measurements can be performed remotely. In addition to mean heart rate estimation, we performed experiments to estimate oxygen saturation. We observed strong correlations between our SpO2 estimations and the commercial oximeter readings PMID:25657877

Bal, Ufuk

2014-01-01

226

Reducing sojourn points from recurrence plots to improve transition detection: Application to fetal heart rate transitions.  

PubMed

The analysis of biomedical signals demonstrating complexity through recurrence plots is challenging. Quantification of recurrences is often biased by sojourn points that hide dynamic transitions. To overcome this problem, time series have previously been embedded at high dimensions. However, no one has quantified the elimination of sojourn points and rate of detection, nor the enhancement of transition detection has been investigated. This paper reports our on-going efforts to improve the detection of dynamic transitions from logistic maps and fetal hearts by reducing sojourn points. Three signal-based recurrence plots were developed, i.e. embedded with specific settings, derivative-based and m-time pattern. Determinism, cross-determinism and percentage of reduced sojourn points were computed to detect transitions. For logistic maps, an increase of 50% and 34.3% in sensitivity of detection over alternatives was achieved by m-time pattern and embedded recurrence plots with specific settings, respectively, and with a 100% specificity. For fetal heart rates, embedded recurrence plots with specific settings provided the best performance, followed by derivative-based recurrence plot, then unembedded recurrence plot using the determinism parameter. The relative errors between healthy and distressed fetuses were 153%, 95% and 91%. More than 50% of sojourn points were eliminated, allowing better detection of heart transitions triggered by gaseous exchange factors. This could be significant in improving the diagnosis of fetal state. PMID:25308517

Zaylaa, Amira; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

2014-10-01

227

Of larks and hearts--morningness/eveningness, heart rate variability and cardiovascular stress response at different times of day.  

PubMed

Inter-individual differences in the circadian period of physical and mental functions can be described on the dimension of morningness/eveningness. Previous findings support the assumption that eveningness is related to greater impulsivity and susceptibility to stress than morningness. Heart rate variability (HRV) serves as a physiological correlate of self- and emotional regulation and has not yet been investigated in relation to chronotypes. The study explores differences in HRV and other cardiovascular measures in morning- and evening-types at rest and under stress at different times of day (8-11 a.m. or 4-7 p.m.). Students (N=471) were screened for chronotype and n=55 females (27 morning- and 28 evening-types) were recruited for testing. These participants performed a mental arithmetic task while heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Spectral components and a time-domain measure of HRV were calculated on HR data from resting and mental stress periods. Evening-types had significantly higher HR and systolic BP, but lower HRV than morning-types both at baseline and during stress. Stress induced in the evening had a significantly stronger impact on absolute and baseline corrected physiological measures in both chronotypes. The interaction of chronotype and testing time did not reach the level of significance for any of the dependent variables. The enhanced physiological arousal in evening-types might contribute to increased vulnerability to psychological distress. Hence, previous behavioral findings are supported by the physiological data of this study. PMID:22330324

Roeser, Karolin; Obergfell, Friederike; Meule, Adrian; Vögele, Claus; Schlarb, Angelika A; Kübler, Andrea

2012-05-15

228

Conventional heart rate variability analysis of ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings fails to predict imminent ventricular fibrillation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this report was to study heart rate variability in Holter recordings of patients who experienced ventricular fibrillation during the recording. BACKGROUND. Decreased heart rate variability is recognized as a long-term predictor of overall and arrhythmic death after myocardial infarction. It was therefore postulated that heart rate variability would be lowest when measured immediately before ventricular fibrillation. METHODS. Conventional indexes of heart rate variability were calculated from Holter recordings of 24 patients with structural heart disease who had ventricular fibrillation during monitoring. The control group consisted of 19 patients with coronary artery disease, of comparable age and left ventricular ejection fraction, who had nonsustained ventricular tachycardia but no ventricular fibrillation. RESULTS. Heart rate variability did not differ between the two groups, and no consistent trends in heart rate variability were observed before ventricular fibrillation occurred. CONCLUSIONS. Although conventional heart rate variability is an independent long-term predictor of adverse outcome after myocardial infarction, its clinical utility as a short-term predictor of life-threatening arrhythmias remains to be elucidated.

Vybiral, T.; Glaeser, D. H.; Goldberger, A. L.; Rigney, D. R.; Hess, K. R.; Mietus, J.; Skinner, J. E.; Francis, M.; Pratt, C. M.

1993-01-01

229

Introduction to Controversial Topics in Nonlinear Science: Is the Normal Heart Rate Chaotic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2008, the editors of Chaos decided to institute a new section to appear from time to time that addresses timely and controversial topics related to nonlinear science. The first of these deals with the dynamical characterization of human heart rate variability. We asked authors to respond to the following questions: Is the normal heart rate chaotic? If the normal heart rate is not chaotic, is there some more appropriate term to characterize the fluctuations (e.g., scaling, fractal, multifractal)? How does the analysis of heart rate variability elucidate the underlying mechanisms controlling the heart rate? Do any analyses of heart rate variability provide clinical information that can be useful in medical assessment (e.g., in helping to assess the risk of sudden cardiac death)? If so, please indicate what additional clinical studies would be useful for measures of heart rate variability to be more broadly accepted by the medical community. In addition, as a challenge for analysis methods, PhysioNet [A. L. Goldberger et al., "PhysioBank, PhysioToolkit, and PhysioNet: Components of a new research resource for complex physiologic signals," Circulation 101, e215-e220 (2000)] provided data sets from 15 patients of whom five were normal, five had heart failure, and five had atrial fibrillation (http://www.physionet.org/challenge/chaos/). This introductory essay summarizes the main issues and introduces the essays that respond to these questions.

Glass, Leon

2009-06-01

230

Clutch effects explain heart rate variation in embryonic frogs (Cave Coqui, Eleutherodactylus cooki).  

PubMed

Few physiological studies to date have focused on whether variation among sibling groups during development can account for often large, intraspecific physiological variation. In this study, we measured heart rate in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus cooki throughout its embryonic development and examined heart rate variation among egg clutches comprising from 10 to 40 eggs. Clutches were collected in the wild in Yubucoa, Puerto Rico, and individual eggs were maintained under equivalent conditions in the lab. Heart rate showed large increases during development, rising from about 40 beats min(-1) in the earliest stages to about 110 beats min(-1) at hatching. The effect of stage (averaged across clutches) was highly significant (P<0.001). However, repeated-measures MANOVA also revealed that there were highly significant effects on heart rate associated with both clutch (variation among clutches averaged across development; P<0.001) and clutch-stage interactions (differences among clutches in the developmental change in heart rate; P<0.0001). These effects and interactions reveal that throughout development, heart rate in siblings is much more similar than in nonsiblings and that sib groups follow different heart rate trajectories during their development. Collectively, these data indicate that "clutch effects" caused by genetic and/or maternal influences can strongly affect patterns of heart function during development within cave coqui populations. This phenomenon also occurs in bird eggs and armadillo neonates, suggesting that physiological variation attributable to clutch effects might be a widespread phenomenon in vertebrates. PMID:14671715

Burggren, W; Crossley, D; Rogowitz, G; Thompson, D

2003-01-01

231

256-Slice CT Angiographic Evaluation of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts: Effect of Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability and Z-Axis Location on Image Quality  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective of this study is to assess the effect of heart rate, heart rate variability and z-axis location on coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) image quality using a 256-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner. Methods A total of 78 patients with 254 CABG (762 graft segments) were recruited to undergo CABG assessment with 256-slice CT and prospective ECG-gating. Two observers rated graft segments for image quality on a 5-point scale. Quantitative measurements were also made. Logistic and cumulative link mixed models were used to assess the predictors of graft image quality. Results Graft image quality was judged as diagnostic (scores 5 (excellent), 4 (good) and 3 (moderate)) in 96.6% of the 762 segments. Interobserver agreement was excellent (kappa ?0.90). Graft image quality was not affected by heart rate level. However, high heart rate variability was associated with an important and significant image quality deterioration (odds ratio 4.31; p ?=? 0.036). Distal graft segments had significantly lower image quality scores than proximal segments (p ? 0.02). Significantly higher noise was noted at the origin of the mammary grafts (p ?=? 0.001), owing to streak artifacts from the shoulders. Conclusion CABG imaging with 270-msec rotation 256-slice CT and prospective ECG-gating showed an adequate image quality in 96.6% of graft segments, and an excellent interobserver agreement. Graft image quality was not influenced by heart rate level. Image quality scores were however significantly decreased in patients with high heart rate variability, as well as in distal graft segments, which are closer to the heart. PMID:24637891

Gramer, Bettina M.; Diez Martinez, Patricia; Chin, Anne S.; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Larrivée, Sandra; Stevens, Louis-Mathieu; Noiseux, Nicolas; Soulez, Gilles; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl

2014-01-01

232

Power spectral analysis of heart-rate variability reflects the level of cardiac autonomic activity in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power spectral analysis of heart rate (HR[ variability was tested in conscious rabbits to assess the reliability of this method for assessing cardiac autonomic function in normal rabbits under resting conditions. Evaluation of power spectrum was performed in 5 rabbits under normal resting conditions and after sympathetic, parasympathetic and combined sympathetic plus parasympathetic blockade. Rabbits were randomly assigned to undergo

Viatcheslav A. Moguilevski; Louise Shiel; Judith Oliver; Barry P. McGrath

1996-01-01

233

Impact of a vendor-specific motion-correction algorithm on image quality, interpretability, and diagnostic performance of daily routine coronary CT angiography: influence of heart rate on the effect of motion-correction.  

PubMed

To investigate the impact of a vendor-specific motion-correction algorithm on morphological assessment of coronary arteries using coronary CT angiography (cCTA) and to evaluate the influence of heart rate (HR) on the motion-correction effect of this algorithm. Eighty-four patients (mean age 56.3 ± 11.4 years; 53 males) were divided into two groups with a HR of ?65 and <65 bpm during cCTA, respectively. Images were assigned quality scores (graded 1-4) on coronary segments. Interpretability was defined as a grade >1. Catheter angiography was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of cCTA for detecting significant stenosis (?50 %). We compared the image quality, interpretability and diagnostic accuracy between the standard and motion-correction reconstructions in both groups. The motion-correction reconstructions showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher image quality in the proximal and middle right coronary artery (RCA) in the low HR group (57.2 ± 5.0 bpm; n = 51) and proximal-to-distal RCA, posterior descending artery, and proximal and distal left circumflex artery in the high HR group (71.1 ± 4.6 bpm; n = 33). The per-segment interpretability was significantly higher using motion-correction algorithm in the middle RCA in the low HR group and in the proximal and middle RCA in high HR group. Overall, the image quality and interpretability were improved using motion-correction reconstructions in both groups (p < 0.05). Motion-correction reconstruction demonstrated higher (p < 0.05) diagnostic accuracy in 25 patients from both groups. Use of the motion-correction algorithm improves the overall image quality and interpretability of cCTA in both groups. However, it may be more beneficial to the patients with a higher HR. PMID:25038955

Lee, Heon; Kim, Jeong A; Lee, Ji Sung; Suh, Jon; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Jai Soung

2014-12-01

234

Foetal heart rate power spectrum response to uterine contraction.  

PubMed

Cardiotocography is the most diffused prenatal diagnostic technique in clinical routine. The simultaneous recording of foetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contractions (UC) provides useful information about foetal well-being during pregnancy and labour. However, foetal electronic monitoring interpretation still lacks reproducibility and objectivity. New methods of interpretation and new parameters can further support physicians' decisions. Besides common time-domain analysis, study of the variability of FHR can potentially reveal autonomic nervous system activity of the foetus. In particular, it is clinically relevant to investigate foetal reactions to UC to diagnose foetal distress early. Uterine contraction being a strong stimulus for the foetus and its autonomic nervous system, it is worth exploring the FHR variability response. This study aims to analyse modifications of the power spectrum of FHR variability corresponding to UC. Cardiotocographic signal tracts corresponding to 127 UC relative to 30 healthy foetuses were analysed. Results mainly show a general, statistically significant (t test, p<0.01) power increase of the FHR variability in the LF 0.03-0.2 Hz and HF 0.2-1 in correspondence of the contraction with respect to a reference tract set before contraction onset. Time evolution of the power within these bands was computed by means of time-varying spectral estimation to concisely show the FHR response along a uterine contraction. A synchronised grand average of these responses was also computed to verify repeatability, using the contraction apex as time reference. Such modifications of the foetal HRV that follow a contraction can be a sign of ANS reaction and, therefore, additional, objective information about foetal reactivity during labour. PMID:16937160

Romano, M; Bifulco, P; Cesarelli, M; Sansone, M; Bracale, M

2006-03-01

235

Heart Rate Variability and Exercise in Aging Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Our group has shown a positive dose-response in maximal cardiorespiratory exercise capacity (VO2max) and heart rate variability (HRV) to 6 months of exercise training but no improvement in VO2max for women ?60 years. Here, we examine the HRV response to exercise training in postmenopausal women younger and older than 60 years. Methods We examined 365 sedentary, overweight, hypertensive, postmenopausal women randomly assigned to sedentary control or exercise groups exercising at 50% (4?kcal/kg/week, [KKW]), 100% (8 KKW) and 150% (12 KKW) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Panel physical activity guidelines. Primary outcomes included time and frequency domain indices of HRV. Results Overall, our analysis demonstrated a significant improvement in parasympathetic tone (rMSSD and high frequency power) for both age strata at 8 KKW and 12 KKW. For rMSSD, the age-stratified responses were: control, <60 years, 0.20?ms, 95% confidence interval (CI)?2.40, 2.81; ?60 years, 0.07?ms, 95% CI ?3.64, 3.79; 4 KKW, <60 years, 3.67?ms, 95% CI 1.55, 5.79; ?60 years, 1.20?ms, 95% CI ?1.82, 4.22; 8-KKW, <60 years, 3.61?ms, 95% CI 0.88, 6.34; ?60 years, 5.75?ms, 95% CI 1.89, 9.61; and 12-KKW, <60 years, 5.07?ms, 95% CI 2.53, 7.60; ?60 years, 4.28?ms, 95% CI 0.42, 8.14. Conclusions VO2max and HRV are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Despite no improvement in VO2max, parasympathetic indices of HRV increased in women ?60 years. This is clinically important, as HRV has important CVD risk and neurovisceral implications beyond cardiorespiratory function. PMID:21967166

Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

2012-01-01

236

Does the Aging Process Significantly Modify the Mean Heart Rate?  

PubMed Central

Background The Mean Heart Rate (MHR) tends to decrease with age. When adjusted for gender and diseases, the magnitude of this effect is unclear. Objective To analyze the MHR in a stratified sample of active and functionally independent individuals. Methods A total of 1,172 patients aged ? 40 years underwent Holter monitoring and were stratified by age group: 1 = 40-49, 2 = 50-59, 3 = 60-69, 4 = 70-79, 5 = ? 80 years. The MHR was evaluated according to age and gender, adjusted for Hypertension (SAH), dyslipidemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Several models of ANOVA, correlation and linear regression were employed. A two-tailed p value <0.05 was considered significant (95% CI). Results The MHR tended to decrease with the age range: 1 = 77.20 ± 7.10; 2 = 76.66 ± 7.07; 3 = 74.02 ± 7.46; 4 = 72.93 ± 7.35; 5 = 73.41 ± 7.98 (p < 0.001). Women showed a correlation with higher MHR (p <0.001). In the ANOVA and regression models, age and gender were predictors (p < 0.001). However, R2 and ETA2 < 0.10, as well as discrete standardized beta coefficients indicated reduced effect. Dyslipidemia, hypertension and DM did not influence the findings. Conclusion The MHR decreased with age. Women had higher values of MHR, regardless of the age group. Correlations between MHR and age or gender, albeit significant, showed the effect magnitude had little statistical relevance. The prevalence of SAH, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus did not influence the results. PMID:24029962

Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Reis, Francisco Prado; Santos, Thayná Ramos; Lima, Sonia Oliveira; Barreto-Filho, José Augusto

2013-01-01

237

Wave reflections, arterial stiffness, heart rate variability and orthostatic hypotension.  

PubMed

Increased arterial stiffness and wave reflections are independently associated with orthostatic hypotension (OH). This study investigated whether heart rate variability (HRV) is also involved in the modulation of orthostatic blood pressure (BP) change. A total of 429 subjects (65.1±16.4 years, 77.4% men) were enrolled in this study. OH was defined as a ?20?mm?Hg decrease in brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP) or a ?10?mm?Hg diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decrease upon standing. Measurements of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and the amplitude of the reflected pressure wave from a decomposed carotid pressure wave (Pb) were obtained by carotid tonometry in the supine position. The power spectrum from a 5-min recording of an electrocardiogram at rest was analyzed to provide components in the high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) ranges. Subjects with OH (n=59, 13.8%) had significantly higher cf-PWV and Pb and significantly lower LogHF and LogLF than those without OH (n=370). The cf-PWV, Pb, LogHF and LogLF were significantly associated with postural SBP and DBP changes. Furthermore, cf-PWV but not Pb was significantly associated with LogHF and LogLF. Multivariate analysis showed that Pb (odds ratio (OR) per 1 s.d. 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.282-2.137; P=0.003) and LogHF (OR 0.628, 95% CI 0.459-0.860, P=0.004), but not cf-PWV (OR 1.279, 95% CI 0.932-1.755, P=0.128), were significant independent determinants of OH. Increased wave reflections may predispose OH independently of arterial stiffness and HRV. In contrast, increased arterial stiffness may cause OH through the modulation of HRV. PMID:25142223

Lu, Dai-Yin; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Yu, Wen-Chung; Cheng, Hao-Min; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Chen-Huan

2014-12-01

238

Heart rate regulation and extreme bradycardia in diving emperor penguins.  

PubMed

To investigate the diving heart rate (f(H)) response of the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri), the consummate avian diver, birds diving at an isolated dive hole in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica were outfitted with digital electrocardiogram recorders, two-axis accelerometers and time depth recorders (TDRs). In contrast to any other freely diving bird, a true bradycardia (f(H) significantly

Meir, Jessica U; Stockard, Torre K; Williams, Cassondra L; Ponganis, Katherine V; Ponganis, Paul J

2008-04-01

239

Heart rate variability in normal and pathological sleep  

PubMed Central

Sleep is a physiological process involving different biological systems, from molecular to organ level; its integrity is essential for maintaining health and homeostasis in human beings. Although in the past sleep has been considered a state of quiet, experimental and clinical evidences suggest a noteworthy activation of different biological systems during sleep. A key role is played by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), whose modulation regulates cardiovascular functions during sleep onset and different sleep stages. Therefore, an interest on the evaluation of autonomic cardiovascular control in health and disease is growing by means of linear and non-linear heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. The application of classical tools for ANS analysis, such as HRV during physiological sleep, showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) stage is characterized by a likely sympathetic predominance associated with a vagal withdrawal, while the opposite trend is observed during non-REM sleep. More recently, the use of non-linear tools, such as entropy-derived indices, have provided new insight on the cardiac autonomic regulation, revealing for instance changes in the cardiovascular complexity during REM sleep, supporting the hypothesis of a reduced capability of the cardiovascular system to deal with stress challenges. Interestingly, different HRV tools have been applied to characterize autonomic cardiac control in different pathological conditions, from neurological sleep disorders to sleep disordered breathing (SDB). In summary, linear and non-linear analysis of HRV are reliable approaches to assess changes of autonomic cardiac modulation during sleep both in health and diseases. The use of these tools could provide important information of clinical and prognostic relevance. PMID:24137133

Tobaldini, Eleonora; Nobili, Lino; Strada, Silvia; Casali, Karina R.; Braghiroli, Alberto; Montano, Nicola

2013-01-01

240

Heart rate and respiratory rhythm dynamics on ascent to high altitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the alterations in autonomic control of heart rate at high altitude and to test the hypothesis that hypoxaemic stress during exposure to high altitude induces non-linear, periodic heart rate oscillations, similar to those seen in heart failure and the sleep apnoea syndrome. SUBJECTS--11 healthy subjects aged 24-64. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--24 hour ambulatory electrocardiogram records obtained at baseline (1524 m) and at 4700 m. Simultaneous heart rate and respiratory dynamics during 2.5 hours of sleep by fast Fourier transform analysis of beat to beat heart rate and of an electrocardiographically derived respiration signal. RESULTS--All subjects had resting hypoxaemia at high altitude, with an average oxyhaemoglobin saturation of 81% (5%). There was no significant change in mean heart rate, but low frequency (0.01-0.05 Hz) spectral power was increased (P < 0.01) at high altitude. Time series analysis showed a complex range of non-linear sinus rhythm dynamics. Striking low frequency (0.04-0.06 Hz) heart rate oscillations were observed during sleep in eight subjects at high altitude. Analysis of the electrocardiographically derived respiration signal indicated that these heart rate oscillations correlated with low frequency respiratory oscillations. CONCLUSIONS--These data suggest (a) that increased low frequency power during high altitude exposure is not simply attributable to increased sympathetic modulation of heart rate, but relates to distinctive cardiopulmonary oscillations at approximately 0.05 Hz and (b) that the emergence of periodic heart rate oscillations at high altitude is consistent with an unstable cardiopulmonary control system that may develop on acute exposure to hypoxaemic stress.

Lipsitz, L. A.; Hashimoto, F.; Lubowsky, L. P.; Mietus, J.; Moody, G. B.; Appenzeller, O.; Goldberger, A. L.

1995-01-01

241

Interviewer's ratings of personality: can these ratings predict job performance?  

E-print Network

INTERVIEWER'S RATINGS OF PERSONALITY: CAN THESE RATINGS PREDICT JOB PERFORMANCE? A Thesis by KATHRYN DIANE ARCHULETA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1998 Major Subject: Psychology INTERVIEWER'S RATINGS OF PERSONALITY: CAN THESE RATINGS PREDICT JOB PERFORMANCES A Thesis by KATHRYN DIANE ARCHULETA Submitted to Texas AtltM University in partial fulfillment...

Archuleta, Kathryn Diane

2012-06-07

242

Functional Status, Heart Rate, and Rhythm Abnormalities in 521 Fontan Patients 6-18 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the relationship between functional outcome and abnormalities of heart rate & rhythm after the Fontan operation. Methods The NHBLI Pediatric Heart Network conducted a cross sectional analysis of patients who had undergone a Fontan procedure at the 7 network centers. Analysis was based on 521 patients with an ECG (n=509) and/or bicycle exercise test (n=404). The Child Health Questionnaire parent report and the O2 consumption at the anaerobic threshold were used as markers of functional outcome. Results Various Fontan procedures had been performed: intracardiac lateral tunnel (59%), atrio-pulmonary connection (14%), extracardiac later tunnel (13%), and extracardiac conduit (11%). Prior volume unloading surgery was performed in 389 patients; Bi-directional Glenn (70%) and Hemi-Fontan (26%). A history of atrial tachycardia was noted in 9.6% of patients and 13.1% of patients had a pacemaker. Lower resting heart rate and higher peak heart rate were each weakly associated with better functional status, as defined by higher anaerobic threshold (R = -0.18, p=0.004 and R = 0.16, p=0.007, respectively) and higher Child Health scores for physical functioning (R = -0.18, p<0.001 and R = 0.17, p=0.002, respectively). Higher anaerobic threshold was also independently associated with younger age and an abnormal P-axis. Resting bradycardia was not associated with anaerobic threshold or Child Health scores. Conclusions In pediatric patients (6-18 yrs) following the Fontan procedure, a lower resting heart rate and a higher peak heart rate are each independently associated with better physical function as measured by anaerobic threshold and Child Health scores. However, these correlations are weak suggesting that other, non-rhythm and non-rate, factors may have a greater impact on the functional outcome of pediatric Fontan patients. PMID:18603061

Blaufox, Andrew D.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Bradley, David J.; Breitbart, Roger E.; Hordof, Allan; Kanter, Ronald J.; Stephenson, Elizabeth A.; Stylianou, Mario; Vetter, Victoria L.; Saul, J. Philip

2008-01-01

243

Time- and state-dependent analysis of autonomic control in narcolepsy: higher heart rate with normal heart rate variability independent of sleep fragmentation.  

PubMed

Narcolepsy with hypocretin deficiency is known to alter cardiovascular control during sleep, but its aetiology is disputed. As cardiovascular control differs between sleep states, and narcolepsy affects sleep architecture, controlling for both duration and transitions of sleep states is necessary. This study therefore aimed to assess heart rate and its variability in narcolepsy during sleep taking these factors into account. The study included 12 medication-naïve patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy and hypocretin deficiency (11 male, 16-53 years old), and 12 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (11 male, 19-55 years). All subjects underwent 1-night ambulatory polysomnography recording. Cardiovascular parameters were calculated for each 30-s epoch. Heart rate was significantly higher in patients with narcolepsy than in controls in all sleep states and during wakefulness prior to sleep. Groups did not differ in heart rate variability measures. The effects of sleep state duration on heart rate and its variability were similar between patients and controls. In conclusion, heart rate was consistently higher in patients with narcolepsy than controls, independent of sleep stage and sleep fragmentation. A direct effect of hypocretin deficiency therefore seems probable. PMID:25382307

van der Meijden, Wisse P; Fronczek, Rolf; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Biermasz, Nienke R; Lammers, Gert Jan; van Dijk, J Gert; Thijs, Roland D

2014-11-01

244

Simultaneous measurement of breathing rate and heart rate using a microbend multimode fiber optic sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and demonstrate the feasibility of using a highly sensitive microbend multimode fiber optic sensor for simultaneous measurement of breathing rate (BR) and heart rate (HR). The sensing system consists of a transceiver, microbend multimode fiber, and a computer. The transceiver is comprised of an optical transmitter, an optical receiver, and circuits for data communication with the computer via Bluetooth. Comparative experiments conducted between the sensor and predicate commercial physiologic devices showed an accuracy of ±2 bpm for both BR and HR measurement. Our preliminary study of simultaneous measurement of BR and HR in a clinical trial conducted on 11 healthy subjects during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also showed very good agreement with measurements obtained from conventional MR-compatible devices.

Chen, Zhihao; Lau, Doreen; Teo, Ju Teng; Ng, Soon Huat; Yang, Xiufeng; Kei, Pin Lin

2014-05-01

245

Mechano-Electric Feedback in the Heart: Effects on Heart Rate and Rhythm  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cardiac electrical and mechanical activity are closely interrelated not only via the chain of events, commonly referred to\\u000a as “excitation–contraction coupling” (ECC), that links electrical excitation to contraction, but equally via feedback from\\u000a the heart’s mechanical environment to the origin and spread of cardiac excitation. The latter has been termed mechano-electric\\u000a feedback (MEF) and complements ECC to form an intracardiac

T. Alexander Quinn; Rebecca A. Bayliss; Peter Kohl

246

A Markovian formalization of heart rate dynamics evinces a quantum-like hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most investigations into heart rate dynamics have emphasized continuous functions, whereas the heart beat itself is a discrete\\u000a event. We present experimental evidence that by considering this quality, the dynamics may be appreciated as a result of singular\\u000a dynamics arising out of non-Lipschitz formalisms. Markov process analysis demonstrates that heart beats may then be considered\\u000a in terms of quantum-like constraints.

Alessandro Giuliani; Pietro Lo Giudice; Anna Maria Mancini; Gianni Quatrini; Licia Pacifici; Charles L. Webber; Michail Zak; Joseph P. Zbilut

1996-01-01

247

Sternal pulse rate variability compared with heart rate variabilit on healthy subjects.  

PubMed

The heart rate variability (HRV) is a commonly used method to quantify the sympathetic and the parasympa-thetic modulation of the heart rate. HRV is mainly conducted on electrocardiograms (ECG). However, the use of photo-plethysmography (PPG) as a marker of the autonomic tone is emerging. In this study we investigated the feasibility of deriving pulse rate variability (PRV) using PPG signals recorded by a reflectance PPG sensor attached to the chest bone (sternum) and comparing it to HRV. The recordings were conducted on 9 healthy subjects being in a relaxed supine position and under forced respiration, where the subjects were asked to breathe following a visual scale with a rate of 27 breaths/min. HRV parameters such as the mean intervals (meanNN), the standard deviation of intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of difference of successive intervals (RMSSD), and the proportion of intervals differing more than 50 ms (pNN50) were calculated from the R peak-to-R peak (R-R) and pulse-to-pulse (P-P) intervals. In the frequency domain the low and high frequency ratio of the power spectral density (LF/HF) was also computed. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed significant correlation for all the parameters (r > 0.95 with p <; 0.001) and the Bland-Altmann analysis showed close agreement between the two methods for all the parameters during resting and forced respiration condition. Thus, PRV analysis using sternal PPG can be an alternative to HRV analysis on healthy subjects at. PMID:25570719

Chreiteh, Shadi S; Belhage, Bo; Hoppe, Karsten; Branebjerg, Jens; Thomsen, Erik V

2014-08-01

248

Heart rate as a sublethal indicator of thermal stress in juvenile freshwater mussels.  

PubMed

Freshwater mussels (Unionoida) are one of the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in the world. Rising water temperatures, caused by industrial discharges, land development, or climate change can further challenge threatened unionid communities. The direct relationship between heart rate and temperature in ectotherms enables the use of heart rate as an indicator of whole-animal thermal stress. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of heart rate as an indicator of thermal stress in freshwater mussels. Seven species of juvenile mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis) were evaluated in response to a range of experimental temperatures (20-36 degrees C) at three acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27 degrees C). Heart rate was measured by direct visual observation through transparent mussel shells. The average heart rate for all 7 species at 20 degrees C was 55bpm, with a range from 38bpm (L. recta) to 65bpm (P. alatus). L. recta and V. delumbis exhibited significant changes in heart rate with increasing temperature at each of the three acclimation temperatures. The use of heart rate appears to be a suitable indicator of thermal stress in some unionid mussels. PMID:19596075

Pandolfo, Tamara J; Cope, W Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo

2009-11-01

249

Resting heart rate: its correlations and potential for screening metabolic dysfunctions in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background In pediatric populations, the use of resting heart rate as a health index remains unclear, mainly in epidemiological settings. The aims of this study were to analyze the impact of resting heart rate on screening dyslipidemia and high blood glucose and also to identify its significance in pediatric populations. Methods The sample was composed of 971 randomly selected adolescents aged 11 to 17 years (410 boys and 561 girls). Resting heart rate was measured with oscillometric devices using two types of cuffs according to the arm circumference. Biochemical parameters triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose were measured. Body fatness, sleep, smoking, alcohol consumption and cardiorespiratory fitness were analyzed. Results Resting heart rate was positively related to higher sleep quality (??=?0.005, p?=?0.039) and negatively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (??=??0.207, p?=?0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated significant potential for resting heart rate in the screening of adolescents at increased values of fasting glucose (area under curve?=?0.611?±?0.039 [0.534 – 0.688]) and triglycerides (area under curve?=?0.618?±?0.044 [0.531 – 0.705]). Conclusion High resting heart rate constitutes a significant and independent risk related to dyslipidemia and high blood glucose in pediatric populations. Sleep and cardiorespiratory fitness are two important determinants of the resting heart rate. PMID:23560541

2013-01-01

250

Heart rate variability explored in the frequency domain: A tool to investigate the link between heart and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neural regulation of circulatory function is mainly effected through the interplay of the sympathetic and vagal outflows. This interaction can be explored by assessing cardiovascular rhythmicity with appropriate spectral methodologies. Spectral analysis of cardiovascular signal variability, and in particular of RR period (heart rate variability, HRV), is a widely used procedure to investigate autonomic cardiovascular control and\\/or target function

Nicola Montano; Alberto Porta; Chiara Cogliati; Giorgio Costantino; Eleonora Tobaldini; Karina Rabello Casali; Ferdinando Iellamo

2009-01-01

251

Detection of fetal heart rate through 3-D phase space analysis from multivariate abdominal recordings.  

PubMed

A novel three-stage methodology for the detection of fetal heart rate (fHR) from multivariate abdominal ECG recordings is introduced. In the first stage, the maternal R-peaks and fiducial points (maternal QRS onset and offset) are detected, using band-pass filtering and phase space analysis. The maternal fiducial points are used to eliminate the maternal QRS complexes from the abdominal ECG recordings. In the second stage, two denoising procedures are applied to enhance the fetal QRS complexes. The phase space characteristics are employed to identify fetal heart beats not overlapping with the maternal QRSs, which are eliminated in the first stage. The extraction of the fHR is accomplished in the third stage, using a histogram-based technique in order to identify the location of the fetal heart beats that overlap with the maternal QRSs. The methodology is evaluated on simulated multichannel ECG signals, generated by a recently proposed model with various SNRs, and on real signals, recorded from pregnant women in various weeks during gestation. In both cases, the obtained results indicate high performance; in the simulated ECGs, the accuracy ranges from 72.78% to 98.61%, depending on the employed SNR, while in the real recordings, the average accuracy is 95.45%. The proposed methodology is advantageous since it copes with the existence of noise from various sources while it is applicable in multichannel abdominal recordings. PMID:19228552

Karvounis, Evaggelos C; Tsipouras, Markos G; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

2009-05-01

252

Gene Expression Profile of Increased Heart Rate in Shensongyangxin-Treated Bradycardia Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Aims. The present study tries to investigate the gene expression profile of bradycardia rabbits' hearts after SSYX (SSYX, a traditional Chinese medicine) treatment. Methods. Eighteen adult rabbits were randomly assigned in three groups: sham, model, and SSYX treatment groups. Heart rate was recorded in rabbits and total RNA was isolated from hearts. Gene expression profiling was conducted and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to confirm the gene expression results. Patch clamp using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes was applied to record the calcium current in the presence of SSYX. Results. The mean RR interval reduced after six weeks due to the injury of the sinoatrial node in the model group. This effect was partially reversed by 4-week SSYX treatment. cDNA microarray demonstrated that genes related with pacemaker current, calcium ion homeostasis, and signaling were altered by SSYX treatment. Results from patch clamp demonstrated that SSYX reduced the calcium current which is consistent with gene expression results. Conclusion. The present study shows mRNA remodeling of bradycardia and demonstrates that SSYX is effective in treating bradycardia by reversing altered gene expression in bradycardia models. Reduced calcium current by SSYX also confirmed the gene expression results. PMID:25525447

Liu, Zhouying; Huang, Jian; Huo, Youping

2014-01-01

253

Differences in mean and variability of heart rate and ambulatory rate-pressure product when valsartan or carvedilol is added to lisinopril.  

PubMed

Guidelines recommend combining ?-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in high-risk heart disease but not in the initial treatment of hypertension. The mechanism of this benefit has not been determined. After 3 weeks of lisinopril (L, 40 mg/day) run-in, 30 subjects entered a single-blinded, forced-titration, crossover study in which carvedilol (C, 20 then 40 mg/day) or a control renin-angiotensin blocker, valsartan (V, 160 then 320 mg/day) were added to L. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate monitoring was performed at the end of each period. Rate-pressure product (RPP, systolic BP × heart rate, an indicator of cardiac oxygen consumption) was measured over 24 hours, daytime (6 am to midnight), and nighttime (midnight to 6 am) periods. Variability (standard deviation and range) of RPP, BP, and heart rate was also investigated. After 4 weeks, mean 24-hour systolic BP was about 8 mm Hg lower when either V or C was added to L (P < .01 each). Heart rate was consistently lower with C (8 beats/min over 24 hours, P < .000) but was slightly increased with V (about 2 beats/min, P = NS). Consequently, C lowered RPP to a greater degree than V over 24 hours (about 8% vs. 2%, P < .000) and during daytime and nighttime periods (P < .000 each). In addition, RPP variability (SD but not range) was consistently lower on C than V. When added to L, C reduces the mean and variability (SD) of 24-hour heart rate and cardiac workload to a greater degree than valsartan. These effects may contribute to the outcome benefits observed with ?-blocker-ACE inhibitor combinations. PMID:23107894

Izzo, Joseph L; Yedlapati, Siva H; Faheem, Sheikh M; Younus, Usman; Osmond, Peter J

2012-01-01

254

Double blind placebo controlled trial of short term transdermal scopolamine on heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that short term application of transdermal scopolamine increases heart rate variability (HRV) and restores sympathovagal balance in patients with stable congestive heart failure (CHF). DESIGN: A double blind placebo controlled crossover study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS: Twelve patients (mean age 66 (10)) with New York Heart Association class II-IV CHF. All patients had coronary artery disease (mean left ventricular ejection fraction 26.7 (8.9) %). INTERVENTION: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo skin patch or a transdermal scopolamine patch (Transderm, 0.05 mg/h). Patches remained in place for 48 hours with a 24 hour washout period before crossover. OUTCOME MEASURES: HRV was derived from (a) 24 hour time domain indices (mean RR interval, standard deviation of interbeat interval, and the baseline width of the frequency distribution of RR intervals) and (b) short data set (2.2 mm) power spectral measurements using autoregressive modelling. Autospectral measures were performed in both resting supine and standing (orthostatic) states. The 24 hour Holter record was obtained during the second day of patch application. RESULTS: There was a small but significant (P < 0.05) increase in all time domain HRV variables with scopolamine. There was a paradoxical fall in low frequency (LF) spectral power induced by orthostasis during baseline (-30%) and placebo (-34%) states. Conversely, scopolamine was associated with a 14% increase in LF power during orthostatic stress. Scopolamine thus significantly reduced the orthostatic fall in LF (P < 0.01) compared with either baseline or placebo values. No difference in circadian rhythm was seen between the scopolamine and placebo treatment periods. However, the abrupt fall in the high frequency (vagal) power during the early morning sleep-wake hours was reduced by scopolamine. Scopolamine was also associated with a significant rightward shift in the resting LF central frequency consistent with a vagomimetic effect. CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic stable CHF showed a paradoxical fall in the low frequency (sympathetic) power during orthostatic stress. Transdermal scopolamine applied over a 48 hour period partially restored the balance between sympathetic tone and vagal activity in CHF patients and maintained this balance during orthostatic stress. Images PMID:8795476

Venkatesh, G.; Fallen, E. L.; Kamath, M. V.; Connolly, S.; Yusuf, S.

1996-01-01

255

Automated detection of perinatal hypoxia using time-frequency-based heart rate variability features.  

PubMed

Perinatal hypoxia is a cause of cerebral injury in foetuses and neonates. Detection of foetal hypoxia during labour based on the pattern recognition of heart rate signals suffers from high observer variability and low specificity. We describe a new automated hypoxia detection method using time-frequency analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) signals. This approach uses features extracted from the instantaneous frequency and instantaneous amplitude of HRV signal components as well as features based on matrix decomposition of the signals' time-frequency distributions using singular value decomposition and non-negative matrix factorization. The classification between hypoxia and non-hypoxia data is performed using a support vector machine classifier. The proposed method is tested on a dataset obtained from a newborn piglet model with a controlled hypoxic insult. The chosen HRV features show strong performance compared to conventional spectral features and other existing methods of hypoxia detection with a sensitivity 93.3 %, specificity 98.3 % and accuracy 95.8 %. The high predictive value of this approach to detecting hypoxia is a substantial step towards developing a more accurate and reliable hypoxia detection method for use in human foetal monitoring. PMID:24272142

Dong, Shiying; Boashash, Boualem; Azemi, Ghasem; Lingwood, Barbara E; Colditz, Paul B

2014-02-01

256

Association between stressful life events and resting heart rate  

PubMed Central

Background Despite a diverse literature, the association between stress and various cardiovascular conditions remains controversial. Moreover, a direct association between stressful life events (SLEs) and heart rate (HR) have not been fully investigated. This study evaluated the association between SLEs and resting HR in middle-aged Koreans. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted for 1,703 men and 2,730 women aged 27–87 years from the community-based Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study-Kanghwa study. All participants completed a baseline health examination. The life experience survey questionnaire was administered to measure SLEs experienced during the past 3 months. Resting blood pressure and HR were measured twice over a 5 minute interval. If the difference in blood pressure was more than 10 mmHg, then a third blood pressure and HR measurement was taken after 5 minutes of rest. The average of the last two measurements was used for analysis. The association between SLEs and HR was assessed by correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. Results Compared with people with no SLEs (mean HR of 67.30 beats/min), HR was significantly lower in those who experienced one (mean HR of 65.64 beats/min, p?=?0.002), two (mean HR of 63.73 beats/min, p?

2014-01-01

257

Intermittent auscultation of the fetal heart rate during labor: an opportunity for shared decision making.  

PubMed

Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring is the most common form of intrapartal fetal assessment in the United States. Intermittent auscultation of the fetal heart rate is an acceptable option for low-risk laboring women, yet it is underutilized in the hospital setting. Several expert organizations have proposed the use of intermittent auscultation as a means of promoting physiologic childbirth. Within a shared decision-making model, the low-risk pregnant woman should be presented with current evidence about options for fetal heart rate assessment during labor. PMID:24758413

Hersh, Sally; Megregian, Michele; Emeis, Cathy

2014-01-01

258

Effects of Smoking Cessation on Heart Rate Variability Among Long-Term Male Smokers  

E-print Network

Cigarette smoking has been shown to adverse- ly affect heart rate variability (HRV), suggesting dysregula] and introduces a variety of adverse health consequences such as cardiovas- cular diseases (CVD) [2], respiratory diseases [3], and can- cer [4]. Smoking also increases the risk of ischemic heart disease and sudden

Meston, Cindy

259

Behavioural and heart rate responses to velvet antler removal in red deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate and behaviour during and following velvet antler removal were monitored in yearling red deer stags to determine the extent to which this procedure was perceived by the deer to be aversive. Nine stags normally kept at pasture were habituated over 5 weeks to the following daily handling procedure. Each deer was fitted with a harness containing a heart

J. C. Pollard; R. P. Littlejohn; P. Johnstone; F. J. Lass; I. D. Carson; J. M. Suttie

1992-01-01

260

X-band Radar System for Detecting Heart and Respiration Rates  

E-print Network

X-band Radar System for Detecting Heart and Respiration Rates Jee-Hoon Lee, Yun-Taek Im, and Seong an X-band Doppler radar system to detect heart and respiration of human far away. Through the idea polarization. This bistatic radar system can be used in non-invasively sensing bio signals such as respiration

Park, Seong-Ook

261

Differential heart-rate responses to person in nervous and normal pointer dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of two behaviorally contrasting lines of purebred pointer dogs were tested during development at ages 3, 6, and 9 months for heart-rate response to the presence of and petting by a human. Dogs of the Nervous line, which show retreat, fearfulness, and freezing postures in the presence of humans and novel objects, exhibited at all ages a reduced heart

Joseph E. O. Newton; Linda A. Lucas

1982-01-01

262

Influence of heart rate on vessel visibility in noninvasive coronary angiography using new multislice computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Initial reports indicate that coronary artery lesions might be visualized with high sensitivity and specificity by the use of recently introduced multislice computed tomography (MSCT). Current CT technology offers a temporal resolution of 250 ms. In case of heart rates (HRs) >65 beats\\/min (bpm), however, the reconstruction software switches from a single-phase algorithm (using data from one heart cycle

Stephen Schroeder; Andreas F Kopp; Axel Kuettner; Christof Burgstahler; Christian Herdeg; Martin Heuschmid; Andreas Baumbach; Claus D Claussen; Karl R Karsch; Ludger Seipel

2002-01-01

263

Effect of intracerebroventricular and intravenous administration of nitric oxide donors on blood pressure and heart rate in anaesthetized rats.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of nitric oxide (NO) releasing substances, sodium nitroprusside, 3-morpholino sydnonimine (SIN-1) and a novel oxatriazole derivative, GEA 3162, on blood pressure and heart rate were studied after peripheral or central administration in anaesthetized normotensive Wistar rats. 2. Given as cumulative intravenous injections, both nitroprusside and GEA 3162 (24-188 nmol kg-1) induced short-lasting and dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure, while SIN-1 decreased blood pressure only slightly even after larger doses (94-3000 nmol kg-1). Heart rate increased concomitantly with the hypotensive effect of the NO-releasing substances. 3. Cumulative intracerebroventricular administration of GEA 3162 (24-188 nmol kg-1) induced a dose-dependent hypotension with slight but insignificant increases in heart rate. In contrast, intracerebroventricular nitroprusside induced little change in blood pressure, while a large dose of SIN-1 (3000 nmol kg-1, i.c.v.) slightly increased mean arterial pressure. However, intracerebroventricular nitroprusside and SIN-1 increased heart rate at doses that did not significantly affect blood pressure. 4. To determine whether the cardiovascular effects of GEA 3162 were attributable to an elevation of cyclic GMP levels, pretreatments with methylene blue, a putative guanylate cyclase inhibitor, were performed. This substance failed to attenuate the cardiovascular effects of peripherally or centrally administered GEA 3162, suggesting that the effects were independent of guanylate cyclase. 5. In conclusion, the centrally administered NO-donor, GEA 3162, induced a dose-dependent. hypotensive response without significant changes in heart rate. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injections of nitroprusside and SIN-1 increased heart rate without affecting blood pressure. These results suggest that NO released by these drugs may affect central mechanisms involved in cardiovascular regulation independently of cyclic GMP. PMID:8968551

Nurminen, M. L.; Vapaatalo, H.

1996-01-01

264

Embryos in the Fast Lane: High-Temperature Heart Rates of Turtles Decline After Hatching  

PubMed Central

In ectotherms such as turtles, the relationship between cardiovascular function and temperature may be subject to different selective pressures in different life-history stages. Because embryos benefit by developing as rapidly as possible, and can “afford” to expend energy to do so (because they have access to the yolk for nutrition), they benefit from rapid heart (and thus, developmental) rates. In contrast, hatchlings do not have a guaranteed food supply, and maximal growth rates may not enhance fitness—and so, we might expect a lower heart rate, especially at high temperatures where metabolic costs are greatest. Our data on two species of emydid turtles, Chrysemys picta, and Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii, support these predictions. Heart rates of embryos and hatchlings were similar at low temperatures, but heart rates at higher temperatures were much greater before than after hatching. PMID:20224773

Du, Wei-Guo; Zhao, Bo; Shine, Richard

2010-01-01

265

Classification of fetal heart rate using grammatical evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an ongoing effort to develop advanced methods and computer-based systems to assist obstetricians in the difficult task of feature extraction and classification of the cardiotocogram (CTG), which is the most widely used electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) method worldwide. A novel method for feature construction is presented for efficient classification of CTG based on information extracted from fetal heart

Dimitris Gavrilis; I. G. Tsoulos

2005-01-01

266

Heart rate turbulence in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus type 2  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) causes substantial morbidity and increased mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Besides heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate turbulence (HRT) is an important method of assessment of cardiac autonomic regulation. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between HRT and diabetic control. Material and methods Fifty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria – 38 males and 21 females, age 64.4 ±7.6. The patients included had inadequately controlled DM type 2 defined as glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) > 9% (mean 11.8 ±2.7%). In all patients, intensive insulin treatment had been applied for 6 months. After 6 months, HbA1c was measured. ECG Holter monitoring was performed before and after insulin treatment to evaluate the time domain HRV and HRT parameters (turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS)). Results After 6 months of intensive insulin treatment, HbA1c concentrations ranged from 6.3% (45 mmol/mol) to 11.2% (99 mmol/mol) – mean 8.5 ±3.8% (69 ±18 mmol/mol). Significant improvement of TO, TS and SDNN was observed. The TO and TS significantly correlated with HbA1c (r = 0.35, p = 0.006 and r = –0.31, p = 0.02 respectively). Among analyzed HRV time domain parameters such as SDNN, rMSSD and pNN50, only SDNN correlated with HbA1c (r = –0.41, p = 0.001). It was further concluded that intensive insulin therapy led to better glycemic control, resulting in improvement of HRT. Conclusions Heart rate turbulence may be useful in monitoring changes of the autonomic nervous system functions in patients with DM, similarly to HRV parameters. PMID:25624841

Ruxer, Jan; Ahmed, Rehana B.; Lubinski, Andrzej

2014-01-01

267

Influence of exercise modality on agreement between gas exchange and heart rate variability thresholds.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between the gas exchange threshold (GET) and heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) using three different exercise modalities. A further aim was to establish whether there was a 1:1 relationship between the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) and percentage oxygen uptake reserve (%VO2 R) at intensities corresponding to GET and HRVT. Sixteen apparently healthy men 17 to 28 years of age performed three maximal CPETs (cycling, walking, and running). Mean heart rate and VO2 at GET and HRVT were 16 bpm (P<0.001) and 5.2 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) (P=0.001) higher in running than cycling, but no significant differences were observed between running and walking, or cycling and walking (P>0.05). There was a strong relationship between GET and HRVT, with R2 ranging from 0.69 to 0.90. A 1:1 relationship between %HRR and % VO2 R was not observed at GET and HRVT. The %HRR was higher during cycling (GET mean difference=7%; HRVT mean difference=11%; both P<0.001), walking (GET mean difference=13%; HRVT mean difference=13%; both P<0.001), or running (GET mean difference=11%; HRVT mean difference=10%; both P<0.001). Therefore, using HRVT to prescribe aerobic exercise intensity appears to be valid. However, to assume a 1:1 relationship between %HRR and % VO2 R at HRVT would probably result in overestimation of the energy expenditure during the bout of exercise. PMID:25003546

Cunha, F A; Montenegro, R A; Midgley, A W; Vasconcellos, F; Soares, P P; Farinatti, P

2014-08-01

268

Assessment of electrocardiography, echocardiography, and heart rate variability in dynamic and static type athletes  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the last two decades, morphological cardiac changes induced by athletic conditioning have been of great interest. Therefore, several studies have been orchestrated to delineate electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and heart rate variability (HRV) findings in athletes. Purpose: To assess the ECG, echocardiography, and HRV in a group of dynamic and static type athletes. Methods: Fifty professional athletes (20 static and 30 dynamic exercise athletes) and 50 healthy nonathletes (control group) were recruited. Standard 12-lead ECG and transthoracic echocardiography was performed on all athletes and the control group. Through echocardiography, variables including left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic/systolic diameter, LV mass, and left atrial volume index were measured. In addition, both the athletes and the control group underwent ECG Holter monitoring for 15 minutes and several parameters related to HRV (time and frequency domain) were recorded. Results: The most common ECG abnormalities among the athletes were sinus bradycardia and incomplete right bundle branch block. LV end-diastolic diameter and left atrial volume index were significantly greater in the dynamic athletes (P < 0.001). LV end-systolic diameter was significantly lower in the static group (P < 0.001). LV mass of the dynamic and static athletes was significantly greater than that of the controls (P < 0.001). Among the ECG Holter monitoring findings, the dynamic athletes had lower systolic blood pressure than the controls (P = 0.01). Heart rate was lowest in the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The most common ECG abnormalities among adolescent Iranian athletes were sinus bradycardia and incomplete right bundle branch block. Static exercise seemed to reduce LV end-systolic diameter, while dynamic exercise resulted in increased LV end-diastolic diameter and left atrial volume index. Additionally, Iranian athletes showed no differences in HRV parameters, excluding heart rate and systolic blood pressure, compared with the nonathletes. PMID:22924010

Toufan, Mehrnoush; Kazemi, Babak; Akbarzadeh, Fariborz; Ataei, Amin; Khalili, Majid

2012-01-01

269

Influence of exercise modality on agreement between gas exchange and heart rate variability thresholds  

PubMed Central

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between the gas exchange threshold (GET) and heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) using three different exercise modalities. A further aim was to establish whether there was a 1:1 relationship between the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) and percentage oxygen uptake reserve (%V?O2?R) at intensities corresponding to GET and HRVT. Sixteen apparently healthy men 17 to 28 years of age performed three maximal CPETs (cycling, walking, and running). Mean heart rate and V?O2 at GET and HRVT were 16 bpm (P<0.001) and 5.2 mL·kg-1·min-1 (P=0.001) higher in running than cycling, but no significant differences were observed between running and walking, or cycling and walking (P>0.05). There was a strong relationship between GET and HRVT, with R2 ranging from 0.69 to 0.90. A 1:1 relationship between %HRR and %V?O2?R was not observed at GET and HRVT. The %HRR was higher during cycling (GET mean difference=7%; HRVT mean difference=11%; both P<0.001), walking (GET mean difference=13%; HRVT mean difference=13%; both P<0.001), or running (GET mean difference=11%; HRVT mean difference=10%; both P<0.001). Therefore, using HRVT to prescribe aerobic exercise intensity appears to be valid. However, to assume a 1:1 relationship between %HRR and %V?O2?R at HRVT would probably result in overestimation of the energy expenditure during the bout of exercise. PMID:25003546

Cunha, F.A.; Montenegro, R.A.; Midgley, A.W.; Vasconcellos, F.; Soares, P.P.; Farinatti, P.

2014-01-01

270

Heart rate variability and metabolic rate in healthy young adults with low birth weight  

PubMed Central

Objective: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with obesity and a higher cardiovascular risk in adult life. Since autonomic dysfunction could be a pathophysiological factor for this association, we assessed the impact of LBW on cardiac autonomic activity and metabolic rate in young adulthood. We hypothesized that the autonomic tone could be coupled with the metabolic rate in subjects with LBW. Methods: Heart rate variability (HRV) from 24-hour Holter-electrocardiograms was measured in 15 healthy adults aged 20 to 30 years with LBW (<2500g at term) and 15 paired subjects with normal birth weight (NBW). The pairs were closely matched by gender, age, and body mass index. Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance. Results: Global HRV parameters were significantly higher in the LBW group and a marked difference was observed in the long wave fluctuations of the frequency domain (very low frequency). These fluctuations were positively correlated with the resting energy expenditure per body weight in the LBW and negatively in the NBW group. Only in the LBW group HRV was closely related to body fat. Interpretation: This case-control study indicates that autonomous nervous function is not generally deteriorated in young adults with LBW and has a significant association with metabolic rate. Thus, it may be a determinant of the body weight regulation in this group. The higher cardiovascular risk in ageing individuals with LBW would therefore rather be a consequence of weight gain than of a primary autonomous nervous dysfunction. PMID:24224135

Weitz, Gunther; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Süfke, Sven; Wellhöner, Peter; Lehnert, Hendrik; Dodt, Christoph

2013-01-01

271

An ontogenetic shift in the response of heart rates to temperature in the developing snapping turtle ( Chelydra serpentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The affect of acute changes in temperature on heart rates was investigated for the first time in a developing reptile. Heart rates were determined early and late in incubation in snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs. Late in incubation heart rates at any given temperature were lower than those observed early in incubation. The results of temperature switching experiments late in

Geoffrey F Birchard

2000-01-01

272

Heart rate responses to social interactions in free-moving rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate telemetry was explored as a means to access animal emotion during social interactions under naturalistic conditions. Heart rates of 2 middle-ranking adult females living in a large group of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) were recorded along with their behavior. Heart rate changes during 2 types of interactions were investigated, while controlling for the effects of posture and activity.

Filippo Aureli; Stephanie D. Preston; Frans B. M. de Waal

1999-01-01

273

Abstract--Heart rate variability (HRV) is frequently used to measure autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. However,  

E-print Network

1 of 4 Abstract--Heart rate variability (HRV) is frequently used to measure autonomic nervous frequency (HF) ratio with little change in mean heart rate. Results suggest that nicotine affects both components may yield erroneous results. Keywords--Autonomic regulation, heart rate variability, Lomb

274

Maximal heart rates of 130140beats min-1 have been measured in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) (Brill, 1987;  

E-print Network

Maximal heart rates of 130­140beats min-1 have been measured in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares, skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) have maximum heart rates of 154­191 beats min-1 (Brill, 1987; Farrell et­contraction coupling in tuna and other fishes. One possible explanation for the exceptional maximum heart rates in tuna

Farrell, Anthony P.

275

A simple and novel method to monitor breathing and heart rate in awake and urethane-anesthetized newborn rodents.  

PubMed

Rodents are most useful models to study physiological and pathophysiological processes in early development, because they are born in a relatively immature state. However, only few techniques are available to monitor non-invasively heart frequency and respiratory rate in neonatal rodents without restraining or hindering access to the animal. Here we describe experimental procedures that allow monitoring of heart frequency by electrocardiography (ECG) and breathing rate with a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) element without hindering access to the animal. These techniques can be easily installed and are used in the present study in unrestrained awake and anesthetized neonatal C57/Bl6 mice and Wistar rats between postnatal day 0 and 7. In line with previous reports from awake rodents we demonstrate that heart rate in rats and mice increases during the first postnatal week. Respiratory frequency did not differ between both species, but heart rate was significantly higher in mice than in rats. Further our data indicate that urethane, an agent that is widely used for anesthesia, induces a hypoventilation in neonates whilst heart rate remains unaffected at a dose of 1 g per kg body weight. Of note, hypoventilation induced by urethane was not detected in rats at postnatal 0/1. To verify the detected hypoventilation we performed blood gas analyses. We detected a respiratory acidosis reflected by a lower pH and elevated level in CO2 tension (pCO2) in both species upon urethane treatment. Furthermore we found that metabolism of urethane is different in P0/1 mice and rats and between P0/1 and P6/7 in both species. Our findings underline the usefulness of monitoring basic cardio-respiratory parameters in neonates during anesthesia. In addition our study gives information on developmental changes in heart and breathing frequency in newborn mice and rats and the effects of urethane in both species during the first postnatal week. PMID:23658756

Zehendner, Christoph M; Luhmann, Heiko J; Yang, Jenq-Wei

2013-01-01

276

A Simple and Novel Method to Monitor Breathing and Heart Rate in Awake and Urethane-Anesthetized Newborn Rodents  

PubMed Central

Rodents are most useful models to study physiological and pathophysiological processes in early development, because they are born in a relatively immature state. However, only few techniques are available to monitor non-invasively heart frequency and respiratory rate in neonatal rodents without restraining or hindering access to the animal. Here we describe experimental procedures that allow monitoring of heart frequency by electrocardiography (ECG) and breathing rate with a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) element without hindering access to the animal. These techniques can be easily installed and are used in the present study in unrestrained awake and anesthetized neonatal C57/Bl6 mice and Wistar rats between postnatal day 0 and 7. In line with previous reports from awake rodents we demonstrate that heart rate in rats and mice increases during the first postnatal week. Respiratory frequency did not differ between both species, but heart rate was significantly higher in mice than in rats. Further our data indicate that urethane, an agent that is widely used for anesthesia, induces a hypoventilation in neonates whilst heart rate remains unaffected at a dose of 1 g per kg body weight. Of note, hypoventilation induced by urethane was not detected in rats at postnatal 0/1. To verify the detected hypoventilation we performed blood gas analyses. We detected a respiratory acidosis reflected by a lower pH and elevated level in CO2 tension (pCO2) in both species upon urethane treatment. Furthermore we found that metabolism of urethane is different in P0/1 mice and rats and between P0/1 and P6/7 in both species. Our findings underline the usefulness of monitoring basic cardio-respiratory parameters in neonates during anesthesia. In addition our study gives information on developmental changes in heart and breathing frequency in newborn mice and rats and the effects of urethane in both species during the first postnatal week. PMID:23658756

Zehendner, Christoph M.; Luhmann, Heiko J.; Yang, Jenq-Wei

2013-01-01

277

A non-contact method based on multiple signal classification algorithm to reduce the measurement time for accurately heart rate detection.  

PubMed

Non-contact methods for the assessment of vital signs are of great interest for specialists due to the benefits obtained in both medical and special applications, such as those for surveillance, monitoring, and search and rescue. This paper investigates the possibility of implementing a digital processing algorithm based on the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) parametric spectral estimation in order to reduce the observation time needed to accurately measure the heart rate. It demonstrates that, by proper dimensioning the signal subspace, the MUSIC algorithm can be optimized in order to accurately assess the heart rate during an 8-28 s time interval. The validation of the processing algorithm performance was achieved by minimizing the mean error of the heart rate after performing simultaneous comparative measurements on several subjects. In order to calculate the error the reference value of heart rate was measured using a classic measurement system through direct contact. PMID:24007088

Bechet, P; Mitran, R; Munteanu, M

2013-08-01

278

PARTICULATE MATTER AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY AMONG ELDERLY RETIREES: THE BALTIMORE 1998 PM STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigates the reported relationship between ambient fine particle pollution and impaired cardiac autonomic control in the elderly. Heart rate variability (HRV) among 56 elderly (mean age 82) nonsmoking residents of a retirement center in Baltimore County, Maryland,...

279

Dynamic cardiovagal response to motion sickness: A point-process heart rate variability study  

E-print Network

A visual display of stripes was used to examine cardiovagal response to motion sickness. Heart rate variability (HRV) was investigated using dynamic methods to discern instantaneous fluctuations in reaction to stimulus and ...

Brown, Emery N.

280

Nonlinear control techniques for the heart rate regulation in treadmill exercises.  

PubMed

It has been recently shown in the literature that a robust output feedback controller for the heart rate regulation can be designed for an experimentally validated second order nonlinear model of the human heart rate response during long-duration treadmill exercises: It is based on piecewise linear approximations of the original nonlinear model and involves (local) robust linear control techniques. In this letter, we resort to recent nonlinear advanced control techniques in order to illustrate the existence of a nonlocal and nonswitching control which guarantees heart rate regulation with no exact knowledge of model parameters and nonlinearities: It simply generalizes to the nonlinear framework the classical proportional-integral control design for linear models of heart rate response during treadmill exercises. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in typical training exercises involving warm up/holding/cool down phases. PMID:22167561

Scalzi, Stefano; Tomei, Patrizio; Verrelli, Cristiano Maria

2012-03-01

281

Assessment of Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate During General Anesthesia Point Process Method  

E-print Network

Evaluation of baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) has important implications in clinical practice of anesthesia and postoperative care. In this paper, we present a point process method to assess the dynamic baroreflex ...

Pierce, Eric T.

282

Using complexity metrics with R-R intervals and BPM heart rate measures  

PubMed Central

Lately, growing attention in the health sciences has been paid to the dynamics of heart rate as indicator of impending failures and for prognoses. Likewise, in social and cognitive sciences, heart rate is increasingly employed as a measure of arousal, emotional engagement and as a marker of interpersonal coordination. However, there is no consensus about which measurements and analytical tools are most appropriate in mapping the temporal dynamics of heart rate and quite different metrics are reported in the literature. As complexity metrics of heart rate variability depend critically on variability of the data, different choices regarding the kind of measures can have a substantial impact on the results. In this article we compare linear and non-linear statistics on two prominent types of heart beat data, beat-to-beat intervals (R-R interval) and beats-per-min (BPM). As a proof-of-concept, we employ a simple rest-exercise-rest task and show that non-linear statistics—fractal (DFA) and recurrence (RQA) analyses—reveal information about heart beat activity above and beyond the simple level of heart rate. Non-linear statistics unveil sustained post-exercise effects on heart rate dynamics, but their power to do so critically depends on the type data that is employed: While R-R intervals are very susceptible to non-linear analyses, the success of non-linear methods for BPM data critically depends on their construction. Generally, “oversampled” BPM time-series can be recommended as they retain most of the information about non-linear aspects of heart beat dynamics. PMID:23964244

Wallot, Sebastian; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian; Jegindø, Else-Marie

2013-01-01

283

A wavelet-based heart rate variability analysis for the study of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that the sympathovagal balance (SB) can be quantified by heart rate (HR) via the low-frequency (LF) to high-frequency (HF) spectral power ratio LF\\/HF. In this paper, an investigation of the relationship between the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) is presented. A wavelet transform (WT)-based approach for short-time heart rate variability (HRV) assessments

Szi-Wen Chen

2002-01-01

284

Inverse coupling between ultradian oscillations in delta wave activity and heart rate variability during sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We investigate the relationship between changes in heart rate variability and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep.Method: Nine male subjects with regular non-rapid-eye movement-rapid-eye movement (NREM-REM) sleep cycles were included in the study. They underwent EEG and cardiac recordings during one experimental night. Heart rate variability was determined over 5-min periods by the ratio of low frequency to low frequency

Gabrielle Brandenberger; Jean Ehrhart; François Piquard; Chantal Simon

2001-01-01

285

Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously established loci. Experimental downregulation of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio identified 20 genes at

Marcel den Hoed; Mark Eijgelsheim; Tõnu Esko; Bianca J J M Brundel; David S Peal; David M Evans; Ilja M Nolte; Ayellet V Segrè; Hilma Holm; Robert E Handsaker; Harm-Jan Westra; Toby Johnson; Aaron Isaacs; Jian Yang; Alicia Lundby; Jing Hua Zhao; Young Jin Kim; Min Jin Go; Peter Almgren; Murielle Bochud; Gabrielle Boucher; Marilyn C Cornelis; Daniel Gudbjartsson; David Hadley; Pim van der Harst; Caroline Hayward; Martin den Heijer; Wilmar Igl; Anne U Jackson; Zolt'an Kutalik; Jian'an Luan; John P Kemp; Kati Kristiansson; Claes Ladenvall; Mattias Lorentzon; May E Montasser; Omer T Njajou; Paul F O'Reilly; Sandosh Padmanabhan; Beate St Pourcain; Tuomo Rankinen; Perttu Salo; Toshiko Tanaka; Nicholas J Timpson; Veronique Vitart; Lindsay Waite; William Wheeler; Weihua Zhang; Harmen H M Draisma; Mary F Feitosa; Kathleen F Kerr; Penelope A Lind; Evelin Mihailov; N Charlotte Onland-Moret; Ci Song; Michael N Weedon; Weijia Xie; Loic Yengo; Devin Absher; Christine M Albert; Alvaro Alonso; Dan E Arking; Paul I W de Bakker; Beverley Balkau; Cristina Barlassina; Paola Benaglio; Joshua C Bis; Nabila Bouatia-Naji; So ren Brage; Stephen J Chanock; Peter S Chines; Mina Chung; Dawood Darbar; Christian Dina; Marcus Drr; Paul Elliott; Stephan B Felix; Krista Fischer; Christian Fuchsberger; Eco J C de Geus; Philippe Goyette; Vilmundur Gudnason; Tamara B Harris; Anna-Liisa Hartikainen; Aki S Havulinna; Susan R Heckbert; Andrew A Hicks; Albert Hofman; Suzanne Holewijn; Femke Hoogstra-Berends; Jouke-Jan Hottenga; Majken K Jensen; Asa Johansson; Juhani Junttila; Stefan Kb; Bart Kanon; Shamika Ketkar; Kay-Tee Khaw; Joshua W Knowles; Angrad S Kooner; Jan A Kors; Meena Kumari; Lili Milani; Pivi Laiho; Edward G Lakatta; Claudia Langenberg; Maarten Leusink; Yongmei Liu; Robert N Luben; Kathryn L Lunetta; Stacey N Lynch; Marcello R P Markus; Pedro Marques-Vidal; Irene Mateo Leach; Wendy L McArdle; Steven A McCarroll; Sarah E Medland; Kathryn A Miller; Grant W Montgomery; Alanna C Morrison; Martina Mller-Nurasyid; Pau Navarro; Mari Nelis; Jeffrey R O'Connell; Christopher J O'Donnell; Ken K Ong; Anne B Newman; Annette Peters; Ozren Polasek; Anneli Pouta; Peter P Pramstaller; Bruce M Psaty; Dabeeru C Rao; Susan M Ring; Elizabeth J Rossin; Diana Rudan; Serena Sanna; Robert A Scott; Jaban S Sehmi; Stephen Sharp; Jordan T Shin; Andrew B Singleton; Albert V Smith; Nicole Soranzo; Tim D Spector; Chip Stewart; Heather M Stringham; Kirill V Tarasov; Andr'e G Uitterlinden; Liesbeth Vandenput; Shih-Jen Hwang; John B Whitfield; Cisca Wijmenga; Sarah H Wild; Gonneke Willemsen; James F Wilson; Jacqueline C M Witteman; Andrew Wong; Quenna Wong; Yalda Jamshidi; Paavo Zitting; Jolanda M A Boer; Dorret I Boomsma; Ingrid B Borecki; Cornelia M van Duijn; Ulf Ekelund; Nita G Forouhi; Philippe Froguel; Aroon Hingorani; Erik Ingelsson; Mika Kivimaki; Richard A Kronmal; Diana Kuh; Lars Lind; Nicholas G Martin; Ben A Oostra; Nancy L Pedersen; Thomas Quertermous; Jerome I Rotter; Yvonne T van der Schouw; W M Monique Verschuren; Mark Walker; Demetrius Albanes; David O Arnar; Themistocles L Assimes; Stefania Bandinelli; Michael Boehnke; Rudolf A de Boer; Claude Bouchard; W L Mark Caulfield; John C Chambers; Gary Curhan; Daniele Cusi; Johan Eriksson; Luigi Ferrucci; Wiek H van Gilst; Nicola Glorioso; Jacqueline de Graaf; Leif Groop; Ulf Gyllensten; Wen-Chi Hsueh; Frank B Hu; Heikki V Huikuri; David J Hunter; Carlos Iribarren; Bo Isomaa; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Antti Jula; Mika Khnen; Lambertus A Kiemeney; Melanie M van der Klauw; Jaspal S Kooner; Peter Kraft; Licia Iacoviello; Terho Lehtimki; Marja-Liisa L Lokki; Braxton D Mitchell; Gerjan Navis; Markku S Nieminen; Claes Ohlsson; Neil R Poulter; Lu Qi; Olli T Raitakari; Eric B Rimm; John D Rioux; Federica Rizzi; Igor Rudan; Veikko Salomaa; Peter S Sever; Denis C Shields; Alan R Shuldiner; Juha Sinisalo; Alice V Stanton; Ronald P Stolk; David P Strachan; Jean-Claude Tardif; Unnur Thorsteinsdottir; Jaako Tuomilehto; Dirk J van Veldhuisen; Jarmo Virtamo; Jorma Viikari; Peter Vollenweider; G'erard Waeber; Elisabeth Widen; Yoon Shin Cho; Jesper V Olsen; Peter M Visscher; Cristen Willer; Lude Franke; Jeanette Erdmann; John R Thompson; Arne Pfeufer; Nona Sotoodehnia; Christopher Newton-Cheh; Patrick T Ellinor; Bruno H Ch Stricker; Andres Metspalu; Markus Perola; Jacques S Beckmann; George Davey Smith; Kari Stefansson; Nicholas J Wareham; Patricia B Munroe; Ody C M Sibon; David J Milan; Harold Snieder; Nilesh J Samani; Ruth J F Loos

2013-01-01

286

Respiratory influences on non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The goal of our study was to determine whether evidence for chaos in heart rate variability (HRV) can be observed when the\\u000a respiratory input to the autonomic controller of heart rate is forced by the deterministic pattern associated with periodic\\u000a breathing. We simultaneously recorded, in supine healthy volunteers, RR intervals and breathing volumes for 20 to 30?min (1024\\u000a data point

J.-O. Fortrat; Yoshiharu Yamamoto; Richard L. Hughson

1997-01-01

287

Response of egg temperature, heart rate and blood pressure in the chick embryo to hypothermal stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken eggs incubated for 12–18 days were catheterized via the allantoic artery and temperature was monitored simultaneously using a probe positioned in the allantoic fluid adjacent to the embryo. Fluid temperature (referred to as egg temperature), arterial pressure and heart rate were measured following abrupt exposure to a lower environmental temperature (ca., 26~28°C). Egg temperature and heart rate diminished exponentially:

Hiroshi Tazawa; Shoji Nakagawa

1985-01-01

288

Heart Rate Variability Predicts Cognitive Reactivity to a Sad Mood Provocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive reactivity—the tendency to think negatively in response to a sad mood—is an important predictor of depression vulnerability.\\u000a The current study examined whether heart rate variability, a physiological index of emotion regulation capacity, predicts\\u000a individual differences in cognitive reactivity. Heart rate variability in the high frequency spectrum was assessed during\\u000a a 5-min rest period among a sample of healthy, female

Christopher G. BeeversAlissa; Alissa J. Ellis; Ryan M. Reid

289

Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the realm of multiscale signal analysis, multifractal analysis provides a natural and rich framework to measure the roughness of a time series. As such, it has drawn special attention of both mathematicians and practitioners, and led them to characterize relevant physiological factors impacting the heart rate variability. Notwithstanding these considerable progresses, multifractal analysis almost exclusively developed around the concept of Legendre singularity spectrum, for which efficient and elaborate estimators exist, but which are structurally blind to subtle features like non-concavity or, to a certain extent, non scaling of the distributions. Large deviations theory allows bypassing these limitations but it is only very recently that performing estimators were proposed to reliably compute the corresponding large deviations singularity spectrum. In this article, we illustrate the relevance of this approach, on both theoretical objects and on human heart rate signals from the Physionet public database. As conjectured, we verify that large deviations principles reveal significant information that otherwise remains hidden with classical approaches, and which can be reminiscent of some physiological characteristics. In particular we quantify the presence/absence of scale invariance of RR signals.

Loiseau, Patrick; Médigue, Claire; Gonçalves, Paulo; Attia, Najmeddine; Seuret, Stéphane; Cottin, François; Chemla, Denis; Sorine, Michel; Barral, Julien

2012-11-01

290

Heart rate variability to assess ventilatory threshold in ski-mountaineering.  

PubMed

Abstract The capacity to predict the heart rate (HR) and speed at the first (VT1) and second (VT2) ventilatory thresholds was evaluated during an incremental ski-mountaineering test using heart rate variability (HRV). Nine skiers performed a field test to exhaustion on an alpine skiing track. VT1 and VT2 were individually determined by visual analysis from gas exchanges (VT1V and VT2V) and time-varying spectral HRV analysis (VT1fH, VT2fH and VT2H). VT1 could not be determined with the HRV methods used. On the contrary, the VT2 was determined in all skiers. No significant difference between HR and speed at VT2H and VT2V was observed (174.3 ± 5.6 vs. 174.3 ± 5.3 bpm, and 6.3 ± 0.9 and 6.3 ± 0.9 km h(-1), respectively). Strong correlations were obtained for HR (r = 0.91) and speed (r = 0.92) at VT2H and VT2V with small limits of agreement (±3.6 bpm for HR). Our results indicated that HRV enables determination of HR and speed at VT2 during a specific ski-mountaineering incremental test. These findings provide practical applications for skiers in order to evaluate and control specific training loads, at least when referring to VT2. PMID:25228474

Cassirame, Johan; Tordi, Nicolas; Fabre, Nicolas; Duc, Sébastien; Durand, Fabienne; Mourot, Laurent

2014-09-17

291

Second ventilatory threshold from heart-rate variability: valid when the upper body is involved?  

PubMed

To determine the most accurate method based on spectral analysis of heart-rate variability (SA-HRV) during an incremental and continuous maximal test involving the upper body, the authors tested 4 different methods to obtain the heart rate (HR) at the second ventilatory threshold (VT(2)). Sixteen ski mountaineers (mean ± SD; age 25 ± 3 y, height 177 ± 8 cm, mass 69 ± 10 kg) performed a roller-ski test on a treadmill. Respiratory variables and HR were continuously recorded, and the 4 SA-HRV methods were compared with the gas-exchange method through Bland and Altman analyses. The best method was the one based on a time-varying spectral analysis with high frequency ranging from 0.15 Hz to a cutoff point relative to the individual's respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The HR values were significantly correlated (r(2) = .903), with a mean HR difference with the respiratory method of 0.1 ± 3.0 beats/min and low limits of agreements (around -6 /+6 beats/min). The 3 other methods led to larger errors and lower agreements (up to 5 beats/min and around -23/+20 beats/min). It is possible to accurately determine VT(2) with an HR monitor during an incremental test involving the upper body if the appropriate HRV method is used. PMID:24231307

Mourot, Laurent; Fabre, Nicolas; Savoldelli, Aldo; Schena, Federico

2014-07-01

292

Impacts of obesity and stress on neuromuscular fatigue development and associated heart rate variability.  

PubMed

Objectives:Obesity and stress are independently associated with decrements in neuromuscular functions. The present study examined the interplay of obesity and stress on neuromuscular fatigue and associated heart rate variability (HRV).Methods:Forty-eight non-obese (18.5performed repetitive handgrip exertions at 30% of their maximum strength until exhaustion in the absence and presence of a mental arithmetic stressor. Dependent measures included gold standard fatigue indicators (endurance time and rate of strength loss), perceived effort and mental demand, heart rate and temporal (RMSSD: root mean square of successive differences between N-N intervals) and spectral (LF/HF: ratio of low to high frequency) indices of HRV.Results:Stress negatively affected endurance time (P<0.0001) and rate of strength loss (P=0.029). In addition, significant obesity × stress interactions were found on endurance time (P=0.0073), rate of strength loss (P=0.027) and perceived effort (P=0.026), indicating that stress increased fatigability, particularly in the obese group. Both obesity (P=0.001) and stress (P=0.033) independently lowered RMSSD. Finally, stress increased LF/HF ratio (P=0.028) and the interaction of stress and obesity (P=0.008) indicated that this was augmented in the obese group.Discussion:The present study provides the first evidence that stress-related neuromuscular fatigue development is accelerated in obese individuals. In addition, the stress condition resulted in poorer HRV indices, which is indicative of autonomic dysfunction, particularly in the obese group. These findings indicate that workers are more susceptible to fatigue in high-stress work environments, particularly those with higher BMI, which can increase the risk of musculoskeletal injuries as well as cardiovascular diseases in this population.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 2 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.127. PMID:25042859

Mehta, R K

2014-07-21

293

Changes in deceleration capacity of heart rate and heart rate variability induced by ambient air pollution in individuals with coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Exposure to ambient particles has been shown to be responsible for cardiovascular effects, especially in elderly with cardiovascular disease. The study assessed the association between deceleration capacity (DC) as well as heart rate variability (HRV) and ambient particulate matter (PM) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: A prospective study with up to 12 repeated measurements

Alexandra Schneider; Regina Hampel; Angela Ibald-Mulli; Wojciech Zareba; Georg Schmidt; Raphael Schneider; Regina Rückerl; Jean Philippe Couderc; Betty Mykins; Günter Oberdörster; Gabriele Wölke; Mike Pitz; H-Erich Wichmann; Annette Peters

2010-01-01

294

Activity and heart rate in semi-domesticated reindeer during adaptation to emergency feeding.  

PubMed

Although reindeer are well adapted to limited food resources during winter, semi-domesticated reindeer are regularly fed when snow conditions are bad in order to prevent starvation. Feeding sometimes results in health problems and loss of animals. This study was made to assess if activity pattern in reindeer could be used as a tool for the reindeer herder in early detection of animals that are not adapting to feeding. The frequency of 10 behavioural categories was recorded in five groups of penned, eight-month-old, female semi-domesticated reindeer. Three reindeer per group were fitted with heart rate monitors. Lying was the most frequent behaviour, whilst there were few cases of agonistic behaviour. Heart rate varied during the day, with peaks during feeding and low heart rates in the early morning. Restricted feed intake resulted in more locomotion and seeking but less ruminating compared to feeding ad libitum. This was followed by a generally lower heart rate in reindeer in the restricted groups compared to controls. Subsequent feeding with different combinations of lichens, silage and pellets ad libitum resulted initially in significantly more of the animals lying curled up, compared to controls, combined with increased heart rates. As the experiment continued the general activity pattern, as well as the heart rate, gradually became more similar in all groups. Lying curled was the behavioural indicator most consistently affected by feed deprivation and adaptation to feeding and may thus be a useful indicator to distinguish individual reindeer that are not adjusting to feeding. PMID:16643971

Nilsson, A; Ahman, B; Norberg, H; Redbo, I; Eloranta, E; Olsson, K

2006-06-15

295

Bradycardia in perspective-not all reductions in heart rate need immediate intervention.  

PubMed

According to Wikipedia, the word 'bradycardia' stems from the Greek ??????, bradys, 'slow', and ??????, kardia, 'heart'. Thus, the meaning of bradycardia is slow heart rate but not necessarily too slow heart rate. If looking at top endurance athletes they may have a resting heart rate in the very low thirties without needing emergent intervention with anticholinergics, isoprenaline, epinephrine, chest compressions or the insertion of an emergency pacemaker (Figure 1). In fact, they withstand these episodes without incident, accommodating with a compensatory increase in stroke volume to preserve and maintain cardiac output. With this in mind, it is difficult for the authors to fully understand and agree with the general sentiment amongst many pediatric anesthesiologists that all isolated bradycardia portends impending doom and must be immediately treated with resuscitative measures. PMID:25410284

Mason, Keira P; Lönnqvist, Per-Arne

2015-01-01

296

Association between the Rating Perceived Exertion, Heart Rate and Blood Lactate in Successive Judo Fights (Randori)  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aims to investigate the association between the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and the blood lactate concentration ([La]) in successive judo fight simulations (randori). Methods Ten athletes participated in the study (age: 25.6±2.1 years; stature: 1.75±0.07 m; body mass: 75.6±14.9kg; %BF: 11.5±7.8%; practice: 14.5±6.2 years) and completed 4 judo fight simulations (T1 to T4) with duration of 5 min separated by 5 min passive recovery periods. Before each randori, [La] and HR were collected, and after each randori, the same measures and the RPE (CR-10 scale) were collected. Results Significant correlations were observed between: (1) CR-10 and HR (T2: r =0.70; T3: r =0.64; both, P<0.05); (2) ?CR-10 and ?[La] (T1-T2: r = .71, P< 0.05; T2-T3: r =0.92, P<0.01; T3-T4: r =0.73, P<0.05). Moreover, significant differences were noted in the behavior of the HR between the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) judo fight simulations (P<0.05). Conclusion The use of CR-10 in the evaluation process, as well as in deciding the load of training in judo, should be done with caution. PMID:23802054

Branco, Braulio H.M.; Massuça, Luis M.; Andreato, Leonardo V.; Marinho, Bruno F.; Miarka, Bianca; Monteiro, Luis; Franchini, Emerson

2013-01-01

297

Short-term ECG recordings for heart rate assessment in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is no consensus on the length of ECG tracing that should be recorded to represent adequate rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation (AFib). The purpose of the study was to examine whether heart rate measurements based on short-term ECGs recorded at different periods of the day may correspond to the mean heart rate and rate irregularity analyzed from standard 24-hour Holter monitoring. Material and methods The study enrolled 50 consecutive patients with chronic AFib who underwent 24-hour Holter monitoring. Mean heart rate (mHR) and the coefficient of irregularity (CI) were assessed from 5- and 60-minute intervals of Holter recordings in different periods of the day. Results The highest correlation in mean heart rate interval within 24 h was found during a 6-hour sample and in the periods 11.00 AM–12.00 PM, 12 PM–1.00 PM, and 1.00 PM–2.00 PM. With respect to irregularity, only the CI measurements based on a 6-hour interval (7.00 AM–1.00 AM) show a correlation > 0.08 compared to data from the 24-hour recording. Conclusions Only long-term (6-hour) recordings provide a high correlation within 24 h in mean heart rate interval and coefficient of irregularity. It seems that the mean heart rate interval in 1-hour periods between 11 AM and 2 PM might be predictive for 24-hour data. Short time recordings of the coefficient of irregularity of heart rate in AFib patients at this moment are not useful in clinical practice for long-term prognosis of ventricular irregularity. PMID:25276150

Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Klimczak, Artur; Lewek, Joanna; Bartczak, Karol; Wranicz, Jerzy K.

2014-01-01

298

Heart rate, swimming speed, and estimated oxygen consumption of a free-ranging southern elephant seal.  

PubMed

Heart rate, swimming speed, and diving behaviour were recorded simultaneously for an adult female southern elephant seal during her postbreeding period at sea with a Wildlife Computers heart-rate time depth recorder and a velocity time depth recorder. The errors associated with data storage versus real-time data collection of these data were analysed and indicated that for events of short duration (i.e., less than 10 min or 20 sampling intervals) serious biases occur. A simple model for estimating oxygen consumption based on the estimated oxygen stores of the seal and the assumption that most, if not all, dives were aerobic produced a mean diving metabolic rate of 3.64 mL O2 kg-1, which is only 47% of the field metabolic rate estimated from allometric models. Mechanisms for reducing oxygen consumption while diving include cardiac adjustments, indicated by reductions in heart rate on all dives, and the maintenance of swimming speed at near the minimum cost of transport for most of the submerged time. Heart rate during diving was below the resting heart rate while ashore in all dives, and there was a negative relationship between the duration of a dive and the mean heart rate during that dive for dives longer than 13 min. Mean heart rates declined from 40 beats min-1 for dives of 13 min to 14 beats min-1 for dives of 37 min. Mean swimming speed per dive was 2.1 m s-1, but this also varied with dive duration. There were slight but significant increases in mean swimming speeds with increasing dive depth and duration. Both ascent and descent speeds were also higher on longer dives. PMID:9472815

Hindell, M A; Lea, M A

1998-01-01

299

Risk stratification in congestive heart failure patients using a model-based approach to heart rate turbulence characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is commonly assessed by two parameters: turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS), both obtained by averaging RR tachograms following a ventricular premature beat (VPB). It has been recently shown that a model-based detection-theoretical approach results in HRT indices outperforming TO\\/TS in identifying the presence or absence of HRT. The aim of this work is to

J. P. Martinez; I. Cygankiewicz; D. Smith; A. B. de Luna; P. Laguna; L. Sornmo

2009-01-01

300

Using heart rate to prescribe physical exercise during head-out water immersion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare and correlate the effect of age group, sex, depth of water immersion, and the heart rate (HR) assessed out of the water on the HR behavior in individuals subjected to head-out water immersion. A total of 395 healthy individuals of both sexes, aged between 07 and 75 years, underwent vertical head-out water immersion. Heart rate was assessed out of the water in the supine and orthostatic (OHR) positions and at immersion depths corresponding to the ankle, knee, hip, umbilicus, xiphoid process, acromion, neck, and also the neck with the arms out of the water. The formula (?HR = OHR - HR immersion depth) was used to calculate the reduction in HR at each immersion depth. No age-based or sex-based differences in HR were found. The greater the depth of the water, the greater was the decrease in HR (p < 0.05); however, no differences were found between the HR values obtained below the depth corresponding to the umbilicus. Similarly, there was a significant relationship between OHR and ?HR measured at levels below the depth corresponding to the umbilicus (e.g., xiphoid process level: r = 0.62; p < 0.05). Therefore, this study suggests to appropriately prescribe the intensity of water-based exercise intensity performed during vertical immersion: OHR should be measured before the individual entering the aquatic environment; ?HR should be measured according to the depth at which exercise is to be performed, and we suggest an adaptation to Karvonen's HRmax prediction formula (predicted HRmax: 220 - age - ?HR) to prescribe and control the intensity of the exercise performed during vertical immersion. PMID:23591950

Kruel, Luiz F M; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo A; Coertjens, Marcelo; Dias, Adriana B C; Da Silva, Rafael C; Rangel, Antônio C B

2014-01-01

301

Ventricular rate control of atrial fibrillation in heart failure.  

PubMed

In the last few years, there has been a major shift in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the setting of hear failure (HF), from rhythm to ventricular rate control in most patients with both conditions. In this article, the authors focus on ventricular rate control and discuss the indications; the optimal ventricular rate-control target, including detailed results of the Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation: a Comparison Between Lenient versus Strict Rate Control II (RACE II) study; and the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options to control the ventricular rate during AF in the setting of HF. PMID:24054473

Rienstra, Michiel; Van Gelder, Isabelle C

2013-10-01

302

ELSEVIER Physica A 215 (1995) 439-450 A model of neural control of the heart rate  

E-print Network

ELSEVIER Physica A 215 (1995) 439-450 A model of neural control of the heart rate Michael Rosenblum of heart rate regulation is proposed, using the assumption that the nervous system regulates the generation of pulses of the pacemaker. Previous values of intervals between heart beats (RR intervals) are used

Potsdam, Universität

303

Effects of pinacidil, verapamil, and heart rate on afterdepolarizations in the guinea-pig heart in vivo.  

PubMed

Recently, ionic current simulation in the Luo-Rudy model has elucidated putative mechanisms of afterdepolarizations under various experimental conditions. The present study was aimed at gaining insight into the differential mechanism of different types of afterdepolarizations in the guinea-pig heart in vivo. The effects of pharmacological and heart rate perturbations on early (EADs) and delayed (DADs) afterdepolarizations, induced by either digoxin, CsCl, or BayK 8644 were studied, using mid-myocardial left ventricular monophasic action potential (MAP) recordings. Digoxin insignificantly shortened sinus cycle length (SCL) and CsCl and BayK 8644 differentially prolonged SCL and MAP duration. Digoxin induced phase 3-EADs and DADs and CsCl or BayK 8644 induced phase 2- and phase 3-EADs. Pinacidil shortened MAP duration, suppressed almost all the phase 2-EADs and some of the phase 3-EADs, but not the DADs. In a few cases, DADs were manifested following the abolishment of phase 2-EADs by pinacidil, but this phenomenon did not occur in the presence of hexamethonium. Verapamil prolonged SCL, did not significantly affect phase 2-EADs, but suppressed almost all of the DADs, including those which appeared after pinacidil, and all but one of the phase 3-EADs. The effects of pinacidil and verapamil were independent of the mode of afterdepolarization induction. A pacing-induced heart rate increase, which shortened MAP duration, and vagal stimulation, which prolonged MAP duration, attenuated and enhanced phase 2-EADs, respectively. The amplitude of phase 3-EADs was inversely related to the heart rate. These data, taken together, are consistent with those obtained previously by others in a computer model and recent observations on CsCl-induced EADs in the guinea-pig Purkinje fibers in vitro which have indicated that the mechanism of phase 2-EADs is different from that of DADs and that late phase 3-EADs generated under conditions of Ca2+ overload and DADs share similar properties. PMID:9248848

Xu, J; Zaim, S; Pelleg, A

1996-01-01

304

[Heart rate variability study based on a novel RdR RR Intervals Scatter Plot].  

PubMed

On the basis of Poincare scatter plot and first order difference scatter plot, a novel heart rate variability (HRV) analysis method based on scatter plots of RR intervals and first order difference of RR intervals (namely, RdR) was proposed. The abscissa of the RdR scatter plot, the x-axis, is RR intervals and the ordinate, y-axis, is the difference between successive RR intervals. The RdR scatter plot includes the information of RR intervals and the difference between successive RR intervals, which captures more HRV information. By RdR scatter plot analysis of some records of MIT-BIH arrhythmias database, we found that the scatter plot of uncoupled premature ventricular contraction (PVC), coupled ventricular bigeminy and ventricular trigeminy PVC had specific graphic characteristics. The RdR scatter plot method has higher detecting performance than the Poincare scatter plot method, and simpler and more intuitive than the first order difference method. PMID:25508411

Lu, Hongwei; Lu, Xiuyun; Wang, Chunfang; Hua, Youyuan; Tian, Jiajia; Liu, Shihai

2014-08-01

305

[Heart rate variability study based on a novel RdR RR Intervals Scatter Plot].  

PubMed

On the basis of Poincare scatter plot and first order difference scatter plot, a novel heart rate variability (HRV) analysis method based on scatter plots of RR intervals and first order difference of RR intervals (namely, RdR) was proposed. The abscissa of the RdR scatter plot, the x-axis, is RR intervals and the ordinate, y-axis, is the difference between successive RR intervals. The RdR scatter plot includes the information of RR intervals and the difference between successive RR intervals, which captures more HRV information. By RdR scatter plot analysis of some records of MIT-BIH arrhythmias database, we found that the scatter plot of uncoupled premature ventricular contraction (PVC), coupled ventricular bigeminy and ventricular trigeminy PVC had specific graphic characteristics. The RdR scatter plot method has higher detecting performance than the Poincare scatter plot method, and simpler and more intuitive than the first order difference method. PMID:25464780

Lu, Hongwei; Lu, Xiuyun; Wang, Chunfang; Hua, Youyuan; Tian, Jiajia; Liu, Shihai

2014-08-01

306

Sleep disordered breathing detection using heart rate variability and R-peak envelope spectrogram.  

PubMed

We report that combining the interbeat heart rate as measured by the RR interval (RR) and R-peak envelope (RPE) derived from R-peak of ECG waveform may significantly improve the detection of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) from single lead ECG recording. The method uses textural features extracted from normalized gray-level cooccurrence matrices of the time frequency plots of HRV or RPE sequences. An optimum subset of textural features is selected for classification of the records. A multi-layer perceptron (MLP) serves as a classifier. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, single Lead ECG recordings from 7 normal subjects and 7 obstructive sleep apnea patients were used. With 500 randomized Monte-Carlo simulations, the average training sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100.0%, 99.9%, and 99.9%, respectively. The mean testing sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 99.0%, 96.7%, and 97.8%, respectively. PMID:19963946

Al-Abed, Mohammad A; Manry, Michael; Burk, John R; Lucas, Edgar A; Behbehani, Khosrow

2009-01-01

307

Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online is Heart (formerly the British Heart Journal), "a leading international clinical journal" reporting advances on the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Produced by the BMJ Publishing Group, online full-text content begins October 1997; online abstracts begin with 1970 issues, and tables of contents go back to 1966. Heart is made available electronically with assistance from Stanford University's HighWire Press.

308

Sympathetic-Parasympathetic Activation During Spontaneous Attacks of Cluster Headache: Evaluation by Spectral Analysis of Heart-Rate Fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four hour ECG Holter and blood-pressure monitorings were performed in eight patients suffering from cluster headache. Spectral analysis of heart-rate fluctuation was used to assess the autonomic balance under basal conditions, after head-up tilt, and during a spontaneous attack. Normal autonomic balance was found at rest and during sympathetic activation obtained with head-up tilt in the interparoxysmal period. Before the

M De Marinis; S Strano; M Granata; C Urani; S Lino; G Calcagnini; V Di Virgilio

1995-01-01

309

Patterns of Interspecific Variation in the Heart Rates of Embryonic Reptiles  

PubMed Central

New non-invasive technologies allow direct measurement of heart rates (and thus, developmental rates) of embryos. We applied these methods to a diverse array of oviparous reptiles (24 species of lizards, 18 snakes, 11 turtles, 1 crocodilian), to identify general influences on cardiac rates during embryogenesis. Heart rates increased with ambient temperature in all lineages, but (at the same temperature) were faster in lizards and turtles than in snakes and crocodilians. We analysed these data within a phylogenetic framework. Embryonic heart rates were faster in species with smaller adult sizes, smaller egg sizes, and shorter incubation periods. Phylogenetic changes in heart rates were negatively correlated with concurrent changes in adult body mass and residual incubation period among the lizards, snakes (especially within pythons) and crocodilians. The total number of embryonic heart beats between oviposition and hatching was lower in squamates than in turtles or the crocodilian. Within squamates, embryonic iguanians and gekkonids required more heartbeats to complete development than did embryos of the other squamate families that we tested. These differences plausibly reflect phylogenetic divergence in the proportion of embryogenesis completed before versus after laying. PMID:22174948

Du, Wei-Guo; Ye, Hua; Zhao, Bo; Pizzatto, Ligia; Ji, Xiang; Shine, Richard

2011-01-01

310

The effect of shot biopsy on behavior, salivary cortisol, and heart rate in slaughter pigs.  

PubMed

This paper describes behavioral and physiological responses of pigs to shot biopsy, an experimental method used to study muscle tissue processes or to predict meat quality. One biopsy sample from the longissimus muscle was obtained from 23-wk-old gilts (n = 10) using a cannula connected to a captive bolt. Ten other gilts were used as a control and received a sham shot. One week later, a second biopsy was taken from the same gilts. Behavioral and salivary cortisol responses to both biopsies were similar (P > .10). Pigs flinched in response to the biopsies. Salivary cortisol concentrations were increased (P < .05) 15 min after the biopsy as compared with pretreatment levels, but absolute levels were not different (P > .10) from the control group. In both biopsy and control groups, heart rate increased (P < .001) in response to the presence of the technician. In response to the first biopsy, heart rate increased (P < .01) as compared with the rate during the 5-s period before the biopsy, but heart rate did not increase in response to the second biopsy. The biopsy pigs showed a decrease (P < .05) in initiating contact with the technician in the second test. We conclude that shot biopsy had a significant acute effect on behavior and heart rate. Therefore, the usefulness of this technique in studies in which the behavioral and heart rate responses are measured is limited. PMID:10438003

Geverink, N A; Ruis, M A; Eisen, R; Lambooij, E; Blokhuis, H J; Wiegant, V M

1999-07-01

311

The effect of heart rate on in utero left ventricular output in the fetal sheep.  

PubMed Central

The effect of heart rate on left ventricular output was examined in seven fetal lambs at ages of 128 to 140 gestational days. The fetuses had been surgically instrumented at least 4 days previously with an ascending aortic flow probe, left ventricular dimension transducers, and left and right atrial pacing electrodes. Natural variations in heart rate of the lambs taken as a group correlated positively with left ventricular output, and negatively with ventricular end-diastolic dimension and stroke volume (P less than 0.0001). Rate did not affect output with right atrial pacing. With left atrial pacing, it correlated negatively with output (P less than 0.0001). At both pacing sites, rate correlated negatively with end-diastolic dimension and stroke volume (P less than 0.0001). The introduction of a longer interval during each pacing rate circumvented the rate-related changes in dimension and allowed the ventricle to fill to the same end-diastolic dimension. The systole at the end of the longer interval had a greater stroke volume than the preceding systoles. The faster the preceding paced rate, the greater was the stroke volume (P less than 0.0001). This study demonstrates that experimentally induced variations in heart rate produce changes in end-diastolic volume and contractility which prominently affect stroke volume. Over a broad range of rates, however, the effect of rate on left ventricular output is either negative or absent. With naturally occurring rate changes, there are additional changes in contractility and venous return which affect stroke volume. These combine to produce a positive relation between heart rate and left ventricular output. These effects of heart rate on output are qualitatively similar to those described for the adult animal. PMID:3723419

Anderson, P A; Glick, K L; Killam, A P; Mainwaring, R D

1986-01-01

312

Effect of predator odors on heart rate and metabolic rate of wapiti (Cervus elaphus canadensis).  

PubMed

We measured the heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) of wapiti (Cervus elaphus canadensis) before, during, and after presentation of biologically irrelevant odors (pentane, thiophene, and a perfume), artificial predator odors (an ether extract of cougar feces, and PDT, a compound found in mustelid anal gland secretion), stale predator odors (dog feces and urine and fox urine, kept at ambient temperature for a few weeks), and fresh predator odors (wolf, coyote, and cougar feces and the odor of a dead coyote, kept frozen between collection and test). Overall, responses to odors were small compared to other stressful stimuli. Individual variability was high among scents and among wapiti, but two of the fresh predator odors (cougar and wolf feces) produced larger HR and[Formula: see text] responses than the other scents and were more often successful at producing responses. As a group, fresh predator odors produced larger tachycardias and elicited a larger number of significant HR responses than biologically irrelevant novel odors. although the two classes of odors did not differ in their effect on[Formula: see text]. Although several other studies have shown that ungulates have reduced feeding levels when their food is scented with predator odors, it is not clear if this is due to reduced palatability or antipredator behavior. This study is the first demonstration that a wild ungulate species reacted more strongly to predator odors than to other odors in a nonfeeding situation. PMID:24227589

Chabot, D; Gagnon, P; Dixon, E A

1996-04-01

313

Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.  

PubMed

The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how increases and decreases in HRV relate to changes in fitness and freshness, respectively, in elite athletes. PMID:23852425

Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

2013-09-01

314

Heart Rate Variability for Evaluating Vigilant Attention in Partial Chronic Sleep Restriction  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Examine the use of spectral heart rate variability (HRV) metrics in measuring sleepiness under chronic partial sleep restriction, and identify underlying relationships between HRV, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ratings (KSS), and performance on the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT). Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Experimental laboratory of the Brain Work Research Centre of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. Participants: Twenty-three healthy young males (mean age ± SD = 23.77 ± 2.29). Interventions: A sleep restriction group (N = 15) was subjected to chronic partial sleep restriction with 4 h sleep for 5 nights. A control group (N = 8) had 8 h sleep on all nights. Measurements and Results: Based on a search over all HRV frequency bands in the range [0.00, 0.40] Hz, the band [0.01, 0.08] Hz showed the highest correlation for HRV–PVT (0.60, 95% confidence interval [0.49, 0.69]) and HRV–KSS (0.33, 95% confidence interval [0.16, 0.46]) for the sleep restriction group; no correlation was found for the control group. We studied the fraction of variance in PVT explained by HRV and a 3-component alertness model, containing circadian and homeostatic processes coupled with sleep inertia, respectively. HRV alone explained 33% of PVT variance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that HRV spectral power reflects vigilant attention in subjects exposed to partial chronic sleep restriction. Citation: Henelius A, Sallinen M, Huotilainen M, Müller K, Virkkala J, Puolamäki K. Heart rate variability for evaluating vigilant attention in partial chronic sleep restriction. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1257-1267. PMID:24987165

Henelius, Andreas; Sallinen, Mikael; Huotilainen, Minna; Müller, Kiti; Virkkala, Jussi; Puolamäki, Kai

2014-01-01

315

Heart Rate Variability and its Correlation with Pulmonary Function Test of Smokers  

PubMed Central

Context: Though many studies have been conducted on the effect of chronic smoking on pulmonary function test (PFT) and heart rate variability (HRV), no study has found a correlation between the pulmonary function test and heart rate variability parameters so far. Aim: The aim was to study if there was a correlation, if any, between PFT and HRV. Settings and Design: Thirty male subjects who were chronic smokers of at least 10 pack years and another 30 nonsmoking healthy males were included in the study and were matched for age, height, weight, and body surface area. Materials and Methods: PFT and HRV were performed on these subjects and a correlation was statistically derived. Statistical Analysis Used: Spearman?s correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of HRV and PFT. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used subsequently. Results: HF and LF showed correlation coefficients of 0.378 and-0.383 with forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), respectively. It was found that only FEV 1/FVC was having a statistically significant regression coefficient with HF the R-value was found to be 0.425 while with other parameters, it was not significant. Conclusion: We conclude that smoking affects all the parameters of PFT and HRV. Since there is a correlation between PFT parameters (PEFR and FEV1) and HRV parameter (LF and HF), this can help us in predicting cardiac morbidity in chronic smokers. So HRV should be included as a routine test along with PFT in chronic smokers for early diagnosis of cardiac involvement. PMID:23580921

Behera, Joshil Kumar; Sood, Sushma; Kumar, Naresh; Sharma, Kirti; Mishra, Reshmi; Roy, Prasanta Saha

2013-01-01

316

DESIGN A WEARABLE DEVICE FOR BLOOD OXYGEN CONCENTRATION AND TEMPORAL HEART BEAT RATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wireless network technology is increasingly important in healthcare as a result of the aging population and the tendency to acquire chronic disease such as heart attack, high blood pressure amongst the elderly. A wireless sensor network system that has the capability to monitor physiological sign such as SpO2 (Saturation of Arterial Oxygen) and heart beat rate in real-time from

Cho Zin Myint; Nader Barsoum; Wong Kiing Ing

2010-01-01

317

Design a Wearable Device for Blood Oxygen Concentration and Temporal Heart Beat Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wireless network technology is increasingly important in healthcare as a result of the aging population and the tendency to acquire chronic disease such as heart attack, high blood pressure amongst the elderly. A wireless sensor network system that has the capability to monitor physiological sign such as SpO2 (Saturation of Arterial Oxygen) and heart beat rate in real-time from

Cho Zin Myint; Nader Barsoum; Wong Kiing Ing

2010-01-01

318

Validation of pulse rate variability as a surrogate for heart rate variability in chronically instrumented rabbits.  

PubMed

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a function of cardiac autonomic tone that is widely used in both clinical and animal studies. In preclinical studies, HRV measures are frequently derived using the arterial pulse waveform from an implanted pressure telemetry device, termed pulse rate variability (PRV), instead of the electrocardiogram signal in accordance with clinical guidelines. The acceptability of PRV as a surrogate for HRV in instrumented animals is unknown. Using rabbits implanted with intracardiac leads and chronically implanted pressure transducers, we investigated the correlation and agreement of time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear indexes of HRV and PRV at baseline. We also investigated the effects of ventricular pacing and autonomic blockade on both measures. At baseline, HRV and PRV time- and frequency-domain parameters showed robust correlations and moderate to high agreement, whereas nonlinear parameters showed slightly weaker correlations and varied agreement. Ventricular pacing almost completely eliminated HRV, and spectral analysis of the PRV signal revealed a HRV-independent rhythm. After cardiac autonomic blockade with atropine or metoprolol, the changes in time- and non-normalized frequency-domain measures of PRV continued to show strong correlations and moderate to high agreement with corresponding changes in HRV measures. Blockade-induced changes in nonlinear PRV indexes correlated poorly with HRV changes and showed weak agreement. These results suggest that time- and frequency-domain measures of PRV are acceptable surrogates for HRV even in the context of changing cardiac autonomic tone, but caution should be used when nonlinear measures are a primary end point or when HRV is very low as HRV-independent rhythms may predominate. PMID:24791786

Pellegrino, Peter R; Schiller, Alicia M; Zucker, Irving H

2014-07-01

319

The roles of rater goals and ratee performance levels in the distortion of performance ratings.  

PubMed

The goal-directed perspective of performance appraisal suggests that raters with different goals will give different ratings. Considering the performance level as an important contextual factor, we conducted 2 studies in a peer rating context and in a nonpeer rating context and found that raters do use different rating tactics to achieve specific goals. Raters inflated their peer ratings under the harmony, fairness, and motivating goal conditions (Study 1, N = 103). More important, raters inflated their ratings more for low performers than for high and medium performers. In a nonpeer rating context, raters deflated ratings for high performers to achieve the fairness goal, and they inflated ratings for low performers to motivate them (Study 2, N = 120). PMID:20476832

Wang, Xiaoye May; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Kwong, Jessica Y Y

2010-05-01

320

Analysis of heart rate control to assess thermal sensitivity responses in Brazilian toads.  

PubMed

In anurans, changes in ambient temperature influence body temperature and, therefore, energy consumption. These changes ultimately affect energy supply and, consequently, heart rate (HR). Typically, anurans living in different thermal environments have different thermal sensitivities, and these cannot be distinguished by changes in HR. We hypothesized that Rhinella jimi (a toad from a xeric environment that lives in a wide range of temperatures) would have a lower thermal sensitivity regarding cardiac control than R. icterica (originally from a tropical forest environment with a more restricted range of ambient temperatures). Thermal sensitivity was assessed by comparing animals housed at 15° and 25°C. Cardiac control was estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate complexity (HRC). Differences in HRV between the two temperatures were not significant (P=0.214 for R. icterica and P=0.328 for R. jimi), whereas HRC differences were. All specimens but one R. jimi had a lower HRC at 15°C (all P<0.01). These results indicate that R. jimi has a lower thermal sensitivity and that cardiac control is not completely dependent on the thermal environment because HRC was not consistently different between temperatures in all R. jimi specimens. This result indicates a lack of evolutive trade-offs among temperatures given that heart rate control at 25°C is potentially not a constraint to heart rate control at 15°C. PMID:25493382

Natali, J E S; Santos, B T; Rodrigues, V H; Chauí-Berlinck, J G

2015-01-01

321

Analysis of heart rate control to assess thermal sensitivity responses in Brazilian toads.  

PubMed

In anurans, changes in ambient temperature influence body temperature and, therefore, energy consumption. These changes ultimately affect energy supply and, consequently, heart rate (HR). Typically, anurans living in different thermal environments have different thermal sensitivities, and these cannot be distinguished by changes in HR. We hypothesized that Rhinella jimi (a toad from a xeric environment that lives in a wide range of temperatures) would have a lower thermal sensitivity regarding cardiac control than R. icterica (originally from a tropical forest environment with a more restricted range of ambient temperatures). Thermal sensitivity was assessed by comparing animals housed at 15° and 25°C. Cardiac control was estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate complexity (HRC). Differences in HRV between the two temperatures were not significant (P=0.214 for R. icterica and P=0.328 for R. jimi), whereas HRC differences were. All specimens but one R. jimi had a lower HRC at 15°C (all P<0.01). These results indicate that R. jimi has a lower thermal sensitivity and that cardiac control is not completely dependent on the thermal environment because HRC was not consistently different between temperatures in all R. jimi specimens. This result indicates a lack of evolutive trade-offs among temperatures given that heart rate control at 25°C is potentially not a constraint to heart rate control at 15°C. PMID:25351239

Natali, J E S; Santos, B T; Rodrigues, V H; Chauí-Berlinck, J G

2014-10-24

322

Analysis of heart rate control to assess thermal sensitivity responses in Brazilian toads  

PubMed Central

In anurans, changes in ambient temperature influence body temperature and, therefore, energy consumption. These changes ultimately affect energy supply and, consequently, heart rate (HR). Typically, anurans living in different thermal environments have different thermal sensitivities, and these cannot be distinguished by changes in HR. We hypothesized that Rhinella jimi (a toad from a xeric environment that lives in a wide range of temperatures) would have a lower thermal sensitivity regarding cardiac control than R. icterica (originally from a tropical forest environment with a more restricted range of ambient temperatures). Thermal sensitivity was assessed by comparing animals housed at 15° and 25°C. Cardiac control was estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate complexity (HRC). Differences in HRV between the two temperatures were not significant (P=0.214 for R. icterica and P=0.328 for R. jimi), whereas HRC differences were. All specimens but one R. jimi had a lower HRC at 15°C (all P<0.01). These results indicate that R. jimi has a lower thermal sensitivity and that cardiac control is not completely dependent on the thermal environment because HRC was not consistently different between temperatures in all R. jimi specimens. This result indicates a lack of evolutive trade-offs among temperatures given that heart rate control at 25°C is potentially not a constraint to heart rate control at 15°C. PMID:25493382

Natali, J.E.S.; Santos, B.T.; Rodrigues, V.H.; Chauí-Berlinck, J.G.

2014-01-01

323

Acoustic features of prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) ultrasonic vocalizations covary with heart rate.  

PubMed

Vocalizations serve as a conspecific social communication system among mammals. Modulation of acoustic features embedded within vocalizations is used by several mammalian species to signal whether it is safe or dangerous to approach conspecific and heterospecific mammals. As described by the Polyvagal Theory, the phylogenetic shift in the evolution of mammals involved an adaptive neuroanatomical link between the neural circuits regulating heart rate and the muscles involved in modulating the acoustic features of vocalizations. However, few studies have investigated the covariation between heart rate and the acoustic features of vocalizations. In the current study, we document that specific features of vocalizations covary with heart rate in a highly social and vocal mammal, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Findings with the prairie vole illustrate that higher pitch (i.e., fundamental frequency) and less variability in acoustic features of vocalizations (i.e., less vocal prosody) are associated with elevated heart rate. The study provides the first documentation that the acoustic features of prairie vole vocalizations may function as a surrogate index of heart rate. PMID:25447483

Stewart, Adam Michael; Lewis, Gregory F; Yee, Jason R; Kenkel, William M; Davila, Maria I; Sue Carter, C; Porges, Stephen W

2015-01-01

324

Field test of a paradigm: hysteresis of heart rate in thermoregulation by a free-ranging lizard (Pogona barbata).  

PubMed

The discovery that changes in heart rate and blood flow allow some reptiles to heat faster than they cool has become a central paradigm in our understanding of reptilian thermoregulation. However, this hysteresis in heart rate has been demonstrated only in simplistic laboratory heating and cooling trials, leaving its functional significance in free-ranging animals unproven. To test the validity of this paradigm, we measured heart rate and body temperature (Tb) in undisturbed, free-ranging bearded dragons (Pogona barbata), the species in which this phenomenon was first described. Our field data confirmed the paradigm and we found that heart rate during heating usually exceeded heart rate during cooling at any Tb. Importantly, however, we discovered that heart rate was proportionally faster in cool lizards whose Tb was still well below the 'preferred Tb range' compared to lizards whose Tb was already close to it. Similarly, heart rate during cooling was proportionally slower the warmer the lizard and the greater its cooling potential compared to lizards whose Tb was already near minimum operative temperature. Further, we predicted that, if heart rate hysteresis has functional significance, a 'reverse hysteresis' pattern should be observable when lizards risked overheating. This was indeed the case and, during heating on those occasions when Tb reached very high levels (> 40 degrees C), heart rate was significantly lower than heart rate during the immediately following cooling phase. These results demonstrate that physiological control of thermoregulation in reptiles is more complex than has been previously recognized. PMID:10418165

Grigg, G C; Seebacher, F

1999-06-22

325

Field test of a paradigm: hysteresis of heart rate in thermoregulation by a free-ranging lizard (Pogona barbata).  

PubMed Central

The discovery that changes in heart rate and blood flow allow some reptiles to heat faster than they cool has become a central paradigm in our understanding of reptilian thermoregulation. However, this hysteresis in heart rate has been demonstrated only in simplistic laboratory heating and cooling trials, leaving its functional significance in free-ranging animals unproven. To test the validity of this paradigm, we measured heart rate and body temperature (Tb) in undisturbed, free-ranging bearded dragons (Pogona barbata), the species in which this phenomenon was first described. Our field data confirmed the paradigm and we found that heart rate during heating usually exceeded heart rate during cooling at any Tb. Importantly, however, we discovered that heart rate was proportionally faster in cool lizards whose Tb was still well below the 'preferred Tb range' compared to lizards whose Tb was already close to it. Similarly, heart rate during cooling was proportionally slower the warmer the lizard and the greater its cooling potential compared to lizards whose Tb was already near minimum operative temperature. Further, we predicted that, if heart rate hysteresis has functional significance, a 'reverse hysteresis' pattern should be observable when lizards risked overheating. This was indeed the case and, during heating on those occasions when Tb reached very high levels (> 40 degrees C), heart rate was significantly lower than heart rate during the immediately following cooling phase. These results demonstrate that physiological control of thermoregulation in reptiles is more complex than has been previously recognized. PMID:10418165

Grigg, G C; Seebacher, F

1999-01-01

326

Autonomic heart rate control at rest and during unloading of the right ventricle in repaired tetralogy of Fallot in adolescents.  

PubMed

Arrhythmias in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) might be due in part to altered autonomic heart rate control caused by altered right ventricle hemodynamics. This study investigated autonomic heart rate control in adolescents with ToF at rest and during unloading of the right ventricle. A total of 17 patients with ToF and 56 healthy controls aged 12 to 18 years underwent orthostatic stress with lower body negative pressure of -20 mm Hg. Heart rate, blood pressure, and stroke volume were recorded noninvasively. Indices of heart rate variability were computed in time and frequency domains. All patients with ToF also underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, demonstrating pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular dilation. At rest, heart rate variability indices of vagal heart rate control were nonsignificantly lower in the patients with ToF compared with controls. During lower body negative pressure, heart rate increased more in controls than patients with ToF (p heart rate variability indices decreased in controls, but increased in patients with ToF (p heart rate control at rest despite altered right ventricular hemodynamics. During unloading of the right ventricle, however, vagal heart rate control increases in the patients with ToF and decreases in the controls. PMID:18929714

Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Saul, J Philip; Barbieri, Riccardo; de Lange, Charlotte; Hopp, Einar; Norum, Ingvild B; Thaulow, Erik

2008-10-15

327

Developmental patterns of O 2 consumption, heart rate and O 2 pulse in unturned eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of failure to turn eggs on the developmental patterns of oxygen consumption (?O2), heart rate (fh) and O2 pulse during the second half of incubation of individual chicken eggs were examined. The ?O2 of unturned eggs increased at a significantly lower rate than the control toward the end of prenatal incubation, and the plateau ?O2 between day 17

J. T. Pearson; M. A. Haque; P. C. L. Hou; H. Tazawa

1996-01-01

328

Title: A Physiological Model for Autonomic Heart Rate Regulation in Human Endotoxemia  

E-print Network

1 Title: A Physiological Model for Autonomic Heart Rate Regulation in Human Endotoxemia Authors rate variation in human endotoxemia Currently under review in SHOCK journal #12;2 Financial Disclosure a comprehensive conceptual framework linking inflammation and physiological complexity via a multiscale model

Androulakis, Ioannis (Yannis)

329

Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during Fixed-Interval Responding in Squirrel Monkeys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Episodic and sustained increases in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure can occur with recurring patterns of schedule-controlled behavior. Most previous studies were conducted under fixed-ratio schedules, which maintained a consistent high rate of responding that alternated with periods of no responding during times when the schedule was…

DeWeese, Jo

2009-01-01

330

5 CFR 430.208 - Rating performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...record shall be given to each employee. (1) A rating of record shall be based only on the evaluation of actual job performance for the designated appraisal period. (2) An agency shall not issue a rating of record that assumes a level...

2010-01-01

331

Rating the energy performance of buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to succeed in developing a more sustainable society, buildings will need to be continuously improved. This paper discusses how to rate the energy performance of buildings. A brief review of recent approaches to energy rating is presented. It illustrates that there is no single correct or wrong concept, but one needs to be aware of the relative impact

Thomas Olofsson; Alan Meier; Roberto Lamberts

2004-01-01

332

Persistent Ratee Contaminants in Performance Appraisal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that conventional approaches to evaluating contaminants in performance appraisal overlook important individual ratee effects was examined. A rating form was developed that consisted of the following dimensions and behaviors: warmth; guided discourse or indirect teaching methods; control of subject matter; enthusiasm and reinforcing;…

Van Fleet, David D.; Chamberlain, Howard

333

Effect of meal content on heart rate variability and cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress  

PubMed Central

Little is known about transient effects of foods and nutrients on reactivity to mental stress. In a randomized crossover study of healthy adults (n = 20), we measured heart rate variability (respiratory sinus arrhythmia), blood pressure, and other hemodynamic variables after three test meals varying in type and amount of fat. Measurements were collected at rest and during speech and cold pressor tasks. There were significant post-meal changes in resting diastolic blood pressure (?4%), cardiac output (+18%), total peripheral resistance (?17%), and interleukin-6 (?27%). Heart rate variability and hemodynamic reactivity to stress was not affected by meal content. We recommend that future studies control for time since last meal and continue to examine effects of meal content on heart rate variability. PMID:22236402

Sauder, Katherine A.; Johnston, Elyse R.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Campbell, Tavis S.; West, Sheila G.

2012-01-01

334

Extended duration orbiter medical project variability of blood pressure and heart rate (STS-50/USML-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decreases in arterial baroreflex function after space flight may be related to changes in blood pressure and heart rate patterns during flight. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate were measured for 24 hours, in fourteen astronauts on two occasions before flight, two to three occasions in flight, and 2 days after landing on Shuttle missions lasting 4 to 14 days. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded every 20minutes during awake periods and every 30 minutes during sleep. In pre- and postflight studies, the 24-hour ambulatory measurements were followed by studies of carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Carotid baroreceptors were stimulated using a sequence of neck pressure and suction from +40 to -65 mmHg.

Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Charles, John B.; Boettcher, Sheila W.

1994-01-01

335

Heart rate as a predictor of metabolic rate in heterothermic bats.  

PubMed

While heart rate (fH) has been used as an indicator of energy expenditure, quantitative data showing the relationship between these variables are only available for normothermic animals. To determine whether fH also predicts oxygen consumption ( ) during torpor, we simultaneously measured , fH and subcutaneous body temperature (Tsub) of a hibernator, Gould's long-eared bats (Nyctophilus gouldi, 9 g, N=18), at ambient temperatures (Ta) between 0 and 25°C. At rest, fH of normothermic resting bats was negatively correlated with Ta, with maximum fH of 803 beats min(-1) (Ta=5°C). During torpor, the relationship between fH and Ta was curvilinear, and at low Tsub (~6°C), fH fell to a minimum average of 8 beats min(-1). The minimum average values for both and fH in torpor reported here were among the lowest recorded for bats. The relationship between fH and was significant for both resting (r(2)=0.64, P<0.001) and torpid bats (r(2)=0.84, P<0.001), with no overlap between the two states. These variables were also significantly correlated (r(2)=0.44, P<0.001) for entire torpor bouts. Moreover, estimates of from fH did not differ significantly from measured values during the different physiological states. Our study is the first to investigate the accuracy of fH as a predictor of during torpor and indicates the reliability of this method as a potential measure of energy expenditure in the field. Nevertheless, fH should only be used to predict within the range of activities for which robust correlations have been established. PMID:24436390

Currie, Shannon E; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

2014-05-01

336

Altered heart rate dynamics associated with antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness in patients with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Antipsychotic-induced subjective inner restlessness is one of the common and distressing adverse effects associated with antipsychotics; however, its underlying neurobiological basis is not well understood. We examined the relationship between antipsychotic-induced subjective inner restlessness and autonomic neurocardiac function. Methods Twenty-two schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness, 28 schizophrenia patients without antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness, and 28 matched healthy control subjects were evaluated. Assessments of the linear and nonlinear complexity measures of heart rate dynamics were performed. Multivariate analysis of variance and correlation analysis were conducted. Results The mean interbeat (RR) interval value was significantly higher in control subjects than in patients with and without antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness (P < 0.05). The low frequency/high frequency ratio was significantly higher in patients with antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness than in control subjects and in patients without antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness (P < 0.05), while the approximate entropy value was significantly lower in patients with antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness than in control subjects and in patients without antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness (P < 0.05). Correlation analyses controlling for psychotic symptom severity showed that the degree of antipsychotic-induced restlessness had a significant negative correlation with the value of approximate entropy (P < 0.05). Conclusion The results indicate that antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness is associated with altered heart rate dynamics parameters, particularly the nonlinear complexity measure, suggesting that it might adversely affect autonomic neurocardiac integrity. Further prospective research is necessary to elucidate the precise interrelationships and causality. PMID:23986638

Kim, Jong-Hoon; Ann, Jun-Hyung; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Mee-Hee; Han, Ah-Young

2013-01-01

337

Attenuated Heart Rate Recovery Following Exercise Testing in Overweight Young Men with Untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To evaluate whether cardiovascular responses to maximal exercise testing and recovery are altered with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in overweight young adult men. Design: Three sedentary subject groups were recruited: Overweight with OSA (OSA), overweight without OSA (No-OSA), and normal weight without OSA (Control). Presence of OSA was screened via portable diagnostic device. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects performed maximal ramping exercise testing (RXT) on a cycle ergometer with 5 minutes of active recovery. Exercise measurements included heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and oxygen consumption (VO2). Recovery HR was converted to a HR difference (HRdiff) calculation (HRpeak ? HR each minute recovery), and BP was converted to a recovery ratio for each minute. Setting: The study was carried out on the campus of Virginia Tech, Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Blacksburg, Virginia. Participants: 14 OSA, 16 No-OSA, and 14 Control volunteers. Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: In OSA subjects, HR recovery was significantly attenuated compared to the No-OSA and Control groups throughout recovery (P = 0.009). No differences were noted in the HR or BP response to exercise in any group. The VO2, adjusted for fat-free soft tissue mass, did not differ between groups. Conclusions: We found that OSA elicits alterations in the cardiovascular response post exercise, reflected by an attenuated HR recovery. This may indicate an imbalance in the autonomic regulation of HR. Exercise tests may provide utility in risk stratification for those at risk for OSA. Citation: Hargens TA; Guill SG; Zedalis D; Gregg JM; Nickols-Richardson SM; Herbert WG. Attenuated heart rate recovery following exercise testing in overweight young men with untreated obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2008;31(1):104-110. PMID:18220083

Hargens, Trent A.; Guill, Stephen G.; Zedalis, Donald; Gregg, John M.; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M.; Herbert, William G.

2008-01-01

338

Absolute rates of adenosine formation during ischaemia in rat and pigeon hearts.  

PubMed Central

1. The activities of ecto- and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase (EC 3.1.3.5), adenosine kinase (EC 2.7.1.20), adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4) and AMP deaminase (EC 3.5.4.6) were compared in ventricular myocardium from man, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, pigeons and turtles. The most striking variation was in the activity of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, which was 20 times less active in rabbit heart and 300 times less active in pigeon heart than in rat heart. The cytochemical distribution of ecto-5'-nucleotidase was also highly variable between species. 2. Adenosine formation was quantified in pigeon and rat ventricular myocardium in the presence of inhibitors of adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase. 3. Both adenosine formation rates and the proportion of ATP catabolized to adenosine were greatest during the first 2 min of total ischaemia at 37 degrees C. Adenosine formation rates were 410 +/- 40 nmol/min per g wet wt. in pigeon hearts and 470 +/- 60 nmol/min per g wet wt. in rat hearts. Formation of adenosine accounted for 46% of ATP plus ADP broken down in pigeon hearts and 88% in rat hearts. 4. The data show that, in both pigeon and rat hearts, adenosine is the major catabolite of ATP in the early stages of normothermic myocardial ischaemia. The activity of ecto-5'-nucleotidase in pigeon ventricle (16 +/- 4 nmol/min per g wet wt.) was insufficient to account for adenosine formation, indicating the existence of an alternative catabolic pathway. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2833226

Meghji, P; Middleton, K M; Newby, A C

1988-01-01

339

Correlated and Uncorrelated Regions in Heart-Rate Fluctuations during Sleep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Healthy sleep consists of several stages: deep sleep, light sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Here we show that these sleep stages can be characterized and distinguished by correlations of heart rates separated by n beats. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) up to fourth order we find that long-range correlations reminiscent to the wake phase are present only in the REM phase. In the non-REM phases, the heart rates are uncorrelated above the typical breathing cycle time, pointing to a random regulation of the heartbeat during non-REM sleep.

Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Penzel, Thomas; Peter, Jörg-Hermann; Voigt, Karlheinz

2000-10-01

340

An exploration of heart rate response to differing music rhythm and tempos.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate acute cardiac response and heart rate variability (HRV) when listening to differing forms of music. Eleven healthy men aged between 18 and 25 years old were included in the study. HRV was recorded at rest for ten minutes with no music, then were asked to listen to classical baroque or heavy metal music for a period of 20 min. It was noted that heart rate variability did not affect HRV indices for time and frequency. In conclusion, music with different tempos does not influence cardiac autonomic regulation in men. However more studies are suggested to explore this topic in greater detail. PMID:24767959

da Silva, Ariany G; Guida, Heraldo L; Antônio, Ana Márcia Dos S; Marcomini, Renata S; Fontes, Anne M G G; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Roque, Adriano L; Silva, Sidney B; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

2014-05-01

341

Parametric study of antennas for long range Doppler radar heart rate detection.  

PubMed

This research presents results obtained from long range measurements of physiological motion pertaining to human cardiac and respiration activity. A pulse pressure sensor was used as reference to verify the results from radar signals. A motion detection and grading algorithm was used to detect the presence of heart rate. In addition to showing that human heart rate and respiration can be measured at distances of 21 and 69 meters respectively, the effect of antenna size, radiation pattern and gain on the range of the radar has also been studied. PMID:23366747

Baboli, Mehran; Singh, Aditya; Hafner, Noah; Lubecke, Victor

2012-01-01

342

Breakdown of Long-Range Correlations in Heart Rate Fluctuations During Meditation  

E-print Network

The average wavelet coefficient method is applied to investigate the scaling features of heart rate variability during meditation, a state of induced mental relaxation. While periodicity dominates the behavior of the heart rate time series at short intervals, the meditation induced correlations in the signal become significantly weaker at longer time scales. Further study of these correlations by means of an entropy analysis in the natural time domain reveals that the induced mental relaxation introduces substantial loss of complexity at larger scales, which indicates a change in the physiological mechanisms involved.

Papasimakis, Nikitas

2009-01-01

343

Fetal development assessed by heart rate patterns--time scales of complex autonomic control.  

PubMed

The increasing functional integrity of the organism during fetal maturation is connected with increasing complex internal coordination. We hypothesize that time scales of complexity and dynamics of heart rate patterns reflect the increasing inter-dependencies within the fetal organism during its prenatal development. We investigated multi-scale complexity, time irreversibility and fractal scaling from 73 fetal magnetocardiographic 30min recordings over the third trimester. We found different scale dependent complexity changes, increasing medium scale time irreversibility, and increasing long scale fractal correlations (all changes p<0.05). The results confirm the importance of time scales to be considered in fetal heart rate based developmental indices. PMID:21621201

Hoyer, Dirk; Nowack, Samuel; Bauer, Stephan; Tetschke, Florian; Ludwig, Stefan; Moraru, Liviu; Rudoph, Anja; Wallwitz, Ulrike; Jaenicke, Franziska; Haueisen, Jens; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

2012-03-01

344

An ontogenetic shift in the response of heart rates to temperature in the developing snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).  

PubMed

The affect of acute changes in temperature on heart rates was investigated for the first time in a developing reptile. Heart rates were determined early and late in incubation in snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs. Late in incubation heart rates at any given temperature were lower than those observed early in incubation. The results of temperature switching experiments late in incubation were consistent with thermal acclimation. PMID:10745125

Birchard

2000-08-01

345

E-bra with nanosensors, smart electronics and smart phone communication network for heart rate monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heart related ailments have been a major cause for deaths in both men and women in United States. Since 1985, more women than men have died due to cardiac or cardiovascular ailments for reasons that are not well understood as yet. Lack of a deterministic understanding of this phenomenon makes continuous real time monitoring of cardiovascular health the best approach for both early detection of pathophysiological changes and events indicative of chronic cardiovascular diseases in women. This approach requires sensor systems to be seamlessly mounted on day to day clothing for women. With this application in focus, this paper describes a e-bra platform for sensors towards heart rate monitoring. The sensors, nanomaterial or textile based dry electrodes, capture the heart activity signals in form Electrocardiograph (ECG) and relay it to a compact textile mountable amplifier-wireless transmitter module for relay to a smart phone. The ECG signal, acquired on the smart phone, can be transmitted to the cyber space for post processing. As an example, the paper discusses the heart rate estimation and heart rate variability. The data flow from sensor to smart phone to server (cyber infrastructure) has been discussed. The cyber infrastructure based signal post processing offers an opportunity for automated emergency response that can be initiated from the server or the smartphone itself. Detailed protocols for both the scenarios have been presented and their relevance to the present emergency healthcare response system has been discussed.

Varadan, Vijay K.; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Rai, Pratyush; Kegley, Lauren

2011-04-01

346

Comparison of ventilation threshold and heart rate deflection point in fast and standard treadmill test protocols.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare two methods for determination of anaerobic threshold from two different treadmill protocols. Forty-eight Croatian runners of national rank (ten sprinters, fifteen 400-m runners, ten middle distance runners and thirteen long distance runners), mean age 21.7 +/- 5.1 years, participated in the study. They performed two graded maximal exercise tests on a treadmill, a standard ramp treadmill test (T(SR), speed increments of 1 km x h(-1) every 60 seconds) and a fast ramp treadmill test (T(FR), speed increments of 1 km x h(-1) every 30 seconds) to determine and compare the parameters at peak values and at heart rate at the deflection point (HR(DP)) and ventilation threshold (VT). There were no significant differences between protocols (p > 0.05) for peak values of oxygen uptake (VO(2max), 4.48 +/- 0.43 and 4.44 +/- 0.45 L x min(-1)), weight related VO(2max) (62.5 +/- 6.2 and 62.0 +/- 6.0 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)), pulmonary ventilation (VE(max), 163.1 +/- 18.7 and 161.3 +/- 19.9 L x min(-1)) and heart rate (HR(max), 192.3 +/- 8.5 and 194.4 +/- 8.7 bpm) (T(FR) and T(SR), respectively). Moreover, no significant differences between T(FR) and T(SR) where found for VT and HR(DP) when expressed as VO2 and HR. However, there was a significant effect of ramp slope on running speed at VO(2max) and at the anaerobic threshold (AnT), independent of the method used (VT: 16.0 +/- 2.2 vs 14.9 +/- 2.2 km x h(-1);HR(DP): 16.5 +/- 1.9 vs 14.9 +/- 2.0 km x h(-1) for T(FR) and T(SR) respectively). Linear regression analysis revealed high between-test and between-method correlations for VO2, HR and running speed parameters (r = 0.78-0.89, p < 0.01). The present study has indicated that the VT and HR(DP) for running (VO2, ventilation, and heart rate at VT/HR(DP)) are independent of test protocol, while there is a significant effect of ramp slope on VT and HR(DP) when expressed as running speed. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the point of deflection from linearity of heart rate may be an accurate predictor of the anaerobic threshold in trained runners, independently of the protocol used. PMID:25163235

Vuceti?, Vlatko; Sentija, Davor; Sporis, Goran; Trajkovi?, Nebojsa; Milanovi?, Zoran

2014-06-01

347

Depressed Heart Rate Variability as an Independent Predictor of Death in Chronic Congestive Heart Failure Secondary to Ischemic or Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

After acute myocardial infarction, depressed heart rate variability (HRV) has been proven to be a powerful independent predictor of a poor outcome. Although patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) have also markedly impaired HRV, the prognostic value of HRV analysis in these patients remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HRV parameters could predict survival

1997-01-01

348

In utero right ventricular output in the fetal lamb: the effect of heart rate.  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of heart rate on right ventricular output was examined in six lambs during a period extending from 126 to 139 days of gestation. The fetuses had been surgically instrumented at least four days previously with a main pulmonary artery flow probe, right ventricular dimension transducers and left and right atrial pacing electrodes. 2. During spontaneous variations in heart rate, rate was correlated positively with right ventricular output (P less than 0.0001) and end-diastolic dimension (P less than 0.0001) among the lambs considered as a group, but no significant effect of rate on stroke volume was found. When individual responses were examined, output increased significantly with rate in sixteen out of seventeen observations. 3. With left atrial pacing, heart rate did not affect output. With right atrial pacing, rate correlated negatively with output (P less than 0.0001). With pacing from either site, rate correlated negatively with end-diastolic dimension (P less than 0.0001) and stroke volume (P less than 0.0001). 4. The introduction of a longer period interval during each pacing rate inhibited the rate-related decrease in dimension and allowed the ventricle to fill to the same end-diastolic dimension. The systole following these longer intervals had a greater stroke volume than did the preceding systoles with smaller end-diastolic dimension. The faster the preceding paced rate, the greater was the increase in stroke volume (P less than 0.001). 5. Right ventricular dimensions and volumes were measured in vitro, and the relationship was found to be linear using regression analysis. 6. This study demonstrates that experimentally induced variations in heart rate produce changes in end-diastolic volume and contractility which prominently affect right ventricular stroke volume. As a consequence, rate has, over a broad range, either no significant effect on output or a negative one. With spontaneous variations in rate, additional changes in contractility and venous return occur which affect stroke volume and end-diastolic volume and enhance right ventricular output. These relationships are similar to those in the adult heart, and demonstrate the absence of a maturational change in the effects of rate on ventricular function from the fetus to the adult. PMID:3656174

Anderson, P A; Killam, A P; Mainwaring, R D; Oakeley, A E

1987-01-01

349

Resting Heart Rate Variability Predicts Safety Learning and Fear Extinction in an Interoceptive Fear Conditioning Paradigm  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate whether interindividual differences in autonomic inhibitory control predict safety learning and fear extinction in an interoceptive fear conditioning paradigm. Data from a previously reported study (N?=?40) were extended (N?=?17) and re-analyzed to test whether healthy participants' resting heart rate variability (HRV) - a proxy of cardiac vagal tone - predicts learning performance. The conditioned stimulus (CS) was a slight sensation of breathlessness induced by a flow resistor, the unconditioned stimulus (US) was an aversive short-lasting suffocation experience induced by a complete occlusion of the breathing circuitry. During acquisition, the paired group received 6 paired CS-US presentations; the control group received 6 explicitly unpaired CS-US presentations. In the extinction phase, both groups were exposed to 6 CS-only presentations. Measures included startle blink EMG, skin conductance responses (SCR) and US-expectancy ratings. Resting HRV significantly predicted the startle blink EMG learning curves both during acquisition and extinction. In the unpaired group, higher levels of HRV at rest predicted safety learning to the CS during acquisition. In the paired group, higher levels of HRV were associated with better extinction. Our findings suggest that the strength or integrity of prefrontal inhibitory mechanisms involved in safety- and extinction learning can be indexed by HRV at rest. PMID:25181542

Pappens, Meike; Schroijen, Mathias; Sütterlin, Stefan; Smets, Elyn; Van den Bergh, Omer; Thayer, Julian F.; Van Diest, Ilse

2014-01-01

350

Control of heart rate during thermoregulation in the heliothermic lizard Pogona barbata: importance of cholinergic and adrenergic mechanisms.  

PubMed

During thermoregulation in the bearded dragon Pogona barbata, heart rate when heating is significantly faster than when cooling at any given body temperature (heart rate hysteresis), resulting in faster rates of heating than cooling. However, the mechanisms that control heart rate during heating and cooling are unknown. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that changes in cholinergic and adrenergic tone on the heart are responsible for the heart rate hysteresis during heating and cooling in P. barbata. Heating and cooling trials were conducted before and after the administration of atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, and sotalol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist. Cholinergic and beta-adrenergic blockade did not abolish the heart rate hysteresis, as the heart rate during heating was significantly faster than during cooling in all cases. Adrenergic tone was extremely high (92.3 %) at the commencement of heating, and decreased to 30.7 % at the end of the cooling period. Moreover, in four lizards there was an instantaneous drop in heart rate (up to 15 beats min(-1)) as the heat source was switched off, and this drop in heart rate coincided with either a drop in beta-adrenergic tone or an increase in cholinergic tone. Rates of heating were significantly faster during the cholinergic blockade, and least with a combined cholinergic and beta-adrenergic blockade. The results showed that cholinergic and beta-adrenergic systems are not the only control mechanisms acting on the heart during heating and cooling, but they do have a significant effect on heart rate and on rates of heating and cooling. PMID:11815660

Seebacher, F; Franklin, C E

2001-12-01

351

Field Validity of Heart Rate Variability Metrics Produced by QRSTool and CMetX  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in heart rate variability (HRV) metrics as markers of physiological and psychological health continues to grow beyond those with psychophysiological expertise, increasing the importance of developing suitable tools for researchers new to the field. Allen, Chambers, and Towers (2007) developed QRSTool and CMetX software as simple,…

Hibbert, Anita S.; Weinberg, Anna; Klonsky, E. David

2012-01-01

352

Listen to your Heart Rate: Counting the Cost of Media Quality  

E-print Network

of multimedia quality on the user. The aims of this research are 1) to determine the optimum and minimum levelsListen to your Heart Rate: Counting the Cost of Media Quality Gillian M. Wilson and M. Angela Sasse with the quality of the audio and video delivered, it is important to have assessment methods to accurately

Sasse, Angela

353

Childhood Psychopathology and Autonomic Dysregulation: Exploring the Links Using Heart Rate Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in cardiovascular reactivity have been used as a psychophysiological marker of various emotional states in both children and adults. Recent decades have seen increasing use of heart rate variability as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic function and of central processes involved in autonomic function regulation. Developmental…

Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

2007-01-01

354

The Effect of Listening to Specific Musical Genre Selections on Measures of Heart Rate Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University students (N = 30) individually listened to the Billboard 100 top-ranked musical selection for their most and least liked musical genre. Two minutes of silence preceded each musical listening condition, and heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded throughout. All HRV measures decreased during music listening as compared with silence.…

Orman, Evelyn K.

2011-01-01

355

Heart Rate Variability during Social Interactions in Children with and without Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The inability to regulate autonomic activity during social interactions is believed to contribute to social and emotional dysregulation in children. Research has employed heart rate variability (HRV) during both socially engaging and socially disengaging dyadic tasks between children and adults to assess this. Methods: We conducted a…

Shahrestani, Sara; Stewart, Elizabeth M.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

2014-01-01

356

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with altered heart rate asymmetry.  

PubMed

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with complex neurocardiac integrity. We aimed to study heart rate time asymmetry as a nonlinear qualitative feature of heart rate variability indicating complexity of cardiac autonomic control at rest and in response to physiological stress (orthostasis) in children suffering from ADHD. Twenty boys with ADHD and 20 healthy age-matched boys at the age of 8 to 12 years were examined. The continuous ECG was recorded in a supine position and during postural change from lying to standing (orthostasis). Time irreversibility indices - Porta's (P%), Guzik's (G%) and Ehlers' (E) - were evaluated. Our analysis showed significantly reduced heart rate asymmetry indices at rest (P%: 49.8 % vs. 52.2 %; G%: 50.2 % vs. 53.2 %; p<0.02), and in response to orthostatic load (P%: 52.4 % vs. 54.5 %, G%: 52.3 % vs. 54.5 %; p<0.05) associated with tachycardia in ADHD children compared to controls. Concluding, our study firstly revealed the altered heart rate asymmetry pattern in children suffering from ADHD at rest as well as in response to posture change from lying to standing (orthostasis). These findings might reflect an abnormal complex cardiac regulatory system as a potential mechanism leading to later cardiac adverse outcomes in ADHD. PMID:25669682

Tonhajzerová, I; Ondrejka, I; Farský, I; Viš?ovcová, Z; Meš?aník, M; Javorka, M; Jurko, A; ?alkovská, A

2015-02-10

357

SIMPLE, INEXPENSIVE HEART RATE MONITOR AND ARRHYTHMIA DETECTOR FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many toxic agents have been reported to produce acute, adverse effects on cardiac function. Often these data are neglected in toxicological studies because of the difficulty and expense of monitoring cardiac parameters. We have developed a simple, inexpensive heart rate monitor (...

358

Heart Rate Modulation by Social Contexts in Greylag Geese (Anser anser)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity is generally considered as most relevant for modulating heart rate (HR). The authors show here that HR is not only modulated by physical activity but even more by social contexts. HR modulation in three free-ranging, socially embedded, male greylag geese fitted with implanted radio-transmitters was investigated. Measured HR ranged from 40 beats per minute (bpm) during rest to

Claudia A. F. Wascher; Walter Arnold; Kurt Kotrschal

2008-01-01

359

Effects of simulated jet aircraft noise on heart rate and behavior of desert ungulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many landscapes underlying military designated air spaces have been established as national parks, wildlife refuges, or wilderness areas. The juxtaposition of public, wilderness, and military uses has led to questions of compatibility between aircraft and wildlife. We evaluated the effects of simulated low-altitude jet aircraft noise on the behavior and heart rate of captive desert mule deer (n = 6)

M. E. Weisenberger; P. R. Krausman; M. C. Wallace

1996-01-01

360

Electronic Motion Sensors and Heart Rate as Measures of Physical Activity in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews several mechanical and electronic techniques for monitoring physical activity in children. The paper focuses on motion sensors (Large Scale Integrated Sensor and Caltrac Accelerometer) and heart rate, and it presents recommendations for establishing general guidelines for appropriate use of such monitoring devices with children. (SM)

Freedson, Patty S.

1991-01-01

361

Use of heart rate variability differentiates between physical and psychological states  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The major goal of animal welfare scientists is to determine when animals are experiencing a state of good welfare or poor welfare. The goal of this research was to determine if measures of heart rate variability can be used to differentiate whether animals are experiencing differing states of physi...

362

The Use of Heart Rate Variability as a Novel Method to Differentiate between Affective States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The major goal of animal welfare scientists is to determine when animals are experiencing a state of good welfare or poor welfare. The goal of this research was to determine if measures of heart rate variability can be used to differentiate whether animals are experiencing ‘unpleasant’ versus ‘pleas...

363

Nocturnal parasympathetic modulation of heart rate in obesity-hypoventilation patients.  

PubMed

Heart rate variation (HRV) reflects the activity of the autonomic nervous system. The aim of the study was to analyze HRV in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity hypoventilation (OH) patients to answer the question of whether chronic alveolar hypoventilation influences autonomic heart rate regulation. In 41 patients, diagnosed with either 'pure' OSA (n?=?23, apnea/hypopnea index - AHI: 43.8?±?18.0 PaCO2???45 mmHg) or OH syndrome (n?=?18, AHI 58.7?±?38.0 PaCO2?>?46 mmHg), the HRV was analyzed, based on an 8 h ECG recording during sleep. In the OH patients, compared with the OSA patients, there was a globally decreased HRV, with a corresponding decrease in high frequency power in the spectral analysis of HRV and increased low frequency/high frequency ratio (p?heart rate modulation. We conclude that hypoxemia and hypercapnia of the sleep disordered breathing have an impact on the autonomic heart rate regulation. HRV indices have a potential to become prognostic factors for the development of cardiovascular complications in patients with sleep disordered breathing. PMID:25248346

Brzecka, A; Pawelec-Winiarz, M; Teplicki, A; Piesiak, P; Jankowska, R

2015-01-01

364

Methodology for multifractal analysis of heart rate variability: From LF\\/HF ratio to wavelet leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present contribution aims at proposing a comprehensive and tutorial introduction to the practical use of wavelet Leader based multifractal analysis to study heart rate variability. First, the theoretical background is recalled. Second, practical issues and pitfalls related to the selection of the scaling range or statistical orders, minimal regularity, parabolic approximation of spectrum and parameter estimation, are discussed. Third,

P. Abry; H. Wendt; S. Jaffard; H. Helgason; P. Goncalve?s; E. Pereira; C. Gharib; P. Gaucherand; M. Doret

2010-01-01

365

A Robust Method to Estimate Instantaneous Heart Rate from Noisy Electrocardiogram Waveforms  

E-print Network

placed primarily on the first step, the detection of QRS complexes in the ECG signal. QRS detection in the signal, and can be achieved by techniques that focus on the ECG amplitude, its first and second for real-time esti- mation of instantaneous heart rate (HR) from noise-laden electrocardiogram (ECG

366

EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES IN DETROIT ALTERS HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Elevations in airborne particulate matter (PM) are linked to increased mortality and morbidity in humans with cardiopulmonary disease. Clinical studies show that PM is associated with altered heart rate variability (HRV) and suggests that loss of autonomic control may underlie ca...

367

Prehospital Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Increase the Positive Predictive Value of the Glasgow Coma Scale  

E-print Network

. Previously, abnormally low and high blood pressures have both been associated with higher mortalityPrehospital Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Increase the Positive Predictive Value of the Glasgow of severe head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 5­6 as a function of the GCS, systolic blood pressure (SBP

368

Pupillary and Heart Rate Reactivity in Children with Minimal Brain Dysfunction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to replicate and extend previous findings on autonomic arousal and responsivity in children with minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), pupil size, heart rate, skin conductance, and skin temperature were recorded from 32 MBD and 45 control children (6-13 years old). (Author/CL)

Zahn, Theodore P.; And Others

1978-01-01

369

Heart rate, muscle tension, and alpha production of transcendental meditators and relaxation controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of transcendental meditators, and a group of control subjects instructed to relax, were compared with respect to degree of relaxation reached as measured by changes in heart rate, tension of the frontalis muscle, and occipital alpha production. The only significant changes were decreases in these measures over time in the control subjects. The changes in the controls were

T. A. Travis; C. Y. Kondo; J. R. Knott

1976-01-01

370

Young people's physical activity patterns as assessed by heart rate monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity is a complex behaviour and the accurate assessment of young people's physical activity patterns is extremely difficult. Ideally, a combination of different techniques should be used. For example, the simultaneous use of doubly labelled water, heart rate monitoring and structured observation would yield information on total energy expenditure, patterns of relative physiological load (intensity) on the cardiopulmonary system,

Neil Armstrong

1998-01-01

371

Fetal Heart Rate and Variability: Stability and Prediction to Developmental Outcomes in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stability in cardiac indicators before birth and their utility in predicting variation in postnatal development were examined. Fetal heart rate and variability were measured longitudinally from 20 through 38 weeks gestation (n = 137) and again at age 2 (n = 79). Significant within-individual stability during the prenatal period and into childhood…

DiPietro, Janet A.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Costigan, Kathleen; Achy-Brou, Aristide

2007-01-01

372

Respiration, oxygen consumption and heart rate in some birds during rest and flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary ventilation (tidal volume, frequency) and oxygen content of expired air were measured in separate flights for 3 species of birds — Evening Grosbeak (Hesperiphona vespertina), Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis), and Black Duck (Anas rubripes). Heart rate was measured in flight or immediately after landing in 12 species.

M. Berger; J. S. Hart; O. Z. Roy

1970-01-01

373

Prognostic 2.0: software tool for heart rate variability analysis and QT interval dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular diseases, in particular Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) are the first cause of death in industrialized countries. Measurements of indicators of the behavior of the autonomic nervous system, such as the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and the QT Interval Dispersion (QTD) in the acute phase of the AMI (first 48 hours after the event) give a good estimation of the

Alfonso Mendoza; Oscar L. Rueda; Lola X. Bautista; Víctor E. Martinez; Eddie R. Lopez; Mario F. Gomez; Alexander Alvarez

2007-01-01

374

Effects of Two Yoga Based Relaxation Techniques on Heart Rate Variability (HRV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in cyclic meditation (CM) and supine rest (SR). CM included yoga postures followed by guided relaxation. Forty-two male volunteers were assessed in CM and SR sessions of 35 minutes, where CM or SR practice was preceded and followed by 5 minutes of SR. During the yoga postures of CM and after CM, low frequency

Patil Sarang; Shirley Telles

2006-01-01

375

Heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise and recovery in subclinical hypothyroid patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Exercise response of asymptomatic subclinical hypothyroid patients may aid in early diagnosis of cardiovascular morbidity. Aim: To study and compare the heart rate and blood pressure changes during exercise and recovery in subclinical hypothyroid patients and euthyroid controls. Materials and Methods: For the study, 30 each cases (mean age of 40 ± 7 years) of subclinical hypothyroidism and healthy controls underwent exercise as per Bruce protocol. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) changes were compared every minute (min) till 3 min of stage II exercise, continued till maximum heart rate and thereafter on recovery, for 5 min after stoppage of exercise. Results: Both groups had normal HR and BP at rest, heart rate and BP increased with exercise and remained high even after 5 min of recovery from exercise. The increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) with exercise was less in patients at the stage of exercise where maximum HR was achieved and up to 1 min of recovery. SBP at 5 min of recovery was higher in patients (P = 0.018). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased with exercise and changes were similar in both groups during exercise and recovery. HR was higher in patients at 1 min of exercise. Changes in HR from 1 min of recovery to 2-5 min of recovery were significant in both groups. Conclusion: The present pilot study highlights that many parameters of HR and SBP during exercise and recovery in asymptomatic subclinical hypothyroid patients may differ from euthyroid, controls. PMID:24083145

Sunita; Mahajan, Aarti Sood; Jain, AK; Singh, NP; Mishra, TK

2013-01-01

376

Heart rate modulation in bystanding geese watching social and non-social events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simply observing other individuals interacting has been shown to affect subsequent behaviour and also hormones in 'bystander' individuals. However, immediate physiological responses of an observer have been hardly investigated. Here we present results on individuals' heart rate (HR) responses during various situations, which occur regularly in a flock of greylag geese (Anser anser, e.g. agonistic encounters, vehicles passing by). We

Claudia A. F. Wascher; Isabella B. R. Scheiber; Kurt Kotrschal

2008-01-01

377

Detection of Acute Stress by Heart Rate Variability Using a Prototype Mobile ECG Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental stress affects our body often detrimentally. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is commonly used as a quantitative marker depicting the activit y of autonomic nervous system that may be related to mental stress. HRV features can be extracted by detecting QRS complexes from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. A miniature ECG device can enable HRV features to be measured anytime and

Lizawati Salahuddin; Desok Kim

2006-01-01

378

Stuttering, Emotions, and Heart Rate during Anticipatory Anxiety: A Critical Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Persons who stutter often report their stuttering is influenced by emotional reactions, yet the nature of such relation is still unclear. Psychophysiological studies of stuttering have failed to find any major association between stuttering and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. A review of published studies of heart rate in relation…

Alm, Per A.

2004-01-01

379

Influences of textured substrates on the heart rate of developing zebrafish embryos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of the effects of different textured substrates on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos provides insights into the influence of external stimuli on normal cardiovascular functions in the developmental stages of the embryos. This knowledge can be used in numerous genetic studies using zebrafish as an animal model as well as in bioanalytical assays using digital microfluidics. In this study, zebrafish embryos were systematically positioned and in vivo imaged on four types of silicon substrates. These substrates exhibited surface textures and surface wettability that were well modulated by wet chemical etching. The heart rate of the developing embryos significantly increased by 9.1% upon exposure to textured Si substrates with nanostructured surfaces compared with bare Si substrates. Modulation of surface wettability in the tested substrates also responded to the increase in the heart rate of the embryo; however, the effect of surface wettability on heart rate was slight compared with the effect of texture. In-depth experimental and statistical investigations of heart rate under the effects of substrate textures imply a pathway through which the inner mass of the embryo reacts to external stimuli. These findings contribute to zebrafish-related studies and suggest other factors to consider in the design of nanostructure-based microfluidics and other biomedical devices.

Chen, Chia-Yun; Chen, Chia-Yuan

2013-07-01

380

Fetal Heart Rate Reactivity Differs by Women's Psychiatric Status: An Early Marker for Developmental Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether there are differences in fetal heart rate (FHR) reactivity associated with women's psychiatric status. Method: In 57 women in their 36th to 38th week of pregnancy (mean age 27 [+ or -] 6 years), electrocardiogram, blood pressure (BP), respiration (RSP), and FHR were measured during baseline and a psychological…

Monk, Catherine; Sloan, Richard P.; Myers, Michael M.; Ellman, Lauren; Werner, Elizabeth; Jeon, Jiyeon; Tager, Felice; Fifer, William P.

2004-01-01

381

Time-Frequency Relationships between Heart Rate and Respiration: A Diagnosis Tool for Late  

E-print Network

Time-Frequency Relationships between Heart Rate and Respiration: A Diagnosis Tool for Late Onset in premature infants with proven sepsis. Besides this, respiration and its relations to HRV appear to be less and respiration amplitude may help for the diagnosis of infection in premature infants. An estimator of the linear

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Effects of deuterium oxide and temperature on heart rate in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-intrusive optical technique has been developed to monitor heartbeat in late third-instar Drosophila larvae. Heartbeat in this insect is an oscillation that is not temperature compensated. Deuterium oxide lengthens the period of a number of high and low frequency oscillators and clocks in a variety of organisms. To determine whether deuterium affects heart rate, flies were raised on proteated

Lori A. White; John M. Ringo; Harold B. Dowse

1992-01-01

383

Autonomic dysfunction in patients with fibromyalgia: Application of power spectral analysis of heart rate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To assess the interaction between the sympathetic and parasympatheticsystems in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM), using power spectrum analysis (PSA) of heart rate variability (HRV). In addition, we explored the association between HRV, measures of tenderness, FM symptoms, physical function, psychological well being and quality of life.

Hagit Cohen; Lily Neumann; Margarita Shore; Marianne Amir; Yair Cassuto; Dan Buskila

2000-01-01

384

Usefulness of the heart-rate variability complex for predicting cardiac mortality after acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies indicate that decreased heart-rate variability (HRV) is related to the risk of death in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the conventional indices of HRV have poor predictive value for mortality. Our aim was to develop novel predictive models based on support vector machine (SVM) to study the integrated features of HRV for improving risk stratification after AMI. Methods A series of heart-rate dynamic parameters from 208 patients were analyzed after a mean follow-up time of 28 months. Patient electrocardiographic data were classified as either survivals or cardiac deaths. SVM models were established based on different combinations of heart-rate dynamic variables and compared to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and deceleration capacity (DC) of heart rate. We tested the accuracy of predictors by assessing the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC). Results We evaluated a SVM algorithm that integrated various electrocardiographic features based on three models: (A) HRV complex; (B) 6 dimension vector; and (C) 8 dimension vector. Mean AUC of HRV complex was 0.8902, 0.8880 for 6 dimension vector and 0.8579 for 8 dimension vector, compared with 0.7424 for LVEF, 0.7932 for SDNN and 0.7399 for DC. Conclusions HRV complex yielded the largest AUC and is the best classifier for predicting cardiac death after AMI. PMID:24886422

2014-01-01

385

Revisiting the Relationship between Exercise Heart Rate and Music Tempo Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated a hypothesized quartic relationship (meaning three inflection points) between exercise heart rate (HR) and preferred music tempo. Initial theoretical predictions suggested a positive linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b); however, recent experimental work has shown that as exercise HR increases, step…

Karageorghis, Costas I.; Jones, Leighton; Priest, David-Lee; Akers, Rose I.; Clarke, Adam; Perry, Jennifer M.; Reddick, Benjamin T.; Bishop, Daniel T.; Lim, Harry B. T.

2011-01-01

386

Insignificant Effects of Plasma Catecholamines on Dynamic Heart Rate Regulation by the Cardiac Sympathetic Nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although plasma catecholamines such as norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (Epi) increase during severe exercise, the effects of high levels of plasma catecholamines on dynamic heart rate (HR) regulation by the cardiac sympathetic nerve remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of plasma catecholamines on the transfer function from sympathetic nerve stimulation to HR. In

T. Kawada; M. Inagaki; C. Zheng; M. Li; K. Sunagawa; M. Sugimachi

2005-01-01

387

Multifractal Analysis of Fetal Heart Rate Variability in Fetuses with and without Severe  

E-print Network

during Labor Muriel Doret, M.D., Ph.D.,1,2 Hannes Helgason, Ph.D.,3 Patrice Abry, Ph.D.,3 Paulo Goncalves multifractal analysis of fetal heart rate (FHR) variability in fetuses with and without acidosis during labor minutes before birth (p

Abry, Patrice

388

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Instantaneous changes in heart rate regulation due to mental  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Instantaneous changes in heart rate regulation due to mental load in simulated regulation effects of a mental task added to regular office work are described. More insight into the time conditions: a clicking task with low mental load and a clicking task with high mental load (mental arithmetic

389

Cardiac arrhythmia detection using combination of heart rate variability analyses and PUCK analysis.  

PubMed

This paper presents cardiac arrhythmia detection using the combination of a heart rate variability (HRV) analysis and a "potential of unbalanced complex kinetics" (PUCK) analysis. Detection performance was improved by adding features extracted from the PUCK analysis. Initially, R-R interval data were extracted from the original electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings and were cut into small segments and marked as either normal or arrhythmia. HRV analyses then were conducted using the segmented R-R interval data, including a time-domain analysis, frequency-domain analysis, and nonlinear analysis. In addition to the HRV analysis, PUCK analysis, which has been implemented successfully in a foreign exchange market series to characterize change, was employed. A decision-tree algorithm was applied to all of the obtained features for classification. The proposed method was tested using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and had an overall classification accuracy of 91.73%. After combining features obtained from the PUCK analysis, the overall accuracy increased to 92.91%. Therefore, we suggest that the use of a PUCK analysis in conjunction with HRV analysis might improve performance accuracy for the detection of cardiac arrhythmia. PMID:24110032

Mahananto, Faizal; Igasaki, Tomohiko; Murayama, Nobuki

2013-01-01

390

Individual differences in resting heart rate variability and cognitive control in posttraumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by deficits in cognitive functioning, particularly cognitive control. Moreover, these deficits are thought to play a critical role in the etiology and maintenance of core PTSD symptoms such as intrusive thoughts and memories. However, the psychophysiological concomitants of cognitive control remain largely unexamined. In this article, we suggest that individual differences in heart rate variability (HRV), a physiological index of self-regulatory capacity, may underlie the association between cognitive control ability and intrusive cognitions in PTSD. We review evidence showing that individual differences in HRV at rest are related to prefrontal cortical activity and performance on a broad range of cognitive control tasks. We highlight the importance of inhibition as a mechanism by which HRV promotes successful cognitive control. In addition, we summarize recent research linking individual differences in HRV to performance on laboratory tasks that assess the ability to control unwanted memories and intrusive thoughts. We conclude by suggesting that future studies should examine the role of low HRV as a risk factor for developing PTSD. PMID:25076929

Gillie, Brandon L.; Thayer, Julian F.

2014-01-01

391

Strong relationship between heart rate deflection point and ventilatory threshold in trained rowers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between heart rate deflection point (HRDP) and ventilatory threshold (VT) to the physiological and performance variables in a relatively large group of trained men rowers. We proposed the hypothesis that physiological and performance variables corresponding to HRDP are not significantly different from corresponding variables at VT, which would justify the use of HRDP as a simple, affordable, and noninvasive method of anaerobic threshold assessment in trained rowers. Eighty-nine trained men rowers (mean ± SD: age 21.2 ± 4.1 years; stature 1.89 ± 0.06 m; body mass 89.2 ± 8.4 kg; VO?max [maximum oxygen uptake] 5.39 ± 0.62 L/min?¹) completed an incremental rowing ergometer exercise test to exhaustion. Three independent, experienced observers determined both HRDP and VT. HRDP was determined by visual and computer-aided regression analyses and was evident in all rowers. The main findings include (a) there is a strong relationship among all observed physiological and performance variables corresponding to HR(HRDP) and HR(VT) (r = 0.79-0.96; p < 0.001) and (b) power output, oxygen uptake, ventilation, tidal volume and breathing rate corresponding to HR(HRDP) and HR(VT) were not significantly different (p ? 0.011), whereas HR(HRDP) was slightly but significantly higher than HR(VT) (174.5 vs. 172.8 beats·min?¹; p = 0.003). The standard error of the estimate in predicting the HR(VT) based on HR(HRDP) was 5.1 beats·min?¹. The subsequent data suggest that, in general, trained rowers may be able to periodically assess their aerobic endurance and evaluate the effects of training programs using the HRDP method. PMID:20040892

Mikulic, Pavle; Vucetic, Vlatko; Sentija, Davor

2011-02-01

392

Heart rate variability of human in hypoxic oxygen-argon environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human adaptive capacity, reliability and stability in extreme environments depend primarily on the individual resistance to stresses, includes both innate and acquired components. We have conducted studies in six healthy subjects - men aged between 24 to 42 years who psychophysiological indicators acterizing the severity of stress reactions studied directly during an emergency situation, before and after it. The subjects were in a hypoxic oxygen-argon atmosphere 10 days. Cardiovascular system is one of the first to respond to stressful reaction. The method of heart rate variability (HRV) allows us to estimate balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of vegetative nervous system. In the course of the baseline study it was found that resting heart rate (HR) in the examined individuals is within normal limits. During the experiment in all subjects there was a trend towards more frequent heartbeat. Each subject at one stage or another stay in a hypoxic oxygen-argon environment heart rate go beyond the group norm, but the extent and duration of these abnormalities were significantly different. Marked increase in middle heart rate during of subjects experiment, fluctuating within a wide range (from 2.3% to 29.1%). Marked increase in middle heart rate during of subjects experiment, fluctuating within a wide range (from 2.3% to 29.1%). This suggests that the ability to adapt to living in the investigated gas environment have marked individual differences. SDNN (mean square deviation of all R-R intervals) is the integral indicator of the total effect of the sinus node to the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of vegetative nervous system, as well as indicating the higher functional reserves of the cardiovascular systems. Increase in heart rate in the majority of subject was accompanied by an increase in individual SDNN. This suggests that the parasympathetic system is able to balance the increase in activity of the sympathetic system, and functional reserves are sufficient. However, the opposite dynamic test 02 - accompanied by a decrease heart rate increase SDNN. The survey detected that all subjects marked signs of increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Besides when short-term exposure (up to 10 days) in most researched factor in the majority of patients was enough functional reserves to adapt to the conditions of a changed atmosphere. However, the adaptation process was accompanied by severe stress and compensatory mechanisms for longer stay in hypoxic conditions, oxygen-argon environment may develop adverse effects associated with sympathicotony.

Khayrullina, Rezeda; Smoleevskiy, Alexandr; Bubeev, Yuri

393

Regulation of heart rate and rumen temperature in red deer: effects of season and food intake.  

PubMed

Red deer, Cervus elaphus, like other temperate-zone animals, show a large seasonal fluctuation in energy intake and expenditure. Many seasonal phenotypic adjustments are coordinated by endogenous signals entrained to the photoperiod. The cues determining variation in the resting metabolism of ungulates remain equivocal, however, largely because of the confounding effects of food intake and thus the heat increment of feeding. To distinguish endogenous seasonal and environmental effects on metabolism, we subjected 15 female red deer to two feeding treatments, 80% food restriction and low/high protein content, over two winter seasons in a cross-over design experiment. We used rumen-located transmitters to measure heart rate and rumen temperature, which provided indices of metabolism and core body temperature, respectively. Our mixed model (R²=0.85) indicated a residual seasonal effect on mean daily heart rate that was unexplained by the pellet food treatments, activity, body mass or air temperature. In addition to an apparently endogenous down-regulation of heart rate in winter, the deer further reduced heart rate over about 8 days in response to food restriction. We found a strong correlation between rumen temperature and seasonal or periodic variation in heart rate. An effect of lowered rumen (and hence core body) temperature was enhanced during winter, perhaps owing to peripheral cooling, which is known to accompany bouts of hypometabolism. Our experimental results therefore support the hypothesis that a reduction in body temperature is a physiological mechanism employed even by large mammals, like red deer, to reduce their energy expenditure during periods of negative energy balance. PMID:21346124

Turbill, Christopher; Ruf, Thomas; Mang, Thomas; Arnold, Walter

2011-03-15

394

Heart rate variability on antihypertensive drugs in black patients living in sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Compared with Caucasians, African Americans have lower heart rate variability (HRV) in the high-frequency domain, but there are no studies in blacks born and living in Africa. Methods In the Newer versus Older Antihypertensive agents in African Hypertensive patients trial (NCT01030458), patients (30–69 years) with uncomplicated hypertension (140–179/90–109 mmHg) were randomized to single-pill combinations of bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide (R) or amlodipine/valsartan (E). 72 R and 84 E patients underwent 5-min ECG recordings at randomization and 8, 16 and 24 weeks. HRV was determined by fast Fourier transform and autoregressive modelling. Results Heart rate decreased by 9.5 beats/min in R patients with no change in E patients (? 2.2 beats/min). R patients had reduced total (? 0.13 ms²; p = 0.0038) and low-frequency power (? 3.6 nu; p = 0.057), higher high-frequency (+ 3.3 nu; p = 0.050) and a reduced low- to high-frequency ratio (? 0.08; p = 0.040). With adjustment for heart rate, these differences disappeared, except for the reduced low-frequency power in the R group (? 4.67 nu; p = 0.02). Analyses confined to 39 R and 47 E patients with HRV measurements at all visits or based on autoregressive modelling were confirmatory. Conclusion In native black African patients, antihypertensive drugs modulate HRV, an index of autonomous nervous tone. However, these effects were mediated by changes in heart rate except for low-frequency variability, which was reduced on beta blockade independent of heart rate. PMID:24066715

Osakwe, Chukwunomso E.; Jacobs, Lotte; Anisiuba, Benedict C.; Ndiaye, Mouhamado B.; Lemogoum, Daniel; Ijoma, Chinwuba K.; Kamdem, Marius M.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boombhi, Hilaire J.; Kaptue, Joseph; Kolo, Philip M.; Mipinda, Jean B.; Odili, Augustine N.; Ezeala-Adikaibe, Birinus; Kingue, Samuel; Omotoso, Babatunde A.; Ba, Serigne A.; Ulasi, Ifeoma I.; M’buyamba-Kabangu, Jean-Rene

2014-01-01

395

Regulation of ?-adrenergic control of heart rate by GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) and tetrahydrobiopterin  

PubMed Central

Aims Clinical markers of cardiac autonomic function, such as heart rate and response to exercise, are important predictors of cardiovascular risk. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a required cofactor for enzymes with roles in cardiac autonomic function, including tyrosine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase. Synthesis of BH4 is regulated by GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), encoded by GCH1. Recent clinical studies report associations between GCH1 variants and increased heart rate, but the mechanistic importance of GCH1 and BH4 in autonomic function remains unclear. We investigate the effect of BH4 deficiency on the autonomic regulation of heart rate in the hph-1 mouse model of BH4 deficiency. Methods and results In the hph-1 mouse, reduced cardiac GCH1 expression, GTPCH enzymatic activity, and BH4 were associated with increased resting heart rate; blood pressure was not different. Exercise training decreased resting heart rate, but hph-1 mice retained a relative tachycardia. Vagal nerve stimulation in vitro induced bradycardia equally in hph-1 and wild-type mice both before and after exercise training. Direct atrial responses to carbamylcholine were equal. In contrast, propranolol treatment normalized the resting tachycardia in vivo. Stellate ganglion stimulation and isoproterenol but not forskolin application in vitro induced a greater tachycardic response in hph-1 mice. ?1-adrenoceptor protein was increased as was the cAMP response to isoproterenol stimulation. Conclusion Reduced GCH1 expression and BH4 deficiency cause tachycardia through enhanced ?-adrenergic sensitivity, with no effect on vagal function. GCH1 expression and BH4 are novel determinants of cardiac autonomic regulation that may have important roles in cardiovascular pathophysiology. PMID:22241166

Adlam, David; Herring, Neil; Douglas, Gillian; De Bono, Joseph P.; Li, Dan; Danson, Edward J.; Tatham, Amy; Lu, Cheih-Ju; Jennings, Katie A.; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Casadei, Barbara; Paterson, David J.; Channon, Keith M.

2012-01-01

396

Seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations and heart rates during sleep in obese subjects in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past several decades, obesity has been increasing globally. In Japan, obesity is defined by a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or over; 28.6 % of men and 20.6 % of women are obese. Obese people have an increased incidence of developing cardiovascular, renal, and hormonal diseases and sleep disorders. Obese people also have shortened sleep durations. We investigated seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations, heart rates, and heart rate variability during sleep in obese subjects in Japan. Five obese (BMI, 32.0 ± 4.9 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2) men participated in this study in the summer and winter. Electrocardiograms were measured continuously overnight in a climatic chamber at 26 °C with a relative humidity of 50 %. Saliva samples for melatonin were collected at 2300 hours, 0200 hours, and 0600 hours. We found that melatonin concentrations during sleep in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in non-obese subjects in the winter. Heart rate during sleep in winter was significantly higher than that in summer in both obese and non-obese subjects. Heart rate variability was not significantly different in the summer and winter in both obese and non-obese subjects. Our results show that decreased nocturnal melatonin concentrations during winter in obese men may be related to higher heart rates, and this may suggest that obese men are at an increased risk of a cardiovascular incident during sleep, especially in the winter.

Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sato, Motohiko; Sugenoya, Junichi

2013-09-01

397

Predicting METs from the heart rate index in persons with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Persons with Down syndrome (DS) have altered heart rate modulation and very low aerobic fitness. These attributes may impact the relationship between metabolic equivalent units (METs) and the heart rate index (HRindex-the ratio between heart rate during activity and resting heart rate), thereby altering the HRindex thresholds for moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity. This study examined whether the relationship between METs and HRindex differs between persons with and without DS and attempted to develop thresholds for activity intensity based on the HRindex for persons with DS. METs were measured with portable spirometry and heart rate with a monitor in 18 persons with DS (25 ± 7 years; 10 women) and 18 persons without DS (26 ± 5 years; 10 women) during 6 over-ground walking trials, each lasting 6min, at the preferred walking speed and at 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5m/s. The relationship between METs and HRindex in the two groups was analyzed with multi-level modeling with random intercepts and slopes. Group, HRindex, and the square of HRindex were significant predictors of METs (p<0.001; R(2)=0.65). Absolute percent error did not differ significantly between groups across speeds (DS: 19.6 ± 14.4%; non-DS: 21.0 ± 14.5%). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated somewhat greater variability in the difference between actual and predicted METs in participants with than without DS. The HRindex threshold for moderate-intensity activity was 1.32 and 1.20 for persons with and without DS, respectively. The HRindex threshold for vigorous-intensity activity was 1.80 and 1.65 for persons with and without DS, respectively. Persons with DS have an altered relationship between METs and HRindex and higher HRindex thresholds for moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity. PMID:24981191

Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Rossow, Lindy M; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Fahs, Christopher A; Motl, Robert W; Fernhall, Bo

2014-10-01

398

Regulation of heart rate and rumen temperature in red deer: effects of season and food intake  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Red deer, Cervus elaphus, like other temperate-zone animals, show a large seasonal fluctuation in energy intake and expenditure. Many seasonal phenotypic adjustments are coordinated by endogenous signals entrained to the photoperiod. The cues determining variation in the resting metabolism of ungulates remain equivocal, however, largely because of the confounding effects of food intake and thus the heat increment of feeding. To distinguish endogenous seasonal and environmental effects on metabolism, we subjected 15 female red deer to two feeding treatments, 80% food restriction and low/high protein content, over two winter seasons in a cross-over design experiment. We used rumen-located transmitters to measure heart rate and rumen temperature, which provided indices of metabolism and core body temperature, respectively. Our mixed model (R2=0.85) indicated a residual seasonal effect on mean daily heart rate that was unexplained by the pellet food treatments, activity, body mass or air temperature. In addition to an apparently endogenous down-regulation of heart rate in winter, the deer further reduced heart rate over about 8 days in response to food restriction. We found a strong correlation between rumen temperature and seasonal or periodic variation in heart rate. An effect of lowered rumen (and hence core body) temperature was enhanced during winter, perhaps owing to peripheral cooling, which is known to accompany bouts of hypometabolism. Our experimental results therefore support the hypothesis that a reduction in body temperature is a physiological mechanism employed even by large mammals, like red deer, to reduce their energy expenditure during periods of negative energy balance. PMID:21346124

Turbill, Christopher; Ruf, Thomas; Mang, Thomas; Arnold, Walter

2012-01-01

399

Effect of Stimulant Medication Use by Children with ADHD on Heart Rate and Perceived Exertion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of stimulant medication use by children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE)--heart rate (HR) relationship was examined. Children with ADHD (n = 20; 11.3 [plus or minus] 1.8 yrs) and children without ADHD (n = 25; 11.2 [plus or minus] 2.1 yrs) were studied. Children with ADHD…

Mahon, Anthony D.; Woodruff, Megan E.; Horn, Mary P.; Marjerrison, Andrea D.; Cole, Andrew S.

2012-01-01

400

A new algorithm for detection of heart and respiration rate with UWB signals.  

PubMed

Proposed is a detection algorithm for physiological monitoring with Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radar. This new algorithm is based on detection of movement energy in a specified band of frequency using wavelet and filter banks. One of the advantages of this algorithm is its ability to detect heart and respiration rates of a subject in an environment containing other motion. The heart movement is detected with the accuracy of 95% and respiration with the 100%. This algorithm has a repeatability of 93% which is a significant characteristic of the method. PMID:23366791

Baboli, Mehran; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor

2012-01-01

401

The role of inhibitory heterotrimeric G proteins in the control of in vivo heart rate dynamics  

PubMed Central

Multiple isoforms of inhibitory G?-subunits (G?i1,2,3, as well as G?o) are present within the heart, and their role in modulating pacemaker function remains unresolved. Do inhibitory G?-subunits selectively modulate parasympathetic heart rate responses? Published findings using a variety of experimental approaches have implicated roles for G?i2, G?i3, and G?o in parasympathetic signal transduction. We have compared in vivo different groups of mice with global genetic deletion of Gi?1/G?i3, G?i2, and G?o against littermate controls using implanted ECG telemetry. Significant resting tachycardia was observed in G?i2?/? and G?o?/? mice compared with control and G?i1?/?/G?i3?/? mice (P < 0.05). Loss of diurnal heart rate variation was seen exclusively in G?o?/? mice. Using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, compared with littermate controls (4.02 ms2 ± 1.17; n = 6, G?i2?/?) mice have a selective attenuation of high-frequency (HF) power (0.73 ms2 ± 0.31; n = 5, P < 0.05). G?i1?/?/G?i3?/? and G?o?/? cohorts have nonsignificant changes in HF power. G?o?/? mice have a different basal HRV signature. The observed HRV phenotype in G?i2?/? mice was qualitatively similar to atropine (1 mg/kg)-treated controls [and mice treated with the GIRK channel blocker tertiapinQ (0.05 mg/kg)]. Maximal cardioinhibitory response to the M2-receptor agonist carbachol (0.5 mg/kg) compared with basal heart rate was attenuated in G?i2?/? mice (0.08 ± 0.04; n = 6) compared to control (0.27 ± 0.04; n = 7 P < 0.05). Our data suggest a selective defect of parasympathetic heart rate modulation in mice with G?i2 deletion. Mice with G?o deletion also have a defect in short-term heart rate dynamics, but this is qualitatively different to the effects of atropine, tertiapinQ, and G?i2 deletion. In contrast, G?i1 and G?i3 do not appear to be essential for parasympathetic responses in vivo. PMID:18832081

Zuberi, Zia; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Tinker, Andrew

2008-01-01

402

A Within-Subject Normal-Mixture Model with Mixed-Effects for Analyzing Heart Rate Variability  

PubMed Central

Data on heart rate variability (HRV) have been used extensively to indirectly assess the autonomic control of the heart. The distributions of HRV measures, such as the RR-interval, are not necessarily normally distributed and current methodology does not typically incorporate this characteristic. In this article, a mixed-effects modeling approach under the assumption of a two-component normal-mixture distribution for the within-subject observations has been proposed. Estimation of the parameters of the model was performed through an application of the EM algorithm, which is different from the traditional EM application for the normal-mixture methods. An application of this method was illustrated and the results from a simulation study were discussed. Differences among other methods were also reviewed. PMID:25506510

Ketchum, Jessica M.; Best, Al M.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan

2014-01-01

403

Classification of heart rate signals of healthy and pathological subjects using threshold based symbolic entropy.  

PubMed

The dynamical fluctuations of biological signals provide a unique window to construe the underlying mechanism of the biological systems in health and disease. Recent research evidences suggest that a wide class of diseases appear to degrade the biological complexity and adaptive capacity of the system. Heart rate signals are one of the most important biological signals that have widely been investigated during the last two and half decades. Recent studies suggested that heart rate signals fluctuate in a complex manner. Various entropy based complexity analysis measures have been developed for quantifying the valuable information that may be helpful for clinical monitoring and for early intervention. This study is focused on determining HRV dynamics to distinguish healthy subjects from patients with certain cardiac problems using symbolic time series analysis technique. For that purpose, we have employed recently developed threshold based symbolic entropy to cardiac inter-beat interval time series of healthy, congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation subjects. Normalized Corrected Shannon Entropy (NCSE) was used to quantify the dynamics of heart rate signals by continuously varying threshold values. A rule based classifier was implemented for classification of different groups by selecting threshold values for the optimal separation. The findings indicated that there is reduction in the complexity of pathological subjects as compared to healthy ones at wide range of threshold values. The results also demonstrated that complexity decreased with disease severity. PMID:25194729

Aziz, Wajid; Rafique, M; Ahmad, I; Arif, M; Habib, Nazneen; Nadeem, M S A

2014-09-01

404

Analysis of heart rate variability in posttraumatic stress disorder patients in response to a trauma-related reminder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Spectral analysis of heart rate variability has recently been shown to be a reliable noninvasive test for quantitative assessment of cardiovascular autonomic regulatory responses, providing a dynamic map of sympathetic and parasympathetic interaction. In a prior study exploring the state of hyperarousal characterizing the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) syndrome, the authors described standardized heart rate analysis carried out in

Hagit Cohen; Moshe Kotler; Mike A. Matar; Zeev Kaplan; Uri Loewenthal; Hanoch Miodownik; Yair Cassuto

1998-01-01

405

Tri-Axial Accelerometry and Heart Rate Telemetry: Relation and Agreement with Behavioral Observation in Elementary Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation and agreement of tri-axial accelerometry and heart rate telemetry in measuring moderate to vigorous physical activity were examined in association to behavioral observation during 1st- and 2nd-grade physical education. In Study 1, physical activity measures of heart rate and behavioral observation were collected on 346 participants…

Scruggs, Philip W.; Beveridge, Sandy K.; Clocksin, Brian D.

2005-01-01

406

The significance of heart rate in free swimming cod, Gadus morhua: Some observations with ultra?sonic tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra sonic transmitters (cylindrical, 1.5 cm diameter × 7 cm long) with three?week battery life were used to examine the heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) of cod in swimming experiments. The maximum heart rate was observed when the period between the recovery (T) wave and the initial wave (P) of the ECG was zero and was limited by the P

C. S. Wardle; J. W. Kanwisher

1973-01-01

407

Comparison of formulae for heart rate correction of QT interval in exercise ECGs from healthy children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To investigate the differences in four formulae for heart rate correction of the QT interval in serial ECG recordings in healthy children undergoing a graded exercise test.?SUBJECTS—54 healthy children, median age 9.9 years (range 5.05-14.9 years), subjected to graded physical exercise (on a bicycle ergometer or treadmill) until heart rate reached > 85% of expected maximum for age.?DESIGN—ECG was recorded at baseline, at maximum exercise, and at one, two, four, and six minutes after exercise. For each stage, a 12 lead digital ECG was obtained and printed. In each ECG, QT and RR interval were measured (lead II), heart rate was calculated, and QTc values were obtained using the Bazett, Hodges, Fridericia, and Framingham formulae. A paired t test was used for comparison of QTc, QT, and RR interval at rest and peak exercise, and analysis of variance for all parameters for different stages for each formula.?RESULTS—From peak exercise to two minutes recovery there was a delay in QT lengthening compared with RR lengthening, accounting for differences observed with the formulae after peak exercise. At peak exercise, the Bazett and Hodges formulae led to prolongation of QTc intervals (p < 0.001), while the Fridericia and Framingham formulae led to shortening of QTc intervals (p < 0.001) until four minutes of recovery. The Bazett QTc shortened significantly at one minute after peak exercise.?CONCLUSIONS—The practical meaning of QT interval measurements depends on the correction formula used. In studies investigating repolarisation changes (for example, in the long QT syndromes, congenital heart defects, or in the evaluation of new drugs), the use of an ad hoc selected heart rate correction formula may bias the results in either direction. The Fridericia and Framingham QTc values at one minute recovery from exercise may be useful in the assessment of long QT syndromes.???Keywords: paediatric exercise testing; QT interval; QTc formulae PMID:11454842

Benatar, A; Decraene, T

2001-01-01

408

An exploratory study of heart rate, respiration, and galvanic skin response as they relate to affective rating of recorded music  

E-print Network

their most favorite and least favorite music categories (see appendix B, question /t3 and //4). The decision of "Good" and "Bad" was made prior to experimentation by a panel of ten judges; none of the judges had a music related academic background. Two...AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF HEART RATE, RESPIRATION, AND GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSE AS THEY RELATE TO AFFECTIVE RATING OF RECORDED MUSIC A Thesis by GORDON CARL BRUNER II Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial...

Bruner, Gordon Carl

1978-01-01

409

Type 5 adenylyl cyclase plays a major role in stabilizing heart rate in response to microgravity induced by parabolic flight  

PubMed Central

It is well known that autonomic nervous activity is altered under microgravity, leading to disturbed regulation of cardiac function, such as heart rate. Autonomic regulation of the heart is mostly determined by ?-adrenergic receptors/cAMP signal, which is produced by adenylyl cyclase, in cardiac myocytes. To examine a hypothesis that a major cardiac isoform, type 5 adenylyl cyclase (AC5), plays an important role in regulating heart rate during parabolic flights, we used transgenic mouse models with either disrupted (AC5KO) or overexpressed AC5 in the heart (AC5TG) and analyzed heart rate variability. Heart rate had a tendency to decrease gradually in later phases within one parabola in each genotype group, but the magnitude of decrease was smaller in AC5KO than that in the other groups. The inverse of heart rate, i.e., the R-R interval, was much more variable in AC5KO and less variable in AC5TG than that in wild-type controls. The standard deviation of normal R-R intervals, a marker of total autonomic variability, was significantly greater in microgravity phase in each genotype group, but the magnitude of increase was much greater in AC5KO than that in the other groups, suggesting that heart rate regulation became unstable in the absence of AC5. In all, AC5 plays a major role in stabilizing heat rate under microgravity. PMID:18450980

Okumura, Satoshi; Tsunematsu, Takashi; Bai, Yunzhe; Jiao, Qibin; Ono, Shinji; Suzuki, Sayaka; Kurotani, Reiko; Sato, Motohiko; Minamisawa, Susumu; Umemura, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

2008-01-01

410

Synchronization of heart rate indices of human and Pc5 pulsations in the geomagnetic quiet conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetic pulsations with duration of the period over 150 seconds (Pc5-6) are present in the magnetosphere almost constantly. Unlike other types of geomagnetic pulsations, they are characterized by high amplitudes reaching in auroral latitudes 30-100 nT, and even 300 - 600 nT in time of significant geomagnetic disturbances [1]. To date, it is generally accepted that the classic morning and afternoon Pc5 pulsations in the magnetosphere are toroidal Alfven resonance vibrations of the geomagnetic field lines [2, 3]. It was revealed that the basic oscillation periods, presented in heart rate variability of healthy subjects, in conditions of rest, at each time point substantially coincide with the periods of oscillation of the X-vector components of the geomagnetic field in the frequency range of Pc5-6 pulsations. Synchronization effect was observed in approximately 60% of cases [4]. The above statement is based on the results of more than 100 experiments (recording time from 60 to 200 min), conducted in the period 2011-2013 in various research groups [4]. In total, 37 volunteers in the age range 18-65 yrs took part in the experiments. Experiments were performed in Pushchino and Khimki (Moscow region), Arkhangelsk, Tomsk, Sofia (Bulgaria), as well as at the station Starorusskaya (Leningrad region). The geomagnetic data were obtained from INTERMAGNET network (http://ottawa.intermagnet.org/Welcom_e.php). From a biophysical point of view, the observed effects of timing fluctuations of heart rate of healthy subjects with the oscillations of the magnetic induction vector of the GMF could be an effective tool for solving one of the most actual problems in heliobiophysics, namely the identification of specific physiological mechanisms of biosystems response to low-intensity variations external factors. 1. Pilipenko V.A., Kleimenova N.G., Kozyreva O.V., Yumoto K., Bitterly G. Geomagnetism and aeronomy, 1997, V. 37, ?.3, P. 64-76 2. Chen L. and Hasegawa A. J.Geophys. Res. 1974. Vol.79,P.1024-1032 3. Southwood D.J. Planet. Space Sci. 1974. Vol.22, P.483-491. 4.Zenchenko T.A., Medvedeva A.A., Khorseva N.I., Breus T.K. // Geophysical Processes and Biosphere. 2013. V. 12. ? 4. P. 73-84

Zenchenko, Tatiana

411

Using near infrared spectroscopy and heart rate variability to detect mental overload.  

PubMed

Mental workload is a key factor influencing the occurrence of human error, especially during piloting and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) operations, where safety depends on the ability of pilots to act appropriately. In particular, excessively high or low mental workload can lead operators to neglect critical information. The objective of the present study is to investigate the potential of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) - a non-invasive method of measuring prefrontal cortex activity - in combination with measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), to predict mental workload during a simulated piloting task, with particular regard to task engagement and disengagement. Twelve volunteers performed a computer-based piloting task in which they were asked to follow a dynamic target with their aircraft, a task designed to replicate key cognitive demands associated with real life ROV operating tasks. In order to cover a wide range of mental workload levels, task difficulty was manipulated in terms of processing load and difficulty of control - two critical sources of workload associated with piloting and remotely operating a vehicle. Results show that both fNIRS and HRV are sensitive to different levels of mental workload; notably, lower prefrontal activation as well as a lower LF/HF ratio at the highest level of difficulty, suggest that these measures are suitable for mental overload detection. Moreover, these latter measurements point toward the existence of a quadratic model of mental workload. PMID:24184083

Durantin, G; Gagnon, J-F; Tremblay, S; Dehais, F

2014-02-01

412

Oxygen Uptake and Heart Rate Kinetics after Different Types of Resistance Exercise  

PubMed Central

Oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) kinetics after exercise are important indicators of fitness and cardiovascular health. However, these variables have been little investigated in resistance exercise (RE). The current study compared post-exercise kinetics of VO2 and the HR among different types of REs. The study included 14 males (age: 26.5±5.4 years, body mass: 80.1±11.4 kg, body height: 1.77±0.07 m, fat content: 11.3±4.6%) with RE experience. Dynamic muscle strength was measured using one repetition maximum (1RM) with regard to the half-squat, bench press, pull-down, and triceps pushdown exercises. The participants performed a maximum number of repetitions at 80% of 1RM for each exercise, separated by a recovery period of 60 minutes. VO2 was measured using ergospirometry. VO2 and HR kinetics were assessed using the time constant of the recovery curves, and excess oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated afterward. Significant differences were not observed across the exercises with regard to VO2 kinetics. However, the half-squat exercise elicited a greater EPOC than the bench press and triceps pushdown exercises (p<.05). HR kinetics was slower for the half-squat exercise than for the other exercises (p<.05). These findings confirm that the type of RE influences both the cardiac autonomic response post-exercise and EPOC, but not VO2 kinetics. PMID:25414756

Vianna, Jeferson M.; Werneck, Francisco Z.; Coelho, Emerson F.; Damasceno, Vinicius O.; Reis, Victor M.

2014-01-01

413

Pulmonary hypertension in systemic sclerosis determines cardiac autonomic dysfunction assessed by heart rate turbulence.  

PubMed

There is limited data on heart rate turbulence (HRT) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, potentially threatened with cardiac autonomic dysfunction. We performed 24-hour Holter monitoring for HRT assessment in 45 patients with SSc and 30 healthy controls. Abnormal HRT defined as turbulence onset (TO) >or=0.0% and/or turbulence slope (TS)

Bienias, Piotr; Ciurzy?ski, Micha?; Korczak, Dariusz; Jankowski, Krzysztof; Gli?ska-Wielochowska, Maria; Liszewska-Pfejfer, Danuta; Gli?ski, Wies?aw; Pruszczyk, Piotr

2010-06-11

414

Efficacy of a Low Dose of Estrogen on Antioxidant Defenses and Heart Rate Variability  

PubMed Central

This study tested whether a low dose (40% less than the pharmacological dose of 17-? estradiol) would be as effective as the pharmacological dose to improve cardiovascular parameters and decrease cardiac oxidative stress. Female Wistar rats (n = 9/group) were divided in three groups: (1) ovariectomized (Ovx), (2) ovariectomized animals treated for 21 days with low dose (LE; 0.2?mg), and (3) high dose (HE; 0.5?mg) 17-? estradiol subcutaneously. Hemodynamic assessment and spectral analysis for evaluation of autonomic nervous system regulation were performed. Myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, redox ratio (GSH/GSSG), total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP), hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide anion concentrations were measured. HE and LE groups exhibited an improvement in hemodynamic function and heart rate variability. These changes were associated with an increase in the TRAP, GSH/GSSG, SOD, and CAT. A decrease in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion was also observed in the treated estrogen groups as compared to the Ovx group. Our results indicate that a low dose of estrogen is just as effective as a high dose into promoting cardiovascular function and reducing oxidative stress, thereby supporting the approach of using low dose of estrogen in clinical settings to minimize the risks associated with estrogen therapy. PMID:24738017

Casali, Karina Rabello; Baraldi, Dhãniel; Conzatti, Adriana; Araújo, Alex Sander da Rosa; Khaper, Neelam; Llesuy, Susana; Rigatto, Katya; Belló-Klein, Adriane

2014-01-01

415