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1

Importance of practical simulation training for troubleshooting the heart-lung machine.  

PubMed

The artificial heart-lung system is a device that replaces the patient's respiratory and circulatory function during surgery on the heart and great vessels. Users must operate the system by properly recognizing and appropriately evaluating various types of information and by providing feedback to the machine; inappropriate interaction between humans and the machine can cause failures. A questionnaire survey showed that the incidence of problem events during the operation of heart-lung machines was 1/300 to 1/100, both within and outside Japan, and that severe events such as permanent disability or death occurred at an incidence of 1/1000 to 1/500. It has been generally reported that the following measures are effective ways of reducing errors: (1) reducing the number of high-risk operations (risk minimization), (2) reducing the probability of occurrence of errors during each operation (probability minimization), (3) implementing multiple error-detecting measures (multiple detection of errors), and (4) having the capacity to minimizing damage (damage limitation). This article discusses effective countermeasures as a result of a questionnaire answered in Japan. The first measure to be taken is to provide both software (i.e., manuals that describe safety measures, checklists, and troubleshooting approaches that are not otherwise readily available) and hardware (i.e., necessary monitoring devices that enhance safety). Second, a standard heart-lung circuit needs to be designed. Third, safety management of medical engineering equipment for cardiac surgery must be strictly performed. Fourth, simulations of practical problems are necessary. People make mistakes, machines can fail, the electricity supply can be cut, consumables may be defective, or consumables may break. The higher the number of people involved, the more easily problems can occur due to the complexity of the system. Failures inevitably occur at a certain frequency. In other words, efforts can reduce the probability of a failure but cannot reduce it to zero. It is an empirical fact that the reliability of judgment and human responses become transiently impaired to a large degree during a state of panic. Extracorporeal technologists are required to be able to deal with such emergency situations without making errors or becoming flustered and must retain a sense of composure while working through a checklist and engaging in troubleshooting. This is a situation that demands a higher level of ability than is normally required, and this ability needs to be exercised in an intensive, timely, and precise manner. To properly acquire and maintain this ability, it is essential to undergo practical training that involves problem simulations. We must carry out simulations of problems based on this undeniable fact. PMID:19536622

Kenmoku, Kyoichi

2009-01-01

2

John Heysham Gibbon and the 60th anniversary of the first successful heart-lung machine: brief notes about the development of cardiac surgery in Europe and Slovakia.  

PubMed

The development of the heart-lung machine and its first successful clinical application in 1953 was the culmination of Dr. Gibbon's lifetime research project. Despite many technical obstacles, financial problems, and discouragement from colleagues, his goal was achieved after twenty tedious years of tireless work. Posteriorly, his academic contribution established him as a leader and pioneer in the field of cardiac surgery. Parallel to his achievement and Dr. Kirklin's surgical experience, several authors around the world attempted open-heart surgery with the heart-lung machine, particularly in Europe. In Eastern Europe and particularly in the former Czechoslovakia, the lack of access to foreign medical literature forced a group of emerging young physicians from the Second Department of Surgery at Comenius University to furtively collect data on the topic. After building the Simkovic-Bolf heart-lung machine, the first successful open-heart surgery with the new device was performed only 5 years after Dr. Gibbons' experience (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 22). PMID:23611045

Silvay, G; Castillo, J G

2013-01-01

3

Heart-lung transplant - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Heart-lung transplant operations have been performed since 1980 in the United States. The donated heart and lungs come from a human who has been declared brain-dead but remains on a life-support machine. A single recipient may receive one or both donor lungs. ...

4

Heart-Lung Interactions in Aerospace Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Few of the heart-lung interactions that are discussed have been studied in any detail in the aerospace environment, but is seems that many such interactions must occur in the setting of altered accelerative loadings and pressure breathing. That few investigations are in progress suggests that clinical and academic laboratory investigators and aerospace organizations are further apart than during the pioneering work on pressure breathing and acceleration tolerance in the 1940s. The purpose is to reintroduce some of the perennial problems of aviation physiology as well as some newer aerospace concerns that may be of interest. Many possible heart-lung interactions are pondered, by necessity often drawing on data from within the aviation field, collected before the modern understanding of these interactions developed, or on recent laboratory data that may not be strictly applicable. In the field of zero-gravity effects, speculation inevitably outruns the sparse available data.

Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, Gordon Kim

1991-01-01

5

Autoperfusing ectothermic heart-lung preservation system.  

PubMed

A portable heart-lung preservation system was developed to enable distant organ procurement. In 8 dogs, a functioning heart-lung system was isolated, cannulated in situ, removed en bloc, and placed into a Plasmalyte-filled, temperature-controlled (15-38 degrees C) chamber. The perfusion circuit consisted of an adjustable-height, autologous-blood reservoir. The heart ejected through the aortic cannula with venous return (VR) into the superior vena cava. Respiration was maintained with a positive pressure ventilator. Intramyocardial tissue pressure (IMP), tissue pH, right atrial (RAP), aortic pressure (AOP), and cardiac output (CO) were monitored. Autoperfusion at normothermia and CO of 50 mL/min/kg resulted in early (3 h) deterioration of pulmonary function with progressive interstitial lung edema. Pulmonary dysfunction always preceded changes in regional myocardial contractile viability (peak IMP and d(IMP)/dt) and global function (CO, AOP). When tissue pH was regulated ectothermically (as in cold-blooded animals) (delta pH/degrees C = -0.015) the heart maintained a stable pumping mode (greater than 6 h) at myocardial temperatures of 17-28 degrees C, pH = 7.70-7.55, and heart rate of 25-50 bpm, respectively. The results indicate that a viable (greater than 6 h) autoperfused, working heart-lung system can be achieved by reducing the circulating blood flow to 30-50% of normal CO. More significantly, ectothermic alpha-stat modulation of perfusate pH and pCO2 allows a substantial reduction in organ temperature and metabolic demand without endangering induction of fibrillation and ultimate allograft failure. PMID:2487257

Kresh, J Y; Brockman, S K

1989-01-01

6

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has crafted this excellent collection of materials for health care professionals. The materials are divided into a dozen sections, including Lung Information, Sleep Information, Interactive Tools and Resources, and Continuing Education Opportunities. The Interactive Tools and Resources area is a gem, as it includes applications for mobile devices such as a menu planner, a Body Mass Index (BMI) calculator, and an asthma mortality map. The Clinical Practice Guidelines area features reports crafted at professional development conferences that deal with cholesterol, obesity, and asthma. Additionally, the Continuing Education Opportunities area features guides to cultural competency and information about upcoming conferences and seminars.

7

78 FR 11657 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Emphasis Panel; Allogeneic Transplant Recipient Research Resource...Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood...

2013-02-19

8

76 FR 71580 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

2011-11-18

9

77 FR 65568 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

2012-10-29

10

75 FR 71450 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed...Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

2010-11-23

11

75 FR 8085 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special...InterVEntion before Inotropic Therapy (REVIVE-IT) Date: March...Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute,...

2010-02-23

12

78 FR 16860 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice...Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special...of Transfusion and Cellular Therapies. Date: April 8, 2013. Time...Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute,...

2013-03-19

13

75 FR 57971 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Clinical Scientist Research Career Development Awards. Date: October 7...Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood...

2010-09-23

14

78 FR 54259 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...K24, K25 Research Career Development Awards. Date: September 26...Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood...

2013-09-03

15

78 FR 14563 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Emphasis Panel; NHLBI K Career Development Award Application Review...Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood...

2013-03-06

16

Bronchial reactivity to methacholine after combined heart-lung transplantation.  

PubMed Central

The operation of combined heart-lung transplantation results in acute denervation of the heart, lungs, and airways below the level of the trachea. The bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled methacholine of 12 recipients of heart-lung transplants was compared with that of 12 recipients of heart transplants having similar medication and 12 normal subjects. The median dose of methacholine that produced a reduction of at least 20% in the FEV1 (PC20) for the recipients of heart-lung transplants (8 mg/ml) was significantly lower than that for the recipients of heart transplants (64 mg/ml) and normal subjects (greater than 64 mg/ml). The increased airway reactivity may be related to the effects of chronic pulmonary denervation or subclinical inflammation in the airways. The effect of denervation on the response to full inspiration during bronchoconstriction was studied in six patients with heart-lung transplants by means of partial and maximal forced expiratory manoeuvres. Four showed bronchodilation after a deep breath, indicating that this response can occur after extrinsic pulmonary denervation in man. The patients with heart-lung transplants described a "tight" sensation in the anterior chest during bronchoconstriction, indicating that this sensation is not dependent on pulmonary innervation.

Banner, N R; Heaton, R; Hollingshead, L; Guz, A; Yacoub, M H

1988-01-01

17

78 FR 31952 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Research Projects in Blood Diseases. Date: June 18, 2013...Branch/DERA National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research;...

2013-05-28

18

76 FR 58285 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood...in Cardiovascular Disease. Date: October...Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood...Trials for Lung Diseases (UM1). Date...Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research;...

2011-09-20

19

76 FR 19106 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood...of the Sickle Cell Disease Advisory Committee...Division of Blood Diseases and Resources, National Heart, Lung, and Blood...Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research;...

2011-04-06

20

78 FR 57866 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood...Myeloid Dysplasia Diseases. Date: October...Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood...Myeloid Dysplasia Diseases. Date: October...Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research;...

2013-09-20

21

77 FR 66855 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Translational Programs in Lung Diseases. Date: November 27...Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research;...

2012-11-07

22

76 FR 57061 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood...of the Sickle Cell Disease Advisory Committee...Division of Blood Diseases and Resources, National Heart, Lung, and Blood...Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research;...

2011-09-15

23

75 FR 59276 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Translational Programs in Lung Diseases. Date: October 14-15...Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research;...

2010-09-27

24

75 FR 55807 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood...of the Sickle Cell Disease Advisory Committee...Division of Blood Diseases and Resources, National Heart, Lung, and Blood...Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research;...

2010-09-14

25

78 FR 77477 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Date: January 10, 2014. Time: 2:00 p.m...Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart...

2013-12-23

26

77 FR 59200 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel Career Development Awards: K01, K02, K08...Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood...

2012-09-26

27

77 FR 55853 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...K24, K25 Research Career Development Awards. Date: October 3-4...Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood...

2012-09-11

28

78 FR 2680 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...K24, K25 Research Career Development Awards. Date: February 6-7...Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood...

2013-01-14

29

77 FR 31863 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Panel; K01, K02, K08 Career Development Awards. Date: June 21-22...Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood...

2012-05-30

30

Successful heart–lung transplantation in a patient with kyphoscoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association is well established between congenital heart disease and spinal deformities such as scoliosis or kyphosis, but data are not available for risks and the outcome of heart surgery in patients with spinal deformities. We report a case of successful orthotopic heart lung transplantation in a patient with complex congenital heart disease and severe chest deformity who had undergone

Kazuaki Fukahara; Kazutomo Minami; Bert Hansky; Sebastian A Schulte-Eistrup; Gero Tenderich; Uwe Schulz; Reiner Koerfer

2003-01-01

31

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- Information for Researchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), this website provides a plethora of helpful information and resources for researchers. The site provides abstracts for NHLBI supported research from 1972-present, which also links to the NIH CRISP Database. Online research resources include Programs for Genomic Applications, Available Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Data Sets, as well as links to the NIH Obesity Research Web Site. The site also provides links to other research resources including databases, biologic resources, and training opportunities. In addition, the site links to the NHLBI Population Studies Database, information on the Framingham Heart Study, a section on Workshop and Meeting Summaries, and much more.

32

Diastolic function after cardiac and heart-lung transplantation.  

PubMed Central

The mechanical efficiency of left ventricular contraction and relaxation, the asynchrony of the onset of left ventricular relaxation, the time constant of left ventricular isovolumic pressure decay, and left ventricular chamber and myocardial stiffness were analysed in 32 patients after cardiac (24) and heart-lung transplantation (8). After cardiac transplantation left ventricular myocardial stiffness was increased and a mild degree of incoordinate contraction and relaxation was seen. In contrast, after heart-lung transplantation diastolic function was almost normal. Impairment of passive diastolic properties was significantly related to the ischaemic time of the donor heart and the donor's age. The index of left ventricular asynchrony was related to the ischaemic time and the recipient's age. The interval between transplantation and study did not influence the number of rejection episodes. This study confirms the presence of diastolic dysfunction after cardiac transplantation. Impairment of diastolic function seems to be related to the ischaemic time of the donor heart and to a mismatch between the size of the donor heart and the recipient's needs.

Hausdorf, G; Banner, N R; Mitchell, A; Khaghani, A; Martin, M; Yacoub, M

1989-01-01

33

Regional pulmonary perfusion following human heart-lung transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Ventilation and perfusion scans were obtained in six subjects who had undergone heart-lung transplantation with consequent denervation of the cardiopulmonary axis. Two of the subjects had developed obliterative bronchiolitis, which is believed to be a form of chronic rejection. Their pulmonary function tests demonstrated airflow obstruction and their scintigraphic studies were abnormal. In the remaining four subjects without obstructive airways disease, ventilation and planar perfusion scans were normal. Single photon emission computed tomography imaging of pulmonary perfusion in these patients revealed a layered distribution of blood flow indistinguishable from that of normal individuals. It is concluded that neurogenic mechanisms have little influence on the pattern of local pulmonary blood flow at rest.

Lisbona, R.; Hakim, T.S.; Dean, G.W.; Langleben, D.; Guerraty, A.; Levy, R.D. (Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1989-08-01

34

Intravenous ganciclovir prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus in heart, heart-lung, and lung transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease has had a significant clinical impact on the heart, heart-lung and lung transplant recipients\\u000a in our centre. CMV disease has been so severe with CMV antibody-negative heart-lung transplant patients receiving organs from\\u000a CMV antibody-positive donors (CMV-mismatched patients) that in 1986 we adopted the policy of not transplanting CMV-positive\\u000a organs into CMV-negative heart-lung or lung recipients. In December

Tim G. Wreghitt; Simon J. C. Abel; Keith McNeil; Jayan Parameshwar; Susan Stewart; Nat Cary; Linda Sharples; Stephen Large; John Wallwork

1999-01-01

35

Lung and heart-lung transplantation. Evolution and new applications.  

PubMed Central

Heart-lung transplantation (HLT) and lung transplantation (LT) are effective treatment modalities for patients with advanced pulmonary parenchymal or vascular disease. Lung transplantation offers potential advantages over HLT, including reduced pretransplant waiting time and improved efficiency of organ utilization, and is currently being offered to patients formerly treated by HLT. To explore the relative merits of these procedures, the authors examined the results in 44 procedures (23 HLT and 21 LT) in 42 patients transplanted at their institution. Heart-lung transplant recipients included 20 adults and three children (ages 5,5 and 3). Most HLT patients had primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) (n = 9) or Eisenmenger's syndrome (ES) (n = 8). Twenty-two of twenty-three patients have been long-term survivors (mean follow-up = 17.8 months, Kapaln-Meier survival at 12 months = 85%). Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) has occurred in five patients (22%), and all have died. Of 21 LTs in 19 patients, nine had obstructive and eight had restrictive lung diseases. Three single-LT (SLT) patients had PPH, and one had ES secondary to a ventricular septal defect. Mean pulmonary artery pressures fell from 55 +/- 6 mm Hg before SLT to 21 +/- 3 mm Hg after SLT; p less than 0.001. Three pediatric patients (ages 4, 10, 17, and 17[re-transplant]) have undergone four SLTs. With mean follow-up of 6.4 months, LT patients have survival at 12 months of 80% (Kaplan-Meier). Lung transplant patients wait a far shorter time for their transplant than do HLT patients (166 vs. 384 days, p less than 0.03). Three patients (19%) have evidence of OB after SLT, with one death. By virtue of equal intermediate-term outcomes, shorter waiting times, and better use of donor organs in comparison with HLT, LT should be offered whenever possible to patients with end-stage pulmonary parenchymal or vascular disease. The authors' pediatric LT and HLT experience (7 treatments in 6 patients) is the largest reported to date and demonstrates the utility of these procedures in this group. Chronic rejection (OB) remains the greatest impediment to long-term survival in both LT and HLT pts. Images Fig. 6.

Bolman, R M; Shumway, S J; Estrin, J A; Hertz, M I

1991-01-01

36

Cardiopulmonary response to dynamic exercise after heart and combined heart-lung transplantation.  

PubMed Central

The exercise capacity and cardiopulmonary response to progressive dynamic exercise of eight healthy recipients of heart-lung transplants were compared with those of matched recipients of orthotopic cardiac transplants and normal controls. In both transplant groups the maximum workloads were lower than that in the normal group. The transplant recipients had higher pre-exercise heart rates and lower maximum heart rates than the normal controls. Ventilation during submaximal exercise was similar in the heart transplant group and the controls. The heart-lung group had an increased ventilatory response associated with lower end tidal carbon dioxide concentrations. Exercise capacity after combined heart-lung transplantation is similar to that after cardiac transplantation. Transplant recipients have an abnormal heart rate response during exercise related to cardiac denervation. The altered ventilatory response in heart-lung recipients may be the result of pulmonary denervation.

Banner, N R; Lloyd, M H; Hamilton, R D; Innes, J A; Guz, A; Yacoub, M H

1989-01-01

37

78 FR 42967 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Bioinformatics Clinical Coordinating Center. Date: August 29, 2013. Time: 9:30 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Agenda: To review...

2013-07-18

38

77 FR 1703 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...gov. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel Reagents for Human Lung Cell Biology. Date: January 31, 2012. Time: 1 p.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals....

2012-01-11

39

77 FR 2739 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Panel; Genetics of Heart, Lung and Blood Diseases Review. Date: February 8, 2012. Time...Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and...

2012-01-19

40

75 FR 48979 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Ischemia Trials. Date: August 27, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications....

2010-08-12

41

75 FR 50771 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHLBI Nanotechnology Administrative Centers Contract Review. Date: August 20, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To review...

2010-08-17

42

77 FR 50517 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Maximizing Scientific Return on the Women's Health Initiative Biological Resource. Date: September 7, 2012. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To...

2012-08-21

43

77 FR 16844 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...Resource-related Application in Congenital Heart Diseases (R24). Date: April 17...Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung...

2012-03-22

44

Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Before and After Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart-lung (HLT) and lung transplantation (LT) have been shown to be effective procedures for pa- tients with end-stage cardiopulmonary disorders. As yet, few data exist on the exercise performance of patients before and after thoracic transplantation except with regard to 6-min walk tests. In this article we report cardiopulmonary exercise test results of lung and heart-lung transplant recipients in comparison

MARTIN SCHWAIBLMAIR; HERMANN REICHENSPURNER; CHRISTIAN MÜLLER; JOSEF BRIEGEL; HEINER FÜRST; JÜRGEN GROH; BRUNO REICHART; CLAUS VOGELMEIER

1999-01-01

45

First successful heart-lung transplantation in Japan: report of a case.  

PubMed

Although legislation regarding organ transplantation from brain-dead donors in Japan was approved in 1997, no heart-lung transplantation procedures were performed for some time. Herein, we report the first case of successful heart-lung transplantation in Japan. The recipient was a 35-year-old man with Eisenmenger syndrome, caused by a double outlet right ventricle, who had been suffering hemoptysis and continued NYHA class 3-4 symptoms for 66 months since being registered on the waiting list. He underwent heart-lung transplantation from a 30-year-old donor. The organ ischemic time was 247 min, the postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 66 days after the transplant surgery. PMID:23423216

Sawa, Yoshiki; Matsumiya, Goro; Shigemura, Shigefumi; Nishi, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Hajime; Minami, Masato; Fukushima, Norihide; Inoue, Masayoshi; Ueno, Takayoshi; Sawabatav, Akiyoshi; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Saito, Shunsuke; Okumura, Meinoshin

2013-12-01

46

Colonisation of lung allografts with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in heart-lung transplant recipients with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

Six patients (four with cystic fibrosis, two with bronchiectasis) harboured Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lung before heart-lung transplantation. Three of the patients with cystic fibrosis were colonised by strains of different genotype postoperatively, and the colonisation tended to be short lived. Images

Tsang, V.; Pitt, T. L.; Kaufmann, M. E.; Gaya, H.; Hodson, M. E.; Yacoub, M.

1994-01-01

47

78 FR 42529 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel Resource related project on genetically modified mice. Date: August 14, 2013. Time: 11:00 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

2013-07-16

48

78 FR 7791 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Resource related research project on genetically modified rats. Date: February 28, 2013. Time: 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

2013-02-04

49

The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients  

SciTech Connect

As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

1989-07-01

50

78 FR 33852 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Trauma and Hemostasis. Date: June 25, 2013. Time: 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications....

2013-06-05

51

77 FR 48526 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Special Emphasis Panel, Biostatistics Training Summer Program (T15). Date: September 6, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To...

2012-08-14

52

77 FR 14024 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Development of iPS cell lines. Date: March 26, 2012. Time: 4 p.m. to 7 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals....

2012-03-08

53

76 FR 78285 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel,SBIR Topic 56 Blood Donor Screening Test for Babesia. Date: January 9, 2012. Time: 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place:...

2011-12-16

54

77 FR 16246 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Omics and Genetic Analysis. Date: April 6, 2012. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 12 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

2012-03-20

55

78 FR 19725 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Training in Lung Omics. Date: April 26, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications....

2013-04-02

56

77 FR 24728 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Sudden Cardiac Death in the Young. Date: May 16, 2012. Time: 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract...

2012-04-25

57

Super liquid-repellent gas membranes for carbon dioxide capture and heart-lung machines  

PubMed Central

In a gas membrane, gas is transferred between a liquid and a gas through a microporous membrane. The main challenge is to achieve a high gas transfer while preventing wetting and clogging. With respect to the oxygenation of blood, haemocompatibility is also required. Here we coat macroporous meshes with a superamphiphobic—or liquid repellent—layer to meet this challenge. The superamphiphobic layer consists of a fractal-like network of fluorinated silicon oxide nanospheres; gas trapped between the nanospheres keeps the liquid from contacting the wall of the membrane. We demonstrate the capabilities of the membrane by capturing carbon dioxide gas into a basic aqueous solution and in addition use it to oxygenate blood. Usually, blood tends to clog membranes because of the abundance of blood cells, platelets, proteins and lipids. We show that human blood stored in a superamphiphobic well for 24?h can be poured off without leaving cells or adsorbed protein behind.

Paven, Maxime; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Schottler, Susanne; Deng, Xu; Mailander, Volker; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jurgen

2013-01-01

58

Elucidating Nature's Solutions to Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases and Sleep Disorders  

PubMed Central

Evolution has provided a number of animal species with extraordinary phenotypes. Several of these phenotypes allow species to survive and thrive in environmental conditions that mimic disease states in humans. The study of evolved mechanisms that responsible for these phenotypes may provide insights into the basis of human disease and guide the design of new therapeutic approaches. Examples include species that tolerate acute or chronic hypoxemia like deep-diving mammals and high-altitude inhabitants, as well as those that hibernate and interrupt their development when exposed to adverse environments. The evolved traits exhibited by these animal species involve modifications of common biological pathways that affect metabolic regulation, organ function, antioxidant defenses, and oxygen transport. In 2006, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) released a funding opportunity announcement to support studies that were designed to elucidate the natural molecular and cellular mechanisms of adaptation in species that tolerate extreme environmental conditions. The rationale for this funding opportunity is detailed in this Special Article, and the specific evolved mechanisms examined in the supported research are described. Also highlighted are past medical advances achieved through the study of animal species that have evolved extraordinary phenotypes as well as the expectations for new understanding of nature’s solutions to heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders through future research in this area.

Carey, Hannah V.; Martin, Sandra L.; Horwitz, Barbara A.; Yan, Lin; Bailey, Shannon M.; Podrabsky, Jason; Storz, Jay F.; Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wong, Renee P.; Lathrop, David A.

2012-01-01

59

Increasing the Number of Competing Awards at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Projections of a Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has begun funding longer research award terms, limiting the number of projects to be funded. A model was developed to assess alternative research funding policies that might allow NHLBI to support more competing awards. Findings and implications for research stability are reported. (Author/MSE)

Roth, Carl A.; Lenfant, Claude

1991-01-01

60

Effect of Blood Ph and CO2 Tension on the Performance of the Heart-Lung Preparation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When the performance of heart-lung preparations was evaluated by the relationship between stroke work and left atrial pressure, a change of the CO2 content of the inspired air from zero to 10 per cent caused a progressive decrease in performance. The use ...

N. S. Nejad E. Ogden

1967-01-01

61

The Relationship between National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Weight Guidelines and Concurrent Medical Costs in a Manufacturing Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the relationship between the 1998 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) weight guidelines and concurrent medical costs among 177,971 employees, retirees, and adult dependents from a nationwide manufacturing corporation. Results indicated that the six weight groups defined by the NHLBI guidelines were consistent with concurrent…

Wang, Feifei; Schultz, Alyssa B.; Musich, Shirley; McDonald, Tim; Hirschland, David; Edington, Dee W.

2003-01-01

62

Report of the Director, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (16th). Report of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) provides leadership for a national program in diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lungs, and blood and in the uses of blood and the management of blood resources. Through research in its own laborato...

1991-01-01

63

Patient Compliance to Prescribed Antihypertensive Medication Regimens: A Report to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chapters of this report are selective, in-depth reviews by the members of the Working Group on Patient Compliance with Antihypertensive Treatment. In the reviews, results of the eleven (11) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) projects pu...

1980-01-01

64

[Logistic, technic and postoperative complications of lung and heart-lung transplantations].  

PubMed

In France, the "Agence de la biomédecine" distributes lung grafts. "Ideal" criteria for lung donor selection are not always respected, driven by the scarcity of suitable donor lungs (10% deaths while waiting). In single lung transplantation, three anastomoses are performed (bronchus near the lobar carina, pulmonary artery, left atrium). For double lung transplantation (twice as frequent around the world), two single lung transplantations are successively performed through two separate anterolateral thoracotomies, often without cardiopulmonary bypass. Heart lung transplantations are now rare (2% around the world). Postoperative mortality has improved (between 10 and 15%): less severe primary graft dysfunctions, treatable with ECMO, fewer bronchial complications, improvement in the diagnosis of hyperacute humoral rejection, improvement in antiviral prophylaxis. PMID:21353969

Bonnette, P

2010-02-01

65

Conformal piezoelectric energy harvesting and storage from motions of the heart, lung, and diaphragm.  

PubMed

Here, we report advanced materials and devices that enable high-efficiency mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion from the natural contractile and relaxation motions of the heart, lung, and diaphragm, demonstrated in several different animal models, each of which has organs with sizes that approach human scales. A cointegrated collection of such energy-harvesting elements with rectifiers and microbatteries provides an entire flexible system, capable of viable integration with the beating heart via medical sutures and operation with efficiencies of ?2%. Additional experiments, computational models, and results in multilayer configurations capture the key behaviors, illuminate essential design aspects, and offer sufficient power outputs for operation of pacemakers, with or without battery assist. PMID:24449853

Dagdeviren, Canan; Yang, Byung Duk; Su, Yewang; Tran, Phat L; Joe, Pauline; Anderson, Eric; Xia, Jing; Doraiswamy, Vijay; Dehdashti, Behrooz; Feng, Xue; Lu, Bingwei; Poston, Robert; Khalpey, Zain; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Huang, Yonggang; Slepian, Marvin J; Rogers, John A

2014-02-01

66

Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering Research Support at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering aims at building three-dimensional living substitutes that are equal to or better than the damaged tissue to be replaced. The development of such a tissue replacement requires a multidisciplinary approach and careful attention to the optimal cell source, the interactions of growth factors and extracellular milieu, and the scaffolding design. This article is a review of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) tissue engineering programs, which support research efforts to translate novel approaches for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Recent progress is discussed, which highlights some major questions relevant to cardiovascular tissue engineering. NHLBI has a strong interest in tissue engineering and will continue to foster the practical, clinical, and commercial development of research discoveries in this emerging field.

Lundberg, Martha Shauck

2013-01-01

67

Recovery of cardiopulmonary reflexes in monkeys undergoing heart-lung transplantation.  

PubMed

After heart-lung transplantation in primates, cardiopulmonary reflexes were tested and shown to be present. The Hering-Breuer and cough reflexes were tested, as well as responses to an inhaled respiratory stimulant, vasodilator, and an intravenous anticholinesterase and antimuscarinic agent. Recovery of these responses, except to the anticholinesterase agent, suggests that reinervation occurs in autotransplanted organs in primates. The Hering-Breuer reflex was present at 1.9 and 2.2 months after the operation in two animals subjected to autotransplantation. These cardiopulmonary reflex responses were also demonstrated in two allograft recipients studied at 15 and 16.9 months after the operation. Return of protective reflexes such as coughing may be an important mechanism to prevent aspiration pneumonitis and other complications in humans. PMID:2796358

Mihm, F G; Popovic, B K; Noe, C; Hilberman, M; Reitz, B A

1989-10-01

68

Autoperfused heart-lung preparation: one reason for unsuccessful lung preservation.  

PubMed

Normothermic autoperfused heart-lung preparation has the advantages of avoiding ischemic time and allowing continuous monitoring of organ function during preservation. When this technique is used, the lungs deteriorate quickly, but the reasons for this deterioration have not been investigated. This study was designed to explore the possible cause of rapid lung deterioration. Three groups of mongrel dogs were used. In Group 1 (N = 5), a buffer bag was used in the heart-lung preparation. In Group 2 (N = 6), a 20 mu filter was incorporated between the buffer bag and the right atrium. In Group 3 (N = 5), no buffer bag was used. Average survival time was 15.0 +/- 3.1 hours in Group 1, 13.5 +/- 0.7 hours in Group 2, and 21.6 +/- 2.3 hours in Group 3. Heart function was comparable among the three groups, but the arterial pulse pressure was lower and the heart rate higher in Group 3. Both white blood cell and platelet counts decreased contonuously during the preservation period. Examination of the filters in Group 2 revealed numerous aggregates consisting of platelets, white blood cells, red blood cells, and fibrin. Small thrombi were also found in the lungs in Groups 1 and 2. The results indicated that one important reason for quick lung deterioration was numerous aggregates, which were formed in the buffer bag, returned from the venous line, and trapped in the lungs. Removal of the buffer bag reduced the production of aggregates but tended to de-stabilize the hemodynamics of the preparation. PMID:7717026

Zhang, Z; Proffitt, G; Salley, R K; Diana, J N; Zhang, F; Wu, G; O'Connor, W N; Chien, S

1994-01-01

69

Should we perform bilateral-lung or heart–lung transplantation for patients with pulmonary hypertension?  

PubMed

A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The following question was addressed: of the following two procedures, heart–lung transplantation or bilateral-lung transplantation (BLTx), which offers the best outcome for patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) listed for thoracic transplantation? Of the 77 papers found using a report search for PH and thoracic transplantation, 9 represented the best evidence to answer this clinical question. Overall, 1189 (67%) lung transplantations and 578 (33%) heart–lung transplantations have been reported worldwide for idiopathic PH. For patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome, HLTx represents up to 70% of the transplantation procedures they undergo. On the whole, neither procedure demonstrated an overall survival benefit, when compared with the other. However, PH patients represent a heterogeneous population according to (i) the primary mechanism of PH and (ii) the consequences of PH on right or/and left heart function. With regard to the latter consideration, the current evidence shows that HLTx offers excellent functional and survival outcomes for patients with congenital heart disease and Eisenmenger's syndrome, severe right or/and left heart dysfunction, and who are chronically inotropic dependent. As far as heart dysfunction is concerned, the published evidence approximated cut-off values at 10–25% for the right ventricle ejection fraction (RVEF) and at 32–55% for the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF). In the case of lower values for RVEF and LVEF, HLTx should be performed. In all other patients with PH, the evidence demonstrated that BLTx offers a comparable outcome with the advantage of better organ sharing for other recipients. In order to reduce the waiting time on transplantation lists, cardiac repair and BLTx can be offered in experienced centres to patients with simple cardiac anomalies such as atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus or perimembranous ventricular septal defect. PMID:23575761

Olland, Anne; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Canuet, Mathieu; Massard, Gilbert

2013-07-01

70

Publication of Trials Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Rapid publication of clinical trials is essential in order for the findings to yield maximal benefits for public health and scientific progress. Factors affecting the speed of publication of the main results of government-funded trials have not been well characterized. METHODS We analyzed 244 extramural randomized clinical trials of cardiovascular interventions that were supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). We selected trials for which data collection had been completed between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2011. Our primary outcome measure was the time between completion of the trial and publication of the main results in a peer-reviewed journal. RESULTS As of March 31, 2012, the main results of 156 trials (64%) had been published (Kaplan–Meier median time to publication, 25 months, with 57% published within 30 months). Trials that focused on clinical events were published more rapidly than those that focused on surrogate measures (median, 9 months vs. 31 months; P<0.001). The only independent predictors of more rapid publication were a focus on clinical events rather than surrogate end points (adjusted publication rate ratio, 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 3.53; P = 0.004) and higher costs of conducting the trial, up to a threshold of approximately $5 million (P<0.001). The 37 trials that focused on clinical events and cost at least $5 million accounted for 67% of the funds spent on clinical trials but received 82% of the citations. After adjustment of the analysis for a focus on clinical events and for cost, trial results that were classified as positive were published more quickly than those classified as negative. CONCLUSIONS Results of less than two thirds of NHLBI-funded randomized clinical trials of cardiovascular interventions were published within 30 months after completion of the trial. Trials that focused on clinical events were published more quickly than those that focused on surrogate end points. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.)

Gordon, David; Taddei-Peters, Wendy; Mascette, Alice; Antman, Melissa; Kaufmann, Peter G.; Lauer, Michael S.

2014-01-01

71

Heart and heart-lung transplantation for idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy in children  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the outcome of cardiac transplantation for restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) in children and to assess the ability of new strategies to modulate the effects of high pulmonary vascular resistance. Design Retrospective case note analysis of all patients receiving a transplant for RCM. Patients 18 children with RCM referred for transplantation assessment to Great Ormond Street Hospital, London. Results Eight boys and 10 girls were referred for assessment. Median age at presentation was 5.0 (mean (SD) 6.1 (4.0)) years. Fourteen orthotopic and two heterotopic transplantations were performed and two patients were referred for heart–lung transplantation. Mean duration from diagnosis to transplantation was 3.3 (3.0) years. Three patients with haemodynamic decompensation before transplantation had increased morbidity in the postoperative period. No patients died while awaiting a transplant. Three patients died in the first year after transplantation, one within 30 days. Five patients received pre?transplantation prostacyclin for a mean duration of 57 (18) days. Transpulmonary gradient was reduced in four of the patients. Mean transpulmonary gradient was 27 (9.8)?mm?Hg before and 17 (6.7)?mm?Hg after treatment with prostacyclin (p?

Fenton, M J; Chubb, H; McMahon, A M; Rees, P; Elliott, M J; Burch, M

2006-01-01

72

Cardiovascular epidemiology in a changing world--challenges to investigators and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  

PubMed

Over the past 60 years, revolutionary discoveries made by epidemiologists have contributed to marked declines in cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Now, in an era of increasingly constrained resources, researchers in cardiovascular epidemiology face a number of challenges that call for novel, paradigm-shifting approaches. In this paper, the authors pose to the community 4 critical questions: 1) How can we avoid wasting resources on studies that provide little incremental knowledge? 2) How can we assure that we direct our resources as economically as possible towards innovative science? 3) How can we be nimble, responding quickly to new opportunities? 4) How can we identify prospectively the most meritorious research questions? Senior program staff at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute invite the epidemiology community to join them in an ongoing Web-based blog conversation so that together we might develop novel approaches that will facilitate the next generation of high-impact discoveries. PMID:22415032

Sorlie, Paul D; Bild, Diane E; Lauer, Michael S

2012-04-01

73

Cardiovascular Epidemiology in a Changing World--Challenges to Investigators and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute  

PubMed Central

Over the past 60 years, revolutionary discoveries made by epidemiologists have contributed to marked declines in cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Now, in an era of increasingly constrained resources, researchers in cardiovascular epidemiology face a number of challenges that call for novel, paradigm-shifting approaches. In this paper, the authors pose to the community 4 critical questions: 1) How can we avoid wasting resources on studies that provide little incremental knowledge? 2) How can we assure that we direct our resources as economically as possible towards innovative science? 3) How can we be nimble, responding quickly to new opportunities? 4) How can we identify prospectively the most meritorious research questions? Senior program staff at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute invite the epidemiology community to join them in an ongoing Web-based blog conversation so that together we might develop novel approaches that will facilitate the next generation of high-impact discoveries.

Sorlie, Paul D.; Bild, Diane E.; Lauer, Michael S.

2012-01-01

74

Gastric ulcer perforation in heart-lung transplant patient: a successful case of early surgical intervention and management.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal complications may follow organ transplantation. A patient who underwent heart lung transplantation due to patent ductus arteriosus and Eisenmenger's syndrome had an episode of acute cardiac rejection and was treated with a bolus injection of methylprednisolone followed by a high oral dose of prednisone. On the 22nd postoperative day, the patient complained of acute abdominal pain with muscular rigidity and a plain chest x-ray showed free air in the right subdiaphragmatic area. Under the suspicion of bowel perforation, an emergency laparotomy was performed and the perforated stomach had a wedge-shaped resection that included the perforation. Following the laparotomy, the postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on post-laparotomy day 10. PMID:14703623

Paik, Hyo Chae; Kim, Do Hyung; Lee, Doo Yun; Yoon, Dong Sup; Lee, Jae Hoon

2003-12-30

75

A computer simulation model of the cost-effectiveness of routine Staphylococcus aureus screening and decolonization among lung and heart-lung transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Our objective was to model the cost-effectiveness and economic value of routine peri-operative Staphylococcus aureus screening and decolonization of lung and heart-lung transplant recipients from hospital and third-party payer perspectives. We used clinical data from 596 lung and heart-lung transplant recipients to develop a model in TreeAge Pro 2009 (Williamsport, MA, USA). Sensitivity analyses varied S. aureus colonization rate (5-15 %), probability of infection if colonized (10-30 %), and decolonization efficacy (25-90 %). Data were collected from the Cardiothoracic Transplant Program at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Consecutive lung and heart-lung transplant recipients from January 2006 to December 2010 were enrolled retrospectively. Baseline rates of S. aureus colonization, infection and decolonization efficacy were 9.6 %, 36.7 %, and 31.9 %, respectively. Screening and decolonization was economically dominant for all scenarios tested, providing more cost savings and health benefits than no screening. Savings per case averted (2012 $US) ranged from $73,567 to $133,157 (hospital perspective) and $10,748 to $16,723 (third party payer perspective), varying with the probability of colonization, infection, and decolonization efficacy. Using our clinical data, screening and decolonization led to cost savings per case averted of $240,602 (hospital perspective) and averted 6.7?S. aureus infections (4.3 MRSA and 2.4 MSSA); 89 patients needed to be screened to prevent one S. aureus infection. Our data support routine S. aureus screening and decolonization of lung and heart-lung transplant patients. The economic value of screening and decolonization was greater than in previous models of other surgical populations. PMID:24500598

Clancy, C J; Bartsch, S M; Nguyen, M H; Stuckey, D R; Shields, R K; Lee, B Y

2014-06-01

76

Severe Asthma in Children: Insights from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Severe Asthma Research Program  

PubMed Central

Severe asthma in children is a complicated disorder characterized by ongoing symptoms and persistent airway inflammation despite treatment with high doses of inhaled and oral corticosteroids. Although knowledge of asthma and its associated mechanisms has increased substantially over the past decade, significant gaps remain about the determinants of severe asthma in children and the progression of the disorder across the lifespan. This review highlights recent insights into severe asthma in children derived from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP), with an emphasis on age-specific findings and differences from severe asthma in adults. While the existence of a true severe asthma phenotype in children is subject to some debate, given the results of SARP and other investigators, we conclude that there is indeed a subgroup of children with severe asthma who have extreme morbidity and differentiating clinical features that are identifiable very early in life. However, unlike adults with severe asthma, children with severe asthma are more likely to fall in a more narrow cluster that is characterized by marked atopy and reversible airflow obstruction. While SARP has advanced knowledge of severe asthma in children, considerable gaps remain for which additional studies are needed.

Fitzpatrick, Anne M.

2010-01-01

77

Funding mechanisms and program management at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: confronting new challenges and exploring new opportunities.  

PubMed

Over the past 8 years, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) budget appropriation has lost purchasing power, with erosion of the benefits of the doubling of the budget less than a decade ago. For the first time in 40 years, the NIH appropriation in fiscal year 2011 was 1% less than in the previous year. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has been closely managing its funds to protect its core functions: support and conduct of research, and training of biomedical research scientists. Rigorous evaluations of funding mechanisms, management of clinical studies, set-aside programs and funding guidelines are designed to help the Institute, in consultation with its advisory council, to minimize the long-term impact of extreme resource limitations on the advance and conduct of science. This report describes some recent actions taken by the NHLBI to maximize support for investigator-initiated research, maintain a balanced portfolio, and provide as much support as possible for established and early-stage investigators. PMID:21868577

Shurin, Susan B

2011-11-17

78

Comparative effectiveness research in lung diseases and sleep disorders: recommendations from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute workshop.  

PubMed

The Division of Lung Diseases of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) held a workshop to develop recommendations on topics, methodologies, and resources for comparative effectiveness research (CER) that will guide clinical decision making about available treatment options for lung diseases and sleep disorders. A multidisciplinary group of experts with experience in efficacy, effectiveness, implementation, and economic research identified (a) what types of studies the domain of CER in lung diseases and sleep disorders should include, (b) the criteria and process for setting priorities, and (c) current resources for and barriers to CER in lung diseases. Key recommendations were to (1) increase efforts to engage stakeholders in developing CER questions and study designs; (2) invest in further development of databases and other infrastructure, including efficient methods for data sharing; (3) make full use of a broad range of study designs; (4) increase the appropriate use of observational designs and the support of methodologic research; (5) ensure that committees that review CER grant applications include persons with appropriate perspective and expertise; and (6) further develop the workforce for CER by supporting training opportunities that focus on the methodologic and practical skills needed. PMID:21965016

Lieu, Tracy A; Au, David; Krishnan, Jerry A; Moss, Marc; Selker, Harry; Harabin, Andrea; Taggart, Virginia; Connors, Alfred

2011-10-01

79

Matrix biology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a workshop report of the national heart, lung, and blood institute.  

PubMed

A hallmark of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is excessive and disordered deposition of extracellular matrix. Although the lung extracellular matrix normally plays an essential role in development and maintenance of lung tissue through reciprocal interactions with resident cells, the disordered matrix in the diseased lung is increasingly recognized as an active and important contributor to IPF pathogenesis. This working group summary from a recently conducted National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute strategic planning workshop for IPF research highlights recent advances, challenges, and opportunities in the study of matrix biology in IPF. Particular attention is given to the composition and mechanical properties of the matrix in normal and diseased lungs, and the biochemical and biomechanical influences exerted by pathological matrix. Recently developed model systems are also summarized as key tools for advancing our understanding of matrix biology in IPF. Emerging approaches to therapeutically target the matrix in preclinical and clinical settings are discussed, as are important concepts, such as alterations of the matrix with aging and the potential for the resolution of fibrosis. Specific recommendations for future studies in matrix biology of IPF are also proposed. PMID:24726499

Thannickal, Victor J; Henke, Craig A; Horowitz, Jeffrey C; Noble, Paul W; Roman, Jesse; Sime, Patricia J; Zhou, Yong; Wells, Rebecca G; White, Eric S; Tschumperlin, Daniel J

2014-06-01

80

Are central institutional review boards the solution? The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group's report on optimizing the IRB process.  

PubMed

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health convened a working group in June 2011 to examine alternative institutional review board (IRB) models. The working group was held in response to proposed changes in the regulations for government-supported research and the proliferation of multicenter clinical trials where multiple individual reviews may be inefficient. Group members included experts in heart, lung, and blood research, research oversight, bioethics, health economics, regulations, and information technology (IT). The group discussed alternative IRB models, ethical concerns, metrics for evaluating IRBs, IT needs, and economic considerations. Participants noted research gaps in IRB best practices and in metrics. The group arrived at recommendations for process changes, such as defining specific IRB performance requirements in funding announcements, requiring funded researchers to use more efficient alternative IRB models, and developing IT systems to facilitate information sharing and collaboration among IRBs. Despite the success of the National Cancer Institute's central IRB (CIRB), the working group, concerned about the creation costs and unknown cost-efficiency of a new CIRB, and about the risk of shifting the burden of dealing with multiple IRBs from sponsors to research institutions, did not recommend the creation of an NHLBI-funded CIRB. PMID:23095928

Mascette, Alice M; Bernard, Gordon R; Dimichele, Donna; Goldner, Jesse A; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Paul A; Leeds, Hilary S; Pearson, Thomas A; Ramsey, Bonnie; Wagner, Todd H

2012-12-01

81

Mean Machines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests scales as alternative representations of numerical concepts and operations that can be used as arithmetic-mean machines, adding machines, multiplication machines, and geometric-mean machines. (ASK)

Flores, Alfinio

1998-01-01

82

Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online Simple Machines Assignment OBJECTIVES: Student\\'s will be able to name and describe all seven simple machines. Students will be able to identify simple machines that they use everyday. Example: Clock = Gear INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Click on the Simple Machines Glossary page and familiarize yourself with the seven simple machines. Simple Machines Glossary Page 2. Students are to click on ...

Oldroyd, Mr.

2007-09-26

83

Direct recording of cardiac output- and venous return-curves in the dog heart-lung preparation for a graphical analysis of the effects of cardioactive drugs.  

PubMed

The dog heart-lung preparations were prepared. The "equilibrium point", which could be defined as the point at which the cardiac output (CO)-curve and the venous return (VR)-curve crossed, when the CO and VR were plotted against the right atrial pressure, was recorded directly by utilizing an X-Y recorder. The CO-curve was obtained, as a locus of the equilibrium point, by raising and lowering the level of blood in the venous reservoir (competence test). The meaning of the procedure was shown to increase or decrease the mean systemic pressure, and to cause the corresponding parallel shift in the VR-curve. The VR-curve was obtained by changing myocardial contractility. When heart failure was induced by pentobarbital or by chloroform, the equilibrium point shifted downwards to the right, depicting the VR-curve. During development of the failure, the slopes of CO-curves decreased gradually. Effects of cinobufagin and norepinephrine were also analyzed. Utilization of the X-Y recorder enabled us to settle the uniform experimental conditions more easily, and to follow the effects of drugs continuously on a diagram equating the CO- and VR-curves (Gyton's scheme). PMID:731938

Ishikawa, N; Taki, K; Hojo, Y; Hagino, Y; Shigei, T

1978-09-01

84

Introspective Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An introspective machine, capable of passing judgment on its own deductive performances, is modelled and analyzed. First, the class of ideal machines which is provided with unlimited resources is studied. Since ideal introspective machines are usually unf...

G. A. W. Vreeswijk

1989-01-01

85

Comparison of Bare-Metal Stents and Drug-Eluting Stents in Coronary Ostial Lesions (from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Dynamic Registry)  

PubMed Central

We compared the effectiveness of drug-eluting stents (DESs) to bare-metal stents (BMSs) in ostial lesions from an unrestricted patient cohort with 3-year follow-up. DESs have proved more effective at decreasing repeat revascularization rates compared to BMSs in patients with uncomplicated coronary artery disease. Whether DESs provide similar benefits in ostial lesions is not clearly defined. We analyzed data from 775 patients in the National, Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Dynamic Registry undergoing stenting of ostial lesions with DESs or BMSs. Patients were followed for 3 years for the occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI), repeat revascularization (coronary bypass surgery/repeat percutaneous coronary intervention), and death. In total 439 patients had 464 ostial lesions treated with BMSs and 336 patients had 351 ostial lesions treated with DESs. Adjusted DES versus BMS 3-year hazard ratios were 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.78, p = 0.90) for death, 1.40 (0.83 to 2.37, p = 0.21) for MI, and 0.81 (0.59 to 1.11, p = 0.19) for repeat revascularization. In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for aorto-ostial disease (n = 200), death and repeat revascularization did not differ between stent types, but DES-treated patients had more MI during follow-up. For coronary ostial disease (n = 574), 3-year observed rates of death or MI did not differ; however, repeat revascularization was more common in the BMS group. In conclusion, use of DESs for ostial lesions was associated with no difference in the hazard of death, MI, or overall rates of repeat revascularization compared to BMS use.

Vasaiwala, Samip; Vlachos, Helen; Selzer, Faith; Marroquin, Oscar; Mulukutla, Suresh; Abbott, J. Dawn; Williams, David O.

2012-01-01

86

von Willebrand disease (VWD): evidence-based diagnosis and management guidelines, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Expert Panel report (USA).  

PubMed

von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a commonly encountered inherited bleeding disorder affecting both males and females, causing mucous membrane and skin bleeding symptoms, and bleeding with surgical or other haemostatic challenges. VWD may be disproportionately symptomatic in women of child-bearing age. It may also occur less frequently as an acquired disorder (acquired von Willebrand syndrome). VWD is caused by deficiency or dysfunction of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a plasma protein that mediates platelet haemostatic function and stabilizes blood coagulation factor VIII. The pathophysiology, classification, diagnosis and management of VWD are relatively complex, but understanding them is important for proper diagnosis and management of patients with VWD. These evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management of VWD from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Expert Panel (USA) review relevant publications, summarize current understanding of VWD pathophysiology and classification, and present consensus diagnostic and management recommendations based on analysis of the literature and expert opinion. They also suggest an approach for clinical and laboratory evaluation of individuals with bleeding symptoms, history of bleeding or conditions associated with increased bleeding risk. This document summarizes needs for further research in VWF, VWD and bleeding disorders, including clinical research to obtain more objective information about bleeding symptoms, advancements in diagnostic and therapeutic tools, and enhancement in the education and training of clinicians and scientists in bleeding and thrombotic disorders. The NHLBI Web site (http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/vwd) has a more detailed document, a synopsis of these recommendations, and patient education information. PMID:18315614

Nichols, W L; Hultin, M B; James, A H; Manco-Johnson, M J; Montgomery, R R; Ortel, T L; Rick, M E; Sadler, J E; Weinstein, M; Yawn, B P

2008-03-01

87

Machine Shop Grinding Machines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

Dunn, James

88

Quantitative-Trait Loci Influencing Body-Mass Index Reside on Chromosomes 7 and 13: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, including glucose intolerance, lipid disorders, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Even though the body-mass index (BMI) is a heterogeneous phenotype reflecting the amount of fat, lean mass, and body build, several studies have provided evidence of one or two major loci contributing to the variation in this complex trait. We sought to identify loci with potential influence on BMI in the data obtained from National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study. Two complementary samples were studied: (a) 1,184 subjects in 317 sibships, with 243 markers typed by the Utah Molecular Genetics Laboratory (UMGL) and (b) 3,027 subjects distributed among 401 three-generation families, with 404 markers typed by the Mammalian Genotyping Service (MGS). A genome scan using a variance-components–based linkage approach was performed for each sample, as well as for the combined sample, in which the markers from each analysis were placed on a common genetic map. There was strong evidence for linkage on chromosome 7q32.3 in each sample: the maximum multipoint LOD scores were 4.7 (P<10-5) at marker GATA43C11 and 3.2 (P=.00007) at marker D7S1804, for the MGS and UMGL samples, respectively. The linkage result is replicated by the consistent evidence from these two complementary subsets. Furthermore, the evidence for linkage was maintained in the combined sample, with a LOD score of 4.9 (P<10-5) for both markers, which map to the same location. This signal is very near the published location for the leptin gene, which is the most prominent candidate gene in this region. For the combined-sample analysis, evidence of linkage was also found on chromosome 13q14, with D13S257 (LOD score 3.2, P=.00006), and other, weaker signals (LOD scores 1.5–1.9) were found on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 14, and 15.

Feitosa, Mary F.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Rich, Stephen S.; Arnett, Donna K.; Sholinsky, Phyliss; Myers, Richard H.; Leppert, Mark; Province, Michael A.

2002-01-01

89

Kid Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is on page 3 (continued on page 2) of the pdf, part of the Simple Machines Discovery Box. In this fun activity, learners "create" a complex machine by simulating the parts in action. Learners move their bodies and make sounds as if they are individual parts of a moving machine. Then learners discover what happens when part of a machine is broken and problem solve ways to fix it.

Omsi

2004-01-01

90

Electrostatic Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Antonio Carlos M. De Queiroz, an associate professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, illustrates a number of different electrostatic machines. The site includes details and images of machines built by the professor as well as many other historical machines of this type. Some information is also available in Portugese.

De Queiroz, Antonio C.

2011-07-13

91

Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity about simple machines. Learners will try their hand at putting these amazing devices to work. They will use several simple machines to help "build" a tree house. This is an excellent activity to demonstrate how science - in particular, simple machines - are at work in our everyday lives.

Cosi

2000-01-01

92

Precision Machining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Basic machining processes are introduced on a Web site that is devoted to engineering fundamentals (1). Descriptions and illustrations of drilling, turning, grinding, and other common processes are provided for people with little to no prior machining knowledge. A waterjet is a non-traditional machining technology that uses high pressure streams of water with abrasive additives rather than solid cutting instruments to slice through metal and other materials. An in-depth discussion of waterjet operation and applications is available from Southern Methodist University (2). Waterjets are often cited as being much more precise than traditional machining techniques. The Waterjet Video Vault (3) contains clips of waterjet machines in action. The video of the foam cutting procedure is especially interesting, as it shows how quick and accurate the machining process can be. An online guide to cross process machining, which incorporates elements from various conventional and unconventional techniques, is provided by the Mechanical Engineering Department at Columbia University (4). Some remarkable and innovative techniques that have surfaced over the past few years are outlined, including underwater laser machining and plasma-assisted machining. Entirely different and exotic machining techniques are required for creating microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and other extremely small devices. The Caltech Micromachining Laboratory (5) maintains an archive of research highlights and papers on its homepage, including a paper on a MEMS-driven flapping wing for a palm-sized aerial vehicle. An online article from Modern Machine Shop (6) outlines some new technologies and research in the area of high speed machining. A particularly interesting section of the article describes a system developed at the University of Florida that aims to enable micromachining to achieve rotational speeds of standard machining processes, specifically up to a half million rotations per minute. Cutting edge waterjet innovations are the subject of a February 2003 feature from a publication of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (7). Extremely high pressure nozzles are being developed to improve cutting speed, and enhanced software for controlling machine movements is also a focus of study. This news article (8) from June 20, 2003 describes an electrochemical machining process that is being used to fabricate complex nanostructures. The work, produced by German and U.S. researchers, has the potential to compete with current lithographic processes.

Leske, Cavin.

93

Nonplanar machines  

SciTech Connect

This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs.

Ritson, D. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1989-05-01

94

Electric machine  

DOEpatents

An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi (Niskayuna, NY); Reddy, Patel Bhageerath (Madison, WI)

2012-07-17

95

Excavating machines  

SciTech Connect

The excavating machine has a cutter carrying boom carried by a boom support member which can be swung about an axis extending in the direction of the roadway. The machine includes a cutter unit and a stay unit each of which is releasably anchorable in the roadway and each of which can be advanced relative to the other unit.

Plummer, D.

1980-10-21

96

Machine Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As scientists seek to develop machines that can "learn," that is, solve problems by imitating the human brain, a gold mine of information on the processes of human learning is being discovered, expert systems are being improved, and human-machine interactions are being enhanced. (SK)

Kirrane, Diane E.

1990-01-01

97

Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery

Achim Hoffmann; Ashesh Mahidadia

2009-01-01

98

Scribbling Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore electronics and motion by making a Scribbling Machine, a motorized contraption that moves in unusual ways and leaves a mark to trace its path. Itâs made from simple materials and is based on the idea of motion created by an offset motor. Try using harvested motors and switches from discarded toys and electronics to make your Scribbling Machine - this not only keeps costs down, but is a playful and inventive way to explore how everyday objects work. To take the activity further, you can also incorporate PicoCrickets to make your Scribbling Machine more intelligent and to explore computers.

Exploratorium

2013-01-30

99

Electromechanical Machining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this work was to adapt the new process of electromechanical machining (EMM), in which metal is cut by direct contact of the tool with an electrochemically polarized workpiece, to turning and drilling. This investigation, which followed expe...

R. M. Latanision K. C. Nielsen

1976-01-01

100

Math Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Math Machines organization is to "improve the quality of mathematical education, enhance the transfer of mathematical thinking into other classes, and increase students' ability to apply rigorous mathematics outside the classroom." Their website supports a National Science Foundation ATE grant-supported project designed to improve teaching in the areas of Mathematics, Science, and Technology at the high school and college levels. This improved learning results from using math, science, and technology principles to build and control various machines such as pointers and robots or "math machines", which are simple devices that provide an immediate, physical, dynamic expression to abstract mathematical equations. The website provides information links on Educational Theory, Classroom Activities, Project Workshops, Calculators & Programs, and Machine Construction Instructions for Building: Closed Circuits, Servo Motors, Controllers, Robot Boards and more. There is also contact information, an FAQ section, as well as upcoming events.

2010-05-18

101

Mining machine  

SciTech Connect

A haulage system for a mining machine comprises a mining machine mounted on and/or guided by a conveyor and reciprocable with respect thereto, the conveyor being provided with a rack having plural rows of teeth of identical pitch, with the teeth of one row staggered with respect to an adjacent row(s), and the machine being provided with at least one power driven haulage sprocket comprising plural sets of peripherally arranged teeth of identical pitch, one set being angularly staggered with respect to an adjacent set(s), whereby one set is engageable with each row of teeth of the rack. The invention also includes a mining machine provided with such a power driven haulage sprocket, and a rack as above described and provided with end fittings for securing in articulated manner to an adjacent rack.

Parrott, G.A.

1985-05-07

102

Monel Machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

1983-01-01

103

Machine Vision  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An overview of a generic image-based machine vision system is provided on this Web site (1). The tutorial describes the main components of such a system, how its accuracy is measured, and what scientific and industrial applications benefit from machine vision. A more technical perspective of machine vision technology is given in an online publication of the Automated Imaging Association (2). Monthly feature articles discuss breaking issues related to machine vision, and several technical papers can be downloaded, which are sorted into categories such as three dimensional imaging and nanotechnology. Researchers from the MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (3) are investigating how to enable a computer to interpret visual and audio signals from its human user. By using machine perception systems to track the user's gaze, for example, the computer could ascertain the focus of the user's attention, thereby facilitating interaction between the human and the computer. The project's homepage includes numerous research papers, as well as video demonstrations of some of its systems. Machine vision is also finding its way into vehicles. A March 2003 news article (4) highlights a field test in Michigan of a collision avoidance system that uses, among other things, machine vision to warn drivers that they are approaching a slower or stopped object too quickly. The 3D Computer Vision Group at Carnegie Mellon University (5) is involved in several projects, including three dimensional object recognition and humanoid robot vision. Many of the group's recent publications are available for download. NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, the second of which was launched in July 2003, have vision systems that will let them safely navigate rough terrain. These systems are described in this conference paper (6), including specifics of the stereo vision algorithm and insights into future missions. A new implementation of machine vision comes from a former researcher from Cambridge University. His shape recognition system, which is detailed in this news article (7), is reportedly much more related to human visual processes than existing techniques. For additional developments related to this evolving technology, Machine Vision News (8) has information about worldwide research and new applications of machine vision systems.

Leske, Cavin.

104

Culture Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Culture Machine is a new, refereed, electronic journal encompassing cultural studies and cultural theory. The international editorial board of the interactive journal aims to "generat[e] research in culture and theory" by promoting and publishing "the most provocative of new work." The theme of the inaugural issue is Taking Risks with the Future. Content includes articles such as Life After Death of the Text by Johan Fornas, Cultural Studies in the Clouds: Mourning for Detail by Tadeusz Slawek, and The Future States of Politics by Kenneth Surin. Culture Machine is hosted by the University of Teesside, England.

105

Wacky Machines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

Fendrich, Jean

2002-01-01

106

Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A webquest about simple machines Please open microsoft word and re-type or copy and paste each question and then type your answer. Be sure to include your name at the top of the page!!! . . Follow the link below and click on the Start button. Go to either the house or the tool shed and go ...

Mr.rebello

2008-11-24

107

XML Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to capture the dynamics of XML databases a general model of tree-based database transformations is required. In this paper such an abstract computational model is presented, which brings together ideas from Abstract State Machines and monadic second-order logic. The model captures all XML database transformations.

Wang, Qing; Ferrarotti, Flavio A.

108

Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet allows learners to explore simple linear functions. Students determine the algebraic form of a linear equation by entering inputs into the machine and by looking for patterns in the outputs. The function rules available are: integers from -10 to 10 are either added to, subtracted from, or multiplied by the input x to yield the output y.

2011-01-01

109

Drilling Machines: Vocational Machine Shop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lessons and supportive information in this field tested instructional block provide a guide for teachers in developing a machine shop course of study in drilling. The document is comprised of operation sheets, information sheets, and transparency masters for 23 lessons. Each lesson plan includes a performance objective, material and tools,…

Thomas, John C.

110

Fullerene Machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically accessible and of great interest. We have computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Preliminary results suggest that these gears can be cooled by a helium atmosphere and a laser motor can power fullerene gears if a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. In addition, we have unproven concepts based on experimental and computational evidence for support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and manufacture. Combining fullerene machines with the remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, there is some reason to believe that a focused effort to develop fullerene nanotechnology could yield materials with tremendous properties.

Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash

1998-01-01

111

Fullerene Machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fullerenes possess remarkable properties and many investigators have examined the mechanical, electronic and other characteristics of carbon SP2 systems in some detail. In addition, C-60 can be functionalized with many classes of molecular fragments and we may expect the caps of carbon nanotubes to have a similar chemistry. Finally, carbon nanotubes have been attached to t he end of scanning probe microscope (Spill) tips. Spills can be manipulated with sub-angstrom accuracy. Together, these investigations suggest that complex molecular machines made of fullerenes may someday be created and manipulated with very high accuracy. We have studied some such systems computationally (primarily functionalized carbon nanotube gears and computer components). If such machines can be combined appropriately, a class of materials may be created that can sense their environment, calculate a response, and act. The implications of such hypothetical materials are substantial.

Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

112

Induction machine  

DOEpatents

A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

Owen, Whitney H. (Ogden, UT)

1980-01-01

113

Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can you identify the six types of simple machines? 1. What do you know about Inclined Planes? Draw an example on your graphic organizer and state one fact.Inclined Plane 2. What do you know about levers? Draw an example on your graphic organizer and state one fact.Lever. 3. What do you know about pulleys? Draw an example on your graphic organizer and ...

Stewart, Miss

2010-03-24

114

Living Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ecological studies have revealed that nature has an in-built system to restore itself, thereby sustaining its continuity.\\u000a In other words, natural ecosystems can act as “Living Machines” in keeping the ecosystems habitable. The biological communities\\u000a – microbes, plants, and animals – serve as the driving force of several living technological innovations – constructed wetlands,\\u000a Lake Restores, Eco-Restorers, and Reedbeds. These

Yung-Tse Hung; Joseph F. Hawumba; Lawrence K. Wang

115

TEMPO machine  

SciTech Connect

TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

1986-06-01

116

Parallel machines: Parallel machine languages  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a framework for understanding the tradeoffs between the conventional view and the dataflow view with the objective of discovering the critical hardware structures which must be present in any scalable, general-purpose parallel computer to effectively tolerate latency and synchronization costs. The author presents an approach to scalable general purpose parallel computation. Linguistic Concerns, Compiling Issues, Intermediate Language Issues, and hardware/technological constraints are presented as a combined approach to architectural Develoement. This book presents the notion of a parallel machine language.

Iannucci, R.A. (IBM (US))

1990-01-01

117

Mind & Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mind & Machine is a weekly column provided by Ashley Dunn for the New York Times Cybertimes that discusses topics related to computing, technology, and the Internet. Recent columns have addressed the topics of the development of Internet telephony, possible futures of user interfaces, the history of technology and standards, and the Internet as a vehicle for community. Articles are well written, opinionated, and thought provoking. Mr. Dunn is a free lance writer who has written for such papers as the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, and the South China Morning Post. Note that the site is available only upon registration and is free of charge only in the US.

Dunn, Ashley.

1996-01-01

118

Machine musicianship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

Rowe, Robert

2002-05-01

119

Capacitive on-line hematocrit sensor design based on impedance spectroscopy for use in hemodialysis machines.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new design for an on-line and in-line hematocrit (HCT) sensor. Special feature of the sensor is the capability to measure the hematocrit of a blood sample inside standard plastic tubing widely used in medical equipment. No blood sample has to be extracted out of existing extracorporeal blood circulation systems such as hemodialysis machines or heart-lung machines. The sensor principle is based on electrical impedance spectroscopy. Dielectric properties of the blood and the plastic tubing are measured at various frequencies. In order to optimize the sensitivity, a unique electrode configuration is developed and optimized by Finite Element Simulation. The new electrode design optimizes the overall sensitivity of the sensor towards a change in dielectric properties of the blood caused by the HCT value and therefore decreases the sensitivity to side effects caused by temperature drift and component tolerances. As a result of the optimized overall sensor performance the complexity of a sensor readout circuitry can be reduced to a minimum which leads to an unmatched price-performance ratio for a complete measurement system. PMID:19963491

Trebbels, Dennis; Hradetzky, David; Zengerle, Roland

2009-01-01

120

Heart/Lung Data Center Profile  

MedlinePLUS

... the Chronic Disease Research Group of the Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation that holds the Scientific ... USA.gov This is an official U.S. Government Web site managed by the Health Resources and ...

121

Heart-lung transplantation —Harefield experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty-nine combined heart and lung transplantations were performed on 152 patients at Harefield Hospital from\\u000a 1980 to February 1988. The age of the recipients ranged from 10 weeks to 52 years. The transplantation was indicated for pulmonary\\u000a vascular disease on 106 patients (69.7 per cent), and for parenchymal lung disease on 46 patients (30.3 per cent). Eisenmenger

Magdi H. Yacoub; Asghar Khaghani; Haruo Miyamura; Jun Sono

1990-01-01

122

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... Better ® Featured Slides Science Images Soar at Airport Art Show Microscopic images from NHLBI researchers, grantees, on ... on Research NHLBI Researchers Work Featured in Airport Art Show Subscribe to receive email updates:

123

Machine and process characterization  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to statistically characterize 11 precision machining centers to determine their operating characteristics and process capabilities. Measurement probes and a ball plate were used for measurement analysis. A generic test part designed with geometric features that the department typically manufactures was machined using various machining processes. A better understanding of each machine's characteristics and process capability was realized through repeating these methods on each machine.

Love, L.W.

1992-12-01

124

Hard Machinable Machining of Cobalt Super Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article deals with difficult-to-machine cobalt super alloys. The main aim is to test the basic properties of cobalt super alloys and propose suitable cutting materials and machining parameters under the designation 188 when machining. Although the development of technology in chipless machining such as moulding, precision casting and other manufacturing methods continues to advance, machining is still the leading choice for piece production, typical for energy and chemical engineering. Nowadays, super alloys are commonly used in turbine engines in regions that are subject to high temperatures, which require high strength, high temperature resistance, phase stability, as well as corrosion or oxidation resistance.

?ep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Petr?, Jana; ?epová, Lenka; Sadílek, Marek; Kratochvíl, Ji?í

2012-12-01

125

Stirling machine operating experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

1991-01-01

126

Nontraditional Machining of Beryllium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with electrichemical machining (ECM), chemical milling, and electric-discharge machining (EDM). The general characteristics of these processes and their applications to the processing of beryllium parts are presented and covered in detail...

J. A. Gurklis

1972-01-01

127

The Advantage of Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about work as defined by physical science and see that work is made easier through the use of simple machines. Already encountering simple machines everyday, students will be learn about their widespread uses in improving everyday life. This lesson serves as the starting point for the Simple Machines Unit.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

128

Your Sewing Machine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

Peacock, Marion E.

129

Autocalibration of an SMT machine by machine vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

An SMT machine has many working coordinate frames—the fiducial mark camera frame, component camera frame, machine table frame, PCB frame, and reference frame. Because of many influences such as mechanical dimension errors, machine assembling errors, and camera lens distortions, all frames on the SMT machine must be calibrated to compensate for these machine errors. This paper applies machine vision techniques

C.-L. Shih; C.-W. Ruo

2005-01-01

130

Edheads: The Compound Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a collection of interactive animations designed to help kids learn how forces and simple machines can work together to create the compound machine. Child-centered animated activities enhance understanding of how compound machines function and how they are differentiated from simple machines. Additionally the site includes a glossary of important terms, lesson plans, a teacher's guide and information about professionals who work with compound machines. This page is part of a larger collection of animated education resources for the elementary level.

2007-09-18

131

The Monitoring of Machines Surveillance des Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of classical vibration analysis to the surveillance of the mechanical condition of machines is described. Automated procedures handled by specialized computers, using advanced signal processing techniques, are sought. Vibration measurement...

M. Gaillochet

1980-01-01

132

Machine tool locator  

DOEpatents

Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

Hanlon, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Gill, Timothy J. (Stanley, NM)

2001-01-01

133

Straightening-stretching machine  

SciTech Connect

A straightening-stretching machine has been designed at the All Union Design and Research Institute for Chemical Engineering. It straightens metal strips in the cold state by stretching beyond their limit with a maximum extension deformation of 3%. A sketch indicates stand, drive for untwisting strip, power cylinder, slide block, and front clamping head, among other aspects of the machine. The technical characteristics are specified and the process is explained. The economy affected on introducing the straightening-stretching machine is indicated.

Deryabin, G.N.; Kuz'min, G.G.

1983-07-01

134

Edheads: Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash activity invites kids to learn about simple and compound machines by investigating common household objects found in the kitchen and tool shed. The animated activities help them understand how the machines work and how to differentiate the various types of simple machine. Additionally the site provides a glossary of important terms, lesson plans and a teacher's guide. This page is part of a larger collection of game-like animations developed to teach children about science.

2007-08-16

135

Machining: An Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Basic machining processes are introduced on this site that is devoted to engineering fundamentals. Descriptions and illustrations of drilling, turning, grinding, and other common processes are provided for people with little to no prior machining knowledge. A waterjet is a non-traditional machining technology that uses high pressure streams of water with abrasive additives rather than solid cutting instruments to slice through metal and other materials.

2008-04-23

136

15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...machines Miscellaneous machine tools Miscellaneous secondary metal forming and cutting machines Planers and shapers Polishing, lapping, boring, and finishing machines Punching and shearing machines Riveting machines Saws and filing...

2013-01-01

137

Stone Picking Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stone picking machines are compared on the basis of their capabilities. Machines are classified as having a cyclic action which removes stones or a direct action which continuously loosens and sieves a layer of soil. The direct acting pickers have better ...

K. I. Preobrazhenskii V. S. Liflyandskii

1970-01-01

138

Fril++ for Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning is one of the successful application areas of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic, which provide soft, and thus tolerant, way of partitioning attribute domains. Theoretical results have shown that there is no (fuzzy) machine learning algorithm that is the best for all tasks. Therefore, for a particular task, it is very useful to have a tool to

T. H. Cao; J. M. Rossiter

139

Semantics via Machine Translation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

Culhane, P. T.

1977-01-01

140

Multimodal interactive machine translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactive machine translation (IMT) [1] is an alternative approach to machine translation, integrating human expertise into the automatic translation process. In this framework, a human iteratively interacts with a system until the output desired by the human is completely generated. Traditionally, interaction has been performed using a keyboard and a mouse. However, the use of touchscreens has been popularised recently.

Vicent Alabau; Daniel Ortiz-Martínez; Alberto Sanchis; Francisco Casacuberta

2010-01-01

141

Stirling machine operating experience  

SciTech Connect

Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

Ross, B. [Stirling Technology Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dudenhoefer, J.E. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1994-09-01

142

The Hooey Machine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how students can make and use Hooey Machines to learn how mechanical energy can be transferred from one object to another within a system. The Hooey Machine is made using a pencil, eight thumbtacks, one pushpin, tape, scissors, graph paper, and a plastic lid. (PR)

Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

1992-01-01

143

Simple Machine Junk Cars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

Herald, Christine

2010-01-01

144

Relational Algebra Machine GRACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the data base machines proposed so far which adopts a filter processor as their basic unit show poor performance for the heavy load operation such as join and projection etc., while they can process the light load operations such as selection and update for which a full scan of a file suffices. These machines which incorporates n processors

Masaru Kitsuregawa; Hidehiko Tanaka; Tohru Moto-oka

1982-01-01

145

Automatic soldering machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fully-automatic tube-joint soldering machine can be used to make leakproof joints in aluminum tubes of 3/16 to 2 in. in diameter. Machine consists of temperature-control unit, heater transformer and heater head, vibrator, and associated circuitry controls, and indicators.

Stein, J. A.

1974-01-01

146

BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

147

Cooperating reduction machines  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a concept and a system architecture for the concurrent execution of program expressions of a concrete reduction language based on lamda-expressions. If formulated appropriately, these expressions are well-suited for concurrent execution, following a demand-driven model of computation. In particular, recursive program expressions with nonlinear expansion may, at run time, recursively be partitioned into a hierarchy of independent subexpressions which can be reduced by a corresponding hierarchy of virtual reduction machines. This hierarchy unfolds and collapses dynamically, with virtual machines recursively assuming the role of masters that create and eventually terminate, or synchronize with, slaves. The paper also proposes a nonhierarchically organized system of reduction machines, each featuring a stack architecture, that effectively supports the allocation of virtual machines to the real machines of the system in compliance with their hierarchical order of creation and termination. 25 references.

Kluge, W.E.

1983-11-01

148

RDM: A Relational Database Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is felt a need in the data processing industry for computing machines which are designed specifically to handle information retrieval and storage. One concept of such a database machine, called a Relational Database Machine (RDM), is presented. The ...

H. S. Ames

1977-01-01

149

Integrated Machine Translation System PIVOT,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Integrated Machine Translation System PIVOT is a machine translation system using a knowledge base that accumulates knowledge of what is to be translated. The use of the epochal PIVOT system for machine translation system (inter mediate expression by ...

K. Muraki S. Ichiyama Y. Okazaki Y. Nagao Y. Aoki

1988-01-01

150

Single-Machine Bicriteria Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Machine scheduling and multicriteria optimization: an introduction; Complexity of single-machine bicriteria scheduling: a survey; Minimizing maximum promptness and maximum lateness on a single machine; Polynomial-time algorithms for single-machi...

H. Hoogeveen

1992-01-01

151

The Basic Anaesthesia Machine  

PubMed Central

After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

Gurudatt, CL

2013-01-01

152

Machine learning and radiology.  

PubMed

In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

2012-07-01

153

The basic anaesthesia machine.  

PubMed

After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

Gurudatt, Cl

2013-09-01

154

Machine Learning and Radiology  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers.

Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

2012-01-01

155

Verticality in hydroelectric machines  

SciTech Connect

Everyone who erects a vertical hydroelectric machine makes an effort to put the machine together so that its elements are vertical. A plumb line (or its optical equivalent) is a practical starting point for aligning the stationary parts of the machine - the generator stator, turbine case, and bearings. This does not mean, though, that the machine parts must be in near-perfect vertical orientation for the machine to perform well. Verticality is sometimes over-emphasized when procedures are undertaken to achieve good machine alignment. If the generator rotor, the connecting shaft, and the turbine runner are centered in stationary parts that are well-aligned along the same axis angle, this angle can depart from true vertical by a significant amount without ill effect. Mechanical balance does not often play a large part in determining how well a generator rotor is centered in the air gap. Magnetic forces are much more important. This is why it is desirable to maintain air gap variations around the machine to less than 5 percent from the average. However, this is sometimes difficult, especially if bearing clearances are large.

O'Kelly, F.

1991-12-01

156

Engineering: Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Simple machines are devices with few or no moving parts that make work easier. Students are introduced to the six types of simple machines â the wedge, wheel and axle, lever, inclined plane, screw, and pulley â in the context of the construction of a pyramid, gaining high-level insights into tools that have been used since ancient times and are still in use today. In two hands-on activities, students begin their own pyramid design by performing materials calculations, and evaluating and selecting a construction site. The six simple machines are examined in more depth in subsequent lessons in this unit.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

157

Machinability of Titanium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium and its alloys find wide application in many industries because of their excellent and unique combination of high strength-to-weight ratio and high resistance to corrosion. The machinability of titanium and its alloys is impaired by its high chemical reactivity, low modulus of elasticity and low thermal conductivity. A number of literatures on machining of titanium alloys with conventional tools and advanced cutting tool materials is reviewed. The results obtained from the study on high speed machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with cubic boron nitride (CBN), binderless cubic boron nitride (BCBN) and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) are also summarized.

Rahman, Mustafizur; Wong, Yoke San; Zareena, A. Rahmath

158

Virtual Turing Machine 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Turing machine is theoretical computer consisting of a finite set of internal states, a finite alphabet that includes a blank symbol, and a finite set of instructions. It has a physical head and a physical infinitely long tape, which is divided into cells. The cell values consist of the alphabet. The tape has a finite number of non-blank cells. The head can read and write to the cells and move the tape one cell to the left and one cell to the right. The Virtual Turing Machine lets you input tape values and an instruction set to see the output of a turing machine.

Ming, Paul R.

159

Mark Making Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a Mark Making Machine, a motorized writing tool that seems to walk about using an off-balanced DC motor, marker, and other materials. The rotational vibrations cause the machine to move and make marks. Mark Making Machines can take multiple forms and be made out of a variety of recycled materials. After an initial investment, materials can be re-used almost indefinitely. This activity guide contains suggested materials, building instructions, and other resources. A great activity for a wide age range.

Houston, Children'S M.

2009-01-01

160

Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this program were to increase the efficiency of the electrical discharge machining process, decrease manufacturing costs, increase reliability and structural integrity of production parts, and extend the utilization of EDM manufacturing ...

D. J. Moracz

1973-01-01

161

Positive Linear Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate linear functions with positive slopes by trying to guess the slope and intercept from inputs and outputs. Positive Linear Function Machine is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

162

Machine Building: Chapter IV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on machine building is devoted to basic information on the topic of sheet forming. Sub-headings include: (1) relief forming; (2) flanging of holes and external contour; (3) high power forming; (4) stretching (hollow upsetting); (5) squeezing; ...

V. P. Romanovskii

1967-01-01

163

Concrete Casting Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The machine is for casting, on a production line basis, articulated concrete revetment mats employed to protect riverbanks and flood control levees from hydraulic erosion. The apparatus includes a moving conveyor system which carries flat pallets to a cas...

J. I. Boswell T. Burks G. F. Dixon G. S. Lee

1964-01-01

164

Metalworking and Machining Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, ...

A. Erdemir F. Sykora M. Dorbeck

2003-01-01

165

Meso-Machining Capabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as s...

Benavides Adams Yang

2001-01-01

166

Monitoring of Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of classical vibration analysis to the surveillance of the mechanical condition of machines is described. Automated procedures handled by specialized computers, using advanced signal processing techniques, are sought. Vibration measurement...

M. Gaillochet

1981-01-01

167

A Function Machine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a lesson he observed involving a function machine. This function machine was a box with a slot at the top of one side and a large cut-out hole at the bottom of the opposite side. A card with a number written on it (the input) was pushed into the slot and the teacher put their hand through the hole of the other…

Hewitt, Dave

2008-01-01

168

Weka Machine Learning Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are inspired to try the process, the Weka Machine Learning Project from Waikato University offers open source software that can be used for data mining tasks. Visitors can also find the projects 1993 to 2006 publications, many of which are available for free in as PDFs. The "related" section offers a number of links to further information on topics such as artificial intelligence and machine learning.

2008-01-10

169

Metalworking and machining fluids  

SciTech Connect

Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Sykora, Frank (Caledon, ON, CA); Dorbeck, Mark (Brighton, MI)

2010-10-12

170

Sealing intersecting vane machines  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

Martin, Jedd N. (Providence, RI); Chomyszak, Stephen M. (Attleboro, MA)

2007-06-05

171

Human-machine interactions  

DOEpatents

Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM); Abbott, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Brannon, Nathan G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bernard, Michael L. (Tijeras, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-04-28

172

Design a Flying Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is for the students to draw a design for their own flying machine. They will apply their knowledge of aircraft design and the forces acting on them. The students will start with a brainstorming activity where they come up with creative uses for every day objects. They will then use their creativity and knowledge of airplanes to design their own flying machine.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

173

Could a machine think  

SciTech Connect

There are many reasons for saying yes. One of the earliest and deepest reason lay in two important results in computational theory. The first was Church's thesis, which states that every effectively computable function is recursively computable. The second important result was Alan M. Turing's demonstration that any recursively computable function can be computed in finite time by a maximally simple sort of symbol-manipulating machine that has come to be called a universal Turing machine. This machine is guided by a set of recursively applicable rules that are sensitive to the identity, order and arrangement of the elementary symbols it encounters as input. The authors reject the Turing test as a sufficient condition for conscious intelligence. They base their position of the specific behavioral failures of the classical SM machines and on the specific virtues of machines with a more brain-like architecture. These contrasts show that certain computational strategies have vast and decisive advantages over others where typical cognitive tasks are concerned, advantages that are empirically inescapable. Clearly, the brain is making systematic use of these computational advantage. But it need not be the only physical system capable of doing so. Artificial intelligence, in a nonbiological but massively parallel machine, remain a compelling and discernible prospect.

Churchland, P.M.; Churchland, P.S. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))

1990-01-01

174

[A new machinability test machine and the machinability of composite resins for core built-up].  

PubMed

A new machinability test machine especially for dental materials was contrived. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of grinding conditions on machinability of core built-up resins using this machine, and to confirm the relationship between machinability and other properties of composite resins. The experimental machinability test machine consisted of a dental air-turbine handpiece, a control weight unit, a driving unit of the stage fixing the test specimen, and so on. The machinability was evaluated as the change in volume after grinding using a diamond point. Five kinds of core built-up resins and human teeth were used in this study. The machinabilities of these composite resins increased with an increasing load during grinding, and decreased with repeated grinding. There was no obvious correlation between the machinability and Vickers' hardness; however, a negative correlation was observed between machinability and scratch width. PMID:11496409

Iwasaki, N

2001-06-01

175

Fully automatic guardrail packed machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative fully automatic machine is presented in this paper. This machine is used to pile guardrails. Guardails are roadside safety barriers. There are two ways to control the machine, automatically and manually. Automatic control uses a programmable logic controller (PLC), and manual control uses buttons. In automatic and manual control the machine is controlled depending on the information that

M. E. V. Alvarez; C. Blanco-Viejo; J. C. Anton; F. J. Ferrero

2000-01-01

176

Non-traditional machining techniques  

SciTech Connect

During the course of machining targets for various experiments it sometimes becomes necessary to adapt fixtures or machines, which are designed for one function, to another function. When adapting a machine or fixture is not adequate, it may be necessary to acquire a machine specifically designed to produce the component required. In addition to the above scenarios, the features of a component may dictate that multi-step machining processes are necessary to produce the component. This paper discusses the machining of four components where adaptation, specialized machine design, or multi-step processes were necessary to produce the components.

Day, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fierro, Frank [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Felix P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hatch, Douglass J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randolph, Randall B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reardon, Patrick T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

177

Industry Sector Analysis Mexico: Machine Tools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mexico represents a promising market for U.S. machine tools industry. Metal cutting machine tools such as grinding machines, lathes and drilling and metal forming machines such as punching, bending, presses and forming machines will be among those offerin...

F. Ceron J. Koloditch

1993-01-01

178

Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine  

DOEpatents

An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA)

2000-01-01

179

The Bearingless Electrical Machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

Bichsel, J.

1992-01-01

180

Swinging Atwood's Machine Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Swinging Atwood's Machine Model is an extension of the traditional Atwood's machine where one hanging mass is allowed to swing like a pendulum. One assumes that all motions for the swinging mass are possible including positions above the second peg which requires that the string remains rigid at all times. Unlike the traditional Atwood's machine, orbits or cycles are possible. In other words, for certain conditions, the motion of the Atwood's machine can continue indefinitely. In changing the ratio of the two masses and the initial angle of displacement, the trajectory of the swinging mass changes. The object of this simulation is to model that system and allow the user a large amount of control over initial conditions so that they may fully explore the system. The Swinging Atwood's Machine Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_comp_phys_swinging_atwoods.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Ruckle, Leah

2011-06-15

181

Brown coal preparation machines  

SciTech Connect

Lignite usually requires comminuting and screening before being used as a fuel in power plants. Reduction machines normally used for coarse crushing bituminous coal, such as jaw crushers, roll crushers, and impact crushers, are not generally suitable for lignite as they require a brittle feed and large grain size. In contrast to these requirements, lignite can be easily compressed and has a small grain size. Therefore, special crusher types have been developed for the coarse reduction of lignite. These machines resemble roll crushers but subject the feed to shearing and tearing forces rather than to compressive stress. It is often necessary to screen the lignite to remove the undersize or to limit the maximum particle size before the next comminution process. Screening the lignite is a particularly difficult operation due to the high water content and the presence of clay minerals which tend to clog the screening machines. These problems can be overcome with multi-roll sizers.

Bleckmann, H.; Sitte, W.; Kellerwessel, H.

1981-05-01

182

Micro-machined resonator  

DOEpatents

A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

Godshall, Ned A. (Albuquerque, NM); Koehler, Dale R. (Albuquerque, NM); Liang, Alan Y. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Bradley K. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01

183

Automated fiber pigtailing machine  

DOEpatents

The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

1999-01-05

184

Automated fiber pigtailing machine  

DOEpatents

The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

Strand, Oliver T. (Castro Valley, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1999-01-01

185

Paradigms for machine learning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

1991-01-01

186

Precision Robotic Assembly Machine  

ScienceCinema

The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

None

2010-09-01

187

Precision Robotic Assembly Machine  

SciTech Connect

The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

2009-08-14

188

New photolithography stepping machine  

SciTech Connect

A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

Hale, L.; Klingmann, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Markle, D. [Ultratech Stepper Inc. (United States)

1995-03-08

189

Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms for Classification of the Sentences in Three Clinical Practice Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Objectives Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) are an effective tool for minimizing the gap between a physician's clinical decision and medical evidence and for modeling the systematic and standardized pathway used to provide better medical treatment to patients. Methods In this study, sentences within the clinical guidelines are categorized according to a classification system. We used three clinical guidelines that incorporated knowledge from medical experts in the field of family medicine. These were the seventh report of the Joint National Committee (JNC7) on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults from the same institution; and the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2010 report from the American Diabetes Association. Three annotators each tagged 346 sentences hand-chosen from these three clinical guidelines. The three annotators then carried out cross-validations of the tagged corpus. We also used various machine learning-based classifiers for sentence classification. Results We conducted experiments using real-valued features and token units, as well as a Boolean feature. The results showed that the combination of maximum entropy-based learning and information gain-based feature extraction gave the best classification performance (over 98% f-measure) in four sentence categories. Conclusions This result confirmed the contribution of the feature reduction algorithm and optimal technique for very sparse feature spaces, such as the sentence classification problem in the clinical guideline document.

Song, Mi Hwa; Lee, Young Ho

2013-01-01

190

12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES BLOCKED OUT SECTIONS IN THE ROCK CUT IN PREPARATION FOR DRILLING AND BLASTING. (17) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

191

42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins on the right and pipe storage racks on the left. Remains of the power drive system are suspended from the ceiling. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

192

Plasma Arc Machining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of metal removal by Plasma-Arc machining utilizing DC transferred and non-transferred arc techniques was explored. Tests on various metal alloys at a power level of 50KW show that optimum torch-to-work geometry, feed and surface speed provide ...

J. F. Ordway G. A. Colligan J. A. Browning

1966-01-01

193

Standard Map Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Standard Map Machine (SMM) is designed as an answer to the intensive computational requirements involved in the study of chaotic behavior in nonlinear systems. The high-speed and high-precision performance of this computer is due to its simple archite...

B. LaMacchia J. Nieh

1989-01-01

194

Machine Aids to Translation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

1981-01-01

195

Tests of Machine Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the deflnition and measurement of intelligence is clearly of fundamental importance to the fleld of artiflcial intelligence, no general survey of deflnitions and tests of machine intelligence exists. Indeed few researchers are even aware of alternatives to the Turing test and its many derivatives. In this paper we flll this gap by providing a short survey of the many

Shane Legg; Marcus Hutter

2006-01-01

196

Geological Time Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ride the Web Geological Time Machine at the University of California Museum of Paleontology. Click on an item in the list of 25 geological periods [15 of the 25 periods are available now, the remainder to be completed] and view a page describing each period, its subdivisions, and the life and fossils of that period.

Collins, Allen.

1997-01-01

197

Working with Simple Machines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

Norbury, John W.

2006-01-01

198

Machinability of Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The machining characteristics were determined for a variety of ultra high strength steels, titanium alloys, nickel base alloys and cobalt base alloys of current production interest to the Air Force. This group of alloys was the result of a field survey in...

N. Zlatin M. Field W. P. Koster

1966-01-01

199

Machine tools get smarter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how, using software, sensors, and controllers, a new generation of intelligent machine tools are optimizing grinding, milling, and molding processes. A paradox of manufacturing parts is that the faster the parts are made, the less accurate they are--and vice versa. However, a combination of software, sensors, controllers, and mechanical innovations are being used to create a new

Valenti

1995-01-01

200

The Answer Machine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

Feldman, Susan

2000-01-01

201

Lakatos and Machine Creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that Lakatos' work on the history and philos- ophy of mathematics is of key relevance to machine creativity as it suggests ways in which to explore and transform concept spaces, re- represent knowledge and change evaluation criteria. We describe ap- proaches to implementing methods which Lakatos identifies, includ- ing our own approach, which extends Colton' s HR and

Alison Pease; Simon Colton; Alan Smaill; John Lee

2002-01-01

202

Miniaturisation of electrical machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Approaches for a miniaturisation of electrical machines that are based on an electromagnetic principle have to overcome numerous challenges. Some of these are only a result of the rules of growth (or shrinkage), some are a result of the micro technological fabrication processes. This paper aims to give an overview of the current state of the art including

Bernd Ponick

2011-01-01

203

Laser machining of explosives  

DOEpatents

The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA) [Tracy, CA

2000-01-01

204

Making molecular machines work  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review we chart recent advances in what is at once an old and very new field of endeavour — the achievement of control of motion at the molecular level including solid-state and surface-mounted rotors, and its natural progression to the development of synthetic molecular machines. Besides a discussion of design principles used to control linear and rotary motion

Wesley R. Browne; Ben L. Feringa

2006-01-01

205

Rewrite Rule Machine Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current generation parallel machines are typically either coarse-grain or fine-grain. Each design has certain limits, either in the amount of parallelism that it can effectively exploit, or else in the types of problem for which it is suitable. For exampl...

H. Aida J. Meseguer J. A. Goguen S. Leinwand T. Winkler

1989-01-01

206

Machinability of BN free-machining steel in turning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, extensive researches have been done to improve the machinability of work materials in order to increase productivity and reduce the effect on the environment. To satisfy these demands, various free-machining steels have been researched and developed. One of them is BN free-machining steel that contains hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). However, the machinability was not stable.

Ryutaro Tanaka; Yasuo Yamane; Katsuhiko Sekiya; Norihiko Narutaki; Tetsuo Shiraga

2007-01-01

207

Machining Characteristics of Polycrystalline Silicon by Wire Electrical Discharge Machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the use of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) in machining polycrystalline silicon with resistivity of 2–3 ?cm. The effects of different WEDM parameters on cutting speed, machining groove width, and surface roughness are explored. Experimental results indicate that open voltage is the critical parameter in breaking the insulation of polycrystalline silicon, and that pulse-on time has the

Po-Huai Yu; Hsiang-Kuo Lee; Yang-Xin Lin; Shi-Jie Qin; Biing-Hwa Yan; Fuang-Yuan Huang

2011-01-01

208

Progress in Documentation: Machine Translation and Machine-Aided Translation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the prospects for fully automatic machine translation of good quality. Sections include history and background, operational and experimental machine translation systems of recent years, descriptions of interactive systems and machine-assisted translation, and a general survey of present problems and future possibilities. (VT)

Hutchins, W. J.

1978-01-01

209

Machining Data for Beryllium Metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains evaluated machining information for beryllium which has been extracted from many sources. Machining data are tabulated and presented in chart form for the following processes: turning, milling, drilling, band sawing, grinding, boring, ...

J. F. Kahles R. F. Snider

1966-01-01

210

Automatically-Programed Machine Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

1985-01-01

211

Move it! With Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will start by discussing a couple of the simple machines and what the purpose of them might be. Then, after reading a short page on each simple machine, they will discuss how the simple machines function. They will explore this briefly in a hands-on fashion and lead into the discussion and realization that these tools are the base for almost any machine or more complex tool that we use.

Science Netlinks;

2003-01-21

212

Rim-type hydroelectric machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disclosure concerns a hydroelectric machine including a tube-type hydraulic machine having a bladed wheel which rotates about a horizontal axis and is provided with fixed blades which are encircled by, and connected with, a rim to which the rotor of a surrounding electrical machine is attached. The wheel, rim, and rotor form a single rotating unit which is supported

1978-01-01

213

Lightning Protection for Rotating Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high monetary value and low insulation levels of rotating machines make it necessary to employ special protection. A rotating machine can be conceived as a transmission line with distributed constants, the essential difference being that the machine winding is wound back on itself in the form of turns, which may permit high voltage across the turn-to-turn insulation. The installation

G. D. McCann; E. Beck; L. A. Finzi

1944-01-01

214

Hydraulic Fatigue-Testing Machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fatigue-testing machine applies fluctuating tension to number of specimens at same time. When sample breaks, machine continues to test remaining specimens. Series of tensile tests needed to determine fatigue properties of materials performed more rapidly than in conventional fatigue-testing machine.

Hodo, James D.; Moore, Dennis R.; Morris, Thomas F.; Tiller, Newton G.

1987-01-01

215

The world and the machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As software developers we are engineers because we make useful machines. We are concerned both with the world, in which the machine serves a useful purpose, and with the machine itself. The competing demands and attractions of these two concerns must be appropriately balanced. Failure to balance them harms our work. Certainly it must take some of the blame for

Michael Jackson; Hamilton Terrace

1995-01-01

216

Machinations of thought  

SciTech Connect

After three decades of frustrating work, artificial intelligence is coming of age--moving out of the laboratories and into the marketplace. Expert systems, computer programs that give advice like a human specialist, are pinpointing mineral deposits and diagnosing diseases. Programs are taking shape that can do a pretty fair job of understanding plain English or French. Robotics will soon benefit from computer vision systems able to store a digitized photograph of an object or scene and recognize a good bit of what is there. As the more exuberant enthusiasts see it, we might soon have machines to advise us about our income taxes or the baby's fever; silicon tutors could help a child master the enthralling possibilities of geometry and numbers; trucks might drive themselves through the night and unload themselves at their destination. In short, we could one day have machines to do almost anything that now requires intelligence in a human.

Waldrop, M.M.

1985-03-01

217

Ecosystems, Organisms, and Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from Bioscience is about is the concept, and the term, "self-organization." The history of this term, originally introduced by Immanuel Kant to characterize the unique properties of living organisms, is inseparable from the history of biology. Only in the second half of the 20th century does it begin to acquire the promise of a physicalistic understanding. This it does with two critical transformations in the meaning of the term: first, with the advent of cybernetics and its dissolution of the boundary between organisms and machines, and second, with the mathematical triumphs of nonlinear dynamical systems theory and accompanying claims to having dissolved the boundary between organisms and such physical phenomena as thunderstorms. How do these transformations affect the applicability of self-organization to the ecosystem--that provocatively hybrid entity that is part organism, part machine, and perhaps even part thunderstorm?

EVELYN FOX KELLER (;)

2005-12-01

218

A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved to converge to the minimum of a cost function. Finally, simulations will show the effectiveness of a variety of search techniques for the intelligent machine.

Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

1989-01-01

219

Simple Machine Science Centers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One solution to the common challenge of teaching physical science for teachers who are not confident with the subject matter or comfortable with the material is inquiry based science centers. Science centers can engage students; accommodate different learning styles and individual interests; help students become independent and confident learners; and encourage social skills among students. One third-grade teacher worked with students as they completed activities at learning centers during a week-long unit on simple machines.

Chessin, Debby

2007-02-01

220

The Variable Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Illuminations provides an introduction to the use of variables, and develops students' algebraic thinking. Students create variable machines to discover the value of words by assigning each letter of the alphabet a unique number value. Learning objectives, a materials list, a pdf file of the student worksheet, an instructional plan, questions for the students, assessment options, extensions, and teacher reflections are provided.

2008-01-01

221

Support tucker machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the two-class classification problem within the tensor-based framework, by formulating the Support Tucker Machines (STuMs). More precisely, in the proposed STuMs the weights parameters are regarded to be a tensor, calculated according to the Tucker tensor decomposition as the multiplication of a core tensor with a set of matrices, one along each mode. We further

Irene Kotsia; Ioannis Patras

2011-01-01

222

Development of reconfigurable machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes our survey on the development of reconfigurable machines (RMs). The goals of this survey were to (i)\\u000a clarify the needs and drivers to develop the RMs, (ii) define the academic and practical issues involved in the development\\u000a of RMs, (iii) learn the state of the art of the R&D on design methodologies of the RMs, and (iv)

Z. M. Bi; Sherman Y. T. Lang; M. Verner; P. Orban

2008-01-01

223

Safety Features in Anaesthesia Machine  

PubMed Central

Anaesthesia is one of the few sub-specialties of medicine, which has quickly adapted technology to improve patient safety. This application of technology can be seen in patient monitoring, advances in anaesthesia machines, intubating devices, ultrasound for visualisation of nerves and vessels, etc., Anaesthesia machines have come a long way in the last 100 years, the improvements being driven both by patient safety as well as functionality and economy of use. Incorporation of safety features in anaesthesia machines and ensuring that a proper check of the machine is done before use on a patient ensures patient safety. This review will trace all the present safety features in the machine and their evolution.

Subrahmanyam, M; Mohan, S

2013-01-01

224

Linear Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students plug values into a function to see what the output is for that function. Then based on that information, they have to guess the coefficient and constant for a linear function. This activity allows students to explore linear functions and what input values are useful to figuring out the linear function performed by the function machine. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

225

NASA: Machine Learning Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Machine Learning Systems (MLS) Group at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory conducts basic and applied research with a focus on finding "software solutions to hard problems requiring data mining, knowledge discovery, pattern recognition, and automated classification and clustering." In particular, they are building systems based on learning algorithms to be applied in the analysis of scientific data generated by NASA and JPL instruments and to develop technologies relevant for adaptive systems and autonomous spacecraft. Projects on bioinformatics, multi-angle imaging, and data transmission are described here. Several research papers are also available to download.

226

Hydraulic drilling machine  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A hydraulic drilling machine comprises a drill tool (1) connected to a hydraulic motor (3), a hydraulic percussive mechanism (4) connected via a hydraulic distributor (15) to a hydraulic pressure line (11) and to a hydraulic discharge line (21), and a means (16) for sucking the liquid from the working chamber of the hydraulic percussive mechanism (4) during its idle stroke. The means (16) includes a mixing chamber (17) connected to the discharge line of the hydraulic percussive mechanism, an ejector (18) connected to the discharge line of the hydraulic motor (3), and a diffuser (19) connected to the hydraulic discharge line (21) and accommodating a nozzle of the ejector (18).

1991-04-30

227

Smart Test Machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vern Wedeven, president of Wedeven Associates, developed the WAM4, a computer-aided "smart" test machine for simulating stress on equipment, based on his bearing lubrication expertise gained while working for Lewis Research Center. During his NASA years from the 1970s into the early 1980s, Wedeven initiated an "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tribology," an effort that involved NASA, six universities, and several university professors. The NASA-sponsored work provided foundation for Wedeven in 1983 to form his own company. Several versions of the smart test machine, the WAM1, WAM2, and WAM3, have proceeded the current version, WAM4. This computer-controlled device can provide detailed glimpses at gear and bearing points of contact. WAM4 can yield a three-dimensional view of machinery as an operator adds "what-if" thermal and lubrication conditions, contact stress, and surface motion. Along with NASA, a number of firms, including Pratt & Whitney, Caterpillar Tractor, Exxon, and Chevron have approached Wedeven for help on resolving lubrication problems.

1997-01-01

228

Physics in Action: Tiny Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Physics Central provides a description of Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), or tiny machines, which are being created and produced. Information on the history of MEMS development, applications of the technology, and how MEMS motors work is included along with pictures, diagrams, and links to more information on tiny machines. The future of tiny machines built from individual atoms is also introduced.

2006-07-12

229

Specifying representations of machine instructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present SLED, a specification language for Encoding and Decoding, which describes, abstract, binary, and assembly-language representations of machine instructions. Guided by a SLED specification, the New Jersey Machine-Code Toolkit generates bit-manipulating code for use in applications that process machine code. Programmers can write such applications at an assembly language level of abstraction, and the toolkit enables the applications to

Norman Ramsey; Mary F. Fernández

1997-01-01

230

The Warp Machine on Navlab  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review the history of the Carnegie-Mellon Warp machine on Navlab, an autonomous land vehicle, and describe three Navlab vision systems implemented on the Warp machine. They then critically evaluate components of Warp in light of this experience. The Warp machine was used to implement stereo vision for obstacle avoidance and color-based road-following systems. The stereo-vision system was FIDO,

Jill D. Crisman; Jon A. Webb

1991-01-01

231

The Tenjinno Machine Translation Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes the Tenjinno Machine Translation Competition held as part of the International Colloquium on Grammatical\\u000a Inference 2006. The competition aimed to promote the development of new and better practical grammatical inference algorithms\\u000a used in machine translation. Tenjinno focuses on formal models used in machine translation. We discuss design issues and decisions\\u000a made when creating the competition. For the

Bradford Starkie; Menno Van Zaanen; Dominique Estival

2006-01-01

232

Multiple man-machine interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

1981-01-01

233

Electrical machines with superconducting windings. Part 3: Homopolar dc machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The losses in rotating liquid metal contacts and the problems in including liquid metals were theoretically and experimentally studied. These machines are shown realiable. For electric ship propulsion, they are a more efficient method of power transmission than mechanical gearboxes. However, weight reduction as compared to mechanical gearboxes can hardly be achieved with machines fully shielded by magnetic iron.

Kullman, D.; Henninger, P.

1981-01-01

234

Positioning cloud computing in machine to machine business models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept and implementation of cloud computing have attracted more and more attention from industry and research community. In this paper, we explore how the industry moves beyond the buzzword of cloud computing and put it into the actual business benefits. Machine to machine (M2M) is selected as the field of implementation as it is hailed as the next big

Arkav Juliandri; Meis Musida; Supriyadi

2012-01-01

235

Standardized Curriculum for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) shop safety; (3) shop math; (4) measuring tools and instruments; (5) hand and bench tools; (6) blueprint reading; (7)…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

236

Investigation into micro abrasive intermittent jet machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the machining of small holes by the conventional micro abrasive jet machining, the colliding abrasives accumulate in the bottom of the hole, preventing the direct impact of successive abrasives onto the workpiece. As a result, the machining efficiency decreases as the machining progresses. This paper introduces a new method of micro abrasive jet machining, called micro abrasive intermittent jet

Lei Zhang; Tsunemoto Kuriyagawa; Yuya Yasutomi; Ji Zhao

2005-01-01

237

Electric shocks during machine milking  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractWhen electrically driven milking machines were first introduced, one of the problems they presented was due to the leakage of electricity into the teat cups. Some early machines had a chain drive from the motor to the vacuum pump. These were particularly liable to carry a voltage on the milk pipe, and in many cases this could be eliminated by

W. G. Whittlestone; M. M. Mullord; R. Kilgour; L. R. Cate

1975-01-01

238

Diagnostics of Mobile Work Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this research note, we take a look at the field of mobile work machine diagnostics. The perspective by the authors is limited by the research project (KODIE) behind this research. However, we have tried to provide generic guidelines for machine builder...

I. Aho J. Alanen J. Peltola K. Haataja O. Laurila

2006-01-01

239

Physics in Action: Fusion Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Physics Central provides a description of fusion machines and plasma power. The process and challenges to producing a sustained fusion reaction that could lead to electric power generation are explained. Current research being conducted with fusion machines is also presented along with links to additional information.

2007-04-26

240

Machine Shop: Scope and Sequence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by all machine shop instructors in the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools, this guide provides a sequential listing of course content and scope. A course description provides a brief overview of the content of the courses offered in the machine shop program. General course objectives are then listed. Outlines of the course…

Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

241

Machine Learning and Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning deals with the issue of how to build programs that improve their performance at some task through experience. Machine learning algorithms have proven to be of great practical value in a variety of application domains. Not surprisingly, the field of software engineering turns out to be a fertile ground where many software development and maintenance tasks could be

Du Zhang; Jeffrey J. P. Tsai

2002-01-01

242

Machine Learning and Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning deals with the issue of how to build programs that improve their performance at some task through experience. Machine learning algorithms have proven to be of great practical value in a variety of application domains. They are particularly useful for (a) poorly understood problem domains where little knowledge exists for the humans to develop effective algorithms; (b) domains

Du Zhang; Jeffrey J. P. Tsai

2003-01-01

243

Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

Schneider, Edward F.

244

Future Directions for Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this paper we discuss possible future directions of research for soft computing in the context of artificial intelligence machine learning. Fundamental issues are presented with basic ideas emphasised rather than detailed accounts of algorithms and procedures. The use of fuzzy sets for machine learning, computer intelligence and creativity are discussed in relation to the central problems of creating

J. F. Baldwin

245

Parallelism in random access machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of computation based on random access machines operating in parallel and sharing a common memory is presented. The computational power of this model is related to that of traditional models. In particular, deterministic parallel RAM's can accept in polynomial time exactly the sets accepted by polynomial tape bounded Turing machines; nondeterministic RAM's can accept in polynomial time exactly

Steven Fortune; James Wyllie

1978-01-01

246

Dry machinability of aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse effects of the use of cutting fluids and environmental concerns with regard to cutting fluid disposability is compelling industry to adopt Dry or near Dry Machining, with the aim of eliminating or significantly reducing the use of metal working fluids. Pending EPA regulations on metal cutting, dry machining is becoming a hot topic of research and investigation both in

I. Shareef; M. Natarajan; O. O. Ajayi

2005-01-01

247

Anaesthesia machine: checklist, hazards, scavenging.  

PubMed

From a simple pneumatic device of the early 20(th) century, the anaesthesia machine has evolved to incorporate various mechanical, electrical and electronic components to be more appropriately called anaesthesia workstation. Modern machines have overcome many drawbacks associated with the older machines. However, addition of several mechanical, electronic and electric components has contributed to recurrence of some of the older problems such as leak or obstruction attributable to newer gadgets and development of newer problems. No single checklist can satisfactorily test the integrity and safety of all existing anaesthesia machines due to their complex nature as well as variations in design among manufacturers. Human factors have contributed to greater complications than machine faults. Therefore, better understanding of the basics of anaesthesia machine and checking each component of the machine for proper functioning prior to use is essential to minimise these hazards. Clear documentation of regular and appropriate servicing of the anaesthesia machine, its components and their satisfactory functioning following servicing and repair is also equally important. Trace anaesthetic gases polluting the theatre atmosphere can have several adverse effects on the health of theatre personnel. Therefore, safe disposal of these gases away from the workplace with efficiently functioning scavenging system is necessary. Other ways of minimising atmospheric pollution such as gas delivery equipment with negligible leaks, low flow anaesthesia, minimal leak around the airway equipment (facemask, tracheal tube, laryngeal mask airway, etc.) more than 15 air changes/hour and total intravenous anaesthesia should also be considered. PMID:24249887

Goneppanavar, Umesh; Prabhu, Manjunath

2013-09-01

248

The Blindstitch Machine. Module 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the purpose and use of the blindstitch machine, one in a series on clothing construction for industrial sewing machine operators designed for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check,…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

249

TEACHING MACHINE STUDY. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN AN INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL OF TEACHING MACHINES IN THE JOB CORPS MATHEMATICS PROGRAM, EXISTING JOB CORPS ARITHMETIC MATERIAL WAS PREPARED FOR INSTRUCTION BY MACHINE AND PROGRAMED TEXT, AND THEN FIELD TESTED. REVISIONS WERE MADE, AND A PROGRAMED MANUAL FOR INSTRUCTORS WRITTEN, AFTER WHICH A NEW FIELD TEST WAS RUN. IN THE INITIAL FIELD…

EVCO, Albuquerque, NM.

250

CPVM: customizable portable virtual machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our experiences with a customizable portable virtual machine (CPVM) environment that makes it possible for students and professors to develop a customized, fully loaded, fully functional virtual machine that they can run on any computer that has a USB port or an ftp client without compromising the host. We also make available to students and faculty a copy

Ralph Butler; Chrisila C. Pettey; Zach Lowry

2006-01-01

251

The Machine Scoring of Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

McCurry, Doug

2010-01-01

252

Machine learning for tongue diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongue diagnosis is an important inspection method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In this paper, we investigate machine learning techniques for tongue diagnosis. To do this, we first identify tongue properties and classes. In tongue property identification, we identify 21 properties from tongue substance and coating, whereas in tongue classification, we derive 24 tongue classes. Machine learning techniques are then

Siu Cheung Hui; Yulan He; Doan Thi Cam Thach

2007-01-01

253

Tension-Compression Testing Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The machine applies either tensile of compressive loads through a single head movable at high speeds. The head of the testing machine is drawn by a piston which is pressurized on one side by an expandable gas and on the other side by a rather incompressib...

J. M. Krafft J. C. Hahn

1965-01-01

254

TEACHING MACHINES AND PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE TEACHING MACHINE AND PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION ARE EXPLAINED ANALYTICALLY IN TERMS OF LABORATORY PROCEDURES. AN EXPLANATION IS GIVEN OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE STUDENT. TEACHING MACHINES ALLEVIATE SOME PROBLEMS OF STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIPS, SUCH AS APATHY, STUBBORNNESS, AND RESENTMENT. HIGHER LEVELS OF CONCENTRATION ARE MAINTAINED. SOME…

JOHNSON, HERBERT; AND OTHERS

255

The firefly machine: online evolware  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the firefly machine, an evolving hardware system, demonstrating that “evolving ware” (or “evolware”) can be attained. The system is based on the cellular programming approach, in which parallel cellular machines evolve to solve computational tasks. The firefly system operates with no reference to an external device, such as a computer that carries out genetic operators, thereby exhibiting online

Moshe Sipper; Maxime Goeke; Daniel Mange; Andre Stauffer; Eduardo Sanchez; Marco Tomassini

1997-01-01

256

Machinability of Stellite 6 hardfacing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports some experimental findings concerning the machinability at high cutting speed of nickel-base weld-deposited hardfacings for the manufacture of hot tooling. The forging work involves extreme impacts, forces, stresses and temperatures. Thus, mould dies must be extremely resistant. The aim of the project is to create a rapid prototyping process answering to forging conditions integrating a Stellite 6 hardfacing deposed PTA process. This study talks about the dry machining of the hardfacing, using a two tips machining tool and a high speed milling machine equipped by a power consumption recorder Wattpilote. The aim is to show the machinability of the hardfacing, measuring the power and the tip wear by optical microscope and white light interferometer, using different strategies and cutting conditions.

Benghersallah, M.; Boulanouar, L.; Le Coz, G.; Devillez, A.; Dudzinski, D.

2010-06-01

257

Machine Vision Online: Tips for Successfully Applying Machine Vision  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides many articles and educational resources related to machine vision. Most of the materials come from companies with significant experience with the topic, including Ford Motor Company, Adept Technology, and many others. Visitors to the site can read about the basics of machine vision and learn how to successfully implement and design a system. Inexperienced people should start with the Strategies for New Users section, which contains a glossary of terms and a couple brief introductions. The Technical Papers section has information on the various components of a machine vision system, and Applications by Industry has case studies of several different operations.

258

Versatile machine mills, saws light materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Versatile milling/sawing machine performs angle cuts, flat and profile milling, machining of grooves and slots, and edge trimming of phenolic panels. The machine is mounted on rails above a table equipped with vacuum capability for holding workpieces.

Rauschl, J. A.

1966-01-01

259

Boltzmann Machine: A Survey and Generalization  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tutorial is presented describing a general machine learning theory which spawns a class of energy minimizing machines useful in model identification, optimization, and associative memory. Special realizations of the theory include the Boltzmann machine ...

M. D. Eggers

1988-01-01

260

Superconducting Electric Machines for Ship Propulsion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several superconducting AC machine concepts were studied for ship propulsion applications. These concepts evolved from previous work at MIT on superconducting AC machines. The superconducting machines considered were: (1) multipole, low-speed motors, (2) ...

J. L. Kirtley J. L. Smith

1977-01-01

261

HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS  

SciTech Connect

The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D&D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the research described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

2003-06-30

262

Lubrication of Machine Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

Hamrock, B. J.

1984-01-01

263

Frozen beverage machine  

SciTech Connect

A frozen beverage machine is described, comprising: a. a frame having an exterior, an interior, a front and a back; b. a cylinder, having an interior and an exterior as well as first and second ends and further having an opening in each of the ends, the cylinder being horizontally and fixedly positioned within the interior of the frame with the second end facing the front of the frame; c. a means, sealingly attached to the opening in the second end of the cylinder, for emptying the cylinder; d. a means, positioned within the frame and communicating with the exterior of the cylinder, for removing heat from the cylinder; e. at least one support bracket; f. a shaft, rotatably attached within the opening in the support bracket and rotatably and sealingly attached within the opening in the first end of the cylinder and extending to the interior of the cylinder; g. a motor assembly, operatively connected to a portion of the shaft exterior to the cylinder and suspended from the shaft such that the weight of the motor assembly is supported only by the shaft; h. a contact switch; and i. a resilient means, connected to the frame and the motor assembly, for maintaining the position of the motor assembly relative to the shaft until a desired threshold resistance to rotation of the shaft within the cylinder occur, and then allowing the motor assembly to rotate to a desired position relative to the shaft.

Williams, J.D.

1988-04-12

264

Virtual machine performance benchmarking.  

PubMed

The attractions of virtual computing are many: reduced costs, reduced resources and simplified maintenance. Any one of these would be compelling for a medical imaging professional attempting to support a complex practice on limited resources in an era of ever tightened reimbursement. In particular, the ability to run multiple operating systems optimized for different tasks (computational image processing on Linux versus office tasks on Microsoft operating systems) on a single physical machine is compelling. However, there are also potential drawbacks. High performance requirements need to be carefully considered if they are to be executed in an environment where the running software has to execute through multiple layers of device drivers before reaching the real disk or network interface. Our lab has attempted to gain insight into the impact of virtualization on performance by benchmarking the following metrics on both physical and virtual platforms: local memory and disk bandwidth, network bandwidth, and integer and floating point performance. The virtual performance metrics are compared to baseline performance on "bare metal." The results are complex, and indeed somewhat surprising. PMID:21207096

Langer, Steve G; French, Todd

2011-10-01

265

Size reduction machine  

SciTech Connect

The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

Fricke, V.

1999-12-15

266

Hybrid optical inference machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program has investigated the use of limit cycles to represent and process symbolic information in the context of an inference machine. This approach was proposed as a means of overcoming problems with fault tolerance and relatively small space-bandwidth products in current spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. The program has focused on developing a storage medium with many limit cycles (oscillatory modes) available and a method for coupling the various modes in a desired way. Because of their flexibility, neural network ideas were used as the basis for the components and algorithms developed. In the theoretical realm, the program has had many accomplishments. First, the self-oscillating neural network (SONN) model was developed and characterized as the oscillatory medium. This model was designed with optical spatial SLMs in mind and does not require any training or programming. Furthermore, it is highly tolerant of static parameter variations inherent in the optics. Next, the spectral back-propagation (SBP) training algorithm was developed with complete generality as a means of forming the coupling trajectories. This algorithm trains input-output sequences into a network using an error criterion based on a Fourier series decomposition of the sequences. The method allows the interconnects to have trainable time delays in addition to the weights.

Ware, Cardinal; Kottas, James; Shrauger, Vernon

1991-09-01

267

Rotor of rotating machine  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A rotor of a rotating machine includes: a shaft having an axis of rotation and a cylindrical body portion disposed substantially integrally therein; permanent magnets and magnetic members provided integrally within the body portion and arranged radially and circumferentially alternating and in intimate contact with each other, each of the permanent magnets being completely embedded in the body portion and each of the magnetic members having only a radially outward end surface thereof being exposed and having all other surfaces thereof being in embedded in the body portion. The shaft and permanent magnets and magnetic members and body portion are integrated upon the body portion being cast. A circumferential length, defined to be a greatest distance between surfaces of adjacent magnets, is larger than a radial length of one of the magnets, the radial light being defined to be a distance between a point on the magnet closest to the axis of rotation of the shaft and a point on the magnet furthest away from the axis of rotation of the shaft.

2002-08-06

268

Semismooth support vector machines.  

SciTech Connect

The linear support vector machine can be posed as a quadratic program in a variety of ways. In this paper, we look at a formulation using the two-norm for the misclassification error that leads to a positive definite quadratic program with a single equality constraint when the Wolfe dual is taken. The quadratic term is a small rank update to a positive definite matrix. We reformulate the optimality conditions as a semismooth system of equations using the Fischer-Burmeister function and apply a damped Newton method to solve the resulting problem. The algorithm is shown to converge from any starting point with a Q-quadratic rate of convergence. At each iteration, we use the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury update formula to solve a single linear system of equations. Significant computational savings are realized as the inactive variables are identified and exploited during the solution process. Results for a 60 million variable problem are presented, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method on a personal computer.

Ferris, M. C.; Munson, T. S.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Wisconsin

2004-09-01

269

A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-tier structure consisting of organization, coordination, and execution levels forms the architecture of an intelligent machine using the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence from a hierarchically intelligent control. This system has been formulated as a probabilistic model, where uncertainty and imprecision can be expressed in terms of entropies. The optimal strategy for decision planning and task execution can be found by minimizing the total entropy in the system. The focus is on the design of the organization level as a Boltzmann machine. Since this level is responsible for planning the actions of the machine, the Boltzmann machine is reformulated to use entropy as the cost function to be minimized. Simulated annealing, expanding subinterval random search, and the genetic algorithm are presented as search techniques to efficiently find the desired action sequence and illustrated with numerical examples.

Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

1990-01-01

270

TryEngineering: Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan that allows teachers to integrate the concepts of simple machines and work into the classroom. In this lesson plan, students learn about the different types of simple machines, their uses, and how to determine how much work is done using these simple machines. The lesson follows a module format that includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information about the engineering connections. The lesson plan and student worksheets are available for download. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

2012-07-25

271

MHD Benchmarking of Desktop Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For code development, parameter space surveys, and code debugging, dedicated use of a fast, single processor machine is often better than shared, queued use of a supercomputer. Although there are many benchmark results available, most deal with the most common use of single processor machines (e.g. web, entertainment, and business applications) to arrive at a large variance of rankings. To best determine what machines would serve a small MHD group such as ours at ASIAA, we needed MHD benchmark results. Here we present results from a few benchmark tests for running MHD Zeus 2D codes on a variety of platforms of PCs and Sun Workstations.

Allen, A.; Chou, M.; Shang, H.

272

Cyclostationarity in Rotating Machine Vibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrations in rotating machinery are produced by a combination of periodic and random processes due to the machine's rotation cycle and interaction with the real world. The combination of such components can give rise to signals which have periodically time-varying ensemble statistics and are best considered as cyclostationary. In this paper, second-order cyclic statistical methods are described and several applications of these to machine vibration analysis are introduced. The second-order techniques are compared with traditional (purely stationary) spectral analysis and synchronous averaging (first-order cyclic analysis). This comparison is made for data collected from a rotating machine subjected to bearing faults and the applications are demonstrated.

McCormick, A. C.; Nandi, A. K.

1998-03-01

273

Slide system for machine tools  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

Douglass, S.S.; Green, W.L.

1980-06-12

274

Intelligible machine learning with malibu.  

PubMed

malibu is an open-source machine learning work-bench developed in C/C++ for high-performance real-world applications, namely bioinformatics and medical informatics. It leverages third-party machine learning implementations for more robust bug-free software. This workbench handles several well-studied supervised machine learning problems including classification, regression, importance-weighted classification and multiple-instance learning. The malibu interface was designed to create reproducible experiments ideally run in a remote and/or command line environment. The software can be found at: http://proteomics.bioengr. uic.edu/malibu/index.html. PMID:19163538

Langlois, Robert E; Lu, Hui

2008-01-01

275

From human-machine interaction to human-machine cooperation.  

PubMed

Since the 1960s, the rapid growth of information systems has led to the wide development of research on human-computer interaction (HCI) that aims at the designing of human-computer interfaces presenting ergonomic properties, such as friendliness, usability, transparency, etc. Various work situations have been covered--clerical work, computer programming, design, etc. However, they were mainly static in the sense that the user fully controls the computer. More recently, public and private organizations have engaged themselves in the enterprise of managing more and more complex and coupled systems by the means of automation. Modern machines not only process information, but also act on dynamic situations as humans have done in the past, managing stock exchange, industrial plants, aircraft, etc. These dynamic situations are not fully controlled and are affected by uncertain factors. Hence, degrees of freedom must be maintained to allow the humans and the machine to adapt to unforeseen contingencies. A human-machine cooperation (HMC) approach is necessary to address the new stakes introduced by this trend. This paper describes the possible improvement of HCI by HMC, the need for a new conception of function allocation between humans and machines, and the main problems encountered within the new forms of human-machine relationship. It proposes a conceptual framework to study HMC from a cognitive point of view in highly dynamic situations like aircraft piloting or air-traffic control, and concludes on the design of 'cooperative' machines. PMID:10929820

Hoc, J M

2000-07-01

276

Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is shown that in machine translation it is not possible in many cases to obtain satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis. This refers particularly to the syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorith...

E. F. Skorokhodko

1970-01-01

277

Project-specific Machine Translation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details a project-specific method for translating a book- length text. The method used a human-in-the-loop strategy to iteratively and incrementally produce a progressively more accurate statistical machine translation system. The system gener...

J. J. Morgan

2011-01-01

278

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general purpose of the first six months' work was to identify techniques which will produce sound castings in reusable chill molds - techniques which are compatible with an automated machine casting process. To do this, castings made in permanent chil...

M. F. X. Gigliotti

1973-01-01

279

Neurophysiology: vertigo in MRI machines.  

PubMed

Subjects of brain-imaging studies often report experiencing vertigo while in MRI machines; a new study shows that the magnetic field stimulates the vestibular sensors in the inner ear by a Lorentz force. PMID:21996500

Straumann, Dominik; Bockisch, Christopher J

2011-10-11

280

Topic in Depth - Precision Machining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As technology advances and devices become smaller and more complex, the need for precision manufacturing processes is becoming increasingly important. A number of innovative techniques for precision machining have been developed to enable the construction and operation of such contrivances.

2010-09-06

281

State Machine Approach: A Tutorial.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state machine approach is a general method for achieving fault tolerance and implementing decentralized control in distributed computing systems. This paper reviews the approach and identifies abstractions needed for coordinating ensembles of state ma...

F. B. Schneider

1986-01-01

282

Surface Integrity of Electrochemical Machining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the general range of effects of electrochemical machining (ECM) on aerospace materials. The general effects from both 'standard' or 'off-standard' operating conditions are depicted. The effect on material properties includes a review ...

G. Bellows

1969-01-01

283

Establishment of Production Machinability Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Task I - A number of the newest tool materials such as coated carbides, composites (ceramics,) micrograin carbides, and Borazon tools which appeared suitable for machining aerospace alloys were tested. Several of these new tools permitted appreciably high...

N. Zlatin M. Field V. A. Tipnis R. C. Garrison J. D. Christopher

1975-01-01

284

Machinability study of Aermet 100.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Machinability of Aermet 100, an ultrahigh strength alloy developed for Navy by Carpenter Technology as a candidate material for aircraft landing gear application, was studied by performing single-point turning tests. Coated and uncoated carbides, ceramic,...

D. V. Squire C. K. Syn B. L. Fix

1995-01-01

285

Tunnel Boring Machine Performance Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Full face tunnel boring machine 'TBM' performance during the excavation of 6 tunnels in sedimentary rock is considered in terms of utilization, penetration rates and cutter wear. The construction records are analyzed and the results are used to investigat...

P. N. Nelson T. D. O'Rourke R. F. Flanagan F. H. Kulhawy A. R. Ingraffea

1984-01-01

286

Thermoacoustic simulator for regenerative machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear thermoacoustic theory is a powerful tool to understand the working mechanism of many regenerative machines. Based on the theory, the authors have developed a computer code ``Thermoacoustic Simulator'' for analyzing and designing different regenerative cryocoolers including String refrigerators, Stirling and G-M types of pulse tube refrigerators and G-M cryocoolers. Also, standing-wave and traveling-wave thermoacoustic machines can be simulated, too.

E. Luo; J. Wu; J. Yang; J. Xiao

2002-01-01

287

The M-Machine multicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The M–Machine is an experimental multicomputer being developed to test architectural concepts motivated by the constraints of modern semiconductor technology and the demands of programming systems. The M-Machine computing nodes are connetted with a 3-D mesh nebvork; each node is a multithreaded processor incorporating 12&nction units, on-chip cache, and local memory. The mtdtiple finction units are used to exploit both

Marco Fillo; Stephen W. Keckler; William J. Dally; Nicholas P. Carter; Andrew Chang; Yevgeny Gurevich; Whay Sing Lee

1995-01-01

288

Machine Learning in Granular Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main purpose of the Granular Computing (GrC) is to find a novel way to acquire knowledge for huge orderless very high dimensional\\u000a perception information. Obviously, such kind Granular Computing (GrC) has close relationship with machine learning. In this\\u000a paper, we try to study the machine learning under the point of view of Granular Computing (GrC). Granular Computing (GrC)\\u000a should contain

Hong Hu; Zhongzhi Shi

2009-01-01

289

Safety checking of machine code  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how to determine statically whether it is safe for untrusted machine code to be loaded into a trusted host system.Our safety-checking technique operates directly on the untrusted machine-code program, requiring only that the initial inputs to the untrusted program be annotated with typestate information and linear constraints. This approach opens up the possibility of being able to certify

Zhichen Xu; Barton P. Miller; Thomas Reps

2000-01-01

290

Building and simulating protein machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway, present in almost all organisms, that produces energy. The pathway has been extensively investigated by biochemists. There is a significant body of structural and biochemical information about this pathway. The complete pathway is a ten step process. At each step, a specific chemical reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyze the fourth and the fifth steps on the pathway. This thesis investigates the possible substrate transfer mechanism between FBA and TIM. FBA cleaves its substrate, the six-carbon fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), into two three-carbon products -- glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxy acetone phosphate (DHAP). One component of these two products, DHAP, is the substrate for TIM and the other component GAP goes directly to GAPDH, the subsequent enzyme on the pathway. TIM converts DHAP to GAP and delivers the product to GAPDH. I employ Elastic Network Models (ENM) to investigate the mechanistic and dynamic aspects of the functionality of FBA and TIM enzymes -- (1) the effects of the oligomerization of these two enzymes on their functional dynamics and the coordination of the individual protein's structural components along the functional region; and (2) the mechanistic synchrony of these two protein machines that may enable them to operate in a coordinated fashion as a conjugate machine -- transferring the product from FBA as substrate to TIM. A macromolecular machine comprised of FBA and TIM will facilitate the substrate catalysis mechanism and the product flow between FBA and TIM. Such a machine could be used as a functional unit in building a larger a machine for the structural modeling of the whole glycolysis pathway. Building such machines for the glycolysis pathway may reveal the interplay of the enzymes as a complete machine. Also the methods and insights developed from the efforts to build such large machines could be applied to build macromolecular structures for other biologically important clusters of interacting enzymes centered around individual metabolic pathways.

Katebi, Ataur Rahim

291

Model-based machine learning  

PubMed Central

Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications.

Bishop, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

292

Risk estimation using probability machines  

PubMed Central

Background Logistic regression has been the de facto, and often the only, model used in the description and analysis of relationships between a binary outcome and observed features. It is widely used to obtain the conditional probabilities of the outcome given predictors, as well as predictor effect size estimates using conditional odds ratios. Results We show how statistical learning machines for binary outcomes, provably consistent for the nonparametric regression problem, can be used to provide both consistent conditional probability estimation and conditional effect size estimates. Effect size estimates from learning machines leverage our understanding of counterfactual arguments central to the interpretation of such estimates. We show that, if the data generating model is logistic, we can recover accurate probability predictions and effect size estimates with nearly the same efficiency as a correct logistic model, both for main effects and interactions. We also propose a method using learning machines to scan for possible interaction effects quickly and efficiently. Simulations using random forest probability machines are presented. Conclusions The models we propose make no assumptions about the data structure, and capture the patterns in the data by just specifying the predictors involved and not any particular model structure. So they do not run the same risks of model mis-specification and the resultant estimation biases as a logistic model. This methodology, which we call a “risk machine”, will share properties from the statistical machine that it is derived from.

2014-01-01

293

Advances of implementing NC machine tools discussed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical control machine tools which are one of the principal resources of reequipment, mechanization and automation of small series and series production in machine building were examined. The continually increasing volume of NC machine tools which are produced and introduced is economically significant for introduction of these machine tools to operation and organization of their effective use. Organizational and technical

Y. P. Kukuyev; Y. V. Trukhan

1984-01-01

294

From Operational Semantics for Abstract Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of mechanically constructing abstract machines from operational semantics, producing intermediate-level specifications of evaluators guaranteed to be correct with respect to the operational semantics. We construct these machines by repeatedly applying correctness-preserving transformations to operational semantics until the resulting specifications have the form of abstract machines. Though not automatable in general, this approach to constructing machine implementations

John Hannan; Dale Miller

1992-01-01

295

A Rational Deconstruction of Landin's SECD Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landin's SECD machine was the first abstract machine for the ?-calculus viewed as a programming language. Both theoretically as a model of computation and practically as an idealized implementation, it has set the tone for the subsequent development of abstract machines for functional programming languages. However, and even though variants of the SECD machine have been presented, derived, and invented,

Olivier Danvy

2004-01-01

296

Compensating for Shrinkage in Machined Ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique insures machined ceramics shrink to correct dimensions after baked in kiln. New method automatically compensates during machining for shrinkage later, when part baked. Applicable to numerically controlled machines that include provision to adjust for variations in cuttingtool size, but do not provide for automatic verification of dimensions of machined parts.

Aguilar, L.; Fitchett, B. T.

1986-01-01

297

Bridge stresses and design in IPM machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes the stresses in the bridges of three types of interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines. These are machines which had a V-magnet slot, machines which have a straight slot, in machines which have a V configuration with a center post. Formulae for calculating the bridge stresses are included for the straight and V shaped slots. The formulae are

Ron D Bremner

2009-01-01

298

Integrated Inverter for Driving Multiple Electric Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electric machine drive (50) has a plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) for controlling respective electric machines (57, 62), which may include a three-phase main traction machine (57) and two-phase accessory machines (62) in a hybrid or electric vehicle....

G. J. Su J. S. Hu

2003-01-01

299

Machine vision systems using machine learning for industrial product inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Machine vision inspection requires efficient processing time and accurate results. In this paper, we present a machine vision inspection architecture, SMV (Smart Machine Vision). SMV decomposes a machine vision inspection problem into two stages, Learning Inspection Features (LIF), and On-Line Inspection (OLI). The LIF is designed to learn visual inspection features from design data and/or from inspection products. During the OLI stage, the inspection system uses the knowledge learnt by the LIF component to inspect the visual features of products. In this paper we will present two machine vision inspection systems developed under the SMV architecture for two different types of products, Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and Vacuum Florescent Displaying (VFD) boards. In the VFD board inspection system, the LIF component learns inspection features from a VFD board and its displaying patterns. In the PCB board inspection system, the LIF learns the inspection features from the CAD file of a PCB board. In both systems, the LIF component also incorporates interactive learning to make the inspection system more powerful and efficient. The VFD system has been deployed successfully in three different manufacturing companies and the PCB inspection system is the process of being deployed in a manufacturing plant.

Lu, Yi; Chen, Tie Q.; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Tisler, Anthony

2002-02-01

300

Optical Computing in Boltzmann Machines.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation covers theoretical and experimental work on applying optical processing techniques ot the operation of a Boltzmann machine. A Boltzmann machine is a processor that solves a problem by iteratively optimizing an estimate of the solution. The optimization is done by finding a minimum of an energy surface over the solution space. The energy function is designed to consider not only data but also a priori information about the problem to assist the optimization. The dissertation first establishes a generic line -of-approach for designing an algorithmic optical computer that might successfully operate using currently realizable analog optical systems for highly-parallel operations. Simulated annealing, the algorithm of the Boltzmann machine, is then shown to be adaptable to this line-of-approach and is chosen as the algorithm to demonstrate these concepts throughout the dissertation. The algorithm is analyzed and optical systems are outlined that will perform the appropriate tasks within the algorithm. From this analysis and design, realizations of the optically-assisted Boltzmann machine are described and it is shown that the optical systems can be used in these algorithmic computations to produce solutions as precise as the single-pass operations of the analog optical systems. Further considerations are discussed for increasing the usefulness of the Boltzmann machine with respect to operating on larger data sets while maintaining the full degrees of parallelism and to increasing the speed by reducing the number of electronical-optical transducers and by utilizing more of the available parallelism. It is demonstgrated how, with a little digital support, the analog optical systems can be used to produce solutions with digital precision but without compromising the speed of the optical computations. Finally there is a short discussion as to how the Boltzmann machine may be modelled as a neuromorphic system for added insight into the computational functioning of the machine.

Ticknor, Anthony James

301

Analysis and design of asymmetrical reluctance machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few decades the induction machine has been chosen for many applications due to its structural simplicity and low manufacturing cost. However, modest torque density and control challenges have motivated researchers to find alternative machines. The permanent magnet synchronous machine has been viewed as one of the alternatives because it features higher torque density for a given loss than the induction machine. However, the assembly and permanent magnet material cost, along with safety under fault conditions, have been concerns for this class of machine. An alternative machine type, namely the asymmetrical reluctance machine, is proposed in this work. Since the proposed machine is of the reluctance machine type, it possesses desirable feature, such as near absence of rotor losses, low assembly cost, low no-load rotational losses, modest torque ripple, and rather benign fault conditions. Through theoretical analysis performed herein, it is shown that this machine has a higher torque density for a given loss than typical reluctance machines, although not as high as the permanent magnet machines. Thus, the asymmetrical reluctance machine is a viable and advantageous machine alternative where the use of permanent magnet machines are undesirable.

Harianto, Cahya A.

302

Mechanical design of walking machines.  

PubMed

The performance of existing actuators, such as electric motors, is very limited, be it power-weight ratio or energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the method to design a practical walking machine under this severe constraint with focus on two concepts, the gravitationally decoupled actuation (GDA) and the coupled drive. The GDA decouples the driving system against the gravitational field to suppress generation of negative power and improve energy efficiency. On the other hand, the coupled drive couples the driving system to distribute the output power equally among actuators and maximize the utilization of installed actuator power. First, we depict the GDA and coupled drive in detail. Then, we present actual machines, TITAN-III and VIII, quadruped walking machines designed on the basis of the GDA, and NINJA-I and II, quadruped wall walking machines designed on the basis of the coupled drive. Finally, we discuss walking machines that travel on three-dimensional terrain (3D terrain), which includes the ground, walls and ceiling. Then, we demonstrate with computer simulation that we can selectively leverage GDA and coupled drive by walking posture control. PMID:17148055

Arikawa, Keisuke; Hirose, Shigeo

2007-01-15

303

Reusable State Machine Code Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.

Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.

2010-12-01

304

Game-powered machine learning  

PubMed Central

Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the “wisdom of the crowds.” Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., “funky jazz with saxophone,” “spooky electronica,” etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data.

Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

2012-01-01

305

Dry machinability of aluminum alloys.  

SciTech Connect

Adverse effects of the use of cutting fluids and environmental concerns with regard to cutting fluid disposability is compelling industry to adopt Dry or near Dry Machining, with the aim of eliminating or significantly reducing the use of metal working fluids. Pending EPA regulations on metal cutting, dry machining is becoming a hot topic of research and investigation both in industry and federal research labs. Although the need for dry machining may be apparent, most of the manufacturers still consider dry machining to be impractical and even if possible, very expensive. This perception is mainly due to lack of appropriate cutting tools that can withstand intense heat and Built-up-Edge (BUE) formation during dry machining. The challenge of heat dissipation without coolant requires a completely different approach to tooling. Special tooling utilizing high-performance multi-layer, multi-component, heat resisting, low friction coatings could be a plausible answer to the challenge of dry machining. In pursuit of this goal Argonne National Labs has introduced Nano-crystalline near frictionless carbon (NFC) diamond like coatings (DLC), while industrial efforts have led to the introduction of composite coatings such as titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C) and others. Although, these coatings are considered to be very promising, they have not been tested either from tribological or from dry machining applications point of view. As such a research program in partnership with federal labs and industrial sponsors has started with the goal of exploring the feasibility of dry machining using the newly developed coatings such as Near Frictionless Carbon Coatings (NFC), Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN), and multi-layer multicomponent nano coatings such as TiAlCrYN and TiAlN/YN. Although various coatings are under investigation as part of the overall dry machinability program, this extended abstract deals with a systematic investigation of dry machinability of Aluminum 6061 and 2024 using uncoated carbide, TiN coated carbide, and TiAlN coated carbide inserts. Central Composite Design (CCD) is used to study the effect of speed, feed, depth of cut, workpiece material, and cutting tool material on the resulting forces, surface finish, temperature, chip morphology and tool wear. Each of the machining responses is measured and compared under 15 different machining conditions. Results from CCD experiments have been used to develop linear and logarithmic models for forces (Fx, Fy, Fz, & Fr) surface finish (Ra), and temperature. Furthermore, chip morphology and tool wear have also been compared. From the comparison of forces, surface finish, temperature, chip morphology, tool wear and the corresponding statistical models, it is clear that in general TiAlN results in lower forces, better surface finish, greater fragmented chips, and lesser tool wear.

Shareef, I.; Natarajan, M.; Ajayi, O. O.; Energy Technology; Department of IMET

2005-01-01

306

Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines  

SciTech Connect

Because of their engineering simplicity, high-?, and steady-state operation, mirror machines and related open-trap machines such as gas dynamic traps, are an attractive concept for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. In these open-trap machines, the confinement occurs by means of magnetic mirroring, without the magnetic field lines closing upon themselves within the region of particle confinement. Unfortunately, these concepts have not achieved to date very spectacular laboratory results, and their reactor prospects are dimmed by the prospect of a low Q-factor, the ratio of fusion power produced to auxiliary power. Nonetheless, because of its engineering promise, over the years numerous improvements have been proposed to enhance the reactor prospects of mirror fusion, such as tandem designs, end-plugging, and electric potential barriers.

Fisch N.J.

2005-10-19

307

Simple Machines in the Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The community can be a powerful context and mini-laboratory for cultivating students' common understandings of science and mathematics. On the island of Panay in the Philippines, the community was the starting place for a group of fifth- and sixth-grade students to explore simple machines in their daily lives. What students learned in the process became the basis for developing the set of culturally relevant lessons on simple machines described in this article. Each of the examples that follow features a simple machine found in the community, an explanation of how it works, a guiding-inquiry question, and a follow-up activity designed to foster students' exploration of this question.

Laroder, Aris; Tippens, Deborah; Meliza (Melai) Emaz; Bryan, Robert; Fox, Ryan

2008-03-01

308

Minimal universal quantum heat machine.  

PubMed

In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed. PMID:23410316

Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

2013-01-01

309

Thermoacoustic simulator for regenerative machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear thermoacoustic theory is a powerful tool to understand the working mechanism of many regenerative machines. Based on the theory, the authors have developed a computer code ``Thermoacoustic Simulator'' for analyzing and designing different regenerative cryocoolers including String refrigerators, Stirling and G-M types of pulse tube refrigerators and G-M cryocoolers. Also, standing-wave and traveling-wave thermoacoustic machines can be simulated, too. This paper will present the philosophy of the ``Thermoacoustic Simulator'' and some demonstrations of simulation for different types of cryocoolers and thermoacoustic engines. .

Luo, E.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Xiao, J.

2002-05-01

310

Cooling system for rotating machine  

DOEpatents

An electrical machine comprising a rotor is presented. The electrical machine includes the rotor disposed on a rotatable shaft and defining a plurality of radial protrusions extending from the shaft up to a periphery of the rotor. The radial protrusions having cavities define a fluid path. A stationary shaft is disposed concentrically within the rotatable shaft wherein an annular space is formed between the stationary and rotatable shaft. A plurality of magnetic segments is disposed on the radial protrusions and the fluid path from within the stationary shaft into the annular space and extending through the cavities within the radial protrusions.

Gerstler, William Dwight (Niskayuna, NY); El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi (Niskayuna, NY); Lokhandwalla, Murtuza (Clifton Park, NY); Alexander, James Pellegrino (Ballston Lake, NY); Quirion, Owen Scott (Clifton Park, NY); Palafox, Pepe (Schenectady, NY); Shen, Xiaochun (Schenectady, NY); Salasoo, Lembit (Schenectady, NY)

2011-08-09

311

Machine translation project alternatives analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

1993-01-01

312

Cross-flow turbine machine  

SciTech Connect

The cross-flow turbine machine provides shaft power by extracting energy from a moving fluid. The fluid comprises both liquids and gases. Fluid is guided into the rotor by inlet guide means. The fluid then flows through the first rotor, through the interior, through the second rotor, through the exit, and through the diffuser to exit the machine at ambient pressure. Due to the change in angular momentum of the fluid across the turbine rotor, a torque is applied to the output power shaft. The output power shaft can be used, for example, to drive a water pump, an electric generator, or a compressor.

Harloff, G.J.

1981-07-21

313

Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system  

SciTech Connect

A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

Schiffbauer, William H. (Connellsville, PA); Ganoe, Carl W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01

314

Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system  

DOEpatents

A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

1999-08-17

315

Rube Goldberg and the Meaning of Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Simple and compound machines are designed to make work easier. When we encounter a machine that does not fit this understanding, the so-called machine seems absurd. Through the cartoons of Rube Goldberg, students are engaged in critical thinking about the way his inventions make simple tasks even harder to complete. As the final lesson in the simple machines unit, the study of Rube Goldberg machines can help students evaluate the importance and usefulness of the many machines in the world around them.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

316

Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system  

SciTech Connect

A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

1996-12-31

317

Multiclass Proximal Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We propose an extension of proximal support vector machines (PSVM) to the multiclass case. Unlike the one-versus-rest approach that constructs the decision rule based on multiple binary classication tasks, the multiclass PSVM (MPSVM) considers all classes simultaneously and provides a unifying framework when there are either equal or unequal misclassication costs. The MPSVM is built in a regularization framework

Yongqiang Tang; Hao Helen Zhang

2006-01-01

318

Analytical design of intelligent machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

1987-01-01

319

Inside a speech recognition machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illustration of speech recognition techniques by concentrating on a particular speech recognition system was presented. The system, know as Logos is designed as a flexible, high performance, experimental machine for research on recognition methods and applications aspects. Algorithms for connected word recognition on which the system is based, are presented. Implementing such algorithms in computer programs and special purpose equipment

J. S. Bridle

1983-01-01

320

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first semi-annual report describing research conducted at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign as part of a joint university-industry research program on machine casting of ferrous alloys. During the six months covered by this report...

D. G. Backman R. Mehrabian R. J. Lauf S. D. E. Ramati Y. V. Murty

1976-01-01

321

Machine Tool Operation, Course Description.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by an instructor and curriculum specialists, this course of study was designed to meet the individual needs of the dropout and/or hard-core unemployed youth by providing them skill training, related information, and supportive services knowledge in machine tool operation. The achievement level of each student is determined at entry, and…

Denny, Walter E.; Anderson, Floyd L.

322

Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

323

Far Travelers: The Exploring Machines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program of lunar and planetary exploration produced a flood of scientific information about the moon, planets and the environment of interplanetary space. This book is an account of the people, machines, and the events of this scientific enterprise. It is a story of organizations,…

Nicks, Oran W.

324

TMI2 core boring machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important and essential aspect of the TMI-2 defueling effort is to determine what occurred in the core region during the accident. Remote cameras and probes only portray a portion of the overall picture. What lies beneath the rubble bed and solidified sublayer is, as yet, unknown. This paper discusses the TMI-2 Core Boring Machine, which has been developed to

K. M. Croft; H. J. Helbert; W. M. Laney

1986-01-01

325

Reading Machines for Blind People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten stages of developing reading machines for blind people are analyzed: handling of text material; optics; electro-optics; pattern recognition; character recognition; storage; speech synthesizers; browsing and place finding; computer indexing; and other sources of input. Cost considerations of the final product are emphasized. (CL)

Fender, Derek H.

1983-01-01

326

Machine Translation: Developments and Prospects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the history and resurgence of machine translation, describing metalanguages and transfer languages as algorithms for transforming source languages into target languages and reviewing prospects for the future. Indicates that leadership in this field is held by Japan for both hardware and software development for Japanese/English…

Russell, Robert A.

1985-01-01

327

Machine Translation for Academic Purposes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

2009-01-01

328

Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

Skorokhodko, E. F.

1970-01-01

329

Emerging systems and machine intelligence  

SciTech Connect

A theory of mind or intelligence that derives from elements of philosophical, biological, linguistic, and psychological thought as well as of physics and information theory is presented. The hypothesis is defended that intelligence is not a thing but a composite of activities and attributes that must be described in terms of the evolution and interactions of systems, emerging into the environments in which they are embedded. It is proposed that a machine intelligence that emulates human intelligence must conform to certain restrictions that derive from accepting this hypothesis. In particular an implication is that for machine intelligence to be accepted as human-like intelligence it must be produced by a machine that functions in a manner substantially similar to a man and that interacts, grows or learns in and with an environment similar to that in which a man grows and learns. It is proposed that it should be possible to create machines and programs capable of this and that they can achieve intelligence with a large, but not arbitrarily large, degree of human-like characteristics. One system (of many possible systems), in development, based on grammars, and that satisfies some of those requirements is described. It consists of an artificial environment in which a grammar like program based on augmented transition networks, interacts with a human teacher. The purpose of KARA is to learn about the environment by being told and by imitation.

Glasgow, J.C. II.

1989-01-01

330

Computed Tomography Measuring Inside Machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computed tomography applied to obtain approximate measurements of radial distances from centerline of turbopump to leading edges of diffuser vanes in turbopump. Use of computed tomography has significance beyond turbopump application: example of general concept of measuring internal dimensions of assembly of parts without having to perform time-consuming task of taking assembly apart and measuring internal parts on coordinate-measuring machine.

Wozniak, James F.; Scudder, Henry J.; Anders, Jeffrey E.

1995-01-01

331

ULTRA: A Multilingual Machine Translator  

Microsoft Academic Search

ULTRA (Universal Language TRAnslator) is a mul- tilingual, interlingual machine translation system currently under development at the Computing Re- search Laboratory at New Mexico State University. It translates between five languages (Chinese, En- glish, German, Japanese, Spanish) with vocabular- ies in each language based on approximately 10,000 word senses. The major design criteria are that the system be robust and

David Farwell; Yorick Wilks

1990-01-01

332

Bounded Support Vector Machines, Semidefinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Credit risk assessment is a basic and critical factor in credit risk management. In addition to conventional statistical method, neural network, decision tree and Support Vector Machine are the popular methods in this field in recent years. However, they all have weakness in two aspects: poor classification accuracy for unbalanced data and poor interpretability in real applications. A novel method,

Jianping Li; Zhenyu Chen; Weixuan Xu

2006-01-01

333

Magnet arrays for synchronous machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors demonstrate that the Halbach array is highly applicable for magnetic excitation in synchronous machines. To this end, they present the geometry of Halbach arrays in Cartesian, polar, and cylindrical coordinates. They also present the design of a Cartesian linear motor which has been optimized for use in conjunction with a class of high-precision magnetic suspension stages for photolithography.

David L. Trumper; Mark E. Williams; Tiep H. Nguyen

1993-01-01

334

Electrochemical Machining Carves out Nanostructures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news article from June 20, 2003 published by Great Britain's Institute of Physics, describes an electrochemical machining process that is being used to fabricate complex nanostructures. The work, produced by German and U.S. researchers, has the potential to compete with current lithographic processes.

Kalaugher, Liz

2008-04-23

335

Electrochemical Machining Removes Deep Obstructions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrochemical machining (ECM) is effective way of removing obstructing material between two deep holes supposed to intersect but do not because of misalignment of drilling tools. ECM makes it possible to rework costly castings otherwise scrapped. Method fast even for tough or hard alloys and complicated three-dimensional shapes.

Catania, Mark J.

1987-01-01

336

Anisotropy of machine building materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of experimental studies of the anisotropy of elastic and strength characteristics of various structural materials, including pressure worked metals and alloys, laminated fiberglass plastics, and laminated wood plastics, are correlated and classified. Strength criteria under simple and complex stresses are considered as applied to anisotropic materials. Practical application to determining the strength of machine parts and structural materials is discussed.

Ashkenazi, Y. K.

1981-01-01

337

Foundations of Adversarial Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this abstract, we argue that the development of such classifiers requires new frameworks combining machine learning and game theory, taking into account the utilities and costs of both the classification system and its adversary. We have recently developed such a framework that allows us to identify weaknesses in classification systems, predict how an adversary could exploit them, and even

Daniel Lowd; Christopher Meek; Pedro Domingos

338

Dimensioning, Tolerancing, and Machine Finishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use with the vocational education student interested in technical drawing, this guide provides answers to questions relating to dimensioning and tolerancing machine drawings. It also gives examples of standard dimensioning practices, tolerancing applications, and finish applications. The problems and examples presented are based on…

Adams, George C.

339

Leviathan Teaching Machine: Sixth Briefing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The teaching machine is used, as part of the experimental design, to indoctrinate subjects for Leviathan experiments. It is the sixth in a series of briefings--the other five, as well as a set of charts, have been published as: TM-1923/001/00 - AD-446807,...

B. K. Rome S. C. Rome

1967-01-01

340

Machine Shop. Student Learning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student learning guide contains eight modules for completing a course in machine shop. It is designed especially for use in Palm Beach County, Florida. Each module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities and resources, information sheets, student self-check with answer key,…

Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

341

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Due to the lack of economic permanent die materials for use in Hipocasting ferrous alloys, three innovative approaches for creating a mold cavity for use in machine casting of ferrous alloys were explored. They were: use of liquid metal cooling of a thin ...

G. D. Chandley G. Scholl

1975-01-01

342

Miniature Gas-Circulating Machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed gas-circulating machine consists essentially of centrifugal pump driven by induction motor. Noncontact bearings suppress wear and contamination. Used to circulate helium (or possibly hydrogen or another gas) in regeneration sorption-compressor refrigeration system aboard spacecraft. Also proves useful in terrestrial applications in which long life, reliability, and low contamination essential.

Swift, Walter L.; Valenzuela, Javier A.; Sixsmith, Herbert; Nutt, William E.

1993-01-01

343

Machine for Testing Shock Absorbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The machine is for testing shock absorbers used in tanks, personnel carriers, and like vehicles. A shock absorber is tested by mounting it on one end of a piston which is reciprocated by hydraulic fluid under pressure. The other end of the shock absorber ...

E. W. Posse C. E. Rutledge

1964-01-01

344

EXPLAINING "TEACHING MACHINES" AND PROGRAMMING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS IS A PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION BOOK ON THE SUBJECT OF PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION. IT DEFINES AND COMPARES LINEAR AND BRANCHING PROGRAMING, AND GIVES ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EACH METHOD. SELF-ORGANIZING PROGRAMING IS ALSO DISCUSSED. FINALLY, THE AUTHOR SUGGESTS SEVERAL STEPS THAT SHOULD BE TAKEN BEFORE ANY TEACHING MACHINE IS SELECTED, AND…

CRAM, DAVID

345

Machine Learning for Information Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses machine learning in the context of information management. The core idea is that of a compiler system that can hold a conversation with a user in English about his specific domain of interest, subsequently retrieve and display informa...

G. G. Hendrix N. Haas

1981-01-01

346

Basic Mathematics Machine Calculator Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of four text-workbooks was designed for tenth grade mathematics students who have exhibited lack of problem-solving skills. Electric desk calculators are to be used with the text. In the first five chapters of the series, students learn how to use the machine while reviewing basic operations with whole numbers, decimals, fractions, and…

Windsor Public Schools, CT.

347

Optical-Fiber-Welding Machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique yields joints with average transmissivity of 91.6 percent. Electric arc passed over butted fiber ends to melt them together. Maximum optical transmissivity of joint achieved with optimum choice of discharge current, translation speed, and axial compression of fibers. Practical welding machine enables delicate and tedious joining operation performed routinely.

Goss, W. C.; Mann, W. A.; Goldstein, R.

1985-01-01

348

Automated Litter Bag Pickup Machine. (Phase 2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a description of the Automated Litter Bag Pickup machine. This machine was constructed at Lakeview Metal Construction (Nice, CA) and developed in conjunction with the Advanced Highway Maintenance and Construction Technology Center at t...

P. W. Wong J. Kalua B. Ravani W. Nederbragt

1994-01-01

349

USSR Report, Machine Tools and Metalworking Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report from The USSR contains articles on Machine Tools and Metalworking Equipment. The Main Topics are Industry Planning and Economics, Metal-Cutting and Metalforming Machine Tools, Other Metalworking Equipment and Robotics.

1985-01-01

350

USSR Report: Machine Tools and Metalworking Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains articles concerning machine tools and metalworking equipment in the USSR. Topics include industrial planning, economics, metalworking equipment, automation, aggregated machining systems, robotics and technology planning and manageme...

1984-01-01

351

Discovering Machine-Specific Code Improvements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A compiler construction tool has been designed and built that automates much of the case analysis necessary to exploit special purpose instructions on a target machine. Given a suitable description of the target machine, the analysis identifies instructio...

S. L. Graham

1985-01-01

352

Practical Stability of a Reluctance Synchronous Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ideal reluctance synchronous machine with dual rotor windings is modeled mathematically and simulated on a digital computer. In addition, it is demonstrated that practical stability of the machine exists when the Liapunov theorem requirements have bee...

W. U. Borger

1975-01-01

353

Using Linguistic Knowledge in Statistical Machine Translation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, we present methods for using linguistically motivated information to enhance the performance of statistical machine translation (SMT). One of the advantages of the statistical approach to machine translation is that it is largely languagea...

R. M. Zbib

2010-01-01

354

Integrated Inverter For Driving Multiple Electric Machines  

DOEpatents

An electric machine drive (50) has a plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) for controlling respective electric machines (57, 62), which may include a three-phase main traction machine (57) and two-phase accessory machines (62) in a hybrid or electric vehicle. The drive (50) has a common control section (53, 54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) with only one microelectronic processor (54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), only one gate driver circuit (53) for controlling conduction of semiconductor switches (S1-S10) in the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), and also includes a common dc bus (70), a common dc bus filtering capacitor (C1) and a common dc bus voltage sensor (67). The electric machines (57, 62) may be synchronous machines, induction machines, or PM machines and may be operated in a motoring mode or a generating mode.

Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN; Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-04-04

355

Calculating Kinetics of a Student Designed Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a project-based inquiry where students design and create a machine to complete a task. Then students will be asked to calculate velocities, kinetic energy and potential energies of various parts of their machine.

356

Just the Facts: The Dialysis Machine  

MedlinePLUS

What is a dialysis machine? During dialysis, your blood is cleaned using a fluid called dialysate, or “bath.” Wastes and fluid from your ... into the bath and are drained away. The dialysis machine controls the flow of the blood and ...

357

Reading Machine: From Text to Speech.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A machine with unrestricted vocabulary, that is capable of converting printed text into connected speech in real time, would be extremely useful to blind people. The problems in implementing such a machine are mainly (1) character recognition, (2) convers...

F. F. Lee

1969-01-01

358

New Dialysis Machine Treats Tiniest of Newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. New Dialysis Machine Treats Tiniest of Newborns Device needed ... a pediatric nephrologist at Miami Children's Hospital. The new machine, called CARPEDIEM (Cardio-Renal Pediatric Dialysis Emergency ...

359

The right tool for machining beryllium  

SciTech Connect

Machine tools from the C-2, C-4, and C-7 designation were examined in this study. Overall twelve different machine tools from these grades were evaluated. Each machine tool was used to machine beryllium and then examined to determine wear characteristics. They were then polished and etched to reveal microstructure. The microstructure was examined on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS).

Johns, W.L.; Jackson, M.H.

1987-01-01

360

Advancement in electrochemical micro-machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical micro-machining (EMM) appears to be very promising as a future micro-machining technique, since in many areas of applications it offers several advantages, which include higher machining rate, better precision and control, and a wide range of materials that can be machined. In this paper, a review is presented on current research, development and industrial practice in micro-ECM. This paper

B. Bhattacharyya; J. Munda; M. Malapati

2004-01-01

361

Predicated switching - optimizing speculation on EPIC machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPIC processors are a very attractive platform for many of today's multimedia and communications applications. In particular, clustered EPIC machines can take aggressive advan- tage of the available ILP, while maintaining high energy-delay efficiency. However, multicluster machines are more challenging to compile to than centralized machines. In this paper, we propose a novel compiler-directed speculation technique, called predicated switching, that

Satish Pillai; Margarida F. Jacome

2005-01-01

362

Femtosecond laser machining characteristics of Nitinol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of femtosecond laser machining on surface characteristics and subsurface microstructure of a Nitinol alloy were studied. The femtosecond laser machining produced an average surface roughness of 0.2?m. A re-deposited layer of 7?m and a hardened layer of 70?m were also resulted from the machining.

H. Huang; H. Y. Zheng; G. C. Lim

2004-01-01

363

Numerical control machining simulation: a comprehensive survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first numerical control (NC) machine tool was created at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1950s, productivity and quality of machined parts have been increased through using NC and later computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools. Like other computer programs, errors may occur in a CNC program, which may lead to scraps or even accidents. Therefore, NC programs

Yu Zhang; Xun Xu; Yongxian Liu

2011-01-01

364

An Abstract Machine for Symbolic Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of an abstract machine with a recursive function programming language which avoids the predicate type of conditional is described. It is shown that trough the adoption of list processing techniques it has been possible to construct a simple simulator for the machine in FORTRAN. A program for the machine which causes it to perform symbolic differentiation with some

D. L. Overheu

1966-01-01

365

Magnetic field-assisted electrochemical discharge machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) is an effective unconventional method for micromachining in non-conducting materials, such as glass, quartz and some ceramics. However, since the spark discharge performance becomes unpredictable as the machining depth increases, it is hard to achieve precision geometry and efficient machining rate in ECDM drilling. One of the main factors for this is the lack of sufficient

Chih-Ping Cheng; Kun-Ling Wu; Chao-Chuang Mai; Yu-Shan Hsu; Biing-Hwa Yan

2010-01-01

366

DEVICES AND MACHINES IN HANDMADE CARPET  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic approach to improve the existing tools and processes used by the artisans engaged in carpet sectors to enhance the productivity and the quality of the finished products in a cost effective manner have been initiated in 2000 by IIT Delhi (1). Several machines like Carpet Loom, Scrapping Machine, Drying Machine, and Tools used in carpet manufacturing have been

Himanshu Chaudhary; Subir Kumar Saha

2000-01-01

367

Fast Support Vector Machines for Continuous Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Support vector machines can be trained to be very accurate classifiers and have been used in many applications. However, the training and to a lesser extent predic- tion time of support vector machines on very large data sets can be very long. This paper presents a fast compression method to scale up support vector machines to large data sets. A

Kurt A. Kramer; Lawrence O. Hall; Dmitry B. Goldgof; Andrew Remsen; Tong Luo

2009-01-01

368

The Honeywell Modular Microprogram Machine: M 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

M3 is intended for research into unconventional special purpose stored program elements of computer systems (for example, a distributed computer Bus Interface Unit). The principal requirements for such a machine are flexibility and modularity. M3 consists of an application independent Kernel Machine to which application-dependent Functional Modules are attached. The Kernel Machine is vertically microprogrammed; it includes highly capable microinstruction

E. Douglas Jensen; Richard Y. Kain

1977-01-01

369

Machine for Weight-Lift Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the design and building details of a weight lifting machine which is primarily intended for Factor X testing where only occasional use is foreseen and an expensive machine would not be cost effective. The machine allows one to select...

N. M. Aume

1984-01-01

370

Estimation of coordinate measuring machine error parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positioning accuracies of computer controlled machines such as robots, CNC machines and coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) are of great importance to their operations. An estimation concept for quantifying the error parameters based on error indications from ball-bar testing is described. A preliminary simulation study was performed, and it has been concluded that the concept is feasible and is worth further

J. Chen; Y. F. Chen

1987-01-01

371

JOB SHOP SCHEDULINE WITH MACHINE SHUTDOWN CONSTRAINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the job shop scheduling literature carries a common assumption that machines are available all the time. However, this availability assumption may not be true in real industry settings, since machines may become unavailable during certain periods of time when machine shutdowns are scheduled. This paper considers job shop scheduling problem with ready time and due date constraints

Xin Feng; Lixin Tang; Hofung Leung

372

Method and apparatus for monitoring machine performance  

DOEpatents

Machine operating conditions can be monitored by analyzing, in either the time or frequency domain, the spectral components of the motor current. Changes in the electric background noise, induced by mechanical variations in the machine, are correlated to changes in the operating parameters of the machine.

Smith, Stephen F. (Loudon, TN); Castleberry, Kimberly N. (Harriman, TN)

1996-01-01

373

Stability Analysis of a Symmetrical Induction Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stability study of an induction machine is performed by applying the root-locus criterion to the equations which describe the behavior of the machine during small displacements about a steady-state operating point. This investigation reveals that a symmetrical induction machine may become unstable at low speeds (low frequencies) even though balanced, constant amplitude, sinusoidal voltages are applied to the stator

ROBERT H. NELSON; THOMAS A. LIPO; PAUL C. KRAUSE

1969-01-01

374

Quantum mechanical hamiltonian models of turing machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models, which represent an aribtrary but finite number of steps of any Turing machine computation, are constructed here on a finite lattice of spin-1\\/2 systems. Different regions of the lattice correspond to different components of the Turing machine (plus recording system). Successive states of any machine computation are represented in the model by spin configuration states. Both

Paul Benioff

1982-01-01

375

The Zig Zag Machine. Module 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the zig zag machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the zig zag machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

376

Design Your Own Rube Goldberg Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineer and cartoonist Rube Goldberg is famous for his crazy machines that accomplish everyday tasks in overly complicated ways. Learners use their understanding of simple machines to design and build their own Rube Goldberg machines that perform simple tasks in no less than ten steps. Then, learners build prototypes of their designs. Resource contains investigating questions to assess understanding and extend learning.

University, Tufts

2005-01-01

377

Applications of Machine Learning in Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the basic ideas that underpin applications of machine learning to information retrieval. Describes applications of machine learning to text categorization. Considers how machine learning can be applied to the query-formulation process. Examines methods of document filtering, where the user specifies a query that is to be applied to an…

Cunningham, Sally Jo; Witten, Ian H.; Littin, James

1999-01-01

378

Practical Feature Subset Selection for Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning algorithms automatically extract knowledge from machine readable information. Unfortunately, their success is usually dependant on the quality of the data that they operate on. If the data is inadequate, or contains extraneous and irrelevant information, machine learning algorithms may produce less accurate and less understandable results, or may fail to discover anything of use at all. Feature subset

Mark A. Hall; Lloyd A. Smith

1996-01-01

379

Active Research Topics in Human Machine Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies active research topics concerning human machine interfaces for intelligent machine systems. The paper was compiled by performing a series of literature searches and organizing the information according to the author's interest in better directing his own Human Machine Interface (HMI) research. Introductory literature from outside the HMI communities is also referenced to provide context.

Michael J. McDonald

2000-01-01

380

Earth boring machine and working crane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is a machine assembly, including a post, an earth excavating machine and a crane interchangeably mountable on the post; the earth excavating machine including a sleeve enclosure around the post, a radially extending ground surface toothed scraper attached to the enclosure, a vertical screw inside the enclosure, and a loose earth conveyor belt extending from the sleeve, and

Stefan

1985-01-01

381

Machine tool calibration: Geometric test uncertainty depends on machine tool performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to show a sufficient geometric performance, every machine tool has to be calibrated geometrically before it may come into operation. The geometric machine errors have to be identified. They can afterwards be compensated either mechanically or numerically in the machine control.Machine tools are usually calibrated geometrically by performing a sequence of different measurements to identify single errors such

B. Bringmann; W. Knapp

2009-01-01

382

Improving the machining efficiency in electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) microhole drilling by offset pulse voltage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the utilization of pulse voltage has proved to be a potential method for improving the machining accuracy in the microdrilling process by electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM). Although pulse voltage is favorable for improving the machining quality, it is hard to obtain an efficient machining rate. The pulse-off (Toff) duration allows the gas film structure to be re-constructed, which makes

Zhi-Ping Zheng; Jui-Kuan Lin; Fuang-Yuan Huang; Biing-Hwa Yan

2008-01-01

383

A virtual machine concept for real-time simulation of machine tool dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

When designing CNC machine tools it is important to consider the dynamics of the control, the electrical components and the mechanical structure of the machine simultaneously. This paper describes the structure and implementation of a concept for real-time simulation of such machine tools using a water jet cutting machine as an application. The concept includes a real control system, simulation

Anders Jönsson; Johan Wall; Göran Broman

2005-01-01

384

EFFECT OF POWDER MIXED DIELECTRIC ON MACHINING PERFORMANCE IN ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the variations of machining performance outputs, namely, workpiece surface roughness, workpiece removal rate, electrode wear rate, relative wear, workpiece surface hardness, and workpiece surface microstructure were experimentally investigated with the varying machining parameters for metal powder mixed dielectric liquid in electrical discharge machining (EDM). The machining tests were conducted by using prismatic steel workpiece and copper electrodes

Bekir ÖZERKAN; Can ÇO?UN

385

A neural support vector machine.  

PubMed

Support vector machines are state-of-the-art pattern recognition algorithms that are well founded in optimization and generalization theory but not obviously applicable to the brain. This paper presents Bio-SVM, a biologically feasible support vector machine. An unstable associative memory oscillates between support vectors and interacts with a feed-forward classification pathway. Kernel neurons blend support vectors and sensory input. Downstream temporal integration generates the classification. Instant learning of surprising events and off-line tuning of support vector weights trains the system. Emotion-based learning, forgetting trivia, sleep and brain oscillations are phenomena that agree with the Bio-SVM model. A mapping to the olfactory system is suggested. PMID:20092978

Jändel, Magnus

2010-06-01

386

Machine learning classifiers in glaucoma.  

PubMed

Machine learning is concerned with the design and development of algorithms and techniques that allow computers to "learn" patterns in data using iterative processes. Such processes can be supervised (guided by a priori group membership information) or unsupervised (guided by patterns within the data). Machine learning classifiers (MLC) are unconstrained by statistical assumptions and therefore are adaptable to complex data. Recent applications of MLC techniques to the detection and monitoring of glaucoma by analysis of visual field and optical imaging data suggest that these methods can provide improvement over currently available techniques. This article provides some background about the classification task in glaucoma and the structure and evaluation of MLCs, and it reviews MLC techniques as they have been applied to visual function and optical imaging in glaucoma research. PMID:18521021

Bowd, Christopher; Goldbaum, Michael H

2008-06-01

387

Machine intelligence for robotics applications  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to review research in machine intelligence ongoing at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). As a result of initial experimentation with our HERMIES-I mobile robot, hardware and software upgrades were implemented which enable fully asynchronous sonar operation, improved stepper motor control for the sensory platform, and more reliable wheel drive control. The current system, designated as HERMIES-II, is discussed. Successful demonstration of dead-reckoning navigation and the development of a sensor-based exploration and discovery algorithm which can now handle typical maze problems are reported. The development of HERMIES ''brain'' as a hypercube ensemble machine with concurrent computation and associated message passing is described. Algorithms for mapping precedence-constrained task graphs onto a hypercube yield results with high efficiency and proper load balance. A framework for a hybrid uncertainty analysis theory for decision making is described.

Weisbin, C.R.; Barhen, J.; de Saussure, G.; Hamel, W.R.; Jorgensen, C.; Oblow, E.M.; Ricks, R.E.

1985-01-01

388

Machine for electrochemical etch stop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The configurations of electrochemical silicon etch-stop are discussed in this paper. An electrochemical etching machine with software and hardware, which can control the etching process of silicon very well, is designed and fabricated bas don the theory of electrochemical etching. Accurate etching temperature is obtained by modified integral algorithm of PID presented in temperature control in software. With an algorithm presented in control of etch-stop, the tech-stop point can be detected according to the characteristics of p- n junction current-time in electrochemical etching. The machine with hardware including S/H, controller and actuator can adapt to all wet etching configurations such as poly- electrode electrochemical etch-stop.

Zhou, Kun; Lan, Mujie; Chen, Weiping; Wang, Donghong

2001-09-01

389

Predicting phospholipidosis using machine learning.  

PubMed

Phospholipidosis is an adverse effect caused by numerous cationic amphiphilic drugs and can affect many cell types. It is characterized by the excess accumulation of phospholipids and is most reliably identified by electron microscopy of cells revealing the presence of lamellar inclusion bodies. The development of phospholipidosis can cause a delay in the drug development process, and the importance of computational approaches to the problem has been well documented. Previous work on predictive methods for phospholipidosis showed that state of the art machine learning methods produced the best results. Here we extend this work by looking at a larger data set mined from the literature. We find that circular fingerprints lead to better models than either E-Dragon descriptors or a combination of the two. We also observe very similar performance in general between Random Forest and Support Vector Machine models. PMID:20799726

Lowe, Robert; Glen, Robert C; Mitchell, John B O

2010-10-01

390

New Materials and their Machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophistication in materials applications is the basis of technological progress and therefore there is a continuous search\\u000a for new materials: i.e. materials that are light in weight, strong, tough, corrosion resistant, durable, wear resistant, resistant\\u000a to various hazards of nature, safe for our health, etc. The new generation of materials with improved properties pose problems\\u000a during machining because of their

P. S. Sreejith; B. K. A. Ngoi

2001-01-01

391

The spectre of the machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists a psychological fear of computers and that fear isexpressed in the literature of our society. The basis of this fear,viewed in three related aspects, is the populace's misunderstandingof the machine's function and abilities and capabilities.Literature is the double mirror of society. It reflects theattitudes, trends and mores prevalent in our society. This is theMirror of Reality. There exists

Kathryn Ptacek

1979-01-01

392

Integrated Architectures for Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing complexity of Machine Learning applications, the need for using integrated or hybrid (or multistrategy) approaches\\u000a becomes more and more imperative, and an increasing amount of research effort is devoted to this issue. The increasing complexity\\u000a of applications is not the only reason making multistrategic approaches appealing: as it is well known, no single approach\\/system\\u000a can claim to

Lorenza Saitta

2001-01-01

393

Evaluation of coordinate measuring machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positional accuracy, thermal distortion, and load distortion of the coordinate measuring machine (CMM) are among the most important factors contributing to the final accuracy of the inspected tool or gage. The positional accuracy of the CMM is addressed and a method to evaluate the volumetric accuracy of a bridge design CMM work zone (the volumetric space that houses inspection points on a part to be inspected is described.

Russell, R. J.

1982-11-01

394

Media-Augmented Exercise Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

Krueger, T.

2002-01-01

395

JTEC Panel Report on Machine Translation in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Machine Translation in Japan and the U.S.; Technical Infrastructure; Languages and Application Domains; Knowledge Sources for Machine Translation; Life Cycle of Machine Translation Systems; The Uses of Machine Translation in Japan; Acceptance of...

J. Carbonell E. Rich D. Johnson M. Tomita M. Vasconcellos

1992-01-01

396

Evaluation of coordinate measuring machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method which evaluates large coordinate measuring machines (CMM) and estimates their measuring capabilities within a specified work volume was developed and implemented. Five CMMs were selected for evaluation. The methodology used to evaluate them, along with the test results, were discussed in a previous report. The data reduction method previously used was found to have several restrictions that limited its usefulness. A new method which has been implemented is discussed in this report. Three of the machines previously evaluated have work volumes far in excess of the standards previously used. A larger standard was designed, fabricated, and used to obtain the data required to complete the project goal. This device was used to estimate the precision and uncertainty of the three large CMMs. The results are reported. A technique which uses a small ball plate at several locations to estimate capability was tested on one of the three machines. The results were compared with those obtained with the large ball plate. The results were almost identical, but the recommended calibration method is to use a standard that covers the work zone of the CMM being evaluated.

Russell, R. J.

1985-05-01

397

Grinding machine: friend or foe.  

PubMed

Few cases of traumatic loses of the external genitalia have been reported in this part of the world. In a developing country like ours, grinding machines are commonly being used by the people for domestic purposes. Children in their mid fifteens are usually employed to man and operate the machine without proper training and apprenticeship. Many of them have fallen victims of various genito-urinary injuries from grinding machine. Treating a child for complete traumatic loss of penis is rare and challenging any where in the world. A 12 years old boy presented to the emergency unit of our hospital with penile amputation 18 hours after the injury was sustained. A penile reconstruction of corporal cavernosa phalloplasty was used. This method of reconstruction may be used by clinician in our sub-region where other treatment modalities such as replantation by microvascular surgery, use of free radial fore-arm flap or sex reassignment to the female gender may not be feasible or acceptable. PMID:12665282

Adigun, I A; Kuranga, S A; Abdulrahman, L O

2002-01-01

398

Chip breaking system for automated machine tool  

DOEpatents

The invention is a rotary selectively directional valve assembly for use in an automated turret lathe for directing a stream of high pressure liquid machining coolant to the interface of a machine tool and workpiece for breaking up ribbon-shaped chips during the formation thereof so as to inhibit scratching or other marring of the machined surfaces by these ribbon-shaped chips. The valve assembly is provided by a manifold arrangement having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart ports each coupled to a machine tool. The manifold is rotatable with the turret when the turret is positioned for alignment of a machine tool in a machining relationship with the workpiece. The manifold is connected to a non-rotational header having a single passageway therethrough which conveys the high pressure coolant to only the port in the manifold which is in registry with the tool disposed in a working relationship with the workpiece. To position the machine tools the turret is rotated and one of the tools is placed in a material-removing relationship of the workpiece. The passageway in the header and one of the ports in the manifold arrangement are then automatically aligned to supply the machining coolant to the machine tool workpiece interface for breaking up of the chips as well as cooling the tool and workpiece during the machining operation.

Arehart, Theodore A. (Clinton, TN); Carey, Donald O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1987-01-01

399

Efficient Checkpointing of Virtual Machines using Virtual Machine Introspection  

SciTech Connect

Cloud Computing environments rely heavily on system-level virtualization. This is due to the inherent benefits of virtualization including fault tolerance through checkpoint/restart (C/R) mechanisms. Because clouds are the abstraction of large data centers and large data centers have a higher potential for failure, it is imperative that a C/R mechanism for such an environment provide minimal latency as well as a small checkpoint file size. Recently, there has been much research into C/R with respect to virtual machines (VM) providing excellent solutions to reduce either checkpoint latency or checkpoint file size. However, these approaches do not provide both. This paper presents a method of checkpointing VMs by utilizing virtual machine introspection (VMI). Through the usage of VMI, we are able to determine which pages of memory within the guest are used or free and are better able to reduce the amount of pages written to disk during a checkpoint. We have validated this work by using various benchmarks to measure the latency along with the checkpoint size. With respect to checkpoint file size, our approach results in file sizes within 24% or less of the actual used memory within the guest. Additionally, the checkpoint latency of our approach is up to 52% faster than KVM s default method.

Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological University] [Tennessee Technological University; Han, Fang [Tennessee Technological University] [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Stephen L [ORNL] [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL

2014-01-01

400

Experiments with the Dragon Machine  

SciTech Connect

The basic characteristics of a self-sustaining chain reaction were demonstrated with the Chicago Pile in 1943, but it was not until early 1945 that sufficient enriched material became available to experimentally verify fast-neutron cross-sections and the kinetic characteristics of a nuclear chain reaction sustained with prompt neutrons alone. However, the demands of wartime and the rapid decline in effort following the cessation of hostilities often resulted in the failure to fully document the experiments or in the loss of documentation as personnel returned to civilian pursuits. When documented, the results were often highly classified. Even when eventually declassified, the data were often not approved for public release until years later.2 Even after declassification and approval for public release, the records are sometimes difficult to find. Through a fortuitous discovery, a set of handwritten notes by ''ORF July 1945'' entitled ''Dragon - Research with a Pulsed Fission Reactor'' was found by William L. Myers in an old storage safe at Pajarito Site of the Los Alamos National Laboratory3. Of course, ORF was identified as Otto R. Frisch. The document was attached to a page in a nondescript spiral bound notebook labeled ''494 Book'' that bore the signatures of Louis Slotin and P. Morrison. The notes also reference an ''Idea LS'' that can only be Louis Slotin. The discovery of the notes led to a search of Laboratory Archives, the negative files of the photo lab, and the Report Library for additional details of the experiments with the Dragon machine that were conducted between January and July 1945. The assembly machine and the experiments were carefully conceived and skillfully executed. The analyses--without the crutch of computers--display real insight into the characteristics of the nuclear chain reaction. The information presented here provides what is believed to be a complete collection of the original documentation of the observations made with the Dragon Machine in early 1945.

R.E. Malenfant

2005-08-12

401

Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology: 1996  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has used exotic materials for spacecraft and experimental aircraft to good effect for many decades. In spite of many advances, transportation to space still costs about $10,000 per pound. Drexler has proposed a hypothetical nanotechnology based on diamond and investigated the properties of such molecular systems. These studies and others suggest enormous potential for aerospace systems. Unfortunately, methods to realize diamonoid nanotechnology are at best highly speculative. Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically relatively accessible and of great aerospace interest. Machine phase materials are (hypothetical) materials consisting entirely or in large part of microscopic machines. In a sense, most living matter fits this definition. To begin investigation of fullerene nanotechnology, we used molecular dynamics to study the properties of carbon nanotube based gears and gear/shaft configurations. Experiments on C60 and quantum calculations suggest that benzyne may react with carbon nanotubes to form gear teeth. Han has computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Results suggest that rotation can be converted to rotating or linear motion, and linear motion may be converted into rotation. Preliminary results suggest that these mechanical systems can be cooled by a helium atmosphere. Furthermore, Deepak has successfully simulated using helical electric fields generated by a laser to power fullerene gears once a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. Even with mechanical motion, cooling, and power; creating a viable nanotechnology requires support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and some approach to manufacture. Additional information is contained within the original extended abstract.

Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

402

Machine Learning based Compiler Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists running high performance geophysical models want to achieve the fastest runtime possible for their software on any machine. For this goal, they usually select compilers' default aggressive optimization flag, however this is often a suboptimal choice. In fact, the best matching set of optimization flags depends both on the underline hardware and on the characteristics of the program. The fast change and rapid improvement in microprocessor technology, and diversity of program profiles make finding such a best set of optimization flags a challenging task. This problem is NP-Complete and thus it is not possible to find the general exact solution. However, an approximate solution may be found. Recently, computer science researchers have applied machine-learning algorithms on both static and dynamic profiling features of computer programs including hardware performance counters to achieve semi-optimal transformations on different benchmarks. cTuning is one of the existing tools, which is an open source framework that profiles static features of computer programs and uses machine learning algorithms to find a semi-optimal set of compiler optimization flags, which are often better than the default aggressive optimization such as -O3 for GCC and -fast for the PGI compiler. In this paper, we extended cTuning by adding new kernels, more relevant to atmospheric models, to the training database. We tested the framework on few simple models in use at NCAR: Shallow Water, EULAG and HD3D. We performed our experiments on Janus high performance computer system. We show our results comparing the execution time of iterative compilation, default aggressive optimization flag/s and flags chosen by machine learning for both the GCC and the PGI Fortran compilers.; The execution time improvement of 3 models over -O3 for KNN learning algorithm available on cTuning and All-10 potentially reachable from the data we collected. ; The execution time improvement of 3 models over -fast for KNN learning algorithm available on cTuning and All-10 potentially reachable from the data we collected.

Ashari, A.; Del Vento, D.; Sadayappan, P.

2012-12-01

403

Gang scheduling a parallel machine  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-03-01

404

Micro-machined calorimetric biosensors  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are provided for detecting and monitoring micro-volumetric enthalpic changes caused by molecular reactions. Micro-machining techniques are used to create very small thermally isolated masses incorporating temperature-sensitive circuitry. The thermally isolated masses are provided with a molecular layer or coating, and the temperature-sensitive circuitry provides an indication when the molecules of the coating are involved in an enthalpic reaction. The thermally isolated masses may be provided singly or in arrays and, in the latter case, the molecular coatings may differ to provide qualitative and/or quantitative assays of a substance.

Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Smith, Stephen F. (Loudon, TN); Oden, Patrick I. (Plano, TX); Bryan, William L. (Knoxville, TN); Moore, James A. (Powell, TN); Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

405

Machines for lattice gauge theory  

SciTech Connect

The most promising approach to the solution of the theory of strong interactions is large scale numerical simulation using the techniques of lattice gauge theory. At the present time, computing requirements for convincing calculations of the properties of hadrons exceed the capabilities of even the most powerful commercial supercomputers. This has led to the development of massively parallel computers dedicated to lattice gauge theory. This talk will discuss the computing requirements behind these machines, and general features of the components and architectures of the half dozen major projects now in existence. 20 refs., 1 fig.

Mackenzie, P.B.

1989-05-01

406

Setup reduction approaches for machining  

SciTech Connect

Rapid setup is a common improvement approach in press working operations such as blanking and shearing. It has paid major dividends in the sheet metal industry. It also has been a major improvement thrust for high-production machining operations. However, the literature does not well cover all the setup operations and constraints for job shop work. This review provides some insight into the issues involved. It highlights the floor problems and provides insights for further improvement. The report is designed to provide a quick understanding of the issues.

Gillespie, L.K.

1997-04-01

407

Hypervelocity cutting machine and method  

DOEpatents

A method and machine 14 are provided for cutting a workpiece 12 such as concrete. A gun barrel 16 is provided for repetitively loading projectiles 22 therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank 28. A thermal storage tank 32,32A is disposed between the propellant storage tank 28 and the gun barrel 16 for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel 16 for repetitively firing projectiles 22 therefrom toward the workpiece 12. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles 22 is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece 12 by fracturing thereof.

Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY); Reich, Morris (Queens, NY)

1996-11-12

408

Hypervelocity cutting machine and method  

DOEpatents

A method and machine are provided for cutting a workpiece such as concrete. A gun barrel is provided for repetitively loading projectiles therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank. A thermal storage tank is disposed between the propellant storage tank and the gun barrel for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel for repetitively firing projectiles therefrom toward the workpiece. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece by fracturing thereof. 10 figs.

Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.

1996-11-12

409

Gang scheduling a parallel machine  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-12-01

410

Machine characterization based on an abstract high-level language machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements are presented for a large number of machines ranging from small workstations to supercomputers. The authors combine these measurements into groups of parameters which relate to specific aspects of the machine implementation, and use these groups to provide overall machine characterizations. The authors also define the concept of pershapes, which represent the level of performance of a machine for different types of computation. A metric based on pershapes is introduced that provides a quantitative way of measuring how similar two machines are in terms of their performance distributions. The metric is related to the extent to which pairs of machines have varying relative performance levels depending on which benchmark is used.

Saavedra-Barrera, Rafael H.; Smith, Alan Jay; Miya, Eugene

1989-01-01

411

Light-driven artificial molecular machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial molecular machines represent a growing field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Stimulated by chemical reagents, electricity, or light, artificial molecular machines exhibit precisely controlled motion at the molecular level; with this ability molecular machines have the potential to make significant impacts in numerous engineering applications. Compared with molecular machines powered by chemical or electrical energy, light-driven molecular machines have several advantages: light can be switched much faster, work without producing chemical waste, and be used for dual purposes-inducing (writing) as well as detecting (reading) molecular motions. The following issues are significant for light-driven artificial molecular machines in the following aspects: their chemical structures, motion mechanisms, assembly and characterization on solid-state surfaces. Applications in different fields of nanotechnology such as molecular electronics, nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS), nanophotonics, and nanomedicine are envisaged.

Zheng, Yue Bing; Hao, Qingzhen; Yang, Ying-Wei; Kiraly, Brian; Chiang, I.-Kao; Huang, Tony Jun

2010-08-01

412

Spectral Classification Using Restricted Boltzmann Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a novel machine learning algorithm, restricted Boltzmann machine, is introduced. The algorithm is applied for the spectral classification in astronomy. Restricted Boltzmann machine is a bipartite generative graphical model with two separate layers (one visible layer and one hidden layer), which can extract higher level features to represent the original data. Despite generative, restricted Boltzmann machine can be used for classification when modified with a free energy and a soft-max function. Before spectral classification, the original data are binarised according to some rule. Then, we resort to the binary restricted Boltzmann machine to classify cataclysmic variables and non-cataclysmic variables (one half of all the given data for training and the other half for testing). The experiment result shows state-of-the-art accuracy of 100%, which indicates the efficiency of the binary restricted Boltzmann machine algorithm.

Fuqiang, Chen; Yan, Wu; Yude, Bu; Guodong, Zhao

2014-01-01

413

Micro-machined resonator oscillator  

DOEpatents

A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a telemetered sensor beacon'' that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20--100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available. 21 figs.

Koehler, D.R.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Bivens, H.M.; Wessendorf, K.O.

1994-08-16

414

Micro-machined resonator oscillator  

DOEpatents

A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

Koehler, Dale R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Bivens, Hugh M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

415

Machine Translation Evaluation and Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of machine translation (MT) systems is a vital field of research, both for determining the effectiveness of existing MT systems and for optimizing the performance of MT systems. This part describes a range of different evaluation approaches used in the GALE community and introduces evaluation protocols and methodologies used in the program. We discuss the development and use of automatic, human, task-based and semi-automatic (human-in-the-loop) methods of evaluating machine translation, focusing on the use of a human-mediated translation error rate HTER as the evaluation standard used in GALE. We discuss the workflow associated with the use of this measure, including post editing, quality control, and scoring. We document the evaluation tasks, data, protocols, and results of recent GALE MT Evaluations. In addition, we present a range of different approaches for optimizing MT systems on the basis of different measures. We outline the requirements and specific problems when using different optimization approaches and describe how the characteristics of different MT metrics affect the optimization. Finally, we describe novel recent and ongoing work on the development of fully automatic MT evaluation metrics that have the potential to substantially improve the effectiveness of evaluation and optimization of MT systems.

Dorr, Bonnie; Olive, Joseph; McCary, John; Christianson, Caitlin

416

Models of quantum turing machines.  

SciTech Connect

Quantum Turing machines are discussed and reviewed in this paper. Most of the paper is concerned with processes defined by a step operator T that is used to construct a Hamiltonian H according to Feynman's prescription. Differences between these models and the models of Deutsch are discussed and reviewed. It is emphasized that the models with H constructed from T include fully quantum mechanical processes that take computation basis states into linear superpositions of these states. The requirement that T be distinct path generating is reviewed. The advantage of this requirement is that Schr{umlt o}dinger evolution under H is one dimensional along distinct finite or infinite paths of nonoverlapping states in some basis B{sub C}. It is emphasized that B{sub C} can be arbitrarily complex with extreme entanglements between states of component systems. The new aspect of quantum Turing machines introduced here is the emphasis on the structure of graphs obtained when the states in the B{sub C} paths are expanded as linear superpositions of states in a reference basis such as the computation basis B{sub C}. Examples are discussed that illustrate the main points of the paper. For one example the graph structures of the paths in B{sub C} expanded as states in B{sub C} include finite stage binary trees and concatenated finite stage binary trees with or without terminal infinite binary trees. Other examples are discussed in which the graph structures correspond to interferometers and iterations of interferometers.

Benioff, P.; Physics

1998-01-01

417

Wellbeing, schizophrenia and experience machines.  

PubMed

In the USA and England and Wales, involuntary treatment for mental illness is subject to the constraint that it must be necessary for the health or safety of the patient, if he poses no danger to others. I will argue against this necessary condition of administering treatment and propose that the category of individuals eligible for involuntary treatment should be extended. I begin by focusing on the common disorder of schizophrenia and proceed to demonstrate that it can be a considerable harm to a person's life without causing the person to be a danger to himself. I illuminate this claim by constructing a thought experiment concerning a person who slips on a banana peel and falls into a malfunctioning version of Robert Nozick's experience machine. I propose that the reasons why we should remove the person from the machine are the same reasons why we should administer involuntary treatment to individuals with schizophrenia. I rebut three objections to the analogy and conclude that if we believe that we have a duty to provide treatment for reasons relating to a person's wellbeing, it follows that we should reject the health or safety requirement and instead broaden the category of individuals who are eligible for involuntary treatment. PMID:21831096

Birks, David Rhys

2013-02-01

418

Advances in Machining Process Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever increasing speed and affordability of computing resources together with the advances in the modeling techniques made it possible to use the numerical models like finite element method (FEM), to simulate the metal cutting processes numerically. This paper explains the recent technological advances made in the commercial DEFORM™ system to facilitate the modeling of metal cutting process. During the first phase of this work a 2D system has been developed which assumes orthogonal cutting conditions. The second phase of this work has resulted in the development of a modeling system for 3D machining processes with main focus on turning. The modeling tools developed in this project utilize a hybrid procedure including both transient and steady state approaches. Automated remeshing procedure is being used with great success. Multiple coating layers on the insert can be modeled to study their thermal effects. Elastic and thermal response of the insert during the machining process can also be modeled using this system. The Usui's wear model has also been implemented in the system to study the tool wear. The system developed has been validated with various results reported from actual cutting tests and comparisons are found to be reasonably accurate.

Chigurupati, Pavanachand; Jinn, Jong-Tae; Oh, Jin Young; Yin, Yanling; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Wei-Tsu

2004-06-01

419

Execution replay of multiprocessor virtual machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Execution replay of virtual machines is a technique which has many important applications, including debugging, fault-tolerance, and security. Execution replay for single processor virtual machines is well-understood, and available commercially. With the advance- ment of multi-core architectures, however, multiprocessor virtual machines are becoming more important. Our system, SMP-ReVirt, is the first system to log and replay a multiprocessor virtual ma-

George W. Dunlap; Dominic G. Lucchetti; Michael A. Fetterman; Peter M. Chen

2008-01-01

420

Programming coevolutionary machines: the emerging conundrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly parallel ‘Self-X’ machines are inevitably coevolutionary since elements of a dynamic structural hierarchy always interact, an effect that will asymptotically dominate system behaviour at great scale. Here, we extend recent biologically-based models of machine cognition to a ‘farming’ paradigm for programming large, self-dynamic, coevolutionary devices. While broadly similar to the liquid state machines of Maass et al. these differ

Rodrick Wallace

2009-01-01

421

Electrochemical discharge machining of small diameter holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) is considered to be a hybrid machining method where material removal is based on\\u000a two phenomena: electrochemical dissolution of the material and thermal erosion by electrical discharges that occur between\\u000a the electrodes. Obtaining holes of small diameter in hard materials is one challenge also for this machining method. The paper\\u000a contains some results obtained by trying

M. Cotea??; L. Sl?tineanu; O. Dodun; C. Ciofu

2008-01-01

422

Machining Three Prongs on a Shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple tool reduces set-up and machining time by more than 70 percent. Unorthodox tooling arrangement used to machine three prongs on end of specialpurpose wrench. Modified carbide-tipped spot-facing tool rotated at 1,400 to 1,600 revolutions per minute in small milling machine and applied to work piece, held with its corners in spaces of three-cornered collect.

Hewitt, C.

1983-01-01

423

Fuzzy Support Vector Machines Based on ? —Cut  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A new Fuzzy Support Vector Machines (?—FSVMs) based on ?—cut is proposed in this paper. The proposed learning machines combine the membership of fuzzy set with support vector machines.\\u000a The ?—cut set is introduced to distinguish the training samples set in term of the importance of the data. The more important sets\\u000a are selected as new training sets to construct

Shengwu Xiong; Hongbing Liu; Xiaoxiao Niu

424

Rotating Drive for Electrical-Arc Machining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotating drive improves quality of holes made by electrical-arc machining. Mechanism (Uni-tek, rotary head, or equivalent) attached to electrical-arc system. Drive rotates electrode as though it were mechanical drill, while an arc disintegrates metal in workpiece, thereby creating hole. Rotating electrode method often used in electric-discharge machining. NASA innovation is application of technique to electrical-arc machining.

Fransen, C. D.

1986-01-01

425

Surface finish of precision machined advanced materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the surface finish and integrity of glass, silicon, some advanced ceramics and aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with ceramic particles, precision machined by various machining processes. The studies revealed that grinding\\/lapping operations using inexpensive machine tools can produce ductile streaks on glass and silicon surfaces under good grinding\\/lapping conditions. This resulted in significantly shortened polishing time

Zhaowei Zhong

2002-01-01

426

Ultraprecision machining of ceramics for optical components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A machining system was developed, to achieve ductile-regime machining of ceramics and glasses for optical components. The machine tool is capable of cutting, grinding, lapping or polishing hard and brittle materials in ductile-regime. As a key component in building the system, giant magnetostrictive alloys with large output power and outstanding elongation are employed to comprise an ultra-precision actuator. The actuator

Hiroshi Eda; Jun Shimizu; Libo Zhou

1999-01-01

427

Hybrid Excitation of the Axial Inductor Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper considers the possibility to use permanent magnets in the rotor slots of axial inductor machine with the aim to create a hybrid excitation of such a machine - from the magnets and from the excitation winding which is placed between the stator cores. The hybrid excitation allows the weight and size parameters of the machine to be improved. Under consideration is a 32 kW under-carriage generator 2?B.13.Y1.

Orlova, S.; Pugachov, V.; Levin, N.

2012-01-01

428

Machinability and brittleness of glass-ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the machinability and the brittleness of glass-ceramic materials is investigated. A brittleness index (B), given by the ratio of the hardness to the fracture toughness, is proposed as a parameter for estimating the machinability. This approach is confirmed by considering experimental data from the literature on turning operations of mica-containing glass-ceramics. It is shown that machinability parameters,

A. R. Boccaccini

1997-01-01

429

Electromechanical interaction in a synchronous reluctance machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic forces on a whirling rotor of a synchronous reluctance machine are studied using time-discretized 2D finite-element analysis. The whirling motion generates eccentricity harmonics in the air-gap field. These harmonics may further induce circulating currents in the windings of the machine. The dynamics of the induced currents is coupled with the dynamics of the rotor, especially, when the machine is

A. Arkkio; A. Sinervo

2010-01-01

430

Embedded control system for computerized franking machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel control system for franking machine. A methodology for operating a franking machine using the functional controls consisting of connection, configuration and franking electromechanical drive is studied. A set of enabling technologies to synthesize postage management software architectures driven microprocessor-based embedded systems is proposed. The cryptographic algorithm that calculates mail items is analyzed to enhance the postal indicia accountability and security. The study indicated that the franking machine is reliability, performance and flexibility in printing mail items.

Shi, W. M.; Zhang, L. B.; Xu, F.; Zhan, H. W.

2007-12-01

431

Machine learning techniques to diagnose breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence that employs a variety of statistical, probabilistic and optimization techniques that allows computers to “learn” from past examples and to detect hard-to-discern patterns from large, noisy or complex data sets. As a result, machine learning is frequently used in cancer diagnosis and detection. In this paper, support vector machines, K-nearest neighbours and

Alireza Osareh; Bita Shadgar

2010-01-01

432

MLZ: Machine Learning for photo-Z  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parallel Python framework MLZ (Machine Learning and photo-Z) computes fast and robust photometric redshift PDFs using Machine Learning algorithms. It uses a supervised technique with prediction trees and random forest through TPZ that can be used for a regression or a classification problem, or a unsupervised methods with self organizing maps and random atlas called SOMz. These machine learning implementations can be efficiently combined into a more powerful one resulting in robust and accurate probability distributions for photometric redshifts.

Carrasco Kind, Matias; Brunner, Robert

2014-03-01

433

Active chatter control in a milling machine  

SciTech Connect

The use of active feedback compensation to mitigate cutting instabilities in an advanced milling machine is discussed in this paper. A linear structural model delineating dynamics significant to the onset of cutting instabilities was combined with a nonlinear cutting model to form a dynamic depiction of an existing milling machine. The model was validated with experimental data. Modifications made to an existing machine model were used to predict alterations in dynamics due to the integration of active feedback compensation. From simulations, subcomponent requirements were evaluated and cutting enhancements were predicted. Active compensation was shown to enable more than double the metal removal rate over conventional milling machines. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Dohner, J.L.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; Lauffer, J.P. [and others

1997-08-01

434

On-machine dimensional verification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

General technology for automating in-process verification of machined products has been studied and implemented on a variety of machines and products at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). Tests have been performed to establish system accuracy and probe reliability on two numerically controlled machining centers. Commercial software has been revised, and new cycles such as skew check and skew machining, have been developed to enhance and expand probing capabilities. Probe benefits have been demonstrated in the area of setup, cycle time, part quality, tooling cost, and product sampling.

Rendulic, W.

1993-08-01

435

High pressure water jet mining machine  

DOEpatents

A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

Barker, Clark R. (Rolla, MO)

1981-05-05

436

Go Go Gadget: Invent a Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students study the concepts of force, motion, and work as they analyze simple machines. They study the simple machines in complex machines, and track the transfer of force from input (effort) to output (work). Students collect, organize, represent, and analyze data from a human automation investigation using spreadsheet software. In a design challenge, students become inventors and identify work they want to perform, and then they invent labor-saving machines to do the jobs. The design steps of planning, drafting, construction, troubleshooting, and reliability testing are followed before students unveil their wonderful inventions to an awed crowd.

2008-10-29

437

Effect of Using a Written Preanesthetic Machine Checklist on Detection of Anesthesia Machine Faults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recommendations from several studies of anesthesia mishaps and equipment malfunction include the use of a written preanesthetic machine checklist to ensure the proper function of the anesthesia machine prior to initiating anesthesia. In an extensive liter...

T. L. Saarie

1986-01-01

438

Apparel Manufacturing (Course Outline), Industrial Single Needle Machines and Machine Practice: 9377.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course includes a study of the industrial single needle machine, its principal parts, general care, threading, and basic skills in machine practice. Instructional materials include films, illustration, information sheets, and other materials. (CK)

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

439

Thermally enhanced machining of hard-to-machine materials—A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally enhanced machining uses external heat sources to heat and soften the workpiece locally in front of the cutting tool. The temperature rise at the shear zone reduces the yield strength and work hardening of the workpiece, which make the plastic deformation of hard-to-machine materials easier during machining.This review summarizes the up-to-date progress and benefits of thermally enhanced machining (with

S. Sun; M. Brandt; M. S. Dargusch

2010-01-01

440

Drug design by machine learning; support vector machines for pharmaceutical data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We show that the support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm, a recent development from the machine learning community, proves its potential for structure–activity relationship analysis. In a benchmark test, the SVM is compared,to several machine,learning,techniques,currently,used,in the field. The classification task involves predicting the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase by pyrimidines, using data obtained from the UCI machine learning repository. Three

R. Burbridge; M. Trotter; B. Buxton; S. Holden

2001-01-01

441

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop (Program CIP: 48.0503--Machine Shop Assistant). Secondary Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. Presented first are a…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

442

Optimal workpiece setups for 4-axis numerical control machining based on machinability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orienting of a workpiece so as to maximize the number of surfaces machined on a 4-axis Numerical Control (NC) machine is formulated as a spherical computational geometry problem. The orientations along which a sampling point on the part surface is visible to a 3-axis NC machine are represented as a spherical polygon. The range of rotation of the fourth axis

Kai Tang; Lin-Lin Chen; Shuo-Yan Chou

1998-01-01

443

The brushless doubly fed reluctance machine and the synchronous reluctance machine-a comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brushless doubly fed reluctance machine (BDFRM) is related to the better known brushless doubly fed induction machine (BDFIM). Research into doubly fed machines is motivated by the fact that they allow the use of a partially rated inverter in many variable-speed applications. Research into the BDFRM has been largely ignored in comparison to the BDFIM, despite the fact that

Robert E. Betz; Milutin G. Jovanovic

2000-01-01

444

Improving machining performance of wire electrochemical discharge machining by adding SiC abrasive to electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of wire electrochemical discharge machining (WECDM) to slice hard brittle materials has recently been studied because its effectiveness is independent of the mechanical characteristics of the machined materials. Therefore, materials with high hardness, brittleness, strength and electrical insulation, which are difficult-to-cut, can be machined. In ECDM, the electrochemical reaction produces hydrogen bubbles, which accumulate around the cathode. A

C. T. Yang; S. L. Song; B. H. Yan; F. Y. Huang

2006-01-01

445

Drug Design by Machine Learning: Support Vector Machines for Pharmaceutical Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm, a recent development from the machine learning community, proves its potential for structure-activity relationship analysis. In a benchmark test, the SVM is compared to several machine learning techniques currently used in the field. The classification task involves predicting the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase by pyrimidines, using data obtained from the

Robert Burbidge; Matthew W. B. Trotter; Bernard F. Buxton; Sean B. Holden

2002-01-01

446

Plasma CVM (chemical vaporization machining): an ultra precision machining technique using high-pressure reactive plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional machining processes, such as turning, grinding, or lapping, are still applied for many materials including functional ones. But these processes give rise to deformed layers which means that the machined surfaces cannot perform original functions. In order to avoid this, plasma CVM has been developed. Plasma CVM is a chemical machining method utilizing radical reaction. In plasma CVM, high

Y. Mori; K. Yamamura; K. Yamauchi; K. Yoshii; T. Kataoka; K. Endo; K. Inagaki; H. Kakiuchi

1993-01-01

447

Multifunctional Application of a Synthetic Ester to Machine Tool Lubrication Based on MQL Machining Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine tools generally necessitate a variety of lubricants. Since some of those lubricants are often contaminated with cutting fluids and disposed without adequate separation treatments, it must certainly be convenient to prepare a multifunctional fluid applicable to both machining and other lubricating parts. In minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) machining, synthetic polyol esters are the successful cutting lubricant. This study therefore

S. Suda; T. Wakabayashi; I. Inasaki; H. Yokota

2004-01-01

448

Effect of workpiece properties on machinability in abrasive jet machining of ceramic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrasive jet machining (AJM), a specialized form of shot blasting using fine-grained abrasives, is an attractive micro-machining method for ceramic materials. In this paper, the machinability during the AJM process is compared to that given by the established models of solid particle erosion, in which the material removal is assumed to originate in the ideal crack formation system. However, it

M. Wakuda; Y. Yamauchi; S. Kanzaki

2002-01-01

449

Comparison of Metalworking Fluid Mist Exposures from Machining with Different Levels of Machine Enclosure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated the efficacy of machine enclosures in reducing employee exposures to metalworking fluid mist. Four hundred fifty-five personal samples from automotive machining and grinding operations collected over six years were divided into three groups based on the type and extent of enclosure and local exhaust ventilation. The sample groups were (1) machining equipment with original equipment manufacturer (OEM)

David Hands; Maura J. Sheehan; Ben Wong; Henry B. Lick

1996-01-01

450

Integrated approach to advanced machining  

SciTech Connect

The residual stress state induced by machining in a Ti alloy as function of cutting tool sharpness and depth of cut was predicted and measured. Residual stresses were greater for the dull tool than for the sharp tool. XRD was used to measure the residual stress state of the material; these measurements revealed that the hoop stress increased with depth of cut; however the radial stress decreased with depth of cut. An elastic-plastic model provided a possible explanation for this behavior in that, for small depths of cut, the tool makes multiple passes through the damage subsurface layer. This causes both residual stress components to increase, but the radial stress increases by a much greater amount than the hoop stress.

LeSar, R.A.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Rangaswamy, P.; Day, R.D.; Hatch, D.J.

1997-08-01

451

Defect Classification Using Machine Learning  

SciTech Connect

Laser-induced damage growth on the surface of fused silica optics has been extensively studied and has been found to depend on a number of factors including fluence and the surface on which the damage site resides. It has been demonstrated that damage sites as small as a few tens of microns can be detected and tracked on optics installed a fusion-class laser, however, determining the surface of an optic on which a damage site resides in situ can be a significant challenge. In this work demonstrate that a machine-learning algorithm can successfully predict the surface location of the damage site using an expanded set of characteristics for each damage site, some of which are not historically associated with growth rate.

Carr, A; Kegelmeyer, L; Liao, Z M; Abdulla, G; Cross, D; Kegelmeyer, W P; Raviza, F; Carr, C W

2008-10-24

452

Operation of the TEMPO machine  

SciTech Connect

The TEMPO machine is a repetitively pulsed, high-voltage driver for experimental microwave generating devices. Three units have been built. TEMPO has a transformer-charged, water-insulated Blumlein directly coupled to the vacuum diode. The Blumlein has a relatively high impedance (20-..cap omega..) strip-type, pulse-forming transmission line (PFL) designed to minimize size. Stray capacitance and enhanced electric fields along the edges of the PFL are controlled by lining the tank in which the Blumlein is housed with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic sheet. During the initial stage of operation, problems with breakdowns in the plastic occurred that necessitated replacing the liner with either polyethylene or polypropylene. During the same period, problems with the power supplies and high voltage switch performance were addressed. These modifications and their results are discussed in the following sections.

Rohwein, G.J.; Lawson, R.N.; Lancaster, K.T.

1987-01-01

453

A primary roundness measuring machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On a commercial roundness measurement instrument METAS has implemented several modifications offering an up-grade of the measurement capabilities and a full understanding of the measurement process. The Talyrond 73 instrument is equipped with a rotating spindle with an oil-hydrostatic bearing. The modifications include an incremental encoder on the spindle, a vibration free DC motor with variable rotation speed for driving the spindle, new amplifier electronics with selectable gain for the LVDT probe, new software for data acquisition and evaluation, and a heat protection shield. The application of error separation techniques, the complete characterization of all relevant parameters and the high level of precision achieved allow the attribute "primary" be given to this roundness measuring machine.

Thalmann, Ruedi; Spiller, Juerg

2005-08-01

454

Machine learning in soil classification.  

PubMed

In a number of engineering problems, e.g. in geotechnics, petroleum engineering, etc. intervals of measured series data (signals) are to be attributed a class maintaining the constraint of contiguity and standard classification methods could be inadequate. Classification in this case needs involvement of an expert who observes the magnitude and trends of the signals in addition to any a priori information that might be available. In this paper, an approach for automating this classification procedure is presented. Firstly, a segmentation algorithm is developed and applied to segment the measured signals. Secondly, the salient features of these segments are extracted using boundary energy method. Based on the measured data and extracted features to assign classes to the segments classifiers are built; they employ Decision Trees, ANN and Support Vector Machines. The methodology was tested in classifying sub-surface soil using measured data from Cone Penetration Testing and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:16530382

Bhattacharya, B; Solomatine, D P

2006-03-01

455

Perspex Machine X: software development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Perspex Machine arose from the unification of computation with geometry. We now report significant redevelopment of both a partial C compiler that generates perspex programs and of a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The compiler is constructed with standard compiler-generator tools and produces both an explicit parse tree for C and an Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) that is better suited to code generation. The GUI uses a hash table and a simpler software architecture to achieve an order of magnitude speed up in processing and, consequently, an order of magnitude increase in the number of perspexes that can be manipulated in real time (now 6,000). Two perspex-machine simulators are provided, one using trans-floating-point arithmetic and the other using transrational arithmetic. All of the software described here is available on the world wide web. The compiler generates code in the neural model of the perspex. At each branch point it uses a jumper to return control to the main fibre. This has the effect of pruning out an exponentially increasing number of branching fibres, thereby greatly increasing the efficiency of perspex programs as measured by the number of neurons required to implement an algorithm. The jumpers are placed at unit distance from the main fibre and form a geometrical structure analogous to a myelin sheath in a biological neuron. Both the perspex jumper-sheath and the biological myelin-sheath share the computational function of preventing cross-over of signals to neurons that lie close to an axon. This is an example of convergence driven by similar geometrical and computational constraints in perspex and biological neurons.

Noble, Sam; Thomas, Benjamin A.; Anderson, James A. D. W.

2007-01-01

456

Multiple machine JIT scheduling: a tabu search approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to solving the multiple machine, non-preemptive, earliness-tardiness scheduling problem with unequal due dates in a flow shop with machine tiers (FMT). In this variant of the flow shop problem, machines are arranged in tiers or groups, and the jobs must visit one machine in each tier. The processing times, machine assignments, and due dates are

Daniel A. Finke; D. J. Medeiros; Mark T. Traband

2007-01-01

457

EDM machinability of SiCw/Al composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Machinability of high temperature composites was investigated. Target materials, 15 and 25 vol pct SiC whisker-2124 aluminum composites, were machined by electrodischarge sinker machining and diamond saw. The machined surfaces of these metal matrix composites were examined by SEM and profilometry to determine the surface finish. Microhardness measurements were also performed on the as-machined composites.

Ramulu, M.; Taya, M.

1989-01-01

458

In-process machine tool vibration cancellation using PMN actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the machine tool technology in the US is not in the state-of-the-art of leading international competitors. Conventional machine tools under use are being pushed into their machining accuracy limits. There is a pressing need calling for revitalizing the machine tool industry. This paper presents, a mechatronic system developed for reducing tool vibration during machining. It consists of electrical

Zelalem Eshete; Guangming Zhang

1996-01-01

459

Optimisation for surface mount placement machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimisation of feeder setup and component placement sequence are very important to the efficiency of surface mount placement machines. Much works have been conducted to solve this problem. However, the technological characteristics of the placement machine influences the nature of the planning problems to be solved and the formulation of the associated models. As a result, little consensus exists as

Masri Ayob; Peter Cowling; Graham Kendall

2002-01-01

460

Machining time estimation for magnetic abrasive processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present the magnetic abrasive process which is used to finish and size those workpieces that have been produced using standard machine tools. The process is proved to be very effective in achieving the desired finish size and roundness of the workpieces. We develop an empirical expression to estimate the machining time to produce a workpiece with specified roundness.

G. Z. KREMEN; E. A. ELSAYED; J. L. RIBEIRO

1994-01-01

461

Development of magneto abrasive flow machining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is a relatively new process among non-conventional machining processes. Low material removal rate happens to be one serious limitation of almost all such processes. Limited efforts have hitherto been directed towards improving the efficiency of these processes so as to achieve higher material removal rates by applying different techniques. This paper discusses the possible improvement in

Sehijpal Singh; H. S. Shan

2002-01-01

462

Programming Pinball Machines for Fun and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Southern California has recently created a Bachelor's Program in Computer Science (Games) and a Master's Program in Computer Science (Game Develop- ment). As part of this eort, we are currently working on creating a motivational project class on programming pin- ball machines, where the students interface a PC to an ex- isting pinball machine and then re-program

Daniel Wong; Darren Earl; Fred Zyda; Sven Koenig

2008-01-01

463

Machinable Rogowski coil, design and calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rogowski coils are special types of mutual inductors often used to measure high ac and transient currents. Traditional designs are reviewed. The significant sources of error associated with a particular coil design are identified and examined. A “machinable Rogowski coil” is introduced and discussed. The reasoning behind critical design choices are discussed. The improved performance of the machinable coil is

John D. Ramboz

1995-01-01

464

Machinable Rogowski coil, design, and calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rogowski coils are special types of mutual inductors often used to measure high AC and transient currents. Traditional designs are reviewed. The significant sources of error associated with typical coil designs are examined. A “machinable Rogowski coil” is introduced and discussed. The reasoning behind critical design choices is discussed. The improved performance of the machinable coil is compared to that

John D. Ramboz

1996-01-01

465

Support vector machines based on subtractive clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Support vector machines combining subtractive clustering method are proposed in this paper. Subtractive clustering method is used to select a set of cluster centers which are the data samples themselves as the representation of original massive set of training data. The new training set then is used to construct support vector machines. Two benchmarks on two-class recognition and multi-class problem

Sheng-Wu Xiong; Xiao-Xiao Niu; Hong-Bing Liu

2005-01-01

466

Simple vector analysis of Stirling machine's performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attention is given to a very simple harmonic graphic vector analysis for the first estimation of the performance of various Stirling machines, including engine, cooler, and Vuilleumier machines. The method is based on the Schmidt assumption and the harmonic approximation. It shows, in a simple graphic way, which cylinder generates heat or cold and how much.

Isshiki, Naotsugu

467

The Next Linear Collider machine protection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Next Linear Collider (NLC) electron and positron beams are capable of damaging the linac accelerating structure and beamline vacuum chambers during an individual aberrant accelerator pulse. Machine protection system (MPS) considerations, outlined in this paper for the 1 TeV NLC design, have an impact on the engineering and design of most machine components downstream of the damping ring injector

C. Adolphsen; J. Frisch; R. K. Jobe; D. McCormick; W. R. Nelson; T. O. Raubenheimer; S. Rokni; M. C. Ross; P. Tenenbaum; D. R. Walz

1999-01-01

468

Toy-inspired human machine interface design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designers can get inspiration from classic toys for developing new products with nontrivial human machine interfaces. The toys have been accepted by people for a long time to be usable, comfortable, and entertaining, which are the expected characteristics of human machine interfaces. Proposed to reduce risk and time of new designs, the toy-inspired method is illustrated by the making of

Shusong Xing; Zhiqiang Luo

2010-01-01

469

Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

470

Object correspondence as a machine learning problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose machine learning methods for the estimation of deformation fields that transform two given objects into each other, thereby establishing a dense point to point correspondence. The fields are computed us- ing a modified support vector machine con- taining a penalty enforcing that points of one object will be mapped to \\

Bernhard Schölkopf; Florian Steinke; Volker Blanz

2005-01-01

471

Programming Language for Machine Translation Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Second generation computers heretofore used in machine translation R and D are now being replaced by third generation machinery. As a result, machine translation programs developed in the past are obsolescent. The goal of this study was to ease the transi...

M. R. Needleman J. Mersel C. Cagan

1967-01-01

472

Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

Melby, Alan

1996-01-01

473

PSO Algorithm for Support Vector Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical Learning Theory focuses on the machine learning theory for small samples. Support vector machine (SVM) are new methods based on statistical learning theory. There are many kinds of function can be used for kernel of SVM. Wavelet function is a set of bases that can approximate arbitrary functions in arbitrary precision. So Marr wavelet was used to construct wavelet

Shuzhou Wang; Bo Meng

2010-01-01

474

The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

Mitts, Charles R.

2012-01-01

475

Coordinate measurement machines as an alignment tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February of 1990 the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) purchased a LEITZ PM 12-10-6 CMM (Coordinate measurement machine). The machine is shared by the Quality Control Team and the Alignment Team. One of the alignment tasks in positioning beamli...

B. T. Wand

1991-01-01

476

Nonlinear Model of Synchronous Machines with Saliency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general nonlinear mathematical model of synchronous machines is normalized using the principle of equal mmf for magnetically coupled coils. By introducing both static and dynamic magnetic permeance matrices to simulate the magnetic saturation a salient-pole machine model is derived. Examples of numerical simulation are given to verify the model and its applications. The demagnetization effect between mmfs on the

G. Xie; R. S. Ramshaw

1986-01-01

477

Machine Translation in Post-Contemporary Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focusing on translating techniques via personal computer or laptop reports updated artificial intelligence progresses before 2010. Based on interpretations and information for field of MT [Machine Translation] by Yorick Wilks' book, "Machine Translation, Its scope and limits," this paper displays understandable theoretical frameworks…

Lin, Grace Hui Chin

2010-01-01

478

Ant Colony Optimisation for Machine Layout Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flexible machine layout problems describe the dynamic arrangement of machines to optimise the trade-off between material handling and rearrangement costs under changing and uncertain production environments. A previous study used integer-programming techniques to solve heuristically reduced versions of the problem. As an alternative, this paper introduces an ant colony optimisation (ACO) algorithm to generate good solutions. Experimental results are presented,

Paul Corry; Erhan Kozan

2004-01-01

479

Electrical Discharge Machine to Eliminate Burrs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Problems were encountered in machining 0.030 x 0.090 holes in the baffle of a chemical laser. The baffle is composed of Inconel 625. Conventional machining of the In...

1981-01-01

480

Degradation of Machine Oil by Nocardioform Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) was used for the first time to screen for machine oil–degrading microorganisms. Oil degradation was evaluated from the microorganism respiratory activity during the utilization of oil as the sole carbon and energy source. The results are consistent with those obtained by the conventional weighing method. Substrate specificity of the active strains with respect to different machine

I. S. Zvyagintseva; E. G. Surovtseva; M. N. Poglazova; V. S. Ivoilov; S. S. Belyaev

2001-01-01

481

Neural Network Modeling of Abrasive Flow Machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the preliminary development of a neural network-based process monitor and off-line controller for abrasive flow machining of automotive engine intake manifolds. The process is only observable indirectly, yet the time at which machining achieves the specified air flow rate must be estimated accurately. A neural network model is used to estimate when the process has achieved air

Alice E. Smith; William S. Slaughter

482

Machine Shop Projects. Instructor Guide. General Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed in Georgia, this manual contains 101 projects for use in machine shop courses, arranged according to a suggested machine shop curriculum. Each project, included in a student workbook, contains complete drawings and instructions for implementation. Tasks are listed under the broad headings of measuring, layout, bench work, saws, drilling,…

Westbrook, Raymond E.

483

Case study for international remote machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to the more enhanced networking, the designed data for manufacturing can be transmitted internationally. Therefore, the production of the potential product at one side of the world according to the design requirement at the other side of the world is possible and quicker than ever before. The shipment can be eliminated by producing the product at the potential market place. This paper demonstrates the development of a machining system showing the manufacture of a product based on this idea. Unix, Microsoft Windows, and NFS under the LAN and Internet environment are adopted for data communication and message passing in the devised international remote machining system. The personal computer is the server of the machining center. A C program is developed for the direct control of the machining center through DNC2 interface. The command of machining process is issued from Sun Sparc station to the personal computer through Internet. The devised system structure can also be extended to link with an automatic workpiece loading system, e.g., robot an AGV, to form an automatic machining cell for CIM. The requirements of achieving such an international remote machining cell that links machining center and robot are also discussed.

Lin, Grier C.; Kao, Yung-Chou

1995-08-01

484

The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. Module 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on parts of the machine, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains eight sections. Each section contains the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

485

An improved model of saturated induction machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional models of induction machines represent instantaneous saturation of the magnetizing flux either by using saturation factors or by adjusting the tangential and slope reactances. These models are often inaccurate in predicting states of the machine during transient conditions such as online starting. To remedy these inconsistencies, an improved equivalent circuit model is proposed that accounts not only for the

J. O. Ojo; A. Consoli; T.A. Lipo

1990-01-01

486

The Time Machine in Our Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides the first comprehensive conceptual account for the imagistic mental machinery that allows us to travel through time--for the time machine in our mind. It is argued that language reveals this imagistic machine and how we use it. Findings from a range of cognitive fields are theoretically unified and a recent proposal about…

Stocker, Kurt

2012-01-01

487

The War in Man; Media and Machines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present a picture of contemporary man torn by conflicting forces, caught in a psychic house divided against itself, a victim of war between media and machines. Machines, they state, represent the rationalistic tradition which has brought man to the brink of psychic and social disaster. The media they see as offering hope--true…

Wilhelmsen, Frederick D.; Bret, Jane

488

Survey of Current Paradigms in Machine Translation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is a survey of machine translation (MT) research from the United States, Europe, and Japan. A short history of machine translation is presented, followed by an overview of current research and representative examples of a wide range of differen...

B. J. Dorr P. W. Jordan J. W. Benoit

1998-01-01

489

A New Advanced Ceramic for Dry Machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns toward safety of the work environment as well as the environment in general are compelling industry to adopt ‘green’ or ‘dry’ machining, i. e. without the use of any cutting fluid. Since, some of the benefits of the cutting fluids are not going to be available in dry machining, need exists for the development of a more refractory, tougher,

N. Narutaki; Y. Yamane; S. Tashima; H. Kuroki

1997-01-01

490

The Virtual Laboratory of Machine Tool Hydraulics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Laboratory of Machine Tool Hydraulics is an interactive, web-based graphic animation of machine tool hydraulics. It includes fundamentals, troubleshooting, problem-solving, and interactive demonstrations of hydraulic circuits and components. This is a great interactive activity for those interested in learning the fundamental concepts of hydraulic systems.

Song, Xueshu

2009-10-29

491

Adaptive machine and its thermodynamic costs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the minimal thermodynamically consistent model for an adaptive machine that transfers particles from a higher chemical potential reservoir to a lower one. This model describes essentials of the inhomogeneous catalysis. It is supposed to function with the maximal current under uncertain chemical potentials: if they change, the machine tunes its own structure fitting it to the maximal current under new conditions. This adaptation is possible under two limitations: (i) The degree of freedom that controls the machine's structure has to have a stored energy (described via a negative temperature). The origin of this result is traced back to the Le Chatelier principle. (ii) The machine has to malfunction at a constant environment due to structural fluctuations, whose relative magnitude is controlled solely by the stored energy. We argue that several features of the adaptive machine are similar to those of living organisms (energy storage, aging).

Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Wang, Q. A.

2013-03-01

492

Green machining of gelcast ceramic materials  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic green bodies prepared by gelcasting were shown to be readily machinable using WC cutting tools. Samples of alumina and silicon nitride were examined. It was found that a gelcasting formulation which uses a high molecular weight cross-linking agent produces a green body having superior machining characteristics. Samples fabricated with a lower molecular weight cross-linker exhibited a poor machined surface finish due to chipping. Machining tests showed that using a 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) diameter cutting tool at a cutting speed of 162.5 cm/sec (64 ft./sec.) to machine a flat-bottomed groove 3.2 mm wide and 9.5 mm deep (0.125 x 0.375 in.) using three passes, feed rates ranging from 0.85 to 6.35 cm/sec (0.33 to 2.50 in./sec.) could be used without damaging the sample.

Nunn, S.D.; Kirby, G.H.

1996-04-01

493

National Machine Tool Partnership (NMTP) FY 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) National Machine Tool Partnership (NMTP) program has been active since February 1993. The NMTP program is an element of the DP Technology Partnership Program. The NMTP has assisted the Association of Manufacturing Technology (AMT) in the formulation of a technology roadmap for the machine tool industry. This roadmap has been developed to provide a clearer step-by-step plan for technology development and implementation to help close the gap between user requirements and industry implementation. The document outlines a suggested path for the development of technologies for the machine tool industry. The plan details the technology issues or needs analysis facing the machine tool industry. In a parallel effort, the NMTP has prepared a needs analysis of machine tool related technologies needed in various DP laboratory weapons core programs, including the Advanced Design and Production Technologies (ADaPT) initiative.

NONE

1997-12-01

494

Micro-spherical probes machining by EDM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new hybrid micro-machining method, which combines wire electro discharge grinding technology with one pulse electro discharge, to fabricate micro-spherical probes and micro-spherical cavities. The results show that a burnished micro-spherical probe with about 40 µm diameter could be formed instantaneously with the hybrid machining process, which is not available in the conventional micro-machining method. The deviation in diameter and roundness tolerances of micro-spherical probes is about 1 µm and 3 µm, respectively. Compared with conventional electro discharge machining, the surface roughness of the spherical probe is much smaller than a discharge crater. It will be possible to achieve more accurate three-dimensional measurements with the micro-spherical probe attached to the coordinate measuring machine in the future.

Sheu, Dong-Yea

2005-01-01

495

Building a Successful Machine Safeguarding Program  

SciTech Connect

Safeguarding hazards associated with machines is a goal common to all health and safety professionals. Whether the individual is new to the safety field or has held associated responsibilities for a period of time, safeguarding personnel who work with or around machine tools and equipment should be considered an important aspect of the job. Although significant progress has been made in terms of safeguarding machines since the era prior to the organized safety movement, companies continue to be cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and workers continue to be injured, even killed by machine tools and equipment. In the early 1900s, it was common practice to operate transmission machinery (gears, belts, pulleys, shafting, etc.) completely unguarded. At that time, the countersunk set screw used on shafting had not been invented and projecting set screws were involved in many horrific accidents. Manufacturers built machines with little regard for worker safety. Workers were killed or seriously injured before definitive actions were taken to improve safety in the workplace. Many states adopted legislation aimed at requiring machine guarding and improved injury reduction. The first patent for a machine safeguard was issued in 1868 for a mechanical interlock. Other patents followed. As methods for safeguarding machinery and tools were developed, standards were written and programs were set up to monitor factories for compliance. Many of those standards continue to govern how we protect workers today. It is common to see machine tools built in the forties, fifties and sixties being used in machine shops today. In terms of safeguarding, these machines may be considered poorly designed, improperly safeguarded or simply unguarded. In addition to the potential threat of an OSHA citation, these conditions expose the operator to serious hazards that must be addressed. The safety professional can help line management determine workable solutions for these problems.

McConnell, S

2003-03-06

496

Heat error modeling methods of NC machine tool machining holes or slots of door hardware based on genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to special accuracy require of holes or grooves of door hardware, the principle of NC machining of machining holes or grooves of door hardware was put forward. Heat Error is an important factor of machining accuracy of machine tool. The way of improving machine tool accuracy by using thermal deformation compensation is a necessary intelligent module of high quality

Ma Xiao-jun; Ma Yan

2011-01-01

497

Material Removal Rate, Kerf, and Surface Roughness of Tungsten Carbide Machined with Wire Electrical Discharge Machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the effects of varying seven different machining parameters in addition to varying the material thickness on the machining responses such as material removal rate, kerf, and surface roughness of tungsten carbide samples machined by wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) were investigated. The design of experiments was based on a Taguchi orthogonal design with 8 control factors with three levels each, requiring a set of 27 experiments that were repeated three times. ANOVA was carried out after obtaining the responses to determine the significant factors. The work piece thickness was expected to have a major effect on the material removal rate but showed to be significant in the case of surface roughness only. Finally, optimization of the machining responses was carried out and models for the material removal rate, kerf, and surface roughness were created. The models were validated through confirmation experiments that showed significant improvements in machining performance for all investigated machining outcomes.

Shah, Aqueel; Mufti, Nadeem A.; Rakwal, Dinesh; Bamberg, Eberhard

2011-02-01

498

Vertical EDM (Electric Discharge Machining) Using Modular Programming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The usual function of computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining programs is to specify a sequence of machining operations. When CNC is applied to electric discharge machining (EDM), the possibilities and needs are much greater. This paper describes ...

J. E. Fuller

1989-01-01

499

30 CFR 57.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 57.14115 Section 57.14115...Maintenance Requirements § 57.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders,...

2009-07-01

500

30 CFR 56.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 56.14115 Section 56.14115...Maintenance Requirements § 56.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders,...

2009-07-01