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1

Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems  

SciTech Connect

The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached to the satellite such as solar panels, radiators, antenna and.telescopes (for communications or sensors). Finally, the packages make thermal contact to the surface of the silicon heat pipe through soft thermal pads. Electronic components can be placed on both sides of the flexible circuit interconnect. Silicon heat pipes have a number of advantages over heat pipe constructed from other materials. Silicon heat pipes offer the ability to put the heat pipe structure beneath the active components of a processed silicon wafer. This would be one way of efficiently cooling the heat generated by wafer scale integrated systems. Using this technique, all the functions of a satellite could be reduced to a few silicon wafers. The integration of the heat pipe and the electronics would further reduce the size and weight of the satellite.

Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

1999-03-30

2

Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the

K. Gass; P. J. Robertson; R. Shul; C. Tigges

1999-01-01

3

Integrated space heating, air conditioning and potable water heating appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated water heating and space heating and cooling appliance is described comprising: a housing having a lower water storage section, a middle burner section, and an upper internal air handling section in an internal portion, and having a side external air handling section extending from the internal portion to pass through a building wall; an insulated hot water storage

J. Gerstmann; G. M. Jr. Celorier; W. S. Hill

1989-01-01

4

Passive integral solar heat collector system  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to an improved apparatus for collecting, absorbing, transferring, and storing solar heat energy, economically and passively, without pumps or electric power. The apparatus comprises a solar collector with a flat finned heat pipe absorber and an attached integral insulated storage tank with a double wall heat exchanger. The absorber, made of one or more slightly tilted gravity assisted heat pipes with flat absorber fins, absorbs and transfers solar heat by evaporation, vapor transport, and condensation to the slightly elevated heat storage tank. The one or more heat pipes turn on when the sun is shining and turn off automatically when the sun is not shining.

Feldman Jr., K. T.

1985-04-30

5

Triple integrated heat pump system  

SciTech Connect

A heat pump system is described comprising: a first heat exchange means having first and second refrigerant connections; a second heat exchange means having first and second refrigerant connections; a third heat exchange means having first and second refrigerant connections; a refrigerant pressurizing device having a suction inlet and a high pressure outlet; a reversible refrigerant expansion means for expanding refrigerant from condenser to evaporator pressure connected between the second refrigerant connections on the first and second heat exchange means; an alternate refrigerant expansion means for expanding refrigerant from condenser to evaporator pressure connected to the second refrigerant connection on the third heat exchange means; check valve means connecting the alternate refrigerant expansion means to the common points between the reversible expansion means and each of the first and second heat exchange means so that refrigerant can flow from the alternate expansion means to the first and second heat exchange means but flow of refrigerant from the first and second heat exchange means is prevented; and control valve means.

Blackshaw, A.L.; Robinson, G.P. Jr.

1987-03-03

6

Integration of heat pumps into industrial processes  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy and others have funded studies to assess the potential for energy savings using industrial heat pumps. The studies included classifications of heat pumps, economic evaluations, and placement of heat pumps in industrial processes. Pinch technology was used in the placement studies to determine the placement, size, and type of heat pumps for a given applications. There appears to be considerable scope for heat pumping in several industries, but, where maximum process energy savings are desired, it is important to consider heat pumping in the context of overall process integration. 19 refs., 15 figs.

Chappell, R.N. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA)); Priebe, S.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1989-01-01

7

Vertical integration of thermally activated heat pumps  

SciTech Connect

Many thermally activated heat pump systems are being developed along technology lines, such as, engine-driven and absorption heat pumps. Their thermal performances are temperature dependent. Based on the temperature-dependent behavior of heat pump cycle performance and the energy cascading idea, the concept of vertically integrating various thermally activated heat pump technologies to maximize resources utilization is explored. Based on a preliminary analysis, it is found that integrating a desiccant dehumidification subsystem to an engine-driven heat pump could improve its cooling performance by 36% and integrating an ejector to it could improve its cooling performance by 20%. The added advantage of an ejector-coupled engine-driven heat pump is its system simplicity which should result in equipment cost savings.

Chen, F.C.

1985-01-01

8

Multifunctional composites: Healing, heating and electromagnetic integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multifunctional materials, in the context of this research, integrate other functions into materials that foremost have outstanding structural integrity. Details of the integration of electromagnetic, heating, and healing functionalities into fiber-reinforced polymer composites are presented. As a result of fiber\\/wire integration through textile braiding and weaving, the dielectric constant of a composite may be tuned from negative to positive values.

Thomas Anthony John Plaisted

2007-01-01

9

Refinery heat integration using pinch technology  

SciTech Connect

In many industrial complexes some processes generate excess heat which can be used elsewhere on the site. It is common practice to use a heat transfer medium such as steam to provide indirect thermal integration of the processes. This has the advantage that since steam will also usually be generated in fuel-fired boilers, the propagation of disturbances from waste heat boilers can be minimized. Thus, to use steam may alleviate control problems arising from direct thermal integration. However, there are disadvantages in that the surplus heat has to be transferred twice, both in raising and using steam. Furthermore, by using steam, the quality (exergy) of the surplus heat is degraded since the maximum temperature at which this energy can be used is reduced. Direct and indirect integration schemes for crude oil refining applications will be compared using the procedures of pinch technology.

Lee, K.L.; Morabito, M.; Wood, R.M.

1989-04-01

10

Boundary integral operators for the heat equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the integral operators on the lateral boundary of a space-time cylinder that are given by the boundary values and the normal derivatives of the single and double layer potentials defined with the fundamental solution of the heat equation. For Lipschitz cylinders we show that the 2×2 matrix of these operators defines a bounded and positive definite bilinear form

Martin Costabel

1990-01-01

11

Heat Integration in Batch Distillation Column  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new heat integrated batch distillation column has been configured in this paper. Here the column and reboiler are connected in an annular arrangement and a compressor is positioned between them to maintain the pressure difference. The heat integration is between the rectifying batch column and one concentric reboiler. Ethanol-Water binary system is chosen as an example for the design and analysis of this heat integrated batch distillation column (HIBDiC). In this work, a sensitivity test for selecting the optimal value of the total number of trays and reboiler duty and a thermodynamic feasibility test for its design acceptability has been accomplished. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the influence of compression ratio (CR) on the energy consumption of distillation and to find out the optimal value of CR. Also a comparative analysis of HIBiDC on energy consumption in steady state as well as in dynamic state has been carried out on the basis of its conventional model. The proposed scheme is capable to save the energy up to 50.52% compared to its conventional one by selecting the CR of 1.4 as an optimal value.

Maiti, Debadrita; Jana, Amiya K.; Samanta, Amar Nath

2010-10-01

12

Performance of Integrated Hydronic Heating Systems.  

SciTech Connect

A variety of system configurations are used in North America to meet the heating and domestic hot water needs of single-family homes. This includes, for example: warm air furnaces with electric water heaters; boilers with integrated hot water coils; and boilers with 'indirect' hot water storage tanks. Integrated hydronic systems which provide both heat and hot water are more popular only in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic regions. For those making decisions about configurations of these integrated hydronic systems, including control options, little information is available concerning the annual energy cost implications of these decisions. This report presents results of a project to use a direct load emulation approach to measure the performance of hydronic systems, develop performance curves, and to provide decision tools to consumers. This is a laboratory measurement system involving direct energy input and output measurements under different load patterns. These results are then used to develop performance correlations for specific systems that can be used to predict energy use in specific applications. A wide range of system types have been tested under this project including conventional boilers with 'tankless' internal coils for domestic hot water production, boilers with indirect external storage tanks, tank type water heaters which may also be used for space heating, condensing oil- and gas-fired systems, and systems with custom control features. It is shown that low load and idle energy losses can have a very large impact on the total annual energy use and that the potential energy savings associated with replacing old equipment with newer, high efficiency equipment with low losses at idle or low load can be in the 25% range. These savings are larger than simple combustion efficiency measurements would indicate.

BUTCHER,T.A.

2007-12-20

13

Multifunctional composites: Healing, heating and electromagnetic integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multifunctional materials, in the context of this research, integrate other functions into materials that foremost have outstanding structural integrity. Details of the integration of electromagnetic, heating, and healing functionalities into fiber-reinforced polymer composites are presented. As a result of fiber/wire integration through textile braiding and weaving, the dielectric constant of a composite may be tuned from negative to positive values. These wires are further leveraged to uniformly heat the composite through resistive heating. A healing functionality is introduced by utilizing a polymer matrix with the ability to heal internal cracking through thermally-reversible covalent bonds based on Diels-Alder cycloaddition. The Double Cleavage Drilled Compression (DCDC) specimen is applied to study the fracture and healing characteristics of the neat polymer. This method allows for quantitative evaluation of incremental crack growth, and ensures that the cracked sample remains in one piece after the test, improving the ability to re-align the fracture surfaces prior to healing. Initially, the fracture strength of PMMA is studied with various DCDC geometries to develop a model of the propagation of a crack within this type of specimen. Applied to the healable polymer (2MEP4F), repeated fracture-healing cycles demonstrate that treatment at temperatures between 85 to 95°C results in full fracture toughness recovery and no dimensional changes due to creep. The fracture toughness after each fracturing and healing cycle has been calculated, using the model, to yield a fracture toughness of about 0.71 MPa·m1/2 for this material at room temperature. Glass and carbon fiber-reinforced composites have been fabricated with the 2MEP4F polymer, and the ability of this polymer to heal microcracks in fiber-reinforced composites is demonstrated. Microcracks have been introduced into the composites by cryogenic cycling in liquid nitrogen, causing a reduction in the storage modulus of the composites as measured by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). Heating the laminate with pressure applied normal to transverse microcracks appeared to repair the cracks and partially recover of the composite's stiffness. Multifunctional composites with such unique capabilities have tremendous potential to impact future structural applications.

Plaisted, Thomas Anthony John

14

Experimental Research of Sleeping Bed Integrated with PCM Heat Storage and Solar Heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper puts forward a new way of using solar energy and Phase Change Material (PCM): the integration of PCM, sleeping bed and solar energy. The cavity of sleeping bed is filled with PCM. The sleeping bed is a heat storage device charged by solar energy, and it is a heating terminal too. The performance of heat charging and discharging

Guoqing Yu; Ji Qiang; Huizhong Zhao; Zonghu Lv

2009-01-01

15

Heat Integration of a Delayed Coking Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed coking is an important way in the thermal treatment of heavy oil. The process consumes tremendous energy, mainly used to provide reaction heat for the coking process. In this paper, to retrofit a certain delayed coking plant, taking features of the process into account, a scheme is proposed based on pinch technology, in which the waste heat in higher

Yanping Li; Xu Wang; Xiao Feng

2009-01-01

16

Integrated rock bed heat exchanger-cum-storage unit for residential-cum-water heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a simulation study of a forced circulation, solar hybrid residential-cum-water heating system which comprises a corrugated absorber water heater and a rock-bed water-to-air heat exchanger-cum-storage unit integrated to a residential building to be heated. The system has been evaluated without and with the hot water load (which is the standard hot water demand for

C. Choudhury; H. P. Garg

1995-01-01

17

Internally Heat-Integrated Distillation Columns: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat-integrated distillation column to be addressed in this paper is a special distillation column that involves internal heat integration between the whole rectifying and the whole stripping sections. An overview of the research on this process is presented in this work. It covers from the thermodynamic development and evaluations to the practical design and operation investigations for the process.

M. Nakaiwa; K. Huang; A. Endo; T. Ohmori; T. Akiya; T. Takamatsu

2003-01-01

18

Integrated control, diagnosis and reconfiguration of a heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat exchangers play an important role in chemical and process industries. In order to improve reliability and control performance, intelligent concepts for control, supervision and reconfiguration are necessary. In this paper, an approach is presented which integrates model-based adaptive control and reconfiguration based on fault detection\\/diagnosis applied to a heat exchanger plant. The adaptive controller and the fault detection scheme

P. Balle; Martin Fischer; Dominik Fussel; Rolf Isermann

1997-01-01

19

Integrated control, diagnosis and reconfiguration of a heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat exchangers play an important role in chemical and process industries. In order to improve reliability and control performance, intelligent concepts for control, supervision and reconfiguration are necessary. In the paper, an approach is presented which integrates model-based adaptive control and reconfiguration based on fault detection\\/diagnosis applied to a heat exchanger plant. The adaptive controller and the fault detection scheme

P. Balle; M. Fischer; D. Fussel; O. Nelles; R. Isermann

1998-01-01

20

Heat integration and analysis of decarbonised IGCC sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation systems have become of interest due to their high combined heat and power (CHP) generation efficiency and flexibility to include carbon capture and storage (CCS) in order to reduce CO2 emissions. However, IGCC's biggest challenge is its high cost of energy production. In this study, decarbonised coal IGCC sites integrated with CCS have

Kok Siew Ng; Yadira Lopez; Grant M. Campbell; Jhuma Sadhukhan

2010-01-01

21

Air, contaminant and heat transport models: integration and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comfort evaluations cover air quality, thermal, visual and acoustic comfort. Today, only few computer programs allow for the integrated evaluation of several or all relevant parameters. Heat transport, ventilation as well as lighting in a room are influenced by each other. Therefore they should be integrally modelled. As a part of the IEA-ECBCS Annex 23 `Multizone Airflow Modelling', such a

V Dorer; A Weber

1999-01-01

22

Heat Transfer Study of Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) Using Simulation Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Separation processes is largely used in petroleum refining and alcohol industries. Distillation columns consume a huge amount of energy in industrial process. Therefore, the concept of Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) was studied using simulation techniques in order to overcome this drawback. In this configuration the column is composed for two concentric sections called rectifying and stripping. The heat transfer is conducted from the rectifying section (which works at higher pressure and temperature) to the stripping section (which works at lower pressure and temperature) using the heat present in the process and decreasing the energy charge required by the reboiler. The HIDiC column offers great potential to reduce energy consumption compared to conventional columns. However, the complexity of the internal configuration requires the development of rigorous works that enable a better understanding of the column operation. For this reason, techniques of simulation were used through of computational software. The current work presents a heat transfer study in a concentric stage of a HIDiC column. The results obtained by Aspen Plus and CFD simulation showed the internal heat transfer in a concentric tray as a promissory configuration in order to decrease energy consumption in distillation processes.

Pulido, Jeffrey León; Martínez, Edgar Leonardo; Wolf, Maria Regina; Filho, Rubens Maciel

2011-08-01

23

Integration of Heat Pipe into Fuel Cell Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recent applications of heat pipe technology in fuel cell systems, which include new stack designs with heat pipes to improve heat transfer as well as work on fuel cell system level design and engineering with adopting the heat pipe concept. In one design, micro-heat pipes are inserted and bonded in bipolar plates for thermal control in the

Amir Faghri; Zhen Guo

2008-01-01

24

Study on a Continuous Heat Integrated Distillation Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel continuous heat integrated distillation column called a concentric column has been studied using computer simulation. It is shown that a concentric column is a novel implementation of a thermodynamically reversible distillation column and has a lower energy loss than an ordinary distillation column. Our studies show that a concentric column has reduced column height, since the stripping section

Thomas Glenchur; Rakesh Govind

1987-01-01

25

Integrated-optic fluid sensor using heat transfer.  

PubMed

An integrated-optic fluid sensor utilizing the heat-transfer phenomenon is proposed. An optical waveguide interferometer is used to convert the temperature of the waveguide surface exposed to the surrounding fluid into an intensity modulated light signal. The temperature changes with the variation of a certain physical property of the fluid when the substrate is steadily heated. The expected characteristics are discussed for measurement of the rarefied gas pressure and the air humidity. Also a humidity sensing experiment was carried out by constructing and testing a device using a LiNbO(3) waveguide to confirm its basic performance. PMID:20523553

Enokihara, A; Zutsu, M; Sueta, T

1988-01-01

26

Integrated modeling and heat treatment simulation of austempered ductile iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integrated modeling and simulation of the casting and heat treatment processes for producing austempered ductile iron (ADI) castings is presented. The focus is on describing different models to simulate the austenitization, quenching and austempering steps during ADI heat treatment. The starting point for the heat treatment simulation is the simulated microstructure after solidification and cooling. The austenitization model considers the transformation of the initial ferrite-pearlite matrix into austenite as well as the dissolution of graphite in austenite to attain a uniform carbon distribution. The quenching model is based on measured CCT diagrams. Measurements have been carried out to obtain these diagrams for different alloys with varying Cu, Ni and Mo contents. The austempering model includes nucleation and growth kinetics of the ADI matrix. The model of ADI nucleation is based on experimental measurements made for varied Cu, Ni, Mo contents and austempering temperatures. The ADI kinetic model uses a diffusion controlled approach to model the growth. The models have been integrated in a tool for casting process simulation. Results are shown for the optimization of the heat treatment process of a planetary carrier casting.

Hepp, E.; Hurevich, V.; Schäfer, W.

2012-07-01

27

Architectural integration of solar systems for domestic water heating  

SciTech Connect

Architectural designs are suggested for solar domestic water heating units (collectors and water storage tanks) in multifamily houses up to four stories. The designs are based on different combinations of standard units assembled to fit the different architectural types as designed by the Israeli Ministry of Housing. In addition, an approach is presented that suggests a unique design of the upper floor apartment with inclined roofs so the solar system becomes an integral part of the structure. Several solutions are suggested and compared.

Ishai, E.

1987-01-01

28

Integrated implosion\\/heating studies for advanced fast ignition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated experiments to investigate the ultrafast heating of implosions using cone\\/shell geometries have been performed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The experiments used the 1054 nm, nanosecond, 0.9 kJ output of the VULCAN Nd:glass laser to drive 486 mum diameter, 6 mum wall thickness Cu-doped deuterated plastic (CD) shells in 6-beam cubic symmetry. Measurements of the opacity of the compressed

P. A. Norreys; K. L. Lancaster; C. D. Murphy; H. Habara; S. Karsch; R. J. Clarke; J. Collier; R. Heathcote; C. Hemandez-Gomez; S. Hawkes; D. Neely; M. H. R. Hutchinson; R. G. Evans; M. Borghesi; L. Romagnani; M. Zepf; K. Akli; J. A. King; B. Zhang; R. R. Freeman; A. J. MacKinnon; S. P. Hatchett; P. Patel; R. Snavely; M. H. Key; A. Nikroo; R. Stephens; C. Stoeckl; K. A. Tanaka; T. Norimatsu; Y. Toyama; R. Kodama

2004-01-01

29

77 FR 74027 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination...integrated circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing same by reason of...

2012-12-12

30

Solar assisted heat pump heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar assisted heat pump fluid heating system capable of reliable operation at higher than normal ambient temperatures is disclosed. The system includes a collection of solar panels and primary fluid storage tanks having integral coiled heat exchangers interconnected and charged with heat transfer fluid to produce heat. Temperature sensors positioned at the panels and storage tanks transmit temperature signals

Pendergrass

1984-01-01

31

Heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for recovering waste heat from heating system exhaust gas is described. In a heating system located in a furnace room and including a furnace and an air blower for delivering air to the furnace via an inlet stack and heating pipes for the delivery of heated air from the furnace to the areas to be heated, the improvement

Anable

1975-01-01

32

Integrated gas-fired space-heating/water-heating system with electric air conditioning. Final report. January 1983-December 1987  

SciTech Connect

A Triple-Integrated-Appliance (TIA) for space conditioning and water heating was successfully developed for the multifamily housing market as an economical gas alternative to all-electric systems. The gas-fired portion of the system provides high-efficiency condensing operation in both the space-heating and water-heating modes. The TIA was evaluated in a comprehensive field-test program conducted nationwide at sites representative of multifamily applications. The field-test results demonstrated that the performance goals were achieved under actual usage conditions. The final pre-production prototype configuration provides the design and performance characteristics necessary to compete in the multifamily market.

Demetri, E.P.; Gerstmann, J.

1988-01-01

33

Integrated systems for utilizing waste heat from steam electric plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

From symposium on beneficial uses for thermal discharges; New York (19 ; Aug 1971). Multiple use of waste heat and cooling waters from power plants will ; become an impontant consideration in the development, siting, and certification ; of these plants. The heat in the cooling wnter must be considered a resource to ; be managed for effective use. At

L. Boersma; K. A. Rykbost

1973-01-01

34

Integration of absorption heat pumps in a Kraft pulp process for enhanced energy efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary feasibility study of the implementation of various absorption heat pump configurations in a Kraft pulping process has been performed. Three different cases were considered: (i) integration of a double lift heat transformer into the heat recovery circuit of the wood chips digesters to produce low pressure steam equivalent to 25% of the steam demand of the chemical pulping

Andrea Costa; Bahador Bakhtiari; Sebastian Schuster; Jean Paris

2009-01-01

35

Urheilupaikkojen integroidut laemmitys- ja jaeaehdytystekniset ratkaisut (Integrated Heating and Cooling Production in Sport Halls).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Integrated heating and cooling systems in sport halls were the main topic of this research project. Also, the use of carbon dioxide as a heat transfer medium and periodic heat pump process with storage tanks was studied. Energy consumption in sport halls ...

A. Aittomaeki J. Soederman K. Sipilae M. Raemae

2009-01-01

36

Vapor compression CuCl heat pump integrated with a thermochemical water splitting cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the feasibility of using cuprous chloride (CuCl) as a working fluid in a new high temperature heat pump with vapor compression is analyzed. The heat pump is integrated with a copper–chlorine (Cu–Cl) thermochemical water splitting cycle for internal heat recovery, temperature upgrades and hydrogen production. The minimum temperature of heat supply necessary for driving the water splitting

C. Zamfirescu; G. F. Naterer; I. Dincer

2011-01-01

37

Combined cycle with low-quality heat integration and water injection into the compressed air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water injection after the compressor into the combustion air of a gas turbine and its evaporation by low-quality heat was analysed for different types of low-temperature heat sources and water-vapour contents of the pressurised air. To integrate low-quality heat—for example solar heat—into a conventional combined cycle efficiently and economically, the cycle must be changed in such a way that

Nikos Aronis; Reinhard Leithner

2004-01-01

38

Internal-integral sodium return line for sodium heat engine  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a portion of the return line for the alkali metal is located within the generator vacuum space.

Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1985-01-01

39

Review of new integral determinations of decay heat  

SciTech Connect

Over a decade ago, concern over possible serious consequences of a loss-of-coolant accident in a commercial light-water reactor prompted support in several countries of several experiments designed specifically to measure the decay heat of beta-ray and gamma-ray emanations from fission products for thermal reactors. In 1979, a new standard for use in computing decay heat in real reactor environs (for example, for regulatory requirements) was approved by the American Nuclear Society. Since then there have been additional experimental measurements, in particular for fission-induced by fast neutrons. In addition, the need for decay-heat data has been extended well beyond the time regime of a loss-of-coolant accident. The efficacy of the 1979 ANS standard has been a subject of study with generally positive results. However, a specific problem, namely, the consequences for decay heat of fission-product neutron capture merits further experimental study.

Dickens, J.K.

1987-01-01

40

Fluidized bed reactor having an integrated recycle heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fluidized bed combustion system. It includes a furnace, a fluidized bed of combustible particulate material disposed in the furnace, a recycle heat exchanger disposed adjacent the furnace and sharing a common wall with the furnace separating means for receiving a mixture of flue gases and entrained particulate material from a fluidized bed in the furnace and separating the particulate material from the flue gases, means for passing the separated partition disposed in the heat exchanger.

Campbell, W.R.; Alliston, M.G.; Sisson, B.H.

1990-01-30

41

Integrated Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording Head: Design and Recording Demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaling the areal density, while maintaining a proper balance between media signal-to-noise ratio, thermal stability, and writability, will soon require an alternative recording technology. Heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) can achieve this balance by allowing high anisotropy media to be written by heating the media during the writing process (e.g., by laser light) to temporarily lower the anisotropy. Three major

Michael A. Seigler; William A. Challener; Edward Gage; Nils Gokemeijer; Ganping Ju; Bin Lu; Kalman Pelhos; Chubing Peng; Robert E. Rottmayer; Xiaomin Yang; Hua Zhou; Tim Rausch

2008-01-01

42

Parallel heat transport in integrable and chaotic magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The study of transport in magnetized plasmas is a problem of fundamental interest in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics research. Three issues make this problem particularly challenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), {chi}{sub ||} , and the perpendicular, {chi}{sub Up-Tack }, conductivities ({chi}{sub ||} /{chi}{sub Up-Tack} may exceed 10{sup 10} in fusion plasmas); (ii) Nonlocal parallel transport in the limit of small collisionality; and (iii) Magnetic field lines chaos which in general complicates (and may preclude) the construction of magnetic field line coordinates. Motivated by these issues, we present a Lagrangian Green's function method to solve the local and non-local parallel transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields in arbitrary geometry. The method avoids by construction the numerical pollution issues of grid-based algorithms. The potential of the approach is demonstrated with nontrivial applications to integrable (magnetic island), weakly chaotic (Devil's staircase), and fully chaotic magnetic field configurations. For the latter, numerical solutions of the parallel heat transport equation show that the effective radial transport, with local and non-local parallel closures, is non-diffusive, thus casting doubts on the applicability of quasilinear diffusion descriptions. General conditions for the existence of non-diffusive, multivalued flux-gradient relations in the temperature evolution are derived.

Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Chacon, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)

2012-05-15

43

Parallel heat transport in integrable and chaotic magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The study of transport in magnetized plasmas is a problem of fundamental interest in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics research. Three issues make this problem particularly chal- lenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), , and the perpendicular, , conductivities ( / may exceed 1010 in fusion plasmas); (ii) Magnetic field lines chaos which in general complicates (and may preclude) the construction of magnetic field line coordinates; and (iii) Nonlocal parallel transport in the limit of small collisionality. Motivated by these issues, we present a Lagrangian Green s function method to solve the local and non-local parallel transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields in arbitrary geom- etry. The method avoids by construction the numerical pollution issues of grid-based algorithms. The potential of the approach is demonstrated with nontrivial applications to integrable (magnetic island chain), weakly chaotic (devil s staircase), and fully chaotic magnetic field configurations. For the latter, numerical solutions of the parallel heat transport equation show that the effective radial transport, with local and non-local closures, is non-diffusive, thus casting doubts on the appropriateness of the applicability of quasilinear diffusion descriptions. General conditions for the existence of non-diffusive, multivalued flux-gradient relations in the temperature evolution are derived.

Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B [ORNL; Chacon, Luis [ORNL

2012-01-01

44

Heat release in the cryogenic system of a superconducting integrated detector and the influence of heat on its operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat release in the cryogenic system of a subterahertz-range superconducting integrated detector at ?4.2 K is studied, and the influence of the released heat on its main characteristics is estimated. The detector chip mounted on a silicon lens is connected to a bias board by aluminum wires 25 ?m in diameter, which are fixed by ultrasonic bonding. They are necessary for setting a bias current through the working components of the detector and represent an integral part of the system. The contact resistance between the wires and contact pads of the microchip is measured. The contact resistance is found to considerably exceed the resistance of the aluminum wire and, hence, makes a major contribution to heat release in the system. A "multipoint contact with one wire" technique is suggested. Tests show its efficiency: the contact resistance decreases considerably compared with the standard approach.

Kinev, N. V.; Koshelets, V. P.

2013-03-01

45

Experimental investigation on a combined sensible and latent heat storage system integrated with constant\\/varying (solar) heat sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present work is to investigate experimentally the thermal behavior of a packed bed of combined sensible and latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) unit. A TES unit is designed, constructed and integrated with constant temperature bath\\/solar collector to study the performance of the storage unit. The TES unit contains paraffin as phase change material (PCM) filled

N. Nallusamy; S. Sampath; R. Velraj

2007-01-01

46

Design of heat integrated distillation systems for a light ends separation plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an industrial case-study: the synthesis of partially thermally coupled and heat-integrated distillation systems applied to the light ends separation section of a crude distillation plant. The distillation systems presented in this work employ the thermal coupling and the heat-integration principles to significantly reduce the heat requirements with respect to the traditional simple column train.The work started from

Michele Mascia; Francesca Ferrara; Annalisa Vacca; Giuseppe Tola; Massimiliano Errico

2007-01-01

47

Calculation of heat capacities of light and heavy water by path-integral molecular dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an application of atomistic simulation methods to heat capacities, path-integral molecular dynamics has been used to calculate the constant-volume heat capacities of light and heavy water in the gas, liquid, and solid phases. While the classical simulation based on conventional molecular dynamics has estimated the heat capacities too high, the quantum simulation based on path-integral molecular dynamics has given

Motoyuki Shiga; Wataru Shinoda

2005-01-01

48

Integrated Cabin and Fuel Cell System Thermal Management with a Metal Hydride Heat Pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated approaches for the heating and cooling requirements of both the fuel cell (FC) stack and cabin environment are critical to fuel cell vehicle performance in terms of stack efficiency, fuel economy, and cost. An integrated FC system and cabin thermal management system would address the cabin cooling and heating requirements, control the temperature of the stack by mitigating the

V. Hovland

2004-01-01

49

Thermal performance of PCM thermal storage unit for a roof integrated solar heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal performance of a phase change thermal storage unit is analysed and discussed. The storage unit is a component of a roof integrated solar heating system being developed for space heating of a home. The unit consists of several layers of phase change material (PCM) slabs with a melting temperature of 29°C. Warm air delivered by a roof integrated

W. Saman; F. Bruno; E. Halawa

2005-01-01

50

Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Flat Miniature Heat Pipes Using Printed Circuit Board Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, integrated approach in thermal management of electronic products, based on two-phase cooling, is presented. A flat miniature heat pipe, integrated inside the laminated structure of a printed circuit board (PCB) has been developed, based on mainstream PCB fabrication processes. Hot spots on the PCB, caused by heat dissipating components, can be cooled with relatively small temperature gradients across

Wessel W. Wits; Tom H. J. Vaneker

2010-01-01

51

Heat waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of transmission of heat by waves is reviewed and interpreted. The notion of an effective thermal conductivity, an effective heat capacity, and relaxation functions for heat and energy is introduced along lines used recently to describe the elastic response of viscous liquids. An annotated bibliography of the literature on heat waves, from the beginning until now, gives a

D. D. Joseph; Luigi Preziosi

1989-01-01

52

INTEGRATED CO2 HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS FOR SPACE HEATING AND HOT WATER HEATING IN LOW-ENERGY HOUSES AND PASSIVE HOUSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-energy and passive houses are superinsulated and air-tight buildings where the space heating demand is considerably lower than that of buildings constructed in accordance with common buildings codes. Due to the low space heating demand, the annual heating demand for domestic hot water (DHW) typically consti- tutes 50 to 85% of the total annual heating demand in the residence. A

J. STENE

53

Study of heat and mass transfer in integrated thermal management controller (ITMC) employed in waste heat recovery application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the waste heat recovery process, heat source temperature control and thermal management are always required to ensure safety and high efficiency of the waste heat recovery system. To this aim, the conventional method is to establish a series of independent heat transfer units and adopt a complex control strategy, which makes the system very complex and only applicable for

S. Li; J. Y. Wu; R. Z. Wang; Y. Huangfu

2007-01-01

54

Fluidized bed reactor having an integrated recycle heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a fluidized bed combustion system. It includes a furnace, a fluidized bed of combustible particulate material disposed in the furnace, a recycle heat exchanger disposed adjacent the furnace and sharing a common wall with the furnace separating means for receiving a mixture of flue gases and entrained particulate material from a fluidized bed in the furnace and

W. R. Campbell; M. G. Alliston; B. H. Sisson

1990-01-01

55

High performance air cooled heat sinks for integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, compact, high-performance air cooling technology is described that combines laminar flow with certain heat-sink designs to achieve a cooling performance of <2°C\\/W\\/cm2 at 2 ft 3\\/min. It has the capability to remove in excess of 600 W from a multichip module (25 chips at 25 W and 16% chip-to-substrate coverage) with a quiet 10-W tubeaxial fan. The volume

C. Hilbert; S. Sommerfeldt; O. Gupta; D. J. Herrell

1990-01-01

56

Counter flow cooling drier with integrated heat recovery  

DOEpatents

A drier apparatus for removing water or other liquids from various materials includes a mixer, drying chamber, separator and regenerator and a method for use of the apparatus. The material to be dried is mixed with a heated media to form a mixture which then passes through the chamber. While passing through the chamber, a comparatively cool fluid is passed counter current through the mixture so that the mixture becomes cooler and drier and the fluid becomes hotter and more saturated with moisture. The mixture is then separated into drier material and media. The media is transferred to the regenerator and heated therein by the hot fluid from the chamber and supplemental heat is supplied to bring the media to a preselected temperature for mixing with the incoming material to be dried. In a closed loop embodiment of the apparatus, the fluid is also recycled from the regenerator to the chamber and a chiller is utilized to reduce the temperature of the fluid to a preselected temperature and dew point temperature.

Shivvers, Steve D. (Prole, IA)

2009-08-18

57

Multicriteria aided design of integrated heating-cooling energy systems in buildings.  

PubMed

This paper presents an analysis of the possible application of integrated heating-cooling systems in buildings. The general algorithm of integrated heating-cooling system design aid was formulated. The evaluation criteria of technically acceptable variants were defined. Fossil fuel energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission, investment, and total exploitation cost were identified as the most important factors describing the considered decision problem. The multicriteria decision aid method ELECTRE III was proposed as the decision tool for the choice of the most compromised variant. The proposed method was used for a case study calculation-the choice of an integrated heating-cooling system for an office building. PMID:20842935

Mróz, Tomasz M

2010-08-01

58

Integration of finite element analysis program for conduction heat transfer with computer analysis language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Finite Element Analysis Program (FEAP) was modified and integrated with the Naval Postgraduate School version of the Computer Analysis Language (CAL-NPS). This enables the solution of linear and non-linear, two and three dimensional heat conduction problems in an interactive mode. The usual types of boundary conditions, including radiation, may be specified. The heat conduction group includes prompts for user

W. L. Roberts

1982-01-01

59

Solar test of an integrated sodium reflux heat pipe receiver\\/reactor for thermochemical energy transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical reactor for carbon dioxide reforming of methane was integrated into a sodium reflux heat pipe receiver and tested in the solar furnace of the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. The receiver\\/reactor was a heat pipe with seven tubes inside an evacuated metal box containing sodium. The catalyst, 0.5 wt% Rh on alumina, filled two of the tubes

R. B. Diver; J. D. Fish; R. Levitan; M. Levy; E. Meirovitch; H. Rosin; S. A. Paripatyadar; J. T. Richardson

1992-01-01

60

Heat removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on heat-removal technology in fusion reactors are being made at laboratories of universities and at JAERI. Activities at universities involve fundamental studies related to fluid flow and heat transfer in the MCF as well as in the ICF blanket. Activities at the JAERI involve experimental heat technology developments in the JT-60 program and fusion reactor development program. A figure

A. Inove; H. Madarame; T. Tone

1983-01-01

61

Heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

Daman, Ernest L. (Westfield, NJ); McCallister, Robert A. (Mountain Lakes, NJ)

1979-01-01

62

Preliminary analysis of heat pipe heat exchangers for heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary analysis of fin tube heat pipe heat exchangers for air-to-air heat recovery was conducted. The analysis uses conventional heat exchanger design techniques and a new heat pipe design technique which includes probabilistic design of artery wick heat pipes. The heat transfer capability of the heat pipes may be matched with that of the finned tubes in order to

J. O. Amode; K. T. Feldman

1975-01-01

63

Roles of DNA repair and membrane integrity in heat resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans.  

PubMed

To study the effects of heat shock on Deinococcus radiodurans and the role of DNA repair in high temperature resistance, different strains of D. radiodurans (wild type, recA, irrE, and pprA) were treated with temperatures ranging from 40 to 100 °C under wet and dry conditions. The mutant strains were more sensitive to wet heat of ?60 °C and dry heat of ?80 °C than the wild type. Both wild-type and DNA repair-deficient strains were much more resistant to high temperatures when exposed in the dried state as opposed to cells in suspension. Molecular staining techniques with the wild-type strain revealed that cells in the dried state were able to retain membrane integrity after drying and subsequent heat exposure, while heat-exposed cells in suspension showed significant loss of membrane integrity and respiration activity. The results suggest that the repair of DNA damage (e.g., DNA double-strand breaks by RecA and PprA) is essential after treatment with wet heat at temperatures >60 °C and dry heat >80 °C, and the ability of D. radiodurans to stabilize its plasma membrane during dehydration might represent one aspect in the protection of dried cells from heat-induced membrane damage. PMID:23011749

Bauermeister, Anja; Hahn, Claudia; Rettberg, Petra; Reitz, Günther; Moeller, Ralf

2012-08-05

64

Heat Related Illnesses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heat illnesses range in severity form mild (heat rash, heat syncope, cramps) to serious (heat exhaustion, heat injury, heat stroke). Although heat illness can occur in anyone, an increased risk is associated with a variety of environmental factors, person...

M. N. Sawka R. Carter S. N. Cheuvront

2006-01-01

65

Aluminum Silicon Carbide (AlSiC) Microprocessor Lids and Heat Sinks for Integrated Thermal Management Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next generation microprocessor assemblies will require integrated thermal management design solutions as the device density and clock speeds increase. These solutions will include a heat spreader, or lid, that is in contact with the heat generating microprocessor in the total packaging assembly. The materials choice for these integrated heat spreader solutions must provide the following material property attributes. •

Mark A. Occhionero; Robert A. Hay; Richard W. Adams; Kevin P. Fennessy; Glenn Sundberg

66

Heating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a heating apparatus. It comprises a housing, means for introducing water to a plurality of water conduits of the housing, a fireplace compartment disposed within the housing, the fireplace compartment being provided with a burner, a fin coil member disposed in the upper portion of the housing and communicating with the room environment for heat emitting, the fin coil member containing a serpentine configured fin coils disposed therein for absorbing heat from the water disposed in the water conduits, a heat chamber containing the water conduits, the heat chamber connected at one end to the fireplace compartment and at the other end to a chimney disposed at the middle of the the fireplace compartment for circulating hot combustion gases therethrough and for heating the water disposed in the water conduits, the combustion gases being vented from the chimney, and at least four turbo fans communicating with the heat chamber for blowing air across the fin coil member so as to heat the air and discharge it to the room environment, and reduce noise pollution of the heating apparatus.

Woo, C.G.

1991-07-30

67

Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore heat transfer and energy efficiency using the context of energy efficient houses. They gain a solid understanding of the three types of heat transfer: radiation, convection and conduction, which are explained in detail and related to the real world. They learn about the many ways solar energy is used as a renewable energy source to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses and operating costs. Students also explore ways in which a device can capitalize on the methods of heat transfer to produce a beneficial result. They are given the tools to calculate the heat transferred between a system and its surroundings.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

68

Air Cycle Heat Pumps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advantages of using air as working medium in heat pumps are, beside environmental safety, a low investment cost and a high COP. To get a high COP, the different parts of the heat pump (compressor, heat exchanger and expander) should be integrated into a s...

L. Ljung

1981-01-01

69

The DOE Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project seeks to conserve energy by developing heat pump systems for district heating and cooling. Seven contractor teams were involved in concept development and subsequent application feasibility studies. A technical and economic assessment of the systems developed was performed based on the results of these and two related studies. The assessment concludes that district heating and cooling with heat pumps can conserve energy resources, and particularly nonrenewable fuels, in an environmentally and economically attractive way. The application potential is believed to be broad, and the energy savings of widespread implementation would be substantial. No one system is universally applicable, but many options exists. Market forces are already promoting many of the required technologies, but further research, development, and demonstration could accelerate implementation.

Calm, J. M.

1982-03-01

70

Use of Integrated Decay Heat Limits to Facilitate Spent Nuclear Fuel Loading to Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

As an alternative to the use of the linear loading or areal power density (APD) concept, using integrated decay heat limits based on the use of mountain-scale heat transfer analysis is considered to represent the thermal impact from the deposited spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Yucca Mountain repository. Two different integrated decay heat limits were derived to represent both the short-term (up to 50 years from the time of repository closure) and the long-term decay heat effect (up to 1500 years from the time of repository closure). The derived limits were found to appropriately represent the drift wall temperature limit (200 deg. C) and the midway between adjacent drifts temperature limit (96 deg. C) as long as used fuel is uniformly loaded into the mountain. These limits can be a useful practical guide to facilitate the loading of used fuel into Yucca Mountain. (authors)

Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University (United States); Piet, Steven [Idaho National Laboratory (United States)

2007-07-01

71

Heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat exchanger is described in which the main component is formed of a plurality of elongated strips of rigid heat conductive material. Each of the strips has a cross-sectional configuration which is elongated in a direction transverse to the elongated extent of the strip so as to provide a pair of spaced relatively thin end edges and a pair

1982-01-01

72

Heat Acclimatization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is apparent that there is much more to heat acclimatization than is available in the literature. Results of this study have shown that two of the four classical parameters are not reliable indicators of heat acclimatization, particularly if one is tryi...

A. R. Dasler

1971-01-01

73

Multivariable control of integrated distillation towers with heat pump  

SciTech Connect

A multivariable constrained predictive control program has been used to control two distillation towers with a heat pump. The optimization of this system was discussed previously. A general control block diagram of the software is shown in a figure. Selecting controlled and manipulated process variables was done so that an external optimizer can easily optimize the process. In addition, the controller was designed by specifying process output responses to setpoint changes and using a simplex optimization technique for calculating the optimal set of input and output weighting factors. The overhead flow of the main tower is used by a vapor recompression system to provide the energy for the tower reboiler. The system has four controlled variables, four manipulated variables and two associated or auxiliary variables, that do not have a set-point, but do have an upper constraint. The feed to the main tower is a measurable disturbance variable. The multivariable control software used will control process outputs at operator entered targets, but will not perform an optimization at this level. Therefore, selecting controlled and manipulated variables is done in a somewhat unusual manner to use the vapor recompression system to its fullest extent and minimize trim reboiler steam consumption. Selecting the weighting factors in the controller design procedure is achieved by specifying desired process output responses and performing a simplex optimization.

Roffel, B.; Kanters, E.M.W. [Univ. Twente (Netherlands)

1996-12-01

74

A solar cooker using vacuum-tube collectors with integrated heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar cooking system is described which consists of a vacuum-tube collector with integrated long heat pipes directly leading to the oven plate. The cooker was tested during several clear days in Marburg (latitude 51°). The heat-up times were measured under cold- and hot-start conditions. Detailed temperature distributions and their time dependences were measured. The maximum temperature obtained in a

A. Balzar; P. Stumpf; S. Eckhoff; H. Ackermann; M. Grupp

1996-01-01

75

MULTICRITERION EVALUATION OF AN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE HEATING\\/COOLING SYSTEM IN CLIMATE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this case study is to investigate an integrated heating\\/cooling system performance in central Europe climate conditions. The possibility of a reliable application of radiant low-temperature heating\\/ high-temperature cooling ceiling system with capillary mats is discussed. ESP-r, an energy performance simulation program, was used for this purpose. Three types of the buildings are taken into account: a residential

Karel Kabele

76

Opportunities for the integration of absorption heat pumps in the pulp and paper process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementation of absorption heat pumps (AHPs) in a Kraft pulping process was studied using a new methodology for the optimal integration of those devices in a process. Two generic opportunities were identified for an energy and water optimized mill: (i) integration of a double lift chiller in the bleaching chemical making plant to produce chilled and hot water simultaneously, using

Bahador Bakhtiari; Louis Fradette; Robert Legros; Jean Paris

2010-01-01

77

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat exchanger is described for transferring heat between a first fluid and a second fluid in an absorption refrigeration system comprising: a first shell having an inlet for receiving the first fluid at a first elevated temperature and an outlet for discharging the first fluid at a first reduced temperature with the shell defining a free flow path for

Reimann

1987-01-01

78

Heat-of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical heat pumps are mechanically driven heat pumps with working fluids that undergo chemical changes or are heat-driven heat pumps in which either the driver (heat engine) or heat pump utilizes a reactive working fluid. As such, chemical heat pumps ca...

C. Bliem L. Kirol

1988-01-01

79

Corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

1989-01-01

80

Heat pipe heat exchanger for heat recovery in air conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat pipe heat exchangers are used in heat recovery applications to cool the incoming fresh air in air conditioning applications. Two streams of fresh and return air have been connected with heat pipe heat exchanger to investigate the thermal performance and effectiveness of heat recovery system. Ratios of mass flow rate between return and fresh air of 1, 1.5

Mostafa A. Abd El-Baky; Mousa M. Mohamed

2007-01-01

81

Heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most ferrous materials are not subjected to a separate heat treatment. Their microstructure results directly from solidification\\u000a and\\/or controlled hot working and cooling. Semi-finished steel products (strip, section, pipe, wire) undergo a combination\\u000a of hot working and heat treatment during thermomechanical processing, which is also used e.g. for drop-forged parts. The desired\\u000a microstructure of cast iron is often obtained by

Hans Berns

82

Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission  

SciTech Connect

The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

Schock, Alfred

1993-10-01

83

Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration  

SciTech Connect

Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated system and the economic allocation of electricity and heat resources. Safety issues include changes in regulatory constraints imposed on the facilities. Modeling and analysis tools, such as System Dynamics for time dependent operational and economic issues and RELAP5 3D for chemical transient affects, are evaluated. The results of this study advance the body of knowledge toward integration of nuclear reactors and process heat applications.

J'Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire

2009-09-01

84

An efficient way to use medium-or-low temperature solar heat for power generation – integration into conventional power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that the medium-or-low temperature solar heat can be used to generate power efficiently by integrating into conventional coal-fired power plants. In so-called solar aided power generation (SAPG) technology, medium-or-low temperature solar heat is used to replace parts of bled-off steams in regenerative Rankine cycle to pre-heat feedwater. Thermal oil can be used as solar heat carrier and

Yongping Yang; Qin Yan; Rongrong Zhai; Abbas Kouzani; Eric Hu

2011-01-01

85

Ultrananocrystalline diamond tip integrated onto a heated atomic force microscope cantilever  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a wear-resistant ultrananocrystalline (UNCD) diamond tip integrated onto a heated atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever and UNCD tips integrated into arrays of heated AFM cantilevers. The UNCD tips are batch-fabricated and have apex radii of approximately 10 nm and heights up to 7 ?m. The solid-state heater can reach temperatures above 600?°C and is also a resistive temperature sensor. The tips were shown to be wear resistant throughout 1.2 m of scanning on a single-crystal silicon grating at a force of 200 nN and a speed of 10 ?m s-1. Under the same conditions, a silicon tip was completely blunted. We demonstrate the use of these heated cantilevers for thermal imaging in both contact mode and intermittent contact mode, with a vertical imaging resolution of 1.9 nm. The potential application to nanolithography was also demonstrated, as the tip wrote hundreds of polyethylene nanostructures.

Kim, Hoe Joon; Moldovan, Nicolaie; Felts, Jonathan R.; Somnath, Suhas; Dai, Zhenting; Jacobs, Tevis D. B.; Carpick, Robert W.; Carlisle, John A.; King, William P.

2012-12-01

86

Ultrananocrystalline diamond tip integrated onto a heated atomic force microscope cantilever.  

PubMed

We report a wear-resistant ultrananocrystalline (UNCD) diamond tip integrated onto a heated atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever and UNCD tips integrated into arrays of heated AFM cantilevers. The UNCD tips are batch-fabricated and have apex radii of approximately 10 nm and heights up to 7 ?m. The solid-state heater can reach temperatures above 600 °C and is also a resistive temperature sensor. The tips were shown to be wear resistant throughout 1.2 m of scanning on a single-crystal silicon grating at a force of 200 nN and a speed of 10 ?m s(-1). Under the same conditions, a silicon tip was completely blunted. We demonstrate the use of these heated cantilevers for thermal imaging in both contact mode and intermittent contact mode, with a vertical imaging resolution of 1.9 nm. The potential application to nanolithography was also demonstrated, as the tip wrote hundreds of polyethylene nanostructures. PMID:23149947

Kim, Hoe Joon; Moldovan, Nicolaie; Felts, Jonathan R; Somnath, Suhas; Dai, Zhenting; Jacobs, Tevis D B; Carpick, Robert W; Carlisle, John A; King, William P

2012-11-13

87

Identification of heat risk patterns in the U.S. National Capital Region by integrating heat stress and related vulnerability.  

PubMed

The increase in the number and severity of weather extremes (including excessive heat) potentially associated with climate change has highlighted the needs for research into risk assessment and risk reduction measures. Extreme heat events, the focus of this paper, have been consistently reported as the leading cause of weather-related mortality in the United States in recent years. In order to fully understand impact potentials and analyze risk in its individual components both the spatially and temporally varying patterns of heat and the multidimensional characteristics of vulnerability have to be considered. In this paper we present a composite index aggregating these factors to assess heat related risk for the U.S. National Capital Region in 2010. The study reveals how risk patterns are in part driven by the geographic variations of vulnerability, generally showing a clear difference between high-risk urban areas and wide areas of low risk in the suburban and rural environments. This pattern is particularly evident for the core center of the study area around the District of Columbia, which is largely characterized by high index values despite not having experienced the peak of the heat stress as compared to other regions in the metropolitan area. The article aims to set a framework for local-level heat stress risk assessment that can provide valuable input and decision support for climate adaptation planning as well as emergency managers aiming at risk reduction and optimization of resource distribution. PMID:23603733

Aubrecht, Christoph; Özceylan, Dilek

2013-04-17

88

77 FR 39735 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Packages Provided With Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products Containing...packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing...packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products...

2012-07-05

89

Heat, Energy, and Order, Part Two of an Integrated Science Sequence, Student Guide, 1970 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part two of the first year in the Portland Project, a three-year high school integrated science curriculum, is contained in this student guide. This volume, one of four parts in the year course, involves activities relating to what is considered the most powerful unifying concept in science: energy. The macroscopic aspects of heat as embodied in…

Portland Project Committee, OR.

90

Heat, Energy, and Order, Part Two of an Integrated Science Sequence, Teacher's Guide, 1970 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains part two of the four-part first year Portland Project, a three-year secondary integrated science curriculum sequence. This part involves the student with unifying principles essential for deeper understanding of the concept of energy. Confidence in the atomic nature of matter is built by relating heat in terms of…

Portland Project Committee, OR.

91

DIRECT INTEGRATION APPROACH FOR SIMULTANEOUSLY ESTIMATING TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND HEAT CAPACITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the difficulties in the solution of inverse heat conduction problems is that of making sufficiently accurate initial guesses for the unknowns in order to start the iterations. In this work a direct integration method is developed for determining good initial guesses for the unknown property coefficients within about 10% error. The Levenberg-Marquardt method is then applied to refine

C. H. Huang; M. N. Özi?ik

1991-01-01

92

Nondestructive corrosion detection in concrete through integrated heat induction and IR thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steel corrosion in concrete is a main cause of deterioration and early failure of concrete structures. A novel integration of electromagnetic heat induction and infrared (IR) thermography is proposed for nondestructive detection of steel corrosion in concrete, by taking advantage of the difference in thermal characteristics of corroded and non-corroded steel. This paper focuses on experimental investigation of the concept. An inductive heater is developed to remotely heat the steel rebar from concrete surface, which is integrated with an IR camera. Bare rebar and concrete samples with different cover depths are prepared. Each concrete sample is embedded with a single steel rebar in the middle, resulting an identical cover depth from the front and the back surfaces, which enables heat induction from one surface and IR thermogrphay from the other simultaneously. The impressed current method is adopted to induce accelerated corrosion on the rebar. IR video images are recorded during both heating and cooling periods. The test results demonstrate a clear difference in thermal characteristics between corroded and non-corroded samples. The corroded samples show higher rates of heating and cooling as well as a higher peak IR intensity than those of the non-corroded samples. This study demonstrates a potential for nondestructive detection of rebar corrosion in concrete.

Kwon, Seung-Jun; Xue, Henry; Feng, Maria Q.; Baek, Seunghoon

2011-03-01

93

MEMS-enabled thermal management of high-heat-flux devices EDIFICE: embedded droplet impingement for integrated cooling of electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development of embedded droplet impingement for integrated cooling of electronics (EDIFICE). The EDIFICE project seeks to develop an integrated droplet impingement cooling device for removing chip heat fluxes in the range 70–100 W\\/cm2, employing latent heat of vaporization of dielectric fluids (50–100 ?m droplets) to achieve these high heat removal rates. Micro-manufacturing and micro electro-mechanical systems

Cristina H. Amon; Jayathi Murthy; S. C. Yao; Sreekant Narumanchi; Chi-Fu Wu; Cheng-Chieh Hsieh

2001-01-01

94

A superconducting fault current limiter integrated in the cold heat exchanger of a thermoacoustic refrigerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we probe a compact superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) integrated in the cold heat exchanger of a thermoacoustic refrigerator. A design for an SFCL device with a power of about 2.2 kW is presented and described in detail. A thermoacoustic refrigerator is also proposed which, under fault conditions, must be able to remove around 50 W at 80 K. A simulation routine is run to test the performance of the SFCL, based on YBCO films, in terms of both the limiting capacity and the energy to be dissipated and removed inside the heat exchanger.

Osorio, M. R.; Bétrancourt, A.; François, M. X.; Veira, J. A.; Vidal, F.

2008-09-01

95

Towards further internal heat integration in design of reactive distillation columns—part I: The design principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic efficiency of a reactive distillation column involving reactions with a highly thermal effect could sometimes be improved substantially through seeking further internal heat integration between the reaction operation and separation operation. Prudent arrangement of the reactive section and deliberate determination of feed location are the two effective methods that can complement internal heat integration within a reactive distillation

Kejin Huang; Koichi Iwakabe; Masaru Nakaiwa; Atsushi Tsutsumi

2005-01-01

96

Heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

Wolowodiuk, Walter (New Providence, NJ)

1976-01-06

97

Integrated gas-fired space-heating/water-heating system with electric air conditioning. Annual report, January 1984-December 1984  

SciTech Connect

The performance of the engineering model of a gas-fired space- and water-heating system with electric air-conditioning has been improved. Modifications to the Phase I engineering model yielded a measured space-heating stack efficiency of over 90% and water-heating recovery efficiency of 85% with standby losses of 1.1% per hour. A Phase II prototype TIA has been designed that incorporates the modifications and improvements made on the Phase I engineering model. Forty-eight Phase II prototypes will be built and field tested. The redesigned package has been reduced to 66 inches, and component placement has been revised to improve accessibility and serviceability. A field-test method has been devised, and work has started on the selection of test sites for the field test.

Celorier, G.M.; Demetri, E.P.; Gerstmann, J.

1985-01-01

98

Integral method for transient He II heat transfer in a semi-infinite domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integral methods are suited to solve a non-linear system of differential equations where the non-linearity can be found either in the differential equations or in the boundary conditions. Though they are approximate methods, they have proven to give simple solutions with acceptable accuracy for transient heat transfer in He II. Taking in account the temperature dependence of thermal properties, direct solutions are found without the need of adjusting a parameter. Previously, we have presented a solution for the clamped heat flux and in the present study this method is used to accommodate the clamped-temperature problem. In the case of constant thermal properties, this method yields results that are within a few percent of the exact solution for the heat flux at the axis origin. We applied this solution to analyze recovery from burnout and find an agreement within 10% at low heat flux, whereas at high heat flux the model deviates from the experimental data suggesting the need for a more refined thermal model. .

Baudouy, B.

2002-05-01

99

Numerical investigation of premixed combustion in a porous burner with integrated heat exchanger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we perform a numerical analysis of a two-dimensional axisymmetric problem arising in premixed combustion in a porous burner with integrated heat exchanger. The physical domain consists of two zones, porous and heat exchanger zones. Two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, gas and solid energy equations, and chemical species transport equations are solved and heat release is described by a multistep kinetics mechanism. The solid matrix is modeled as a gray medium, and the finite volume method is used to solve the radiative transfer equation to calculate the local radiation source/sink in the solid phase energy equation. Special attention is given to model heat transfer between the hot gas and the heat exchanger tube. Thus, the corresponding terms are added to the energy equations of the flow and the solid matrix. Gas and solid temperature profiles and species mole fractions on the burner centerline, predicted 2D temperature fields, species concentrations and streamlines are presented. Calculated results for temperature profiles are compared to experimental data. It is shown that there is good agreement between the numerical solutions and the experimental data and it is concluded that the developed numerical program is an excellent tool to investigate combustion in porous burner.

Farzaneh, Meisam; Shafiey, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Reza; Shams, Mehrzad

2012-07-01

100

Study on performance of a packed bed latent heat thermal energy storage unit integrated with solar water heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In thermal systems such as solar thermal and waste heat recovery systems, the available energy supply does not usually coincide in time with the process demand. Hence some form of thermal energy storage (TES) is necessary for the most effective utilization of the energy source. This study deals with the experimental evaluation of thermal performance of a packed bed latent

101

Ceramic heat pipe heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature strength, resistance to corrosive atmospheres, and moderate cost combine to make ceramic materials an obvious choice for construction of high-temperature thermal energy recuperator systems. Despite these advantages, ceramic recuperators are steadily being replaced by metallic units at considerable sacrifice in maximum air or fuel preheat temperatures and hence in recovery efficiency. By constructing a recuperator from ceramic heat pipes,

W. A. Ranken

1976-01-01

102

Heat pump system using waste water heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical and economical heat pump system stacks the evaporator, compressor, condenser, and expander to use heat from household waste water more efficiently and effectively. A novel waste water storage tank treats the waste water to remove particulates while it supplies its warmest water to the evaporator to provide heat to the refrigerant in the heat pump unit. Heated water

Dunstan

1984-01-01

103

Geothermal district heating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

1982-06-01

104

Geothermal district heating systems  

SciTech Connect

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

Budney, G.S.; Childs, F.

1982-01-01

105

Geothermal district heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating\\/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

G. S. Budney; F. Childs

1982-01-01

106

Heat pipe system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat pipe diode device for transferring heat from a heat source component to a heat sink wall is described. It contains a heat pipe body member attached to the best source; the heat source having a wall forming at least a portion of the normal evaporator section of the heat pipe diode; a working fluid within the body member;

H. L. Kroebig; F. J. Riha

1974-01-01

107

High-efficiency, ambient-assisted, integrated heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A closed, ambient-energy-assisted system for heating and refrigeration with unidirectional refrigerant flow is described comprising: ambient energy, collector means for collecting heat energy from the ambient and exchanging the ambient heat to the refrigerant to product a super-heated gaseous refrigerant; compressor means downstream of the collector means for compressing the super-heated, gaseous refrigerant to a heated liquid refrigerant; first heat exchanger means downstream of the compressor means for exchanging heat from the heated liquid refrigerant to a heating load; precooler means downstream of the first heat exchanger means for exchanging heat from the heated liquid refrigerant to outside air for precooling the liquid refrigerant before the liquid refrigerant is expanded for cooling; first expansion valve means downstream of the precooler means for expanding the precooled liquid refrigerant to a gas, whereby the expanded refrigerant is chilled; second heat exchanger means downstream of the first expansion valve and upstream of the collector means for exchanging heat from a cooling load to the chilled refrigerant, second expansion valve means for expanding the liquid refrigerant, connectable downstream of the first heat exchanger and upstream of the collector means and in parallel with the precooler means, of the first expansion value means and the second heat exchanger means; and first selector valve means for selectively directing the refrigerant, responsive to a cooling load demand, to direct the hot liquid refrigerant from the first heat exchanger means to the precooler means in response to a cooling load demand and to direct the hot liquid refrigerant to the second expansion valve means otherwise, whereby the precooler means, the first expansion valve means and the second heat exchanger means are bypassed.

McEntire, B.

1988-02-02

108

Geothermal heating  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the study is to demonstrate the viability of geothermal heating projects in energy and economic terms and to provide nomograms from which an initial estimate may be made without having to use data-processing facilities. The effect of flow rate and temperature of the geothermal water on drilling and on the network, and the effect of climate on the type of housing are considered.

Aureille, M.

1982-01-01

109

Micro gas-flow sensor with integrated heat sink and flow guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microsensor for gas-flow sensing applications with high sensitivity (700 mV at a flow velocity of 2.7 m s?1 and a supply voltage of 3 V), low power consumption (8 mW at 55 K over-temperature and an airflow velocity of 0.8 m s?1) and short response time is presented. A heat sink and flow guide integrated on the backside of

Li Qiu; Stefan Hein; Ernst Obermeier; Axel Schubert

1996-01-01

110

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AIR FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN ROOF-INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designs and configurations of building-integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPV\\/T) air systems are based on the type of PV modules, the location, and the geometry of the surface on which the modules are to be mounted. Modeling of BIPV\\/T systems requires knowledge of the local and average heat transfer coefficients for the prediction of temperature distribution and, the evaluation of the energy

Diarra D. C; Candanedo L; Harrison S. J; Athienitis A

111

Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

2007-07-01

112

Exergetic modeling and assessment of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump systems for residences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the exergetic modeling and performance evaluation of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems for residences for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. The model is applied to a system, which mainly consists of (i) a water-to-water heat pump unit (ii) a ground heat exchanger system

Arif Hepbasli

2007-01-01

113

Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: System development assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of district heating systems employing heat pumps to enable use of low-temperature energy sources is presented. These systems operate as thermal utilities to provide space heating and may also supply space cooling, service-water heating, and other thermal services. Natural sources including solar and geothermal heat, heat stored on an annual cycle from summer cooling, and otherwise-wasted heat from industrial and commercial processes may be effectively used by the systems described. Fifteen system analyses are examined. The assessment concludes that district heating with heat pumps can conserve energy resources, and particularly scarce fuels, in an environmental and economically attractive way. The application potential is believed to be broad, and the energy savings of widespread implementation would be substantial. No one system is universally applicable, but many system options exist. Market forces are already promoting many of the required technologies, but further research, development, and demonstration could accelerate implementation.

Calm, J. M.; Sapienza, G. R.; Biederman, N. P.

1981-03-01

114

High temperature heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings from the XVII Symposium of the International Center for Heat and Mass Transfer on High Temperature Heat Exchangers, held August 1985 in Yugoslavia. Papers were presented under the following topics: High Temperature Heat Exchangers Development; Basic Problem in High Temperature Heat Exchangers; Heat Exchangers for High Temperature Recovery; and High Temperature Heat Exchangers for Future Power Plants and Industrial Process Application. Some of the papers' titles are: Future Development of High Temperature Heat Exchangers; Regenerative and Direct Contact High Temperature Heat Exchangers; Heat Exchangers for Heat Recovery; High Temeprature Heat Transfer Augmentation; and Development of a BOF Slag Granulating and Heat Recovering System.

Mori, Y.; Sheindlin, A.E.; Afgan, N.

1986-01-01

115

Industrial Waste Heat for Greenhouse Heating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economical conditions of utilizing industrial waste heat for greenhouse heating has been investigated. The investment cost and yearly operational costs of greenhouses and heating systems have been calculated as a function of the temperature of waste h...

S. E. Ransmark

1983-01-01

116

Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A This child with miliaria rubra has many red, itchy bumps in area of redness. Overview Heat rash (miliaria rubra), ...

117

Heating fireplace and heat exchanger for a heating fireplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The floor of the furnace space (fire chamber) of the heating fireplace is constituted by a horizontal, flat part and the rear wall of the furnace space is constituted in part by a vertical, flat part of a heat exchanger serving for heating water for a hot water heater. Heat is transferred to the water on the sides of the

H. A. Burger; W. Gehrig

1984-01-01

118

Heat pipes in modern heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat pipes are very flexible systems with regard to effective thermal control. They can easily be implemented as heat exchangers inside sorption and vapour-compression heat pumps, refrigerators and other types of heat transfer devices. Their heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator and condenser zones is 103–105 W\\/m2K, heat pipe thermal resistance is 0.01–0.03 K\\/W, therefore leading to smaller area and

Leonard L. Vasiliev

2005-01-01

119

Heat pipe heat exchanger design considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical heat pipe heat exchangers (HPHX) are described, along with their advantages, uses, and some problems in HPHX design, and a computer HPHX analysis program is discussed with required input data. The computer program is being developed for analysis of heat exchange performance by finned-tube HPHX and thread-puddle-artery heat pipes. Copper-water heat pipes and carbon steel-Dowtherm A heat pipes are

K. T. Feldman; D. C. Lu

1976-01-01

120

Coupled heat conduction and thermal stress formulation using explicit integration. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The formulation needed for the conductance of heat by means of explicit integration is presented. The implementation of these expressions into a transient structural code, which is also based on explicit temporal integration, is described. Comparisons of theoretical results with code predictions are given both for one-dimensional and two-dimensional problems. The coupled thermal and structural solution of a concrete crucible, when subjected to a sudden temperature increase, shows the history of cracking. The extent of cracking is compared with experimental data.

Marchertas, A.H.; Kulak, R.F.

1982-06-01

121

Study on performance of a packed bed latent heat thermal energy storage unit integrated with solar water heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In thermal systems such as solar thermal and waste heat recovery systems, the available energy supply does not usually coincide\\u000a in time with the process demand. Hence some form of thermal energy storage (TES) is necessary for the most effective utilization\\u000a of the energy source. This study deals with the experimental evaluation of thermal performance of a packed bed latent

N. Nallusamy; S. Sampath; R. Velraj

2006-01-01

122

An experimental integrated absorption heat pump effluent purification system. Part I: operating on water\\/lithium bromide solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merits of single stage absorption heat pumps coupled to simple distillation for effluent treatment are discussed. An experimental integrated absorption heat pump effluent purification system (IAHPEPS) was built and operated with water–lithium bromide as a working mixture. This unit has been used to raise the temperature and hence, the vapour pressure of the impure water contained in one vessel,

S. Santoyo-Gutiérrez; J. Siqueiros; C. L. Heard; E. Santoyo; F. A. Holland

1999-01-01

123

On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage

Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

2004-01-01

124

On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers, Volumes 1, 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage

Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines; Baofu Lu; Xuedong Huang; Penha; L. Rosani; Perillo; R. Sergio; Ke Zhao

2005-01-01

125

Dead heat  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the prospect of global warming. This paper proposes a workable solution, and a road map for getting there. The author explains how we became addicted to fossil fuels and evokes a bleak picture should this dependence continue. But the book also explores how industry can become a vehicle for solving, instead of precipitating, the global environmental crisis. The decoupling of energy from pollution can be accomplished without sacrificing prosperity by powering the economy with solar energy. Dead Heat takes us step by step to a greenhouse-friendly world fueled only by the sun.

Oppenheimer, M.; Boyle, R.H.

1990-01-01

126

Heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, P.J.

1983-12-08

127

Geothermal District Heating Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling...

G. S. Budney F. Childs

1982-01-01

128

Heat recovery unit  

SciTech Connect

A device is disclosed for recovery of heat from hot shell devices, particularly from motor-compressor units such as used in air conditioners, refrigeration systems and the like and which comprises a heat exchange coil in encircling, contacting heat exchange relationship to the hot shell device with circulation of a fluid through the heat exchange coil to recover normally wasted heat. Heat absorbed can be utilized to heat domestic hot water for home heating or for tap use.

Beckett, R.R.

1980-06-10

129

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01

130

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1997-04-22

131

Design of Isotope Heat Source for Automatic Modular Dispersal During Reentry, and Its Integration with Heat Exchangers of 6-kWe Dynamic Isotope Power System  

SciTech Connect

In late 1986 the Air Force Space Division (AF / SD) had expressed an interest in using a Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) of approximately 6-kWe to power the Boost Surveillance and Tacking System (BSTS) satellites. In support of that objective, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested Fairchild Space Company to perform a conceptual design study of the DIPS heat source and of its integration with the dynamic power conversion system, with particular emphasis on system safety. This paper describes the results of that study. The study resulted in a design for a single heat source of ~30-kWt, employing the standard 250-W General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules which DOE had previously developed and safety-tested for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTS's)

Schock, Alfred

1989-01-01

132

77 FR 33486 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Packages Provided With Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products...Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products...confidence must request confidential treatment. All such requests should...

2012-06-06

133

Evaluation of a Heat Exchanger for Use in the Integrated Equipment Test Facility Solvent-Extraction System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary decontamination extraction section product (HAP) heat exchanger will be located between the extracting section (HA) and scrubbing section (HS) of centrifugal solvent extraction contactors in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility. The he...

B. E. Lewis

1982-01-01

134

Microchannel heat sink assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

1992-03-24

135

Microchannel heat sink assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

Bonde, Wayne L. (Livermore, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA)

1992-01-01

136

Solar heated building  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating system for a building is disclosed. The solar heating system includes a solar collector and conduits leading from the solar collector to a plurality of heat sinks. The conduits contain an antifreeze solution for carrying the heat from the solar collector to the heat sinks. One of the heat sinks is a hot water stock tank which

Tatusmi

1981-01-01

137

Heat stress reduces intestinal barrier integrity and favors intestinal glucose transport in growing pigs.  

PubMed

Excessive heat exposure reduces intestinal integrity and post-absorptive energetics that can inhibit wellbeing and be fatal. Therefore, our objectives were to examine how acute heat stress (HS) alters intestinal integrity and metabolism in growing pigs. Animals were exposed to either thermal neutral (TN, 21°C; 35-50% humidity; n=8) or HS conditions (35°C; 24-43% humidity; n=8) for 24 h. Compared to TN, rectal temperatures in HS pigs increased by 1.6°C and respiration rates by 2-fold (P<0.05). As expected, HS decreased feed intake by 53% (P<0.05) and body weight (P<0.05) compared to TN pigs. Ileum heat shock protein 70 expression increased (P<0.05), while intestinal integrity was compromised in the HS pigs (ileum and colon TER decreased; P<0.05). Furthermore, HS increased serum endotoxin concentrations (P=0.05). Intestinal permeability was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (P<0.05) and casein kinase II-? (P=0.06). Protein expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the ileum revealed claudin 3 and occludin expression to be increased overall due to HS (P<0.05), while there were no differences in claudin 1 expression. Intestinal glucose transport and blood glucose were elevated due to HS (P<0.05). This was supported by increased ileum Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in HS pigs. SGLT-1 protein expression was unaltered; however, HS increased ileal GLUT-2 protein expression (P=0.06). Altogether, these data indicate that HS reduce intestinal integrity and increase intestinal stress and glucose transport. PMID:23936392

Pearce, Sarah C; Mani, Venkatesh; Boddicker, Rebecca L; Johnson, Jay S; Weber, Thomas E; Ross, Jason W; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Gabler, Nicholas K

2013-08-01

138

Heat transfer science and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a conference on heat transfer. Topics considered at the conference included two-phase flow, freezing, heat flux, natural heat convection, forced heat convection, flow visualization, boiling heat transfer, condensation heat transfer, thermal radiation, heat and mass transfer in porous media, nuclear reaction heat transfer, combustion heat transfer, high-temperature heat transfer, heat exchangers, and industrial

1987-01-01

139

Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)  

MedlinePLUS

... the affected areas. Self-Care Guidelines Prevention and treatment of heat rash consist of controlling heat and humidity. Acetaminophen ... heat rash include secondary infection from scratching and heat ... may need antibiotic treatment for resolution. Seek care if the rash develops ...

140

Upgrading of heat through absorption heat transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the performance of absorption heat transformers for upgrading low-level heat. A mathematical model was developed utilizing the equation of state to calculate the properties of ammonia-water mixture. The performance of the heat transformer is defined by COP and circulation ratio. The parameters that affect the performance are level of waste heat, condenser temperature, and effectiveness

I. M Ismail

1995-01-01

141

Industrial waste heat for district heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents 2 bounding evaluations of industrial waste heat availability. Surveys waste heat from 29 major industry groups at the 2-digit level in Standard Industrial Codes (SIC). Explains that waste heat availability in each industry was related to regional product sales, in order to estimate regional waste heat availability. Evaluates 4 selected industries at the 4-digit SIC level. Finds that industrial

K. L. Heitner; P. P. Brooks

1982-01-01

142

Latent Heat in Soil Heat Flux Measurements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

143

Dual source heat pump  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01

144

Segmented heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

2010-12-14

145

Design Approach and Performance Analysis of a Small Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) for Net Zero Energy Homes (ZEH)  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and performance analysis of a variable-capacity heat pump system developed for a small [1800ft2 (167 m2)] prototype net ZEH with an average design cooling load of 1.25 tons (4.4 kW) in five selected US climates. The heat pump integrates space heating and cooling, water heating, ventilation, and humidity control (humidification and dehumidification) functions into a single integrated heat pump (IHP) unit. The design approach uses one small variable-capacity compressor to meet all the above functions in an energy efficient manner. Modal performance comparisons to an earlier IHP product are shown relative to the proposed new design for net ZEH application. The annual performance analysis approach using TRNSYS in conjunction with the ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is discussed. Annual performance projections for a range of locations are compared to those of a base system consisting of separate pieces of equipment to perform the same functions. The ZEH IHP is projected to reduce energy use for space heating & cooling, water heating, dehumidification, and ventilation for a net ZEH by about 50% compared to that of the base system.

Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2008-01-01

146

Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report  

SciTech Connect

The energy service needs of a net-zero-energy house (ZEH) include space heating and cooling, water heating, ventilation, dehumidification, and humidification, depending on the requirements of the specific location. These requirements differ in significant ways from those of current housing. For instance, the most recent DOE buildings energy data (DOE/BED 2007) indicate that on average {approx}43% of residential buildings primary energy use is for space heating and cooling, vs. {approx}12% for water heating (about a 3.6:1 ratio). In contrast, for the particular prototype ZEH structures used in the analyses in this report, that ratio ranges from about 0.3:1 to 1.6:1 depending on location. The high-performance envelope of a ZEH results in much lower space heating and cooling loads relative to current housing and also makes the house sufficiently air-tight to require mechanical ventilation for indoor air quality. These envelope characteristics mean that the space conditioning load will be closer in size to the water heating load, which depends on occupant behavior and thus is not expected to drop by any significant amount because of an improved envelope. In some locations such as the Gulf Coast area, additional dehumidification will almost certainly be required during the shoulder and cooling seasons. In locales with heavy space heating needs, supplemental humidification may be needed because of health concerns or may be desired for improved occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that achieving their ZEH goal will require energy service equipment that can meet these needs while using 50% less energy than current equipment. One promising approach to meeting this requirement is through an integrated heat pump (IHP) - a single system based on heat pumping technology. The energy benefits of an IHP stem from the ability to utilize otherwise wasted energy; for example, heat rejected by the space cooling operation can be used for water heating. With the greater energy savings the cost of the more energy efficient components required for the IHP can be recovered more quickly than if they were applied to individual pieces of equipment to meet each individual energy service need. An IHP can be designed to use either outdoor air or geothermal resources (e.g., ground, ground water, surface water) as the environmental energy source/sink. Based on a scoping study of a wide variety of possible approaches to meeting the energy service needs for a ZEH, DOE selected the IHP concept as the most promising and has supported research directed toward the development of both air- and ground-source versions. This report describes the ground-source IHP (GS-IHP) design and includes the lessons learned and best practices revealed by the research and development (R&D) effort throughout. Salient features of the GS-IHP include a variable-speed rotary compressor incorporating a brushless direct current permanent magnet motor which provides all refrigerant compression, a variable-speed fan for the indoor section, a multiple-speed ground coil circuit pump, and a single-speed pump for water heating operation. Laboratory IHP testing has thus far used R-22 because of the availability of the needed components that use this refrigerant. It is expected that HFC R-410A will be used for any products arising from the IHP concept. Data for a variable-speed compressor that uses R-410A has been incorporated into the DOE/ORNL Mark VI Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). HPDM was then linked to TRNSYS, a time-series-dependent simulation model capable of determining the energy use of building cooling and heating equipment as applied to a defined house on a sub-hourly basis. This provided a highly flexible design analysis capability for advanced heat pump equipment; however, the program also took a relatively long time to run. This approach was used with the initial prototype design reported in Murphy et al. (2007a) and in the business case analysis of Baxter (2007).

Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

2007-09-01

147

An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage design for a solar receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-weight heat pipe wall elements that incorporate a thermal storage subassembly within the vapor space are being developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System (ORC-SDPS) receiver for the Space Station application. The operating temperature of the heat pipe elements is in the 770 to 810 K range with a design power throughput of 4.8 kW per pipe. The total heat pipe length is 1.9 M. The Rankine cycle boiler heat transfer surfaces are positioned within the heat pipe vapor space, providing a relatively constant temperature input to the vaporizer. The heat pipe design employs axial arteries and distribution wicked thermal storage units with potassium as the working fluid. Performance predictions for this configuration have been conducted and the design characterized as a function of artery geometry, distribution wick thickness, porosity, pore size, and permeability.

Keddy, E.; Sena, J. T.; Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.

148

Solar heating  

SciTech Connect

A solar heater has an outlet conduit above an inlet conduit intercoupling a solar heating chamber with the inside of a building through a window opening. In one form the solar collecting chamber is outside the building below the window and the outlet conduit and inlet conduit are contiguous and pass through the window opening between the windowsill and the lower sash. In another form of the invention the solar collecting chambers are located beside each side of the window and joined at the top by the outlet conduit that passes through an opening between the upper window sash and the top of the window frame and at the bottom by an inlet conduit that passes through an opening between the lower sash and the windowsill. The outlet conduit carries photoelectric cells that provide electrical energy for driving a squirrel-cage fan in the outlet conduit through a mercury switch seated on a damper actuated by a bimetallic coil that closes the damper when the temperature in the outlet conduit goes below a predetermined temperature.

Resnick, M.; Startevant, R.C.

1985-01-22

149

Heat pipe with embedded wick structure  

DOEpatents

A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

1998-01-01

150

Heat pipe with embedded wick structure  

DOEpatents

A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

1999-01-01

151

Multiple source heat pump  

DOEpatents

A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01

152

Controlled heat pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic analysis of the operation of controlled heat pipes is presented. Topics covered include a classification of controlled heat pipes; attention is given to heat pipes in the dry saturated vapor regime, with a superheated vapor, with a supercooled liquid phase, with a superheated vapor and a supercooled liquid phase, and with moist vapor. Also covered are heat pipes with passive or active control, and the classification of controlled heat pipes according to the function (application) realized. Applications include heat diodes, temperature stabilizers, a heat bridge, a heat flow regulator, and a heat switch.

Vasilev, L. L.; Konev, S. V.; Tomchak, V.; Danelevich, Ia.

1983-07-01

153

Controlled heat pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic analysis of the operation of controlled heat pipes is presented. Topics covered include a classification of controlled heat pipes; attention is given to heat pipes in the dry saturated vapor regime, with a superheated vapor, with a supercooled liquid phase, with a superheated vapor and a supercooled liquid phase, and with moist vapor. Also covered are heat pipes with passive or active control, and the classification of controlled heat pipes according to the function (application) realized. Applications include heat diodes, temperature stabilizers, a heat bridge, a heat flow regulator, and a heat switch.

Vasilev, L. L.; Konev, S. V.; Tomchak, V.; Danelevich, Ia.

1984-01-01

154

Heat-of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps: Possible Configurations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, heat driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump working fluid is reactive, are considere...

L. D. Kirol

1986-01-01

155

Active microchannel heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The active microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction

Anna Lee Y. Tonkovich; Gary L. Roberts; Charles J. Call; Robert S. Wegeng; Yong Wang

2001-01-01

156

Nitinol heat engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat engines have recently been developed which utilize the remarkable properties of a nickel-titanium alloy called Nitinol to convert heat into mechanical energy. The design, principles of operation, and performance characteristics of a small prototype Nitinol heat engine are described. Emphasis is placed on the description of a simple heat engine invented by the author, in which a specially heat-treated

A. D. Johnson

1975-01-01

157

Absorption heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

This disclosure documents the invention of adapting an economizer and an air heater to an absorption heat pump. The heat pump will have as its prime source of power, heat generated from burning a source of fuel. The air used in the burner will be heated above outside ambient temperatures by a source of waste heat. The warmed air will

Worsham

1981-01-01

158

Heat storing fireplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of heat storing fireplace including a fire-box surrounded by a heat storage medium which is either an enclosure containing a material having a high specific heat such as sand or gravel or a large number of heat conducting bags containing a high specific heat material is given. Exhaust gases are conveyed from the fire-box to an exhaust outlet

Der M. R

1981-01-01

159

Industrial heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the use of heat exchangers in the industrial plants. Topics considered include the US DOE and GRI research programs, advanced fixed boundary heat exchanger technology, commercial heat exchanger applications, thermo-hydraulic performance of heat-transfer equipment, field tests, the corrosion of heat exchanger materials, economics, cost benefit analysis, payback, and advanced assembly

A. J. Hayes; W. W. Liang; S. L. Richlen; E. S. Tabb

1985-01-01

160

Stirling and Vuilleumier heat pumps  

SciTech Connect

The book discuses the design, application, and performance evaluation of integrated engine-refrigerator heat pumps and provides an overview of heat pump theory, including a unique comparative analysis of six integrated Stirling and Vuilleumier heat pumps and their advantages in applications. It also evaluates the effect of key components on performance; lists and documents computer programs for comparative analysis; and summarizes current hardware development programs.

Wurm, J.

1990-01-01

161

Heat stress and reduced plane of nutrition decreases intestinal integrity and function in pigs.  

PubMed

Heat stress can compromise intestinal integrity and induce leaky gut in a variety of species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if heat stress (HS) directly or indirectly (via reduced feed intake) increases intestinal permeability in growing pigs. We hypothesized that an increased heat-load causes physiological alterations to the intestinal epithelium, resulting in compromised barrier integrity and altered intestinal function that contributes to the overall severity of HS-related illness. Crossbred gilts (n = 48, 43 ± 4 kg BW) were housed in constant climate controlled rooms in individual pens and exposed to 1) thermal neutral (TN) conditions (20°C, 35-50% humidity) with ad libitum intake, 2) HS conditions (35°C, 20-35% humidity) with ad libitum feed intake, or 3) pair-fed in TN conditions (PFTN) to eliminate confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake. Pigs were sacrificed at 1, 3, or 7 d of environmental exposure and jejunum samples were mounted into modified Ussing chambers for assessment of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and intestinal fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) permeability (expressed as apparent permeability coefficient, APP). Further, gene and protein markers of intestinal integrity and stress were assessed. Irrespective of d of HS exposure, plasma endotoxin levels increased 45% (P < 0.05) in HS compared with TN pigs, while jejunum TER decreased 30% (P < 0.05) and LPS APP increased 2-fold (P < 0.01). Furthermore, d 7 HS pigs tended (P = 0.06) to have increased LPS APP (41%) compared with PFTN controls. Lysozyme and alkaline phosphatase activity decreased (46 and 59%, respectively; P < 0.05) over time in HS pigs, while the immune cell marker, myeloperoxidase activity, was increased (P < 0.05) in the jejunum at d 3 and 7. These results indicate that both HS and reduced feed intake decrease intestinal integrity and increase endotoxin permeability. We hypothesize that these events may lead to increased inflammation, which might contribute to reduced pig performance during warm summer months. PMID:23989867

Pearce, S C; Mani, V; Weber, T E; Rhoads, R P; Patience, J F; Baumgard, L H; Gabler, N K

2013-08-29

162

Magnetic susceptibility and low-temperature specific-heat of integrable 1-D Hubbard model under open-boundary conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic susceptibility and the low-temperature specific heat of the\\u000a1-dimensional Hubbard model under the integrable open-boundary conditions are\\u000adiscussed through the Bethe ansatz with the string hypothesis. The\\u000acontributions of the boundary fields to both the susceptibility and the\\u000aspecific heat are obtained, and their exact expressions are analytically\\u000aderived.

Ruihong Yue; Tetsuo Deguchi

1997-01-01

163

Heat exchanger sourcebook  

SciTech Connect

This book covers techniques brought about by economical computing capabilities. It is divided into the following sections: general design information; shell-and-tube heat exchangers; reboilers and condensers; plate heat exchangers; heat exchange enhancement; techniques; and fouling.

Palen, J.W.

1986-01-01

164

Prickly Heat (Miliaria)  

MedlinePLUS

Sections Skin Disorders Chapters Sweating Disorders Prickly Heat Prickly heat (miliaria) is an itchy rash caused by trapped sweat. Prickly heat develops when the narrow ducts carrying sweat to the skin ...

165

Absorption heat pump system  

DOEpatents

The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

Grossman, G.

1982-06-16

166

Absorption heat pump system  

DOEpatents

The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01

167

The photochemical heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a solar collector system for high temperature heat delivery based on a photochromic reaction is discussed. The system consists of a non-focusing collector and a reactor integrated into a flow system. In the collector, kept close to ambient temperature, the chemical potential of the photochromic system is increased through an endothermic photochemical reaction and is used to

B. Carlsson; G. Wettermark

1978-01-01

168

Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)  

MedlinePLUS

... groin and armpits. Self-Care Guidelines Prevention and treatment of heat rash consist of controlling heat and humidity. Acetaminophen ... and apply cool compresses. Do not give fluids. ... skin infection related to the heat rash or otherwise, oral or topical antibiotics may ...

169

On-Chip Thermal Management With Microchannel Heat Sinks and Integrated Micropumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid-cooled microchannel heat sinks are regarded as being amongst the most effective solutions for handling high levels of heat dissipation in space-constrained electronics. However, obstacles to their successful incorporation into products have included their high pumping requirements and the limits on available space which precludes the use of conventional pumps. Moreover, the transport characteristics of microchannels can be different from

Suresh V. Garimella; Vishal Singhal; Dong Liu

2006-01-01

170

Integrated single and two-phase micro heat sinks under IGBT chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have been performed to assess the feasibility of single and two-phase micro heat exchangers applied to the cooling of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) power components. After a brief recall of the principal characteristics of such heat exchangers, prototypes that have been built and tested are described. Then, the experimental measurements are compared to the predictions of the thermal

Charlotte Gillot; Luc Meysenc; Christian Schaeffer; Alain Bricard

1999-01-01

171

Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences  

SciTech Connect

The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

2008-06-18

172

Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

None

2010-09-01

173

A projected iterative method based on integral equations for inverse heat conduction in domains with a cut  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cauchy problem for the parabolic heat equation, consisting of the reconstruction of the solution from knowledge of the temperature and heat flux on a part of the boundary of the solution domain, is investigated in a planar region containing a cut. This linear inverse ill-posed problem is numerically solved using an iterative regularization procedure, where at each iteration step mixed Dirichlet-Neumann problems for the parabolic heat equation are used. Using the method of Rothe these mixed problems are reduced to a sequence of boundary integral equations. The integral equations have a square root singularity in the densities and logarithmic and hypersingularities in the kernels. Moreover, the mixed parabolic problems have singularities near the endpoints of the cut. Special techniques are employed to handle each of these (four) types of singularities, and analysis is performed in weighted spaces of square integrable functions. Numerical examples are included showing that the proposed regularizing procedure gives stable and accurate approximations.

Chapko, Roman; Tomas Johansson, B.; Vavrychuk, Vasyl

2013-06-01

174

Heat transfer enhancement in heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

In the power generation industry, high performance heat exchangers are needed to promote substantial improvements in effective utilization of waste heat in low temperature heat recovery applications. High performance heat exchangers are also seriously needed in low temperature power and refrigeration cycles that operate on renewable base energy sources such as ocean thermal energy conversion, geothermal and solar energy systems. Presently, the excessively large heat transfer surface area requirements prohibit cost-effective use of these systems. This paper reports on the new and promising electrohydrodynamic (EHD) technique which has demonstrated impressive potential for enhancing heat transfer in heat exchangers involving single-phase or phase-change processes. This article provides a brief description of EHD operational principles, research advancements in EHD during the past decade, and potential future EHD applications of specific interest to the HVAC and R industry.

Ohadi, M.M.

1991-12-01

175

Anisotropic heat transport in integrable and chaotic 3-D magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

A study of anisotropic heat transport in 3-D chaotic magnetic fields is presented. The approach is based on the recently proposed Lagrangian-Green s function (LG) method in Ref. [1] that allows an efficient and accurate integration of the parallel transport equation applicable to general magnetic fields with local or non-local parallel flux closures. We focus on reversed shear magnetic field configurations known to exhibit separatrix reconnection and shearless transport barriers. The role of reconnection and magnetic field line chaos on temperature transport is studied. Numerical results are presented on the anomalous relaxation of radial temperature gradients in the presence of shearless Cantori partial barri- ers. Also, numerical evidence of non-local effective radial temperature transport in chaotic fields is presented. Going beyond purely parallel transport, the LG method is generalized to include finite perpendicular diffusivity, and the problem of temperature flattening inside a magnetic island is studied.

Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B [ORNL; Blazevski, D. [University of Texas, Austin; Chacon, Luis [ORNL

2012-01-01

176

Process integration and economic analysis of bio-oil platform for the production of methanol and combined heat and power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process to process material and heat integration strategies for bio-oil integrated gasification and methanol synthesis (BOIG-MeOH) systems were developed to assess their technological and economic feasibility. Distributed bio-oil generations and centralised processing enhance resource flexibility and technological feasibility. Economic performance depends on the integration of centralised BOIG-MeOH processes, investigated for cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and water electrolyser configurations. Design

Kok Siew Ng; Jhuma Sadhukhan

2011-01-01

177

Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Business Case Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, 'HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment', ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. Table 1 summarizes the energy savings potential of the highest scoring options from the 2005 study for all five locations. All system options were scored by the ORNL building equipment research team and by William Goetzler of Navigant Consulting. These scores were reviewed by DOE/BT's Residential Integration program leaders and Building America team members. Based on these results, the two centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) systems (air source and ground source versions) were selected for advancement to Stage 2 (Exploratory Development) business case assessments in FY06. This report describes results of these business case assessments. It is a compilation of three separate reports describing the initial business case study (Baxter 2006a), an update to evaluate the impact of an economizer cooling option (Baxter 2006b), and a second update to evaluate the impact of a winter humidification option (Baxter 2007). In addition it reports some corrections made subsequent to release of the first two reports to correct so

Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2007-05-01

178

Optimal utilization of waste heat from heat engines by use of a heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a heat pump to utilise the waste heat from a heat engine has been studied. The optimal heat delivered and the optimal heat pump to heat engine work ratio has been determined for externally and totally irreversible heat engines and heat pumps. The results show that the highest temperature at which the heat is delivered from the

M. M. Salah El-Din

1999-01-01

179

Fluid-to-fluid spot-to-spreader (F2\\/S2) hybrid heat sink for integrated chip-level and hotspot-level thermal management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative heat sink design aimed at meeting both the hotspot and large background heat flux requirements of next generation integrated circuits is presented. The heat sink design utilizes two separate, unmixed fluids to meet the cooling requirements of the chip with one fluid acting as a fluidic spreader dedicated to cooling the hotspots only, while the second fluid serves

Craig Green; Andrei G. Fedorov; Yogendra K. Joshi

2008-01-01

180

INTEGRITY: Integration of Heat Treatment into Machine-Tools by Using Advanced Grinding Technology (INTEGRITY), project no.: BE96-3439  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Objectives Common industrial practice for the manufacturing sequence of high-quality steel parts consists usually of soft machining, hardening by heat treatment, and hard machining in separate processes at different locations. This causes inflexibility, throughput disadvantages on time-to-order demands, increased logistic and co-ordination efforts, and finally unjustified cost\\/benefit figures. The main objective of INTEGRITY was to develop an innovative grinding

Robert Bosch; Gleason Pfauter Italia

181

Extreme Heat  

MedlinePLUS

... Management Agency NOAA Office of Climate, Water, and Weather Services American Red Cross National Integrated Drought Information System Center For Disease Control and Prevention LISTEN TO LOCAL OFFICIALS Learn about ...

182

Performance of a variable conductance heat pipe heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an air to air heat exchanger in which heat is transferred to a finned evaporator and from a finned condenser via a heat pipe was evaluated. The variable conductance heat pipe is to the condenser fins a heat source and to the evaporator fins a heat sink. The principal advantage of the variable conductance heat pipe heat

P. D. Chancelor

1983-01-01

183

Transient critical heat flux  

SciTech Connect

The term Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is used in boiling heat transfer to describe the local value of the heat flux at which a characteristic reduction in the heat transfer coefficient first occurs. A major limitation on the thermal design of a light-water reactor (LWR) is the necessity to maintain an adequate safety margin between the CHF and the local heat flux. Extended operations at local power levels in excess of the CHF can lead to high-temperature oxidation and embrittlement or melting of the zircaloy cladding, thus jeopardizing the fuel rod's integrity. In nuclear reactors, the CHF level is more likely to be reached during abnormal (transient) operating conditions, rather than during normal (steady) operations. For accurate nuclear reactor modeling, the accurate prediction of CHF as a function of time-dependent, thermal-hydraulic conditions is essential. This research was a two-fold study. In the first part, the quasi-steady approach in predicting the CHF is defined and analyzed. Data from blowdown experiments are compared to commonly used steady-state correlations on a local-instantaneous basis. In the second part, faster transients, where the quasi-steady approach is unable to predict the CHF, are considered. A new theory is developed to predict the CHF in power transients, which are typical of Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA) in LWRs.

Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.

1986-01-01

184

REACH. Heating Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized units in the area of heating. The instructional units focus on electric heating systems, gas heating systems, and oil burning systems. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit…

Stanfield, Carter; And Others

185

Rotary magnetic heat pump  

DOEpatents

A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

Kirol, Lance D. (Shelly, ID)

1988-01-01

186

Heat absorbing window  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat absorbing window is disclosed which can receive solar energy and transmit the illumination part of the solar energy, while utilizing the heat part of such energy to provide a source of heat for useful purposes. The window includes a frame with three window panes. The outermost pane faces the exterior and is of non-heat absorbing material. The middle

Berman

1978-01-01

187

Transient critical heat flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is used in boiling heat transfer to describe the local value of the heat flux at which a characteristic reduction in the heat transfer coefficient first occurs. A major limitation on the thermal design of a light-water reactor (LWR) is the necessity to maintain an adequate safety margin between the CHF and the local

Pasamehmetoglu

1986-01-01

188

Woven heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

Piscitella, Roger R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

189

Home heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A home heating system is disclosed that has a furnace with a combustion chamber for burning fuel and creating heat, and a chimney with a draft therein. An improvement is described that has an exhaust flue connected between the combustion chamber and the chimney for venting heated exhaust products from the furnace, a heat reclaimer connected into the exhaust flue

Bellaff

1980-01-01

190

Nature's Heat Exchangers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

Barnes, George

1991-01-01

191

Nature's Heat Exchangers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)|

Barnes, George

1991-01-01

192

Heat-transfer material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present invention concerns heat transfer material used for heat transfer recording, especially heat transfer material providing good recorded images on a substrate of poor surface smoothness, and the images can be corrected by a liftoff correction tape that produces adhesive properties when heated.

Katayama, Masahito; Sato, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Yoshihisa; Asaoka, Masanobu; Fukuda, Tsugihiro

1991-07-01

193

Rotary magnetic heat pump  

DOEpatents

A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

Kirol, L.D.

1987-02-11

194

Loop heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are two-phase heat-transfer devices with capillary pumping of a working fluid. They possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but owing to the original design and special properties of the capillary structure are capable of transferring heat efficiency for distances up to several meters at any orientation in the gravity field, or to several

Yu. F. Maydanik

2005-01-01

195

Passive Solar Heating and Natural Cooling of an Earth-Integrated Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research is being designed with innovative features that will greatly reduce its energy consumption for heating, cooling, and lighting. A reference design has been studied and the effects of extending the overhang during ...

P. R. Barnes H. B. Shapira

1980-01-01

196

Multiple heat pipe heat exchanger and method for making  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat pipe heat exchanger has a plurality of heat pipes which are interconnected so as to permit fluid communication between the pipes at least during charging so that the heat pipes may be simultaneously filled with heat transfer fluid.

Maxson

1979-01-01

197

Heat Intolerance, Heat Exhaustion Monitored: A Case Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 32 year-old male (S.H.) monitored during an 8-day heat acclimation (HA) investigation, unexpectedly exhibited heat intolerance and heat exhaustion. Thirteen other males completed HA without indications of either heat intolerance or heat exhaustion. Beca...

L. E. Armstrong R. W. Hubbard P. C. Szlyk I. V. Sils W. J. Kraemer

1987-01-01

198

Heated Conversations  

Microsoft Academic Search

After years of feminist pressure to integrate the bylines of America's journals and newspapers of record, women's opinion pieces and political commentary remain scarce. Flora Lewis and Elizabeth Drew were notable forerunners, but the real change came with the women who broke into print in the late 1980s and 1990s: a group that included Barbara Ehrenreich, Gail Collins, Maureen Dowd,

Christine Stansell

2008-01-01

199

Heat Treating Apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

2002-09-10

200

Performance evaluation of an integrated automotive air conditioning and heat pump system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the performance characteristics of an R134a automotive air conditioning system capable of operating as an air-to-air heat pump using ambient air as a heat source. For this aim, an experimental analysis has been performed on a plant made up of original components from an automobile air conditioning system and some extra equipment employed to operate the

M. Hosoz; M. Direk

2006-01-01

201

Thermoelectric heat exchange element  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

2007-08-14

202

[Heat waves: health impacts].  

PubMed

During the summer of 2003, record high temperatures were reported across Europe, causing thousands of casualties. Heat waves are sporadic recurrent events, characterised by intense and prolonged heat, associated with excess mortality and morbidity. The most frequent cause of death directly attributable to heat is heat stroke but heat waves are known to cause increases in all-cause mortality, specially circulatory and respiratory mortality. Epidemiological studies demonstrate excess casualties cluster in specific risk groups. The elderly, those with chronic medical conditions and the socially isolated are particularly vulnerable. Air conditioning is the strongest protective factor against heat-related disorders. Heat waves cause disease indirectly, by aggravating chronic disorders, and directly, by causing heat-related illnesses (HRI). Classic HRI include skin eruptions, heat cramps, heat syncope, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Heat stroke is a medical emergency characterised by hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction. Treatment includes immediate cooling and support of organ-system function. Despite aggressive treatment, heat stroke is often fatal and permanent neurological damage is frequent in those who survive. Heat related illness and death are preventable through behavioural adaptations, such as use of air conditioning and increased fluid intake. Other adaptation measures include heat emergency warning systems and intervention plans and environmental heat stress reduction. Heat related mortality is expected to rise as a consequence of the increasing proportion of elderly persons, the growing urban population, and the anticipated increase in number and intensity of heat waves associated with global warming. Improvements in surveillance and response capability may limit the adverse health conditions of future heat waves. It is crucial that health professionals are prepared to recognise, prevent and treat HRI and learn to cooperate with local health agencies. PMID:16684487

Marto, Natália

2006-03-06

203

Increase of COP for heat transformer in water purification systems. Part I – Increasing heat source temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of a water purification system in a heat transformer allows a fraction of heat obtained by the heat transformer to be recycled, increasing the heat source temperature. Consequently, the evaporator and generator temperatures are also increased. For any operating conditions, keeping the condenser and absorber temperatures and also the heat load to the evaporator and generator, a higher

J. Siqueiros; R. J. Romero

2007-01-01

204

Integrated modelling of steady-state scenarios and heating and current drive mixes for ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress on ITER steady-state (SS) scenario modelling by the ITPA-IOS group is reviewed. Code-to-code benchmarks as the IOS group's common activities for the two SS scenarios (weak shear scenario and internal transport barrier scenario) are discussed in terms of transport, kinetic profiles, and heating and current drive (CD) sources using various transport codes. Weak magnetic shear scenarios integrate the plasma core and edge by combining a theory-based transport model (GLF23) with scaled experimental boundary profiles. The edge profiles (at normalized radius ? = 0.8-1.0) are adopted from an edge-localized mode-averaged analysis of a DIII-D ITER demonstration discharge. A fully noninductive SS scenario is achieved with fusion gain Q = 4.3, noninductive fraction fNI = 100%, bootstrap current fraction fBS = 63% and normalized beta ?N = 2.7 at plasma current Ip = 8 MA and toroidal field BT = 5.3 T using ITER day-1 heating and CD capability. Substantial uncertainties come from outside the radius of setting the boundary conditions (? = 0.8). The present simulation assumed that ?N (?) at the top of the pedestal (? = 0.91) is about 25% above the peeling-ballooning threshold. ITER will have a challenge to achieve the boundary, considering different operating conditions (Te/Ti ? 1 and density peaking). Overall, the experimentally scaled edge is an optimistic side of the prediction. A number of SS scenarios with different heating and CD mixes in a wide range of conditions were explored by exploiting the weak-shear steady-state solution procedure with the GLF23 transport model and the scaled experimental edge. The results are also presented in the operation space for DT neutron power versus stationary burn pulse duration with assumed poloidal flux availability at the beginning of stationary burn, indicating that the long pulse operation goal (3000 s) at Ip = 9 MA is possible. Source calculations in these simulations have been revised for electron cyclotron current drive including parallel momentum conservation effects and for neutral beam current drive with finite orbit and magnetic pitch effects.

Murakami, M.; Park, J. M.; Giruzzi, G.; Garcia, J.; Bonoli, P.; Budny, R. V.; Doyle, E. J.; Fukuyama, A.; Hayashi, N.; Honda, M.; Hubbard, A.; Ide, S.; Imbeaux, F.; Jaeger, E. F.; Luce, T. C.; Na, Y.-S.; Oikawa, T.; Osborne, T. H.; Parail, V.; Polevoi, A.; Prater, R.; Sips, A. C. C.; Snipes, J.; St. John, H. E.; Snyder, P. B.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; ITPA/Integrated Operation Scenario Group

2011-10-01

205

Integrated modelling of steady-state scenarios and heating and current drive mixes for ITER  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress on ITER steady-state (SS) scenario modelling by the ITPA-IOS group is reviewed. Code-to-code benchmarks as the IOS group's common activities for the two SS scenarios (weak shear scenario and internal transport barrier scenario) are discussed in terms of transport, kinetic profiles, and heating and current drive (CD) sources using various transport codes. Weak magnetic shear scenarios integrate the plasma core and edge by combining a theory-based transport model (GLF23) with scaled experimental boundary profiles. The edge profiles (at normalized radius rho = 0.8-1.0) are adopted from an edge-localized mode-averaged analysis of a DIII-D ITER demonstration discharge. A fully noninductive SS scenario is achieved with fusion gain Q = 4.3, noninductive fraction f(NI) = 100%, bootstrap current fraction f(BS) = 63% and normalized beta beta(N) = 2.7 at plasma current I(p) = 8MA and toroidal field B(T) = 5.3 T using ITER day-1 heating and CD capability. Substantial uncertainties come from outside the radius of setting the boundary conditions (rho = 0.8). The present simulation assumed that beta(N)(rho) at the top of the pedestal (rho = 0.91) is about 25% above the peeling-ballooning threshold. ITER will have a challenge to achieve the boundary, considering different operating conditions (T(e)/T(i) approximate to 1 and density peaking). Overall, the experimentally scaled edge is an optimistic side of the prediction. A number of SS scenarios with different heating and CD mixes in a wide range of conditions were explored by exploiting the weak-shear steady-state solution procedure with the GLF23 transport model and the scaled experimental edge. The results are also presented in the operation space for DT neutron power versus stationary burn pulse duration with assumed poloidal flux availability at the beginning of stationary burn, indicating that the long pulse operation goal (3000s) at I(p) = 9 MA is possible. Source calculations in these simulations have been revised for electron cyclotron current drive including parallel momentum conservation effects and for neutral beam current drive with finite orbit and magnetic pitch effects.

Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Park, Jin Myung [ORNL; Giruzzi, G. [CEA, IRFM, France; Garcia, J. [CEA Cadarache, St. Paul lex Durance, France; Bonoli, P. T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Doyle, E. J. [University of California, Los Angeles; Fukuyama, A. [Kyoto University, Japan; Ferron, J.R. [General Atomics, San Diego; Hayashi, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Honda, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Hubbard, A. [MIT Plasma Science & Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA; Hong, R. M. [General Atomics, San Diego; Ide, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Imbeaux, F. [CEA Cadarache, St. Paul lex Durance, France; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Luce, T.C. [General Atomics, San Diego; Na, Y S [Seoul National University of Technology, Korea; Oikawa, T. [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Parail, V. [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, UK; Polevoi, A. [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Prater, R. [General Atomics; Sips, A C C [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany; Shafer, M. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Snipes, J. A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; St. John, H. E. [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Snyder, P. B. [General Atomics, San Diego; Voitsekhovitch, I [UKAEA Fusion, Culham UK

2011-01-01

206

Dual effect of heat shock on DNA replication and genome integrity  

PubMed Central

Heat shock (HS) is one of the better-studied exogenous stress factors. However, little is known about its effects on DNA integrity and the DNA replication process. In this study, we show that in G1 and G2 cells, HS induces a countable number of double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in the DNA that are marked by ?H2AX. In contrast, in S-phase cells, HS does not induce DSBs but instead causes an arrest or deceleration of the progression of the replication forks in a temperature-dependent manner. This response also provoked phosphorylation of H2AX, which appeared at the sites of replication. Moreover, the phosphorylation of H2AX at or close to the replication fork rescued the fork from total collapse. Collectively our data suggest that in an asynchronous cell culture, HS might affect DNA integrity both directly and via arrest of replication fork progression and that the phosphorylation of H2AX has a protective effect on the arrested replication forks in addition to its known DNA damage signaling function.

Velichko, Artem K.; Petrova, Nadezhda V.; Kantidze, Omar L.; Razin, Sergey V.

2012-01-01

207

SP100 Heat Source Heat Exchanger Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design for a liquid metal to gas counterflow heat exchanger has been developed for use in the SP-100 Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) Space Reactor Power System (SRPS). The Heat Source Heat Exchanger (HSHX) is required to transfer 80 kWt from the 1350 K lithium reactor coolant to the He\\/Xe working fluid of the Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU). Trade

T. Ted Fallas; Andrew W. Desepte; Robert J. Hill; Georgi B. Manjarrez; Enrique R. Solorzano; Samir A. Salamah; Raphael Yahalom

1994-01-01

208

Metallic micro heat pipe heat spreader fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro heat pipe heat spreaders (MHPHS) with three copper foil layers were designed to allow liquid and vapor flow separation to reduce viscous shear force. Two wick designs, one using 200 ?m wide etched radial grooves and the other with 100-mesh copper screens were investigated. The foils were vacuum diffusion bonded to form 31 mm×31 mm×2.7 mm heat spreader. Thermal

Shung-Wen Kang; Sheng-Hong Tsai; Ming-Han Ko

2004-01-01

209

Heat transfer from internally heated hemispherical pools  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted on heat transfer from internally heated ZnSO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O pools to the walls of hemispherical containers. This experimental technique provides data for a heat transfer system that has to date been only theoretically treated. Three different sizes of copper hemispherical containers were used: 240, 280, 320 mm in diameter. The pool container served both as a heat transfer surface and as an electrode. The opposing electrode was a copper disk, 50 mm in diameter located at the top of the pool in the center. The top surface of the pool was open to the atmosphere.

Gabor, J.D.; Ellsion, P.G.; Cassulo, J.C.

1980-01-01

210

COP prediction for the integration of a water purification process in a heat transformer: with and without energy recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A predictive model for a water purification process integrated in an absorption heat transformer, using an artificial neural network, is proposed in order to obtain on-line predictions of the coefficient of performance (COP). This model takes into account the input and output temperatures for each one of the four components (absorber, generator, evaporator, and condenser), as well as two pressure

J. A. Hernández; D. Juárez-Romero; L. I. Morales; J. Siqueiros

2008-01-01

211

Solar test of an integrated sodium reflux heat-pipe receiver\\/reactor for thermochemical energy transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1987, a chemical reactor integrated into a sodium reflux heat-pipe receiver was tested in the solar furnace at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. The reaction carried out was the carbon dioxide reforming of methane. This reaction is one of the leading candidates for thermochemical energy transport either within a distributed solar receiver system or over long

R. B. Diver; J. D. Fish; R. Levitan; M. Levy; H. Rosin; J. T. Richardson

1988-01-01

212

Solar Test of an Integrated Sodium Reflux Heat-Pipe Receiver/Reactor for Thermochemical Energy Transport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In October 1987, a chemical reactor integrated into a sodium reflux heat-pipe receiver was tested in the solar furnace at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. The reaction carried out was the carbon dioxide reforming of methane. This reacti...

R. B. Diver J. D. Fish R. Levitan M. Levy H. Rosin

1988-01-01

213

Compact heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

This report aims to increase the market penetration of compact heat exchangers (CHEs) in industry by detailing current experience of their use. CHEs are characterized by having a comparatively large amount of surface area in a given volume, compared to traditional heat exchangers, in particular the shell-and-tube type. The most basic CHEs have volumes of less than 50% of that of a comparable shell-and-tube heat exchanger, for a given duty. Some new designs can, under appropriate process conditions, have only 5% of the volume of traditional equivalents. An essential component of many of these compact concepts is heat (and mass) transfer enhancement. This report also details some of the main enhancement methods which are used in the implementation of compact systems. CHEs are of interest for a number of reasons. As well as being, in general, highly efficient, allowing greater amounts of energy to be recovered between process streams, they are more versatile in terms of the number of process streams that can be handled. Some CHEs can handle only two streams. Others can handle four or more with ease. That, coupled with the availability of units to cater for most operating temperatures and pressures, makes them of interest to operators of complex thermal processing plants. Of even greater long-term importance to the process industries is the ability to use CHE manufacturing technology to integrate effective heat transfer with other unit operations, such as reactors, in one unit. This radical approach to process plant design has fostered many exciting concepts for combined unit operations, some of which are discussed in this report. Topics covered are: types of CHE; (2) the role of heat transfer enhancement; (3) benefits and perceived limitations of CHEs; (4) costs; (5) fouling; (6) specification, installation and operating procedures; (7) the new opportunities; and (8) conclusions.

NONE

1999-11-01

214

Results of direct containment heating integral experiments at 1\\/40th scale at Argonne National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of integral tests have been completed that investigate the effect of scale and containment atmosphere initial composition on Direct Containment Heating (DCH) phenomena at 1\\/40 linear scale. A portion of these experiments were performed as counterparts to integral experiments conducted at 1\\/10th linear scale at Sandia National Laboratories. The tests investigated DCH phenomena in a 1\\/40th scale mockup

J. L. Binder; L. M. McUmber; B. W. Spencer

1993-01-01

215

Heat collection system  

SciTech Connect

A heat collection system is disclosed which is capable of collecting heat from an animal husbandry enclosures such as a dairy barn, and transferring the heat into a home. Animal husbandry enclosures, such as dairy barns, tend to have excess heat, even in winter, the excess heat normally being wasted. The heat is collected by a pair of evaporators located in the dairy barn, with the evaporators being oversized to limit the amount of cooling taking place in the barn. Fluid from the evaporators is compressed by compressors after which it passes through a condenser from which heat may be extracted into the home. Pressure regulating valves are provided to insure that the compressors are not overloaded and to insure that a maximum heating effect is achieved. A thermostatically controlled fan is provided to drive air across the condenser so that heat is introduced into the home.

Ramlow, B.L.; Steele, R.R.

1982-04-06

216

ATHENA heat pipe transient model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATHENA (Chow 1985) is a general purpose thermal hydraulic transient simulation code that was developed for the Magnetic Fusion Safety Project. The ATHENA two fluid model for two phase flow was modified to include the fluid physics unique to the heat pipe. This approach has resulted in a relatively sophisticated heat pipe transient model for a modest development effort. The model was used to simulate heat pipes for space power reactors, both as separate components and in integral simulation of coupled systems. The modifications that were made to the two fluid model to enable heat pipe simulation are described.

Ransom, Victor H.; Chow, Hueiming

217

Design Optimization of Loop Heat Pipes with Cylindrical Evaporator and Integral Reservoir for Space Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design optimization of a LHP system for a space application is considered. The system is composed of the LHP itself, an interface with the heat source (saddle) and a radiator. The criterion is minimal system mass while meeting the operational requirements. The optimization is performed with simultaneous consideration of hot and cold conditions with respect to imposed heat loads to the evaporator and external heat fluxes over the radiator panel. The design parameters of the system optimized are the active length of the evaporator, internal and external diameters of the primary wick, volume and size of the reservoir, thickness and width of the saddle, diameters and tube thickness of the transport lines and condenser, length of the condenser, dimensions of the radiator panel and the amount of the LHP working fluid charged. The LHP mass and optimal design parameters are obtained for three working fluids: ammonia, propylene and acetone; a comparative study of the optimal mass characteristics is performed. Fixed parameters are the required values of transferred heat loads, incident external heat fluxes for the hot and cold cases, length of the transport lines, material and fluid properties. Constraints include temperature limits for the attached equipment and the capillary limits of the LHP. A special steady state mathematical model was developed for the calculation of the LHP performance parameters and a global search metaheuristic, called Generalized Extremal Optimization (GEO), is used as the optimization tool.

Vlassov, Valeri V.; de Sousa, Fabiano L.; Riehl, Roger R.

2008-01-01

218

Experimental study of an integral catalytic combustor: heat exchanger for Stirling engines  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using catalytic combustion with heat removal for the Stirling engine to reduce exhaust emissions and also improve heat transfer to the working fluid. The study was conducted using spaced parallel plates. An internally air-cooled heat exchnger was placed between two noble metal catalytic plates. A preheated fuel-air mixture passed between the plates and reacted on the surface of the catalyzed plates. Heat was removed from the catalytic surface by radiation and convection to the air-cooled heat exchangers to control temperature and minimize thermal NO/sub x/ emissions. The study was conducted at inlet combustion air temperatures from 850 to 900 K, inlet velocities of about 10 m/s, equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 0.9, and pressures from 1.3 x 10/sup 5/ to 2.0 x 10/sup 5/ Pa. Propane fuel was used for all testing. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were measured. NO/sub x/ emissions ranged from 1.7 to 3.3 g NO/sub 2//kg fuel. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and indicate that further investigation of the concept is warranted.

Bulzan, D.L.

1982-01-01

219

Alternative Heat Sources for Heat Pumps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar-assisted, water source, and ground source heat pumps are described as alternatives for use in a broader range of climated than that in which air-to-air heat pumps can be used. Publications for further information on these systems are listed. (ERA ci...

1984-01-01

220

Heat transfer - Denver 1985  

SciTech Connect

This Symposium Series volume contains AIChE-sponsored session papers accepted for presentation at the 23rd National Heat Transfer Conference. The papers are grouped under the headings of: Heat Transfer for Alternate Energy Technologies; Nuclear Plant Degraded Core Cooling; Direct Flux Solar Energy Process; Numerical Methods for Multiphase Flow System and Component Analysis; General Solar Heat Transfer; Thermal Analysis of Steam Generators; Heat Transfer in Glass; Heat and Mass Transfer During Fluidized Bed Combustion; Single- and Two-Phase Process Heat Transfer.

Farukhi, N.M.

1985-01-01

221

Wound tube heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01

222

Numerical study of heat pipe application in heat recovery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat pipes are two-phase heat transfer devices with extremely high effective thermal conductivity. They can be cylindrical or planar in structure. Heat pipes can be embedded in a metal cooling plate, which is attached to the heat source, and can also be assembled with a fin stack for fluid heat transfer. Due to the high heat transport capacity, heat exchangers

Song Lin; John Broadbent; Ryan McGlen

2005-01-01

223

The heat pipe heat exchangers: Design, technology and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger (HPHE) is a relatively new and very attractice heat exchanger type. For a good understanding of this very special heat exchanger, a minimum knowledge of the heat pipes is required. The heat pipe and thermosyphon basic theory (including the calculation of the thermal limits) is summarized. Some information concerning the heat pipe technological aspects is

S. Chadourne

1991-01-01

224

Multi-lead heat sink  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again. 4 figs.

Roose, L.D.

1984-07-03

225

Multi-lead heat sink  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again.

Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-01-01

226

Multi-lead heat sink  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again.

Roose, L.D.

1982-08-25

227

Integration of Thermal Indoor Conditions into Operational Heat Health Warning Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2003 heat wave in Western Europe with altogether 35,000 to 50,000 deaths in Europe, several thousands of which occurred in Germany, has clearly pointed out the danger arising from long periods with high heat load. As a consequence, Germany, as many other European countries, has started to implement a Heat Health Warning System (HHWS). The German HHWS is based on the ‘Perceived Temperature'. The 'Perceived Temperature' is determined through a heat budget model of the human organism which includes the main thermophysiologically relevant mechanisms of heat exchange with the atmosphere. The most important meteorological ambience parameters included in the model are air temperature, humidity, wind speed and radiation fluxes in the short-wave and long-wave ranges. In addition to using a heat budget model for the assessment of the thermal load, the German HHWS also takes into account that the human body reacts in different ways to its thermal environment due to physiological adaptation (short-term acclimatisation) and short-term behavioural adaptation. The restriction of such an approach, like the majority of approaches used to issue heat warnings, is that the threshold for a warning is generally derived from meteorological observations and that warnings are issued on the basis of weather forecasts. Both, the observed data and the weather forecasts are only available for outside conditions. The group of people who are most at risk of suffering from a heat wave, however, are the elderly and frail who mainly stay inside. The indoor situation, which varies largely from the conditions outside, is not taken into account by most of the warning systems. To overcome this limitation the DWD, in co-operation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, has developed a model which simulates the thermal conditions in the indoor environment. As air-conditioning in private housing in Germany is not very common, the thermal indoor conditions depend on the outside conditions, on the building characteristics, and on the inhabitants' behaviour. The thermal building simulation model estimates the indoor heat load based of the predicted meteorological outside conditions by calculating the operative indoor temperature. The building types prevailing in Germany are quite heterogeneous. It was therefore decided to use for the thermal simulation a so-called "realistic worst-case” building type. In addition, a differentiation is made between two types of user behaviour: the active user opens the windows during the cold hours of the day and uses shading devices whereas the passive user does nothing to keep the heat outside. Since 2007, the DWD has been using the simulation of the indoor thermal conditions as an additional source of information for heat warnings. The information on the indoor conditions has proved very valuable for the decision whether to issue a heat warning or not.

Koppe, C.; Becker, P.; Pfafferott, J.

2009-09-01

228

Precooling heat exchange arrangement integral with mounting structure fairing of gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a gas turbine engine including a core engine, a casing surrounding the core engine and defining an annular cooling compartment, and outer annular nacelle spaced radially outward from the casing and defining therebetween an annular fan duct, and an engine mounting structure extending radially between and interconnecting the nacelle and the casing, a precooling heat exchange arrangement. It comprises a hollow fairing mounted on a forward side of the mounting structure across the main air flow through the fan duct, means for routing a source of high pressure hot bleed air to the fairing; at least one heat exchanger mounted in the fairing and including a heat transfer structure having an interior connected in communication with the routing means; and an air flow control mechanism in communication with and mounted to the fairing.

Miller, F.E.

1992-06-23

229

Integrating physics-based coronal heating and solar wind acceleration in a global MHD model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the mechanisms responsible for heating the Sun's corona and accelerating the solar wind are being actively investigated, it is largely accepted that photospheric motions provide the energy source and that the magnetic field must play a key role in the process. 3D MHD models of the corona and of the solar wind usually employ some phenomenological artifice to accelerate the wind and heat the corona. Within the framework of a 3D full MHD numerical code, we apply the results of Rappazzo et al. [1] on turbulent cascade to heat the closed-field region, and those of Verdini and Velli [2], Verdini et al. [3] on Alfvén turbulence dissipation to accelerate the solar wind. We also compare the properties of the solar wind at 1 A.U. using a formulation based on Verdini and Velli [2], Verdini et al. [3] and one based on Chandran et al. [4].

Lionello, Roberto; Velli, Marco; Linker, Jon A.; Miki?, Zoran

2013-06-01

230

Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonic nano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink.  

PubMed

Although optical tweezers based on far-fields have proven highly successful for manipulating objects larger than the wavelength of light, they face difficulties at the nanoscale because of the diffraction-limited focused spot size. This has motivated interest in trapping particles with plasmonic nanostructures, as they enable intense fields confined to sub-wavelength dimensions. A fundamental issue with plasmonics, however, is Ohmic loss, which results in the water, in which the trapping is performed, being heated and to thermal convection. Here we demonstrate the trapping and rotation of nanoparticles using a template-stripped plasmonic nanopillar incorporating a heat sink. Our simulations predict an ~100-fold reduction in heating compared with previous designs. We further demonstrate the stable trapping of polystyrene particles, as small as 110 nm in diameter, which can be rotated around the nanopillar actively, by manual rotation of the incident linear polarization, or passively, using circularly polarized illumination. PMID:21915111

Wang, Kai; Schonbrun, Ethan; Steinvurzel, Paul; Crozier, Kenneth B

2011-09-13

231

Existing and Past Methods of Test and Rating Standards Related to Integrated Heat Pump Technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates existing and past US methods of test and rating standards related to electrically operated air, water, and ground source air conditioners and heat pumps, 65,000 Btu/hr and under in capacity, that potentiality incorporate a potable water heating function. Two AHRI (formerly ARI) standards and three DOE waivers were identified as directly related. Six other AHRI standards related to the test and rating of base units were identified as of interest, as they would form the basis of any new comprehensive test procedure. Numerous other AHRI and ASHRAE component test standards were also identified as perhaps being of help in developing a comprehensive test procedure.

Reedy, Wayne R. [Sentech, Inc.

2010-07-01

232

The secure heating reactor  

SciTech Connect

The SECURE heating reactor was designed by ASEA-ATOM as a realistic alternative for district heating in urban areas and for supplying heat to process industries. SECURE has unique safety characteristics, that are based on fundamental laws of physics. The safety does not depend on active components or operator intervention for shutdown and cooling of the reactor. The inherent safety characteristics of the plant cannot be affected by operator errors. Due to its very low environment impact, it can be sited close to heat consumers. The SECURE heating reactor has been shown to be competitive in comparison with other alternatives for heating Helsinki and Seoul. The SECURE heating reactor forms a basis for the power-producing SECURE-P reactor known as PIUS (Process Inherent Ultimate Safety), which is based on the same inherent safety principles. The thermohydraulic function and transient response have been demonstrated in a large electrically heated loop at the ASEA-ATOM laboratories.

Pind, C.

1987-11-01

233

Heating Methods of Forgings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with a study of the most usual electrical heating methods of forgings. Those are investigated under ''Norwegian'' conditions. Inductive heating systems seem to be expensive and result in small return on investment for small production ser...

T. Stroemsvik

1982-01-01

234

Miniature Heat Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged 'heat pipes' for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are import...

1997-01-01

235

Sizing plate heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Since their commercial debut in the 1930s, plate heat exchangers have found widespread use in the chemical process industries (CPI). Today, more than two dozen firms market this space-saving and highly efficient type of heat exchanger. One reason for the popularity of plate heat exchangers is that their overall heat-transfer coefficient (U) is superior to that of shell-and-tube heat exchangers [1,2,3,4]. In clean water-to-water service, for example, a shell-and-tube heat exchanger has a U value of 350 Btu/ft[sup 2]-h-F, much lower than the 1,000 of a plate design at the same pressure drop. However, the plate heat exchanger's much higher U values also mean that fouling factors have a much greater effect on calculations of exchanger surface area. The right fouling factor is the key to specifying plate heat exchanger areas correctly.

Kerner, J. (Alberts and Associates, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1993-11-01

236

Heat storage material  

SciTech Connect

When strontium oxide is applied as a nucleating agent to calcium chloride-hexahydrate as a heat storage material, a supercooling phenomenon of the resulting heat storage material can be suppressed to be slight.

Yanadori, M.; Miyamoto, S.

1984-08-14

237

Pipe Heat Transfer Calculation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a group of computer programs to determine heat transfer of multiple pipe systems as well as to evaluate economics of underground heat distribution systems. ...Software Description: The system is written in the FORTRAN V programming language for im...

1973-01-01

238

Metal hydride heat pump  

SciTech Connect

A metal hydride heat pump is disclosed comprising a first and a second heat medium receptacle having heat media flowing therein and a plurality of closed vessels each containing a hydrogen gas atmosphere and divided into a first chamber having a first metal hydride filled therein and a second chamber having a second metal hydride filled therein. The first and second chambers of each closed vessel are made to communicate with each other so that hydrogen gas passes from one chamber to the other but the metal hydrides do not, and a group of the first chambers of the closed vessels being located within the first heat medium receptacle and a group of the second chambers of the closed vessels being located within the second heat medium receptacle, whereby heat exchange is carried out between the heat media in the first and second heat medium receptacles and the first and second metal hydrides through the external walls of the closed vessels.

Nishizaki, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Miyamoto, M.; Nakata, Y.; Yamaji, K.; Yoshida, K.

1983-12-27

239

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

DOEpatents

A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

Ernst, D.M.

1984-10-23

240

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A subterranean furnace contains a shell in which a plurality of bricks are arranged in a mass. A mirror reflects sun light into the furnace chamber and onto a magnifying glass which concentrates the heat on the bricks. Air is circulated through the furnace chamber and is heated by the heat which is stored in the bricks. A gas burner is mounted beneath the mass of bricks to supply supplemental heat when needed.

Smith, J.

1982-07-20

241

Solar heat receiver  

DOEpatents

A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

1982-09-29

242

Heat pump technology  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive handbook on the theory and the practical aspects of heat pumps covers (1) applications and types, (2) thermodynamic principles, (3) potential heat sources, (4) considerations for calculating operating costs and economics, (5) the heat pump's position in the energy industry, (6) designs and systems, (7) development and experience, and (8) practical examples.

von Cube, H.L.; Steimle, F.

1981-01-01

243

The heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat pipe is a device having a high thermal conductance which utilizes the transport of a vapour and rejection of latent heat to achieve efficient thermal energy transport. The theory of heat pipes is well developed. Their use in applications involving temperatures in the cryogenic regime, and with development units running as high as 2000 degrees C, shows that

P. D. Dunn; D. A. Reay

1973-01-01

244

HEAT TRANSFER MEANS  

DOEpatents

A heat exchanger is adapted to unifomly cool a spherical surface. Equations for the design of a spherical heat exchanger hav~g tubes with a uniform center-to-center spining are given. The heat exchanger is illustrated in connection with a liquid-fueled reactor.

Fraas, A.P.; Wislicenus, G.F.

1961-07-11

245

Waste heat management guidebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven papers on sources of waste heat in industrial processes and the technical and economic aspects of heat recovery are presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each chapter; one chapter, Economics of Waste Heat Recovery, by R. Ruegg of NBS, is included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (LCL)

K. G. Kreider; M. B. McNeil

1977-01-01

246

Heat transfer - Denver 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Symposium Series volume contains AIChE-sponsored session papers accepted for presentation at the 23rd National Heat Transfer Conference. The papers are grouped under the headings of: Heat Transfer for Alternate Energy Technologies; Nuclear Plant Degraded Core Cooling; Direct Flux Solar Energy Process; Numerical Methods for Multiphase Flow System and Component Analysis; General Solar Heat Transfer; Thermal Analysis of Steam Generators;

Farukhi

1985-01-01

247

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOEpatents

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01

248

Automotive heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and system is disclosed for extracting heat units from a relatively lower temperature zone of a cooling system for a Stirling engine and conveying the heat units to a relatively higher temperature zone serving as the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The system is reversible for either heating or cooling of the passenger compartment. The system makes it

Kreger

1978-01-01

249

Plasma heating in JET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heating the JET plasma well above temperatures reached in the ohmic phase is the aim of the two additional heating systems planned for JET: ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRF) and neutral beam injection (NBI). Operations with the latter started in February 1986, initially with hydrogen injection, up to a power level of 7 MW. ICRF power has been delivered to

A. Ainsworth; H. Altmann; R. J. Anderson; J. Arbez; D. Bartlett; W. Bailey; K. Behringer; E. Bertolini; P. Bertoldi; C. H. Best; V. Bhatnagar; R. J. Bickerton; G. Boissin; T. Bonicelli; S. Booth; A. Boschi; G. Bosia; M. Botman; H. Brelen; H. Brinkschulte; M. L. Browne; M. Brusati; T. Budd; M. Bures; P. Butcher; H. Buttgereit; D. Cacaut; C. Caldwell-Nichols; D. Campbell; J. Carwardine; G. Celentano; C. D. Challis; A. Cheetman; J. Christiansen; C. Christodoulopoulos; P. Chuilon; R. Claesen; J. P. Coad; M. Cooke; J. G. Cordey; W. Core; S. Corti; A. E. Costley; G. Cottrell; J. Dean; E. Deksnis; G. Deschamps; K. J. Dietz; J. Dobbing; S. E. Dorling; D. F. Duechs; G. Duesing; H. Duquenoy; L. de Kock; A. Edwards; W. Engelhardt; F. Erhorn; B. Eriksson; H. Falter; T. Hellsten; J. L. Hemmerich; R. Hemsworth; F. Hendriks; R. F. Herzog; L. Horton; J. How; M. Huart; A. Hubbard; M. Hugon; P. Jones; J. Kaeline; A. Kaellne; A. Kaye; B. E. Keen; M. Keilhacker; G. Kinahan; A. Konstantellos; P. Kupschus; P. Lallia; J. R. Last; N. Foden; C. Froger; K. Fullard; A. Galetsas; A. Gallacher; A. Gibson; R. D. Gill; A. Geode; A. Gondhalekar; N. A. Gottardi; C. Gowers; R. Granetz; B. Green; S. Gregoli; F. S. Griph; R. Haange; C. J. Hancock; P. Harbour; R. F. Herog; J. Kaellne; L. Lauro-Taroni; E. Lazzaro; R. C. Lobel; P. Lomas; M. Lorenzo-Gottardi; C. Lowry; G. Magyar; D. Maissonneir; M. Malacarne; V. Marchese; P. Massmann; P. McMullen; M. J. Mead; P. Meriguet; V. Merlo; S. Mills; P. Millward; A. Moissonnier; P. L. Mondini; P. Morgan; G. Murphy; M. F. Nave; L. Nickesson; P. Nielson; P. Noll; S. Nowak; W. Obert; B. Oliver; M. Olsson; J. O'Rourke; M. G. Pacco; J. Paillere; L. Pannacione; S. Papastergiou; D. Pasini; M. Pescatore; J. Planncoulaine; J. P. Poffe; R. Prentice; T. Raimondi; C. Raymond; P. H. Rebut; J. Removille; W. Riediker; R. Roberts; A. Rolfe; R. T. Ross; G. Sadler; J. Saffert; N. Salmon; A. Sand; A. Santagiustina; R. Saunders; M. Schmid; F. C. Schueller; K. Selin; R. Shaw; D. Sigournay; R. Simonini; P. Smeulders; L. Sonnerup; K. Sonnenberg; M. Stamp; C. A. Steed; D. Stork; P. E. Stott; T. E. Stringer; D. Summers; A. Tanga; A. Taroni; A. Terrington; A. Tesini; P. R. Thomas; E. Thompson; F. Tibone; R. Tivery; E. Usselmann; H. Van der Beken; M. Von Hellerman; J. E. Van Montfoort; T. Wade; C. Walker; B. A. Wallander; M. Walravens; K. Walter; M. L. Watkins; M. Watson; D. Webberley; J. Wesson; J. Wilks; T. Winkel; C. Woodward; M. Wykes; D. Young; L. Zennelili; J. Zwart; B. Beaumont; D. Gambier; D. Moreau; J. Ehrenberg; H. Jaeckel; S. Kissel; U. Kuephnapfel; R. Mueller; A. Staebler; A. Weller; J. H. Hamnen; M. Evrared; M. Gadeberg; K. Thomsen; P. Dupperrex; G. Tonetti; N. Lopez-Cardozo; B. Tubbing; J. Von Seggern; J. Tagle; F. Bombarda; G. Bracco; R. Giannella; R. Carolan; M. Cox; M. Forrest; D. Goodall; N. Hawkes; P. Haynes; J. Hugill; K. D. Lawson; G. McCracken; J. Partridge; N. Peacock; J. Snipes; T. Todd; H. Schamel; H. Summers; S. Tsuji; G. Tallents

1986-01-01

250

Heat exchanger antifoulant  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a process for reducing the fouling in a heat exchanger in which a hydrocarbon stream is heated or cooled as it passes through the heat exchanger. From 1 to 500 parts per million of a saturated sulfoxide is added to the stream to reduce fouling.

Ferm, R.L.

1984-09-04

251

Heat exchanger antifoulant  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a process for reducing the fouling in a heat exchanger in which a hydrocarbon stream is heated or cooled as it passes through the heat exchanger. From 1 to 500 parts per million of an alkylamino alkylphenol is added to the stream to reduce fouling.

Ferm, R.L.; Kray, L.R.

1984-03-06

252

Heat exchanger antifoulant  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a process for reducing the fouling in a heat exchanger in which a hydrocarbon stream is heated or cooled as it passes through the heat exchanger. From 1 to 500 parts per million of the reaction product of a polyalkylene amine and a hydroxy fatty acid are added to the stream to reduce fouling.

Ferm, R.L.

1984-02-14

253

Heat exchanger antifoulant  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a process for reducing the fouling in a heat exchanger in which a hydrocarbon stream is heated or cooled as it passes through the heat exchanger. From 1 to 500 parts per million of an organic hydroxylamine is added to the stream to reduce fouling.

Ferm, R. L.

1985-11-05

254

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to

1984-01-01

255

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion

Donald M

1984-01-01

256

Postharvest heat treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postharvest heat treatments are being used for disinfestation and disinfection of an increasing variety of crops, including flowers, fruits and vegetables. This review focuses on the effects of heat on the commodity and its postharvest quality. The effects of a postharvest heat treatment on aspects of ripening and development of thermotolerance is discussed. Ethylene production, respiration, softening, color change and

Susan Lurie

1998-01-01

257

Microtube strip heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this contract has been to explore the limits of miniaturization of heat exchangers with the goals of (1) improving the theoretical understanding of laminar heat exchangers, (2) evaluating various manufacturing difficulties, and (3) identifying major applications for the technology. A low-cost, ultra-compact heat exchanger could have an enormous impact on industry in the areas of cryocoolers and

F. D. Doty

1992-01-01

258

Pitot heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pitot heat pump is described wherein a multi-stage pitot pump is employed as the compression means in a heat pump thermodynamic cycle. The heat pump is comprised of a multi-stage vapor pitot pump, liquid pitot pump, turbine, vaporizer, evaporator, condenser and expansion valve. The turbine is used to rotate a shaft to which the impellers of the pitot pump

Grose

1981-01-01

259

Heat storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention provides systems for transfer of heat such as useful in solar energy systems. A heat storage medium is used, preferably salt conditioned by anticaking anti-corrosive treatment whereby hydrated salts have increased utility by remaining granular during severe temperature and humidity changes, permitting the salt to be used more effectively as a heat storage and exchange medium. The

Dumbeck

1979-01-01

260

Heat transfer pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat transfer pipe for use in a heat exchanger such as air conditioner, freezer and boiler is disclosed wherein grooves are formed in the inner wall surface of the pipe, which are by far finer in size than the grooves that have been provided for the purpose of increasing the heat transfer area in general, and slanting relative to

K. Fujie; M. Itoh; T. Innami; H. Kimura; W. Nakayama; T. Yanagida

1977-01-01

261

Training in the Heat  

MedlinePLUS

... surgeon and chief of the Houston Methodist Center for Sports Medicine. "Kids need time to adjust to the heat," he said in a Houston Methodist news release. "Going from all-day air ... athletes at risk for heat-related illnesses, such as heat exhaustion or ...

262

Integrated use of solar panels and a waste heat scavenger. Progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this project were to: (1) install energy measurement devices on commercially available solar collectors and a heat scavenger attached to the dairy refrigeration system; and (2) make the results of the demonstration available to other dairy farmers. The objectives have been accomplished. Measurement devices have been installed and are currently establishing a data base on system performance.

J. H. Jarrell; B. R. Miller; W. M. Jr. Smathers

1980-01-01

263

Maximum Nighttime Urban Heat Island (UHI) Intensity Simulation by Integrating Remotely Sensed Data and Meteorological Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing of the urban heat island (UHI) effect has been conducted largely through simple correlation and regression between the UHI's spatial variations and surface characteristics. Few studies have examined the surface UHI from a temporal perspective and related it with climatic and meteorological factors. By selecting the city of Beijing, China, as the study area, the purpose of this

Ji Zhou; Yunhao Chen; Jinfei Wang; Wenfeng Zhan

2011-01-01

264

Integrated three-dimensional module heat exchanger for power electronics cooling  

DOEpatents

Embodiments discussed herein are directed to a power semiconductor packaging that removes heat from a semiconductor package through one or more cooling zones that are located in a laterally oriented position with respect to the semiconductor package. Additional embodiments are directed to circuit elements that are constructed from one or more modular power semiconductor packages.

Bennion, Kevin; Lustbader, Jason

2013-09-24

265

Integrity and thermal decomposition of apatite in coatings influenced by underlying titanium during plasma spraying and post-heat-treatment.  

PubMed

The integrity and thermal decomposition of calcium apatite are influenced by the underlying titanium during plasma-spraying deposition, especially at the apatite/titanium interface. The destruction of apatite at the interface is governed by substrate temperature, titanium catalysis, and its reaction with titanium dioxide produced from oxidation of titanium in the plasma gas. The apatite in the outer layer of coatings is affected mainly by the substrate temperature and can keep its integrity with a suitable plasma-spraying procedure to minimize the increase of substrate temperature. The heat treatment of the coatings in vacuum results in the decomposition of apatite to alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) and tetracalcium phosphate monoxide (TCPM) with the increase of intensity approaching the interface, which roughens the surface of the coatings. In the air-heat treatment, oxidation of titanium produces a thickened, dense rutile layer at the interface which prevents titanium atoms from diffusing into the coatings and inhibits the titanium-catalyzed decomposition of apatite. The apatite adjacent to the rutile layer reacts moderately with rutile to produce calcium titanate (CaTiO3), alpha- and beta-TCP, while the apatite in the outer layer, separated from the rutile layer, maintains its integrity without decomposition even in a prolonged air-heat treatment. The retention of apatite integrity leads to a decreased surface roughness of the coating. PMID:8788100

Weng, J; Liu, X; Zhang, X; de Groot, K

1996-01-01

266

Numerical methods in heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite element methods in thermal problems are considered along with the automatic solution of thermal problems, the heat transfer simulation of composite devices, a comparison of two- and three-level integration schemes for nonlinear heat conduction, boundary elements in thermal problems, and boundary integral equations used to solve thermoelastic problems. Attention is given to a boundary solution approach for the dynamic problem of thermoviscoelasticity theory, thermal and stress analysis of composite nuclear fuel rods by numerical methods, approaches for dealing with moving boundaries in thermal problems, multidimensional integral phase change approximations for finite element conduction codes, and the effect of free convection on entry flow between horizontal parallel plates. Other topics explored are related to a finite element solution for freezing problems, coupled convective and conductive heat transfer in the analysis of dry rock geothermal sources, and heat flow modeling in underground coal liquefaction.

Lewis, R. W.; Morgan, K.; Zienkiewicz, O. C.

267

Heat-Related Illness in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat stroke in athletes is entirely preventable. Exertional heat illness is generally the result of increased heat production and impaired dissipation of heat. It should be treated aggressively to avoid life-threatening complications. The continuum of heat illness includes mild disease (heat edema, heat rash, heat cramps, heat syncope), heat exhaustion, and the most severe form, potentially life-threatening heat stroke. Heat

Allyson S. Howe; Barry P. Boden

2007-01-01

268

Chemical heat pump  

DOEpatents

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

1980-01-01

269

The Estimation of Heat Outputs for Road Heating Installations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heat transfer coefficients relating heat losses from surfaces of heated roads to wind speed and the difference between air and surface temperatures have been derived from measurements made during icy conditions. The magnitude of the heat flow downwards fr...

P. J. Williamson

1967-01-01

270

Heat-treatment options and heating times for ash firewood  

Treesearch

New regulations for heat sterilization of ash firewood require holding a core ... than the current international heating standard for treating solid wood packaging. ... factors that control the heating rate and result in differences in heating times.

271

Heating and cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heating and cooling homes and businesses require a major energy commitment. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the energy needed to heat and cool homes and workplaces. Students explore energy requirements in the home and at work and discuss current technologies to improve heating and cooling efficiencies. Articles on heat pumps and solar heating and cooling techniques are accessible from a sidebar. A link to a PBS NewsHour article on air conditioning efficiency and a link to material discussing alternatives to air conditioning are also provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

272

Evaluating heat tracing  

SciTech Connect

Heat tracing is a method to maintain the temperature of the contents of a pipe or container. Some applications for heat tracing include maintaining process fluids at pumpable viscosities, preventing phase change and/or component separation in liquids, and keeping water from freezing when ambient temperatures are sufficiently low. To maximize efficiency and minimize energy costs, heat tracing is used in conjunction with appropriate thermal insulation. The paper discusses the types of heat tracing (steam and electric), the evaluation of electric heat tracing, and comparing costs.

Thompson, J.C. [Raychem Corp., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

1997-09-01

273

Heat Removal with Graphene Lateral Heat Spreaders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Device downscaling leads to higher chip power densities. A possible approach for heat removal from the localized hot spots is incorporation to chips of materials with high thermal conductivity. Recently, graphene and few-layer graphene (FLG) were proposed for heat removal owing to their superior thermal conductivity [1]. To evaluate the feasibility of this approach we simulated numerically heat propagation in SOI-based chip with and without graphene layers. It was found that incorporation of graphene or FLG can lead to substantial reduction of the hot spot's temperature [2]. The obtained results and are important for the design of graphene heat spreaders and interconnects [3]. [4pt] [1] A.A. Balandin, et al., Nano Lett., 8, (2008); S. Ghosh, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, (2008) [0pt] [2] S. Subrina, et al., Electron Dev. Lett., December (2009) [0pt] [3] A.A. Balandin, ``New materials can keep chips cool,'' IEEE Spectrum, October 2009

Subrina, S.; Kotchetkov, D.; Ghosh, S.; Balandin, A. A.

2010-03-01

274

Integrated heat pipe-thermal storage design for a solar receiver. [Constant power source with heat from sun or from storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light-weight heat pipe wall elements that incorporate a thermal storage subassembly within the vapor space are being developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power Systems (ORC-SDPS) receiver for the space station application. The operating temperature of he heat pipe elements is in the 770 to 810°K range with a design power throughput of 4.8 kW per

E. S. Keddy; J. T. Sena; K. Woloshun; M. A. Merrigan; G. Heidenreich

1986-01-01

275

Flexible heating head for induction heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An induction heating head includes a length of wire having first and second opposite ends and being wound in a flat spiral shape to form an induction coil, a capacitor connected to the first and second ends of the wire, the induction coil and capacitor defining a tank circuit, and a flexible, elastomeric body molded to encase the induction coil. When a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the body, and the tank circuit is powered, the susceptor is inductively heated.

Fox, Robert L.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris

1993-11-01

276

Equivalent combined systems of three-heat-source heat pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the equivalent combined systems of three-heat-source heat pumps are studied. It is pointed out that there may be three combined ways for us to conceive a reversible three-heat-source heat pump as a combined system having a reversible Carnot heat pump driven by a reversible Carnot engine. Whereas for an endoreversible three-heat-source heat pump affected by the heat

Jincan Chen; Zijun Yan

1989-01-01

277

Optimal design of the separate type heat pipe heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separate type heat pipe heat exchangers are often used for large-scale heat exchanging. The arrangement of such a heat exchanger\\u000a conveniently allows heat input to and output from the heat exchanger at remote locations. The traditional method of designing\\u000a an ordinary HPHE (heat pipe heat exchanger) is commonly applied in the separate type exchanger design, but the calculations\\u000a have to

Zi-tao Yu; Ya-cai Hu; Ke-fa Cen

2005-01-01

278

The use of heat pumps in district heat supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost elements of heat pump heat supply stations are examined and the optimum relationship between peak load boiler and heat pump output is shown. The dependence of plant size and temperature on heat generating costs is indicated and the costs of heat distribution and heat transfer are analysed. The possibility of a combined system of chop and heat pumps for the transport of heat over larger distances is shown.

Winkens, H. P.

1985-04-01

279

Heat pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

1983-01-01

280

Nanofluid heat capacities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

2011-12-01

281

Integrated heat pipe-thermal storage design for a solar receiver. [Constant power source with heat from sun or from storage  

SciTech Connect

Light-weight heat pipe wall elements that incorporate a thermal storage subassembly within the vapor space are being developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power Systems (ORC-SDPS) receiver for the space station application. The operating temperature of he heat pipe elements is in the 770 to 810/sup 0/K range with a design power throughput of 4.8 kW per pipe. The total heat pipe length is 1.9 M. The Rankine cycle boiler heat transfer surfaces are positioned within the heat pipe vapor space, providing a relatively constant temperature input to the vaporizer. The heat pipe design employs axial arteries and distribution wicked thermal storage units with potassium as the working fluid. Stainless steel is used as the containment tube and screen material. Performance predictions for this configuration have been conducted and the design characterized as a function of artery geometry, distribution wick thickness, porosity, pore size, and permeability. Details of the analysis and of fabrication and assembly procedures are presented. 2 refs., 8 figs.

Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Heidenreich, G.

1986-01-01

282

Research on Heat Transfer Enhancement of Lubricating-Oil Cooler with Mixing Integral Pin-Fin Tubes and Plain Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design A lot of comparison experimental researches have been done to the lubricating-oil cooler with mixing integral pin-fin tubes and plain tubes double-flowing from an plain tubes lubricating-oil cooler. It is discovered that when oil volume flowing rate is same, exchanged heat per volume by the former is higher, and the pressure is lower, and the ability to transferred

Guang-lin Niu; Chang-qi Yan; Shuai Shi

2010-01-01

283

An experimental integrated absorption heat pump effluent purification system. Part II: operating on water\\/Carrol solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental integrated absorption heat pump effluent purification system (IAHPEPS) was built and originally operated with water-lithium bromide as a working mixture. The experimental results of IAHPEPS operated with water-Carrol as a working mixture are presented. Tap water was used as effluent and distilled water was obtained after purification. Pure effluent production rates ranged between 1.2 and 4 kg h?1.

S Santoyo-Gutiérrez; J Siqueiros; C. L Heard; E Santoyo; F. A Holland

2000-01-01

284

Heat Pipe Cooling System with Sensible Heat Sink.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A heat pipe cooling system which employs a sensible heat sink is discussed. With this type of system, incident aerodynamic heat is transported via a heat pipe from the stagnation region to the heat sink and absorbed by raising the temperature of the heat ...

C. C. Silverstein

1988-01-01

285

Isothermal Solar Heat Storage Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A group of over 200 potential phase change heat storage materials, melting from 10-90C was identified. Laboratory tests narrowed these to materials recommended for hot faucet water, hydronic heating, forced air heating, heat pump application, radiant wall...

G. A. Lane J. S. Best

1975-01-01

286

Internal heat integrated distillation columns (iHIDiCs)—New systematic design methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillation of close-boiling mixtures, such as propylene–propane and ethyl benzene–styrene systems, is an energy intensive process. Vapor recompression techniques and heat pumping-assisted columns have been adopted for such applications for their high potential of energy savings. In direct vapor recompression columns, the vapors leaving the top of the column are compressed, and in the reboiler of the same column, these

Mamdouh A. Gadalla

2009-01-01

287

A design method for internal heat integrated distillation columns (iHIDiCs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillation of close-boiling mixtures, such as propylene-propane and ethyl benzene-styrene systems, is an energy intensive process. Vapor recompression (VRC) techniques and heat pumping-assisted columns have been adopted for such applications for their high potential of energy savings. In direct vapor recompression columns, the vapor leaving the top of the distillation column is compressed and then it is condensed in the

Mamdouh Gadalla; Zarko Olujic; Laureano Jiménez Esteller; Gonzalo Guillén-Gosálbez

2007-01-01

288

Heat stroke and cytokines.  

PubMed

Heat stroke is a life-threatening illness that affects all segments of society, including the young, aged, sick, and healthy. The recent high death toll in France (Dorozynski, 2003) and the death of high-profile athletes has increased public awareness of the adverse effects of heat injury. However, the etiology of the long-term consequences of this syndrome remains poorly understood such that preventive/treatment strategies are needed to mitigate its debilitating effects. Cytokines are important modulators of the acute phase response (APR) to stress, infection, and inflammation. Current data implicating cytokines in heat stroke responses are mainly from correlation studies showing elevated plasma levels in heat stroke patients and experimental animal models. Correlation data fall far short of revealing the mechanisms of cytokine actions such that additional research to determine the role of these endogenous substances in the heat stroke syndrome is required. Furthermore, cytokine determinations have occurred mainly at end-stage heat stroke, such that the role of these substances in progression and long-term recovery is poorly understood. Despite several studies implicating cytokines in heat stroke pathophysiology, few studies have examined the protective effect(s) of cytokine antagonism on the morbidity and mortality of heat stroke. This is particularly surprising since heat stroke responses resemble those observed in the endotoxemic syndrome, for which a role for endogenous cytokines has been strongly implicated. The implication of cytokines as mediators of endotoxemia and the presence of circulating endotoxin in heat stroke patients suggests that much knowledge can be gained from applying our current understanding of endotoxemic pathophysiology to the study of heat stroke. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved proteins that function as molecular chaperones for denatured proteins and reciprocally modulate cytokine production in response to stressful stimuli. HSPs have been shown repeatedly to confer protection in heat stroke and injury models. Interactions between HSPs and cytokines have received considerable attention in the literature within the last decade such that a complex pathway of interactions between cytokines, HSPs, and endotoxin is thought to be occurring in vivo in the orchestration of the APR to heat injury. These data suggest that much of the pathophysiologic changes observed with heat stroke are not a consequence of heat exposure, per se, but are representative of interactions among these three (and presumably additional) components of the innate immune response. This chapter will provide an overview of current knowledge regarding cytokine, HSP, and endotoxin interactions in heat stroke pathophysiology. Insight is provided into the potential therapeutic benefit of cytokine neutralization for mitigation of heat stroke morbidity and mortality based on our current understanding of their role in this syndrome. PMID:17645934

Leon, Lisa R

2007-01-01

289

Heat recovery in refrigeration: I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers heat recovery methods, hot gas reclaim, load calculations, and piping (series and parallel) considerations with regard to refrigeration systems. Presents diagrams showing early heat recovery system; discharge gas heat recovery system with heat recovery condenser below main condenser; discharge gas heat recovery system parallel hookup; and discharge gas heat recovery system with highside float control. Explains that all refrigeration

1983-01-01

290

Magnetic susceptibility and low-temperature specific heat of the integrable one-dimensional Hubbard model under open-boundary conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic susceptibility and the low-temperature specific heat of the one-dimensional Hubbard model under the integrable open-boundary conditions are discussed through the Bethe ansatz with the string hypothesis. The contributions of the boundary fields to both the susceptibility and the specific heat are obtained, and their exact expressions are analytically derived.

Ruihong Yue; Tetsuo Deguchi

1997-01-01

291

Heat transfer in energy problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of recent research are presented concerning heat transfer in energy problems, including high-temperature heat transfer, high-flux heat transfer, high-performance heat transfer, heat transfer in nonconventional energy (power and propulsion) systems, and novel heat transfer techniques. Topics discussed include studies of full-coverage film cooling, radiative properties of metals and alloys at high temperature, critical heat flux conditions in high-quality boiling systems, heat transfer characteristics of the evaporation of a liquid droplet on heated surfaces, high-performance surfaces for non-boiling heat transfer, and high performance heat transfer surfaces for boiling and condensation. Also examined are high flux heat transfer in gaseous solid suspension flow, nuclear process heat applications of high temperature heat exchange, heat transfer considerations in the use of new energy resources, and high performance mist-cooled condensers for geothermal binary cycle plants. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

Mizushina, T.; Yang, W. J.

292

Heat transfer characteristics of a gas-to-gas heat exchanger using heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat transfer characteristics of a gas-to-gas heat exchanger employing heat pipes as the heat transfer elements were examined. Experimental data obtained on the heat exchanger containing 66 finned heat pipes were compared with the values calculated by using various empirical and theoretical equations. A basic design procedure for gas-to-gas heat exchangers using heat pipes was then established. The results

Y. Wakiyama; K. Harada; S. Inoue; J. Fujita; H. Suematsu

1978-01-01

293

Heat-pipe Earth.  

PubMed

The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics. PMID:24067709

Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

2013-09-26

294

Heat Integration of the Water-Gas Shift Reaction System for Carbon Sequestration Ready IGCC Process with Chemical Looping  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been considered as an important alternative for efficient power systems that can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. One of the technological schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion as post gasification techniques in order to produce sequestration-ready CO2 and potentially reduce the size of the gas turbine. However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be applied to obtain an optimal flowsheet. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). This approach allows a rigorous evaluation of the alternative designs and their combinations avoiding all the AEA simplifications (linearized models of heat exchangers). A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case. Highly influential parameters for the pos gasification technologies (i.e. CO/steam ratio, gasifier temperature and pressure) were calculated to obtain the minimum cost of energy while chemical looping parameters (oxidation and reduction temperature) were ensured to be satisfied.

Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

2010-01-01

295

Induction Heating Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induction heating technology, a magnetic non-deforming process, was developed by Langley researchers to join plastic and composite components in space. Under NASA license, Inductron Corporation uses the process to produce induction heating systems and equipment for numerous applications. The Torobonder, a portable system, comes with a number of interchangeable heads for aircraft repair. Other developments are the E Heating Head, the Toroid Joining Gun, and the Torobrazer. These products perform bonding applications more quickly, safely and efficiently than previous methods.

1991-01-01

296

NCSX Plasma Heating Methods  

SciTech Connect

The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows.

H.W. Kugel; D. Spong; R. Majeski; M. Zarnstorff

2003-02-28

297

NCSX Plasma Heating Methods  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.

H.W. Kugel, D. Spong, R. Majeski and M. Zarnstorff

2008-01-18

298

To Heat or Not to Heat?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to various types of energy with a focus on thermal energy and types of heat transfer as they are challenged to design a better travel thermos that is cost efficient, aesthetically pleasing and meets the design objective of keeping liquids hot. They base their design decisions on material properties such thermal conductivity, cost and function. These engineering and science concepts are paired with student experiences to build an understanding of heat transfer as it plays a role in their day-to-day lives. While this introduction only shows the top level concepts surrounding the mathematics associated with heat transfer; the skills become immediately useful as students apply what they know to solve an engineering challenge.

Culturally Relevant Engineering Application in Mathematics GK-12 Program,

299

Heat transport performance of axially grooved heat pipe with multiple heating points  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes experimental results and a calculation method for heat transport of heat pipe with multiple heating points. The axially grooved wick heat pipe was made of aluminum alloy and its working fluid was ammonia. The maximum rates of heat transport were obtained by changing the positions and the numbers of heat sources. Based on the experimental results, a

Akihiro Miyasaka; Katsuhiko Nakajima

1989-01-01

300

Electric heating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An electric heating apparatus is disclosed for heating foods and liquids in a cooking vessel. It's comprising: a metal upper part, having an upper cooking surface and a lower surface; a metal lower part covering the bottom of the heating apparatus, a sealable space being formed between the upper part and the lower part; and, at least one tubular heating device with a metal covering arranged in the space and having a large flat contact surface for thermally conductively engaging the lower surface of the upper metal part, the space having at least a partial vacuum formed therein, the at least partial vacuum reducing convective heat loss and imparting a concave distortion to the upper metal part which counteracts a convex distortion of the upper metal part due to expansion upon heating, thereby holding the upper metal part substantially flat during heating and maximizing surface contact between the cooking surface and a cooking vessel resting thereon, whereby heat is transferred from the cooking surface to the cooking vessel with maximum efficiency. The apparatus may also be constructed as a receptacle for directly heating foods or liquids.

Fischer, K.

1984-02-14

301

Heat Capacity Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore water. For temperatures in the trans-boiling regime (95 C to 114 C), the additional energy required to vaporize the pore water is accounted for in the rock-mass heat capacity. The rock-grain heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that explicitly account for the thermodynamic effects of the water within the rock porosity. The rock-mass heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that do not explicitly account for these thermodynamic effects, particularly boiling. The term specific heat is often used synonymously with heat capacity; however, the latter term is used throughout this document.

A. Findikakis

2004-11-01

302

Heat and mass exchanger  

SciTech Connect

A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

2007-09-18

303

Heat rejection system  

DOEpatents

A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

304

Solar heat collector  

SciTech Connect

A compact, self-contained solar heat collector is disclosed which is particularly suited for addition to new or existing structures in the form of window shutters, exterior siding, awnings, columnar elements and the like. The exterior glazing (32) of the collector includes undulating transverse pane segments (36, 38, 118, 156), the angle of which is chosen to optimize insolation during winter months. Beneath the preferably sharp peaks and valleys of such undulations is positioned a heat absorption, storage and exchange assembly (42-64) which defines an enclosed heat transfer cavity (42, 122, 134, 142) through which a heat transfer fluid such as air is directed.

Helman, E.R.; Buford, S.P.; Christopher, J.N.; Fava, D.C.; Helman, H.A.; Holtschneider, H.B.

1984-04-17

305

Microtube strip heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchanger. DSI completed a heat exchanger stress analysis of the ten-module heat exchanger bank; and, performed a shell-side flow inhomogeneity analysis of the three-module heat exchanger bank. The company produced 50 tubestrips using an in-house CNC milling machine and began pressing them onto tube arrays. DSI revised some of the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips into the array to improve some of the prototype tooling. 2 refs., 4 figs.

Doty, F.D.

1991-07-08

306

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01

307

Convective heat transfer in planetary dynamo models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic fields of planets and stars are generated by the motions of electrically conducting fluids within them. These fluid motions are thought to be driven by convective processes, as internal heat is transported outward. The efficiency with which heat is transferred by convection is integral in understanding dynamo processes. Several heat transfer scaling laws have been proposed, but the

Eric M. King; Krista M. Soderlund; Ulrich R. Christensen; Johannes Wicht; Jonathan M. Aurnou

2010-01-01

308

Upgrading heat by a reversed absorption heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of a reversed absorption heat pump's performance for upgrading low temperature waste-heat from industrial processes and solar heat from a flat-plate solar collector has been carried out. In the case of upgrading waste-heat, the ratio of output to input heat decreases as the temperature at which the output heat is needed increases. For water heating, the performance of the

T. Kiatsiriroat; S. C. Bhattacharya; P. Wibulswas

1986-01-01

309

Boiling heat transfer in compact heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Small circular and noncircular channels are representative of flow passages in compact evaporators and condensers. This paper describes results of an experimental study on heat transfer to the flow boiling of refrigerant- 12 in a small circular tube of diameter = 2.46 mm. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of channel size on the heat transfer coefficient and to obtain additional insights relative to the heat transfer mechanisms. The flow channel was made of brass and had an overall length of 0.9 m. The channel wall was electrically heated, and temperatures were measured on the channel wall and in the bulk fluid stream. Voltage taps were located at the same axial locations as the stream thermocouples to allow testing over an exit quality range of 0.21 to 0.94 and a large range of mass flux (63 to 832 kg/m{sup 2}s) and heat flux (2.5 to 59 kW/m{sup 2}). Saturation pressure was nearly constant, averaging 0.82 MPa for most of the testing; a few test data were also taken at a constant lower pressure of 0.52 MPa. Local heat transfer coefficients were determined experimentally. Analysis provided additional support for the conclusion, arrived at from previous studies, that a nucleation mechanism dominates for flow boiling in small channels; nevertheless, a convective-dominant region was identified at very low values of wall superheat (<{approx}3{degrees}C). Previous flow boiling studies in small channels, that did not include wall superheats this low, did not encounter the convective dominant mechanism. Conversely, cryogenic studies at very low wall superheats ({approx}l{degree}C) did not encounter the nucleation dominant regime. The apparent discrepancy is explained by the results of this study.

Tran, T.N.; Wambsganss, M.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); France, D.M. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1994-12-31

310

Heat recovery in distillation by means of absorption heat pumps and heat transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of absorption heat pumps and transformers in distillation processes is considered. Single-stage and two-stage devices of different configuration are compared on the basis of a simplified evaluation of the operating costs (in terms of a steam-saving factor, SSF) and of the fixed costs (in terms of heat-storage capacity, HSC).The major parameters affecting the results are the operating temperature

Vincenzo Tufano

1997-01-01

311

Performance Analysis of a Thermoelectric Solar Collector Integrated with a Heat Pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel heat pump system is proposed. A thermoelectric solar collector was coupled to a solar-assisted heat pump (TESC-HP) to work as an evaporator. The cooling effect of the system's refrigerant allowed the cold side of the system's thermoelectric modules to work at lower temperature, improving the conversion efficiency. The TESC-HP system mainly consisted of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate that acted as a direct expansion-type collector/evaporator, an R-134a piston-type hermetic compressor, a water-cooled plate-type condenser, thermoelectric modules, and a water storage tank. Test results indicated that the TESC-HP has better coefficient of performance (COP) and conversion efficiency than the separate units. For the meteorological conditions in Mahasarakham, the COP of the TESC-HP system can reach 5.48 when the average temperature of 100 L of water is increased from 28°C to 40°C in 60 min with average ambient temperature of 32.5°C and average solar intensity of 815 W/m2, whereas the conversion efficiency of the TE power generator was around 2.03%.

Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Therdyothin, A.; Soponronnarit, S.

2013-07-01

312

Performance Evaluation of Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the basis of first law of thermodynamics, mainly applicable to engineering calculations; to the basis of the second law of thermodynamics - entropy analysis method, can be used to apply to theoretical analysis and engineering calculations. In this paper, a single performance valuation and entropy analysis for heat recovery equipment have been used, which is to make performance evaluation

Zhang Jie; Ren Yan; Zhang Li Hong; Zhang Kang

2010-01-01

313

Radiative heat exchange between a fluidized bed and heated surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiative heat exchange between a fluidized bed and a heated surface was investigated via an optical experiment employing a He-Ne laser and numerical simulation analysis. A model for predicting the radiative heat transfer is proposed that considers the thermal boundary layer near the heated surface. The numerical results indicate that radiative heat transfer is enhanced when the penetration depth

Jun Yamada; Yasuo Kurosaki; Isao Satoh; Kazuhiko Shimada

1995-01-01

314

A method of analysis for heat pipe heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of analysis for the thermal performance of heat pipe heat exchangers based on the conductance model was developed in the present study. In the analysis the specific heat conductance of the heat pipe was obtained from a performance test of a single heat pipe described in the present paper and the well-known universal correlations were used to calculate

B. J. Huang; J. T. Tsuei

1985-01-01

315

Experimental investigation of a manifold heat-pipe heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of experimental investigations of a heat exchanger on a manifold water heat pipe are given. An analysis is made of the temperature distribution along the heat-transfer agent path as a function of the transferred heat power. The influence of the degree of filling with the heat transfer agent on the operating characteristics of the construction is considered.

S. V. Konev; Wang Tszin'lyan; I. I. D'Yakov

1995-01-01

316

Preliminary design study of heat pipe heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary design study was conducted in order to identify the important design parameters which can be varied to optimize overall performance of heat pipe heat exchangers. A computer program was developed to analyze the heat exchanger performance using conventional design procedures for finned tube heat exchangers and using conventional design procedures for three-puddle-artery heat pipes.

K. T. Feldman; D. C. Lu

1976-01-01

317

Heat pipe heat exchangers as energy recovery devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counterflow heat exchangers comprised of a bundle of heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces attached offer attractive advantages as energy recovery units. With no moving parts and wide design flexibility, these heat pipe heat exchangers are finding ever increasing usage in air-to-air heat recovery. Three general classes of applications can be identified: using energy recovery from process exhaust to regenerate

Ruch

1976-01-01

318

Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust  

SciTech Connect

An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2010-12-28

319

Heat transfer in a pulsating heat pipe with open end  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer in the evaporator and condenser sections of a pulsating heat pipe (PHP) with open end is modeled by analyzing thin film evaporation and condensation. The heat transfer solutions are applied to the thermal model of the pulsating heat pipe and a parametric study was performed. The results show that the heat transfer in a PHP is mainly due

Yuwen Zhang; Amir Faghri

2002-01-01

320

High Flux Heat Exchanger.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This interim report documents the results of the first two phases of a four-phase program to develop a high flux heat exchanger for cooling future high performance aircraft electronics. Phase I defines future needs for high flux heat removal in advanced m...

E. M. Flynn M. J. Mackowski

1993-01-01

321

Microwave heating of foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature distribution in a product submitted to microwave radiation is governed by the interaction and absorption of radiation by the medium and the accompanying transport processes due to the dissipation of electromagnetic energy into heat. Thus, modeling of microwave heating involves coupling the models for microwave power absorption and temperature distribution inside the product. In this study, a model

M. E. C. Oliveira; A. S. Franca

2002-01-01

322

Modelling microwave heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although microwave radiation is best known for heating food in the kitchen, in recent years it has found new applications in many industrial processes, such as those involving melting, smelting, sintering, drying, and joining. Heating by microwave radiation constitutes a highly coupled nonlinear problem giving rise to new and unexpected physical behavior, the best known of which is the appearance

James M Hill; Timothy R Marchant

1996-01-01

323

Mechanical Heat Flux Recorder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application describes a mechanical heat flux recorder which is based upon the shape recovery properties of a nickel - titanium alloy (NiTi). A pair of nickel-titanium strips are connected between a heat sink block enclosed in an asbestos lined ...

W. K. Smith

1974-01-01

324

Air-Heating Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the patent is for an effective use of electrical energy for the heating of air. The housing of the device is made with an induction coil located on the external surface and by a heat-exchange element placed inside its cavity and made of a f...

N. T. Levin

1973-01-01

325

Waste heat boiler deskbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy management programs are vital to the economic life of any industry and heat recovery boilers play a dominant role in those projects which otherwise waste energy from hot flue gases. The book addresses various aspects of heat recovery boilers, such as engineering, specifying, system design, optimization and performance evaluation. Hence engineers and managers involved in several disciplines of energy

Ganapathy

1991-01-01

326

Waste Heat Management Guidebook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sources of waste (i.e., discarded) heat in industrial processes are reviewed, and an overview of off-the-shelf technology available for its use is given. Discussions of waste heat measurement technology and economics are included, as are fourteen case stu...

K. G. Kreider M. B. McNeil

1977-01-01

327

Scraped surface heat exchangers.  

PubMed

Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs. PMID:16527753

Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W

2006-01-01

328

Heat-storing composition  

SciTech Connect

A heat-storing composition comprising acetic acid and at least one of sodium acetate, ammonium acetate, potassium acetate and calcium acetate works at a desired temperature in a temperature range of 5/sup 0/-20/sup 0/ C. and is chemically stable with a high heat-storing capacity.

Koike, K.; Yanadori, M.

1983-11-01

329

Heat Treatment for Superalloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cobalt-free nickel-base superalloy composed of in weight % 15 Cr - 5 Mo - 3.5 Ti - 4 Al - 0.07 (max) C - remainder Ni is given a modified heat treatment. With this heat treatment the cobalt-free alloy achieves certain of the mechanical properties of the...

F. H. Harf

1986-01-01

330

Solar heating panel arrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating panel arrangement and method are disclosed wherein a plurality of spherical lenses transmit and focus solar radiation onto the upper surface of a fluid passage for various relative positions of the sun. The upper surface of the passage is in heat transfer proximity to the fluid therein, causing solar radiation focused thereon to be transferred to the

1983-01-01

331

Static solar heat collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A load-bearing building panel capable of forming an external wall cladding or roof component has a solar heat collecting capacity in the form of channels for heat exchange fluid incorporated in the fabric of the panel. The panel is made of a structural plastics material, such as GRP. Laminate, successive layers being moulded to simulate tiles. On the back or

Brill-Edwards

1981-01-01

332

The Earth's Heat Budget  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hands-on laboratory activity that allows students to investigate the effects of distance and angle on the input of solar radiation at Earth's surface, the role played by albedo, the heat capacity of land and water, and how these cause the seasons. Students predict radiative heating based on simple geometry and experiment to test their hypotheses.

Plotnick, Roy; Teachers, National A.

333

Heat storage material  

SciTech Connect

A heat storage material to be used for air cooling systems is provided. This heat storage material comprises acetic acid or a mixture of acetic acid and one or more acetates and is further added with at least one anhydrous halide as nucleating agent to prevent supercooling.

Kamohara, H.; Koike, K.; Miyamoto, S.; Yanadori, M.

1985-05-21

334

Heat-recovery economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Payback period is discussed as a criterion for making an investment decision. To demonstrate the method of determining payback periods and the present worth cost of a heat-reclaim system, an actual case is examined where a decision had to be made whether or not a heat-reclaim system should be installed in a student dining hall of a college in New

Yanuck

1981-01-01

335

Soil Heat Flow Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Penman-Monteith method for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) has been recommended by FAO. This method requires measures of temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and heat flow in the soil. This last variable is rarely available. Soil heat flow is generally small compared to the net radiation, and many times is ignored in the energy balance. Nevertheless, the addition or subtraction of

E. Varas; C. Nunez; F. J. Meza

2008-01-01

336

Chemical heat pump  

DOEpatents

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01

337

Chemical heat pump  

DOEpatents

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01

338

Chemical heat pump  

DOEpatents

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01

339

Chemical heat pump  

DOEpatents

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1981-01-01

340

Vacuum powered heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

In an internal combustion engine including an oil lubrication system, a liquid cooling system, and an improved air intake system is described. The improved air intake system comprises: a housing including a first opening in one end, which opening is open to the atmosphere and a second opening comprising an air outlet opening in the other end open to the air intake manifold of the engine, a heat exchanger positioned in the first opening. The heat exchanger consists of a series of coils positioned in the flow path of the atmospheric air as it enters the housing, the heat exchanger being fluidly connected to either the engine lubrication system or the cooling system to provide a warm heat source for the incoming air to the housing, acceleration means positioned in the housing downstream of the heat exchanger, the acceleration means comprising a honeycomb structure positioned across the air intake flow path. The honey-comb structure includes a multitude of honey combed mini-venturi cells through which the heated air flows in an accelerated mode, a removable air filter positioned between the heat exchanger and the acceleration means and a single opening provided in the housing through which the air filter can be passed and removed, and additional openings in the housing positioned downstream of the heat exchanger and upstream of the air filter, the additional openings including removable flaps for opening and closing the openings to control the temperature of the air flowing through the housing.

Ruffolo, R.F.

1986-06-24

341

Microscale Evaporation Heat Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, microscale evaporation heat transfer and capillary phenomena for ultra thin liquid film area are presented. The interface shapes of curved liquid film in rectangular minichannel and in vicinity of liquid-vapor-solid contact line are determined by a numerical solution of simplified conduction through liquid layer. The data of numerical calculation of local heat transfer in rectangular channel and

V. V. Kuznetsov; S. A. Safonov

342

Heat transfer in pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer

T. Burbach

1985-01-01

343

Waste heat recovery system  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a system for reclaiming or recovering heat which would otherwise be lost from a heating plant. The invention accordingly relates to a heating plant incorporating a plurality of boilers, including a stand-by boiler, there being means for supplying fuel and air to at least one of said boilers, except for the stand-by boiler, and flue gas exhaust ducts associated with each of such boilers. The improvement according to the invention is a waste heat recovery system wherein the flue gas exhaust duct from said at least one boiler is operatively connected to the stand-by boiler for the circulation of hot flue gases therethrough in contact with its heat exchange surfaces thereby to effect the heating of water passing through the standby boiler thereby to recover a portion of the heat energy in the flue gases. The system further includes a means for controlling the temperature of the water in the stand-by boiler at temperatures above those necessary to avoid excessive cooling of the flue gases within the stand-by boiler and consequent undesired condensation of certain flue gas components on its heat exchange surfaces.

Beckett, A.

1983-02-01

344

Passive Solar Heating Residences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Passive solar heating systems can supply a major portion of a house's heating load if properly designed. The four basic concepts used are direct gain, thermal storage in wall or roof, solar greenhouse and convective loop. In most applications some of thes...

W. E. Olson

1979-01-01

345

Radioisotopic heat source  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

1975-09-30

346

Multi source heat pump air conditioning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air conditioning system is described utilizing low temperature heating sources of the environment to maximize the heat coefficient of performance by conserving subterranean heat, atmospheric heat, solar heat, and auxiliary heat sources in combination with a reversible-cycle water source heat pump by absorption of heat energy into a liquid (water). Said heat energy is applied to the heat pump

Meckler

1979-01-01

347

Solar heating system  

DOEpatents

An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

1982-01-01

348

Improved solar heating systems  

DOEpatents

An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

1980-05-16

349

Full surface local heat transfer coefficient measurements in a model of an integrally cast impingement cooling geometry  

SciTech Connect

Cast impingement cooling geometries offer the gas turbine designer higher structural integrity and improved convective cooling when compared to traditional impingement cooling systems, which rely on plate inserts. In this paper, it is shown that the surface that forms the jets contributes significantly to the total cooling. Local heat transfer coefficient distributions have been measured in a model of an engine wall cooling geometry using the transient heat transfer technique. The method employs temperature-sensitive liquid crystals to measure the surface temperature of large-scale perspex models during transient experiments. Full distributions of local Nusselt number on both surfaces of the impingement plate, and on the impingement target plate, are presented at engine representative Reynolds numbers. The relative effects of the impingement plate thermal boundary condition and the coolant supply temperature on the target plate heat transfer have been determined by maintaining an isothermal boundary condition at the impingement plate during the transient tests. The results are discussed in terms of the interpreted flow field.

Gillespie, D.R.H.; Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering Science; Kohler, S.T. [Rolls Royce, Bristol (United Kingdom)

1998-01-01

350

Heat transfer effect on the specific heating load of heat pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum possible specific heating load that can be obtained from two-heat-reservoir heat pumps with a set of high-temperature heat sinks and low-temperature heat sources is analyzed. The heat pumps considered in this paper include (1) externally and internally reversible, (2) externally irreversible and internally reversible, (3) externally reversible and internally irreversible and (4) externally and internally irreversible heat pumps.

Lingen Chen; Chih Wu; Fengrui Sun

1997-01-01

351

Lightweight long life heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shuttle orbiter flight configuration aluminum heat exchanger was designed, fabricated, and tested. The heat exchanger utilized aluminum clad titanium composite parting sheets for protection against parting sheet pin hole corrosion. The heat exchanger, which is fully interchangeable with the shuttle condensing heat exchanger, includes slurpers (a means for removing condensed water from the downstream face of the heat exchanger),

E. K. Moore

1976-01-01

352

Experimental research on heat transfer of pulsating heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental research was conducted to understand heat transfer characteristic of pulsating heat pipe in this paper, and the PHP is made of high quality glass capillary tube. Under different fill ratio, heat transfer rate and many other influence factors, the flow patterns were observed in the start-up, transition and stable stage. The effects of heating position on heat transfer were discussed. The experimental results indicate that no annular flow appears in top heating condition. Under different fill ratios and heat transfer rate, the flow pattern in PHP is transferred from bulk flow to semi-annular flow and annular flow, and the performance of heat transfer is improved for down heating case. The experimental results indicate that the total heat resistant of PHP is increased with fill ratio, and heat transfer rate achieves optimum at filling rate 50%. But for pulsating heat pipe with changing diameters the thermal resistance is higher than that with uniform diameters.

Li, Jia; Yan, Li

2008-06-01

353

2. SALEMBROSIUS CONTINUOUS GASFIRED HEAT TREATING LINE AT HEAT TREATMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SALEM-BROSIUS CONTINUOUS GAS-FIRED HEAT TREATING LINE AT HEAT TREATMENT PLANT OF THE DUQUESNE WORKS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

354

PreHeat: controlling home heating using occupancy prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home heating is a major factor in worldwide energy use. Our system, PreHeat, aims to more efficiently heat homes by using occupancy sensing and occupancy prediction to automatically control home heating. We deployed PreHeat in five homes, three in the US and two in the UK. In UK homes, we controlled heating on a per-room basis to enable further energy

James Scott; A. J. Bernheim Brush; John Krumm; Brian Meyers; Michael Hazas; Stephen Hodges; Nicolas Villar

2011-01-01

355

Progress in heat pipe and porous heat exchanger technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of the papers presented at the 1st International Heat Pipe Conference held in Stuttgart, 15-17 October 1973. The review deals with heat pipe application in different branches of technology, heat- and mass-transfer processes in heat pipes, design of variable-conductance heat pipes, optimization of their parameters, operation of heat pipes under weightlessness and in the field of

A. V. Luikov; L. L. Vasiliev

1975-01-01

356

Analysis and application of the heat pipe heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat pipe heat exchangers offer many advantages over more conventional heat exchangers, particularly for gas-to-gas application. Proper application of these devices depends on the conditions imposed by the process from which waste heat is to be recovered, and some of the more common constraints are analyzed. The overall operation of heat pipe heat exchangers is best studied using effectiveness-NTU calculations,

T. H. Sun; R. C. Prager

1978-01-01

357

The Coronal Heating Paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``coronal heating problem'' has been with us over 60 years, and hundreds of theoretical models have been proposed without an obvious solution in sight. In this paper we point out that observations show no evidence for local heating in the solar corona, but rather for heating below the corona in the transition region and upper chromosphere, with subsequent chromospheric evaporation as known in flares. New observational evidence for this scenario comes from (1) the temperature evolution of coronal loops, (2) the overdensity of hot coronal loops, (3) upflows in coronal loops, (4) the Doppler shift in coronal loops, (5) upward propagating waves, (6) the energy balance in coronal loops, (7) the magnetic complexity in the transition region, (8) the altitude of nanoflares and microflares, (9) the cross section of elementary loops, as well as (10) 3D MHD simulations of coronal heating. The phrase ``coronal heating problem'' is therefore a paradoxical misnomer for what should rather be addressed as the ``chromospheric heating problem'' and ``coronal loop filling process.'' This paradigm shift substantially reduces the number of relevant theoretical models for coronal heating in active regions and the quiet Sun, but our arguments do not apply to coronal holes and the extended heliospheric corona.

Aschwanden, Markus J.; Winebarger, Amy; Tsiklauri, David; Peter, Hardi

2007-04-01

358

Ceramic heat recuperators for industrial heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cordierite (magnesium aluminum silicate) recuperator was designed for relatively small furnaces with firing rates of 0.3 MM to 0.6 MM Btu\\/h and with exhaust gas temperatures of 1500 F to 2600 F. Five demonstration programs were performed to determine the heat transfer performance of the device, establish the energy savings by recovery, demonstrate the durability of the ceramic core,

J. J. Cleveland; J. M. Gonzalez; K. H. Kohnken; W. J. Rebello

1980-01-01

359

FPD plasma heating systems  

SciTech Connect

Tandem mirror devices rely on a number of plasma heating systems to create and maintain potential and density profiles which axially confine the central cell and provide MHD stability. The Fusion Power Demonstrator (FPD) tandem mirror study was carried out in three stages, each facility was configured with a slightly different mission and set of constraints. Although the heating system requirements varied in the three stages, the potential peak and thermal barrier ECRH systems and the sloshing ion neutral beam system were common elements of the configurations. The heating systems' requirements, the design approach, and the systems' description are presented.

Freije, S.A.

1985-07-01

360

Stirling engine heating system  

SciTech Connect

A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

1988-06-28

361

Heat storage system adapted for incongruently melting heat storage materials and congruently melting heat storage materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat storage article adapted for prevention of stratification of incongruently melting heat storage materials, such as eutectic salts, and adapted for use with congruently melting heat storage materials, such as paraffins. The article is comprised of a concrete stone composition, a certain portion of which is comprised of metallic heat transfer materials in order to increase heat transfer through

Schoenfelder

1980-01-01

362

Inner heat source model with heat and moisture transfer in soil around the underground heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an inner heat source model of underground heat exchanger based on the heat and mass transfer theory in soil. A number of factors such as moisture movement in soil, soil type, and soil property were taken into account in the model. The underground heat exchanger was simplified as the equivalent inner heat source term in the model.

Xinguo Li; Jun Zhao; Qian Zhou

2005-01-01

363

Innovation: the induction heated screw.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Research and Development Division at EDF has developed an original technique for heating, drying or baking powder products: the induction heated Archimedes screw. Its main characteristic is simultaneous heating of the screw and the sleeve. (author). 4...

B. Paya

1993-01-01

364

Measuring the Heats of Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses common equipment (tea kettle and vacuum bottles) to precisely measure the specific heat, latent heat of fusion, and latent heat of vaporization of water. Provides descriptions for all three experiments. (MVL)|

Hunt, James L.; Tegart, Tracy L.

1994-01-01

365

Measuring the Heats of Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses common equipment (tea kettle and vacuum bottles) to precisely measure the specific heat, latent heat of fusion, and latent heat of vaporization of water. Provides descriptions for all three experiments. (MVL)

Hunt, James L.; Tegart, Tracy L.

1994-01-01

366

Homogenization heat treating cast microstructure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cast microstructures have variations in composition on the length scale of dendrites and homogenization heat treatments are performed to smooth out these variations. This problem is an integral analysis of the 1D diffusion mass transfer in this problem. The results using two different assumed profiles are compared.

Krane, Matthew J.

2008-10-25

367

Mapping a Wind-Modified Urban Heat Island in Tucson, Arizona (with Comments on Integrating Research and Undergraduate Learning).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tucson, Arizona, is an example of the many cities in the southwestern United States experiencing rapid growth and urban sprawl over the last several decades. The accompanying extensive modification of land use and land cover leads to many environmental impacts, including urban heat islands. The primary aim of this paper is to expand knowledge of the phenomenon for Tucson, by quantifying the amount of urban warming, and by mapping temperature patterns over the city and examining related aspects of the local-scale atmospheric circulation. The secondary aim is to document how an applied empirical research project was integrated into an introductory undergraduate climatology class via active learning. The paper begins and concludes with general and practical comments on combining the research and educational aspects of the project. An analysis of 30-yr temporal trends in urban and nonurban minimum temperatures across the region shows the rate of urban warming to be about three-quarters of the general regional warming. Tucson's urban heat island is ~3°C over the last century, with >2°C of this warming in the last 30 years. The annual average urban warming trend over the last three decades is 0.071°C yr-1 with the strongest effect in March and the weakest effect in November. There is evidence that the latter is caused by strong, near-surface winds under stable conditions. A case study is presented comprising field measurements and map analysis of urban temperatures and supporting variables for 13 February 1999. Measurements include comprehensive mapping using vehicle-mounted thermistors and numerous local meteorological observations from around the city. Wind speeds during the field measurements were somewhat stronger than is typical of heat island studies, up to 12 m s-1. Nonetheless, because of terrain-induced flows and land surface heterogeneity, complex temperature patterns were observed. Several transient katabatic flows off surrounding mountain ranges were detected, leading to localized cold pockets. Locally warm areas in other parts of the city are associated with terrain sheltering or local land surface heating. The central city showed a possible urban heating pattern with temperatures ~2°C higher than upwind rural air.

Comrie, Andrew C.

2000-10-01

368

Low-cost process-heat recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat recovery systems developed specifically for use with gas-fired ovens such as those used in restaurants and bakeries are found to be a viable energy saying option for reducing operating expenses. The objectives of the work are: to assess waste heat recovery potential, perform and economic analysis, design heat exchanger and system, develop an integrated computer program. The first three objectives were successfully met for flat plate and plate fin air to air heat recovery systems. An interactive computer program is developed for heat recovery systems using the FORTRAN language, and an economic analysis program is developed.

Theisen, P.; McCray, J.

1982-05-01

369

Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production  

DOEpatents

A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

1986-10-14

370

Heat Exhaustion, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... illness. Heat illness occurs when a person's core body temperature rises above a safe level of the body's ... or all of the following symptoms: A high body temperature (above 102° F) Skin that is red and ...

371

Heat Cramps, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... illness. Heat illness occurs when a person's core body temperature rises above a safe level of the body's ... or all of the following symptoms: A high body temperature (above 102° F) Skin that is red and ...

372

Heat leak measurements facility  

SciTech Connect

Heat leak measurements of superconducting magnet suspension systems, and multilayer insulation (MLI) systems are important for the optimum design of magnet cryostats. For this purpose, a cryogenic test facility was developed having a versatile functional end in which test components of differing geometrical configurations can be installed and evaluated. This paper details the test facility design and operating parameters. Experimental results of heat leak measurements to 4.5 K obtained on a post type support system having heat intercepts at 10 K and 80 K are presented. Included are measurements obtained while operating the 10 K intercept at temperatures above 10 K, i.e., in the 10-40 K range. Also reported is a description of the test facility conversion for a heat load study of several MLI systems with variations of MLI installation technique. The results of the first MLI system tested are presented.

Gonczy, J.D.; Kuchnir, M.; Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Powers, R.J.

1985-09-01

373

Understanding heat exchanger systems  

SciTech Connect

Many of the complaints heard about steam heat exchangers--water hammer, corrosion, and freezing--often are not caused by the unit itself but, rather, are problems within the system. Diagnosing and overcoming problems in existing systems or designing new ones properly requires a thorough understanding not only of the heat exchanger, but all of the components that make up the overall system. Many types of heat exchangers are available today (shell-and-tube, plate-and-frame, coil, tank heaters, and plate coils). The same basic principles and similar controls apply to all. Although the examples in this article consider the shell-and-tube style, the concepts apply to all types of steam heat exchangers.

Hughes, B. [ITT Fluid Technology, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1997-04-01

374

Climate Wisconsin: Extreme Heat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video addresses the effects of heat waves on human populations, with African American residents of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as the visual subjects. The narrative is done by a young spoken- word artist.

Board, Wisconsin E.; Wisconsin, Climate

375

Greywater Heat Exchanger.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A kilowatt meter and water meter were installed to monitor pregreywater usage. The design considerations, the heat exchanger construction and installation, and the monitoring of usage levels are described. (ERA citation 09:040361)

D. Holmberg

1983-01-01

376

Greywater heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

A kilowatt meter and water meter were installed to monitor pregreywater usage. The design considerations, the heat exchanger construction and installation, and the monitoring of usage levels are described.

Holmberg, D.

1983-11-21

377

Composite heat damage assessment  

SciTech Connect

The effects of heat damage were determined on the residual mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of IM6/3501-6 laminates, and potential nondestructive techniques to detect and assess material heat damage were evaluated. About one thousand preconditioned specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures, then cooled to room temperature and tested in compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, shore-D hardness, weight loss, and change in thickness. Specimens experienced significant and irreversible reduction in their residual properties when exposed to temperatures exceeding the material upper service temperature of this material (350{degrees}F). The Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Laser-Pumped Fluorescence techniques were found to be capable of rapid, in-service, nondestructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501- 6. These techniques also have the potential applicability to detect and assess heat damage effects in other polymer matrix composites.

Janke, C.J.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Philpot, H.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Powell, G.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

1993-12-31

378

Investment casting heat transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calculate temperature profile and Biot number in mixed conduction and convection/radiation heat transfer from liquid metal through a ceramic mold to the environment, and suggest a design change to reduce the probability of shattering due to thermal stress.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2004-12-15

379

Pipe Heat Transfer Calculation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Underground heat distribution systems for a complex of buildings have been widely used in the United States for the past several decades. Only recently underground c...

1983-01-01

380

Apply the Heat Chart  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text VersionPage 1. Apply the Heat Chart * With a 3 minute rest time. Refrigerator Temperatures Freezer Temperatures Poultry, Stuffing ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants

381

NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger  

SciTech Connect

One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

2008-09-01

382

Geo-heat center  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of the Geo-Heat Center from its origin in 1974. The GHC has been involved in a number of studies and projects. A few of these are: construction of a greenhouse based on geothermal applications, an aquaculture project raising freshwater Malaysian prawns, an investigation of ground water characteristics and corrosion problems associated with the use of geothermal waters, and the assessment of the potential utilization of direct-heat applications of geothermal energy for an agribusiness.

Lienau, P.J.; Fornes, A.O.

1983-01-01

383

Heat storage technology update  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to reduce vehicle cold-start emissions of unburned fuel is to reduce catalyst light-off time. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated several electrically heated catalyst (EHC) technologies with favorable results at ambient temperatures of 24C and [minus]7C. The resistive heating elements reduce the time during which the catalyst remains ineffective because of insufficient warming by the cold

K. H. Hellman; G. K. Piotrowski; R. M. Schaefer

1993-01-01

384

Heat Preservation and Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Of the various means of preserving foods, the use of heat finds very wide application. The simple acts of cooking, frying,\\u000a broiling, or otherwise heating foods prior to consumption are forms of food preservation. In addition to making foods more\\u000a tender and palatable, cooking destroys a large proportion of the microorganisms and natural enzymes in foods; thus, cooked\\u000a foods generally

Dennis R. Heldman

385

Solar heating and cooling.  

PubMed

Solar energy is discussed as an energy resource that can be converted into useful energy forms to meet a variety of energy needs. The review briefly explains the nature of this energy resource, the kinds of applications that can be made useful, and the status of several systems to which it has been applied. More specifically, information on solar collectors, solar water heating, solar heating of buildings, solar cooling plus other applications, are included. PMID:1010737

Duffie, J A

1976-01-01

386

Visualization of heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of recently published papers which describe new experimental methods for heat transfer visualization or the application of such methods for investigating heat transfer problems is presented. The study of surface flow patterns and wall temperature by the oil-flow technique, the naphthalene sublimation technique, and temperature-sensitive paints is considered. The use of tracer materials to visualize the flow field is discussed, and optical methods of visualizing the field are described, presenting photographic illustrations.

Merzkirch, W.

387

Freezable heat pipe  

DOEpatents

A heat pipe whose fluid can be repeatedly frozen and thawed without damage to the casing. An additional part is added to a conventional heat pipe. This addition is a simple porous structure, such as a cylinder, self-supporting and free standing, which is dimensioned with its diameter not spanning the inside transverse dimension of the casing, and with its length surpassing the depth of maximum liquid.

Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA); Sanzi, James L. (Lancaster, PA)

1981-02-03

388

Microtube Strip Heat Exchanger  

SciTech Connect

Doty Scientific (DSI) believes their Microtube-Strip Heat Exchanger will contribute significantly to (a) the closed Brayton cycles being pursued at MIT, NASA, and elsewhere; (b) reverse Brayton cycle cryocoolers, currently being investigated by NASA for space missions, being applied to MRI superconducting magnets; and (c) high-efficiency cryogenic gas separation schemes for CO{sub 2} removal from exhaust stacks. The goal of this current study is to show the potential for substantial progress in high-effectiveness, low-cost, gas-to-gas heat exchangers for diverse applications at temperatures from below 100 K to above 1000 K. To date, the highest effectiveness measured is about 98%, and relative pressure drops below 0.1% with a specific conductance of about 45 W/kgK are reported. During the pre-award period DSI built and tested a 3-module heat exchanger bank using 103-tube microtube strip (MTS) modules. To add to their analytical capabilities, DSI has acquired computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This report describes the pre-award work and the status of the ten tasks of the current project, which are: analyze flow distribution and thermal stresses within individual modules; design a heat exchanger bank of ten modules with 400 microtube per module; obtain production quality tubestrip die and AISI 304 tubestrips; obtain production quality microtubing; construct revised MTS heat exchanger; construct dies and fixtures for prototype heat exchanger; construct 100 MTS modules; assemble 8-10 prototype MTS heat exchangers; test prototype MTS heat exchanger; and verify test through independent means. 7 refs., 9 figs. 1 tab. (CK)

Doty, F.D.

1990-12-27

389

Chord integrated neutral particle diagnostic data analysis for neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron radio frequency heated plasma in a complex Large Helical Device geometry  

SciTech Connect

Energy and angle-resolved measurements of charge exchange neutral particle fluxes from the plasma provide information about T{sub i}, as well as non-Maxwellian substantially anisotropic ion distribution tails due to neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) heating. The measured chord integral neutral flux calculation scheme for the Large Helical Device magnetic surface geometry is given. Calculation results are shown for measurable atomic energy spectra corresponding to heating-induced fast ion distributions from simplified Fokker-Planck models. The behavior of calculated and experimental suprathermal particle distributions from NBI and ICRF heated plasma is discussed in the context of the experimental data interpretation.

Veshchev, E. A.; Goncharov, P. R.; Ozaki, T.; Sudo, S.; Lyon, J. F. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States)

2006-10-15

390

Convective heat flow probe  

DOEpatents

A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

Dunn, James C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

391

Convective heat flow probe  

DOEpatents

A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

1984-01-09

392

Understand spiral heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are standard in most chemical process industries (CPI) applications. However, they do have limitations related to thermal efficiency, mechanical design, and maintenance requirements that will not allow the standard straight-tube fixed-tubesheet shell-and-tube (S and T) heat exchanger to work properly in certain applications. It is in these problem areas that spiral heat exchangers (SHEs) have been used successfully worldwide for over 60 years. The SHE can be a viable alternative to the complex and often expensive shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The SHEs' unique spiral countercurrent monochannel design gives them exceptionally high heat-transfer rates and low fouling tendencies. The mechanical configuration of the SHE also allows full access to all heat-transfer surfaces for simplified inspection, maintenance, and cleaning. This article describes how SHEs operate, discusses their advantages in terms of thermal efficiency, fouling, mechanical design, and maintenance characteristics, and provides guidance on choosing between spiral and tubular exchangers.

Bailey, K.M.

1994-05-01

393

Intrinsically irreversible heat engine  

DOEpatents

A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1984-01-01

394

Intrinsically irreversible heat engine  

DOEpatents

A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1984-12-25

395

Radial flow heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

2001-01-01

396

Moist Heat or Dry Heat for Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness  

PubMed Central

Background Heat is commonly used in physical therapy following exercise induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Most heat modalities used in a clinical setting for DOMS are only applied for 5 to 20 minutes. This minimal heat exposure causes little, if any, change in deep tissue temperature. For this reason, long duration dry chemical heat packs are used at home to slowly and safely warm tissue and reduce potential heat damage while reducing pain associated from DOMS. Clinically, it has been shown that moist heat penetrates deep tissue faster than dry heat. Therefore, in home use chemical moist heat may be more efficacious than dry heat to provide pain relief and reduce tissue damage following exercise DOMS. However, chemical moist heat only lasts for 2 hours compared to the 8 hours duration of chemical dry heat packs. The purpose of this study was to compare the beneficial effect of dry heat versus moist heat on 100 young subjects after exercise induce DOMS. Methods One hundred subjects exercised for 15 minutes accomplishing squats. Before and for 3 days after, strength, muscle soreness, tissue resistance, and the force to passively move the knee were recorded. Heat and moist heat were applied in different groups either immediately after exercise or 24 hours later. Results The research results of this study showed that immediate application of heat, either dry (8 hours application) or moist (2 hours application), had a similar preservation of quadriceps muscle strength and muscle activity. Results also revealed that the greatest pain reduction was shown after immediate application of moist heat. Never the less, immediate application of dry heat had a similar effect but to a lesser extent. Conclusion It should be noted that moist heat had not only similar benefits of dry heat but in some cases enhanced benefits, and with only 25% of the time of application of the dry heat.

Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Bains, Gurinder; Khowailed, Iman Akef; Hui, Timothy; Granado, Michael; Laymon, Mike; Lee, Haneul

2013-01-01

397

Heat Transfer Augmentation in a Compact Heat Exchange Pedestal Array.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A compact heat exchanger pedestal array for augmenting heat transfer in a machine is disclosed. The compact heat exchanger pedestal array includes a wall having first and second surfaces. The first surface faces a heated flow path and the second surface p...

C. R. Joe P. M. Lutjen

2004-01-01

398

Investigation of waste heat recovery utilizing fluidized bed heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to evaluate the economic potential of shallow fluidized bed heat exchangers to recover the waste heat in the exhaust gases from large diesel engines. The program involved: (1) experiments to measure the heat transfer, pressure loss, and fouling characteristics of a commercially available shallow fluidized bed heat exchanger, and (2) conceptual design of

1978-01-01

399

Method of heating a building structure with solar heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of heating a building structure comprising the steps of: absorbing solar heat on a collector surface wherein said collector surface is insulated from the ambient environment, passing air across the collector surface in a heat transfer process whereby the heat absorbed by the collector surface is transferred to the air, passing the hot air leaving the collector surface

J. H. Keyes; C. I. Strickland; R. G. Strickland

1974-01-01

400

Heat transfer in an unevenly heated porous layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a uniform saturated porous layer heated from below, the dependence of the quantity of heat transferred on the distribution\\u000a of the heat source is investigated. It is found, using perturbation methods and numerical techniques, that very small nonuniformities\\u000a in the heat source having the same wavelength as the preferred convection mode significantly reinforce natural convection.

M. J. O'Sullivan; R. McKibbin

1986-01-01

401

Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

Koplow, Jeffrey P. (San Ramon, CA)

2012-07-24

402

General model of solar water heating system integration in residential building refurbishment—Potential energy savings and environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The building sector, which accounts for about 40% of total energy consumption in Europe, offers various possibilities for achieving higher energy efficiency by introducing distributed RES. As 20% of total energy consumption in this sector is used for water heating, it follows that 8% of total energy in Europe is consumed for water heating purposes, which provides great opportunities for

K. Goli?; V. Kosori?; A. Krsti? Furundži?

2011-01-01

403

Integrating heat treatment, biocontrol and sodium bicarbonate to reduce postharvest decay of apple caused by Colletotrichum acutatum and Penicillium expansum  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Golden Delicious’ apples were wound inoculated with conidial suspensions of either Colletotrichum acutatum or Penicillium expansum, then treated with heat (38°C) for 4 days, sodium bicarbonate, and\\/or one of two heat tolerant biocontrol agents (yeasts). Following four months storage at 0°C, the apples were left at room temperature for two weeks. Populations of antagonists were stable throughout the experiment and

William S. Conway; Britta Leverentz; Wojciech J. Janisiewicz; Amy B. Blodgett; Robert A. Saftner; Mary J. Camp

2004-01-01

404

INTEGRATING HEAT TREATMENT, BIOCONTROL AND SODIUM BICARBONATE TO REDUCE POSTHARVEST DECAY OF APPLE CAUSED BY COLLETOTRICHUM ACUTATUM AND PENICILLIUM EXPANSUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Golden Delicious' apples were wound inoculated with either Colletotrichum acutatum or Penicillium expansum then treated with heat (38 °C) for four days, sodium bicarbonate, and/or one of two heat tolerant biocontrol agents (yeasts). Following four months storage at 0°C, the apples were left at roo...

405

Integrated Implicit Particle-In-Cell (PIC) Simulations of PetaWatt Laser Heating of Compressed Cores for Fast Ignition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. There has been much interest in the fast heating of compressed matter by short pulse petawatt lasers. Some time ago, we studied the heating process as applied to the GEKKO\\/PW experiments at Osaka with a 3D electromagnetic implicit PIC code. One limitation of our analysis was that we legislated the distribution of hot electrons entering the

R. B. Campbell; D. R. Welch; T. A. Mehlhorn

2007-01-01

406

Integrated implicit particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of petawatt laser heating of compressed cores for fast ignition  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much interest in the fast heating of compressed matter by short pulse petawatt lasers [1]. Some time ago, we studied the heating process as applied to the GEKKO\\/PW experiments at Osaka [2] with a 3D hybrid electromagnetic implicit PIC code [3]. One limitation of our analysis was that we legislated the distribution of hot electrons entering the

R. B. Campbell; D. R. Welch; T. A. Mehlhorn

2007-01-01

407

Modeling impacts of roof reflectivity, integrated photovoltaic panels and green roof systems on sensible heat flux into the urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents results of a modeling effort to explore the role that sustainable roofing technologies play in impacting the rooftop energy balance, and the resultant net sensible heat flux into the urban atmosphere with a focus on the summertime urban heat island. The model has been validated using data from a field experiment conducted in Portland Oregon. Roofing technologies

Adam Scherba; David J. Sailor; Todd N. Rosenstiel; Carl C. Wamser

408

Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930° C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380° C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

2011-01-01

409

Integrated assessment of supply and efficiency resources for the district heating system, City of Handlova, Republic of Slovakia  

SciTech Connect

This city needs to replace its old district heating system which is unreliable and expensive to maintain. Current plant is owned by a state-run utility; the plant is scheduled for privatization, and the city is examining options for its upgrade. Analysis and preparation for this activity is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses and in this integrated demand/supply report. Preliminary projections indicate the cost of heating from a cost per unit of energy basis and from the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova on a total cost per year basis. The centralized coal cogeneration option is the least expensive on a levelized energy cost both with and without energy efficiency. Centralized coal/gas dual-fuel cogeneration is a close second, and the decentralized gas natural gas boilers is significantly more expensive. When the effect of building efficiency measures is evaluated, efficiency always increases the cost on a levelized energy cost basis, but on a levelized cost per flat basis, both centralized systems with buildings efficiency are less expensive than without.

NONE

1996-06-01

410

Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LMPF-EA 4106, Rue Saint Dominique, BP 508, 51006, Chalons-en-Champagne, Cedex (France)

2011-01-17

411

Absorption heat pump for heating of small residential buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methanol\\/lithium bromide+zinc bromide absorption heat pump for heating one-and two-family residential buildings was developed. Thermodynamic data of the ternary mixtures with a molar ratio LiBr\\/ZnBr = 2:1 and 4:1 were obtained. A prototype unit (heating capacity: 10 kW) was built and tested under all conditions occurring in a real heating system. For application in indirectly fired absorption heat pumps

H. Birnbreier; J. Jessinghaus; K. L. Sauer; B. Ziegenbein

1983-01-01

412

Total system heat loss measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive heat losses from insulated systems in service raise critical design questions when compared with performance data obtained from individual insulation specimens tested in the laboratory. In many cases, excessive heat loss is caused by the incorrect design assumption that total system heat loss is equal only to that through individual insulation sections. However, additional heat losses result from the

B. A. Allmon; D. A. Rausch; H. W. Wahle

1983-01-01

413

Prediction of Human Heat Tolerance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human tolerance to heat exposure is limited by body heat storage, as the body is unable to eliminate all the heat it produces and/or receives from the environment, and by the physiologic consequencies of such storage. Heat storage of about 80 kcal represe...

R. F. Goldman

1977-01-01

414

Heat transfer within combusting droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of the basic understanding of heat transfer in sprays is a key point in many engineering applications. In this paper, the temperature field within combusting ethanol droplets in linear stream is investigated by the two-color laser induced fluorescence technique. Additionally, a heat transfer model within the droplet is developed, taking into account both heat conduction and heat advection

G. Castanet; F. Lemoine

2007-01-01

415

Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

416

Physical principles of heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat pipes are used whenever high rates of heat transfer or the control or conversion of heat flows are required. This book covers the physical principles of operation of heat pipes and choice of working fluid related to temperature range. The authors demonstrate how performance is limited by capillary pumping action in the wick together with impedance to liquid and

M. N. Ivanovskii; V. P. Sorokin; I. V. Yagodkin

1982-01-01

417

Heat exchanger-accumulator  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1980-01-01

418

Conquer heat exchanger fouling  

SciTech Connect

Fouling plays a dominant role in heat exchanger performance. It is extremely important to choose the most appropriate type of heat exchanger for a particular application and adopt proper values for fouling resistance. A design practice for shell-and-tube heat exchangers that will limit fouling to a minimum and thus ensure trouble-free operation is essential. Due to the availability of specialized software, the thermal design of heat exchangers has become precise and scientific. The results occasionally have to be tempered with practical experience and engineering judgment, but generally these computer programs are very reliable and authentic. However, the above is true only for determining heat-transfer coefficients and pressure drop. One important area that cannot possibly be addressed by design software is fouling. While a proper selection of fouling resistance is extremely difficult due to the numerous factors involved, a sound design practice will minimize any errors. However, it is important to first understand the phenomenon of fouling. The paper describes what fouling is, types of fouling, factors affecting fouling, providing a fouling allowance, selecting a fouling resistance, and overcoming fouling through better design.

Mukherjee, R. [Engineers India Ltd., New Delhi (India)

1996-01-01

419

Heat exchanger restart evaluation  

SciTech Connect

On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein.

Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

1992-03-18

420

Heat storage in alloy transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat storage was approached in the following four directions: (1) calorimetric measurements of heats of eutectic transformation and heat capacities of solid and liquid mixtures to determine the maximum heat storage capability; (2) volume changes during transformation and thermal expansion below, and above the transformation temperature as measured by X-ray absorption; (3) the use of graphite and carbides, successful bulk containers, as coatings to protect steels against attack by the heat storage alloys; and (4) heat flow models for simple heat exchanger geometries to show the advantage of alloys over salts for fast storage.

Birchenall, C. E.

1981-03-01

421

3D CFD Electrochemical and Heat Transfer Model of an Integrated-Planar Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created to model high-temperature electrolysis cell performance and steam electrolysis in a new novel integrated planar porous-tube supported solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The model is of several integrated planar cells attached to a ceramic support tube. This design is being evaluated with modeling at the Idaho National Laboratory. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, activation over-potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Mean per-cell area-specific-resistance (ASR) values decrease with increasing current density. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Effects of variations in operating temperature, gas flow rate, cathode and anode exchange current density, and contact resistance from the base case are presented. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicated the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition. Results are discussed for using this design in the electrolysis mode. Discussion of thermal neutral voltage, enthalpy of reaction, hydrogen production, cell thermal efficiency, cell electrical efficiency, and Gibbs free energy are discussed and reported herein.

Grant Hawkes; James E. O'Brien

2008-10-01

422

Shape memory heat engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical shape memory effect associated with a thermoelastic martensitic transformation can be used to convert heat directly into mechanical work. Laboratory simulation of two types of heat engine cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) has been performed to measure the amount of work available/cycle in a Ni-45 at. pct Ti alloy. Tensile deformations at ambient temperature induced martensite, while a subsequent increase in temperature caused a reversion to the parent phase during which a load was carried through the strain recovery (i.e., work was accomplished). The amount of heat necessary to carry the engines through a cycle was estimated from calorimeter measurements and the work performed/cycle. The measured efficiency of the system tested reached a maximum of 1.4 percent, which was well below the theoretical (Carnot) maximum efficiency of 35.6 percent.

Salzbrenner, R.

1984-06-01

423

Electrochemical heat engine  

DOEpatents

Electrochemical heat engines produce electrochemical work, and mechanical motion is limited to valve and switching actions as the heat-to-work cycles are performed. The electrochemical cells of said heat engines use molten or solid electrolytes at high temperatures. One or more reactions in the cycle will generate a gas at high temperature which can be condensed at a lower temperature with later return of the condensate to electrochemical cells. Sodium, potassium, and cesium are used as the working gases for high temperature cells (above 600 K) with halogen gases or volatile halides being used at lower temperature. Carbonates and halides are used as molten electrolytes and the solid electrolyte in these melts can also be used as a cell separator.

Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Holley, Charles E. (Alcalde, NM); Houseman, Barton L. (Cockeysville, MD); Sibbitt, Jr., Wilmer L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1978-01-01

424

Heating of postflare loops  

SciTech Connect

The heating of postflare loops by slow MHD shocks is considered. Although such loops were once thought to represent the dying remnant of a two-ribbon flare, it is now realized that they are the main part of such an event and begin very early on. It is shown that, if the local temperature of a loop, its local angle of inclination to the vertical, and ambient coronal conditions are known from observations, then simple analytical formulae give the rise speed of the shocks and the magnitude of the evaporative flow incident upon them. The formulae are applied as an example to the 1973 July 29 and 1980 May 21 two-ribbon flares, and reasonable agreement with rise-speed observations is found. It is therefore claimed that shock heating is a viable method for heating postflare loops for the long times observed.

Cargill, P.J.; Priest, E.R.

1983-03-01

425

Heat distribution ceramic processing method  

DOEpatents

A multi-layered heat distributor system is provided for use in a microwave process. The multi-layered heat distributors includes a first inner layer of a high thermal conductivity heat distributor material, a middle insulating layer and an optional third insulating outer layer. The multi-layered heat distributor system is placed around the ceramic composition or article to be processed and located in a microwave heating system. Sufficient microwave energy is applied to provide a high density, unflawed ceramic product.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2001-01-01

426

'Low-energy' geothermal heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of exploitation of geo-heat in France, the extent of occurrences of geological strata indicative of aquifers with geothermal brines in France (70 per cent of the area; map of proved and probable reserves provided), and suitable applications of 'high-energy' geo-heat (above 120-180 C; electric power) and 'low-energy' geo-heat (utility heat, industrial process heating) are discussed. Spinoff of data

A. Clot

1977-01-01

427

DHE (Downhole Heat Exchangers)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of downhole heat exchangers (DHE) for residential or commercial space and domestic water heating and other applications has several desirable features. Systems are nearly or completely passive -- that is, no or very little geothermal water or steam is produced from the well either reducing or completely eliminating surface environmental concerns and the need for disposal systems or injection wells. Initial cost of pumps and installation are eliminated or reduced along with pumping power costs and maintenance costs associated with pumping often corrosive geothermal fluids. Many residential and small commercial systems do not require circulating pumps because the density difference in the incoming and outgoing sides of the loop are sufficient to overcome circulating friction losses in the entire system. The major disadvantage of DHEs is their dependence on natural heat flow. In areas where geological conditions provide high permeability and a natural hydraulic gradient, DHEs can provide a substantial quantity of heat. A single 500-ft (152 m) well in Klamath Falls, Oregon, supplies over one megawatt thermal and output is apparently limited by the surface area of pipe that can be installed in the well bore. In contrast, DHEs used in conjunction with heat pumps may supply less than 8 KW from a well of similar depth. Here output is limited by conductive heat flow with perhaps a small contribution from convection near the well bore. The highest capacity DHE reported to date, in Turkey, supplies 6 MW thermal from an 820-ft (250 m) well. There were two main goals for this project. The first was to gather, disseminate and exchange internationally information on DHES. The second was to perform experiments that would provide insight into well bore/aquifer interaction and thereby provide more information on which to base DHE designs.

Culver, G.

1990-11-01

428

RF Pulsed Heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic elds on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic eld on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE011 mode at a resonant frequency of 11:424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1:5 s perent surface preparations.he cavity are designed to A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE012 mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in re ected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 106 pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86106 pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

Pritzkau, D. P.

2002-01-01

429

RF pulsed heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE011 mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 ?s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE012 mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 × 106 pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 × 106 pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

Pritzkau, David Peace

430

Pulse combustion engine and heat transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid heating and cooling system is described comprising in combination a pulse combustion heat engine, primary heat exchange means for transferring heat rejected by the heat engine to a primary fluid to be heated, and a heat pump system. The heat engine includes chamber means for pulse combustion of a fuel to provide combustion gases which have cyclic periods

R. J. Priem; M. R. Ghassemzadeh; J. C. Griffiths

1987-01-01

431

Acoustical heat pumping engine  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1983-08-16

432

Fully balanced heat interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tunable and balanced heat interferometer is proposed and analyzed. The device consists of two superconductors linked together to form a double-loop interrupted by three parallel-coupled Josephson junctions. Both superconductors are held at different temperatures, allowing the heat currents flowing through the structure to interfere. We demonstrate that thermal transport is coherently modulated through the application of a magnetic flux. Furthermore, such modulation can be tailored at will or even suppressed through the application of an extra control flux. Such a device allows for a versatile operation appearing as an attractive key to the onset of low-temperature coherent caloritronic circuits.

Martínez-Pérez, M. J.; Giazotto, F.

2013-03-01

433

Heat exchanger support  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a support structure for in-bed heat exchanger tubes of a fluidzed bed boiler having wall means defining a fluidized bed region and a freeboard region above the fluidized bed region, the wall means including tubular means disposed near a transition zone between the fluidized bed and freeboard regions, the structure comprising support tubes having opposite ends extending respectively through the wall means and over the tubular means for support thereby, each support tube having at least one upright portion disposed in the fluidized bed region, and at least one heat exchanger tube being supportingly secured to the upright portion.

McDonald, D.K.; Weitzel, P.S.

1988-09-13

434

Milliwatt generator heat source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All LANL hardware requirements were met during the reporting period as scheduled. Lot 12 of T-111 alloy sheet and Lot 8 of yttrium platelets were procured to meet future WR production needs. The GEND IP schedule requirements for 49 fueled MC2893 heat sources were met. Pressure burst surveillance activities continued to be conducted in accordance with SNLA document BB328965. Final results of evaluations of two pressure-burst capsules were normal, suggesting that the corresponding heat sources should be in good condition. The hardware production period ended with an overall hardware process yield of 98.4%.

Mershad, E. A.

1984-03-01

435

Air heating system  

DOEpatents

A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

1983-03-01

436

Optical heat flux gauge  

DOEpatents

A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figs.

Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

1989-06-07

437

Residential Ground Source Heat Pumps with Integrated Domestic Hot Water Generation: Performance Results from Long-Term Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) show promise for reducing house energy consumption, and a desuperheater can potentially further reduce energy consumption where the heat pump from the space conditioning system creates hot water. Two unoccupied houses were instrumented to document the installed operational space conditioning and water heating efficiency of their GSHP systems. This paper discusses instrumentation methods and field operation characteristics of the GSHPs, compares manufacturers' values of the coefficients of performance calculated from field measured data for the two GSHPs, and compares the measured efficiency of the desuperheater system to other domestic hot water systems.

Stecher, D.; Allison, K.

2012-11-01

438

Optimizing Heat Exchangers for Air to Air Space Heating Heat Pumps in the United Kingdom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper deals with some of the major aspects of heat exchanger design for electric heat pumps. After a discussion of heat transfer theory, it describes a method that can be used in design and sizing of air to refrigerant heat exchangers, and in calculat...

C. J. Blundell

1976-01-01

439

Analysis of Influencing Factors of Heat Transfer Performance of Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer performance of heat pipe heat exchanger affected by many factors, such as the opening temperature of the heat pipe, the rate of fluid-filled, the physical nature of liquid refrigerant, the work temperature of tube, angle, tube spacing, tube length, hot and cold fluid flow and wind speed. The above-mentioned parameters can not be measured because of Test conditions,

Zhang Jie; Ren Yan; Zhang Lihong; Liang Huimin

2009-01-01

440

On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers.  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001-September 2004. (1) Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. (2) Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. (3) Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. (4) Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. (5) Development of advanced signal processing methods using wavelet transforms and image processing techniques for isolating flaw types. (6) Development and implementation of a new nonlinear and non-stationary signal processing method, called the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), for flaw detection and location. This is a more robust and adaptive approach compared to the wavelet transform. (7) Implementation of a moving-window technique in the time domain for detecting and quantifying flaw types in tubular structures. A window zooming technique was also developed for flaw location in tubes. (8) Theoretical study of elastic wave propagation (longitudinal and shear waves) in metallic flat plates and tubing with and without flaws. (9) Simulation of the Lamb wave propagation using the finite-element code ABAQUS. This enabled the verification of the experimental results. The research tasks included both analytical research and experimental studies. The experimental results helped to enhance the robustness of fault monitoring methods and to provide a systematic verification of the analytical results. The results of this research were disseminated in scientific meetings. A journal manuscript was submitted for publication. The new findings of this research have potential applications in aerospace and civil structures. The report contains a complete bibliography that was developed during the course of the project.

Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

2004-09-27

441

The one-dimensional heat equation subject to a boundary integral specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various processes in the natural sciences and engineering lead to the nonclassical parabolic initial boundary value problems which involve nonlocal integral terms over the spatial domain. The integral term may appear in the boundary conditions. It is the reason for which such problems gained much attention in recent years, not only in engineering but also in the mathematics community. In

Mehdi Dehghan

2007-01-01

442

Shedding More Light and Less Heat on the Results of School Integration. The Georgia Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One hundred and eighty-eight Georgia school system superintendents were polled in the Spring of 1976 as to their perceptions and experiences concerning the effects of school integration. This paper presents the results of this investigation. Three broad areas were selected for analysis: (1) integration outcomes affecting the public schools, (2)…

Christison, Milton; Sida, Donald

443

Physical Hazards 1: Heat and Cold.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents: The incidence of heat-related illness; Occupational groups at risk for heat injury; Physiology of thermoregulation; Heat stress indices; Pathophysiology and clinical features of heat stress illness; Diagnosis and management of heat stres...

T. J. Flood J. C. Hake

1983-01-01

444

Heat pipes for thermal control of ISS solar battery drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers design and testing aspects of ammonia axial grooved heat pipes (AGHPs) made of aluminum alloy 6063 intended for cables thermal control of the solar battery drive integrated into the International Space Station.The heat removal system includes four heat pipes with a diameter of 10 mm and length of 2 m. Each heat pipe shall transfer 50 W

V. Barantsevich; V. Shabalkin

2003-01-01

445

Micro heat pipes in low temperature cofire ceramic (LTCC) substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

With projected power densities above 100 W\\/cm2 for devices, new methods for thermal management from the heat generation at the die to heat removal to the ambient must be addressed. By integrating micro heat pipes directly within the ceramic substrate, effective thermal conductivity for spreading heat in both radial and axial directions was achieved. New materials and processes were developed

W. Kinzy Jones; Yanqing Liu; Mingcong Gao

2003-01-01

446

Heat management in aluminum/air batteries: Sources of heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the problems with the aluminum/air battery is the generation of heat, during both idle and discharge periods. The main sources of heat are: (1) corrosion of the aluminum anode during the idle period; (2) inefficient, or less efficient, dissolution of anode during discharge; (3) Joule heat during discharge, and (4) non-uniform mass transfer during both discharge and idle periods. These components of heat act in a cumulative way because they are all interconnected. This paper addresses the basic reasons for the origin of these sources of heat. Suitable and practical remedial measures for the effective removal of such heat in the aluminum/air battery are suggested.

Patnaik, R. S. M.; Ganesh, S.; Ashok, G.; Ganesan, M.; Kapali, V.

1994-07-01

447

The heat pipe exchanger with controllable heat exchanging area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat transfer rate through the heat exchanger in an industrial boiler that burns heavy oils must be controlled so as not to decrease the exhaust gas temperature below the dew point of sulfuric acid. Two systems of heat pipe exchangers are examined: one controls the heat exchange area of the condenser section of the heat pipes and the other uses the variable conductance heat pipes. The characteristics of these two systems are described. The temperatures at various points and the gas quantity are plotted against the boiler loads. The maintainability and operational reliability of both systems are demonstrated.

Oshiro, M.; Takasu, S.; Kurihara, M.; Taneda, K.; Nakamoto, T.; Nakayama, H.

1984-03-01

448

Residential CO 2 heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical and experimental study has been carried out for a residential brine-to-water CO2 heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating. A 6.5kW prototype heat pump unit was constructed and extensively tested in order to document the performance and to study component and system behaviour over a wide range of operating conditions. The CO2 heat pump

Jørn Stene

2005-01-01

449

Coupled Reactor Kinetics and Heat Transfer Model for Heat Pipe Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). The paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities.

WRIGHT,STEVEN A.; HOUTS,MICHAEL

2000-11-22

450

Coupled reactor kinetics and heat transfer model for heat pipe cooled reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). This paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities. .

Wright, Steven A.; Houts, Michael

2001-02-01

451

Hydrogen absorption indirect heat exchanger  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A case for a hydrogen absorption indirect heat exchanger of the present invention includes a square cylindrical portion 11 having each portion thereof formed integrally by die-casting or extrusion molding. The corners 11a of this square cylindrical portion 11 and the center portion of its side 11b are shaped to a greater thickness than that of other portions. The weight of the case can be reduced while the case powder capacity is secured.

Toh; Keiji (Kariya, JP); Kubo; Hidehito (Kariya, JP); Fujita; Nobuo (Toyota, JP); Mitsui; Hiroyuki (Aichi-ken, JP)

2002-03-26

452

Hot tips on water heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-heater manufacturers responded to the call for energy conservation with innovations and efficiency standards for the home, business, and plant. Conventional tank-type water heaters offer better design and insulation, but the heat-pump water heater offers the highest efficiency. Available in add-on units and integral units, they now represent up to 40% of manufacturers' sales. Other advances are the desuperheater devices

Forker

1982-01-01

453

Intrinsically irreversible heat engines  

SciTech Connect

The concept of an intrinsically irreversible heat engine is examined as a means of obtaining temperatures near absolute zero. These engines use the irreversible process of thermal conduction to achieve the necessary phasing between temperature changes and motion of a primary medium and therefore have only one moving mechanical element. (GHT)

Wheatley, J.C.

1982-01-01

454

Cooling and heating apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an energy transfer apparatus for transferring energy from and to a source liquid to heat and cool a facility, the apparatus comprising: means for providing a refrigerant cycle including means for evaporating refrigerant, means for condensing refrigerant and means for producing a phase change in the refrigerant; means for cooling air; means for providing a single continuous

Dittell

1987-01-01

455

Heat pumps for industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research activities, both in the laboratory and in the field, confirm that heat pumps can improve energy efficiency and productivity for a multitude of process types. By using heat pumps, process industries can save significant amounts of energy and money and successfully control emissions. Those industries with special needs, such as recovering solvents, can meet them more energy efficiently and cost effectively with heat pumps. Through the years, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) has helped industry solve its energy problems by joining in cooperative agreements with companies willing to do the research. The companies involved in these agreements share the costs of the research and benefit directly from the technology developed. OIT then has information from demonstration projects that it can pass on to others within industry. All the projects described in this brochure were joint ventures between DOE and industry participants. OIT will assist in accelerating the use of heat pumps in the industrial marketplace by continuing to work with industry on research and demonstration projects and to transfer research results and project performance information to the rest of industry. Successfully transferring this technology could conserve as much as 1.5 quads of energy annually at a savings of more than $4 billion at today's prices.

1991-09-01

456

Solid state heat engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact solid state turbine heat engine can be devised by pairing the nitinol elements. Each element is characterized by being in thermal contact with at least one hot water and one cold water bath and mechanically coupled to at least one driven pulley and driver pulley. A second nitinol element is similarly configured with a driver pulley, driven pulley,

Cory

1981-01-01

457

Solar heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating system for a structure in which a matrix of beverage containers of the convenient opening variety is mounted on a generally flat support member. The beverage containers extend through holes in the support member formed from alternating polygons of a generally checkerboard surface design. A resilient plug seals the opening at one end of each container and

Root

1980-01-01

458

Loop heat pipe radiator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Radiator (LHPR) which was developed as an alternative to state-of-the-art axially-grooved heat pipes for space-based heat rejection which would be usable with tubing made of aluminum foil covered with a carbon-epoxy composite. The LHPR had an aluminum envelope and a polymer wick, and used ammonia as a working fluid. It was 4 meters long with a mass of 1.4 kg. The LHPR transported 500 watts at a 2.3 meter adverse inclination and 1500 watts when horizontal. This non-optimized LHPR had a 3000 watt-meter capability, which is four times greater than an axially-grooved heat pipe of similar power-handling capability and mass. In addition to a higher power handling capability, the LHPR has a much higher capillary margin than axially-grooved pipes. That high capillary margin simplifies ground testing in a 1-g environment by reducing the need for the careful levelling and vibration reduction required by axially-grooved pipes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Sarraf, D.B.; Gernert, N.J. [Thermacore, Inc., 780 Eden Rd., Lancaster, Pennsylvania (United States)

1996-03-01

459

Wastewater heat recovery apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-09-01

460

Solar Energy: Heat Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

Knapp, Henry H., III

461

The differentially heated cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses recent work dealing with natural convection flow in a differentially heated cavity. The emphasis is\\u000a placed primarily on work dealing with the non-Boussinesq regime, transitional flow, and turbulent flow. Direction for future\\u000a work in areas where additional effort is required is also provided.

S Paolucci

1994-01-01

462

Solar Energy: Heat Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

Knapp, Henry H., III

463

Solar Energy: Home Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

Knapp, Henry H., III

464

Solar Energy: Home Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

Knapp, Henry H., III

465

Liquid heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes the method of creating a complete burn of combustible fuel within a heating system having a firebox at least partially surrounded by a liquid reservoir comprising placing fuel within a firebox having a knee wall extending upwardly from the bottom of the firebox so as to define a primary and secondary chamber on opposite side of the

Pope

1987-01-01

466

Heating Systems Specialist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This instructional package is intended for use in training Air Force personnel enrolled in a program for apprentice heating systems specialists. Training includes instruction in fundamentals and pipefitting; basic electricity; controls, troubleshooting, and oil burners; solid and gas fuel burners and warm air distribution systems; hot water…

Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

467

Sudurnes Regional Heating Corp.  

SciTech Connect

The Svartsengi geothermal area is close to the town of Grindavik on the Rekjanes peninsula and is part of an active fissure swarm, lined with crater-rows and open fissures and faults. The high-temperature area has an area of 2 sq. km and shows only limited signs of geothermal activity at the surface. The reservoir, however, contains lots of energy and at least 8 wells supply the Svartsengi Power Plant with steam. The steam is not useable for domestic heating purposes so that heat exchangers are used to heat cold groundwater with the steam. Some steam is also used for producing 16.4 MW{sub e} of electrical power. The article shows the distribution system piping hot water to nine towns and the Keflavik International Airport. The effluent brine from the Svartsengi Plant is disposed of into a surface pond, called the Blue Lagoon, popular to tourists and people suffering from psoriasis and other forms of eczema seeking therapeutic effects from the silica rich brine. This combined power plant and regional district heating system (cogeneration) is an interesting and unique design for the application of geothermal energy.

Lienau, P.J. [ed.

1996-11-01

468

More Heat than Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

More Heat Than Light is a history of how physics has drawn some inspiration from economics and also how economics has sought to emulate physics, especially with regard to the theory of value. It traces the development of the energy concept in Western physics and its subsequent effect upon the invention and promulgation of neoclassical economics. Any discussion of the

Philip Mirowski

1989-01-01

469

OPPS: Heating Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide to a workshop for primary teachers provides an introduction to the concepts of heat and temperature. It is designed to provide teachers with an inquiry-based learning experience to the basic concepts of thermodynamics and the thermal properties of matter. It is part of the Operation Primary Physical Science materials.

Kirwin, Gayle

2005-06-23

470

Heating Systems Specialist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional package is intended for use in training Air Force personnel enrolled in a program for apprentice heating systems specialists. Training includes instruction in fundamentals and pipefitting; basic electricity; controls, troubleshooting, and oil burners; solid and gas fuel burners and warm air distribution systems; hot water…

Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

471

Focusing solar heat collector  

SciTech Connect

A focusing solar heat collector comprises a light reflective corrugated base surface, a plurality of spaced apart, lighttransmitting conduits positioned in the corrugations of the reflective surface so that light reflected by the reflective surface is focused on the conduits, and an organic black liquid of high boiling point circulated through the conduits to receive the focused solar light.

Fries, J.E.

1982-04-20

472

Solar heating balloon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heat collector is described comprising primarily an inflatable envelope transparent to solar radiation filled with a gas, lighter than air, and tethered to the earth's surface by a pair of fluid conduits for conducting a working fluid to and from the envelope. One conduit which conducts working fluid to the envelope terminates within the envelope in a nozzle

Overton

1980-01-01

473

Turn up the HEAT.  

PubMed

The recently determined crystal structure of the PR65/A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A reveals the architecture of proteins containing HEAT repeats. The structural properties of this solenoid protein explain many functional characteristics and account for the involvement of solenoids as scaffold, anchoring and adaptor proteins. PMID:10378263

Kobe, B; Gleichmann, T; Horne, J; Jennings, I G; Scotney, P D; Teh, T

1999-05-01

474

Electricity from waste heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In industry and in ships, large amounts of waste heat with quite a high release temperature are produced: examples are combustion gases and the exhaust gases of ceramic kilns. Very often they cannot be used for heating purposes because of long transport distances or because there is no local district heating network. Thus, a practical solution would be to convert this waste heat into electric power. This conversion may be carried out using an ORC-plant (Organic Rankine Cycle). There are probably some twenty ORC-plants in commercial use in the world. They are, however, usually based on conventional power plant technology, and are rather expensive, complicated and may have significant maintenance expenses. In order to obviate these problems, a project was started at Lappeenranta University of Technology at the beginning of 1981 to develop a high-speed, hermetic turbogenerator as the prime mover of the ORC. With this new technology the whole ORC-plant is quite simple, with only one moving part in the power system. It is expected to require very little maintenance, and the calculations made give for it significantly lower specific price than for the conventional technology ORC-plant. Two complete prototypes of the new technology ORC-plant have been built, one to the laboratory, other to industrial use. The nominal output of both is 100 kW electricity. Calculated amortization times for the new ORC-plant range from 2.1 to 6.

Larjola, Jaakko; Lindgren, Olli; Vakkilainen, Esa

475

All About Heat Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

demanding a piece of the energy pie for the same reasons as we in the U. S. and fossil fuel consumption is escalating, forests are being consumed, and water is being used in unprecedented amounts. Considering that the energy produced from every gallon of gasoline, lump of coal, and cubic foot of natural gas burned will eventually return to heat,

John B. Snodgrass

476

Heat Stroke and Cytokines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heat stroke is a life-threatening illness that affects all segments of society. The etiology of the long-term consequences of this syndrome remains poorly understood such that preventive/treatment strategies are needed to mitigate its debilitating effects...

L. R. Leon

2007-01-01

477

An algebraic targeting approach for effective utilization of biomass in combined heat and power systems through process integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green house gases (GHGs) pose some of the most profound impact on the environment. One viable alternative for reducing GHGs\\u000a is the utilization of biomass to generate heat and power for processing facilities. The purpose of this paper is to address\\u000a the utilization of biowaste or biomass source in a processing facility for combined heat and power (CHP). In particular,

Tanya Mohan; Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi

2007-01-01

478

Theoretical study on the performance of an integrated ground-source heat pump system in a whole year  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being environmental friendly and with the potential of energy-efficiency, ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are widely used. However, in southern China, there exists large difference between cooling load in summer and heating load in winter. Thus the increase of soil temperature gradually year-by-year will decrease the COP of the GSHP system. In this paper, the configuration of a vertical dual-function

Rui Fan; Yiqiang Jiang; Yang Yao; Zuiliang Ma

2008-01-01

479

Implementation and Validation of Ground-Source Heat Pump System Models in an Integrated Building and System Simulation Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the low energy consumption and lower maintenance benefits of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems, little work has been undertaken in detailed analysis and simulation of such systems. Long-term transient ground heat transfer significantly affects the performance of these systems. Annual and multi-year simulation consequently becomes an invaluable tool in the design of such systems—both in terms of calculating annual

Daniel E. Fisher; Simon J. Rees; S. K. Padhmanabhan; A. Murugappan

2006-01-01

480

Two-stage heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

Improved furnaces are described in which secondary and tertiary heat exchanges are incorporated into new and existing hot-air furnace systems for controlled cooling of hot combustion products by co-current and countercurrent heat exchanges. Hot combustion products are cooled to a temperature at which latent heat of water vapor contained in combustion gases are substantially recovered. In one embodiment of our invention, a secondary heat exchanger comprises inter alia a closed hollow annular drum concentric with and spaced from a cylindrical combustion chamber, said annular drum having an upper annulus preferably filled with randomly packed refractory material. A second embodiment of our invention comprises a closed double annuli drum heat exchanger concentric with and spaced from a cylindrical combustion chamber. Finned tube or thermosiphon heat exchangers can be arranged sequentially with the primary heat exchanger combustion chamber to function as a secondary heat exchanger or as a tertiary heat exchanger.

Overall, J.C.; Schaus, O.O.

1981-06-30

481

Heat exchanger performance monitoring guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Fouling can occur in many heat exchanger applications in a way that impedes heat transfer and fluid flow and reduces the heat transfer or performance capability of the heat exchanger. Fouling may be significant for heat exchanger surfaces and flow paths in contact with plant service water. This report presents guidelines for performance monitoring of heat exchangers subject to fouling. Guidelines include selection of heat exchangers to monitor based on system function, safety function and system configuration. Five monitoring methods are discussed: the heat transfer, temperature monitoring, temperature effectiveness, delta P and periodic maintenance methods. Guidelines are included for selecting the appropriate monitoring methods and for implementing the selected methods. The report also includes a bibliography, example calculations, and technical notes applicable to the heat transfer method.

Stambaugh, N. (Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States)); Closser, W. Jr. (Toledo Edison Co., Oak Harbor,OH (United States)); Mollerus, F.J. (Mollerus Engineering Corp., Los Gatos, CA (United States))

1991-12-01

482

An environmental rating for heat pump equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major federal and state regulatory trends that may affect heat pump markets are reviewed. Then the confluence of federal and state regulation, and what it may mean for heat pump markets, is discussed. The conclusion reached, and therefore the assumption for the rest of the paper, is that state regulators will increasingly be managing the environmental impacts associated with alternative heating, cooling, and water heating methods within the framework of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The input needs of IRP are reviewed, and some shortcomings of existing rating procedures for providing the IRP inputs are identified. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief suggestion on course of action.

Hughes, P. J.

1992-10-01

483

Increase of COP for heat transformer in water purification systems. Part II – Without increasing heat source temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of a water purification system allows a heat transformer to increase the actual coefficient of performance, by the reduction of the amount of heat supplied by unit of heat. A new defined COP called COPWP is proposed for the present system, which considers the fraction of heat recycled. Simulation with proven software compares the performance of the modeling

R. J. Romero; J. Siqueiros; A. Huicochea

2007-01-01

484

Enceladus Heat Pump Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plume gas composition and the presence of dust grains rich in sodium salts [1,2] support a subsurface liquid as the source of the plumes observed at the South pole of Enceladus. We suggest that seawater circulating from the ocean to the surface supplies water, gas, dust and heat to the plumes. Our model needs only a percent or two of gas dissolved in the ocean, a value that is very much consistent with available observations ([1] suggest 10 percent of various gas species in the plume). As seawater comes up, pressure is released and bubbles form. Bubbly seawater is less dense than ice. Expanding gas provides lifting energy (cf. [6], [7]). The model delivers the materials that Postberg et al. [2] use for plume eruptions. Popping bubbles throw a fine spray that contains salt. This aerosol exits with the plume gas [2]. Most significant is the south polar heat flow >15 GW [4]. Water-borne oceanic heat is transferred to the surface ice. Less this heat, the water becomes colder, dissolves the bubble gases and becomes dense. It returns to the ocean via cracks in the ice. A large volume of ice is accessible via cracks SO THAT chemical interactions, heat exchange and other processes are possible. [1] Waite Jr et al., Nature, 460, 487 (2009). [2] Postberg et al., Nature, 459, 1098 (2009). [4] Howett et al BAAS., 41, 1122 (2009). [6] Crawford, and Stevenson, Icarus, 73, 66 (1988). [7] Murchie, and Head, LPS XVII, 583 (1986). This work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract, and for JIL under "Incentivazione alla mobilita' di studiosi straineri e italiani residenti all'estero" of Italy.

Matson, Dennis L.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.

2010-10-01

485

Microtube strip heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this contract has been to explore the limits of miniaturization of heat exchangers with the goals of (1) improving the theoretical understanding of laminar heat exchangers, (2) evaluating various manufacturing difficulties, and (3) identifying major applications for the technology. A low-cost, ultra-compact heat exchanger could have an enormous impact on industry in the areas of cryocoolers and energy conversion. Compact cryocoolers based on the reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) would become practical with the availability of compact heat exchangers. Many experts believe that hardware advances in personal computer technology will rapidly slow down in four to six years unless lowcost, portable cryocoolers suitable for the desktop supercomputer can be developed. Compact refrigeration systems would permit dramatic advances in high-performance computer work stations with conventional'' microprocessors operating at 150 K, and especially with low-cost cryocoolers below 77 K. NASA has also expressed strong interest in our MTS exchanger for space-based RBC cryocoolers for sensor cooling. We have demonstrated feasibility of higher specific conductance by a factor of five than any other work in high-temperature gas-to-gas exchangers. These laminar-flow, microtube exchangers exhibit extremely low pressure drop compared to alternative compact designs under similar conditions because of their much shorter flow length and larger total flow area for lower flow velocities. The design appears to be amenable to mass production techniques, but considerable process development remains. The reduction in materials usage and the improved heat exchanger performance promise to be of enormous significance in advanced engine designs and in cryogenics.

Doty, F.D.

1992-07-09

486

Microtube strip heat exchanger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this contract has been to explore the limits of miniaturization of heat exchangers with the goals of (1) improving the theoretical understanding of laminar heat exchangers, (2) evaluating various manufacturing difficulties, and (3) identifying major applications for the technology. A low-cost, ultra-compact heat exchanger could have an enormous impact on industry in the areas of cryocoolers and energy conversion. Compact cryocoolers based on the reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) would become practical with the availability of compact heat exchangers. Many experts believe that hardware advances in personal computer technology will rapidly slow down in four to six years unless lowcost, portable cryocoolers suitable for the desktop supercomputer can be developed. Compact refrigeration systems would permit dramatic advances in high-performance computer work stations with 'conventional' microprocessors operating at 150 K, and especially with low-cost cryocoolers below 77 K. NASA has also expressed strong interest in our MTS exchanger for space-based RBC cryocoolers for sensor cooling. We have demonstrated feasibility of higher specific conductance by a factor of five than any other work in high-temperature gas-to-gas exchangers. These laminar-flow, microtube exchangers exhibit extremely low pressure drop compared to alternative compact designs under similar conditions because of their much shorter flow length and larger total flow area for lower flow velocities. The design appears to be amenable to mass production techniques, but considerable process development remains. The reduction in materials usage and the improved heat exchanger performance promise to be of enormous significance in advanced engine designs and in cryogenics.

Doty, F. D.

1992-07-01

487

Influence of solar heating on the performance of integrated solar cell microstrip patch antennas  

SciTech Connect

The integration of microstrip patch antennas with photovoltaics has been proposed for applications in autonomous