Science.gov

Sample records for heat integrated heat

  1. Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1992-01-01

    Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

  2. Integrating preconcentrator heat controller

    DOEpatents

    Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Arakaki, Lester H. (Edgewood, NM); Varley, Eric S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus for controlling the electric resistance heating of a metallic chemical preconcentrator screen, for example, used in portable trace explosives detectors. The length of the heating time-period is automatically adjusted to compensate for any changes in the voltage driving the heating current across the screen, for example, due to gradual discharge or aging of a battery. The total deposited energy in the screen is proportional to the integral over time of the square of the voltage drop across the screen. Since the net temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, of the screen, from beginning to end of the heating pulse, is proportional to the total amount of heat energy deposited in the screen during the heating pulse, then this integral can be calculated in real-time and used to terminate the heating current when a pre-set target value has been reached; thereby providing a consistent and reliable screen temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, from pulse-to-pulse.

  3. Heat Integrate Heat Engines in Process Plants 

    E-print Network

    Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.; Townsend, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the integration of heat engines into total processes to effect large energy savings. Paybacks are often short. The method is applicable to new designs and retrofits and is ...

  4. Heat integrated ethanol dehydration flowsheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hutahaean, L.S.; Shen, W.H.; Brunt, V. Van

    1995-04-01

    zA theoretical evaluation of heat-integrated heterogeneous-azeotropic ethanol-water distillation flowsheets is presented. Simulations of two column flowsheets using several different hydrocarbon entrainers reveal a region of potential heat integration and substantial reduction in operating energy. In this paper, methods for comparing hydrocarbon entrainers are shown. Two aspects of entrainers are related to operating and capital costs. The binary azeotropic composition of the entrainer-ethanol mixture is related to the energy requirements of the flowsheet. A temperature difference in the azeotrophic column is related to the size of the column and overall process staging requirements. Although the hydrophobicity of an entrainer is essential for specification of staging in the dehydration column, no substantial increase in operating energy results from an entrainer that has a higher water content. Likewise, liquid-liquid equilibria between several entrainer-ethanol-water mixtures have no substantial effect on either staging or operation. Rather, increasing the alcohol content of the entrainer-ethanol azeotrope limits its recovery in the dehydration column, and increases the recycle and reflux streams. These effects both contribute to increasing the separation energy requirements and reducing the region of potential heat integration. A cost comparison with a multieffect extractive distillation flowsheet reveals that the costs are comparable; however, the extractive distillation flowsheet is more cost effective as operating costs increase.

  5. Integrated Approach to Revamping Heat Exchangers Networks 

    E-print Network

    Glass, K. E.; Dhole, V.; Wang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    A heat exchanger network constitutes the core of the plant energy systems interlinking the core process operation and the utility systems. This paper will illustrate an integrated approach for the revamp of a heat exchanger network by bringing...

  6. Integration of heat pumps into industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, R.N. ); Priebe, S.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Energy and others have funded studies to assess the potential for energy savings using industrial heat pumps. The studies included classifications of heat pumps, economic evaluations, and placement of heat pumps in industrial processes. Pinch technology was used in the placement studies to determine the placement, size, and type of heat pumps for a given applications. There appears to be considerable scope for heat pumping in several industries, but, where maximum process energy savings are desired, it is important to consider heat pumping in the context of overall process integration. 19 refs., 15 figs.

  7. Integral fluctuation theorem for the housekeeping heat

    E-print Network

    T. Speck; U. Seifert

    2005-07-18

    The housekeeping heat $Q\\hk$ is the dissipated heat necessary to maintain the violation of detailed balance in nonequilibrium steady states. By analyzing the evolution of its probability distribution, we prove an integral fluctuation theorem $\\mean{\\exp[-\\beta Q\\hk]}=1$ valid for arbitrary driven transitions between steady states. We discuss Gaussian limiting cases and the difference between the new theorem and both the Hatano-Sasa and the Jarzynski relation.

  8. Process Integration of Industrial Heat Pumps 

    E-print Network

    Priebe, S. J.; Chappell, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    Comparative Economic Evaluation of Industrial Heat Pumps, EGG-2408, 1986. (2) User Guide on process Integration for the Effi cient Use of Energy, The Institution of Chemical Engineers, Rugby, U.K., 1982. (3) Linnhoff, B. and E. Hindmarsh, "Th~ Pinch...

  9. Active heat transfer enhancement in integrated fan heat sinks

    E-print Network

    Staats, Wayne Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Modern computer processors require significant cooling to achieve their full performance. The "efficiency" of heat sinks is also becoming more important: cooling of electronics consumes 1% of worldwide electricity use by ...

  10. Integrated Heat Switch/Oxide Sorption Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Thermally-driven, nonmechanical compressor uses container filled with compressed praseodymium cerium oxide powder (PrCeOx) to provide high-pressure flow of oxygen gas for driving closed-cycle Joule-Thomson-expansion refrigeration unit. Integrated heat switch/oxide sorption compressor has no moving parts except check valves, which control flow of oxygen gas between compressor and closed-cycle Joule-Thomson refrigeration system. Oxygen expelled from sorbent at high pressure by evacuating heat-switch gap and turning on heater.

  11. Integrated Bulding Heating, Cooling and Ventilation Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bing

    Current research studies show that building heating, cooling and ventilation energy consumption account for nearly 40% of the total building energy use in the U.S. The potential for saving energy through building control systems varies from 5% to 20% based on recent market surveys. In addition, building control affects environmental performances such as thermal, visual, air quality, etc., and occupancy such as working productivity and comfort. Building control has been proven to be important both in design and operation stages. Building control design and operation need consistent and reliable static and dynamic information from multiple resources. Static information includes building geometry, construction and HVAC equipment. Dynamic information includes zone environmental performance, occupancy and outside weather information during operation. At the same time, model-based predicted control can help to optimize energy use while maintaining indoor set-point temperature when occupied. Unfortunately, several issues in the current approach of building control design and operation impede achieving this goal. These issues include: a) dynamic information data such as real-time on-site weather (e.g., temperature, wind speed and solar radiation) and occupancy (number of occupants and occupancy duration in the space) are not readily available; b) a comprehensive building energy model is not fully integrated into advanced control for accuracy and robustness; c) real-time implementation of indoor air temperature control are rare. This dissertation aims to investigate and solve these issues based on an integrated building control approach. This dissertation introduces and illustrates a method for integrated building heating, cooling and ventilation control to reduce energy consumption and maintain indoor temperature set-point, based on the prediction of occupant behavior patterns and weather conditions. Advanced machine learning methods including Adaptive Gaussian Process, Hidden Markov Model, Episode Discovery and Semi-Markov Model are modified and implemented into this dissertation. A nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) is designed and implemented in real-time based on Dynamic Programming. The experiment test-bed is setup in the Solar Decathlon House (2005), with over 100 sensor points measuring indoor environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, CO2, lighting, motion and acoustics, and power consumption for electrical plugs, HVAC and lighting. The outdoor environmental parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, CO2, global horizontal solar radiation and wind speed, are measured by the on-site weather station. The designed controller is implemented through LabVIEW. The experiments are carried out for two continuous months in the heating season and for a week in cooling season. The results show that there is a 26% measured energy reduction in the heating season compared with the scheduled temperature set-points, and 17.8% energy reduction in the cooling season. Further simulation-based results show that with tighter building facade, the cooling energy reduction could reach 20%. Overall, the heating, cooling and ventilation energy reduction could reach nearly 50% based on this integrated control approach for the entire heating/cooling testing periods compared to the conventional scheduled temperature set-point.

  12. An Integrated Low Level Heat Recovery System 

    E-print Network

    Sierra, A. V., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    - called donor exchangers (C-08), C-lO, C-12, C-13, C-34 and C-118 where the liquid is heated from 192 0 F to 265 0 F. The heated liquid is then routed to the C-127 and C-4l0A reboilers where it is used to partially reboil a butane splitter and a...

  13. INTEGRATED DESIGN AND CONTROL OF HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    INTEGRATED DESIGN AND CONTROL OF HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORKS #12; by Knut Wiig Mathisen A Thesis examples in their research attitudes. Truls also introduced me to heat exchanger networks, and has been have worked closely together with John Ulvøy on a paper on heat exchanger network synthesis

  14. Development of a Heat Transfer Model for the Integrated Facade Heating 

    E-print Network

    Gong, X.; Archer, D. H.; Claridge, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    the heat transfer process of facade heating (mullion radiators) in a pilot research project in Pittsburgh, PA. The heat transfer model for facade heating is developed and verified by measured data. The comparison shows that the heat transfer model predicts...

  15. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  16. Multifunctional composites : healing, heating and electromagnetic integration

    E-print Network

    Plaisted, Thomas Anthony John

    2007-01-01

    copper wire array embedded in a glass fiber/epoxy composite. The panel was not insulated and heatedheated composite panel consisted of twelve wire sets connected in series, where each wire set contained 4 coppercopper wire array embedded in a glass fiber/epoxy composite. The panel was insulated and heated

  17. Initial characterization of a modular heat exchanger with an integral heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) Advanced Technology program, a conceptual design of the Stirling space engine (SSE) was generated. The overall goal of the CSTI high capacity power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space missions. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) was chosen as the growth option in the CSTI program. A major goal during the conceptual design of the SSE was to reduce the number of critical joints. One area of concern was the heat exchanger assemblies that typically have the majority of critical joints. The solution proposed in the SSE conceptual design used 40 modular heat exchangers. Each module has its own integral heat pipe to transport heat from the heat source to the engine. A demonstration of the modular concept was undertaken before committing to the detailed design of the SSE heat exchangers. An existing FPSE was modified as a test bed for modular heat exchanger evaluation. The engine incorporated three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe. The thermal loading of these modules was intended to be similar to the conditions projected for the SSE modules. The engine was assembled and tests are underway. The design and fabrication of the heat exchanger modules and the engine used for these tests were described. Evaluation of the individual heat pipes before installation in the engine is described. The initial test results with the modules in operation on the engine were presented. Future tests involving the engine were outlined.

  18. Efficiency improvements by geothermal heat integration in a lignocellulosic biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Sohel, M Imroz; Jack, Michael

    2010-12-01

    In an integrated geothermal biorefinery, low-grade geothermal heat is used as process heat to allow the co-products of biofuel production to become available for higher-value uses. In this paper we consider integrating geothermal heat into a biochemical lignocellulosic biorefinery so that the lignin-enriched residue can be used either as a feedstock for chemicals and materials or for on-site electricity generation. Depending on the relative economic value of these two uses, we can maximize revenue of a biorefinery by judicious distribution of the lignin-enriched residue between these two options. We quantify the performance improvement from integrating geothermal energy for an optimized system. We then use a thermodynamic argument to show that integrating geothermal heat into a biorefinery represents an improvement in overall resource utilization efficiency in all cases considered. Finally, possible future technologies for electricity generation are considered which could improve this efficiency further. PMID:20659793

  19. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  20. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

  1. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C Keith; Uselton, Robert B.; Shen, Bo; Baxter, Van D; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  2. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  3. Performance of a Thermoelectric Device with Integrated Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Matthew M.; Agbim, Kenechi A.; Chyu, Minking K.

    2015-06-01

    Thermoelectric devices (TEDs) convert heat directly into electrical energy, making them well suited for waste heat recovery applications. An integrated thermoelectric device (iTED) is a restructured TED that allows more heat to enter the p-n junctions, thus producing a greater power output . An iTED has heat exchangers incorporated into the hot-side interconnectors with flow channels directing the working fluid through the heat exchangers. The iTED was constructed of p- and n-type bismuth-telluride semiconductors and copper interconnectors and rectangular heat exchangers. The performance of the iTED in terms of , produced voltage and current , heat input and conversion efficiency for various flow rates (), inlet temperatures (C) ) and load resistances () with a constant cold-side temperature ( = 0C) was conducted experimentally. An increase in had a greater effect on the performance than did an increase in . A 3-fold increase in resulted in a 3.2-, 3.1-, 9.7-, 3.5- and 2.8-fold increase in and respectively. For a constant of 50C, a 3-fold increase in from 3300 to 9920 resulted in 1.6-, 1.6-, 2.6-, 1.5- and 1.9-fold increases in , , , and respectively.

  4. Integrated flue gas treatment condensing heat exchanger for pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Warchol, J.J.; Schulze, K.H.; Carrigan, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Condensing heat exchangers recover both sensible and latent heat from flue gases. Using Teflon{reg_sign} to cover the heat exchanger tubes and inside surfaces that are exposed to the flue gas ensures adequate material lifetime in the corrosive environment encountered when the flue gas temperature drops below the acid dew point. A recent design improvement, called the integrated flue gas treatment (IFGT) concept, offers the ability to remove pollutants from the flue gas, as well as recover waste heat. It has been shown to remove SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, particulates, and trace emissions. Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) is undertaking an extensive program to optimize this technology for a variety of flue gas applications. This paper summarizes the current status of IFGT technology and the development activities that are in progress.

  5. Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Skupinski, R.C.; Tower, L.K.; Madi, F.J.; Brusk, K.D.

    1993-04-01

    The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

  6. Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skupinski, Robert C.; Tower, Leonard K.; Madi, Frank J.; Brusk, Kevin D.

    1993-01-01

    The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

  7. Development of a modular heat exchanger with integrated latent heat energy store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhat, A.; Heine, D.; Heinisch, M.; Malatidis, N. A.; Neuer, G.

    1981-02-01

    Latent heat storage materials and appropriate heat exchangers for solar heating applications, such as house heating and domestic hot water production were investigated. The melting and freezing characteristics and the effects of thermal cycling on a total of 12 substances, including paraffins, fatty acids and salt hydrates, were investigated and their corrosive interaction with five conventional construction materials was determined. The poor thermal conductivity of the heat storage materials requires the development of a modular finned heat pipe heat exchanger with increased heat transfer characteristics. A cost analysis is provided and comparisons with hot water storage indicate that latent heat storage has the potential of becoming economically more attractive than the former for domestic hot water production.

  8. Development of a Residential Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Hern, Shawn; McDowell, Tim; Munk, Jeffrey D; Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    A residential-size ground-source integrated heat pump (GSIHP) system has been developed and is currently being field tested. The system is a nominal 2-ton (7 kW) cooling capacity, variable-speed unit, which is multi-functional, e.g. space cooling, space heating, dedicated water heating, and simultaneous space cooling and water heating. High-efficiency brushless permanent-magnet (BPM) motors are used for the compressor, indoor blower, and pumps to obtain the highest component performance and system control flexibility. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model (HPDM) for each of the four primary modes of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options and to simulate the selected internal control strategies, such as controlling to a constant air supply temperature in the space heating mode and a fixed water temperature rise in water heating modes. Equipment performance maps were generated for each operation mode as functions of all independent variables for use in TRNSYS annual energy simulations. These were performed for the GSIHP installed in a well-insulated 2600 ft2(242 m2) house and connected to a vertical ground loop heat exchanger(GLHE). We selected a 13 SEER (3.8 CSPF )/7.7 HSPF (2.3 HSPF, W/W) ASHP unit with 0.90 Energy Factor (EF) resistance water heater as the baseline for energy savings comparisons. The annual energy simulations were conducted over five US climate zones. In addition, appropriate ground loop sizes were determined for each location to meet 10-year minimum and maximum design entering water temperatures (EWTs) to the equipment. The prototype GSIHP system was predicted to use 52 to 59% less energy than the baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads.

  9. Heat Integration and Heat Recovery at a Large Chemical Manufacturing Plant 

    E-print Network

    Togna, K .A.

    2012-01-01

    overheads stream to preheat the raw material entering the distillation process. This was accomplished via a heat exchanger, and reduced the utility steam requirement by 10,000 pph. The second project utilized the heat generated by the hydrogenation reaction...

  10. The design and fabrication of a Stirling engine heat exchanger module with an integral heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a free-piston Stirling Space Engine (SSE) intended for space power applications has been generated. The engine was designed to produce 25 kW of electric power with heat supplied by a nuclear reactor. A novel heat exchanger module was designed to reduce the number of critical joints in the heat exchanger assembly while also incorporating a heat pipe as the link between the engine and the heat source. Two inexpensive verification tests are proposed. The SSE heat exchanger module is described and the operating conditions for the module are outlined. The design process of the heat exchanger modules, including the sodium heat pipe, is briefly described. Similarities between the proposed SSE heat exchanger modules and the LeRC test modules for two test engines are presented. The benefits and weaknesses of using a sodium heat pipe to transport heat to a Stirling engine are discussed. Similarly, the problems encountered when using a true heat pipe, as opposed to a more simple reflux boiler, are described. The instruments incorporated into the modules and the test program are also outlined.

  11. Integrated modeling and heat treatment simulation of austempered ductile iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepp, E.; Hurevich, V.; Schäfer, W.

    2012-07-01

    The integrated modeling and simulation of the casting and heat treatment processes for producing austempered ductile iron (ADI) castings is presented. The focus is on describing different models to simulate the austenitization, quenching and austempering steps during ADI heat treatment. The starting point for the heat treatment simulation is the simulated microstructure after solidification and cooling. The austenitization model considers the transformation of the initial ferrite-pearlite matrix into austenite as well as the dissolution of graphite in austenite to attain a uniform carbon distribution. The quenching model is based on measured CCT diagrams. Measurements have been carried out to obtain these diagrams for different alloys with varying Cu, Ni and Mo contents. The austempering model includes nucleation and growth kinetics of the ADI matrix. The model of ADI nucleation is based on experimental measurements made for varied Cu, Ni, Mo contents and austempering temperatures. The ADI kinetic model uses a diffusion controlled approach to model the growth. The models have been integrated in a tool for casting process simulation. Results are shown for the optimization of the heat treatment process of a planetary carrier casting.

  12. Integral collector storage system with heat exchange apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Richard O.

    2004-04-20

    The present invention relates to an integral solar energy collector storage systems. Generally, an integral collector storage system includes a tank system, a plurality of heat exchange tubes with at least some of the heat exchange tubes arranged within the tank system, a first glazing layer positioned over the tank system and a base plate positioned under the tank system. In one aspect of the invention, the tank system, the first glazing layer an the base plate each include protrusions and a clip is provided to hold the layers together. In another aspect of the invention, the first glazing layer and the base plate are ribbed to provide structural support. This arrangement is particularly useful when these components are formed from plastic. In yet another aspect of the invention, the tank system has a plurality of interconnected tank chambers formed from tubes. In this aspect, a supply header pipe and a fluid return header pipe are provided at a first end of the tank system. The heat exchange tubes have inlets coupled to the supply header pipe and outlets coupled to the return header pipe. With this arrangement, the heat exchange tubes may be inserted into the tank chambers from the first end of the tank system.

  13. Heat emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    Heatstroke; Heat illness ... who is in good shape can suffer heat illness if warning signs are ignored) The following make ... Heat cramps are the first stage of heat illness. If these symptoms are not treated, it can ...

  14. Integration of Heat Transfer, Stress, and Particle Trajectory Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Thuc Bui; Michael Read; Lawrence ives

    2012-05-17

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. developed and currently markets Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA) in the United States and abroad. BOA is a 3D, charged particle optics code that solves the electric and magnetic fields with and without the presence of particles. It includes automatic and adaptive meshing to resolve spatial scales ranging from a few millimeters to meters. It is fully integrated with CAD packages, such as SolidWorks, allowing seamless geometry updates. The code includes iterative procedures for optimization, including a fully functional, graphical user interface. Recently, time dependent, particle in cell capability was added, pushing particles synchronically under quasistatic electromagnetic fields to obtain particle bunching under RF conditions. A heat transfer solver was added during this Phase I program. Completed tasks include: (1) Added a 3D finite element heat transfer solver with adaptivity; (2) Determined the accuracy of the linear heat transfer field solver to provide the basis for development of higher order solvers in Phase II; (3) Provided more accurate and smoother power density fields; and (4) Defined the geometry using the same CAD model, while maintaining different meshes, and interfacing the power density field between the particle simulator and heat transfer solvers. These objectives were achieved using modern programming techniques and algorithms. All programming was in C++ and parallelization in OpenMP, utilizing state-of-the-art multi-core technology. Both x86 and x64 versions are supported. The GUI design and implementation used Microsoft Foundation Class.

  15. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  16. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  17. Heat-Exchanger/Heat-Pipe Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, H. J.; Van Hagan, T. H.

    1987-01-01

    Monolithic assembly reliable and light in weight. Heat exchanger and evaporator ends of heat pipes integrated in monolithic halves welded together. Interface assembly connects heat exchanger of furnace, reactor, or other power source with heat pipes carrying heat to radiator or power-consuming system. One of several concepts proposed for nuclear power supplies aboard spacecraft, interface useful on Earth in solar thermal power systems, heat engines, and lightweight cooling systems.

  18. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad y Department of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process Q H column

  19. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad Department integrated distillation columns are used to reduce the energy consumption for separation. The heat inte- grated distillation columns will behave differently than two normal heat integrated distillation column

  20. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad Department integrated distillation columns are used to reduce the energy consumption for separation. The heat inte­ grated distillation columns will behave differently than two normal heat integrated distillation column

  1. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad ÝDepartment of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process QH column

  2. Heat Without Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkin, Elihu

    1997-04-01

    Logic of the Second Law of Thermodynamics demands acquisition of naked entropy. Accordingly, the leanest liaison between systems is not a diathermic membrane, it is a purely informational tickler, leaking no appreciable energy. The subsystem here is a thermodynamic universe, which gets `heated' entropically, yet without gaining calories. Quantum Mechanics graciously supports that(Lubkin, E. and Lubkin, T., International Journal of Theoretical Physics,32), 933-943 (1993) (at a cost of about 1 bit) through entanglement---across this least permeable of membranes---with what is beyond that universe. Heat without heat(Also v. forthcoming Proceedings of the 4th Drexel University Conference of September 1994) is the aspirin for Boltzmann's headache, conserving entropy in mechanical isolation, even while increasing entropy in thermodynamic isolation.

  3. Process Integration Study of Cache Valley Cheese Plant [Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Applications and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, A.

    1991-10-01

    This work has carried out in two phases: Phase 1; identification of opportunities for heat pumps in industrial applications and Phase 2; evaluation of heat pumps in industrial applications. In Phase 1, pinch analysis was applied to several industrial sites to identify the best opportunities for heat pumping and other forms of heat integration. In Phase 2, more detailed analyses were undertaken, including the evaluation of a heat pump installed as a recommendation of Phase 1.

  4. Heat Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction, function, and applications of heat pipes. Suggests using the heat pipe to teach principles related to heat transfer and gives sources for obtaining instructional kits for this purpose. (GS)

  5. Heat Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dangerous levels and you can develop a heat illness. Most heat illnesses occur from staying out in ... Heat-related illnesses include Heatstroke - a life-threatening illness in which body temperature may rise above 106° ...

  6. A heat & mass integration approach to reduce capital and operating costs of a distillation configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Madenoor Ramapriya, Gautham; Jiang, Zheyu; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-11-11

    We propose a general method to consolidate distillation columns of a distillation configuration using heat and mass integration. The proposed method encompasses all heat and mass integrations known till date, and includes many more. Each heat and mass integration eliminates a distillation column, a condenser, a reboiler and the heat duty associated with a reboiler. Thus, heat and mass integration can potentially offer significant capital and operating cost benefits. In this talk, we will study the various possible heat and mass integrations in detail, and demonstrate their benefits using case studies. This work will lay out a framework to synthesize an entire new class of useful configurations based on heat and mass integration of distillation columns.

  7. Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Fesmire, J. E.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U.; Tomsik, T. M.; Conyers, H. J.

    2014-01-29

    Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

  8. Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Tomsik, T. M.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Conyers, H. J.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2014-01-01

    Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

  9. Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, Jeffrey D; Ally, Moonis Raza; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

  10. Integrated energy system for heating the City of Ferrara

    SciTech Connect

    Musacci, A.

    1995-06-01

    The innovative energy systems operating in Ferrara were designed with the aim of saving energy and reduce the emissions towards the environment. A suitable integration of the energy sources and the arrangement of the plants in two separate islands allowed to obtain an efficient and interesting overall system, supplying both heat and electricity to the users of the town. Geothermal energy, wastes burning, cogeneration, energy recovery and integrative boilers have properly been matched. A previous analysis and simulation of the plants working allowed the authors to choose the size of each sub-system and to foresee the operation results throughout the year. These results are very close to the experimental data coming from actual operation modes. The overall system is very interesting and brings about a remarkable saving of both energy and environmental impact.

  11. Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, V. D.; Rice, K.; Murphy, R.; Munk, J.; Ally, Moonis; Shen, Bo; Craddick, William; Hearn, Shawn A.

    2013-05-24

    Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test experience, CM developed a 2nd generation (or beta) prototype in 2012. Field test verification units were fabricated and installed at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge in May 2012 and at several sites near CM headquarters in Oklahoma. Field testing of the units continued through February 2013. Annual performance analyses of the beta unit (prototype 2) with vertical well ground heat exchangers (GHX) in 5 U.S. locations predict annual energy savings of 57% to 61%, averaging 59% relative to the minimum efficiency suite and 38% to 56%, averaging 46% relative to the SOA GSHPwDS. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the test units it was projected that the 2nd generation units would achieve ~58% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at the Zebra Alliance site with horizontal GHX. A new product based on the beta unit design was announced by CM in 2012 – the Trilogy 40® Q-mode™ (http://cmdealernet.com/trilogy_40.html). The unit was formally introduced in a March 2012 press release (see Appendix A) and was available for order beginning in December 2012.

  12. Finite-time Thermodynamic Analysis of Controlled Heat Integration

    E-print Network

    Salamon, Peter

    . In particular, a calculation of the minimum exergy cost of supplying the utility demand to a heat exchange exergy savings from incorporating active elements into the network. 1. Introduction The present paper more slowly. The minimum exergy losses associated with the transport of heat is known for a wide

  13. Heating Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    Heating Safety Heating equipment is a leading cause of home fire deaths. Almost half of home heating equipment fires are reported during the months of ... and February. Some simple steps can prevent most heating-related fires from happening. Safety Tips • Keep anything ...

  14. Initial characterization of a modular heat exchanger with an integral heat pipe. [for Stirling space engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) Advanced Technology program, a conceptual design of the Stirling space engibe (SSE) was generated to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space missions. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) was chosen as the growth option in the CSTI program. An existing FPSE was modified as a test bed for a modular heat exchanger evaluation. Evaluation of the individual heat pipes before installation in the engine is described.

  15. Three important parts of an integrated plant are reactors, separators and a heat exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery. Within the process engineering community, much

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery. Within the process engineering community, much attention has beeni ABSTRACT Three important parts of an integrated plant are reactors, separators and a heat and in particular to optimal operation of HENs. The purpose of heat integration is to save energy, but the HEN also

  16. 77 FR 33486 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided... sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided...

  17. Integrated Thermal Protection Systems and Heat Resistant Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pichon, Thierry; Lacoste, Marc; Glass, David E.

    2006-01-01

    In the early stages of NASA's Exploration Initiative, Snecma Propulsion Solide was funded under the Exploration Systems Research & Technology program to develop integrated thermal protection systems and heat resistant structures for reentry vehicles. Due to changes within NASA's Exploration Initiative, this task was cancelled early. This presentation provides an overview of the work that was accomplished prior to cancellation. The Snecma team chose an Apollo-type capsule as the reference vehicle for the work. They began with the design of a ceramic aft heatshield (CAS) utilizing C/SiC panels as the capsule heatshield, a C/SiC deployable decelerator and several ablators. They additionally developed a health monitoring system, high temperature structures testing, and the insulation characterization. Though the task was pre-maturely cancelled, a significant quantity of work was accomplished.

  18. 77 FR 39735 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products... the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided... integrated circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing same...

  19. Activated-Carbon Sorbent With Integral Heat-Transfer Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Yavrouian, Andre

    1996-01-01

    Prototype adsorption device used, for example, in adsorption heat pump, to store natural gas to power automobile, or to separate components of fluid mixtures. Device includes activated carbon held together by binder and molded into finned heat-transfer device providing rapid heating or cooling to enable rapid adsorption or desorption of fluids. Concepts of design and fabrication of device equally valid for such other highly thermally conductive devices as copper-finned tubes, and for such other high-surface-area sorbents as zeolites or silicates.

  20. Heat release in the cryogenic system of a superconducting integrated detector and the influence of heat on its operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinev, N. V.; Koshelets, V. P.

    2013-03-01

    Heat release in the cryogenic system of a subterahertz-range superconducting integrated detector at ?4.2 K is studied, and the influence of the released heat on its main characteristics is estimated. The detector chip mounted on a silicon lens is connected to a bias board by aluminum wires 25 ?m in diameter, which are fixed by ultrasonic bonding. They are necessary for setting a bias current through the working components of the detector and represent an integral part of the system. The contact resistance between the wires and contact pads of the microchip is measured. The contact resistance is found to considerably exceed the resistance of the aluminum wire and, hence, makes a major contribution to heat release in the system. A "multipoint contact with one wire" technique is suggested. Tests show its efficiency: the contact resistance decreases considerably compared with the standard approach.

  1. Parallel heat transport in integrable and chaotic magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Chacon, L.

    2012-05-15

    The study of transport in magnetized plasmas is a problem of fundamental interest in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics research. Three issues make this problem particularly challenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), {chi}{sub ||} , and the perpendicular, {chi}{sub Up-Tack }, conductivities ({chi}{sub ||} /{chi}{sub Up-Tack} may exceed 10{sup 10} in fusion plasmas); (ii) Nonlocal parallel transport in the limit of small collisionality; and (iii) Magnetic field lines chaos which in general complicates (and may preclude) the construction of magnetic field line coordinates. Motivated by these issues, we present a Lagrangian Green's function method to solve the local and non-local parallel transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields in arbitrary geometry. The method avoids by construction the numerical pollution issues of grid-based algorithms. The potential of the approach is demonstrated with nontrivial applications to integrable (magnetic island), weakly chaotic (Devil's staircase), and fully chaotic magnetic field configurations. For the latter, numerical solutions of the parallel heat transport equation show that the effective radial transport, with local and non-local parallel closures, is non-diffusive, thus casting doubts on the applicability of quasilinear diffusion descriptions. General conditions for the existence of non-diffusive, multivalued flux-gradient relations in the temperature evolution are derived.

  2. Process Simulation and Energy Integration of an Industrial Chemical Plant: Materials selection for heat exchanger network

    E-print Network

    Psaltis, Demetri

    energy requirement from the utility point of view. Column integration, heat pumping and cogeneration wereProcess Simulation and Energy Integration of an Industrial Chemical Plant: Materials selection for heat exchanger network INTRODUCTION · Energy efficiency is a global priority, especially in production

  3. 77 FR 74027 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products... integrated circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing same by..., California (collectively, ``ITRI''). 77 FR 39735 (Jul. 5, 2012). The complaint, as amended,...

  4. Integrated Compartment Method appication to the transient heat transfer in gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Yeh, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Integrated Compartment Method (ICM), an effective numerical integration algorithm, was developed to solve the transient heat conduction coupled with convection. Application of the ICM to the mathematical model simulating a graphite test structure heated in an annular flow stream of hot helium has been successfully demonstrated. However, the model validation can not be performed until experimental data become available.

  5. Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels 

    E-print Network

    Tora, Eman

    2012-02-14

    at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

  6. 77 FR 74027 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-851] Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat- Conducting...within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided with multiple...

  7. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

  8. Building with integral solar-heat storage--Starkville, Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Column supporting roof also houses rock-storage bin of solar-energy system supplying more than half building space heating load. Conventional heaters supply hot water. Since bin is deeper and narrower than normal, individual pebble size was increased to keep airflow resistance at minimum.

  9. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  10. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

    1988-01-01

    An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

  11. Integrated exhaust and electrically heated particulate filter regeneration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2013-01-08

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes multiple zones. An electrical heater includes heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A post-fuel injection system injects fuel into at least one of a cylinder of an engine and an exhaust system. A control module is configured to operate in a first mode that includes activating the electrical heater to heat exhaust of the engine. The control module is also configured to operate in a second mode that includes activating the post-injection system to heat the exhaust. The control module selectively operates in at least one of the first mode and the second mode.

  12. Counter flow cooling drier with integrated heat recovery

    DOEpatents

    Shivvers, Steve D. (Prole, IA)

    2009-08-18

    A drier apparatus for removing water or other liquids from various materials includes a mixer, drying chamber, separator and regenerator and a method for use of the apparatus. The material to be dried is mixed with a heated media to form a mixture which then passes through the chamber. While passing through the chamber, a comparatively cool fluid is passed counter current through the mixture so that the mixture becomes cooler and drier and the fluid becomes hotter and more saturated with moisture. The mixture is then separated into drier material and media. The media is transferred to the regenerator and heated therein by the hot fluid from the chamber and supplemental heat is supplied to bring the media to a preselected temperature for mixing with the incoming material to be dried. In a closed loop embodiment of the apparatus, the fluid is also recycled from the regenerator to the chamber and a chiller is utilized to reduce the temperature of the fluid to a preselected temperature and dew point temperature.

  13. Nonballistic heat conduction in an integrable random-exchange Ising chain studied with quantum master equations

    E-print Network

    Li, Baowen

    Nonballistic heat conduction in an integrable random-exchange Ising chain studied with quantum numerically investigate the heat conduction in a random-exchange Ising spin chain by using the quantum master equation. The chain is subject to a uniform transverse field h, while the exchange couplings Qn between

  14. A Novel Integrated Frozen Soil Thermal Energy Storage and Ground-Source Heat Pump System 

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Rong, L.; Ma, Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel integrated frozen soil thermal energy storage and ground-source heat pump (IFSTS&GSHP) system in which the GHE can act as both cold thermal energy storage device and heat exchanger for GSHP is first presented. The IFSTS...

  15. Heat pipes. [technology utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development and use of heat pipes are described, including space requirements and contributions. Controllable heat pipes, and designs for automatically maintaining a selected constant temperature, are discussed which would add to the versatility and usefulness of heat pipes in industrial processing, manufacture of integrated circuits, and in temperature stabilization of electronics.

  16. Optimal Operation System of the Integrated District Heating System with Multiple Regional Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ui Sik; Park, Tae Chang; Kim, Lae-Hyun; Yeo, Yeong Koo

    This paper presents an optimal production and distribution management for structural and operational optimization of the integrated district heating system (DHS) with multiple regional branches. A DHS consists of energy suppliers and consumers, district heating pipelines network and heat storage facilities in the covered region. In the optimal management system, production of heat and electric power, regional heat demand, electric power bidding and sales, transport and storage of heat at each regional DHS are taken into account. The optimal management system is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) where the objectives is to minimize the overall cost of the integrated DHS while satisfying the operation constraints of heat units and networks as well as fulfilling heating demands from consumers. Piecewise linear formulation of the production cost function and stairwise formulation of the start-up cost function are used to compute nonlinear cost function approximately. Evaluation of the total overall cost is based on weekly operations at each district heat branches. Numerical simulations show the increase of energy efficiency due to the introduction of the present optimal management system.

  17. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: system development summary

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An introduction to district heating systems employing heat pumps to enable use of low-temperature energy sources is presented. These systems operate as thermal utilities to provide space heating and may also supply space cooling, service-water heating, and other thermal services. Otherwise-wasted heat from industrial and commercial processes, natural sources including solar and geothermal heat, and heat stored on an annual cycle from summer cooling may be effectively utilized by the systems described. These sources are abundant, and their use would conserve scarce resources and reduce adverse environmental impacts. More than one-quarter of the energy consumed in the United States is used to heat and cool buildings and to heat service water. Natural gas and oil provide approximately 83% of this energy. The systems described show potential to reduce net energy consumption for these services by 20 to 50% and to allow fuel substitution with less-scarce resources not practical in smaller, individual-building systems. Seven studies performed for the system development phase of the Department of Energy's Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project and to related studies are summarized. A concluding chapter tabulates data from these separately published studies.

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of Blast Furnace Slag Waste Heat-Recovery System Integrated with Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, W. J.; Li, P.; Lei, W.; Chen, W.; Yu, Q. B.; Wang, K.; Qin, Q.

    2015-05-01

    The blast furnace (BF) slag waste heat was recovered by an integrated system stage by stage, which combined a physical and chemical method. The water and coal gasification reactions were used to recover the heat in the system. Based on the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic analysis of the system was carried out by the enthalpy-exergy diagram. The results showed that the concept of the "recovery-temperature countercurrent, energy cascade utilization" was realized by this system to recover and use the high-quality BF slag waste heat. In this system, the high-temperature waste heat was recovered by coal gasification and the relatively low-temperature waste heat was used to produce steam. The system's exergy and thermal recycling efficiency were 52.6% and 75.4%, respectively. The exergy loss of the integrated system was only 620.0 MJ/tslag. Compared with the traditional physical recycling method producing steam, the exergy and thermal efficiencies of the integrated system were improved significantly. Meanwhile, approximately 182.0 m3/tslag syngas was produced by coal gasification. The BF slag waste heat will be used integrally and efficiently by the integrated system. The results provide the theoretical reference for recycling and using the BF slag waste heat.

  19. Heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Leon, Lisa R; Bouchama, Abderrezak

    2015-04-01

    Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition clinically diagnosed as a severe elevation in body temperature with central nervous system dysfunction that often includes combativeness, delirium, seizures, and coma. Classic heat stroke primarily occurs in immunocompromised individuals during annual heat waves. Exertional heat stroke is observed in young fit individuals performing strenuous physical activity in hot or temperature environments. Long-term consequences of heat stroke are thought to be due to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent advances in the identification of risk factors that predispose to heat stroke, the role of endotoxin and cytokines in mediation of multi-organ damage, the incidence of hypothermia and fever during heat stroke recovery, clinical biomarkers of organ damage severity, and protective cooling strategies. Risk factors include environmental factors, medications, drug use, compromised health status, and genetic conditions. The role of endotoxin and cytokines is discussed in the framework of research conducted over 30 years ago that requires reassessment to more clearly identify the role of these factors in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We challenge the notion that hypothalamic damage is responsible for thermoregulatory disturbances during heat stroke recovery and highlight recent advances in our understanding of the regulated nature of these responses. The need for more sensitive clinical biomarkers of organ damage is examined. Conventional and emerging cooling methods are discussed with reference to protection against peripheral organ damage and selective brain cooling. PMID:25880507

  20. Heat Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

  1. Process for producing an activated carbon adsorbent with integral heat transfer apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing an integral adsorbent-heat exchanger apparatus useful in ammonia refrigerant heat pump systems. In one embodiment, the process wets an activated carbon particles-solvent mixture with a binder-solvent mixture, presses the binder wetted activated carbon mixture on a metal tube surface and thereafter pyrolyzes the mixture to form a bonded activated carbon matrix adjoined to the tube surface. The integral apparatus can be easily and inexpensively produced by the process in large quantities.

  2. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  3. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  4. An artificial intelligence method for the synthesis of heat-integrated distillation flowsheets

    SciTech Connect

    Fang-Yu Han; Ben-Guang Rong

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, a concept of Heat-Integrated Distillation Flowsheet (HIDF) is proposed. It refers to the multicomponent separation flowsheet which is composed of simple and complex columns and in which heat integration is considered so as to achieve minimum energy consumption. The HIDF is very different from the Heat-Integrated Distillation Sequences (HIDS) in the literature which only consists of simple columns. In this paper, an artificial intelligence method is proposed for the synthesis of HIDF. It is based on the Database, Simulator, Heat Exchanger Network, and four Knowledge Bases which are all developed by the authors and their coworkers. A strategy of eight steps which combines the knowledge-based and rigorous algorithms is adopted for the synthesis of HIDF. The illustrated examples for the conventional distillation and extractive distillation show that the practical minimum energy consumption distillation flowsheets; can be generated with this method.

  5. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  6. Modeling the Line-of-Sight Integrated Emission in the Corona: Implications for Coronal Heating

    E-print Network

    Viall, Nicholeen M

    2013-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in all of space science is uncovering how the solar corona is heated to temperatures greater than 1 MK. Though studied for decades, one of the major difficulties in solving this problem has been unraveling the line-of-sight (LOS) effects in the observations. The corona is optically thin, so a single pixel measures counts from an indeterminate number (perhaps tens of thousands) of independently heated flux tubes, all along that pixel's LOS. In this paper we model the emission in individual pixels imaging the active region corona in the Extreme Ultraviolet. If LOS effects are not properly taken into account, erroneous conclusions regarding both coronal heating and coronal dynamics may be reached. We model the corona as a LOS integration of many thousands of completely independently heated flux tubes. We demonstrate that despite the superposition of randomly heated flux tubes, nanoflares leave distinct signatures in light curves observed with multi-wavelength and high time cadence...

  7. Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.

    PubMed

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

    2005-09-01

    Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

  8. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%. PMID:26133477

  9. Heat exchangers and solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.L.

    1980-01-22

    A heat exchanger and a solar heating unit incorporating the heat exchanger and described. The heat exchanger is constructed with an outer tubular member closed at its ends and provided with a fluid inlet at one end and a fluid outlet at the other end, and an inner tubular member of different cross-sectional shape to the cross-sectional shape of the outer tubular member but positioned and dimensioned so as to provide a plurality of longitudinal points of contact between the outer member inner surface and the inner member outer surface and a plurality of fluid ducts defined by the longitudinal wall portions of the outer and inner tubular members between said points of contact.

  10. An Integral Method to Evaluate Wall Heat Flux Suitable For Experimental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, Alireza; Mehdi, Faraz; White, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    An integral method to evaluate wall heat flux in turbulent boundary layers is presented. The method is mathematically exact and has the advantage of having no explicit streamwise gradient terms, thus making it amenable to experimental data. Using existing data sets, the method is shown to work in both zero- and adverse-pressure gradient boundary layers. The method is particularly useful for the latter case where Reynolds analogy does not hold and the wall heat flux must be measured directly.

  11. Application of fuel cells with heat recovery for integrated utility systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, V.; King, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of fuel cell powerplants with heat recovery for use in an integrated utility system. Such a design provides for a low pollution, noise-free, highly efficient integrated utility. Use of the waste heat from the fuel cell powerplant in an integrated utility system for the village center complex of a new community results in a reduction in resource consumption of 42 percent compared to conventional methods. In addition, the system has the potential of operating on fuels produced from waste materials (pyrolysis and digester gases); this would provide further reduction in energy consumption.

  12. Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System

    E-print Network

    Day, Nancy

    Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ livingPattern : Room ­? behaviour; setTemp : Room ­? num; heatSwitchOn, heatSwitchOff, userReset : simple

  13. Integrated Thermal Protection Systems and Heat Resistant Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pichon, Thierry; Lacoste, Marc; Barreteau, R.; Glass, David E.

    2006-01-01

    In the early stages of NASA's Exploration Initiative, Snecma Propulsion Solide was funded under the Exploration Systems Research & Technology program to develop a CMC heatshield, a deployable decelerator, and an ablative heat shield for reentry vehicles. Due to changes within NASA's Exploration Initiative, this task was cancelled in early FY06. This paper will give an overview of the work that was accomplished prior to cancellation. The Snecma team consisted of MT Aerospace, Germany, and Materials Research & Design (MR&D), NASA Langley, NASA Dryden, and NASA Ames in the United States. An Apollo-type capsule was chosen as the reference vehicle for the work. NASA Langley generated the trajectory and aerothermal loads. Snecma and MT Aerospace began the design of a ceramic aft heatshield (CAS) utilizing C/SiC panels as the capsule heatshield. MR&D led the design of a C/SiC deployable decelerator, NASA Ames led the characterization of several ablators, NASA Dryden led the development of a heath management system and the high temperature structures testing, and NASA Langley led the insulation characterization. Though the task was pre-maturely cancelled, a significant quantity of work was accomplished.

  14. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  15. Heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. F.; Keller, E. E. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    An improved lightweight heat exchanger particularly suited for use in systems having low volume flow, high longitudinal gradient and high effectiveness requirements is described. The heat exchanger is characterized by a shell of an annular configuration, an endless plate of minimal thickness and of a substantially uniformly convoluted configuration disposed within the annular shell for defining a plurality of endless, juxtaposed passages, each having a low Reynold's number and being of an annular configuration. A pair of manifolds disposed 180 deg apart is mounted on the shell in communication with the passages through which counterflowing fluids are simultaneously introduced and extracted from the passageways for achieving a continuous transfer of heat through the convoluted plate.

  16. Heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-02-02

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections.

  17. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-01-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  18. Development of a Variable-Speed Residential Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C Keith; Shen, Bo; Munk, Jeffrey D; Ally, Moonis Raza; Baxter, Van D

    2014-01-01

    A residential air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) is under development in partnership with a U.S. manufacturer. A nominal 10.6 kW (3-ton) cooling capacity variable-speed unit, the system provides both space conditioning and water heating. This multi-functional unit can provide domestic water heating (DWH) in either full condensing (FC) (dedicated water heating or simultaneous space cooling and water heating) or desuperheating (DS) operation modes. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model for each mode of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options for efficiency while maintaining acceptable comfort conditions and refrigerant-side pressures and temperatures within allowable operating envelopes. Annual simulations were performed with the AS-IHP installed in a well-insulated house in five U.S. climate zones. The AS-IHP is predicted to use 45 to 60% less energy than a DOE minimum efficiency baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads. Water heating energy use is lowered by 60 to 75% in cold to warmer climates, respectively. Plans are to field test the unit in Knoxville, TN.

  19. Infrared Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IR heating was first industrially used in the 1930s for automotive curing applications and rapidly became a widely applied technology in the manufacturing industry. Contrarily, a slower pace in the development of IR technologies for processing foods and agricultural products was observed, due to lim...

  20. Demonstration of strong near-field radiative heat transfer between integrated nanostructures.

    PubMed

    St-Gelais, Raphael; Guha, Biswajeet; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Lipson, Michal

    2014-12-10

    Near-field heat transfer recently attracted growing interest but was demonstrated experimentally only in macroscopic systems. However, several projected applications would be relevant mostly in integrated nanostructures. Here we demonstrate a platform for near-field heat transfer on-chip and show that it can be the dominant thermal transport mechanism between integrated nanostructures, overcoming background substrate conduction and the far-field limit (by factors 8 and 7, respectively). Our approach could enable the development of active thermal control devices such as thermal rectifiers and transistors. PMID:25420115

  1. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  2. Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

  3. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    SciTech Connect

    J'Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated system and the economic allocation of electricity and heat resources. Safety issues include changes in regulatory constraints imposed on the facilities. Modeling and analysis tools, such as System Dynamics for time dependent operational and economic issues and RELAP5 3D for chemical transient affects, are evaluated. The results of this study advance the body of knowledge toward integration of nuclear reactors and process heat applications.

  5. Investigation of a radiantly heated and cooled office with an integrated desiccant ventilation unit 

    E-print Network

    Gong, Xiangyang

    2009-05-15

    Radiant heating and cooling has a reputation of increasing the comfort level and reducing the energy consumption of buildings. The main advantages of radiant heating and cooling are low operational noise and reduced fan power cost. Radiant heating...

  6. The heat-balance integral: 1. How to calibrate the parabolic profile?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Jordan

    The Heat-Balance Integral Method (HBIM) of Goodman under classic prescribed temperature boundary conditions has been studied towards it optimization. Because the parabolic profile satisfies both the boundary conditions and the heat-balance integral at any value of the exponent the calibration is of a primary importance in generation of the approximate solution. The simple 1-D heat conduction problem, enabling one to demonstrate the HBIM performance with the entropy generation minimization (EGM) concept in calibration of a parabolic temperature profile with unspecified exponents, has been developed. The EGM concept provides constraints that impose addition boundary conditions at the approximate parabolic profile. Additionally, entire domain optimizations based on the mean-squared error concept has been performed in two versions - the method Myers and through a similarity transformed diffusion equation.

  7. Solar heat plant

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, T.; Morita, M.; Nakamoto, Y.; Sakuta, K.; Sawata, S.; Sekiya, H.; Tanaka, T.; Yamagata, N.

    1984-05-22

    A solar heat plant comprises a first system including a high temperature heat collector for changing solar energy to high temperature heat energy under usual sunshine and to low temperature heat energy under poor sunshine to supply the heat energy to a high temperature heat medium, a high temperature heat load which works under usual sunshine using the heat energy supplied to the high temperature heat medium, a second system including a low temperature heat collector for changing solar energy to low temperature heat energy under usual or poor sunshine to supply the heat energy to a low temperature heat medium, and a low temperature heat load which works under usual sunshine using the heat energy supplied to the low temperature heat medium and also works under poor sunshine using the heat energies supplied to the high and low temperature heat media.

  8. Geothermal district heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Budney, G.S.; Childs, F.

    1982-01-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  9. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  10. MODELING THE LINE-OF-SIGHT INTEGRATED EMISSION IN THE CORONA: IMPLICATIONS FOR CORONAL HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Viall, Nicholeen M.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2013-07-10

    One of the outstanding problems in all of space science is uncovering how the solar corona is heated to temperatures greater than 1 MK. Though studied for decades, one of the major difficulties in solving this problem has been unraveling the line-of-sight (LOS) effects in the observations. The corona is optically thin, so a single pixel measures counts from an indeterminate number (perhaps tens of thousands) of independently heated flux tubes, all along that pixel's LOS. In this paper we model the emission in individual pixels imaging the active region corona in the extreme ultraviolet. If LOS effects are not properly taken into account, erroneous conclusions regarding both coronal heating and coronal dynamics may be reached. We model the corona as an LOS integration of many thousands of completely independently heated flux tubes. We demonstrate that despite the superposition of randomly heated flux tubes, nanoflares leave distinct signatures in light curves observed with multi-wavelength and high time cadence data, such as those data taken with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. These signatures are readily detected with the time-lag analysis technique of Viall and Klimchuk in 2012. Steady coronal heating leaves a different and equally distinct signature that is also revealed by the technique.

  11. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Merrigan, M.A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. Sundstrand Corporation is developing a ORC-SDPS candidate for the Space Station that uses toluene as the organic fluid and LiOH as the TES material. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Heat, Energy, and Order, Part Two of an Integrated Science Sequence, Student Guide, 1970 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Project Committee, OR.

    Part two of the first year in the Portland Project, a three-year high school integrated science curriculum, is contained in this student guide. This volume, one of four parts in the year course, involves activities relating to what is considered the most powerful unifying concept in science: energy. The macroscopic aspects of heat as embodied in…

  13. Installation package for integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronic subsystem - solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of the Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual and information on the power panel and programmable microprocessor, a hydronic solar pump system and a hydronic heating hot water pumping system. These systems are integrated into various configurations for usages in solar energy management, control and monitoring, lighting control, data logging and other solar related applications.

  14. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  15. Optimization of Heat Exchanger Cleaning 

    E-print Network

    Siegell, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    EXCHANGER CLEANING Jeffrey H. Siegell Exxon Research and Engineering Company Florham Park, New Jersey ABSTRACT The performance of heat integration systems is quantified in terms of the amount of heat that is recovered. This decreases with time due... to increased fouling of the heat exchange surface. Using the "Total Fouling Related Expenses (TFRE)" approach, economic incentives for heat exchanger cleaning are evaluated using linear, exponential, and exponential finite decrease models of the heat...

  16. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes 

    E-print Network

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...

  17. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 

    E-print Network

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    fossil fired heating units or electric resistance water heaters. When electric resistance water heaters are utilized there are three alternative electric heating concepts available to reduce home energy consumption. They are desuperheaters, dedicated heat...

  18. Combined Heat and Power Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will seamlessly integrate a gas-fired simple-cycle 100 kWe microturbine with a new ultra-low NOx gas-fired burner to develop a CHP assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology.

  19. Zero-G Condensing Heat Exchanger with Integral Disinfection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The system that operates in a zero gravity environment and has an integral ozone generating capability is disclosed. The system contributes to the control of metabolic water vapors in the air, and also provided disinfection of any resulting condensate within the system, as well as disinfection of the air stream that flows throughout the disclosed system.

  20. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  1. Heat pipe waste heat recovery boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littwin, D. A.; McCurley, J.

    The use of heat pipes as transport devices in waste heat recovery boilers is examined. Test results show that heat pipes can efficiently extract heat from the hot gas stream and transfer it inside the pressure vessel for the steam generation process. The benefits of incorporating heat pipes into the design of waste heat recovery boilers include a highly compact package, a significant reduction in thermally induced stresses, double isolation of the steam from the heat source, an extended surface for improved efficiency in heat extraction, improved circulation and stability in the boiling regime, easy cleaning, individually replaceable tubes, and low flue gas pressure drop.

  2. High power heat pipe heat exchanger development

    SciTech Connect

    Fale, J.E.; Zuo, Z.J.; Gernert, N.J.; Goryca, M.L.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a recently completed SBIR Phase 2 program by Thermacore, Inc. to develop a 350kW heat pipe radiator for the M109 A6 Howitzer engine cooling. After a brief discussion of operating principles and unique advantages of heat pipe heat exchangers, the paper focuses on the development of high power heat pipe heat exchangers. Design and manufacturing issues associated with high power heat pipe heat exchangers, such as non-uniform heat load distribution, redundancy/damage resistance, and seals between the two fluid streams, are addressed. Test results of segment and full scale heat pipe radiators are presented. Heat pipe heat exchanger applications, including the potential applications in the turbine industry and the food and pharmaceutical industry, are discussed.

  3. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbury, Phillip J. (Richland, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  4. Heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Saperstein, Z.P.; Awe, R.C.; Costello, N.F.; Larrabee, S.R.

    1986-10-07

    A heat exchanger is described which consists of: spaced generally parallel header and tank constructions; each of the header and tank constructions having elongated, spaced, tube receiving holes in a header surface thereof; the holes in one header surface being aligned with and facing corresponding holes in the other header surface; and elongated open ended, flattened tubes extending between and into the header and tank constructions through aligned ones of the holes; the portions of each header surface between the holes including exteriorly convex domes defined by compound curves to thereby provide increased resistance to deformation as a result of force exerted by a pressurized fluid within the header and tank construction.

  5. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbury, P.J.

    1983-12-08

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  6. Finite element methods for integrated aerodynamic heating analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, K.; Peraire, J.

    1991-01-01

    This report gives a description of the work which has been undertaken during the second year of a three year research program. The objectives of the program are to produce finite element based procedures for the solution of the large scale practical problems which are of interest to the Aerothermal Loads Branch (ALB) at NASA Langley Research Establishment. The problems of interest range from Euler simulations of full three dimensional vehicle configurations to local analyses of three dimensional viscous laminar flow. Adaptive meshes produced for both steady state and transient problems are to be considered. An important feature of the work is the provision of specialized techniques which can be used at ALB for the development of an integrated fluid/thermal/structural modeling capability.

  7. Finite element methods for integrated aerodynamic heating analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peraire, J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past few years finite element based procedures for the solution of high speed viscous compressible flows were developed. The objective of this research is to build upon the finite element concepts which have already been demonstrated and to develop these ideas to produce a method which is applicable to the solution of large scale practical problems. The problems of interest range from three dimensional full vehicle Euler simulations to local analysis of three-dimensional viscous laminar flow. Transient Euler flow simulations involving moving bodies are also to be included. An important feature of the research is to be the coupling of the flow solution methods with thermal/structural modeling techniques to provide an integrated fluid/thermal/structural modeling capability. The progress made towards achieving these goals during the first twelve month period of the research is presented.

  8. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

    1992-03-24

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

  9. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bonde, Wayne L. (Livermore, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

  10. Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A This child with miliaria ... itchy bumps in area of redness. Overview Heat rash (miliaria rubra), also known as prickly heat, is ...

  11. Latent Heat in Soil Heat Flux Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  12. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  13. Heat recovery method

    SciTech Connect

    Richarts, F.

    1985-04-16

    Heat is recovered by combining a heat transfer system including heat exchangers interconnected in a circulatory system, with a heat pump system. The heat pump system is preferably operated in accordance with the Lorenz-Principle. It is not necessary to divide the heat carrier circuit of the heat pump into two or three separate circulatory circuits. The heat carrier circuit of the heat pump can thus continue to operate unchanged even if the heat pump is switched off. For this purpose the warm heat carrier coming from a discharge fluid cooler, is heated further in a condenser of the heat pump and the cold heat carrier coming from a preheater or cooler group, is cooled further in an evaporator of the heat pump.

  14. NREL's Building-Integrated Supercomputer Provides Heating and Efficient Computing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is meant to investigate new ways to integrate energy sources so they work together efficiently, and one of the key tools to that investigation, a new supercomputer, is itself a prime example of energy systems integration. NREL teamed with Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Intel to develop the innovative warm-water, liquid-cooled Peregrine supercomputer, which not only operates efficiently but also serves as the primary source of building heat for ESIF offices and laboratories. This innovative high-performance computer (HPC) can perform more than a quadrillion calculations per second as part of the world's most energy-efficient HPC data center.

  15. Electrophoretic Behavior in Relation to the Structural Integrity of Codfish Parvalbumin upon Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Harmen H J; de los Reyes Jimenez, Marta; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L; Koppelman, Stef J

    2015-05-13

    This work evaluates the impact of heat processing of parvalbumin, a major fish allergen, on the consequences for quantitative analysis of this protein embedded in different matrices during heating (either isolated, in an aqueous extract, or in whole fillets) to assess potential health risks. It is shown that oligomerization of parvalbumin does occur, but only upon heat treatment above 80 °C. This coincides with the ability of the isolated protein to refold up to this temperature in a fully reversible way, as demonstrated by circular dichroism analysis. In autoclaved samples a disintegration of the protein structure is observed. The situation becomes different when parvalbumin is embedded in a matrix with other constituents, as in fish extracts or whole fillets. The electrophoretic analysis of parvalbumin (SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting) is largely determined by complexation with other proteins resulting in insoluble materials caused by the partial unfolding of the parvalbumin at elevated temperatures. This effect is more strongly observed for cod fish extract, compared to whole cod fillets, as in the latter situation the integrity of the tissue hampers this interprotein complexation. Moreover, it is shown by ELISA analysis of heat-treated samples that using blotting procedures where disintegration of complexes may be promoted, restoring some of the IgG-binding propensity, may provide false outcomes. It was concluded that antibody binding to parvalbumin is dominated by the potential to form heat-induced complexes with other proteins. The possibly less-soluble or extractable character of these complexes may provide confusing information regarding potential health risks of fish and fish protein-containing food composites when such heat-treated samples are analyzed by immunochemical assays. PMID:25880570

  16. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Craddick, William G

    2007-07-01

    This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

  17. Technology Case Studies: Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating - Field Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  18. Thulium-170 heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; Van Sant, J.H.

    1992-01-21

    This patent describes an isotopic heat source. It comprises; at least one isotopic fuel stack, comprising alternating layers of: thulium oxide; and a low atomic weight diluent for thulium oxide; a heat block defining holes into which the fuel stacks can be placed; at least one heat pipe for heat removal, with the heat pipe being positioned in the heat block in thermal connection with the fuel stack; and a structural container surrounding the heat block.

  19. Heat recovery subsystem and overall system integration of fuel cell on-site integrated energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mougin, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The best HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) subsystem to interface with the Engelhard fuel cell system for application in commercial buildings was determined. To accomplish this objective, the effects of several system and site specific parameters on the economic feasibility of fuel cell/HVAC systems were investigated. An energy flow diagram of a fuel cell/HVAC system is shown. The fuel cell system provides electricity for an electric water chiller and for domestic electric needs. Supplemental electricity is purchased from the utility if needed. An excess of electricity generated by the fuel cell system can be sold to the utility. The fuel cell system also provides thermal energy which can be used for absorption cooling, space heating and domestic hot water. Thermal storage can be incorporated into the system. Thermal energy is also provided by an auxiliary boiler if needed to supplement the fuel cell system output. Fuel cell/HVAC systems were analyzed with the TRACE computer program.

  20. High heat flux single phase heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Izenson, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux, single-phase heat exchanger for spacecraft thermal management. The intended application is a net generation interface heat exchanger to couple the crew module water thermal bus to the two-phase ammonia main thermal bus in the Space Station Freedom. The large size of the interface heat exchanger is dictated by the relatively poor water-side heat transfer characteristics. The objective of this program is to develop a single-phase heat transfer approach which can achieve heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients comparable to those of the evaporation ammonia side. A new heat exchanger concept has been developed to meet these objecties. The main feature of this heat exchanger is that it can achieve very high heat fluxes with a pressure drop one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of previous microchannel or jet impingement high heat flux heat exchangers. This paper describes proof-of-concept experiments performed in air and water and presents analytical model of the heat exchanger.

  1. Design of Isotope Heat Source for Automatic Modular Dispersal During Reentry, and Its Integration with Heat Exchangers of 6-kWe Dynamic Isotope Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-01-01

    In late 1986 the Air Force Space Division (AF / SD) had expressed an interest in using a Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) of approximately 6-kWe to power the Boost Surveillance and Tacking System (BSTS) satellites. In support of that objective, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested Fairchild Space Company to perform a conceptual design study of the DIPS heat source and of its integration with the dynamic power conversion system, with particular emphasis on system safety. This paper describes the results of that study. The study resulted in a design for a single heat source of ~30-kWt, employing the standard 250-W General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules which DOE had previously developed and safety-tested for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTS's)

  2. Multiple source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  3. Heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Niggemann, R.E.

    1987-01-20

    A heat exchanger is described comprising: a liquid impingement plate having a liquid carrying channel therein; means for spraying a liquid carrying channel; a liquid containment plate disposed in spaced relation to the liquid carrying channel, the liquid containment plate and the liquid impingement plate defining a liquid flow chamber therebetween; liquid inlet means in communication with the liquid spraying means to permit the liquid to flow through the liquid spraying means into the liquid carrying channel; liquid outlet means in communication with the liquid flow chamber to permit liquid to be removed from the liquid flow chamber; and means for cooling the liquid impingement plate on the side thereof opposite the liquid flow chamber to a temperature at or below the freezing point of the liquid; the liquid carrying channel including means for retaining a portion of the liquid in a frozen state there-within, the retaining means comprising a narrowed channel opening facing the liquid spraying means in spaced relation to cooling means.

  4. Aalborg Universitet HT-PEM Fuel Cell System with Integrated Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery

    E-print Network

    Berning, Torsten

    of Thermoelectric Devices in a High-Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System: Two Case Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger for High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Exhaust Heat Recovery". In International Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Exhaust Heat Recovery". In International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2014; Doi: 10

  5. Heat pipe radiator. [for spacecraft waste heat rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swerdling, B.; Alario, J.

    1973-01-01

    A 15,000 watt spacecraft waste heat rejection system utilizing heat pipe radiator panels was investigated. Of the several concepts initially identified, a series system was selected for more in-depth analysis. As a demonstration of system feasibility, a nominal 500 watt radiator panel was designed, built and tested. The panel, which is a module of the 15,000 watt system, consists of a variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) header, and six isothermalizer heat pipes attached to a radiating fin. The thermal load to the VCHP is supplied by a Freon-21 liquid loop via an integral heat exchanger. Descriptions of the results of the system studies and details of the radiator design are included along with the test results for both the heat pipe components and the assembled radiator panel. These results support the feasibility of using heat pipes in a spacecraft waste heat rejection system.

  6. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

  7. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, D.R.; Shen, D.S.; Tuck, M.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Grafe, V.G.

    1998-06-23

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas. 7 figs.

  8. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

  9. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1997-04-22

    A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

  10. Study of heat sources interacting in integrated circuits by laser mirage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perpiñà, X.; Jordà, X.; Vellvehi, M.; Altet, J.

    2014-08-01

    This work exploits the mirage effect to analyze multiple heat sources thermally interacting in an integrated circuit (IC) by means of a probe IR laser beam, which strikes on the die lateral walls and passes through the die substrate. Under such conditions, the criteria for locating such hot spots, as well as their relative power dissipation, are discussed on the basis of a theoretical model inferred in this work. Finally, the technique feasibility is shown in a real application scenario, obtaining 5-?m spatial lateral resolution and an error in power dissipation measurements below 5%. This method may become a practical alternative to usual off-chip techniques for inspecting hot spots in ICs and to experimentally characterize heat flow in the semiconductor substrate.

  11. Study of heat sources interacting in integrated circuits by laser mirage effect

    SciTech Connect

    Perpiñà, X.; Jordà, X.; Vellvehi, M.; Altet, J.

    2014-08-25

    This work exploits the mirage effect to analyze multiple heat sources thermally interacting in an integrated circuit (IC) by means of a probe IR laser beam, which strikes on the die lateral walls and passes through the die substrate. Under such conditions, the criteria for locating such hot spots, as well as their relative power dissipation, are discussed on the basis of a theoretical model inferred in this work. Finally, the technique feasibility is shown in a real application scenario, obtaining 5-?m spatial lateral resolution and an error in power dissipation measurements below 5%. This method may become a practical alternative to usual off-chip techniques for inspecting hot spots in ICs and to experimentally characterize heat flow in the semiconductor substrate.

  12. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

  13. Functional integral approach to time-dependent heat exchange in open quantum systems: general method and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrega, M.; Solinas, P.; Braggio, A.; Sassetti, M.; Weiss, U.

    2015-04-01

    We establish the path integral approach for the time-dependent heat exchange of an externally driven quantum system coupled to a thermal reservoir. We derive the relevant influence functional and present an exact formal expression for the moment generating functional which carries all statistical properties of the heat exchange process for general linear dissipation. The method is applied to the time-dependent average heat transfer in the dissipative two-state system (TSS). We show that the heat can be written as a convolution integral which involves the population and coherence correlation functions of the TSS and additional correlations due to a polarization of the reservoir. The corresponding expression can be solved in the weak-damping limit both for white noise and for quantum mechanical coloured noise. The implications of pure quantum effects are discussed. Altogether a complete description of the dynamics of the average heat transfer ranging from the classical regime down to zero temperature is achieved.

  14. Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery 

    E-print Network

    Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

    2006-01-01

    The heat pump system used for recycling and reusing waste heat in s high school bathroom was minutely analyzed in its coefficient of performance, onetime utilization ratio of energy, economic property and so on. The results showed that this system...

  15. Short-term exposure to heat stress attenuates appetite and intestinal integrity in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pearce, S C; Sanz-Fernandez, M V; Hollis, J H; Baumgard, L H; Gabler, N K

    2014-12-01

    Acute heat stress (HS) and heat stroke can be detrimental to the health, well-being, and performance of mammals such as swine. Therefore, our objective was to chronologically characterize how a growing pig perceives and initially copes with a severe heat load. Crossbred gilts (n=32; 63.8±2.9 kg) were subjected to HS conditions (37°C and 40% humidity) with ad libitum intake for 0, 2, 4, or 6 h (n=8/time point). Rectal temperature (Tr), respiration rates (RR), and feed intake were determined every 2 h. Pigs were euthanized at each time point and fresh ileum and colon samples were mounted into modified Ussing chambers to assess ex vivo intestinal integrity and function. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FD4) permeability were assessed. As expected, Tr increased linearly over time (P<0.001) with the highest temperature observed at 6 h of HS. Compared to the 0-h thermal-neutral (TN) pigs, RR increased (230%; P<0.001) in the first 2 h and remained elevated over the 6 h of HS (P<0.05). Feed intake was dramatically reduced due to HS and this corresponded with significant changes in plasma glucose, ghrelin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (P<0.050). At as early as 2 h of HS, ileum TER linearly decreased (P<0.01), while FD4 linearly increased with time (P<0.05). Colon TER and FD4 changed due to HS in quadratic responses over time (P=0.050) similar to the ileum but were less pronounced. In response to HS, ileum and colon heat shock protein (HSP) 70 mRNA and protein abundance increased linearly over time (P<0.050). Altogether, these data indicated that a short duration of HS (2-6 h) compromised feed intake and intestinal integrity in growing pigs. PMID:25367514

  16. Integrated bioenergy complex for the production of power, heat and bio-ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Taviani, M.; Chiaramonti, D.; Tondi, G.; Grassi, G.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper an integrated bioenergy complex for the production of power, heat and bio-ethanol is presented. Ethanol, in fact, has been recognized as a high-quality transportation fuel. The reduction of petroleum consumption, especially for transport, is a strategic goal especially for those countries that already have or will experience an intensive industrial development in the next future. For these motivations, the production of bio-ethanol from Sweet Sorghum (which is now one of the most promising crop for this application in term of productivity, inputs demand, and flexibility) is of great interest in most of countries. The proposed integrated complex produces power, heat and bio-ethanol: the produced power and heat are partly used for bio-ethanol processing and biomass pre-treatment, partly to be sold to the market. This system has important innovations allowing a decentralized energy and ethanol production and creating new local jobs. The small power plant is based upon a steam cycle with an advanced low emission combustor, capable of burning different biomass resources with a modest decrease in the efficiency value. The Bioenergy Complex, suitable to satisfy the needs of a 3,000 inhabitants village, is composed by the following sub-systems: (1) Sweet Sorghum plantation (250 ha); the main products are: dry bagasse (approximately 3,900 Ton/year), grains (1,300 Ton/y) and sugar (1,850 Ton/y); (2) Cane crushing--sugar juice extraction system; (3) Sugar juice fermentation and distillation ethanol production (approx. 835 Ton/y); (4) Biomass pre-treatment components (grinding, drying, briquetting, storage, etc.); and (5) Cogeneration unit--the expansion unit is constituted by a last generation reciprocating steam engine, coupled with a 500 kWe alternator; the heat of the expanded flow is removed in the condenser, with an available thermal power of approximately 2,000 kWt.

  17. Printed Circuit Boards with Integrated Heat Carrier Channels for Deep Geothermal Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krühn, T.; Overmeyer, L.

    2012-04-01

    The exploration of deep geothermal resources is still very expensive. A large amount of these costs is caused by the drilling process. The high price results from a high failure risk, slow drilling progress and a large amount of manual work. To develop deep heat mining to a sizeable contribution to the European energy portfolio, the exploration process has to become a lot cheaper. One step to achieve lower costs is to monitor and automate the drilling process. Therefore, electronic components such as sensors and data processing units must be integrated into the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA). The integration of electronics into the BHA faces the challenge of high ambient temperatures. The project "Packaging of Electronic Components for High Temperature Applications" within the "Geothermal Energy and High Performance-Drilling Collaborative Research Program (gebo)" develops a system of heat carrier channels integrated in printed circuit boards (PCB). These channels can be perfused with fluids such as water, oil or gas and provide high heat convection rates. Such PCBs will be able to withstand high ambient temperatures up to 250 °C. We have simulated, manufactured and are currently testing prototype boards with integrated heat carrier channels featuring a thickness of only 1.6 mm. As a simulation scenario, we chose a board measuring 25 mm x 100 mm, dimensions suitable for integration into a BHA. An ambient temperature of 250 °C was used. The simulation results presented in this contribution illustrate that cooling of the whole board as well as cooling of hotspots is possible. The cooling channel layout being the key for high convection rates was meticulously studied and optimized. Parameters such as necessary flow rate and fluid pressure were adjusted accordingly. Preliminary experiments validate the demonstrated and discussed simulation results. With the proposed cooling system, it is possible to integrate microelectronic components into the BHA for drilling applications in hot rock. Sensors and data processing units for measurement and logging can be used while drilling, thus providing a better data source for automation, navigation and planning. This will help to optimize drilling costs and to minimize failure risks.

  18. Heat Stress Reduces Intestinal Barrier Integrity and Favors Intestinal Glucose Transport in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Sarah C.; Mani, Venkatesh; Boddicker, Rebecca L.; Johnson, Jay S.; Weber, Thomas E.; Ross, Jason W.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Gabler, Nicholas K.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive heat exposure reduces intestinal integrity and post-absorptive energetics that can inhibit wellbeing and be fatal. Therefore, our objectives were to examine how acute heat stress (HS) alters intestinal integrity and metabolism in growing pigs. Animals were exposed to either thermal neutral (TN, 21°C; 35–50% humidity; n?=?8) or HS conditions (35°C; 24–43% humidity; n?=?8) for 24 h. Compared to TN, rectal temperatures in HS pigs increased by 1.6°C and respiration rates by 2-fold (P<0.05). As expected, HS decreased feed intake by 53% (P<0.05) and body weight (P<0.05) compared to TN pigs. Ileum heat shock protein 70 expression increased (P<0.05), while intestinal integrity was compromised in the HS pigs (ileum and colon TER decreased; P<0.05). Furthermore, HS increased serum endotoxin concentrations (P?=?0.05). Intestinal permeability was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (P<0.05) and casein kinase II-? (P?=?0.06). Protein expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the ileum revealed claudin 3 and occludin expression to be increased overall due to HS (P<0.05), while there were no differences in claudin 1 expression. Intestinal glucose transport and blood glucose were elevated due to HS (P<0.05). This was supported by increased ileum Na+/K+ ATPase activity in HS pigs. SGLT-1 protein expression was unaltered; however, HS increased ileal GLUT-2 protein expression (P?=?0.06). Altogether, these data indicate that HS reduce intestinal integrity and increase intestinal stress and glucose transport. PMID:23936392

  19. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  20. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  1. Babies and heat rashes

    MedlinePLUS

    Heat rashes and babies; Prickly heat rash; Red miliaria ... To avoid heat rash , keep your baby cool and dry during warm weather. Some helpful suggestions: During the hot season, dress your baby in lightweight, soft, cotton clothing. Cotton ...

  2. Heat Wave Safety Checklist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heat has caused more deaths than all other weather events, including floods. A heat wave is a ... care for heat- related emergencies … ? Listen to local weather forecasts and stay aware of upcoming temperature changes. ? ...

  3. Woven heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  4. Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Craddick, William G

    2007-09-01

    The energy service needs of a net-zero-energy house (ZEH) include space heating and cooling, water heating, ventilation, dehumidification, and humidification, depending on the requirements of the specific location. These requirements differ in significant ways from those of current housing. For instance, the most recent DOE buildings energy data (DOE/BED 2007) indicate that on average {approx}43% of residential buildings primary energy use is for space heating and cooling, vs. {approx}12% for water heating (about a 3.6:1 ratio). In contrast, for the particular prototype ZEH structures used in the analyses in this report, that ratio ranges from about 0.3:1 to 1.6:1 depending on location. The high-performance envelope of a ZEH results in much lower space heating and cooling loads relative to current housing and also makes the house sufficiently air-tight to require mechanical ventilation for indoor air quality. These envelope characteristics mean that the space conditioning load will be closer in size to the water heating load, which depends on occupant behavior and thus is not expected to drop by any significant amount because of an improved envelope. In some locations such as the Gulf Coast area, additional dehumidification will almost certainly be required during the shoulder and cooling seasons. In locales with heavy space heating needs, supplemental humidification may be needed because of health concerns or may be desired for improved occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that achieving their ZEH goal will require energy service equipment that can meet these needs while using 50% less energy than current equipment. One promising approach to meeting this requirement is through an integrated heat pump (IHP) - a single system based on heat pumping technology. The energy benefits of an IHP stem from the ability to utilize otherwise wasted energy; for example, heat rejected by the space cooling operation can be used for water heating. With the greater energy savings the cost of the more energy efficient components required for the IHP can be recovered more quickly than if they were applied to individual pieces of equipment to meet each individual energy service need. An IHP can be designed to use either outdoor air or geothermal resources (e.g., ground, ground water, surface water) as the environmental energy source/sink. Based on a scoping study of a wide variety of possible approaches to meeting the energy service needs for a ZEH, DOE selected the IHP concept as the most promising and has supported research directed toward the development of both air- and ground-source versions. This report describes the ground-source IHP (GS-IHP) design and includes the lessons learned and best practices revealed by the research and development (R&D) effort throughout. Salient features of the GS-IHP include a variable-speed rotary compressor incorporating a brushless direct current permanent magnet motor which provides all refrigerant compression, a variable-speed fan for the indoor section, a multiple-speed ground coil circuit pump, and a single-speed pump for water heating operation. Laboratory IHP testing has thus far used R-22 because of the availability of the needed components that use this refrigerant. It is expected that HFC R-410A will be used for any products arising from the IHP concept. Data for a variable-speed compressor that uses R-410A has been incorporated into the DOE/ORNL Mark VI Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). HPDM was then linked to TRNSYS, a time-series-dependent simulation model capable of determining the energy use of building cooling and heating equipment as applied to a defined house on a sub-hourly basis. This provided a highly flexible design analysis capability for advanced heat pump equipment; however, the program also took a relatively long time to run. This approach was used with the initial prototype design reported in Murphy et al. (2007a) and in the business case analysis of Baxter (2007).

  5. Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

  6. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  7. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, M. E.; Reeder, J. C.; Sontag, K. E.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of integrating heat pipes in high temperature structure to reduce local hot spot temperature was evaluated for a variety of hypersonic aerospace vehicles. From an initial list of twenty-two potential applications, the single stage to orbit wing leading edge showed the greatest promise and was selected for preliminary design of an integrated heat pipe thermostructural system. The design consisted of a Hastelloy X assembly with sodium heat pipe passages aligned normal to the wing leading edge. A d-shaped heat pipe cross section was determined to be optimum from the standpoint of structural weight.

  8. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  9. Woven heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Piscitella, Roger R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  10. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, Lance D. (Shelly, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  11. Mass and Heat Recovery 

    E-print Network

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building...

  12. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  13. Nature's Heat Exchangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  14. Solar Heating Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Solar Unlimited, Inc.'s suncatcher line includes a variety of solar arrays, derived from NASA's satellite program: water heating only, partial home heating, or water and whole house central heating. Solar Unlimited developed a set of vigorous requirements to avoid problems common to solar heating technologies.

  15. Measurements of the heat release rate integral in turbulent premixed stagnation flames with particle image velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yung-Cheng; Kim, Munki; Han, Jeongjae; Yun, Sangwook; Yoon, Youngbin

    2008-08-15

    A new definition of turbulent consumption speed is proposed in this work that is based on the heat release rate integral, rather than the mass burning rate integral. Its detailed derivation and the assumptions involved are discussed in a general context that applies to all properly defined reaction progress variables. The major advantage of the proposed definition is that it does not require the thin-flame assumption, in contrast to previous definitions. Experimental determination of the local turbulent displacement speed, S{sub D}, and the local turbulent consumption speed, S{sub C}, is also demonstrated with the particle image velocimetry technique in three turbulent premixed stagnation flames. The turbulence intensity of these flames is of the same order of the laminar burning velocity. Based on the current data, a model equation for the local mean heat release rate is proposed. The relationship between S{sub D} and S{sub C} is discussed along with a possible modeling approach for the turbulent displacement speed. (author)

  16. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D.; Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Ally, Moonis Raza; Shen, Bo

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test house been better insulated (more like the house used for the savings predictions noted above) and the IHP system nominal capacity been a bit lower that the energy savings estimate would have been closer to 45% or more (similar to the analytical prediction for the cold climate location of Chicago).

  17. Heat Pipe Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  18. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOEpatents

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  19. Thulium-170 heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

    1990-09-06

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  20. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOEpatents

    De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  1. From Modules to a Generator: An Integrated Heat Exchanger Concept for Car Applications of a Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Henry

    2015-10-01

    A heat exchanger concept for a thermoelectric generator with integrated planar modules for passenger car applications is introduced. The module housings, made of deep drawn stainless steel sheet metal, are brazed onto the exhaust gas channel to achieve an optimal heat transfer on the hot side of the modules. The cooling side consists of winding fluid channels, which are mounted directly onto the cold side of the modules. Only a thin foil separates the cooling media from the modules for an almost direct heat contact on the cooling side. Thermoelectric generators with up to 20 modules made of PbTe and Bi2Te3, respectively, are manufactured and tested on a hot gas generator to investigate electrical power output and performance of the thermoelectric generator. The proof of concept of the light weight heat exchanger design made of sheet metal with integrated modules is positively accomplished.

  2. Fundamentals of heat measurement. [heat flux transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerashchenko, O. A.

    1979-01-01

    Various methods and devices for obtaining experimental data on heat flux density over wide ranges of temperature and pressure are examined. Laboratory tests and device fabrication details are supplemented by theoretical analyses of heat-conduction and thermoelectric effects, providing design guidelines and information relevant to further research and development. A theory defining the measure of correspondence between transducer signal and the measured heat flux is established for individual (isolated) heat flux transducers subject to space and time-dependent loading. An analysis of the properties of stacked (series-connected) transducers of various types (sandwich-type, plane, and spiral) is used to derive a similarity theory providing general governing relationships. The transducers examined are used in 36 types of derivative devices involving direct heat loss measurements, heat conduction studies, radiation pyrometry, calorimetry in medicine and industry and nuclear reactor dosimetry.

  3. Extreme Heat

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Weather Services American Red Cross National Integrated Drought Information System Center For Disease Control and Prevention LISTEN TO LOCAL OFFICIALS Learn about the emergency plans that have been established in your area by your state and local government . In any ... of Information Act Office of the Inspector General Whitehouse.gov ...

  4. Using MathCad to Evaluate Exact Integral Formulations of Spacecraft Orbital Heats for Primitive Surfaces at Any Orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinckney, John

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of high speed computing Monte Carlo ray tracing techniques has become the preferred method for evaluating spacecraft orbital heats. Monte Carlo has its greatest advantage where there are many interacting surfaces. However Monte Carlo programs are specialized programs that suffer from some inaccuracy, long calculation times and high purchase cost. A general orbital heating integral is presented here that is accurate, fast and runs on MathCad, a generally available engineering mathematics program. The integral is easy to read, understand and alter. The integral can be applied to unshaded primitive surfaces at any orientation. The method is limited to direct heating calculations. This integral formulation can be used for quick orbit evaluations and spot checking Monte Carlo results.

  5. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  6. Interface Film Resistivities for Heat and Mass TransferssIntegral Relations Verified by Non-equilibrium Molecular Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Interface Film Resistivities for Heat and Mass TransferssIntegral Relations Verified by Non; In Final Form: July 6, 2006 Integral relations that predict interface film transfer coefficients) the interface film, where transport processes are driven by jumps in temperature and chemical potential; and (3

  7. INTEGRATION OF HEAT CAPACITY AND ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY SENSORS FOR ROOT MODULE WATER AND NUTRIENT ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of water content and nutrient status during space flight is a critical necessity in plant production systems. Our objectives were to determine if dual-probe heat pulse sensors could improve water content determination accuracy over single-probe heat-pulse sensors, and to test a design usi...

  8. New industrial heat pump applications to an integrated thermomechanical pulp and paper mill

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    Application of pinch technology US industries in an early screening study done by TENSA Services (DOE/ID/12583-1) identified potential for heat pumps in several industrial sectors. Among these, processes with large evaporation units were found to be some of the most promising sectors for advanced heat pump placement. This report summarizes the results of a study for Bowater Incorporated, Carolina Division. The units selected for this study are the thermo-mechanical pulper (TMP), kraft digester, evaporators, boiler feed water (BFW) train and pulp dryer. Based on the present level of operation, the following recommendations are made: 1. Install a mechanical vapor compression (MVR) heat pump between the TMP mill and {number sign}3 evaporator. This heat pump will compress the 22 psig steam from the TMP heat recovery system and use it to replace about 70% of the 60 psig steam required in {number sign} evaporator. The boiler feed water heat losses (in the low pressure deaerator) will be supplied by heat available in the TMR's zero psig vent steam. 2. Study the digester to verify the practicality of installing an MVR heat pump which will compress the dirty weapons from the cyclone separator. The compressed vapors can be directly injected into the digester and thus reduce the 135 psig steam consumption. 31 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Integrated flue gas treatment for simulataneous emission control and heat rate improvement - demonstration project at Ravenswood

    SciTech Connect

    Heaphy, J.; Carbonara, J.; Cressner, A.

    1995-06-01

    Results are presented for electric-utility, residual-oil fired, field demonstration testing of advanced-design, heat-recovery type, flue gas sub-coolers that incorporate sulfite-alkali-based wet scrubbing for efficient removal of volatile and semi-volatile trace elements, sub-micron solid particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. By innovative adaptation of wet collector system operation with methanol injection into the rear boiler cavity to convert flue-gas NO to No{sub 2}, simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} is also achieved. The focus of this integrated flue gas treatment (IFGT) technology development and demonstration-scale, continuous performance testing is an upward-gas-flow, indirectly water-cooled, condensing heat exchanger fitted with acid-proof, teflon-covered tubes and tubesheets and that provides a unique condensing (non-evaporative) wet-scrubbing mode to address air toxics control objectives of new Clean Air Act, Title III. Advantageous trace-metal condensation/nucleation/agglomeration along with substantially enhanced boiler efficiency is accomplished in the IFGT system by use of boiler makeup water as a heat sink in indirectly cooling boiler flue gas to a near-ambient-temperature, low-absolute-humidity, water-saturated state. Moreover, unique, innocuous, stack systems design encountered with conventional high-humidity, wet-scrubber operations. The mechanical design of this advanced flue-gas cooling/scrubbing equipment is based on more than ten years of commercial application of such units is downward-gas-flow design/operation for energy recovery, e.g. in preheating of makeup water, in residual-oil and natural-gas fired boiler operations.

  10. Simultaneous Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks with Operability Considerations

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Simultaneous Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks with Operability Considerations: Flexibility for the synthesis of flexible and controllable Heat Exchanger Networks. The synthesis is projected to operate over: heat integration, heat exchanger network synthesis, operability, flexibility, controllability

  11. Enhancement of heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, W.

    Recent publications on enhancement of heat transfer are reviewed, emphasizing the effects of roughness elements, fins, and porous surfaces. Enhancement of forced convective heat transfer on roughened surfaces, performance evaluation of enhanced surfaces, viscous flows in cooled tubes and tubes with swirlers, and active methods of enhancement are addressed. Aspects of pool boiling heat transfer are considered, including nucleate boiling heat transfer on rough surfaces and porous surfaces, and maximum and minimum heat fluxes. Evaporative heat transfer is discussed for thin-film evaporation on structured surfaces and liquid spray cooling of a heated surface. Condensation heat transfer on external surfaces is covered, including filmwise condensation on vertical finned and fluted surfaces and on horizontal tubes. In-tube boiling and condensation are treated, discussing their enhancement by fins and inserts, as well as critical heat flux in coiled, rifled, and corrugated tubes.

  12. Compact heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    This report aims to increase the market penetration of compact heat exchangers (CHEs) in industry by detailing current experience of their use. CHEs are characterized by having a comparatively large amount of surface area in a given volume, compared to traditional heat exchangers, in particular the shell-and-tube type. The most basic CHEs have volumes of less than 50% of that of a comparable shell-and-tube heat exchanger, for a given duty. Some new designs can, under appropriate process conditions, have only 5% of the volume of traditional equivalents. An essential component of many of these compact concepts is heat (and mass) transfer enhancement. This report also details some of the main enhancement methods which are used in the implementation of compact systems. CHEs are of interest for a number of reasons. As well as being, in general, highly efficient, allowing greater amounts of energy to be recovered between process streams, they are more versatile in terms of the number of process streams that can be handled. Some CHEs can handle only two streams. Others can handle four or more with ease. That, coupled with the availability of units to cater for most operating temperatures and pressures, makes them of interest to operators of complex thermal processing plants. Of even greater long-term importance to the process industries is the ability to use CHE manufacturing technology to integrate effective heat transfer with other unit operations, such as reactors, in one unit. This radical approach to process plant design has fostered many exciting concepts for combined unit operations, some of which are discussed in this report. Topics covered are: types of CHE; (2) the role of heat transfer enhancement; (3) benefits and perceived limitations of CHEs; (4) costs; (5) fouling; (6) specification, installation and operating procedures; (7) the new opportunities; and (8) conclusions.

  13. An innovative system for heating and cooling a gymnasium using integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fanchiotti, A.; Herkel, S.; Laukamp, H.; Priolo, C.

    1996-11-01

    The paper describes a new solar energy based system to heat and cool a gymnasium and to generate electricity in the city of Palermo, Italy. The gymnasium will be built in 1996 as part of the structures that will host the Universiadi Games in 1997. Main objectives of the project are: (a) to grant better environmental conditions in the area occupied by the public, with limited use of fossil energy; (b) to reduce the temperature of the photovoltaic elements, thus increasing their efficiency. The system consists of an array of 203 m{sup 2} integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar air collectors. In the winter mode of operation, the heated air is passed through the concrete benches where the public is seated. In the summer mode of operation outside air is evaporatively cooled, passed through the benches, then exhausted to the outside after passing through the collectors. The paper presents some of the results obtained by simulating the system at the design stage for winter conditions.

  14. Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

    2008-06-18

    The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

  15. Initial findings: The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Johnson, B.K.; Wallin, R.P.; Chiu, S.A.; Crawley, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building System Integration Research Program. The goal of the program is to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving integrated decision-making during design and construction. Improved decision-making could significantly reduce buildings' energy use by the year 2010. The objectives of the Commercial Building System Integration Research Program are: to identify and quantify the most significant energy-related interactions among building subsystems; to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving energy related interactions in building subsystems; and to provide guidance to designers, owners, and builders for improving the integration of building subsystems for energy efficiency. The lead laboratory for this program is the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A wide variety of expertise and resources from industry, academia, other government entities, and other DOE laboratories are used in planning, reviewing and conducting research activities. Cooperative and complementary research, development, and technology transfer activities with other interested organizations are actively pursued. In this report, the interactions of a water loop heat pump system and building structural mass and their effect on whole-building energy performance is analyzed. 10 refs., 54 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  17. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  18. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  19. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  20. Laundry heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Alio, P.

    1985-04-09

    A laundry heat recovery system includes a heat exchanger associated with each dryer in the system, the heat exchanger being positioned within the exhaust system of the dryer. A controller responsive to the water temperature of the heat exchangers and the water storage for the washer selectively circulates the water through a closed loop system whereby the water within the exchangers is preheated by the associated dryers. By venting the exhaust air through the heat exchanger, the air is dehumidified to permit recirculation of the heated air into the dryer.

  1. Anisotropic heat transport in integrable and chaotic 3-D magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B; Blazevski, D.; Chacon, Luis

    2012-01-01

    A study of anisotropic heat transport in 3-D chaotic magnetic fields is presented. The approach is based on the recently proposed Lagrangian-Green s function (LG) method in Ref. [1] that allows an efficient and accurate integration of the parallel transport equation applicable to general magnetic fields with local or non-local parallel flux closures. We focus on reversed shear magnetic field configurations known to exhibit separatrix reconnection and shearless transport barriers. The role of reconnection and magnetic field line chaos on temperature transport is studied. Numerical results are presented on the anomalous relaxation of radial temperature gradients in the presence of shearless Cantori partial barri- ers. Also, numerical evidence of non-local effective radial temperature transport in chaotic fields is presented. Going beyond purely parallel transport, the LG method is generalized to include finite perpendicular diffusivity, and the problem of temperature flattening inside a magnetic island is studied.

  2. Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Business Case Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D

    2007-05-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, 'HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment', ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. Table 1 summarizes the energy savings potential of the highest scoring options from the 2005 study for all five locations. All system options were scored by the ORNL building equipment research team and by William Goetzler of Navigant Consulting. These scores were reviewed by DOE/BT's Residential Integration program leaders and Building America team members. Based on these results, the two centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) systems (air source and ground source versions) were selected for advancement to Stage 2 (Exploratory Development) business case assessments in FY06. This report describes results of these business case assessments. It is a compilation of three separate reports describing the initial business case study (Baxter 2006a), an update to evaluate the impact of an economizer cooling option (Baxter 2006b), and a second update to evaluate the impact of a winter humidification option (Baxter 2007). In addition it reports some corrections made subsequent to release of the first two reports to correct so

  3. Heat-Of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps--Possible Configurations 

    E-print Network

    Kirol, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    amplifier (HA). A bottoming cycle heat engine driving a heat pump is called a temperature amplifier (TA), and is driven by waste heat from the process or facility. Heat amplifiers are useful in reducing total energy con sumption of a process. Exergy... heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, hl~a: driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump working fluid is reactive, are consid...

  4. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    Gas Technology Institute will collaborate with Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, West Virginia University, Vronay Engineering Services, KAR Engineering Associates, Pioneer Air Systems, and Energy Concepts Company to recover waste heat from reciprocating engines. The project will integrate waste heat recovery along with gas clean-up technology system improvements. This will address fuel quality issues that have hampered expanded use of opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester biogas, and coal mine methane. This will enable increased application of CHP using renewable and domestically derived opportunity fuels.

  5. Proportional and Integral Thermal Control System for Large Scale Heating Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, Van Tran

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) Flight Loads Laboratory is a unique national laboratory that supports thermal, mechanical, thermal/mechanical, and structural dynamics research and testing. A Proportional Integral thermal control system was designed and implemented to support thermal tests. A thermal control algorithm supporting a quartz lamp heater was developed based on the Proportional Integral control concept and a linearized heating process. The thermal control equations were derived and expressed in terms of power levels, integral gain, proportional gain, and differences between thermal setpoints and skin temperatures. Besides the derived equations, user's predefined thermal test information generated in the form of thermal maps was used to implement the thermal control system capabilities. Graphite heater closed-loop thermal control and graphite heater open-loop power level were added later to fulfill the demand for higher temperature tests. Verification and validation tests were performed to ensure that the thermal control system requirements were achieved. This thermal control system has successfully supported many milestone thermal and thermal/mechanical tests for almost a decade with temperatures ranging from 50 F to 3000 F and temperature rise rates from -10 F/s to 70 F/s for a variety of test articles having unique thermal profiles and test setups.

  6. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    E-print Network

    Lenert, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

  7. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore »on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  8. Radial heat flux transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Unit moves heat radially from small diameter shell to larger diameter shell, or vice versa, with negligible temperature drop, making device useful wherever heating or cooling of concentrically arranged materials, substances, and structures is desired.

  9. Monogroove liquid heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A liquid supply control is disclosed for a heat transfer system which transports heat by liquid-vapor phase change of a working fluid. An assembly (10) of monogroove heat pipe legs (15) can be operated automatically as either heat acquisition devices or heat discharge sources. The liquid channels (27) of the heat pipe legs (15) are connected to a reservoir (35) which is filled and drained by respective filling and draining valves (30, 32). Information from liquid level sensors (50, 51) on the reservoir (35) is combined (60) with temperature information (55) from the liquid heat exchanger (12) and temperature information (56) from the assembly vapor conduit (42) to regulate filling and draining of the reservoir (35), so that the reservoir (35) in turn serves the liquid supply/drain needs of the heat pipe legs (15), on demand, by passive capillary action (20, 28).

  10. How Humans Adapt To Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses adaptive responses of humans to hot environment. Describes thermoregulation by integrated responses of nervous system, vascular/fluid/electrolyte system, and endocrine system. Considers disorders resulting from failure of thermoregulation and less serious heat stress.

  11. Multi-lead heat sink

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again.

  12. Industrial Heat Pump Case Study 

    E-print Network

    Wagner, J. R.; Brush, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    -up.) This concept is sometimes called mechanical vapor compression (MVC) or mechanical vapor recompression (MVR). A variety of engineering issues have to be resolved to integrate a heat pump into an evaporator system. This paper identifies key issues and describes...

  13. Solar heat receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  14. Solar heat receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  15. Solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartera, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    To emphasize energy conservation and low cost energy, the systems of solar heating and cooling are analyzed and compared with fossil fuel systems. The application of solar heating and cooling systems for industrial and domestic use are discussed. Topics of discussion include: solar collectors; space heating; pools and spas; domestic hot water; industrial heat less than 200 F; space cooling; industrial steam; and initial systems cost. A question and answer period is generated which closes out the discussion.

  16. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  17. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  18. Heat Transfer Guest Editorial

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer

  19. Champagne Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  20. Introduction to Heat Exchangers

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another (hot and cold fluid). #12;Common Example The classic to hot and cold fluid heat capacitance rates, respectively. qmax comparing the heat capacitance rate of the hot and cold medium. #12;Parallel Flow Effectiveness

  1. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  2. Acoustic Heating Peter Ulmschneider

    E-print Network

    Ulmschneider, Peter

    Acoustic Heating Peter Ulmschneider lnstitut fiir Theoretische Astrophysik der Universitat waves are a viable and prevalent heating mechanism both in early- and in late-type stars. Acoustic heating appears to be a dominant mechanism for situations where magnetic fields are weak or absent

  3. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Heat exchangers for low grade waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, E.; Al-Witry, A.; Aroussi, A.; Hay, N.

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes a user friendly computer program written for the design and optimization of roll bond aluminum heat exchangers and its validation against experimental test data. Test results for two different designs of heat exchanger panel, one serpentine and one dimple, are also given. The dimple design is shown to be superior to the serpentine one giving a 75% increase in heat transfer for a modest increase in pressure drop. Finally, a comparison of the economics of equivalent aluminum, stainless steel and titanium units for sea-water applications is presented.

  5. Integrated energy, economic, and environmental assessment for the optimal solar absorption cooling and heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Yin

    Buildings in the United States are responsible for 41% of the primary energy use and 30% of carbon dioxide emissions. Due to mounting concerns about climate change and resource depletion, meeting building heating and cooling demand with renewable energy has attracted increasing attention in the energy system design of green buildings. One of these approaches, the solar absorption cooling and heating (SACH) technology can be a key solution to addressing the energy and environmental challenges. SACH system is an integration of solar thermal heating system and solar thermal driven absorption cooling system. So far, SACH systems still remain at the demonstration and testing stage due to not only its high cost but also complicated system characteristics. This research aims to develop a methodology to evaluate the life cycle energy, economic and environmental performance of SACH systems by high-fidelity simulations validated by experimental data. The developed methodology can be used to assist the system design. In order to achieve this goal, the study includes four objectives as follows: * Objective 1: Develop the evaluation model for the SACH system. The model includes three aspects: energy, economy, and environment from a life cycle point of view. * Objective 2: Validate the energy system model by solar experiments performance data. * Objective 3: Develop a fast and effective multi-objective optimization methodology to find the optimal system configuration which achieves the maximum system benefits on energy, economy and environment. Statistic techniques are explored to reveal the relations between the system key parameters and the three evaluation targets. The Pareto front is generated by solving this multi-objective optimization problem. * Objective 4: Apply the developed assessment methodology to different building types and locations. Furthermore, this study considered the influence of the input uncertainties on the overall system performance. The sensitivity analysis was performed firstly to identify the most sensitive inputs to the model outputs, and then the Monte Carlo simulation method was applied to perform the uncertainty analysis of these sensitive inputs according to the effect of range and shape of their probability density function. The optimization method developed before was extended to incorporate inputs uncertainties. The research would have great significance for the development of sustainable buildings. The assessment method could be used directly to identify the opportunities for reducing the negative environmental impacts related to buildings. The optimization methodology developed is fast, efficient and easy for implementation. The trends discovered from various building types and climate patterns will become useful guidelines for designers and other professionals.

  6. Integrated modelling of steady-state scenarios and heating and current drive mixes for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Masanori; Park, Jin Myung

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress on ITER steady-state (SS) scenario modelling by the ITPA-IOS group is reviewed. Code-to-code benchmarks as the IOS group's common activities for the two SS scenarios (weak shear scenario and internal transport barrier scenario) are discussed in terms of transport, kinetic profiles, and heating and current drive (CD) sources using various transport codes. Weak magnetic shear scenarios integrate the plasma core and edge by combining a theory-based transport model (GLF23) with scaled experimental boundary profiles. The edge profiles (at normalized radius rho = 0.8-1.0) are adopted from an edge-localized mode-averaged analysis of a DIII-D ITER demonstration discharge. A fully noninductive SS scenario is achieved with fusion gain Q = 4.3, noninductive fraction f(NI) = 100%, bootstrap current fraction f(BS) = 63% and normalized beta beta(N) = 2.7 at plasma current I(p) = 8MA and toroidal field B(T) = 5.3 T using ITER day-1 heating and CD capability. Substantial uncertainties come from outside the radius of setting the boundary conditions (rho = 0.8). The present simulation assumed that beta(N)(rho) at the top of the pedestal (rho = 0.91) is about 25% above the peeling-ballooning threshold. ITER will have a challenge to achieve the boundary, considering different operating conditions (T(e)/T(i) approximate to 1 and density peaking). Overall, the experimentally scaled edge is an optimistic side of the prediction. A number of SS scenarios with different heating and CD mixes in a wide range of conditions were explored by exploiting the weak-shear steady-state solution procedure with the GLF23 transport model and the scaled experimental edge. The results are also presented in the operation space for DT neutron power versus stationary burn pulse duration with assumed poloidal flux availability at the beginning of stationary burn, indicating that the long pulse operation goal (3000s) at I(p) = 9 MA is possible. Source calculations in these simulations have been revised for electron cyclotron current drive including parallel momentum conservation effects and for neutral beam current drive with finite orbit and magnetic pitch effects.

  7. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  8. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  9. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  10. Functional Integral approach to time-dependent heat exchange in open quantum systems: general method and applications

    E-print Network

    M. Carrega; P. Solinas; A. Braggio; M. Sassetti; U. Weiss

    2014-12-22

    We establish the path integral approach for the time-dependent heat exchange of an externally driven quantum system coupled to a thermal reservoir. We derive the relevant influence functional and present an exact formal expression for the moment generating functional which carries all statistical properties of the heat exchange process for general linear dissipation. The general method is applied to the time-dependent average heat transfer in the dissipative two-state system. We show that the heat can be written as a convolution integral which involves the population and coherence correlation functions of the two-state system and additional correlations due to a polarization of the reservoir. The corresponding expression can be solved in the weak-damping limit both for white noise and for quantum mechanical coloured noise. The implications of pure quantum effects are discussed. Altogether a complete description of the dynamics of the average heat transfer ranging from the classical regime down to zero temperature is achieved.

  11. Experiments on the Heat Transfer and Natural Circulation Characteristics of the Passive Residual Heat Removal System for the Advanced Integral Type Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hyun-Sik; Choi, Ki-Yong; Cho, Seok; Park, Choon-Kyung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Song, Chul-Hwa; Chung, Moon-Ki; Lee, Un-Chul

    2004-07-01

    Experiments on the heat transfer characteristics and natural circulation performance of the passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) for the SMART-P have been performed using the high temperature/high pressure thermal-hydraulic test facility (VISTA). The VISTA facility consists of the primary loop, the secondary loop, the PRHRS loop, and auxiliary systems to simulate the SMART-P, a pilot plant of the SMART. The primary loop is composed of the steam generator (SG) primary side, a simulated core, a main coolant pump, and loop piping, and the PRHRS loop consists of the SG secondary side, a PRHRS heat exchanger, and loop piping. The natural circulation performance of the PRHRS, the heat transfer characteristics of the PRHRS heat exchangers and the emergency cooldown tank (ECT), and the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the primary loop are intensively investigated. The experimental results show that the coolant flows steadily in the PRHRS loop and the heat transfers through the PRHRS heat exchanger and the emergency cooldown tank are sufficient enough to enable the natural circulation of the coolant. The results also show that the core decay heat can be sufficiently removed from the primary loop with the operation of the PRHRS. (authors)

  12. Flexible heating head for induction heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L. (inventor); Johnson, Samuel D. (inventor); Coultrip, Robert H. (inventor); Phillips, W. Morris (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An induction heating head includes a length of wire having first and second opposite ends and being wound in a flat spiral shape to form an induction coil, a capacitor connected to the first and second ends of the wire, the induction coil and capacitor defining a tank circuit, and a flexible, elastomeric body molded to encase the induction coil. When a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the body, and the tank circuit is powered, the susceptor is inductively heated.

  13. Numerical methods in heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, R. W.; Morgan, K.; Zienkiewicz, O. C.

    Finite element methods in thermal problems are considered along with the automatic solution of thermal problems, the heat transfer simulation of composite devices, a comparison of two- and three-level integration schemes for nonlinear heat conduction, boundary elements in thermal problems, and boundary integral equations used to solve thermoelastic problems. Attention is given to a boundary solution approach for the dynamic problem of thermoviscoelasticity theory, thermal and stress analysis of composite nuclear fuel rods by numerical methods, approaches for dealing with moving boundaries in thermal problems, multidimensional integral phase change approximations for finite element conduction codes, and the effect of free convection on entry flow between horizontal parallel plates. Other topics explored are related to a finite element solution for freezing problems, coupled convective and conductive heat transfer in the analysis of dry rock geothermal sources, and heat flow modeling in underground coal liquefaction.

  14. Heat pump apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  15. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  16. Nanofluid heat capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

    2011-12-01

    Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

  17. Deployable Heat Pipe Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1975-01-01

    A 1.2- by 1.8-m variable conductance heat pipe radiator was designed, built, and tested. The radiator has deployment capability and can passively control Freon-21 fluid loop temperatures under varying loads and environments. It consists of six grooved variable conductance heat pipes attached to a 0.032-in. aluminum panel. Heat is supplied to the radiator via a fluid header or a single-fluid flexible heat pipe header. The heat pipe header is an artery design that has a flexible section capable of bending up to 90 degrees. Radiator loads as high as 850 watts were successfully tested. Over a load variation of 200 watts, the outlet temperature of the Freon-21 fluid varied by 7 F. An alternate control system was also investigated which used a variable conductance heat pipe header attached to the heat pipe radiator panel.

  18. Cytotoxicity of heated chrysotile.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H

    1974-12-01

    Cytotoxicity and hemolysis were studied in chrysotile and quartz. The biological activity of the surface seemed to be different between chrysotile and quartz. Quartz lost its cytotoxicity on heating over about 500 degrees C. However chrysotile showed remarkable toxicity and induced hemolysis on heating between 650 and 800 degrees C, compared with the original unheated specimens. The mice injected intraperitoneally with minerals heated in this temperature range generally died within 48 hr after injection, while those injected with untreated chrysotile or chrysotile heated in the other heat ranges did not. The products in this range were highly disorded materials. It was assumed that the change of biological effects resulting from heat treatment may be related to the disordered state of chrysotile in the process of transformation into forsterite. The relationship between chemical character and cytotoxicity of the heated chrysotile specimens was also studied. PMID:4470944

  19. Cytotoxicity of heated chrysotile

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hisato

    1974-01-01

    Cytotoxicity and hemolysis were studied in chrysotile and quartz. The biological activity of the surface seemed to be different between chrysotile and quartz. Quartz lost its cytotoxicity on heating over about 500°C. However chrysotile showed remarkable toxicity and induced hemolysis on heating between 650 and 800°C, compared with the original unheated specimens. The mice injected intraperitoneally with minerals heated in this temperature range generally died within 48 hr after injection, while those injected with untreated chrysotile or chrysotile heated in the other heat ranges did not. The products in this range were highly disorded materials. It was assumed that the change of biological effects resulting from heat treatment may be related to the disordered state of chrysotile in the process of transformation into forsterite. The relationship between chemical character and cytotoxicity of the heated chrysotile specimens was also studied. PMID:4470944

  20. Composite heat pipe development status: Development of lightweight prototype carbon-carbon heat pipe with integral fins and metal foil liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rovang, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    This report discusses development and proof-of-concept testing of a new lightweight carbon-carbon (C-C) space radiator heat pipe, carried out under the NASA Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Program. The prototype heat pipe, equipped with a niobium-zirconium foil liner, was filled with potassium working fluid and tested for 11 hours, including startup from ambient temperature with the working fluid initially in the frozen state to near 700 K condenser temperature. Steady-state heat pipe input power during testing was facility limited to about 300 watts. Post test inspection showed the heat pipe to be in excellent condition after eight thermal cycles from ambient to steady-state operating temperature. Utilization of other liner materials and working fluids would greatly extend the spectrum of service temperatures for this technology, with potential applications ranging from small spacecraft heat rejection to aircraft and terrestrial uses.

  1. Integration Of Heat Transfer Coefficient In Glass Forming Modeling With Special Interface Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, P.; César de Sá, J.; Grégoire, S.; Lochegnies, D.

    2007-05-01

    Numerical modeling of the glass forming processes requires the accurate knowledge of the heat exchange between the glass and the forming tools. A laboratory testing is developed to determine the evolution of the heat transfer coefficient in different glass/mould contact conditions (contact pressure, temperature, lubrication…). In this paper, trials are performed to determine heat transfer coefficient evolutions in experimental conditions close to the industrial blow-and-blow process conditions. In parallel of this work, a special interface element is implemented in a commercial Finite Element code in order to deal with heat transfer between glass and mould for non-meshing meshes and evolutive contact. This special interface element, implemented by using user subroutines, permits to introduce the previous heat transfer coefficient evolutions in the numerical modelings at the glass/mould interface in function of the local temperatures, contact pressures, contact time and kind of lubrication. The blow-and-blow forming simulation of a perfume bottle is finally performed to assess the special interface element performance.

  2. Integration Of Heat Transfer Coefficient In Glass Forming Modeling With Special Interface Element

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, P.; Gregoire, S.; Lochegnies, D.; Cesar de Sa, J.

    2007-05-17

    Numerical modeling of the glass forming processes requires the accurate knowledge of the heat exchange between the glass and the forming tools. A laboratory testing is developed to determine the evolution of the heat transfer coefficient in different glass/mould contact conditions (contact pressure, temperature, lubrication...). In this paper, trials are performed to determine heat transfer coefficient evolutions in experimental conditions close to the industrial blow-and-blow process conditions. In parallel of this work, a special interface element is implemented in a commercial Finite Element code in order to deal with heat transfer between glass and mould for non-meshing meshes and evolutive contact. This special interface element, implemented by using user subroutines, permits to introduce the previous heat transfer coefficient evolutions in the numerical modelings at the glass/mould interface in function of the local temperatures, contact pressures, contact time and kind of lubrication. The blow-and-blow forming simulation of a perfume bottle is finally performed to assess the special interface element performance.

  3. Experimental study of an integral catalytic combustor: Heat exchanger for Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using catalytic combustion with heat removal for the Stirling engine to reduce exhaust emissions and also improve heat transfer to the working fluid was studied using spaced parallel plates. An internally air-cooled heat exchanger was placed between two noble metal catalytic plates. A preheated fuel-air mixture passed between the plates and reacted on the surface of the catalyzed plates. Heat was removed from the catalytic surface by radiation and convection to the aircooled heat exchangers to control temperature and minimize thermal nitrogen oxide emissions. Test conditions were inlet combustion air temperatures from 850 to 900 K, inlet velocities of about 10 m/s, equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 0.9, and pressures from 1.3x10 to the 5th power to 2.0x10 to the 5th power Pa. Propane fuel was used for all testing. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were measured. Nitrogen oxide emissions ranged from 1.7 to 3.3 g NO2/kg fuel. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and indicate that further investigation of the concept is warranted.

  4. THE INTEGRATION OF PROCESS HEAT APPLICATIONS TO HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    A high temperature gas reactor, HTGR, can produce industrial process steam, high-temperature heat-transfer gases, and/or electricity. In conventional industrial processes, these products are generated by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, resulting in significant emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Heat or electricity produced in an HTGR could be used to supply process heat or electricity to conventional processes without generating any greenhouse gases. Process heat from a reactor needs to be transported by a gas to the industrial process. Two such gases were considered in this study: helium and steam. For this analysis, it was assumed that steam was delivered at 17 MPa and 540 C and helium was delivered at 7 MPa and at a variety of temperatures. The temperature of the gas returning from the industrial process and going to the HTGR must be within certain temperature ranges to maintain the correct reactor inlet temperature for a particular reactor outlet temperature. The returning gas may be below the reactor inlet temperature, ROT, but not above. The optimal return temperature produces the maximum process heat gas flow rate. For steam, the delivered pressure sets an optimal reactor outlet temperature based on the condensation temperature of the steam. ROTs greater than 769.7 C produce no additional advantage for the production of steam.

  5. Integration of Thermal Indoor Conditions into Operational Heat Health Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppe, C.; Becker, P.; Pfafferott, J.

    2009-09-01

    The 2003 heat wave in Western Europe with altogether 35,000 to 50,000 deaths in Europe, several thousands of which occurred in Germany, has clearly pointed out the danger arising from long periods with high heat load. As a consequence, Germany, as many other European countries, has started to implement a Heat Health Warning System (HHWS). The German HHWS is based on the ‘Perceived Temperature'. The 'Perceived Temperature' is determined through a heat budget model of the human organism which includes the main thermophysiologically relevant mechanisms of heat exchange with the atmosphere. The most important meteorological ambience parameters included in the model are air temperature, humidity, wind speed and radiation fluxes in the short-wave and long-wave ranges. In addition to using a heat budget model for the assessment of the thermal load, the German HHWS also takes into account that the human body reacts in different ways to its thermal environment due to physiological adaptation (short-term acclimatisation) and short-term behavioural adaptation. The restriction of such an approach, like the majority of approaches used to issue heat warnings, is that the threshold for a warning is generally derived from meteorological observations and that warnings are issued on the basis of weather forecasts. Both, the observed data and the weather forecasts are only available for outside conditions. The group of people who are most at risk of suffering from a heat wave, however, are the elderly and frail who mainly stay inside. The indoor situation, which varies largely from the conditions outside, is not taken into account by most of the warning systems. To overcome this limitation the DWD, in co-operation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, has developed a model which simulates the thermal conditions in the indoor environment. As air-conditioning in private housing in Germany is not very common, the thermal indoor conditions depend on the outside conditions, on the building characteristics, and on the inhabitants' behaviour. The thermal building simulation model estimates the indoor heat load based of the predicted meteorological outside conditions by calculating the operative indoor temperature. The building types prevailing in Germany are quite heterogeneous. It was therefore decided to use for the thermal simulation a so-called "realistic worst-case” building type. In addition, a differentiation is made between two types of user behaviour: the active user opens the windows during the cold hours of the day and uses shading devices whereas the passive user does nothing to keep the heat outside. Since 2007, the DWD has been using the simulation of the indoor thermal conditions as an additional source of information for heat warnings. The information on the indoor conditions has proved very valuable for the decision whether to issue a heat warning or not.

  6. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  7. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  8. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

    1983-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  9. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better suited for the cooling of semiconductor devices.

  10. Extreme Heat DID YOU KNOW?

    E-print Network

    Extreme Heat DID YOU KNOW? Heat related deaths are preventable Extreme heat or heat waves occur when the temperature reaches extremely high levels or when the combination of heat and humidity causes the air to become oppressive. HOW to AVOID: WHAT: During extreme heat the temperature in your car could

  11. Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film Flowing over a Rotating Disk by Integral Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Cetegen, B. M.

    2005-01-01

    An integral analysis of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk surface is presented for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. The model is found to capture the correct trends of the liquid film thickness variation over the disk surface and compare reasonably well with experimental results over the range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers covering both inertia and rotation dominated regimes. Nusselt number variation over the disk surface shows two types of behavior. At low rotation rates, the Nusselt number exhibits a radial decay with Nusselt number magnitudes increasing with higher inlet Reynolds number for both constant wall temperature and heat flux cases. At high rotation rates, the Nusselt number profiles exhibit a peak whose location advances radially outward with increasing film Reynolds number or inertia. The results also compare favorably with the full numerical simulation results from an earlier study as well as with the reported experimental results.

  12. Process-integration methodology for natural-gas-fueled heat pumps and cogeneration systems. Final report, March 1987-October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Rossiter, A.P.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of the project was to develop a process-integration methodology for analyzing industrial processes, identifying those that will benefit from natural-gas-fueled heat pumps and cogeneration system as well as novel, process-specific opportunities for further equipment improvements, including performance targets. The development included the writing of software to assist in implementing the methodology and application of the procedures in studies using both literature data and plant-operating data. These highlighted potential applications for gas-fueled heat pumps in ethylene processes and liquor-distilling plants, and slightly less-attractive opportunities in a number of other plants. Many of the processes studied showed excellent potentials for cogeneration applications. A particularly attractive novel cogeneration application was identified for a wet corn mill, in which the exhaust for a gas turbine can be used to provide exhaust heat in flash driers that handle non-food grade products.

  13. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  14. Heat transfer from oriented heat exchange areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantuch, Martin; Huzvar, Jozef; Kapjor, Andrej

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with the transfer of heat-driven heat transfer surface area in relation to the construction of the criterion equation for "n" horizontal pipe one about another. On the bases of theoretical models have been developed for calculating the thermal performance of natural convection by Churilla and Morgan, for various pipe diameters and temperatures. These models were compared with models created in CFD-Fluent Ansys the same boundary conditions. The aim of the analyse of heat and fluxional pipe fields "n" pipes one about another at natural convection is the creation of criterion equation on the basis of which the heat output of heat transfer from pipe oriented areas one above another with given spacing could be quantified. At presence a sum of criterion equations exists for simple geometrical shapes of individual oriented geometrical areas but the criterion equation which would consider interaction of fluxional field generated by free convection from multiple oriented areas is not mentioned in standardly accessible technical literature and other magazine publications.

  15. Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment (CRYOHP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the CRYOHP experiment is to conduct a shuttle experiment that demonstrates the reliable operation of two oxygen heat pipes in microgravity. The experiment will perform the following tasks: (1) demonstrate startup of the pipes from the supercritical state; (2) measure the heat transport capacity of the pipes; (3) measure evaporator and condenser film coefficients; and (4) work shuttle safety issues. The approach for the experiment is as follows: (1) fly two axially grooved oxygen heat pipes attached to mechanical stirling cycle tactical coolers; (2) integrate experiment in hitch-hiker canister; and (3) fly on shuttle and control from ground.

  16. Heat-pipe Earth.

    PubMed

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics. PMID:24067709

  17. Energy saving heating vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Conant, L.A.; Bolton, W.M.; Wilson, J.E.

    1984-02-21

    Energy saving heating vessel adapted for heating by contact with bottom surface heating means, such as a hotplate, is disclosed. The described vessels typically have a heating rate 2 to 5 times faster than a conventional glass vessel while consuming about half the energy or less. The vessel includes sidewalls of a nonmetal material such as a plastic, and a composite bottom. The composite bottom has a high heating surface contact area and includes a liquid-impervious innermost film of a non-metal material of a minimal thickness to minimize its resistance to heat transfer through it, bonded to and supported by an outermost layer of a rigid good thermal conductivity material preferably a graphitic material having a conductivity at least ten times higher than the sidewalls and the inner film, such outermost layer being the hot plate contacting element. The vessel can be made in a variety of shapes adapted for use in laboratory, domestic, service and industrial applications.

  18. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  19. Water heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K.

    1984-11-20

    A water heating apparatus comprising a refrigerant loop for natural circulation which includes a hot water storage tank for holding water to be heated, a heat collecting plate for collecting solar heat, and refrigerant tubes having a refrigerant sealed therein and extending to unite the hot water storage tank with the heat collecting plate and another refrigerant loop for refrigeration cycle which includes a compressor and an expansion valve which are connected in the refrigerant tube uniting the hot water storage tank with the heat collecting plate. The water in the hot water storage tank is elevated in temperature selectively by the natural circulation action where there is a sufficient amount of sunshine or by the refrigeration cycle where the amount of sunshine is insufficient.

  20. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  1. Heat Loss Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Infrared scanning devices are being used to produce images that show, by color or black-and-white shading differences, which buildings and homes are losing heat to the outdoors, and how much. Heat loss surveys done by Texas Instruments, Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. and other companies have growing acceptance of their services among industrial firms, utilities, local governments, and state and federal agencies interested in promoting heat loss awareness and inspiring corrective actions.

  2. Saturn base heating handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, C. R.; Bender, R. L.; Bevill, R. L.; Reardon, J.; Hartley, L.

    1972-01-01

    A handbook containing a summary of model and flight test base heating data from the S-1, S-1B, S-4, S-1C, and S-2 stages is presented. A review of the available prediction methods is included. Experimental data are provided to make the handbook a single source of Saturn base heating data which can be used for preliminary base heating design predictions of launch vehicles.

  3. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    SciTech Connect

    H.W. Kugel; D. Spong; R. Majeski; M. Zarnstorff

    2003-02-28

    The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows.

  4. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2011-06-28

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  5. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2007-09-18

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  6. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore water. For temperatures in the trans-boiling regime (95 C to 114 C), the additional energy required to vaporize the pore water is accounted for in the rock-mass heat capacity. The rock-grain heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that explicitly account for the thermodynamic effects of the water within the rock porosity. The rock-mass heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that do not explicitly account for these thermodynamic effects, particularly boiling. The term specific heat is often used synonymously with heat capacity; however, the latter term is used throughout this document.

  7. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  8. Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

  9. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  10. Reclaiming Waste Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    'Air-O-Space' heater, based on spacecraft heat, requires no fuel other than electricity to run fan. Installed in chimney flue, heat pipes transfer heat from waste hot gases (but not the gases themselves) to fresh air blown across the other end of the pipes. It can transport roughly 500 times the heat flux of the best solid conductors with a temperature drop of less than 3 degrees per foot. This instrument has also been used by Kin-Tek Laboratories Inc. to produce an instrument to calibrate gas analyzers for air-pollution monitoring.

  11. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    A heat pipe of new design, using an electrode structure to orient and guide the dielectric liquid phase flow, is proposed. Analysis indicates that the operation of the electrohydrodynamic heat pipe is in direct analogy to capillary devices, with the polarization force acting in place of capillarity. Advantages of these new heat pipes include greatly reduced liquid friction, electrohydrodynamically enhanced evaporation and condensation heat transfer, and a possible voltage-controlled on/off feature. Preliminary calculations indicate that relatively high performance devices are possible.

  12. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  13. Integrated three-dimensional module heat exchanger for power electronics cooling

    DOEpatents

    Bennion, Kevin; Lustbader, Jason

    2013-09-24

    Embodiments discussed herein are directed to a power semiconductor packaging that removes heat from a semiconductor package through one or more cooling zones that are located in a laterally oriented position with respect to the semiconductor package. Additional embodiments are directed to circuit elements that are constructed from one or more modular power semiconductor packages.

  14. Analyzing the possibility of constructing the air heating system for an integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikula, V. A.; Ryzhkov, A. F.; Val'tsev, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Combined-cycle power plants operating on solid fuel have presently been implemented only in demonstration projects. One of possible ways for improving such plants consists in making a shift to hybrid process circuits of integrated gasification combined-cycle plants with external firing of solid fuel. A high-temperature air heater serving to heat compressed air is a key element of the hybrid process circuit. The article describes application of a high-temperature recuperative metal air heater in the process circuit of an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant (IGCC). The available experience with high-temperature air heating is considered, and possible air heater layout arrangements are analyzed along with domestically produced heat-resistant grades of steel suitable for manufacturing such air heater. An alternative (with respect to the traditional one) design is proposed, according to which solid fuel is fired in a noncooled furnace extension, followed by mixing the combustion products with recirculation gases, after which the mixture is fed to a convective air heater. The use of this design makes it possible to achieve considerably smaller capital outlays and operating costs. The data obtained from thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the high-temperature air heater with a thermal capacity of 258 MW for heating air to a temperature of up to 800°C for being used in the hybrid process circuit of a combined-cycle power plant are presented.

  15. Integrated carbon dioxide/sludge gasification using waste heat from hot slags: syngas production and sulfur dioxide fixation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong

    2015-04-01

    The integrated CO2/sludge gasification using the waste heat in hot slags, was explored with the aim of syngas production, waste heat recovery and sewage sludge disposal. The results demonstrated that hot slags presented multiple roles on sludge gasification, i.e., not only a good heat carrier (500-950 °C) but also an effective desulfurizer (800-900 °C). The total gas yields increased from 0.022 kg/kgsludge at 500 °C to 0.422 kg/kgsludge at 900 °C; meanwhile, the SO2 concentration at 900 °C remarkably reduced from 164 ppm to 114 ppm by blast furnace slags (BFS) and 93 ppm by steel slags (SS), respectively. A three-stage reaction was clarified including volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon using Gaussian fittings and the kinetic model was analyzed. Accordingly, a decline process using the integrated method was designed and the optimum slag/sludge ratio was deduced. These deciphered results appealed potential ways of reasonable disposal of sewage sludge and efficient recovery of waste heat from hot slags. PMID:25647028

  16. Planetary heat flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Hagermann, Axel

    2005-12-15

    The year 2005 marks the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 13 mission, probably the most successful failure in the history of manned spaceflight. Naturally, Apollo 13's scientific payload is far less known than the spectacular accident and subsequent rescue of its crew. Among other instruments, it carried the first instrument designed to measure the flux of heat on a planetary body other than Earth. The year 2005 also should have marked the launch of the Japanese LUNAR-A mission, and ESA's Rosetta mission is slowly approaching comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Both missions carry penetrators to study the heat flow from their target bodies. What is so interesting about planetary heat flow? What can we learn from it and how do we measure it?Not only the Sun, but all planets in the Solar System are essentially heat engines. Various heat sources or heat reservoirs drive intrinsic and surface processes, causing 'dead balls of rock, ice or gas' to evolve dynamically over time, driving convection that powers tectonic processes and spawns magnetic fields. The heat flow constrains models of the thermal evolution of a planet and also its composition because it provides an upper limit for the bulk abundance of radioactive elements. On Earth, the global variation of heat flow also reflects the tectonic activity: heat flow increases towards the young ocean ridges, whereas it is rather low on the old continental shields. It is not surprising that surface heat flow measurements, or even estimates, where performed, contributed greatly to our understanding of what happens inside the planets. In this article, I will review the results and the methods used in past heat flow measurements and speculate on the targets and design of future experiments. PMID:16286290

  17. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  18. Heat transfer characteristics of a radical heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminaga, Fumito; Okamoto, Yoshizo; Yotsukura, Terumitsu; Ito, Haruhiko; Saito, Takasi; Amezawa, Hiroo

    1990-03-01

    Heat transfer characteristics of a newly designed heat pipe which transports thermal energy in a radial direction of the heat pipe are examined experimentally, using Freon R-113 working fluid. The heat pipe produces a much higher overall heat transmission than the current heat pipe due to a direct contact condensation instead of a filmwise condensation. An unheated vapor space above a heated section and a higher charge rate over 70 percent are required to use it in a wide range of heat flux. A normal screen wick presents an insufficient capillary force to pump up the working fluid to the heated section against the gravity force.

  19. HEAT TRANSFER FOULING PART I -HEAT TRANSFER FOULING

    E-print Network

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    PART I HEAT TRANSFER FOULING #12;PART I - HEAT TRANSFER FOULING 1. INTRODUCTION In industry, fouling of heat transfer surfaces has always been a recognised phenomena, although poorly understood(1 difficult. Fouling has been described as the major unresolved problem in heat transfer(6'7'8). Heat transfer

  20. 4.A. HEAT FLOW 119 4.A. Heat flow

    E-print Network

    Hunter, John K.

    viii #12;4.A. HEAT FLOW 119 Appendix 4.A. Heat flow As a simple physical application that leads, such as the heat equation. 4.A.1. Steady heat flow. Suppose that the body occupies an open set in Rn . Let u : R denote the temperature, g : R the rate per unit volume at which heat sources create energy inside

  1. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  2. Experimental investigation of a manifold heat-pipe heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Konev, S.V.; Wang Tszin` Lyan`; D`yakov, I.I.

    1995-12-01

    Results of experimental investigations of a heat exchanger on a manifold water heat pipe are given. An analysis is made of the temperature distribution along the heat-transfer agent path as a function of the transferred heat power. The influence of the degree of filling with the heat transfer agent on the operating characteristics of the construction is considered.

  3. Heat Transfer Discussion: "Heat Transfer and Wall

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    flow boiling curve extending from the single-phase region at point C to the fully developed boiling During Subcooled Flow Nucleate Boiling­A Review" (Warrier, G.R., and Dhir, V.K., 2006, Journal of Heat in the partial boiling region, along with Eqs. 13 - 14 . The authors of 1 further state that Kandlikar 3 in 1998

  4. NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed system performance maps that were developed by this testing program will be used to: (1) Target regions of the country that would benefit most from this technology; (2) Identify improvements in current systems to maximize homeowner cost savings; and (3) Explore opportunities for development of advanced hot water heating systems.

  5. Scraped surface heat exchangers.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs. PMID:16527753

  6. Heat and Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlman, Norman

    Unlike many elementary presentations on heat, this monograph is not restricted to explaining thermal behavior in only macroscopic terms, but also developes the relationships between thermal properties and atomic behavior. "It relies at the start on intuition about heat at the macroscopic level. Familiarity with the particle model of mechanics,…

  7. Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

  8. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  9. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1981-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  10. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  11. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  12. Heat Shield's Main Piece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity caught this view of the main piece of the spacecraft's heat shield during the rover's 328th martian day, or sol (Dec. 25, 2004). A separation spring can be seen on the ground to the lower left side of the heat shield.

  13. Heat Shield in Pieces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the remains of the rover's heat shield, broken into two key pieces, the main piece on the left side and a broken-off flank piece near the middle of the image. The heat shield impact site is identified by the circle of red dust on the right side of the picture. In this view, Opportunity is approximately 20 meters (66 feet) away from the heat shield, which protected it while hurtling through the martian atmosphere.

    In the far left of the image, a meteorite called 'Heat Shield Rock,' sits nearby, The Sun is reflecting off the silver-colored underside of the internal thermal blankets of the heat shield.

    The rover spent 36 sols investigating how the severe heating during entry through the atmosphere affected the heat shield. The most obvious is the fact that the heat shield inverted upon impact.

    This is an approximately true-color rendering of the scene acquired around 1:22 p.m. local solar time on Opportunity sol 324 (Dec. 21, 2004) in an image mosaic using panoramic filters at wavelengths of 750, 530, and 430 nanometers.

  14. Heat storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Mita, N.; Murai, Y.; Sato, A.

    1982-01-05

    A heat storage material having a melting point in the range of 90* to 100* C is described. It is excellent in that it is neither corrosiv inflammable nor toxic. The heat storage material comprises a mixture of dimethyl terephthalate and one member selected from the group consisting of dimethyl fumarate and dihydroanthracene.

  15. Vacuum powered heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffolo, R.F.

    1986-06-24

    In an internal combustion engine including an oil lubrication system, a liquid cooling system, and an improved air intake system is described. The improved air intake system comprises: a housing including a first opening in one end, which opening is open to the atmosphere and a second opening comprising an air outlet opening in the other end open to the air intake manifold of the engine, a heat exchanger positioned in the first opening. The heat exchanger consists of a series of coils positioned in the flow path of the atmospheric air as it enters the housing, the heat exchanger being fluidly connected to either the engine lubrication system or the cooling system to provide a warm heat source for the incoming air to the housing, acceleration means positioned in the housing downstream of the heat exchanger, the acceleration means comprising a honeycomb structure positioned across the air intake flow path. The honey-comb structure includes a multitude of honey combed mini-venturi cells through which the heated air flows in an accelerated mode, a removable air filter positioned between the heat exchanger and the acceleration means and a single opening provided in the housing through which the air filter can be passed and removed, and additional openings in the housing positioned downstream of the heat exchanger and upstream of the air filter, the additional openings including removable flaps for opening and closing the openings to control the temperature of the air flowing through the housing.

  16. Basic Comfort Heating Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Chalmer T.

    The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

  17. Nonequilibrium heat capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dibyendu

    2013-12-01

    Development of steady state thermodynamics and statistical mechanics depends crucially on our ability to extend the notions of equilibrium thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS). The present paper considers the extension of heat capacity. A modified definition is proposed which continues to maintain the same relation to steady state Shannon entropy as in equilibrium, thus providing a thermodynamically consistent treatment of NESS heat capacity.

  18. Introductory heat-transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widener, Edward L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to introduce some concepts of thermodynamics in existing heat-treating experiments using available items. The specific objectives are to define the thermal properties of materials and to visualize expansivity, conductivity, heat capacity, and the melting point of common metals. The experimental procedures are described.

  19. The district heating renaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1992-09-01

    This article examines the expanding market for district heating and cooling systems as part of independent cogeneration systems. The topics of the article include expanding systems, future potential, government help, cogeneration, district cooling expanding, absorption chilling, indoor air quality, and institutional barriers to the expanding market. The article also includes a sidebar on Denmark's district heating systems.

  20. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  1. Improved solar heating systems

    DOEpatents

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  2. Solar heating system

    DOEpatents

    Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  3. Heat Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The heat pipe was developed to alternately cool and heat without using energy or any moving parts. It enables non-rotating spacecraft to maintain a constant temperature when the surface exposed to the Sun is excessively hot and the non Sun-facing side is very cold. Several organizations, such as Tropic-Kool Engineering Corporation, joined NASA in a subsequent program to refine and commercialize the technology. Heat pipes have been installed in fast food restaurants in areas where humid conditions cause materials to deteriorate quickly. Moisture removal was increased by 30 percent in a Clearwater, FL Burger King after heat pipes were installed. Relative humidity and power consumption were also reduced significantly. Similar results were recorded by Taco Bell, which now specifies heat pipe systems in new restaurants in the Southeast.

  4. Design and Assembly of an Integrated Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) Subassembly Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Sebastian A.; Powers, Aaron; Iacomini, Christie S.; Bower, Chad E.; Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. The core of the MTSA technology is a sorbent bed that removes CO2 from the PLSS ventilation loop gas via a temperature swing. A Condensing Icing Heat eXchanger (CIHX) is used to warm the sorbent while also removing water from the ventilation loop gas. A Sublimation Heat eXchanger (SHX) is used to cool the sorbent. Research was performed to explore an MTSA designed for both lunar and Martian operations. Previously the sorbent bed, CIHX, and SHX had been built and tested individually on a scale relevant to PLSS operations, but they had not been done so as an integrated subassembly. Design and analysis of an integrated subassembly was performed based on this prior experience and an updated transient system model. Focus was on optimizing the design for Martian operations, but the design can also be used in lunar operations. An Engineering Development Unit (EDU) of an integrated MTSA subassembly was assembled based on the design. Its fabrication is discussed. Some details on the differences between the as-assembled EDU and the future flight unit are considered.

  5. Design and Assembly of an Integrated Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) Subassembly Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Sebastian A.; Powers, Aaron; Iacomini, Christie S.; Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. The core of the MTSA technology is a sorbent bed that removes CO2 from the PLSS ventilation loop gas via a temperature swing. A Condensing Ice Heat eXchanger (CIHX) is used to warm the sorbent while also removing water from the ventilation loop gas. A Sublimation Heat eXchanger (SHX) is used to cool the sorbent. Research was performed to explore an MTSA designed for both lunar and Martian operations. Previously each the sorbent bed, CIHX, and SHX had been built and tested individually on a scale relevant to PLSS operations, but they had not been done so as an integrated subassembly. Design and analysis of an integrated subassembly was performed based on this prior experience and an updated transient system model. Focus was on optimizing the design for Martian operations, but the design can also be used in lunar operations. An Engineering Development Unit (EDU) of an integrated MTSA subassembly was assembled based on the design. Its fabrication is discussed. Some details on the differences between the as-assembled EDU to the future flight unit are considered.

  6. Disposable heat storage unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, M.E.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a single use, disposable, heat storage unit comprising a sealed pouch forming a wholly internal, sealed chamber having a predetermined maximum volume; and a particulate, fluent, dry, latent heat storage substance within the chamber, the volume of the substance within the chamber being sufficiently less than the predetermined maximum volume that the particles of the substance do not fill the chamber and are freely movable in all directions within the chamber, the substance having a predetermined heat of fusion temperature in excess of 100C, the pouch being formed of pliable, moisture resistant, thermal transfer material capable of withstanding without adverse consequences being heated to an initial temperature higher than the heat of fusion temperature of the substance. Thermal heat storage apparatus comprising a disposable container having walls of thermally insulating material forming a compartment; a single use, disposable, sealed, flexible pouch positioned within the compartment and formed of moisture resistant, heat transfer material, the pouch forming a wholly internal, sealed chamber having a maximum volume; a dry, particulate, fluent, latent head storage substance accommodated in the chamber, the volume of the substance within the chamber being sufficiently less than the maximum volume that the particles of the substance do not fill the chamber and are freely movable in all directions within the chamber, the substance having a heat of fusion temperature in excess of 100; the material of the wall and the material of the pouch being capable of withstanding without adverse consequences being heated to an initial temperature in excess of the heat of fusion temperature of the substance.

  7. Use of the exergy concept for design improvement of heat exchangers and heat exchanger networks

    SciTech Connect

    Ranasinghe, J.

    1989-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics, through the exergy concept, allows us to quantify and rationally coat the consumption of exergy (irreversibility) used to drive the heat exchange process and the effluent losses of exergy in a heat exchanger. For systems with a network of heat exchangers, the exergy concept recognizes that properly integrated heat pumps reduce the heat transfer irreversibility; this results in reduced utility consumption. Heat engines properly integrated in heat exchanger networks also recover a fraction of the thermodynamic potential destroyed during the heat transfer process and generate power at very high efficiencies. Heat exchanger design conditions are characterized and potential trade-off options discussed. A modification to the irreversibility minimization method is proposed next, and the proposed method gives more realistic guide posts for heat exchangers, compared to the corresponding guide posts obtained from present methods. This thesis also proposes a method to obtain the irreversibility cost coefficients for heat exchangers residing in complex systems. The application of the modified irreversibility method proposed here, and the thermoeconomic method, are illustrated by optimizing an emerging technology ceramic heat exchanger residing in a complex power plant. A method based on the exergy concept is developed to recognize the potential for improvement of processes with process integrated heat pumps and heat engines. Once potential processes have been identified, economically optimum load and level of integration have to be determined. The method of formulating the economic optimization problem is presented, and bounds for some design variables are finally developed.

  8. The Heating of Thermal Electrons in Fast Collisionless Shocks: The Integral Role of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowski, Cara E.; Laming, J. Martin; Ghavamian, Parviz

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the heating of electrons to quasi-thermal energies at collisionless shocks has broad implications for plasma astrophysics. It directly impacts the interpretation of X-ray spectra from shocks, is important for understanding how energy is partitioned between the thermal and cosmic-ray populations, and provides insight into the structure of the shock itself. In previous work by Ghavamian et al. we presented observational evidence for an inverse-square relation between the electron-to-proton temperature ratio and the shock speed at the outer blast waves of supernova remnants in partially neutral interstellar gas. There we outlined how lower hybrid waves generated in the cosmic-ray precursor could produce such a relationship by heating the electrons to a common temperature independent of both shock speed and the strength of the ambient magnetic field. Here we explore the mechanism of lower hybrid wave heating of electrons in more detail. Specifically, we examine the growth rate of the lower hybrid waves for both the kinetic (resonant) and reactive cases. We find that only the kinetic case exhibits a growing mode. At low Alfvén Mach numbers the growth of lower hybrid waves can be faster than the magnetic field amplification by modified Alfvén waves.

  9. 2. SALEMBROSIUS CONTINUOUS GASFIRED HEAT TREATING LINE AT HEAT TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SALEM-BROSIUS CONTINUOUS GAS-FIRED HEAT TREATING LINE AT HEAT TREATMENT PLANT OF THE DUQUESNE WORKS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. Optimization of heat exchanger for indirectly heated water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduchová, Katarína; Lenhard, Richard; Janda?ka, Jozef

    2012-04-01

    Due to the optimization of geometrical parameters of the heat exchanger in indirect heated water heaters created a mathematical model of heating hot water, by which I have subsequently made the simulation of the device to change its geometrical parameters. Based on these results, the impacts of the geometrical parameters affect the performance of the heat exchanger. The results of the optimization to create a CFD model which watched at the behavior of optimized heat exchanger for indirect heated water heaters.

  11. Micro heat barrier

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  12. Heat recovery apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, I.

    1987-01-01

    Heat transfer is a living science and technical advances are constantly being made. However, in many cases, progress is limited by the equipment that is available on the market, rather than by knowledge of the heat transfer process. A case in point is the design of economizers: in such equipment a small quantity of water (with a relatively good heat transfer coefficient) is heated by a large quantity of low-pressure gas (with an inherently low heat transfer coefficient). As a first step in design finned tubing is used to lessen the discrepancy in coefficients. From this point, it becomes apparent that the equipment consists of a small number of tubes (to maintain good velocity on the water side) of considerable length (to provide sufficient area). In the process industries the base pressure, though low, may be in the region of 0.5 bar, and there is no convenient flue in which to place the heat recovery coil. It is therefore contained in a flat-sided enclosure, which is ill-fitted to pressure containment and is therefore reinforced with a plethora of structural sections. Such inelegant construction is quite common in North America; in Europe, cylindrical containments of vast size have been supplied for the same purposes. The real shortcoming is a successful marriage of different disciplines to produce reliable and efficient heat transfer equipment suitably contained.

  13. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  14. Superfluid Helium Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, P.

    This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of three superfluid helium heat pipes. Two of them are designed to provide a large transport capacity (4 mW at 1.7 K). They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The other heat pipe has no copper braid and is designed to get much smaller heat transport capacity (0.5 mW) and to explore lower temperature (0.7 - 1 K). The copper braid and the tube wall is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film in which the heat is transferred. The low filling pressure makes the technology very simple with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of the heat pipes tested in the 0.7 to 2.0 K temperature range. The long heat pipe (1.2 m with copper braid) and the short one (0.25 m with copper braid) have similar thermal performance in the range 0.7 - 2.0 K. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a heat transfer capacity of 6.2 mW and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. Due to the pressure drop of the vapor flow and Kapitza thermal resistance, the conductance of the third heat pipe dramatically decreases when the temperature decreases. A 3.8 mW/K is obtained at 0.7 K for 0.5 mW transferred power.

  15. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are being developed. The effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  16. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are considered. This effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  17. Heat treatment study 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The microstructural variations in nickel based superalloys that result from modifications in processing were examined. These superalloys include MAR-M246(HF) and PWA1480. Alternate heat treatments for equiaxed as-cast specimens were studied and a sample matrix of 42 variations in the heat treatments were processed, as well as different directional solidification parameters. Variation in temperature and times for both solution and aging were performed. Photomicrographs were made of the microstructure and volume fraction analysis of primary gamma-prime and aged gamma-prime precipitates were performed. The results of the heat treatment, cooling rate, and directional solidification experiments are discussed.

  18. Stirling engine heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

    1988-06-28

    A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

  19. Episodic coronal heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Dixon, W. W.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Antiochos, S. K.

    1990-06-01

    A study is made of the observational consequences of the hypothesis that there is no steady coronal heating, the solar corona instead being heated episodically, such that each short burst of heating is followed by a long period of radiative cooling. The form of the resulting contribution to the differential emission measure (DEM), and to a convenient related function (the differential energy flux, DEF) is calculated. Observational data for the quiet solar atmosphere indicate that the upper branch of the DEM, corresponding to temperatures above 100,000 K, can be interpreted in terms of episodic energy injection at coronal temperatures.

  20. Episodic coronal heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Dixon, W. W.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Antiochos, S. K.

    1990-01-01

    A study is made of the observational consequences of the hypothesis that there is no steady coronal heating, the solar corona instead being heated episodically, such that each short burst of heating is followed by a long period of radiative cooling. The form of the resulting contribution to the differential emission measure (DEM), and to a convenient related function (the differential energy flux, DEF) is calculated. Observational data for the quiet solar atmosphere indicate that the upper branch of the DEM, corresponding to temperatures above 100,000 K, can be interpreted in terms of episodic energy injection at coronal temperatures.

  1. Heat treatment furnace

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  2. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe of radical design is proposed which substitutes polarization electrohydrodynamic force effects for capillarity in collecting, guiding, and pumping a condensate liquid phase. The discussed device is restricted to the use of dielectric liquids as working fluids. Because of the relatively poor thermal transport properties of these liquids, capillary heat pipes using these liquids have not been high performance devices. The employment of the electrohydrodynamic concept should enhance this performance and help fill the performance gap that exists in the temperature range from 250 F to 750 F for 'conventional' capillary heat pipes.

  3. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-01-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  4. Heat Integration of the Water-Gas Shift Reaction System for Carbon Sequestration Ready IGCC Process with Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect

    Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

    2010-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been considered as an important alternative for efficient power systems that can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. One of the technological schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion as post gasification techniques in order to produce sequestration-ready CO2 and potentially reduce the size of the gas turbine. However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be applied to obtain an optimal flowsheet. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). This approach allows a rigorous evaluation of the alternative designs and their combinations avoiding all the AEA simplifications (linearized models of heat exchangers). A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case. Highly influential parameters for the pos gasification technologies (i.e. CO/steam ratio, gasifier temperature and pressure) were calculated to obtain the minimum cost of energy while chemical looping parameters (oxidation and reduction temperature) were ensured to be satisfied.

  5. Industrial Heat Pump Design Options 

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    %! This paper discusses ways to use heat pumps in new process and retrofit designs, including methods to overcome problems in heat exchange fouling and high lift applications. Examples of actual designs and a simple approximation of installed heat pump cost...

  6. Heat Stress Resources for Workers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  7. Measuring the Heats of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, James L.; Tegart, Tracy L.

    1994-01-01

    Uses common equipment (tea kettle and vacuum bottles) to precisely measure the specific heat, latent heat of fusion, and latent heat of vaporization of water. Provides descriptions for all three experiments. (MVL)

  8. Heat transfer in turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, R.S. ); Crawford, M.E.; Anand, N.K. )

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on heat transfer and turbulent flow. The topics covered include fundamental research on turbulence in heat transfer processes, boundary layer flows, temperature turbulence spectrum, turbulence modeling, and applications to heat exchangers, gas turbines, and other engineering problems.

  9. Heat pipe cooled power magnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chester, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    A high frequency, high power, low specific weight (0.57 kg/kW) transformer developed for space use was redesigned with heat pipe cooling allowing both a reduction in weight and a lower internal temperature rise. The specific weight of the heat pipe cooled transformer was reduced to 0.4 kg/kW and the highest winding temperature rise was reduced from 40 C to 20 C in spite of 10 watts additional loss. The design loss/weight tradeoff was 18 W/kg. Additionally, allowing the same 40 C winding temperature rise as in the original design, the KVA rating is increased to 4.2 KVA, demonstrating a specific weight of 0.28 kg/kW with the internal loss increased by 50W. This space environment tested heat pipe cooled design performed as well electrically as the original conventional design, thus demonstrating the advantages of heat pipes integrated into a high power, high voltage magnetic. Another heat pipe cooled magnetic, a 3.7 kW, 20A input filter inductor was designed, developed, built, tested, and described. The heat pipe cooled magnetics are designed to be Earth operated in any orientation.

  10. Solar dynamic heat receiver technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedgwick, Leigh M.

    1991-01-01

    A full-size, solar dynamic heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements specified for electrical power modules on the U.S. Space Station, Freedom. The heat receiver supplies thermal energy to power a heat engine in a closed Brayton cycle using a mixture of helium-xenon gas as the working fluid. The electrical power output of the engine, 25 kW, requires a 100 kW thermal input throughout a 90 minute orbit, including when the spacecraft is eclipsed for up to 36 minutes from the sun. The heat receiver employs an integral thermal energy storage system utilizing the latent heat available through the phase change of a high-temperature salt mixture. A near eutectic mixture of lithium fluoride and calcium difluoride is used as the phase change material. The salt is contained within a felt metal matrix which enhances heat transfer and controls the salt void distribution during solidification. Fabrication of the receiver is complete and it was delivered to NASA for verification testing in a simulated low-Earth-orbit environment. This document reviews the receiver design and describes its fabrication history. The major elements required to operate the receiver during testing are also described.

  11. Field and Laboratory Study of a Ground-Coupled Water Source Heat Pump with an Integral Enthalpy Exchange System for Classrooms 

    E-print Network

    Domitrovic, R.; Hayzen, G. J.; Johnson, W. S.; Chen, F. C.

    2002-01-01

    technologies is needed to increase the dehumidification abilities of equipment without compromising energy efficiency or the need for fresh ventilation air. To study the effectiveness of integrated heat pump and enthalpy exchange equipment, a nominal 4-ton...

  12. Interface film resistivities for heat and mass transfers-integral relations verified by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Simon, J M; Bedeaux, D; Kjelstrup, S; Xu, J; Johannessen, E

    2006-09-21

    Integral relations that predict interface film transfer coefficients for evaporation and condensation have recently been derived. According to these relations, all coefficients can be calculated for one-component systems, using the thermal resistivity and the enthalpy profile through the interface. The integral relations were tested in this work using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations for argon-like particles and n-octane molecules. The simulations confirm the integral relations within the accuracy of the calculation for both systems. Evidence is presented for the existence of an excess thermal resistivity on the gas side of the surface, and the fact that this property is decisive for interface heat and mass transfer coefficients. The integral relations were used to predict the mass transfer coefficient for n- octane as a function of surface tension. The findings are important for modeling of one-component phase transitions. PMID:16970481

  13. TRMM Validation: Integration of TRMM Satellite and Ground-Validation Data to Determine Tropical Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houze, Robert A., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Steiner and Houze showed from ground validation data that the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite Precipitation Radar's (PR's) twice daily only sampling should lead to an uncertainty of approximately 20% in rain estimates. They further showed that the uncertainties are smallest at the 5-7.5 km level. Schumacher and Houze used Kwajalein ground validation data to show that the TRMM PR misses only 2.3% of the near surface rainfall but does not see 46% of the area where rain occurs, because of the 17 dBZ PR reflectivity threshold. Houze discusses how the TRMM data extend earlier tropical convective studies to global coverage of the vertical profile of latent heating via the TRMM PR''s ability to distinguish and globally map convective and stratiform precipitation. Process studies carried out under this TRMM grant Yuter and Houze and Yuter et al. studied ship-based radar observations in the tropical eastern Pacific ITCZ. The eastern Pacific precipitation process is different from the western Pacific (the COARE area); rain is heavier but the clouds are not as deep. These process differences may affect the ability to remotely sense precipitation accurately in the two regions. Satellite microwave data were able to detect the precipitation as long as the rain areas exceeded 10 km in dimension. However, the microwave algorithms had difficulty distinguishing light and heavy rain. Satellite IR algorithms only partially detected the rain because the tops of the smaller and more short-lived rain clouds were sometimes not cold enough for the IR algorithms to detect them. Houze et al. focused on the west Pacific precipitating mesoscale convective systems and showed how their precipitation and internal dynamics vary in relation to the slowly varying large-scale heating-driven circulation, which has a structure described by a combination of Kelvin and Rossby wave response to the near-equatorial convective heating constituted by the mesoscale convective systems. Ship and aircraft radar data were used in this study.

  14. Design and Analysis of High-Performance Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger with an Integrated Capillary-Pumped Loop Heat Pipe

    E-print Network

    McCarthy, Matthew

    We report the design and analysis of a high-power air-cooled heat exchanger capable of dissipating over 1000 W with 33 W of input electrical power and an overall thermal resistance of less than 0.05 K/W. The novelty of the ...

  15. Utilization of reject heat

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.

    1980-01-01

    Two major productive energy-conservation options are addressed in this text. The first is the utilization of reject heat, and the second is the use of dual-purpose power generation systems to minimize the quantity of reject heat produced. As used throughout this text, the term reject or waste heat refers to energy that is rejected from a process after it is no longer of economic value to that process. The term dual-purpose power production indicates applications where energy that does have economic value in the power cycle is used for other, more valuable processes. Since dual-purpose applications reduce the total amount of energy wasted, they are frequently referred to as reject-heat-utilization systems and have, therefore, been included in this text. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the six chapters.

  16. Heat pipe manufacturing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

  17. Methane heat transfer investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper-base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and resuable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper-base alloy material adjacent to the fuel coolant. High-pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics were recently evaluated using stainless-steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper-base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

  18. Methane heat transfer investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and reusable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper base alloy material adjacent to he fuel coolant. High pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics recently evaluated at Rocketdyne using stainless steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

  19. Heat Exhaustion and Heatstroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body stays cool when your sweat evaporates. On hot, humid days, the evaporation of sweat is slowed ... Heat exhaustion happens when your body gets too hot. It can be caused by physical exercise or ...

  20. Solar-Heated Gasifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Catalytic coal and biomass gasifer system heated by solar energy. Sunlight from solar concentrator focused through quartz window onto ceramic-honeycomb absorber surface, which raises temperature of reactant steam, fluidizing gas, and reactor walls.

  1. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  2. Evaluation of turbo-Brayton cycle for cooling current leads: Integrated current lead/heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromberg, L.; Michael, Philip; Minervini, J. V.; Dietz, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the optimization of turbo-Brayton cycles for cooling current leads. Simple models of single stage conduction-cooled current leads, two-stage conduction cooled current lead and two stage conduction-cooled current leads coupled with a single stage and a double stage turbo-Brayton cycle have been used to provide understanding about the issues and the tradeoffs. In addition, we discuss the possibility of using the heat exchanger in the turbo-Brayton system as the current lead.

  3. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

  4. Heat Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Solar Fundamentals, Inc.'s hot water system employs space-derived heat pipe technology. It is used by a meat packing plant to heat water for cleaning processing machinery. Unit is complete system with water heater, hot water storage, electrical controls and auxiliary components. Other than fans and a circulating pump, there are no moving parts. System's unique design eliminates problems of balancing, leaking, corroding, and freezing.

  5. Heat treatment for superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, Fredric H. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A cobalt-free nickel-base superalloy composed of in weight % 15 Cr-5 Mo-3.5 Ti-4 Al-0.07 (max) C-remainder Ni is given a modified heat treatment. With this heat treatment the cobalt-free alloy achieves certain of the mechanical properties of the corresponding cobalt-containing nickel-base superalloy at 1200 F (650 C). Thus, strategic cobalt can be replaced by nickel in the alloy.

  6. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, F. D.

    1990-12-01

    Doty Scientific (DSI) believes their microtube-strip heat exchanger will contribute significantly to the following: (1) the closed Brayton cycles being pursued at MIT, NASA, and elsewhere; (2) reverse Brayton cycle cryocoolers, currently being investigated by NASA for space missions, being applied to MRI superconducting magnets; and (3) high-efficiency cryogenic gas separation schemes for CO2 removal from exhaust stacks. The goal of this current study is to show the potential for substantial progress in high-effectiveness, low-cost, gas-to-gas heat exchangers for diverse applications at temperatures from below 100 K to above 1000 K. To date, the highest effectiveness measured is about 98 percent and relative pressure drops below 0.1 percent with a specific conductance of about 45 W/kgK are reported. During the pre-award period DSI built and tested a 3-module heat exchanger bank using 103-tube microtube strip (MTS) modules. To add to their analytical capabilities, DSI has acquired computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This report describes the pre-award work and the status of the ten tasks of the current project, which are: analyze flow distribution and thermal stresses within individual modules; design a heat exchanger bank of ten modules with 400 microtube per module; obtain production quality tubestrip die and AISI 304 tubestrips; obtain production quality microtubing; construct revised MTS heat exchanger; construct dies and fixtures for prototype heat exchanger; construct 100 MTS modules; assemble 8 to 10 prototype MTS heat exchangers; test prototype MTS heat exchanger; and verify test through independent means.

  7. Heat Switches for ADRs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.

  8. Freezable heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA); Sanzi, James L. (Lancaster, PA)

    1981-02-03

    A heat pipe whose fluid can be repeatedly frozen and thawed without damage to the casing. An additional part is added to a conventional heat pipe. This addition is a simple porous structure, such as a cylinder, self-supporting and free standing, which is dimensioned with its diameter not spanning the inside transverse dimension of the casing, and with its length surpassing the depth of maximum liquid.

  9. Nonequilibrium heat capacity.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Dibyendu

    2013-12-01

    Development of steady state thermodynamics and statistical mechanics depends crucially on our ability to extend the notions of equilibrium thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS). The present paper considers the extension of heat capacity. A modified definition is proposed which continues to maintain the same relation to steady state Shannon entropy as in equilibrium, thus providing a thermodynamically consistent treatment of NESS heat capacity. PMID:24483414

  10. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  11. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, William R. (Zionsville, PA); Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA); Dunbobbin, Brian R. (Allentown, PA); Rao, Pradip (Allentown, PA); Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis, MD)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange.

  12. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  13. Convective heat flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, James C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  14. Convective heat flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  15. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  16. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  17. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  18. Understand spiral heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.M.

    1994-05-01

    Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are standard in most chemical process industries (CPI) applications. However, they do have limitations related to thermal efficiency, mechanical design, and maintenance requirements that will not allow the standard straight-tube fixed-tubesheet shell-and-tube (S and T) heat exchanger to work properly in certain applications. It is in these problem areas that spiral heat exchangers (SHEs) have been used successfully worldwide for over 60 years. The SHE can be a viable alternative to the complex and often expensive shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The SHEs' unique spiral countercurrent monochannel design gives them exceptionally high heat-transfer rates and low fouling tendencies. The mechanical configuration of the SHE also allows full access to all heat-transfer surfaces for simplified inspection, maintenance, and cleaning. This article describes how SHEs operate, discusses their advantages in terms of thermal efficiency, fouling, mechanical design, and maintenance characteristics, and provides guidance on choosing between spiral and tubular exchangers.

  19. Chimney heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, I.C.

    1981-09-01

    A heat exchanger for installation on the top of a chimney of a building includes a housing having a lower end receiving the top of the chimney and an upper end with openings permitting the escape of effluent from the chimney and a heat exchanger assembly disposed in the housing including a central chamber and a spirally arranged duct network defining an effluent spiral path between the top of the chimney and the central chamber and a fresh air spiral path between an inlet disposed at the lower end of the housing and the central chamber, the effluent and fresh air spiral paths being in heat exchange relationship such that air passing through the fresh air spiral path is heated by hot effluent gases passing upward through the chimney and the effluent spiral path for use in heating the building. A pollution trap can be disposed in the central chamber of the heat exchanger assembly for removing pollutants from the effluent, the pollution trap including a rotating cage carrying pumice stones for absorbing pollutants from the effluent with the surface of the pumice gradually ground off to reveal fresh stone as the cage rotates.

  20. Performance Analysis of a Thermoelectric Solar Collector Integrated with a Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Therdyothin, A.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2013-07-01

    A novel heat pump system is proposed. A thermoelectric solar collector was coupled to a solar-assisted heat pump (TESC-HP) to work as an evaporator. The cooling effect of the system's refrigerant allowed the cold side of the system's thermoelectric modules to work at lower temperature, improving the conversion efficiency. The TESC-HP system mainly consisted of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate that acted as a direct expansion-type collector/evaporator, an R-134a piston-type hermetic compressor, a water-cooled plate-type condenser, thermoelectric modules, and a water storage tank. Test results indicated that the TESC-HP has better coefficient of performance (COP) and conversion efficiency than the separate units. For the meteorological conditions in Mahasarakham, the COP of the TESC-HP system can reach 5.48 when the average temperature of 100 L of water is increased from 28°C to 40°C in 60 min with average ambient temperature of 32.5°C and average solar intensity of 815 W/m2, whereas the conversion efficiency of the TE power generator was around 2.03%.

  1. Integration and software for thermal test of heat rate sensors. [space shuttle external tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.; Shrider, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    A minicomputer controlled radiant test facility is described which was developed and calibrated in an effort to verify analytical thermal models of instrumentation islands installed aboard the space shuttle external tank to measure thermal flight parameters during ascent. Software was provided for the facility as well as for development tests on the SRB actuator tail stock. Additional testing was conducted with the test facility to determine the temperature and heat flux rate and loads required to effect a change of color in the ET tank external paint. This requirement resulted from the review of photographs taken of the ET at separation from the orbiter which showed that 75% of the external tank paint coating had not changed color from its original white color. The paint on the remaining 25% of the tank was either brown or black, indicating that it had degraded due to heating or that the spray on form insulation had receded in these areas. The operational capability of the facility as well as the various tests which were conducted and their results are discussed.

  2. Moist Heat or Dry Heat for Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Bains, Gurinder; Khowailed, Iman Akef; Hui, Timothy; Granado, Michael; Laymon, Mike; Lee, Haneul

    2013-01-01

    Background Heat is commonly used in physical therapy following exercise induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Most heat modalities used in a clinical setting for DOMS are only applied for 5 to 20 minutes. This minimal heat exposure causes little, if any, change in deep tissue temperature. For this reason, long duration dry chemical heat packs are used at home to slowly and safely warm tissue and reduce potential heat damage while reducing pain associated from DOMS. Clinically, it has been shown that moist heat penetrates deep tissue faster than dry heat. Therefore, in home use chemical moist heat may be more efficacious than dry heat to provide pain relief and reduce tissue damage following exercise DOMS. However, chemical moist heat only lasts for 2 hours compared to the 8 hours duration of chemical dry heat packs. The purpose of this study was to compare the beneficial effect of dry heat versus moist heat on 100 young subjects after exercise induce DOMS. Methods One hundred subjects exercised for 15 minutes accomplishing squats. Before and for 3 days after, strength, muscle soreness, tissue resistance, and the force to passively move the knee were recorded. Heat and moist heat were applied in different groups either immediately after exercise or 24 hours later. Results The research results of this study showed that immediate application of heat, either dry (8 hours application) or moist (2 hours application), had a similar preservation of quadriceps muscle strength and muscle activity. Results also revealed that the greatest pain reduction was shown after immediate application of moist heat. Never the less, immediate application of dry heat had a similar effect but to a lesser extent. Conclusion It should be noted that moist heat had not only similar benefits of dry heat but in some cases enhanced benefits, and with only 25% of the time of application of the dry heat. PMID:24171053

  3. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2015-03-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  4. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2015-12-08

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  5. PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP

    E-print Network

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP W. D. C. Richards and W. L. Auxer) which employs a natural gas fired Stirling engine to drive a Rankine cycle vapor compressor is presently by the heat pump effect. The Stirling engine/Rankine cycle refrigeration loop heat pump being developed would

  6. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P. (San Ramon, CA)

    2012-07-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  7. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  8. Latent heat sink in soil heat flux measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  9. Passive thermosyphon solar heating and cooling module with supplementary heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A collection of three quarterly reports from Sigma Research, Inc., covering progress and status from January through September 1977 are presented. Three heat exchangers are developed for use in a solar heating and cooling system for installation into single-family dwellings. Each exchanger consists of one heating and cooling module and one submerged electric water heating element.

  10. Condensation heat transfer analysis of the passive containment cooling system of the Purdue University Multi-dimensional Integral Test Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmarth de Leonardi, Tauna Lea

    2000-10-01

    The development of a reliable containment cooling system is one of the key areas in advanced nuclear reactor development. There are two categories of containment cooling: active and passive. The active containment cooling consists usually of systems that require active participation in their use. The passive systems have, in the past, been reliant on the supply of electrical power. This has instigated worldwide efforts in the development of passive containment cooling systems that are safer, more reliable, and simpler in their use. The passive containment cooling system's performance is deteriorated by noncondensable gases that come from the containment and from the gases produced by cladding/steam interaction during a severe accident. These noncondensable gases degrade the heat transfer capabilities of the condensers in the passive containment cooling systems since they provide a heat transfer resistance to the condensation process. There has been some work done in the area of modeling condensation heat transfer with noncondensable gases, but little has been done to apply the work to integral facilities. It is important to fully understand the heal transfer capabilities of the passive systems so a detailed assessment of the long term cooling capabilities can be performed. The existing correlations and models are for the through-flow of the mixture of steam and the noncondensable gases. This type of analysis may not be applicable to passive containment cooling systems, where there is no clear passage for the steam to escape. This allows the steam to accumulate in the lower header and tubes, where all of the steam condenses. The objective of this work was to develop a condensation heat transfer model for the downward cocurrent flow of a steam/air mixture through a condenser tube, taking into account the atypical characteristics of the passive containment cooling system. An empirical model was developed that depends solely on the inlet conditions to the condenser system, including the mixture Reynolds number and noncondensable gas concentration. This empirical model is applicable to the condensation heat transfer of the passive containment cooling system. This study was also used to characterize the local heat transfer coefficient with a noncondensable gas present.

  11. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450-1650?(o)C) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7?kJ/mol to 12.1?kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society. PMID:26558350

  12. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450–1650?oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7?kJ/mol to 12.1?kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society. PMID:26558350

  13. Cross-Beam Energy Transfer (CBET) Effect with Additional Ion Heating Integrated into the 2-D Hydrodynamics Code DRACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.

    2012-10-01

    The cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) effect causes pump and probe beams to exchange energy via stimulated Brillouin scattering.footnotetext W. L. Kruer, The Physics of Laser--Plasma Interactions, Frontiers in Physics, Vol. 73, edited by D. Pines (Addison-Wesley, Redwood City, CA, 1988), p. 45. The total energy gained does not, in general, equate to the total energy lost; the ion-acoustic wave comprises the residual energy balance, which can decay, resulting in ion heating.footnotetext E. A. Williams et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 231 (2004). The additional ion heating can retune the conditions for CBET affecting the overall energy transfer as a function of time. CBET and the additional ion heating are incorporated into the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACOfootnotetext P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 056307 (2005). as an integral part of the 3-D ray trace where CBET is treated self-consistently within on the hydrodynamic evolution. DRACO simulation results employing CBET will be discussed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  14. Model of the sewage sludge-straw composting process integrating different heat generation capacities of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bia?obrzewski, I; Mikš-Krajnik, M; Dach, J; Markowski, M; Czeka?a, W; G?uchowska, K

    2015-09-01

    A mathematical model integrating 11 first-order differential equations describing the dynamics of the aerobic composting process of sewage sludge was proposed. The model incorporates two microbial groups (mesophiles and thermophiles) characterized by different capacities of heat generation. Microbial growth rates, heat and mass transfer and degradation kinetics of the sewage sludge containing straw were modeled over a period of 36days. The coefficients of metabolic heat generation for mesophiles were 4.32×10(6) and 6.93×10(6)J/kg, for winter and summer seasons, respectively. However, for thermophiles, they were comparable for both seasons reaching 10.91×10(6) and 10.51×10(6)J/kg. In the model, significant parameters for microbial growth control were temperature and the content of easily hydrolysable substrate. The proposed model provided a satisfactory fit to experimental data captured for cuboid-shaped bioreactors with forced aeration. Model predictions of specific microbial populations and substrate decomposition were crucial for accurate description and understanding of sewage sludge composting. PMID:26087644

  15. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-11-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450–1650?oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7?kJ/mol to 12.1?kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society.

  16. Full surface local heat transfer coefficient measurements in a model of an integrally cast impingement cooling geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, D.R.H.; Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T.; Kohler, S.T.

    1998-01-01

    Cast impingement cooling geometries offer the gas turbine designer higher structural integrity and improved convective cooling when compared to traditional impingement cooling systems, which rely on plate inserts. In this paper, it is shown that the surface that forms the jets contributes significantly to the total cooling. Local heat transfer coefficient distributions have been measured in a model of an engine wall cooling geometry using the transient heat transfer technique. The method employs temperature-sensitive liquid crystals to measure the surface temperature of large-scale perspex models during transient experiments. Full distributions of local Nusselt number on both surfaces of the impingement plate, and on the impingement target plate, are presented at engine representative Reynolds numbers. The relative effects of the impingement plate thermal boundary condition and the coolant supply temperature on the target plate heat transfer have been determined by maintaining an isothermal boundary condition at the impingement plate during the transient tests. The results are discussed in terms of the interpreted flow field.

  17. Thermal electron heating rate: A derivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal electron heating rate is an important heat source term in the ionospheric electron energy balance equation, representing heating by photoelectrons or by precipitating higher energy electrons. A formula for the thermal electron heating rate is derived from the kinetic equation using the electron-electron collision operator as given by the unified theory of Kihara and Aono. This collision operator includes collective interactions to produce a finite collision operator with an exact Coulomb logarithm term. The derived heating rate O(e) is the sum of three terms, O(e) = O(p) + S + O(int), which are respectively: (1) primary electron production term giving the heating from newly created electrons that have not yet suffered collisions with the ambient electrons; (2) a heating term evaluated on the energy surface m(e)/2 = E(T) at the transition between Maxwellian and tail electrons at E(T); and (3) the integral term representing heating of Maxwellian electrons by energetic tail electrons at energies ET. Published ionospheric electron temperature studies used only the integral term O(int) with differing lower integration limits. Use of the incomplete heating rate could lead to erroneous conclusions regarding electron heat balance, since O(e) is greater than O(int) by as much as a factor of two.

  18. Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building 

    E-print Network

    Zhu, N.

    2014-01-01

    (%) office equipment water supply & drain lighting elevator bioler air-conditioning 2014/11/11 ESL-IC-14-09-18a Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 Background • Common air... source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building Dr. Na Zhu Department of Building Environment and Energy Engineering Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, China 2014-09-14 ESL-IC-14-09-18a...

  19. Holistic Modeling, Design & Analysis of Integrated Stirling and Auxiliary Clean Energy Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Amrit Om

    The research revolves around the development of a model to design and analyze Stirling systems. Lack of a standard approach to study Stirling systems and difficulty in generalizing existing approaches pose stiff challenges. A stable mathematical model (integrated second order adiabatic and dynamic model) is devised and validated for general use. The research attempts to design compact combined heat and power (CHP) system to run on multiple biomass fuels and solar energy. Analysis is also carried out regarding the design of suitable auxiliary systems like thermal energy storage system, biomass moisture removal system and Fresnel solar collector for the CHP Stirling system.

  20. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  1. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  2. Shuttle reentry aerodynamic heating test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, J. E.; Mccormick, P. O.; Smith, S. D.

    1971-01-01

    The research for determining the space shuttle aerothermal environment is reported. Brief summaries of the low Reynolds number windward side heating test, and the base and leeward heating and high Reynolds number heating test are included. Also discussed are streamline divergence and the resulting effect on aerodynamic heating, and a thermal analyzer program that is used in the Thermal Environment Optimization Program.

  3. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  4. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, also known as ground source heat pumps, geoexchange, water-source, earth-coupled, and earth energy heat pumps, take advantage of this resource and represent one of the most efficient and durable options on the market to heat and cool your home.

  5. Why combined heat and power

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, W.R.H.

    1984-06-01

    Comparing modern conventional power stations and space heating boiler plant with new combined-cycle cogeneration systems confirms the energy advantages of the cogeneration route: almost 2 units of fuel are saved for each unit of heat produced. The UK is actively evaluating opportunities for combined heat and power for both district heating of urban areas and individual industrial and commercial applications.

  6. Why combined heat and power

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, W.R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Comparing modern conventional power stations and space-heating boiler plants with new combined-cycle cogeneration systems confirms the energy advantages of the cogeneration route: almost 2 units of fuel are saved for each unit of heat produced. The UK is actively evaluating opportunities for combined heat and power for both district heating of urban areas and individual industrial and commercial applications.

  7. Enceladus' Enigmatic Heat Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Spencer, D.; Verbiscer, A.; Hurford, T.; Segura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of Enceladus' heat flow is important because it provides a vital constraint on Enceladus' tidal dissipation mechanisms, orbital evolution, and the physical processes that generate the plumes. In 2011 we published an estimate of the current heat flow from Enceladus' active south polar terrain: 15.8 +/- 3.1 GW (Howett et al., 2011). This value was calculated by first estimating by modeling, and then removing, the passive component from 17 to 1000 micron observations made of the entire south polar terrain by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). The heat flow was then directly calculated from the residual, assumed endogenic, component. The derived heat flow of 15.8 GW was surprisingly high, about 10 times greater than that predicted by steady-state tidal heating (Meyer and Wisdom, 2007). CIRS has also returned high spatial resolution observations of Enceladus' active south polar terrain. Two separate observations are used: 9 to 16 micron observations taken over nearly the complete south polar terrain and a single 17 to 1000 micron scan over Damascus, Baghdad and Cairo. The shorter wavelength observations are only sensitive to high temperature emission (>70 K), and so longer wavelength observations are required (despite their limited spatial coverage) to estimate the low temperature emission from the stripes. Analysis of these higher resolution observations tells a different story of Enceladus' endogenic heat flow: the preliminary estimate of the heat flow from the active tiger stripes using these observations is 4.2 GW. An additional 0.5 GW must be added to this number to account for the latent heat release by the plumes (Ingersoll and Pankine 2009), giving a total preliminary estimate of 4.9 GW. The discrepancy in these two numbers is significant and we are currently investigating the cause. One possible reason is that there is significantly higher endogenic emission from the regions between the tiger stripes than we currently estimate (based on the comparison of the single long-wavelength scan across the fractures). It is also possible that the earlier modeling efforts underestimated Enceladus' passive emission, resulting in an overestimation of Enceladus' heat flow.

  8. Heat sensitive immunoliposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Heat sensitive immunoliposomes were prepared with derivatized antibody. The liposomes are able to bind specifically to target cells and to release their encapsulated contents upon brief heating. Monoclonal anti-H2K/sup K/ was covalently derivatized with palmitoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide. The palmitoyl antibody was injected at a controlled rate into a suspension of fused unilamellar dipalmitoylphosphati-dylcholine liposomes maintained at a constant temperature. Injection of palmitoyl antibody into a liposome suspension containing 50 mM carboxyfluorescein at 41/sup 0/C resulted in simultaneous antibody incorporation and entrapment of dye. The immunoliposomes were able to release entrapped dye upon heating. Furthermore, this ability was retained when the immunoliposomes were found to the target cells. /sup 3/H-Uridine was entrapped in the heat sensitive immunoliposomes to examine the cellular uptake properties of entrapped contents upon release. The release of uridine from bound heat sensitive immunoliposomes exhibited very similar properties to those obtained for carboxyfluorescein release. The rate of uridine uptake for immunoliposome released uridine was 5 fold greater than bare liposome released uridine and 10 fold greater than that obtained for free uridine. Nucleoside uptake inhibitors were able to inhibit uptake of free uridine and uridine released from immunoliposomes showing the release to be extracellular and uridine uptake was mediated by the nucleoside transporter. These results show that a high local concentration of nucleosides released from immunoliposomes bound to their respective target cell can enhance cellular uptake thus promoting efficient drug delivery.

  9. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  10. Downhole heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1999-09-01

    The downhole heat exchanger (DHE) eliminates the problem of disposal of geothermal fluid, since only heat is taken from the well. The exchanger consists of a system of pipes or tubes suspended in the well through which clean secondary water is pumped or allowed to circulate by natural convection. These systems offer substantial economic savings over surface heat exchangers where a single-well system is adequate (typically less than 0.8 MWt, with well depths up to about 500 ft) and may be economical under certain conditions at well depths to 1500 ft. Several designs have proven successful; but, the most popular are a simple hairpin loop or multiple loops of iron pipe (similar to the tubes in a U-tube and shell exchanger) extending to near the well bottom. An experimental design consisting of multiple small tubes with headers at each end suspended just below the water surface appears to offer economic and heating capacity advantages. The paper describes design and construction details and New Zealand`s experience with downhole heat exchangers.

  11. Heat pipe cooling for scramjet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1986-01-01

    Liquid metal heat pipe cooling systems have been investigated for the combustor liner and engine inlet leading edges of scramjet engines for a missile application. The combustor liner is cooled by a lithium-TZM molybdenum annular heat pipe, which incorporates a separate lithium reservoir. Heat is initially absorbed by the sensible thermal capacity of the heat pipe and liner, and subsequently by the vaporization and discharge of lithium to the atmosphere. The combustor liner temperature is maintained at 3400 F or less during steady-state cruise. The engine inlet leading edge is fabricated as a sodium-superalloy heat pipe. Cooling is accomplished by radiation of heat from the aft surface of the leading edge to the atmosphere. The leading edge temperature is limited to 1700 F or less. It is concluded that heat pipe cooling is a viable method for limiting scramjet combustor liner and engine inlet temperatures to levels at which structural integrity is greatly enhanced.

  12. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps 

    E-print Network

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    1987-01-01

    fluid component without heat amplifier and temperature amplifier type. hardware modification. These systems can be configured as single or dual The heat pump design is based on a heat of stage cycles. reaction chemisorption process operating... improvements can be performed as well. Heat Amplifier Cycles. The single-stage heat amplifier cycle Is shOwn in Figure 1. The process can be described as follows: 1->2 Complex B is heated with prime energy or high temperature waste heat at the generator...

  13. Heat exchanger for electrothermal devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavesky, Ralph J. (inventor); Sovey, James S. (inventor); Mirtich, Michael J. (inventor); Marinos, Charalampus (inventor); Penko, Paul F. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An improved electrothermal device is disclosed. An electrothermal thruster utilizes a generally cylindrical heat exchanger chamber to convert electricity to heat which raises the propellant temperature. A textured, high emissivity heat element radiatively transfers heat to the inner wall of this chamber that is ion beam morphologically controlled for high absorptivity. This, in turn, raises the temperature of a porous heat exchanger material in an annular chamber surrounding the cylindrical chamber. Propellant gas flows through the annular chamber and is heated by the heat exchanger material.

  14. Heat distribution ceramic processing method

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-layered heat distributor system is provided for use in a microwave process. The multi-layered heat distributors includes a first inner layer of a high thermal conductivity heat distributor material, a middle insulating layer and an optional third insulating outer layer. The multi-layered heat distributor system is placed around the ceramic composition or article to be processed and located in a microwave heating system. Sufficient microwave energy is applied to provide a high density, unflawed ceramic product.

  15. Heat budget of ionospheric electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, S. S.; Schneck, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Heat input calculations were detached from solar extreme UV data and monatomic oxygen densities were derived from simultaneously measured data sets (ion composition 146-191 km) in a study of the heat budget of ionosphere electrons. Earlier inferences that cooling predominates over heating are supported. A search for additional heat sources or a revision of the cooling rates is recommended, by way of balancing the heat budget. Importance is attached to electron cooling by fine structure excitation of monatomic oxygen.

  16. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  17. Artificial muscles on heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 ?W when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  18. Heat in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rosal, B.; Haro-González, P.; Ramsay, W. T.; Maestro, L. M.; Santacruz-Gómez, K.; Iglesias-de la Cruz, M. C.; Sanz-Rodríguez, F.; Chooi, J. Y.; Rodríguez-Sevilla, P.; Choudhury, D.; Kar, A. K.; García Solé, J.; Patterson, L.; Jaque, D.

    2013-09-01

    Laser-induced thermal effects in optically trapped microspheres and single cells have been investigated by Luminescence Thermometry. Thermal spectroscopy has revealed a non-localized temperature distribution around the trap that extends over tens of microns, in agreement with previous theoretical models. Solvent absorption has been identified as the key parameter to determine laser-induced heating, which can be reduced by establishing a continuous fluid flow of the sample. Our experimental results of thermal loading at a variety of wavelengths reveal that an optimum trapping wavelength exists for biological applications close to 820 nm. This has been corroborated by a simultaneous analysis of the spectral dependence of cellular heating and damage in human lymphocytes during optical trapping. Minimum intracellular heating, well below the cytotoxic level (43 °C), has been demonstrated to occur for optical trapping with 820 nm laser radiation, thus avoiding cell damage.

  19. Serpentine heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, R.S.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes a furnace having a burner means for providing hot products of combustion, and an air flow means for circulating conditioned air, a heat exchanger for transferring heat from products of combustion to conditioned air. The heat exchanger comprises first and second matched clamshell plates assembled together. The plates connected at their respective edges by a sealing means for providing a seal thereat, each the plate having an internal surface defining a depression. The depressions together defining a serpentine passageway, an entrance and exhaust ported formed in the passageway. The surfaces including elongated ribs for obstructing fluid flow adjacent the exhaust portal and for directing fluid flow to under-utilized portions in the passageway.

  20. Laser-heated thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, N. H.; Krech, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    The development of computer codes for the thrust chamber of a rocket of which the propellant gas is heated by a CW laser beam was investigated. The following results are presented: (1) simplified models of laser heated thrusters for approximate parametric studies and performance mapping; (3) computer programs for thrust chamber design; and (3) shock tube experiment to measure absorption coefficients. Two thrust chamber design programs are outlined: (1) for seeded hydrogen, with both low temperature and high temperature seeds, which absorbs the laser radiation continuously, starting at the inlet gas temperature; and (2) for hydrogen seeded with cesium, in which a laser supported combustion wave stands near the gas inlet, and heats the gas up to a temperature at which the gas can absorb the laser energy.

  1. Induction heating coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L. (inventor); Copeland, Carl E. (inventor); Swaim, Robert J. (inventor); Coultrip, Robert H. (inventor); Johnston, David F. (inventor); Phillips, W. Morris (inventor); Johnson, Samuel D. (inventor); Dinkins, James R. (inventor); Buckley, John D. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An induction heating device includes a handle having a hollow interior and two opposite ends, a wrist connected to one end of the handle, a U-shaped pole piece having two spaced apart ends, a tank circuit including an induction coil wrapped around the pole piece and a capacitor connected to the induction coil, a head connected to the wrist and including a housing for receiving the U-shaped pole piece, the two spaced apart ends of the pole piece extending outwardely beyond the housing, and a power source connected to the tank circuit. When the tank circuit is energized and a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the ends of the U-shaped pole piece, the susceptor is heated by induction heating due to magnetic flux passing between the two ends of the pole piece.

  2. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  3. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  4. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  5. Heat exchanger panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  6. Heat exchanger support

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Weitzel, P.S.

    1988-09-13

    This patent describes a support structure for in-bed heat exchanger tubes of a fluidzed bed boiler having wall means defining a fluidized bed region and a freeboard region above the fluidized bed region, the wall means including tubular means disposed near a transition zone between the fluidized bed and freeboard regions, the structure comprising support tubes having opposite ends extending respectively through the wall means and over the tubular means for support thereby, each support tube having at least one upright portion disposed in the fluidized bed region, and at least one heat exchanger tube being supportingly secured to the upright portion.

  7. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Borella, Henry M. (Santa Barbara, CA); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Turley, W. Dale (Santa Barbara, CA); MaCarthur, Charles D. (Clayton, OH); Cala, Gregory C. (Dayton, OH)

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  8. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Borella, Henry M. (Santa Barbara, CA); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Turley, W. Dale (Santa Barbara, CA); MacArthur, Charles D. (Clayton, OH); Cala, Gregory C. (Dayton, OH)

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic phosphors. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  9. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Borella, Henry M. (Santa Barbara, CA); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Turley, W. Dale (Santa Barbara, CA); MacArthur, Charles D. (Clayton, OH); Cala, Gregory C. (Dayton, OH)

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  10. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  11. Heat Transfer Enhancement: Second Generation Technology 

    E-print Network

    Bergles, A. E.; Webb, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    products, such as encountered in a rotary regenerator for combustion air preheat, must include consideration of fouling and corrosion. Surfaces with protective coatings are specified when corrosive condensate is expected. Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchan ers... Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are commonly used to exchange heat between liquids and boiling or condensing fluids. The cost-competitive air conditioning industry commonly uses integral-fin condenser tubes (Fig. 4) for shell-side condensation...

  12. Results of direct containment heating integral experiments at 1/40th scale at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, J.L.; McUmber, L.M.; Spencer, B.W.

    1993-09-01

    A series of integral tests have been completed that investigate the effect of scale and containment atmosphere initial composition on Direct Containment Heating (DCH) phenomena at 1/40 linear scale. A portion of these experiments were performed as counterparts to integral experiments conducted at 1/10th linear scale at Sandia National Laboratories. The tests investigated DCH phenomena in a 1/40th scale mockup of Zion Nuclear Power Plant geometry. The test apparatus was a scaled down version of the SNL apparatus and included models of the reactor vessel lower head, containment cavity, instrument tunnel, lower subcompartment structures and the upper dome. A High Pressure Melt Ejection (HPME) was produced using steam as a blowdown gas and iron-alumina thermite with chromium as a core melt simulant. The results of the counterpart experiments indicated no effect of scale on debris/gas heat transfer and debris metal oxidation with steam. However, the tests indicated a slight effect of scale on hydrogen combustion, the results indicating slightly more efficient combustion with increasing scale. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of the subcompartment structures in trapping debris exiting the cavity and preventing it from reaching the upper dome. The test results also indicated that a 50% air -- 50% steam atmosphere prevented hydrogen combustion. However, a 50% air - 50% nitrogen did not prevent hydrogen combustion in a HPME with all other conditions being nominally the same.

  13. Radiative heat transfer in porous uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, S.L.

    1992-12-01

    Due to low thermal conductivity and high emissivity of UO{sub 2}, it has been suggested that radiative heat transfer may play a significant role in heat transfer through pores of UO{sub 2} fuel. This possibility was computationally investigated and contribution of radiative heat transfer within pores to overall heat transport in porous UO{sub 2} quantified. A repeating unit cell was developed to model approximately a porous UO{sub 2} fuel system, and the heat transfer through unit cells representing a wide variety of fuel conditions was calculated using a finite element computer program. Conduction through solid fuel matrix as wekk as pore gas, and radiative exchange at pore surface was incorporated. A variety of pore compositions were investigated: porosity, pore size, shape and orientation, temperature, and temperature gradient. Calculations were made in which pore surface radiation was both modeled and neglected. The difference between yielding the integral contribution of radiative heat transfer mechanism to overall heat transport. Results indicate that radiative component of heat transfer within pores is small for conditions representative of light water reactor fuel, typically less than 1% of total heat transport. It is much larger, however, for conditions present in liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuel; during restructuring of this fuel type early in life, the radiative heat transfer mode was shown to contribute as much as 10-20% of total heat transport in hottest regions of fuel.

  14. Coupled reactor kinetics and heat transfer model for heat pipe cooled reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Houts, Michael

    2001-02-01

    Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). This paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities. .

  15. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  16. Solitons and ionospheric heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.; Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that for parameters characterizing the Platteville ionospheric heating facility, the Langmuir wave evolution at the exact reflection point of the heater wave involves an oscillating two-stream instability followed by a collisionally damped three-dimensional soliton collapse. The result gives an alternative explanation for certain experimental observations.

  17. Heating element support clip

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, William C. (Salida, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for supporting a heating element in a channel formed in a heater base is disclosed. A preferred embodiment includes a substantially U-shaped tantalum member. The U-shape is characterized by two substantially parallel portions of tantalum that each have an end connected to opposite ends of a base portion of tantalum. The parallel portions are each substantially perpendicular to the base portion and spaced apart a distance not larger than a width of the channel and not smaller than a width of a graphite heating element. The parallel portions each have a hole therein, and the centers of the holes define an axis that is substantially parallel to the base portion. An aluminum oxide ceramic retaining pin extends through the holes in the parallel portions and into a hole in a wall of the channel to retain the U-shaped member in the channel and to support the graphite heating element. The graphite heating element is confined by the parallel portions of tantalum, the base portion of tantalum, and the retaining pin. A tantalum tube surrounds the retaining pin between the parallel portions of tantalum.

  18. Exotic heat PDE's

    E-print Network

    Agostino Prástaro

    2010-07-03

    Exotic heat equations that allow to prove the Poincar\\'e conjecture, some related problems and suitable generalizations too are considered. The methodology used is the PDE's algebraic topology, introduced by A. Pr\\'astaro in the geometry of PDE's, in order to characterize global solutions.

  19. Heating element support clip

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, W.C.

    1995-08-15

    An apparatus for supporting a heating element in a channel formed in a heater base is disclosed. A preferred embodiment includes a substantially U-shaped tantalum member. The U-shape is characterized by two substantially parallel portions of tantalum that each have an end connected to opposite ends of a base portion of tantalum. The parallel portions are each substantially perpendicular to the base portion and spaced apart a distance not larger than a width of the channel and not smaller than a width of a graphite heating element. The parallel portions each have a hole therein, and the centers of the holes define an axis that is substantially parallel to the base portion. An aluminum oxide ceramic retaining pin extends through the holes in the parallel portions and into a hole in a wall of the channel to retain the U-shaped member in the channel and to support the graphite heating element. The graphite heating element is confined by the parallel portions of tantalum, the base portion of tantalum, and the retaining pin. A tantalum tube surrounds the retaining pin between the parallel portions of tantalum. 6 figs.

  20. Sudurnes Regional Heating Corp.

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-11-01

    The Svartsengi geothermal area is close to the town of Grindavik on the Rekjanes peninsula and is part of an active fissure swarm, lined with crater-rows and open fissures and faults. The high-temperature area has an area of 2 sq. km and shows only limited signs of geothermal activity at the surface. The reservoir, however, contains lots of energy and at least 8 wells supply the Svartsengi Power Plant with steam. The steam is not useable for domestic heating purposes so that heat exchangers are used to heat cold groundwater with the steam. Some steam is also used for producing 16.4 MW{sub e} of electrical power. The article shows the distribution system piping hot water to nine towns and the Keflavik International Airport. The effluent brine from the Svartsengi Plant is disposed of into a surface pond, called the Blue Lagoon, popular to tourists and people suffering from psoriasis and other forms of eczema seeking therapeutic effects from the silica rich brine. This combined power plant and regional district heating system (cogeneration) is an interesting and unique design for the application of geothermal energy.

  1. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery 

    E-print Network

    Ward, M. E.; Solomon, N. G.; Tabb, E. S.

    1980-01-01

    was that the upper material temperature limit of 1500oF is state-of-the-art for recuperators operating in an oxidizing environment produced by the com-bustion of Diesel No.2. A full size counter axial flow metal heat exchanger test module has successfully completed...

  2. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1991-04-02

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchangers. The team has begun a heat exchanger stress analysis, however they have been concentrating the bulk of their analytical energies on a CFD model to determine the location and magnitude of shell-side flow maldistribution which decreases heat exchanger effectiveness. DSI received 120 fineblanked tubestrips from Southern Fineblanking (SFB) for manufacturing process development. Both SFB and NIST provided inspection reports of the tubestrips. DSI completed the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips on the array. Pressing the tubestrips on tube arrays showed design deficiencies both in the tubestrip design and the tooling design. DSI has a number of revisions in process to correct these deficiencies. The research effort has identified a more economical fusible alloy for encapsulating the tube array, and determined the parameters required to successfully encapsulate the tube array with the new alloy. A more compact MTS heat exchanger bank was designed. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  3. Phytosanitary Heat Treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter by Neil Heather and Guy Hallman, in “Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers,” CABI Press, deals with disinfestations of food commodities. Disinfestation of food commodities with heat to satisfy phytosanitary requirements has the advantage of freedom from chemical residue...

  4. Heat pipe thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, D. A. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A thermal switch for controlling the dissipation of heat between a body is described. The thermal switch is comprised of a flexible bellows defining an expansible vapor chamber for a working fluid located between an evaporation and condensation chamber. Inside the bellows is located a coiled retaining spring and four axial metal mesh wicks, two of which have their central portions located inside of the spring while the other two have their central portions located between the spring and the side wall of the bellows. The wicks are terminated and are attached to the inner surfaces of the outer end walls of evaporation and condensation chambers respectively located adjacent to the heat source and heat sink. The inner surfaces of the end walls furthermore include grooves to provide flow channels of the working fluid to and from the wick ends. The evaporation and condensation chambers are connected by turnbuckles and tension springs to provide a set point adjustment for setting the gap between an interface plate on the condensation chamber and the heat sink.

  5. Solar Energy: Home Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  6. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  7. Pitot heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, R.D.

    1981-12-08

    A pitot heat pump is described wherein a multi-stage pitot pump is employed as the compression means in a heat pump thermodynamic cycle. The heat pump is comprised of a multi-stage vapor pitot pump, liquid pitot pump, turbine, vaporizer, evaporator, condenser and expansion valve. The turbine is used to rotate a shaft to which the impellers of the pitot pump are attached. Refrigerant gas from the evaporator enters the first stage of the pitot pump and the impeller therein forces the refrigerant gas outwardly where it enters the narrow end of a pitot tube provided therein. The discharge end of the pitot tube is in communication with the next stage of the pitot pump. In passing through the pitot tube, the refrigerant gas expands and the centrifugal force and the kinetic energy of the gas provide the energy whereby the refrigerant gas is compressed. After the last stage, the compressed gas is transmitted to the condenser of the heat pump.

  8. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  9. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  10. Solar heating and you

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    This fact sheet for use with primary school classes describes what solar collectors are and how they work, passive solar rooms, flat-plate collectors, and why one should use solar heating systems. Making a solar air heater is described step-by-step with illustrations. A resource list for both students and teachers is provided for further information.

  11. Financial heat machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2005-05-01

    We consider dynamics of financial markets as dynamics of expectations and discuss such a dynamics from the point of view of phenomenological thermodynamics. We describe a financial Carnot cycle and the financial analog of a heat machine. We see, that while in physics a perpetuum mobile is absolutely impossible, in economics such mobile may exist under some conditions.

  12. Heating Systems Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This instructional package is intended for use in training Air Force personnel enrolled in a program for apprentice heating systems specialists. Training includes instruction in fundamentals and pipefitting; basic electricity; controls, troubleshooting, and oil burners; solid and gas fuel burners and warm air distribution systems; hot water…

  13. Liquid Phase Heating Systems 

    E-print Network

    Mordt, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    excessive. Here, the High Temperature/Low Pressure (HT/LP) organic thermal liquids are applicable. The higher the temperature, the greater the potential fuel savings over a conventional steam system. Less expensive low pressure heat users may be used. Water...

  14. Earth-coupled heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, J. A.

    1981-08-01

    The object of the research work was to demonstrate that a water source heat pump could be used with an earth-coupled heat exchanger which was buried in an absorption field of a domestic sewage disposal system to provide the heating and cooling requirements for residential use in an energy efficient fashion. The system consists of a 3 ton heat pump (nominal rating of 34,000 Btu/hr), a closed-loop heat exchanger which was fabricated from 200 feet of 2 inch diameter cast iron soil pipe, and a calorimeter house which had heat transmission characteristics similar to a 100 sq ft house. The earth-coupled heat exchanger was connected to the water side heat exchanger of the heat pump. Water was circulated through the heat exchanger coil in the earth and through the water side heat exchanger of the heat pump. The earth served as the energy source (for heating) or sink (for cooling) for the heat pump.

  15. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  16. Heat exchange assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2004-06-08

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  17. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1992-07-09

    The purpose of this contract has been to explore the limits of miniaturization of heat exchangers with the goals of (1) improving the theoretical understanding of laminar heat exchangers, (2) evaluating various manufacturing difficulties, and (3) identifying major applications for the technology. A low-cost, ultra-compact heat exchanger could have an enormous impact on industry in the areas of cryocoolers and energy conversion. Compact cryocoolers based on the reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) would become practical with the availability of compact heat exchangers. Many experts believe that hardware advances in personal computer technology will rapidly slow down in four to six years unless lowcost, portable cryocoolers suitable for the desktop supercomputer can be developed. Compact refrigeration systems would permit dramatic advances in high-performance computer work stations with conventional'' microprocessors operating at 150 K, and especially with low-cost cryocoolers below 77 K. NASA has also expressed strong interest in our MTS exchanger for space-based RBC cryocoolers for sensor cooling. We have demonstrated feasibility of higher specific conductance by a factor of five than any other work in high-temperature gas-to-gas exchangers. These laminar-flow, microtube exchangers exhibit extremely low pressure drop compared to alternative compact designs under similar conditions because of their much shorter flow length and larger total flow area for lower flow velocities. The design appears to be amenable to mass production techniques, but considerable process development remains. The reduction in materials usage and the improved heat exchanger performance promise to be of enormous significance in advanced engine designs and in cryogenics.

  18. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, F. D.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this contract has been to explore the limits of miniaturization of heat exchangers with the goals of (1) improving the theoretical understanding of laminar heat exchangers, (2) evaluating various manufacturing difficulties, and (3) identifying major applications for the technology. A low-cost, ultra-compact heat exchanger could have an enormous impact on industry in the areas of cryocoolers and energy conversion. Compact cryocoolers based on the reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) would become practical with the availability of compact heat exchangers. Many experts believe that hardware advances in personal computer technology will rapidly slow down in four to six years unless lowcost, portable cryocoolers suitable for the desktop supercomputer can be developed. Compact refrigeration systems would permit dramatic advances in high-performance computer work stations with 'conventional' microprocessors operating at 150 K, and especially with low-cost cryocoolers below 77 K. NASA has also expressed strong interest in our MTS exchanger for space-based RBC cryocoolers for sensor cooling. We have demonstrated feasibility of higher specific conductance by a factor of five than any other work in high-temperature gas-to-gas exchangers. These laminar-flow, microtube exchangers exhibit extremely low pressure drop compared to alternative compact designs under similar conditions because of their much shorter flow length and larger total flow area for lower flow velocities. The design appears to be amenable to mass production techniques, but considerable process development remains. The reduction in materials usage and the improved heat exchanger performance promise to be of enormous significance in advanced engine designs and in cryogenics.

  19. Evaluation and Analysis of an Integrated PEM Fuel Cell with Absorption Cooling and Water Heating System for Sustainable Building Operation 

    E-print Network

    Gadalla, M.; Ratlamwala, T.; Dincer, I.

    2010-01-01

    of the over all system, COPs of the double effect cooling and heating system, and power and heat output of the PEM fuel cell. It is found that the efficiency of the cell decreases, ranging from 46.2% to 24.4% with increase in membrane thickness and current...

  20. Heat-pump-centered Integrated Community Energy Systems: systems development, Consolidated Natural Gas Service Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, N.R.; Donakowski, T.D.; Foster, R.B.; Sala, D.L.; Tison, R.R.; Whaley, T.P.; Yudow, B.D.; Swenson, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    The Heat-Actuated Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy System (HAHP-ICES) utilizes a gas-fired, engine-driven, heat pump and commercial buildings, and offers several advantages over the more conventional equipment it is intended to supplant. The general non-site-specific application assumes a hypothetical community of one 59,000 ft/sup 2/ office building and five 24-unit, low-rise apartment buildings located in a region with a climate similar to Chicago. This community serves as a starting point - the base case - upon which various sensitivity analyses are performed and through which the performance characteristics of the HAHP are explored. The results of these analyses provided the selection criteria for the site-specific application of the HAHP-ICES concept to a real-world community. The site-specific community consists of 42 townhouses; five 120-unit, low-rise apartment buildings; five 104-unit high-rise apartment buildings; one 124,000 ft/sup 2/ office building; and a single 135,000 ft/sup 2/ retail building located in Monroeville, Pa. The base-case analyses confirmed that the HAHP-ICES has significant potentials for reducing the primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions associated with space conditioning when compared with a conventional system. Primary energy consumption was reduced by 30%, while emission reductions ranged from 39 to 77%. The results of the site-specific analysis indicate that reductions in energy consumption of between 15 and 22% are possible when a HAHP-ICES is selected as opposed to conventional HVAC equipment.

  1. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Residential Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems, Illinois and New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented Emerging Technology Programs. With support from PARR, NYSERDA and other partners, the project documented system performance and installations in Chicago and New York. Combi systems were found to save nearly 200 therms in cold climates at efficiencies between about 80% and 94%. Combi systems using third-party air handler units specially designed for condensing combi system operation performed better than the packaged integrated combi systems available for the project. Moreover, combi systems tended to perform poorly when the tankless water heaters operating at high turn-down ratios. Field tests for this study exposed installation deficiencies due to contractor unfamiliarity with the products and the complexity of field engineering and system tweaking to achieve high efficiencies. Widespread contractor education must be a key component to market expansion of combi systems. Installed costs for combi systems need to come down about 5% to 10% to satisfy total resource calculations for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. Greater sales volumes and contractor familiarity can drive costs down. More research is needed to determine how well heating systems such as traditional furnace/water heater, combis, and heat pumps compare in similar as-installed scenarios, but under controlled conditions.

  2. An integrated assessment of the energy savings and emissions-reduction potential of combined heat and power

    SciTech Connect

    Kaarsberg, T.M.; Elliott, R.N.; Spurr, M.

    1999-07-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, or cogeneration systems, generated electrical/mechanical and thermal energy simultaneously, recovering much of the energy normally lost in separate generation. This recovered energy can be used for heating or cooling purposes, eliminating the need for a separate boiler. Significant reductions in energy, criteria pollutants, and carbon emissions can be achieved from the improved efficiency of fuel use. Generating electricity on or near the point of use also avoids transmission and distribution losses and defers expansion of the electricity transmission grid. Several recent developments make dramatic expansion of CHP a cost-effective possibility over the next decade. First, advances in technologies such as combustion turbines, steam turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells. and heat-recovery equipment have decreased the cost and improved the performance of CHP systems. Second, a significant portion of the nation's boiler stock will need to be replaced in the next decade, creating an opportunity to upgrade this equipment with clean and efficient CHP systems. Third, environmental policies, including addressing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, have created pressures to find cleaner and more efficient means of using energy. Finally, electric power market restructuring is creating new opportunities for innovations in power generation and smaller-scale distributed systems such as CHP. The integrated analysis suggests that there is enormous potential for the installation of cost-effective CHP in the industrial, district energy, and buildings sectors. The projected additional capacity by 2010 is 73 GW with corresponding energy savings of 2.6 quadrillion Btus, carbon emissions reductions of 74 million metric tons, 1.4 million tons of avoided SO{sub 2} emissions, and 0.6 million tons of avoided NO{sub x} emissions. The authors estimate that this new CHP would require cumulative capital investments of roughly $47 billion over ten years.

  3. Heat pipe transient response approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Robert S.

    2002-01-01

    A simple and concise routine that approximates the response of an alkali metal heat pipe to changes in evaporator heat transfer rate is described. This analytically based routine is compared with data from a cylindrical heat pipe with a crescent-annular wick that undergoes gradual (quasi-steady) transitions through the viscous and condenser boundary heat transfer limits. The sonic heat transfer limit can also be incorporated into this routine for heat pipes with more closely coupled condensers. The advantages and obvious limitations of this approach are discussed. For reference, a source code listing for the approximation appears at the end of this paper. .

  4. Specific Heat and the Free Electron Gas Specific Heat

    E-print Network

    Smith, Nathanael J.

    is defined as R kNA where k is the Boltzmann constant and NA is Avogadro's number. 6 / 25 #12;Formal degree K. Relationship between specific heat and molar specific heat cv = Cv n , n = number of moles

  5. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. ...exterior walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. ...exterior walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. ...exterior walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. ...exterior walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. ...exterior walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo...

  10. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2015-03-01

    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M.G. Reynolds, K. Rober, F.R. Stabler; Marlow, JPL, Dana, Delphi E&S, Eberspaecher, Molycorp, University of Washington, Purdue University, Michigan State University, ORNL, BNL. Supported by US DOE.

  11. 77 FR 39735 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...337-TA-851] Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple...after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided with multiple...after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided with...

  12. 77 FR 33486 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ...Docket No. 2899] Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple...complaint entitled Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple...after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided with...

  13. Quantitative Assessment of the Integrated Response in Global Heat and Moisture Budgets to Changing Solar Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Earlier, we found time sequences of basin- and global-average upper ocean temperature (that is, diabatic heat storage above the main pycnocline) for 40 years from 1955-1994 and of sea surface temperature for 95 years from 1900-1994 associated with changes in the Sun's radiative forcing on decadal and interdecadal timescales, lagging by 10 deg.- 30 deg. of phase and confined to the upper 60-120 m. Yet, the observed changes in upper ocean temperature (approx. 0.1 K) were approximately twice those expected from the Stefan-Boltzmann black-body radiation law for the Earth's surface, with phase lags (0 deg. to 30 deg. of phase) much shorter than the 90 deg. phase shift expected as well. Moreover, White et al. (1997, 1998) found the Earth's global decadal mode in covarying SST and SLP anomalies phase locked to the decadal signal in the Sun's irradiance. Yet, Allan (2000) found this decadal signal also characterized by patterns similar to those observed on biennial and interannual time scales; that is, the Troposphere Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and the El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This suggested that small changes in the Sun's total irradiance could excite this global decadal mode in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system similar to those excited internally on biennial and interannual period scales. This is a significant finding, proving that energy budget models (that is, models based on globally-averaged radiation balances) yield unrealistic responses. Thus, the true response must include positive and negative feedbacks in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system as its internal mode (that is, the natural mode of the system) respond in damped resonance to quasi-periodic decadal changes in the Sun's irradiance. Moreover, these responses are not much different from those occurring internally on biennial and interannual period scales.

  14. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930° C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380° C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  15. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

    2011-01-17

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  16. A Fully Second Order Implicit/Explicit Time Integration Technique for Hydrodynamics Plus Nonlinear Heat Conduction Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Dana A. Knoll

    2010-05-01

    We present a second order non-linearly consistent implicit/explicit time integration tech¬nique for solving hydrodynamics coupled with nonlinear heat conduction problems. The idea is to hybridize an implicit and an explicit discretization in a nonlinearly consistent way in order to achieve second order time convergent calculations. In this scope, the hydrody¬namics equations are discretized explicitly making use of the capability of well-understood explicit schemes. On the other hand , the nonlinear heat conduction is solved implicitly. Such methods are often referred to as IMEX methods [2,1,3]. The Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov (JFNK) method (e.g, [10,9]) is applied to the problem in such a way as to render a nonlinearly iterated IMEX method. We solve three test problems in order to validate the nu-merical order of the scheme. For each test, we established second order time convergence. We support these numerical results with a Modi?ed Equation Analysis (MEA) [23,22]. The set of equations studied here constitute a base model for radiation hydrodynamics.

  17. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

    1984-08-30

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  18. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    System analysis activities were directed toward refining the heating system parameters. Trade studies were performed to support hardware selections for all systems and for the heating only operational test sites in particular. The heating system qualification tests were supported by predicting qualification test component performance prior to conducting the test.

  19. Anisotropic heat exchangers/stack configurations for thermoacoustic heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Julian D.

    1994-06-01

    The goal of this project is to explore novel configurations of heat exchangers and the stack (heat pumping) section of thermoacoustic heat engines. The approach will be to use anisotropic systems, such as made possible by glass capillary array technology. A part of the project will involve the development of high power drives and acoustic resonators for testing the new systems.

  20. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  1. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  2. HEAT TRANSPORT SUMMARY (Rees Chapter 6)

    E-print Network

    Sandwell, David T.

    HEAT TRANSPORT SUMMARY (Rees Chapter 6) Modes of Heat Transport ocean - Heat transport is primarily by advection. A hot parcel of water flows to the surface where it radiates heat. ice - Heat is advected surface of the ice radiates heat to achieve a temperature Ts. The heat conducts through the ice so

  3. Low cost process heat recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, P.; McCray, J.

    Waste heat is analyzed in terms of recovery potential, economics, heat exchanger and system design, and computer programs. The heating demand and heat recovery potential at a neighborhood bakery was assessed. The feasibility of waste heat recovery systems is analyzed using life cycle cost and life cycle savings. For a first approximation, hand calculations were performed for air-to-air flat plate, fin plate, and liquid-to-air tube type heat exchangers using the temperature and mass flow data from a pizza restaurant in Madison. Then a heat exchanger analysis program was written in interactive BASIC. The analysis indicates that heat recovery using the flat plate and fin plate exchanger designs is technically feasible and yields high effectiveness.

  4. Heat Pipes: An Industrial Application 

    E-print Network

    Murray, F.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the basics of heat pipe exchangers. Included are how they are constructed, how they operate, where they have application, and various aspects of evaluating a potential application. After discussing the technical aspects of heat...

  5. Protecting Yourself from Heat Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Heat Stress Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Haitian Creole) ... 2010 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2010-114 Heat stress, from exertion or hot environments, places workers at ...

  6. Can You Afford Heat Recovery? 

    E-print Network

    Foust, L. T.

    1983-01-01

    many companies to venture into heat recovery projects without due consideration of the many factors involved. Many of these efforts have rendered less desirable results than expected. Heat recovery in the form of recuperation should be considered...

  7. Heated die facilitates tungsten forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, J. H.; Haystrick, J. E.; Laughlin, J. C.; Leidy, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Tungsten forming in a press brake employs a bottom die assembly with a heating manifold between two water-cooled die sections. The manifold has hydrogen-oxygen burners spaced along its length for even heat during forming.

  8. Heat Recovery Design Considerations for Cogeneration Systems 

    E-print Network

    Pasquinelli, D. M.; Burns, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    The design and integration of the heat recovery section, which includes the steam generation, auxiliary firing, and steam turbine modules, is critical to the overall performance and economics of cogeneration, systems. In gas turbine topping...

  9. Phase Change Heat Transfer Device for Process Heat Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2010-10-01

    The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to approx.1300 K) and industrial scale power transport (=50MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a thermal device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via ‘pumping a fluid’, a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization/condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e., without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) of vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  10. Heat transfer probe

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  11. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  12. Making Heat Visible

    PubMed Central

    Goodhew, Julie; Pahl, Sabine; Auburn, Tim; Goodhew, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Householders play a role in energy conservation through the decisions they make about purchases and installations such as insulation, and through their habitual behavior. The present U.K. study investigated the effect of thermal imaging technology on energy conservation, by measuring the behavioral effect after householders viewed images of heat escaping from or cold air entering their homes. In Study 1 (n = 43), householders who received a thermal image reduced their energy use at a 1-year follow-up, whereas householders who received a carbon footprint audit and a non-intervention control demonstrated no change. In Study 2 (n = 87), householders were nearly 5 times more likely to install draught proofing measures after seeing a thermal image. The effect was especially pronounced for actions that addressed an issue visible in the images. Findings indicate that using thermal imaging to make heat loss visible can promote energy conservation. PMID:26635418

  13. A sublimation heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Gary G.; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; McHale, Glen; Sefiane, Khellil

    2015-03-01

    Heat engines are based on the physical realization of a thermodynamic cycle, most famously the liquid-vapour Rankine cycle used for steam engines. Here we present a sublimation heat engine, which can convert temperature differences into mechanical work via the Leidenfrost effect. Through controlled experiments, quantified by a hydrodynamic model, we show that levitating dry-ice blocks rotate on hot turbine-like surfaces at a rate controlled by the turbine geometry, temperature difference and solid material properties. The rotational motion of the dry-ice loads is converted into electric power by coupling to a magnetic coil system. We extend our concept to liquid loads, generalizing the realization of the new engine to both sublimation and the instantaneous vapourization of liquids. Our results support the feasibility of low-friction in situ energy harvesting from both liquids and ices. Our concept is potentially relevant in challenging situations such as deep drilling, outer space exploration or micro-mechanical manipulation.

  14. Heat transport system

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, Samuel D. (McMurray, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A falling bed of ceramic particles receives neutron irradiation from a neutron-producing plasma and thereby transports energy as heat from the plasma to a heat exchange location where the ceramic particles are cooled by a gas flow. The cooled ceramic particles are elevated to a location from which they may again pass by gravity through the region where they are exposed to neutron radiation. Ceramic particles of alumina, magnesia, silica and combinations of these materials are contemplated as high-temperature materials that will accept energy from neutron irradiation. Separate containers of material incorporating lithium are exposed to the neutron flux for the breeding of tritium that may subsequently be used in neutron-producing reactions. The falling bed of ceramic particles includes velocity partitioning between compartments near to the neutron-producing plasma and compartments away from the plasma to moderate the maximum temperature in the bed.

  15. Heat Pipes For Alyeska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The heat pipes job is to keep the arctic ground frozen. The permafrost soil alternately freezes and thaws with seasonal temperature changes causing surface dislocations and problems for the builders. In winter, a phenomenon called frost-heaving uplifts the soil. It is something like the creation of highway potholes by the freezing of rainwater below the roadbed, but frost-heaving exerts a far greater force. Thawing of the frost in the summer causes the soil to settle unevenly. Therefore it is necessary to keep the soil in a continually frozen state so the pipeline won't rupture. To solve this problem, McDonnell Douglas Corp. applied heat pipe principles in the design of the vertical supports that hold up the pipeline.

  16. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecapl?o?lu, Özgür E.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart.

  17. Heating Saturn's Clumpy Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Neal J.; Morishima, Ryuji; Spilker, Linda J.

    2015-11-01

    We model Cassini CIRS data using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer -- thermal balance technique first developed for protostellar disks, with the goals of:1. Exploring whether the A- and B-ring temperatures' variation with viewing angle is consistent with the wake structures suggested by the observed azimuthal asymmetry in optical depth, by analytic arguments, and by numerical N-body modeling.2. Better constraining the shape, size, spacing and optical depths of substructure in the A-ring, using the unexpectedly high temperatures observed at equinox. If the wake features have high enough contrast, Saturn-shine may penetrate the gaps between the wakes and heat thering particles both top and bottom.3. Determining how much of the heating of the A- and B-rings' unlit sides is due to radiative transport and how much is due to particle motions, especially vertical motions. This will help in constraining the rings' surface densities and masses.

  18. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    PubMed Central

    Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecapl?o?lu, Özgür E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart. PMID:26260797

  19. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  20. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    E-print Network

    Ali Ü. C. Hardal; Özgür E. Müstecapl?oglu

    2015-07-16

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart.

  1. Laser-heated thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, N. H.; Lewis, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a computer program for the design of the thrust chamber for a CW laser heated thruster was examined. Hydrodgen was employed as the propellant gas and high temperature absorber. The laser absorption coefficient of the mixture/laser radiation combination is given in temperature and species densities. Radiative and absorptive properties are given to determine radiation from such gas mixtures. A computer code for calculating the axisymmetric channel flow of a gas mixture in chemical equilibrium, and laser energy absorption and convective and radiative heating is described. It is concluded that: (1) small amounts of cesium seed substantially increase the absorption coefficient of hydrogen; (2) cesium is a strong radiator and contributes greatly to radiation of cesium seeded hydrogen; (3) water vapor is a poor absorber; and (4) for 5.3mcm radiation, both H2O/CO and NO/CO seeded hydrogen mixtures are good absorbers.

  2. Tubing for augmented heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Pavlics, P.

    1983-08-01

    The objectives of the program reported were: to determine the heat transfer and friction characteristics on the outside of spiral fluted tubing in single phase flow of water, and to assess the relative cost of a heat exchanger constructed with spiral fluted tubing with one using conventional smooth tubing. An application is examined where an isolation water/water heat exchanger was used to transfer the heat from a gaseous diffusion plant to an external system for energy recovery. (LEW)

  3. Magnetic heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic heat pumps and refrigerators are potential replacements for vapor-compression devices that use chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants. Several room-temperature designs, using low-temperature superconducting magnets, have reached the experimental device stage. High-temperature superconducting materials may significantly increase the viability of the technology, both by enhancing existing design concepts and by enabling new major design types such as field switching of the superconducting magnets.

  4. Stress and heat flow

    SciTech Connect

    Lachenbrunch, A.H.; McGarr, A.

    1990-01-01

    As the Pacific plate slides northward past the North American plate along the San Andreas fault, the frictional stress that resists plate motion there is overcome to cause earthquakes. However, the frictional heating predicted for the process has never been detected. Thus, in spite of its importance to an understanding of both plate motion and earthquakes, the size of this frictional stress is still uncertain, even in order of magnitude.

  5. Solar heating and cooling.

    PubMed

    Duffie, J A; Beckman, W A

    1976-01-16

    We have adequate theory and engineering capability to design, install, and use equipment for solar space and water heating. Energy can be delivered at costs that are competitive now with such high-cost energy sources as much fuel-generated, electrical resistance heating. The technology of heating is being improved through collector developments, improved materials, and studies of new ways to carry out the heating processes. Solar cooling is still in the experimental stage. Relatively few experiments have yielded information on solar operation of absorption coolers, on use of night sky radiation in locations with clear skies, on the combination of a solar-operated Rankine engine and a compression cooler, and on open cycle, humidification-dehumidification systems. Many more possibilities for exploration exist. Solar cooling may benefit from collector developments that permit energy delivery at higher temperatures and thus solar operation of additional kinds of cycles. Improved solar cooling capability can open up new applications of solar energy, particularly for larger buildings, and can result in markets for retrofitting existing buildings. Solar energy for buildings can, in the next decade, make a significant contribution to the national energy economy and to the pocketbooks of many individual users. very large-aggregate enterprises in manufacture, sale, and installation of solar energy equipment can result, which can involve a spectrum of large and small businesses. In our view, the technology is here or will soon be at hand; thus the basic decisions as to whether the United States uses this resource will be political in nature. PMID:17838444

  6. Heat flow experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langseth, M. G., Jr.; Clark, S. P., Jr.; Chute, J. L., Jr.; Keihm, S. J.; Wechsler, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    The heat flow experiment installed on the lunar surface during the Apollo 15 flight is described. Subjects discussed are: (1) the experiment concept and design, (2) the operations of the experiment, (3) the employment of the experiment on the lunar surface at Hadley Rille site, (4) subsurface lunar temperatures, and (5) extrapolation of sensor temperatures to equilibrium values. Graphs of the data obtained from the experiment are provided.

  7. Study of fuel cell powerplant with heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. M.; Grasso, A. P.; Clausi, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    It was shown that heat can be recovered from fuel cell power plants by replacing the air-cooled heat exchangers in present designs with units which transfer the heat to the integrated utility system. Energy availability for a 40-kW power plant was studied and showed that the total usable energy at rated power represents 84 percent of the fuel lower heating value. The effects of design variables on heat availability proved to be small. Design requirements were established for the heat recovery heat exchangers, including measurement of the characteristics of two candidate fuel cell coolants after exposure to fuel cell operating conditions. A heat exchanger test program was defined to assess fouling and other characteristics of fuel cell heat exchangers needed to confirm heat exchanger designs for heat recovery.

  8. 3D CFD Electrochemical and Heat Transfer Model of an Integrated-Planar Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Hawkes; James E. O'Brien

    2008-10-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created to model high-temperature electrolysis cell performance and steam electrolysis in a new novel integrated planar porous-tube supported solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The model is of several integrated planar cells attached to a ceramic support tube. This design is being evaluated with modeling at the Idaho National Laboratory. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, activation over-potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Mean per-cell area-specific-resistance (ASR) values decrease with increasing current density. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Effects of variations in operating temperature, gas flow rate, cathode and anode exchange current density, and contact resistance from the base case are presented. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicated the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition. Results are discussed for using this design in the electrolysis mode. Discussion of thermal neutral voltage, enthalpy of reaction, hydrogen production, cell thermal efficiency, cell electrical efficiency, and Gibbs free energy are discussed and reported herein.

  9. Absorption heat pumps for enhancement of heat rejection from spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Gershon

    The present study is concerned with the use of an absorption heat pump. Design considerations are discussed and staged operation is investigated. The results show the absorption heat pump to be a promising cycle and an attractive alternative to the more common vapor compression system, particularly for those applications where waste heat at two temperature levels is available, e.g., at a higher temperature from the power source and at a lower temperature from the payload. The heat from the former can be used to power the heat pump to boost the temperature of the latter.

  10. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-08-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  11. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  12. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  13. High-performance heat pipes for heat recovery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Hartl, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Methods to improve the performance of reflux heat pipes for heat recovery applications were examined both analytically and experimentally. Various models for the estimation of reflux heat pipe transport capacity were surveyed in the literature and compared with experimental data. A high transport capacity reflux heat pipe was developed that provides up to a factor of 10 capacity improvement over conventional open tube designs; analytical models were developed for this device and incorporated into a computer program HPIPE. Good agreement of the model predictions with data for R-11 and benzene reflux heat pipes was obtained.

  14. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  15. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1980-03-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references.

  16. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1983-08-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs.

  17. Crumpled Heat Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image of the spacecraft's crumpled heat shield on Sept. 16, 2008, the 111th Martian day of the mission.

    The 2-1/2 meter (about 8-1/2 feet) heat shield landed southeast of Phoenix, about halfway between the spacecraft and its backshell/parachute. The backshell/parachute touched ground 300 meters (1,000 ft) to the south of the lander.

    The dark area to the right of the heat shield is the 'bounce mark' it made on impact with the Red Planet. This image is the highest-resolution image that will likely be taken by the lander, and is part of the 1,500-image 'Happily Ever After' panorama.

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. 5. Heat transfer Ron Zevenhoven

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    1/120 5. Heat transfer Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering / Värme Three heat transfer mechanisms Conduction Convection Radiation 2/120 Pic: BÖ88 Åbo Akademi University | Thermal and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland #12;3/120 5.1 Conductive heat transfer Åbo Akademi

  19. Spring 2015 Heat Transfer -2

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Spring 2015 Heat Transfer - 2 Hot air at a volume flow rate of 0.15 m3 /s, atmospheric pressure) [15 points] Determine whether the heat transfer coefficient between the hot air and the duct wall can be assumed to be constant for design purposes. Calculate the heat transfer coefficient. (3) [40 points

  20. Heat Machines and Quantum Systems

    E-print Network

    Kosloff, Ronnie

    Heat Machines and Quantum Systems: Towards the Third Law Thesis submitted for the degree of "Doctor of Philosophy" by Yair Rezek Submitted to the senate of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem October 2011 #12;Heat century BCE), showing that Democritus (5th century BCE) already understood heat as molecular (atomic