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1

Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

1992-01-01

2

Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems  

SciTech Connect

The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached to the satellite such as solar panels, radiators, antenna and.telescopes (for communications or sensors). Finally, the packages make thermal contact to the surface of the silicon heat pipe through soft thermal pads. Electronic components can be placed on both sides of the flexible circuit interconnect. Silicon heat pipes have a number of advantages over heat pipe constructed from other materials. Silicon heat pipes offer the ability to put the heat pipe structure beneath the active components of a processed silicon wafer. This would be one way of efficiently cooling the heat generated by wafer scale integrated systems. Using this technique, all the functions of a satellite could be reduced to a few silicon wafers. The integration of the heat pipe and the electronics would further reduce the size and weight of the satellite.

Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

1999-03-30

3

Heat Integrate Heat Engines in Process Plants  

E-print Network

for total flow sheets encompass methods for appropriate integration of power systems, separation systems, reactors, etc. to give "best" practical flowsheet designs. More over they feature the integration required for good controllability, plant layout...]) . Secondly, we explain the concepts of appro~ priate and inappropriate heat integration of power systems with a process and relate this integration to the T,H profile. Appropriate integration in volves the selection of the power system...

Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.; Townsend, D. W.

4

Integrated solar heating unit  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an integral solar heating unit with an integral solar collector and hot water storage system, the unit comprising: (a) a housing; (b) a flat plate solar collector panel mounted in the housing and having a generally horizontal upper edge and an uninsulated, open back surface; (c) a cylindrical hot water tank operatively connected to the solar collector panel and mounted in the housing generally parallel to and adjacent to the upper edge; (d) the housing comprising a hood around the tank a pair of side skirts extending down at the sides of the panel. The hood and side skirts terminate at lower edges which together substantially define a plane such that upon placing the heating unit on a generally planar surface, the housing substantially encapsulates the collector panel and hot water tank in a substantially enclosed air space; (e) the collector including longitudinally extended U-shaped collector tubes and a glazed window to pass radiation through to the collector tubes, and a first cold water manifold connected to the tubes for delivering fresh water thereto and a second hot water manifold connected to the tubes to remove heated water therefrom. The manifolds are adjacent and at least somewhat above and in direct thermal contact with the tank; and, (f) the skirts and hood lapping around the collector panel, exposing only the glazed window, such that everything else in the heating unit is enclosed by the housing such that heat emanating from the uninsulated, open back face of the collector and tank is captured and retained by the housing to warm the manifolds.

Larkin, W.J.

1987-01-20

5

Heat Integrated Ethanol Dehydration Flowsheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical evaluation of heat-integrated heterogeneous-azeotropic ethanol-water distillation flowsheets is presented. Simulations of two column flowsheets using several different hydrocarbon entrainers reveal a region of potential heat integration and substantial reduction in operating energy. In this paper, methods for comparing hydrocarbon entrainers are shown.Two aspects of entrainers are related to operating and capital costs. The binary azeotropic composition of the

L. S. Hutahaean; W. H. Shen; V. Van Brunt

1995-01-01

6

Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the

K. Gass; P. J. Robertson; R. Shul; C. Tigges

1999-01-01

7

Integrated space heating, air conditioning and potable water heating appliance  

SciTech Connect

An integrated water heating and space heating and cooling appliance is described comprising: a housing having a lower water storage section, a middle burner section, and an upper internal air handling section in an internal portion, and having a side external air handling section extending from the internal portion to pass through a building wall; an insulated hot water storage tank in the lower section of the housing; a burner and burner heat exchanger in the middle section for heating a liquid heating medium; a liquid to air heat exchanger in the upper section; a heat transfer fluid circuit means for selectively directing heating medium from the burner heat exchanger in the middle section into heat exchange relationship with hot water in the hot water storage tank; an air conditioner evaporator in the upper section adjacent to and in face to face relationship with the liquid to air heat exchanger; a blower in the upper section for blowing space conditioning air past the liquid to air heat exchanger and the evaporator for heating the air by the heat exchanger or cooling the air by the evaporator; an air conditioner condenser in the side section; a compressor operatively connected by conduit means to the compressor and evaporator to form a refrigeration system; and a blower in the side section for blowing external air past the condenser.

Gerstmann, J.; Celorier, G.M. Jr.; Hill, W.S.

1989-01-17

8

Process Integration of Industrial Heat Pumps  

E-print Network

being rejected to the cold utility, but can, in some cases, be used in the process. Waste heat driven machines can be mechanical, absorption, or chemical. The reason these three heat pump definitions were chosen is that historically the rating...PROCESS INTEGRATION OF INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMPS* S. J. Priebe EG&G Idaho, Inc. Idaho Falls, Idaho ABSTRACT The integration of heat pumps into industrial processes shows potential for energy savings. Heat pumps must, however, be integrated...

Priebe, S. J.; Chappell, R. N.

9

Integrated space heating, air conditioning and potable water heating appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated water heating and space heating and cooling appliance is described comprising: a housing having a lower water storage section, a middle burner section, and an upper internal air handling section in an internal portion, and having a side external air handling section extending from the internal portion to pass through a building wall; an insulated hot water storage

J. Gerstmann; G. M. Jr. Celorier; W. S. Hill

1989-01-01

10

Integrated Approach to Revamping Heat Exchangers Networks  

E-print Network

A heat exchanger network constitutes the core of the plant energy systems interlinking the core process operation and the utility systems. This paper will illustrate an integrated approach for the revamp of a heat exchanger network by bringing...

Glass, K. E.; Dhole, V.; Wang, Y.

11

Multifunctional composites: Healing, heating and electromagnetic integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multifunctional materials, in the context of this research, integrate other functions into materials that foremost have outstanding structural integrity. Details of the integration of electromagnetic, heating, and healing functionalities into fiber-reinforced polymer composites are presented. As a result of fiber\\/wire integration through textile braiding and weaving, the dielectric constant of a composite may be tuned from negative to positive values.

Thomas Anthony John Plaisted

2007-01-01

12

Thermoelectricity from wasted heat of integrated circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that waste heat from integrated circuits especially computer microprocessors can be recycled as valuable electricity to power up a portion of the circuitry or other important accessories such as on-chip cooling modules, etc. This gives a positive spin to a negative effect of ever increasing heat dissipation associated with increased power consumption aligned with shrinking down trend of transistor dimension. This concept can also be used as an important vehicle for self-powered systems-on-chip. We provide theoretical analysis supported by simulation data followed by experimental verification of on-chip thermoelectricity generation from dissipated (otherwise wasted) heat of a microprocessor.

Fahad, Hossain; Hasan, Md.; Li, Guodong; Hussain, Muhammad

2013-06-01

13

Heat Integration and Heat Recovery at a Large Chemical Manufacturing Plant  

E-print Network

opportunities for heat recovery and heat integration were identified. A feasibility study and economic analysis were performed on the two opportunities, and both projects were implemented. The first project utilized the heat contained in a distillation process...

Togna, K .A.

2012-01-01

14

Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration  

E-print Network

Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration Peter Meibom Juha of using electrical heat boilers and heat pumps as wind power integration measures relieving the link. A stochastic, fundamental bottom-up model taking the stochastic nature of wind power production explicitly

15

An Integrated Low Level Heat Recovery System  

E-print Network

A large amount of low level thermal energy is lost to air or water in a typical petroleum refinery. This paper discusses a complex integrated low level heat recovery system that is being engineered for installation in a large petroleum refinery...

Sierra, A. V., Jr.

1981-01-01

16

Energy Integrated Lighting-Heating-Cooling System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy balance problems in the design of office buildings are analyzed. Through the use of integrated systems utilizing dual purpose products, a controlled environment with minimum expenditure of energy, equipment and space can be provided. Contents include--(1) office building occupancy loads, (2) office building heating load analysis, (3) office…

Meckler, Gershon; And Others

1964-01-01

17

Active heat transfer enhancement in integrated fan heat sinks  

E-print Network

Modern computer processors require significant cooling to achieve their full performance. The "efficiency" of heat sinks is also becoming more important: cooling of electronics consumes 1% of worldwide electricity use by ...

Staats, Wayne Lawrence

2012-01-01

18

Integrated Heat Switch/Oxide Sorption Compressor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermally-driven, nonmechanical compressor uses container filled with compressed praseodymium cerium oxide powder (PrCeOx) to provide high-pressure flow of oxygen gas for driving closed-cycle Joule-Thomson-expansion refrigeration unit. Integrated heat switch/oxide sorption compressor has no moving parts except check valves, which control flow of oxygen gas between compressor and closed-cycle Joule-Thomson refrigeration system. Oxygen expelled from sorbent at high pressure by evacuating heat-switch gap and turning on heater.

Bard, Steven

1989-01-01

19

Performance of Integrated Hydronic Heating Systems.  

SciTech Connect

A variety of system configurations are used in North America to meet the heating and domestic hot water needs of single-family homes. This includes, for example: warm air furnaces with electric water heaters; boilers with integrated hot water coils; and boilers with 'indirect' hot water storage tanks. Integrated hydronic systems which provide both heat and hot water are more popular only in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic regions. For those making decisions about configurations of these integrated hydronic systems, including control options, little information is available concerning the annual energy cost implications of these decisions. This report presents results of a project to use a direct load emulation approach to measure the performance of hydronic systems, develop performance curves, and to provide decision tools to consumers. This is a laboratory measurement system involving direct energy input and output measurements under different load patterns. These results are then used to develop performance correlations for specific systems that can be used to predict energy use in specific applications. A wide range of system types have been tested under this project including conventional boilers with 'tankless' internal coils for domestic hot water production, boilers with indirect external storage tanks, tank type water heaters which may also be used for space heating, condensing oil- and gas-fired systems, and systems with custom control features. It is shown that low load and idle energy losses can have a very large impact on the total annual energy use and that the potential energy savings associated with replacing old equipment with newer, high efficiency equipment with low losses at idle or low load can be in the 25% range. These savings are larger than simple combustion efficiency measurements would indicate.

BUTCHER,T.A.

2007-12-20

20

Energy saving opportunities in heat integrated beverage plant retrofit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents practical applications of mathematical programming for energy integration in a large beverage plant. The opportunities of heat integration between batch operations were analysed by a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model, which was slightly modified by considering specific industrial circumstances. The feasibility of combined electricity, heating and cooling production was studied using a simplified MILP model, developed

Hella Tokos; Zorka Novak Pintari?; Peter Glavi?

2010-01-01

21

Internally Heat-Integrated Distillation Columns: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat-integrated distillation column to be addressed in this paper is a special distillation column that involves internal heat integration between the whole rectifying and the whole stripping sections. An overview of the research on this process is presented in this work. It covers from the thermodynamic development and evaluations to the practical design and operation investigations for the process.

M. Nakaiwa; K. Huang; A. Endo; T. Ohmori; T. Akiya; T. Takamatsu

2003-01-01

22

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2011-09-01

23

Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module  

SciTech Connect

A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Uselton, Robert B. [Lennox Industries, Inc] [Lennox Industries, Inc; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

24

Integrated conceptual design of a robust and reliable waste-heat district heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various governmental policies aimed at reducing the dependence on fossil fuels for space heating and the reduction in its associated emission of greenhouse gases such as CO2 demands innovative measures. District heating systems using residual industrial waste heats could provide such an efficient method for house and space heating. In such systems, heat is produced and\\/or thermally upgraded in

Augustine N. Ajah; Anish C. Patil; Paulien M. Herder; Johan Grievink

2007-01-01

25

An integral equation approach to radiative heat transfer between heat conducting solids of arbitrary shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper is to present a nonlinear integral equation formulation to numerically solve composite boundary value problems encountered in the physical problem of radiative heat transfer between solids of arbitrary shape. The main difficulty in solving these types of boundary value problems is due to the nonlinear boundary conditions, which impose additional difficulties on the use

S. Colle; R. C. de Abreu; M. B. Halal

1981-01-01

26

Heat retaining integrated collector\\/storage solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated collector\\/storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) that can significantly reduce heat loss to ambient during non-collection periods has been developed. Two thirds of the ICS vessel is mounted within a concentrating cusp, McIntire ‘W’ modified concentrator and incorporates an inner heat retaining vessel. The remaining upper 1\\/3 of the vessel is situated outside the reflector cavity and is heavily

M. Smyth; P. C. Eames; B. Norton

2003-01-01

27

Heat integration and analysis of decarbonised IGCC sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation systems have become of interest due to their high combined heat and power (CHP) generation efficiency and flexibility to include carbon capture and storage (CCS) in order to reduce CO2 emissions. However, IGCC's biggest challenge is its high cost of energy production. In this study, decarbonised coal IGCC sites integrated with CCS have

Kok Siew Ng; Yadira Lopez; Grant M. Campbell; Jhuma Sadhukhan

2010-01-01

28

Model of a thermal energy storage device integrated into a solar assisted heat pump system for space heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details about modelling a sensible heat thermal energy storage (TES) device integrated into a space heating system are given. The two main operating modes are described. Solar air heaters provide thermal energy for driving a vapor compression heat pump. The TES unit ensures a more efficient usage of the collected solar energy. The TES operation is modeled by using two

Viorel Badescu

2003-01-01

29

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25

30

Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

Skupinski, R.C.; Tower, L.K.; Madi, F.J.; Brusk, K.D.

1993-04-01

31

Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

Skupinski, Robert C.; Tower, Leonard K.; Madi, Frank J.; Brusk, Kevin D.

1993-01-01

32

Development of a Residential Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump  

SciTech Connect

A residential-size ground-source integrated heat pump (GSIHP) system has been developed and is currently being field tested. The system is a nominal 2-ton (7 kW) cooling capacity, variable-speed unit, which is multi-functional, e.g. space cooling, space heating, dedicated water heating, and simultaneous space cooling and water heating. High-efficiency brushless permanent-magnet (BPM) motors are used for the compressor, indoor blower, and pumps to obtain the highest component performance and system control flexibility. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model (HPDM) for each of the four primary modes of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options and to simulate the selected internal control strategies, such as controlling to a constant air supply temperature in the space heating mode and a fixed water temperature rise in water heating modes. Equipment performance maps were generated for each operation mode as functions of all independent variables for use in TRNSYS annual energy simulations. These were performed for the GSIHP installed in a well-insulated 2600 ft2(242 m2) house and connected to a vertical ground loop heat exchanger(GLHE). We selected a 13 SEER (3.8 CSPF )/7.7 HSPF (2.3 HSPF, W/W) ASHP unit with 0.90 Energy Factor (EF) resistance water heater as the baseline for energy savings comparisons. The annual energy simulations were conducted over five US climate zones. In addition, appropriate ground loop sizes were determined for each location to meet 10-year minimum and maximum design entering water temperatures (EWTs) to the equipment. The prototype GSIHP system was predicted to use 52 to 59% less energy than the baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads.

Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Hern, Shawn [ClimateMaster, Inc.] [ClimateMaster, Inc.; McDowell, Tim [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC] [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

33

Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production  

E-print Network

with the food chain and the high cost of the raw material requires focusing on alternative sources of oil. 10 is to simultaneously optimize and heat integrate the production of biodiesel from each of the different oil sources@cmu.edu (I.E. Grossmann) #12;2 1.-Introduccion Many researchers have concluded that vegetable oils hold

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

34

THE DYNAMICS OF CHEMICAL REACTORS WITH HEAT INTEGRATION  

E-print Network

) and independently Schuman (1929) as the first to present a thermal analysis of packed beds. Van Heerden (1953,1967) and Pareja and Reilly (1969). The fixed bed reactor is discussed exten­ sively in the survey of Schmitz (1975 the stability of the heat integrated fixed bed reactor. Vakil et al. (1973), Wall­ mann et al. (1979), Foss et

Skogestad, Sigurd

35

Heat assisted magnetic recording performance and integration challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent recording areal density and integrated drive performance demonstrations using Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) suggest that it is a viable technology to succeed conventional magnetic recording. However challenges still remain for the near field transducer, in particular reliability and sufficient thermal confinement. We explore a new NFT design, Near field Transducer Gap (NTG), which offers the potential to mitigate some of the issues in track confinement and thermal profile compared to earlier published studies [4]. The design offers efficiency improvements, and the potential to reduce unwanted background light and heating that can lead to erasure in the writing track, and neighbors.

Rea, Chris; Scholz, Werner; Cao, Lina; Peng, Chubing; Blaber, Martin; Hohfeld, Julius; Chen, Weibin; Olson, Heidi; Benakli, Mourad; Zhou, Hua; Lu, Pu-Ling; Gokemeijer, Nils; Seigler, Mike; Gao, Kaizhong; Wu, Alexander; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich; Ju, Ganping; Gage, Edward

2014-09-01

36

The design and fabrication of a Stirling engine heat exchanger module with an integral heat pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual design of a free-piston Stirling Space Engine (SSE) intended for space power applications has been generated. The engine was designed to produce 25 kW of electric power with heat supplied by a nuclear reactor. A novel heat exchanger module was designed to reduce the number of critical joints in the heat exchanger assembly while also incorporating a heat pipe as the link between the engine and the heat source. Two inexpensive verification tests are proposed. The SSE heat exchanger module is described and the operating conditions for the module are outlined. The design process of the heat exchanger modules, including the sodium heat pipe, is briefly described. Similarities between the proposed SSE heat exchanger modules and the LeRC test modules for two test engines are presented. The benefits and weaknesses of using a sodium heat pipe to transport heat to a Stirling engine are discussed. Similarly, the problems encountered when using a true heat pipe, as opposed to a more simple reflux boiler, are described. The instruments incorporated into the modules and the test program are also outlined.

Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

1988-01-01

37

Integral collector storage system with heat exchange apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to an integral solar energy collector storage systems. Generally, an integral collector storage system includes a tank system, a plurality of heat exchange tubes with at least some of the heat exchange tubes arranged within the tank system, a first glazing layer positioned over the tank system and a base plate positioned under the tank system. In one aspect of the invention, the tank system, the first glazing layer an the base plate each include protrusions and a clip is provided to hold the layers together. In another aspect of the invention, the first glazing layer and the base plate are ribbed to provide structural support. This arrangement is particularly useful when these components are formed from plastic. In yet another aspect of the invention, the tank system has a plurality of interconnected tank chambers formed from tubes. In this aspect, a supply header pipe and a fluid return header pipe are provided at a first end of the tank system. The heat exchange tubes have inlets coupled to the supply header pipe and outlets coupled to the return header pipe. With this arrangement, the heat exchange tubes may be inserted into the tank chambers from the first end of the tank system.

Rhodes, Richard O.

2004-04-20

38

77 FR 74027 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products Containing Same; Commission...of certain integrated circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing same by reason...

2012-12-12

39

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2014-06-01

40

Integration of Heat Transfer, Stress, and Particle Trajectory Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. developed and currently markets Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA) in the United States and abroad. BOA is a 3D, charged particle optics code that solves the electric and magnetic fields with and without the presence of particles. It includes automatic and adaptive meshing to resolve spatial scales ranging from a few millimeters to meters. It is fully integrated with CAD packages, such as SolidWorks, allowing seamless geometry updates. The code includes iterative procedures for optimization, including a fully functional, graphical user interface. Recently, time dependent, particle in cell capability was added, pushing particles synchronically under quasistatic electromagnetic fields to obtain particle bunching under RF conditions. A heat transfer solver was added during this Phase I program. Completed tasks include: (1) Added a 3D finite element heat transfer solver with adaptivity; (2) Determined the accuracy of the linear heat transfer field solver to provide the basis for development of higher order solvers in Phase II; (3) Provided more accurate and smoother power density fields; and (4) Defined the geometry using the same CAD model, while maintaining different meshes, and interfacing the power density field between the particle simulator and heat transfer solvers. These objectives were achieved using modern programming techniques and algorithms. All programming was in C++ and parallelization in OpenMP, utilizing state-of-the-art multi-core technology. Both x86 and x64 versions are supported. The GUI design and implementation used Microsoft Foundation Class.

Thuc Bui; Michael Read; Lawrence ives

2012-05-17

41

Integrated gas-fired space heating/water heating system with electric air conditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marketability of a gas space and water heating system combined with an electric air-conditioning system was examined. This included a cost effectiveness evaluation when compared to competing systems. The concept appears feasible using a three-year payback criteria. An engineering prototype was constructed which demonstrated space heating efficiencies in the high eighties and water heating recovery efficiencies in the low to mid eighties.

Vasilakis, A. D.; Celorier, G. M.; Gerstmann, J.

1984-01-01

42

T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial  

E-print Network

T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad ÝDepartment of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process QH column

Skogestad, Sigurd

43

T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial  

E-print Network

T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad y Department of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process Q H column

Skogestad, Sigurd

44

A Zero Emission Mechanical Seal with Integral Micro Heat Exchanger  

E-print Network

University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 Khonsari@me.lsu.edu Mechanical seals are susceptible to premature failure due to intense heat generation at the interface between the rotating and stationary seal faces. Heat checking, blistering, and hot spotting...

Khonsari, M.

2005-01-01

45

Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad  

E-print Network

for heat integrated distillation columns. This work we will look at control of two industrially heat- grated distillation columns will behave differently than two normal heat integrated distillation column on a controllability analysis. Finally nonlinear simulation with a rigorous model confirms our findings. 1 Introduction

Skogestad, Sigurd

46

Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad  

E-print Network

for heat integrated distillation columns. This work we will look at control of two industrially heat­ grated distillation columns will behave differently than two normal heat integrated distillation column on a controllability analysis. Finally nonlinear simulation with a rigorous model confirms our findings. 1 Introduction

Skogestad, Sigurd

47

Heat pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat pumps for residential/commercial space heating and hot tap water make use of free energy of direct or indirect solar heat and save from about 40 to about 70 percent of energy if compared to a conventional heating system with the same energy basis. In addition, the electrically driven compressor heat pump is able to substitute between 40% (bivalent alternative operation) to 100% (monovalent operation) of the fuel oil of an oilfired heating furnace. For average Central European conditions, solar space heating systems with high solar coverage factor show the following sequence of increasing cost effectiveness: pure solar systems (without heat pumps); heat pump assisted solar systems; solar assisted heat pump systems; subsoil/water heat pumps; air/water heat pumps; air/air heat pumps.

Gilli, P. V.

1982-11-01

48

Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

Fesmire, J. E.; Tomsik, T. M.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Conyers, H. J.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U.

2014-01-01

49

Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank  

SciTech Connect

Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

Fesmire, J. E.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NE-F6, KSC, FL 32899 (United States); Tomsik, T. M. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Conyers, H. J. [NASA Stennis Space Center, Building 3225, SSC, MS 39529 (United States)

2014-01-29

50

Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

51

Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development  

SciTech Connect

Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test experience, CM developed a 2nd generation (or beta) prototype in 2012. Field test verification units were fabricated and installed at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge in May 2012 and at several sites near CM headquarters in Oklahoma. Field testing of the units continued through February 2013. Annual performance analyses of the beta unit (prototype 2) with vertical well ground heat exchangers (GHX) in 5 U.S. locations predict annual energy savings of 57% to 61%, averaging 59% relative to the minimum efficiency suite and 38% to 56%, averaging 46% relative to the SOA GSHPwDS. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the test units it was projected that the 2nd generation units would achieve ~58% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at the Zebra Alliance site with horizontal GHX. A new product based on the beta unit design was announced by CM in 2012 – the Trilogy 40® Q-mode™ (http://cmdealernet.com/trilogy_40.html). The unit was formally introduced in a March 2012 press release (see Appendix A) and was available for order beginning in December 2012.

Baxter, V. D. [ORNL; Rice, K. [ORNL; Murphy, R. [ORNL; Munk, J. [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Craddick, William [ORNL; Hearn, Shawn A. [ClimateMaster, Inc.

2013-05-24

52

Graphene-based transparent flexible heat conductor for thermally tuning nanophotonic integrated devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene, a well-known two-dimensional sheet, has attracted strong interest for both fundamental studies and applications. Due to its high intrinsic thermal conductivity, graphene has many potential applications in thermal management, such as in heat spreaders and flexible heaters. In this paper, a graphene-based transparent flexible heat conductor for nanophotonic integrated devices is demonstrated. The graphene heat conductor is designed to deliver heat from a non-local traditional metal heater to nanophotonic integrated devices for realizing efficient thermal tuning. With the present graphene heat conductor, a thermally tuning silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer and micro-disk have been realized with good performance in terms of heating efficiency and temporal response. This indicates that the present graphene-based transparent flexible heat conductor provides an efficient and beneficial heating method for thermally tuning nanophotonic integrated devices.

Yu, Longhai; Dai, Daoxin; He, Sailing

2014-12-01

53

Initial characterization of a modular heat exchanger with an integral heat pipe. [for Stirling space engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) Advanced Technology program, a conceptual design of the Stirling space engibe (SSE) was generated to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space missions. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) was chosen as the growth option in the CSTI program. An existing FPSE was modified as a test bed for a modular heat exchanger evaluation. Evaluation of the individual heat pipes before installation in the engine is described.

Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

1989-01-01

54

Integrated modeling for ion cyclotron resonant heating in toroidal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated model capable of self-consistent Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) simulations has been developed. This model includes both full shaping and pressure effects, warm contributions to the dielectric tensor, pressure anisotropy and finite orbit width. It evolves the equilibrium, wave field and full hot particle distribution function until a self-consistent solution is found. This article describes the workings of the three codes VMEC, LEMan and VENUS and how they are linked for iterated computations in a code package we have named SCENIC. The package is thoroughly tested and it is demonstrated that a number of iterations have to be performed in order to find a consistent solution. Since the formulation of the problem can treat general 3D systems, we show a quasi-axisymmetric stellarator low power test case, and then concentrate on experimentally relevant Joint European Torus (JET) 2D configurations.

Jucker, M.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.; Mellet, N.; Johnson, T.; Brunner, S.

2011-04-01

55

Integrated Thermal Protection Systems and Heat Resistant Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early stages of NASA's Exploration Initiative, Snecma Propulsion Solide was funded under the Exploration Systems Research & Technology program to develop integrated thermal protection systems and heat resistant structures for reentry vehicles. Due to changes within NASA's Exploration Initiative, this task was cancelled early. This presentation provides an overview of the work that was accomplished prior to cancellation. The Snecma team chose an Apollo-type capsule as the reference vehicle for the work. They began with the design of a ceramic aft heatshield (CAS) utilizing C/SiC panels as the capsule heatshield, a C/SiC deployable decelerator and several ablators. They additionally developed a health monitoring system, high temperature structures testing, and the insulation characterization. Though the task was pre-maturely cancelled, a significant quantity of work was accomplished.

Pichon, Thierry; Lacoste, Marc; Glass, David E.

2006-01-01

56

Energy Integrated Design of Lighting, Heating, and Cooling Systems, and Its Effect on Building Energy Requirements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the need for integrated design of lighting, heating, and cooling systems. In order to eliminate the penalty of refrigerating the lighting heat, minimize the building non-usable space, and optimize the total energy input, a "systems approach" is recommended. This system would employ heat-recovery techniques based on the ability of the…

Meckler, Gershon

57

Activated-Carbon Sorbent With Integral Heat-Transfer Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prototype adsorption device used, for example, in adsorption heat pump, to store natural gas to power automobile, or to separate components of fluid mixtures. Device includes activated carbon held together by binder and molded into finned heat-transfer device providing rapid heating or cooling to enable rapid adsorption or desorption of fluids. Concepts of design and fabrication of device equally valid for such other highly thermally conductive devices as copper-finned tubes, and for such other high-surface-area sorbents as zeolites or silicates.

Jones, Jack A.; Yavrouian, Andre

1996-01-01

58

Heat waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of transmission of heat by waves is reviewed and interpreted. The notion of an effective thermal conductivity, an effective heat capacity, and relaxation functions for heat and energy is introduced along lines used recently to describe the elastic response of viscous liquids. An annotated bibliography of the literature on heat waves, from the beginning until now, gives a

D. D. Joseph; Luigi Preziosi

1989-01-01

59

Development of a Heat Transfer Model for the Integrated Facade Heating  

E-print Network

the measured temperatures with a root mean squared error (RMSE) of the hot water return temperature, the mullion surface temperature, and the window surface temperature of 0.90°F, 0.98°F and 1.15°F, respectively. The factors which affect the heating capacity...

Gong, X.; Archer, D. H.; Claridge, D. E.

2007-01-01

60

Heat integration retrofit analysis of a heat exchanger network of a fluid catalytic cracking plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a process system on environmental pollution has both a local and global effect. The performance of the heat exchanger network (HEN) in a plant is an important aspect of energy conservation. Pinch technology and its recent extensions offer an effective and practical method for designing the HEN for new and retrofit projects.The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is

Badr Abdullah Al-Riyami; Jiri Klemeš; Simon Perry

2001-01-01

61

Internal-integral sodium return line for sodium heat engine  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a portion of the return line for the alkali metal is located within the generator vacuum space.

Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1985-01-01

62

Parallel heat transport in integrable and chaotic magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The study of transport in magnetized plasmas is a problem of fundamental interest in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics research. Three issues make this problem particularly challenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), {chi}{sub ||} , and the perpendicular, {chi}{sub Up-Tack }, conductivities ({chi}{sub ||} /{chi}{sub Up-Tack} may exceed 10{sup 10} in fusion plasmas); (ii) Nonlocal parallel transport in the limit of small collisionality; and (iii) Magnetic field lines chaos which in general complicates (and may preclude) the construction of magnetic field line coordinates. Motivated by these issues, we present a Lagrangian Green's function method to solve the local and non-local parallel transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields in arbitrary geometry. The method avoids by construction the numerical pollution issues of grid-based algorithms. The potential of the approach is demonstrated with nontrivial applications to integrable (magnetic island), weakly chaotic (Devil's staircase), and fully chaotic magnetic field configurations. For the latter, numerical solutions of the parallel heat transport equation show that the effective radial transport, with local and non-local parallel closures, is non-diffusive, thus casting doubts on the applicability of quasilinear diffusion descriptions. General conditions for the existence of non-diffusive, multivalued flux-gradient relations in the temperature evolution are derived.

Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Chacon, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)

2012-05-15

63

Parallel heat transport in integrable and chaotic magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The study of transport in magnetized plasmas is a problem of fundamental interest in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics research. Three issues make this problem particularly chal- lenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), , and the perpendicular, , conductivities ( / may exceed 1010 in fusion plasmas); (ii) Magnetic field lines chaos which in general complicates (and may preclude) the construction of magnetic field line coordinates; and (iii) Nonlocal parallel transport in the limit of small collisionality. Motivated by these issues, we present a Lagrangian Green s function method to solve the local and non-local parallel transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields in arbitrary geom- etry. The method avoids by construction the numerical pollution issues of grid-based algorithms. The potential of the approach is demonstrated with nontrivial applications to integrable (magnetic island chain), weakly chaotic (devil s staircase), and fully chaotic magnetic field configurations. For the latter, numerical solutions of the parallel heat transport equation show that the effective radial transport, with local and non-local closures, is non-diffusive, thus casting doubts on the appropriateness of the applicability of quasilinear diffusion descriptions. General conditions for the existence of non-diffusive, multivalued flux-gradient relations in the temperature evolution are derived.

Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B [ORNL; Chacon, Luis [ORNL

2012-01-01

64

Seminario de Matemtica Aplicada "Improving the accuracy of heat balance integral methods  

E-print Network

Seminario de Matemática Aplicada "Improving the accuracy of heat balance integral methods (HBIMs and refined heat balance integral methods applied to a variety of phase change problems. These include standard test problems, both with one and two phase changes, which have exact solutions to enable us

Tradacete, Pedro

65

Multicriteria Aided Design of Integrated Heating-Cooling Energy Systems in Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the possible application of integrated heating-cooling systems in buildings. The general algorithm of integrated heating-cooling system design aid was formulated. The evaluation criteria of technically acceptable variants were defined. Fossil fuel energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission, investment, and total exploitation cost were identified as the most important factors describing the considered decision problem. The

Tomasz M. Mróz; Shawn Ryan; Emily Snyder; Shannon Serre; Abderrahmane Touati; Matthew Clayton; Tsung-Wen Chien; Hsin-Ta Hsueh; Hsin Chu; Wei-Chieh Hsu; Yueh-Yuan Tu; Hsien-Shiou Tsai; Kuo-Yi Chen; Richard Derwent; Michael Jenkin; Michael Pilling; William Carter; Ajith Kaduwela; Hanna Kierzkowska-Pawlak; Andrzej Chacuk; Andrzej Chmielewski; Anna Ostapczuk; Janusz Licki; Kenneth Casey; Richard Gates; Richard Shores; Eben Thoma; D. Harris; Ana Elías; Astrid Barona; Gorka Gallastegi; Naiara Rojo; Luis Gurtubay; Gabriel Ibarra-Berastegi; Teresa Barone; John Storey; Norberto Domingo; Amnon Bar-Ilan; Jeremiah Johnson; Allison DenBleyker; Lit-Mian Chan; Gregory Yarwood; David Hitchcock; Joseph Pinto; Katarzyna Piekarska; Andrey Zagoruiko; Bair Balzhinimaev; Sergey Vanag; Vladimir Goncharov; Sergey Lopatin; Alexander Zykov; Sergey Anichkov; Yurii Zhukov; Vassily Yankilevich; Nikolay Proskokov; Nick Hutson; Michal Glomba

2010-01-01

66

A computerized and integrated approach for heat exchanger network design in multipurpose batch plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant savings in the utility cost of batch plants can be obtained by heat integration. In this study, an integrated mathematical programming approach is developed for the determination of the cost optimal heat exchanger network for multipurpose batch chemical plants. A single step, interactive computer program (BatcHEN) which is developed for the determination of the campaigns (i.e. the set of

M. Bozan; F. Borak

2001-01-01

67

INTEGRATED CO2 HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS FOR SPACE HEATING AND HOT WATER HEATING IN LOW-ENERGY HOUSES AND PASSIVE HOUSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-energy and passive houses are superinsulated and air-tight buildings where the space heating demand is considerably lower than that of buildings constructed in accordance with common buildings codes. Due to the low space heating demand, the annual heating demand for domestic hot water (DHW) typically consti- tutes 50 to 85% of the total annual heating demand in the residence. A

J. STENE

68

Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels  

E-print Network

at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

Tora, Eman

2012-02-14

69

Design and development of integral heat pipe/thermal energy storage devices. [used with spacecraft cryocoolers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major design and performance test subtasks in the development of small (200 to 1,000 whr) integral heat pipe/thermal energy storage devices for use with thermally driven spacecraft cryo-coolers are described. The design of the integral heat pipe/thermal energy storage device was based on a quasi steady resistance heat transfer, lumped capacitance model. Design considerations for the heat pipe and thermal storage annuli are presented. The thermomechanical stress and insulation system design for the device are reviewed. Experimental correlations are described, as are the plans for the further development of the concept.

Mahefkey, E. T.; Richter, R.

1981-01-01

70

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

1991-01-01

71

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

1996-01-01

72

Modular, thermal bus-to-radiator integral heat exchanger design for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The baseline concept is introduced for the 'integral heat exchanger' (IHX) which is the interface of the two-phase thermal bus with the heat-rejecting radiator panels. A direct bus-to-radiator heat-pipe integral connection replaces the present interface hardware to reduce the weight and complexity of the heat-exchange mechanism. The IHX is presented in detail and compared to the baseline system assuming certain values for heat rejection, mass per unit width, condenser capacity, contact conductance, and assembly mass. The spreadsheet comparison can be used to examine a variety of parameters such as radiator length and configuration. The IHX is shown to permit the reduction of panel size and system mass in response to better conductance and packaging efficiency. The IHX is found to be a suitable heat-rejection system for the Space Station Freedom because it uses present technology and eliminates the interface mechanisms.

Chambliss, Joe; Ewert, Michael

1990-01-01

73

Preliminary analysis of heat pipe heat exchangers for heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary analysis of fin tube heat pipe heat exchangers for air-to-air heat recovery was conducted. The analysis uses conventional heat exchanger design techniques and a new heat pipe design technique which includes probabilistic design of artery wick heat pipes. The heat transfer capability of the heat pipes may be matched with that of the finned tubes in order to

J. O. Amode; K. T. Feldman

1975-01-01

74

An Inverse Stefan Problem Relevant to Boilover: Heat Balance Integral Solutions and Analysis  

E-print Network

Stefan problems relevant to burning oil-water systems are formulated. Two moving boundary sub-problems are defined: burning liquid surface and formation of a distillation ("hot zone") layer beneath it. The basic model considers a heat transfer equation with internal heat generation due to radiation flux absorbed in the fuel depth. In verse Stefan problem corresponding to the first case solved by the heat balance integral method and dimensionless scaling of semi-analytical solutions are at issue.

Jordan Hristov

2010-12-12

75

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

1988-01-01

76

Counter flow cooling drier with integrated heat recovery  

DOEpatents

A drier apparatus for removing water or other liquids from various materials includes a mixer, drying chamber, separator and regenerator and a method for use of the apparatus. The material to be dried is mixed with a heated media to form a mixture which then passes through the chamber. While passing through the chamber, a comparatively cool fluid is passed counter current through the mixture so that the mixture becomes cooler and drier and the fluid becomes hotter and more saturated with moisture. The mixture is then separated into drier material and media. The media is transferred to the regenerator and heated therein by the hot fluid from the chamber and supplemental heat is supplied to bring the media to a preselected temperature for mixing with the incoming material to be dried. In a closed loop embodiment of the apparatus, the fluid is also recycled from the regenerator to the chamber and a chiller is utilized to reduce the temperature of the fluid to a preselected temperature and dew point temperature.

Shivvers, Steve D. (Prole, IA)

2009-08-18

77

Multicriteria aided design of integrated heating-cooling energy systems in buildings.  

PubMed

This paper presents an analysis of the possible application of integrated heating-cooling systems in buildings. The general algorithm of integrated heating-cooling system design aid was formulated. The evaluation criteria of technically acceptable variants were defined. Fossil fuel energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission, investment, and total exploitation cost were identified as the most important factors describing the considered decision problem. The multicriteria decision aid method ELECTRE III was proposed as the decision tool for the choice of the most compromised variant. The proposed method was used for a case study calculation-the choice of an integrated heating-cooling system for an office building. PMID:20842935

Mróz, Tomasz M

2010-08-01

78

Transient heat conduction analysis in functionally graded materials by the meshless local boundary integral equation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced computational method for transient heat conduction analysis in continuously nonhomogeneous functionally graded materials (FGM) is proposed. The method is based on the local boundary integral equations with moving least square approximation of the temperature and heat flux. The initial-boundary value problem is solved by the Laplace transform technique. Both Papoulis and Stehfest algorithms are applied for the numerical Laplace

J. Sladek; V. Sladek; Ch. Zhang

2003-01-01

79

Thermal modeling of a greenhouse integrated to an aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal model is developed for heating and cooling of an agricultural greenhouse integrated with an aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system (ACCFHES). The ACCFHES works on the principal of utilizing deep aquifer water available at the ground surface through an irrigation tube well already installed in every agricultural field at constant year-round temperature of 24°C. The analysis is

V. P. Sethi; S. K. Sharma

2007-01-01

80

A Novel Integrated Frozen Soil Thermal Energy Storage and Ground-Source Heat Pump System  

E-print Network

In this paper, a novel integrated frozen soil thermal energy storage and ground-source heat pump (IFSTS&GSHP) system in which the GHE can act as both cold thermal energy storage device and heat exchanger for GSHP is first presented. The IFSTS...

Jiang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Rong, L.; Ma, Z.

2006-01-01

81

Integration of a fin experiment into the undergraduate heat transfer laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fin experimental apparatus was designed, developed and constructed for the undergraduate heat transfer laboratory at Purdue University at Fort Wayne. This paper presents a fin experiment that can be integrated into the undergraduate heat transfer laboratory. The objective of this experiment is to enhance the understanding of the transfer of thermal energy by undergraduate mechanical engineering students. This experiment

H. I. Abu-Mulaweh

82

CHP INTEGRATION (OR IES): MAXIMIZING THE EFFICIENCY OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION WITH WASTE HEAT RECOVERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory facility for testing combined cooling\\/heating and power (CHP) or more currently referred to as Integrated Energy Systems (IES) has been commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The scope of the facility is to test distributed generation (DG) with thermally-activated (TA) technologies for waste heat recovery. The designation of the IES Laboratory Facility as a \\

D. T. Rizy; A. Zaltash; S. D. Labinov; A. Y. Petrov; E. A. Vineyard; R. L. Linkous

83

Nonballistic heat conduction in an integrable random-exchange Ising chain studied with quantum master equations  

E-print Network

Nonballistic heat conduction in an integrable random-exchange Ising chain studied with quantum numerically investigate the heat conduction in a random-exchange Ising spin chain by using the quantum master equation. The chain is subject to a uniform transverse field h, while the exchange couplings Qn between

Li, Baowen

84

Structural, thermal, and safety analyses of isotope heat source and integrated heat exchangers for 6-kWe dynamic isotope power system (DIPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a 30-kWt isotope heat source integrated with a Rankine boiler and a Brayton gas heater was subjected to structural, thermal, and safety analyses. Detailed structural analyses of the heat source integrated with the boiler and gas heater showed positive safety margins at all locations during launch. Detailed thermal analyses during assembly, transfer, and orbital operations showed acceptable

Alfred Schock

1992-01-01

85

Heat collector  

SciTech Connect

A heat collector for a solar heat utilization system comprises a heat collecting pipe and a reflecting plate for focusing solar light on the pipe. This pipe has a first tubular portion for receiving solar light collected by the reflecting plate, and a second tubular portion for receiving direct solar light. The second portion has thermal expansion coefficient larger by a predetermined amount than that of the first portion, and thermally expands at the same rate as the first portion.

Nameda, N.; Nakamoto, Y.; Sekiya, H.; Surisawa, Y.

1985-03-19

86

Optimal Operation System of the Integrated District Heating System with Multiple Regional Branches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an optimal production and distribution management for structural and operational optimization of the integrated district heating system (DHS) with multiple regional branches. A DHS consists of energy suppliers and consumers, district heating pipelines network and heat storage facilities in the covered region. In the optimal management system, production of heat and electric power, regional heat demand, electric power bidding and sales, transport and storage of heat at each regional DHS are taken into account. The optimal management system is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) where the objectives is to minimize the overall cost of the integrated DHS while satisfying the operation constraints of heat units and networks as well as fulfilling heating demands from consumers. Piecewise linear formulation of the production cost function and stairwise formulation of the start-up cost function are used to compute nonlinear cost function approximately. Evaluation of the total overall cost is based on weekly operations at each district heat branches. Numerical simulations show the increase of energy efficiency due to the introduction of the present optimal management system.

Kim, Ui Sik; Park, Tae Chang; Kim, Lae-Hyun; Yeo, Yeong Koo

87

Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore heat transfer and energy efficiency using the context of energy efficient houses. They gain a solid understanding of the three types of heat transfer: radiation, convection and conduction, which are explained in detail and related to the real world. They learn about the many ways solar energy is used as a renewable energy source to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses and operating costs. Students also explore ways in which a device can capitalize on the methods of heat transfer to produce a beneficial result. They are given the tools to calculate the heat transferred between a system and its surroundings.

2014-09-18

88

Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: system development summary  

SciTech Connect

An introduction to district heating systems employing heat pumps to enable use of low-temperature energy sources is presented. These systems operate as thermal utilities to provide space heating and may also supply space cooling, service-water heating, and other thermal services. Otherwise-wasted heat from industrial and commercial processes, natural sources including solar and geothermal heat, and heat stored on an annual cycle from summer cooling may be effectively utilized by the systems described. These sources are abundant, and their use would conserve scarce resources and reduce adverse environmental impacts. More than one-quarter of the energy consumed in the United States is used to heat and cool buildings and to heat service water. Natural gas and oil provide approximately 83% of this energy. The systems described show potential to reduce net energy consumption for these services by 20 to 50% and to allow fuel substitution with less-scarce resources not practical in smaller, individual-building systems. Seven studies performed for the system development phase of the Department of Energy's Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project and to related studies are summarized. A concluding chapter tabulates data from these separately published studies.

Calm, J.M.

1980-02-01

89

Decay HeatDecay Heat NCF structure decay heat is  

E-print Network

Be instead of Pb in re-circulating blanket enhances TBR by ~6% and nuclear heating by ~10% Activity and decay in re-circulating blanket enhances TBR by ~6% and nuclear heating by ~10% Activity and decay heatDecay HeatDecay Heat NCF structure decay heat is much larger than Flibe decay heat for t > 1 minute

90

Process for producing an activated carbon adsorbent with integral heat transfer apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for producing an integral adsorbent-heat exchanger apparatus useful in ammonia refrigerant heat pump systems. In one embodiment, the process wets an activated carbon particles-solvent mixture with a binder-solvent mixture, presses the binder wetted activated carbon mixture on a metal tube surface and thereafter pyrolyzes the mixture to form a bonded activated carbon matrix adjoined to the tube surface. The integral apparatus can be easily and inexpensively produced by the process in large quantities.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

91

Heat Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

Connors, G. Patrick

92

Heat stroke.  

PubMed

Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition clinically diagnosed as a severe elevation in body temperature with central nervous system dysfunction that often includes combativeness, delirium, seizures, and coma. Classic heat stroke primarily occurs in immunocompromised individuals during annual heat waves. Exertional heat stroke is observed in young fit individuals performing strenuous physical activity in hot or temperature environments. Long-term consequences of heat stroke are thought to be due to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent advances in the identification of risk factors that predispose to heat stroke, the role of endotoxin and cytokines in mediation of multi-organ damage, the incidence of hypothermia and fever during heat stroke recovery, clinical biomarkers of organ damage severity, and protective cooling strategies. Risk factors include environmental factors, medications, drug use, compromised health status, and genetic conditions. The role of endotoxin and cytokines is discussed in the framework of research conducted over 30 years ago that requires reassessment to more clearly identify the role of these factors in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We challenge the notion that hypothalamic damage is responsible for thermoregulatory disturbances during heat stroke recovery and highlight recent advances in our understanding of the regulated nature of these responses. The need for more sensitive clinical biomarkers of organ damage is examined. Conventional and emerging cooling methods are discussed with reference to protection against peripheral organ damage and selective brain cooling. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5: 611-647, 2015. PMID:25880507

Leon, Lisa R; Bouchama, Abderrezak

2015-03-01

93

A Rigorous Path Integral for Supersymmetic Quantum Mechanics and the Heat Kernel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a rigorous construction of the path integral for supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a Riemann manifold, based on Bär and Pfäffle's use of piecewise geodesic paths, the kernel of the time evolution operator is the heat kernel for the Laplacian on forms. The path integral is approximated by the integral of a form on the space of piecewise geodesic paths

Dana S. Fine; Stephen F. Sawin

2008-01-01

94

A Rigorous Path Integral for Supersymmetic Quan tum Mechanics and the Heat Kernel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a rigorous construction of the path integral for supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a Riemann manifold, based on Bar and Pfaffle's use of piecewise geodesic paths, the kernel of the time evolution operator is the heat kernel for the Laplacian on forms. The path integral is approximated by the integral of a form on the space of piecewise geodesic paths

Dana S. Fine; Stephen F. Sawin

95

Heat collector  

DOEpatents

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, M.A.

1981-06-29

96

Heat collector  

DOEpatents

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1984-01-01

97

Optimal design and placement of serpentine heat exchangers for indirect heat withdrawal, inside flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heaters (ICSSWH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parameters that affect the temperature at which service hot water (SHW) is offered by an immersed tube heat exchanger (HX), inside a flat plate Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICSSWH), are examined numerically, by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The storage water is not refreshed and serves for heat accumulation. Service hot water is drawn off indirectly,

K. P. Gertzos; Y. G. Caouris; Th. Panidis

2010-01-01

98

Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.  

PubMed

Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

2005-09-01

99

Corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

1989-01-01

100

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

1987-01-01

101

Use of Integrated Decay Heat Limits to Facilitate Spent Nuclear Fuel Loading to Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

As an alternative to the use of the linear loading or areal power density (APD) concept, using integrated decay heat limits based on the use of mountain-scale heat transfer analysis is considered to represent the thermal impact from the deposited spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Yucca Mountain repository. Two different integrated decay heat limits were derived to represent both the short-term (up to 50 years from the time of repository closure) and the long-term decay heat effect (up to 1500 years from the time of repository closure). The derived limits were found to appropriately represent the drift wall temperature limit (200 deg. C) and the midway between adjacent drifts temperature limit (96 deg. C) as long as used fuel is uniformly loaded into the mountain. These limits can be a useful practical guide to facilitate the loading of used fuel into Yucca Mountain. (authors)

Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University (United States); Piet, Steven [Idaho National Laboratory (United States)

2007-07-01

102

Heating and cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environment heating and cooling system is described which consists of a solar collector, heat storage ground well, cold storage ground well, and a heat exchange apparatus. Water from a cold storage ground well is heated in the heat exchange apparatus by solar heating fluid heated in a solar collector. The heated water is stored in a heat storage ground

1976-01-01

103

Application of fuel cells with heat recovery for integrated utility systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of a study of fuel cell powerplants with heat recovery for use in an integrated utility system. Such a design provides for a low pollution, noise-free, highly efficient integrated utility. Use of the waste heat from the fuel cell powerplant in an integrated utility system for the village center complex of a new community results in a reduction in resource consumption of 42 percent compared to conventional methods. In addition, the system has the potential of operating on fuels produced from waste materials (pyrolysis and digester gases); this would provide further reduction in energy consumption.

Shields, V.; King, J. M., Jr.

1975-01-01

104

Integrated Thermal Protection Systems and Heat Resistant Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early stages of NASA's Exploration Initiative, Snecma Propulsion Solide was funded under the Exploration Systems Research & Technology program to develop a CMC heatshield, a deployable decelerator, and an ablative heat shield for reentry vehicles. Due to changes within NASA's Exploration Initiative, this task was cancelled in early FY06. This paper will give an overview of the work that was accomplished prior to cancellation. The Snecma team consisted of MT Aerospace, Germany, and Materials Research & Design (MR&D), NASA Langley, NASA Dryden, and NASA Ames in the United States. An Apollo-type capsule was chosen as the reference vehicle for the work. NASA Langley generated the trajectory and aerothermal loads. Snecma and MT Aerospace began the design of a ceramic aft heatshield (CAS) utilizing C/SiC panels as the capsule heatshield. MR&D led the design of a C/SiC deployable decelerator, NASA Ames led the characterization of several ablators, NASA Dryden led the development of a heath management system and the high temperature structures testing, and NASA Langley led the insulation characterization. Though the task was pre-maturely cancelled, a significant quantity of work was accomplished.

Pichon, Thierry; Lacoste, Marc; Barreteau, R.; Glass, David E.

2006-01-01

105

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

1990-01-01

106

Heat pipe waste heat recovery boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of heat pipes as transport devices in waste heat recovery boilers is examined. Test results show that heat pipes can efficiently extract heat from the hot gas stream and transfer it inside the pressure vessel for the steam generation process. The benefits of incorporating heat pipes into the design of waste heat recovery boilers include a highly compact

D. A. Littwin; J. McCurley

1981-01-01

107

Development of a Variable-Speed Residential Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump  

SciTech Connect

A residential air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) is under development in partnership with a U.S. manufacturer. A nominal 10.6 kW (3-ton) cooling capacity variable-speed unit, the system provides both space conditioning and water heating. This multi-functional unit can provide domestic water heating (DWH) in either full condensing (FC) (dedicated water heating or simultaneous space cooling and water heating) or desuperheating (DS) operation modes. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model for each mode of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options for efficiency while maintaining acceptable comfort conditions and refrigerant-side pressures and temperatures within allowable operating envelopes. Annual simulations were performed with the AS-IHP installed in a well-insulated house in five U.S. climate zones. The AS-IHP is predicted to use 45 to 60% less energy than a DOE minimum efficiency baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads. Water heating energy use is lowered by 60 to 75% in cold to warmer climates, respectively. Plans are to field test the unit in Knoxville, TN.

Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

108

IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 30, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2009 1281 Heat Removal in Silicon-on-Insulator Integrated  

E-print Network

to further increase in heat genera- tion, power densities, and temperature rise [4], [5]. Efficient thermalIEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 30, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2009 1281 Heat Removal in Silicon-on-Insulator Integrated Circuits With Graphene Lateral Heat Spreaders Samia Subrina, Dmitri Kotchetkov, and Alexander A

109

A Rigorous Path Integral for Supersymmetic Quantum Mechanics and the Heat Kernel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a rigorous construction of the path integral for supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a Riemann manifold, based on Bär and\\u000a Pfäffle’s use of piecewise geodesic paths, the kernel of the time evolution operator is the heat kernel for the Laplacian\\u000a on forms. The path integral is approximated by the integral of a form on the space of piecewise geodesic paths

Dana S. Fine; Stephen F. Sawin

2008-01-01

110

Corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is

Richlen; Scott L

1989-01-01

111

Heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections.

Drury, C.R.

1988-02-02

112

Lunar base heat pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

1994-01-01

113

Measurements of the Influence of Integral Length Scale on Stagnation Region Heat Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose was twofold: first, to determine if a length scale existed that would cause the greatest augmentation in stagnation region heat transfer for a given turbulence intensity and second, to develop a prediction tool for stagnation heat transfer in the presence of free stream turbulence. Toward this end, a model with a circular leading edge was fabricated with heat transfer gages in the stagnation region. The model was qualified in a low turbulence wind tunnel by comparing measurements with Frossling's solution for stagnation region heat transfer in a laminar free stream. Five turbulence generating grids were fabricated; four were square mesh, biplane grids made from square bars. Each had identical mesh to bar width ratio but different bar widths. The fifth grid was an array of fine parallel wires that were perpendicular to the axis of the cylindrical leading edge. Turbulence intensity and integral length scale were measured as a function of distance from the grids. Stagnation region heat transfer was measured at various distances downstream of each grid. Data were taken at cylinder Reynolds numbers ranging from 42,000 to 193,000. Turbulence intensities were in the range 1.1 to 15.9 percent while the ratio of integral length scale to cylinder diameter ranged from 0.05 to 0.30. Stagnation region heat transfer augmentation increased with decreasing length scale. An optimum scale was not found. A correlation was developed that fit heat transfer data for the square bar grids to within +4 percent. The data from the array of wires were not predicted by the correlation; augmentation was higher for this case indicating that the degree of isotropy in the turbulent flow field has a large effect on stagnation heat transfer. The data of other researchers are also compared with the correlation.

Vanfossen, G. James; Ching, Chang Y.

1994-01-01

114

Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission  

SciTech Connect

The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

Schock, Alfred

1993-10-01

115

Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration  

SciTech Connect

Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated system and the economic allocation of electricity and heat resources. Safety issues include changes in regulatory constraints imposed on the facilities. Modeling and analysis tools, such as System Dynamics for time dependent operational and economic issues and RELAP5 3D for chemical transient affects, are evaluated. The results of this study advance the body of knowledge toward integration of nuclear reactors and process heat applications.

J'Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire

2009-09-01

116

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

SciTech Connect

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01

117

77 FR 33486 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products Containing...Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products Containing...circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products...

2012-06-06

118

77 FR 39735 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products Containing...circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing...circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products...

2012-07-05

119

Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

1998-07-01

120

MODELING THE LINE-OF-SIGHT INTEGRATED EMISSION IN THE CORONA: IMPLICATIONS FOR CORONAL HEATING  

SciTech Connect

One of the outstanding problems in all of space science is uncovering how the solar corona is heated to temperatures greater than 1 MK. Though studied for decades, one of the major difficulties in solving this problem has been unraveling the line-of-sight (LOS) effects in the observations. The corona is optically thin, so a single pixel measures counts from an indeterminate number (perhaps tens of thousands) of independently heated flux tubes, all along that pixel's LOS. In this paper we model the emission in individual pixels imaging the active region corona in the extreme ultraviolet. If LOS effects are not properly taken into account, erroneous conclusions regarding both coronal heating and coronal dynamics may be reached. We model the corona as an LOS integration of many thousands of completely independently heated flux tubes. We demonstrate that despite the superposition of randomly heated flux tubes, nanoflares leave distinct signatures in light curves observed with multi-wavelength and high time cadence data, such as those data taken with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. These signatures are readily detected with the time-lag analysis technique of Viall and Klimchuk in 2012. Steady coronal heating leaves a different and equally distinct signature that is also revealed by the technique.

Viall, Nicholeen M.; Klimchuk, James A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-07-10

121

Integration of the fabrication processes and wafer level packaging of MEMS devices using localized induction heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a new method for the integration of fabrication processes and wafer level packaging of optical MEMS device. The electroplated magnetic thick film was employed to realize the localized heating assisted wafer level package. Due to the solder reflow and electroplating technique, hermetic seal of the packaged device is achieved. In addition, the electroplated thick film also performed

Hsuehan Yang; Mingching Wu; Weileun Fang

2003-01-01

122

HEAT: An Integrated Static and Dynamic Approach for Thread Escape Analysis Qichang Chen and Liqiang Wang  

E-print Network

HEAT: An Integrated Static and Dynamic Approach for Thread Escape Analysis Qichang Chen analysis, which determines whether and when a variable becomes shared by multiple threads, is a foundation reduces overhead of subsequent program analyses. 1 Introduction Thread escape analysis, a program analysis

Wang, Liqiang

123

Demonstration of Strong Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Integrated Nanostructures  

E-print Network

silicon dioxide (SiO2) for its surface phonon polariton resonances, at 495 and 1160 cm-1 , shown to allowDemonstration of Strong Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Integrated Nanostructures transport, thermal radiation, near-field radiation, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), surface phonon

Lipson, Michal

124

Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy sources as well as power plants and CHP (combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on

Brian Vad Mathiesen; Henrik Lund

2005-01-01

125

Installation package for integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronic subsystem - solar heating and cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual and information on the power panel and programmable microprocessor, a hydronic solar pump system and a hydronic heating hot water pumping system. These systems are integrated into various configurations for usages in solar energy management, control and monitoring, lighting control, data logging and other solar related applications.

1978-01-01

126

A Rigorous Path Integral for Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics and the Heat Kernel  

E-print Network

In a rigorous construction of the path integral for supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a Riemann manifold, based on B\\"ar and Pf\\"affle's use of piecewise geodesic paths, the kernel of the time evolution operator is the heat kernel for the Laplacian on forms. The path integral is approximated by the integral of a form on the space of piecewise geodesic paths which is the pullback by a natural section of Mathai and Quillen's Thom form of a bundle over this space. In the case of closed paths, the bundle is the tangent space to the space of geodesic paths, and the integral of this form passes in the limit to the supertrace of the heat kernel.

Dana Fine; Stephen Sawin

2007-11-20

127

A Rigorous Path Integral for Supersymmetic Quantum Mechanics and the Heat Kernel  

E-print Network

In a rigorous construction of the path integral for supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a Riemann manifold, based on B\\"ar and Pf\\"affle's use of piecewise geodesic paths, the kernel of the time evolution operator is the heat kernel for the Laplacian on forms. The path integral is approximated by the integral of a form on the space of piecewise geodesic paths which is the pullback by a natural section of Mathai and Quillen's Thom form of a bundle over this space. In the case of closed paths, the bundle is the tangent space to the space of geodesic paths, and the integral of this form passes in the limit to the supertrace of the heat kernel.

Fine, Dana

2007-01-01

128

THE DYNAMICS OF CHEMICAL REACTORS WITH HEAT INTEGRATION  

E-print Network

1929 as the rst to present a thermal analysis of packed beds. Van Heerden 1953 and Aris and Amundson. The xed bed reactor is discussed exten- sively in the survey of Schmitz 1975 and in the further survey integrated xed bed reactor. Vakil et al. 1973, Wall- mann et al. 1979, Foss et al. 1980 and Wallman and Foss

Skogestad, Sigurd

129

Zero-G Condensing Heat Exchanger with Integral Disinfection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system that operates in a zero gravity environment and has an integral ozone generating capability is disclosed. The system contributes to the control of metabolic water vapors in the air, and also provided disinfection of any resulting condensate within the system, as well as disinfection of the air stream that flows throughout the disclosed system.

Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

130

Waste heat greenhouse heating system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design philosophy for waste heat greenhouse heating systems is presented. The use of detailed computer models for estimating greenhouse heating needs is discussed. Methods of reducing the heat delivery and utilization system capital investment required for a waste heat greenhouse development are given. 16 refs.

D. M. Stipanuk; R. E. Friday

1981-01-01

131

Integrated Sensible Heat Flux Measurements of a Two-Surface Composite Landscape using Scintillometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of the LAS (large aperture scintillometry) method for measuring sensible heat flux (H) directly integrated over a two-field composite surface is evaluated. We describe a field experiment performed within the Alpilles/ReSeDa project in the south-east of France over a composite surface made up of wheat and bare soil (451 and 216 m long respectively) using two 0.15-m diameter scintillometers mounted at heights of 2.05 and 4.54 m. When compared against reference values obtained by the eddy correlation technique, LAS-measured sensible heat flux reveals a systematic overestimation of about 10%. A simple model describing the integration of the scintillometer signal along the beam for a two-field composite surface is described. A simulation of the experiment confirms that the bias observed isrelated to non-linearities in the integration process in relation with thebell-shape sensitivity curve of the instrument to the structure parameter for the refractive index it measures. The model is used to test the sensitivity of the LAS-derived H values to the composition of the pathlength (ratio of both surfaces) and to the contrast in sensible heat flux and roughness length between the two fields. Sensitivity tests to the aggregation scheme for roughness length (two of them are tested) and to the measurement height are also presented. The composition of the surface in combination with the contrast in sensible heat flux (in direct relation with the contrast in latent heat flux) explains most of the bias, with possible deviations ranging from -50 up to 80 W m-2. A tentative semi-empirical method for correcting the bias is suggested, which only requires a crude estimate of the contrast in component sensible heat fluxes along the pathlength.

Lagouarde, J.-P.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Kerr, Y. H.; et al.

132

Geothermal heating  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the study is to demonstrate the viability of geothermal heating projects in energy and economic terms and to provide nomograms from which an initial estimate may be made without having to use data-processing facilities. The effect of flow rate and temperature of the geothermal water on drilling and on the network, and the effect of climate on the type of housing are considered.

Aureille, M.

1982-01-01

133

Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry activity students explore how heat transfers from one substance to another This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2006 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Leslie Van (Montgomery Blair High School)

2006-04-01

134

Heat pump system  

DOEpatents

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1982-01-01

135

Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps  

E-print Network

fossil fired heating units or electric resistance water heaters. When electric resistance water heaters are utilized there are three alternative electric heating concepts available to reduce home energy consumption. They are desuperheaters, dedicated heat...

Kessler, A. F.

1985-01-01

136

Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes  

E-print Network

For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...

Ruch, M. A.

1981-01-01

137

Heat treatment of nuclear reactor pump part in integrated furnace facility  

SciTech Connect

A flexible heat treating system is meeting strict work specifications while accommodating the production flow pattern requirements and floor space needs of Advanced Metal Treating, Inc., Butler, Wis. Modular design and appropriate furnace configurations allow realization of the most efficient heat treat processing and energy use in a relatively small production area. The totally-integrated system (Pacemaker--manufactured by Lindberg, A Unit of General Signal, Chicago) consists of an electric integral-quench furnace with companion draw furnaces, washer unit and a material transfer car. With its one-side, inout configuration, the furnace operates with a minimum of drawing and washing equipment. The integral-quench furnace has a work chamber dimension of 30 by 48 by 30 inches (76.2 x 122 x 76.2 cm). The firm has two of these units, plus three in-out draw furnaces, one washer, one transfer car and two endothermic gas generators.

Not Available

1983-08-01

138

Heat pipe heat exchanger design considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical heat pipe heat exchangers (HPHX) are described, along with their advantages, uses, and some problems in HPHX design, and a computer HPHX analysis program is discussed with required input data. The computer program is being developed for analysis of heat exchange performance by finned-tube HPHX and thread-puddle-artery heat pipes. Copper-water heat pipes and carbon steel-Dowtherm A heat pipes are

K. T. Feldman; D. C. Lu

1976-01-01

139

Heat pipes in modern heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat pipes are very flexible systems with regard to effective thermal control. They can easily be implemented as heat exchangers inside sorption and vapour-compression heat pumps, refrigerators and other types of heat transfer devices. Their heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator and condenser zones is 103–105 W\\/m2K, heat pipe thermal resistance is 0.01–0.03 K\\/W, therefore leading to smaller area and

Leonard L. Vasiliev

2005-01-01

140

On extensions of approaches for heat recovery calculations in integrated chemical process systems  

PubMed

This paper deals with heat recovery calculations in integrated chemical process systems. A level of heat recovery in a heat exchanger network (HEN) determines the cost of heat energy consumed in a total system and influences environmental pollution. Even though well established approaches to the problem of calculating minimum cost of utilities in a HEN are available at present, they do not fully account for complex industrial scenarios. The aim of methods developed in this work is to extend applications for the following cases: 1. multiple utilities of great temperature spans (so called non-point utilities), and 2. disturbances of flow-rates of heat exchanging streams. To solve the problems, methods have been developed based on optimisation models. The models are linear though one of them involves mixed-integer variables. Linearity ensures the possibility of solving the models to global optimum, even for large-scale industrial problems. The description of solution methods and examples of applications are presented in this paper. PMID:10890369

Jezowski; Shethna; Bochenek; Castillo

2000-07-01

141

Heat pipe waste heat recovery boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of heat pipes as transport devices in waste heat recovery boilers is examined. Test results show that heat pipes can efficiently extract heat from the hot gas stream and transfer it inside the pressure vessel for the steam generation process. The benefits of incorporating heat pipes into the design of waste heat recovery boilers include a highly compact package, a significant reduction in thermally induced stresses, double isolation of the steam from the heat source, an extended surface for improved efficiency in heat extraction, improved circulation and stability in the boiling regime, easy cleaning, individually replaceable tubes, and low flue gas pressure drop.

Littwin, D. A.; McCurley, J.

142

Heating systems for heating subsurface formations  

DOEpatents

Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2011-04-26

143

NREL's Building-Integrated Supercomputer Provides Heating and Efficient Computing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is meant to investigate new ways to integrate energy sources so they work together efficiently, and one of the key tools to that investigation, a new supercomputer, is itself a prime example of energy systems integration. NREL teamed with Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Intel to develop the innovative warm-water, liquid-cooled Peregrine supercomputer, which not only operates efficiently but also serves as the primary source of building heat for ESIF offices and laboratories. This innovative high-performance computer (HPC) can perform more than a quadrillion calculations per second as part of the world's most energy-efficient HPC data center.

Not Available

2014-09-01

144

Heat exchanger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heat exchanger comprising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of the tube sheet is disclosed. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within the shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in the tube sheet in communication with the first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, P. J.

1983-12-01

145

Heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, Phillip J. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01

146

Heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, P.J.

1983-12-08

147

High temperature heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains the proceedings from the XVII Symposium of the International Center for Heat and Mass Transfer on High Temperature Heat Exchangers, held August 1985 in Yugoslavia. Papers were presented under the following topics: High Temperature Heat Exchangers Development; Basic Problem in High Temperature Heat Exchangers; Heat Exchangers for High Temperature Recovery; and High Temperature Heat Exchangers for Future

Y. Mori; A. E. Sheindlin; N. Afgan

1986-01-01

148

Waste Heat Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investments in waste heat recovery provide a very attractive payback. This article covers cases implemented over the past four years among Shaw's 50 manufacturing plants. Heat sources tapped are air compressors, waste water, boiler stack gasses, and boiler blow down. The destination for the heat is process water heating and boiler make-up water heating. Heat exchangers only have been used,

Jerry T. Zolkowski

2009-01-01

149

Microchannel heat sink assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

Bonde, Wayne L. (Livermore, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA)

1992-01-01

150

Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

2007-07-01

151

ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING  

E-print Network

#12;ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING PLANT Dr.sc.ing. Agnese Lickrastina M.Sc. Normunds · DHP Imanta ­ combined cycle cogeneration plant , (48 MWel, 48 MWth) in 2006 ­ absorption heat pump Steam Turbine 16 MWel Steam Boiler 12 t/h, 13 bar Absorption HP/Chiller 5 MWth #12;European Heat Pump

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

152

Latent Heat in Soil Heat Flux Measurements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

153

Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A In miliaria rubra, blocked sweat ... bumps. Overview Miliaria rubra, also known as heat rash or prickly heat, is a common skin condition ...

154

Heat recovery method  

SciTech Connect

Heat is recovered by combining a heat transfer system including heat exchangers interconnected in a circulatory system, with a heat pump system. The heat pump system is preferably operated in accordance with the Lorenz-Principle. It is not necessary to divide the heat carrier circuit of the heat pump into two or three separate circulatory circuits. The heat carrier circuit of the heat pump can thus continue to operate unchanged even if the heat pump is switched off. For this purpose the warm heat carrier coming from a discharge fluid cooler, is heated further in a condenser of the heat pump and the cold heat carrier coming from a preheater or cooler group, is cooled further in an evaporator of the heat pump.

Richarts, F.

1985-04-16

155

Dual source heat pump  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01

156

Segmented heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

2010-12-14

157

Heat recovery subsystem and overall system integration of fuel cell on-site integrated energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The best HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) subsystem to interface with the Engelhard fuel cell system for application in commercial buildings was determined. To accomplish this objective, the effects of several system and site specific parameters on the economic feasibility of fuel cell/HVAC systems were investigated. An energy flow diagram of a fuel cell/HVAC system is shown. The fuel cell system provides electricity for an electric water chiller and for domestic electric needs. Supplemental electricity is purchased from the utility if needed. An excess of electricity generated by the fuel cell system can be sold to the utility. The fuel cell system also provides thermal energy which can be used for absorption cooling, space heating and domestic hot water. Thermal storage can be incorporated into the system. Thermal energy is also provided by an auxiliary boiler if needed to supplement the fuel cell system output. Fuel cell/HVAC systems were analyzed with the TRACE computer program.

Mougin, L. J.

1983-01-01

158

Smart heating systems: Optimizing heating systems by kinetic-awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse gas effect has become a major preoccupation worldwide. Heating of buildings and houses is one of the major sources of this effect. We propose to optimize heating control systems by directly integrating the recognition of people activities and context in the process of temperature regulation. We introduce the concept of kinetic-awareness as a way of making heating control

Vincenzo Pallotta; Pascal Bruegger; Béat Hirsbrunner

2008-01-01

159

Heat pump control system  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of controlling a heating system having a supplemental heat source and a heat pump for supplying heat to an interior space. The heating system includes a thermostat mechanism that activates the heat pump and supplemental heat source in response to ambient temperatures in the interior space sensed by the thermostat. The method comprises sensing when the supplemental heat source is operating during a cyclically recurring time interval, and disabling the heat pump when the supplemental heat source is operating for a predetermined portion of the cyclically recurring time interval.

Harshbarger, J.H. III; Harshbarger, J.H. Jr

1986-12-09

160

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING  

E-print Network

of configuration, one using crawlspace, the other using air-collectors. But different components of a building and solar energy both influence the heating load and the air-source temperature that interact directlyPERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

161

Investigation of a radiantly heated and cooled office with an integrated desiccant ventilation unit  

E-print Network

comprehensive study of several technical issues relative to radiant heating and cooling systems that have received little attention in previous research. The following aspects are covered in this dissertation: First, a heat transfer model of mullion radiators...

Gong, Xiangyang

2009-05-15

162

Study of heat sources interacting in integrated circuits by laser mirage effect  

SciTech Connect

This work exploits the mirage effect to analyze multiple heat sources thermally interacting in an integrated circuit (IC) by means of a probe IR laser beam, which strikes on the die lateral walls and passes through the die substrate. Under such conditions, the criteria for locating such hot spots, as well as their relative power dissipation, are discussed on the basis of a theoretical model inferred in this work. Finally, the technique feasibility is shown in a real application scenario, obtaining 5-?m spatial lateral resolution and an error in power dissipation measurements below 5%. This method may become a practical alternative to usual off-chip techniques for inspecting hot spots in ICs and to experimentally characterize heat flow in the semiconductor substrate.

Perpiñà, X.; Jordà, X.; Vellvehi, M. [Centre Nacional de Microelectrònica IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Altet, J. [Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona 08034 (Spain)

2014-08-25

163

Fabrication and development of several heat pipe honeycomb sandwich panel concepts. [airframe integrated scramjet engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of fabricating and processing liquid metal heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for application on the NASA Langley airframe-integrated Scramjet engine was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts was evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. The chosen design consists of an all-stainless steel structure, sintered screen facesheets, and two types of core-ribbon; a diffusion bonded wire mesh and a foil-screen composite. Cleaning, fluid charging, processing, and process port sealing techniques were established. The liquid metals potassium, sodium and cesium were used as working fluids. Eleven honeycomb panels 15.24 cm X 15.24 cm X 2.94 cm were delivered to NASA Langley for extensive performance testing and evaluation; nine panels were processed as heat pipes, and two panels were left unprocessed.

Tanzer, H. J.

1982-01-01

164

Simulation of heat transport in LHD plasmas using the integrated code: TASK3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated transport simulation code for helical plasmas, TASK3D, has been developed and applied to the LHD plasmas. The neoclassical transport in LHD plasma is evaluated by the neoclassical transport database module, DGN/LHD, using a neural network technique. The radial electric field module, ER, which solves the differential equation of the radial electric field has been also developed. In this study, the behavior of the LHD plasmas is simulated with several anomalous transport models and the temperature profiles are compared with experimental observations. Reasonable agreements of the radial electric field profile between simulation results and the experimental ones are obtained by use of the ER module. It is found that the anomalous transport dominates in the electron heat transport, while the neoclassical transport plays a crucial role in the ion heat transport.

Wakasa, A.; Fukuyama, A.; Murakami, S.; Yokoyama, M.; Sato, M.; Toda, S.; Funaba, H.; Seki, R.; Tanaka, K.; Ida, K.; Yamada, H.; Nakajima, N.

2011-11-01

165

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01

166

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1997-04-22

167

Inhomogeneous temperature problems inside a Li/SOCl2 cell - Homogenization by integrated heat pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the temperature gradient on the electrical capacity of the lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl2) cells and the dependence of internal heat generation on the temperature level were investigated by studying the thermal behavior of a cell constituted by a number of couples stacken in a stainless steel cylinder during a discharge profile. It is shown that the temperature gradient between couples affected the depth of discharge, indicating that this gradient must be limited to prevent discrepancy in couple's voltage and inversion phenomenon. It was found that a cooling concept based on integrated heat pipes is effective in reducing the temperature gradient and in yielding homogeneous cell behavior in overdischarge.

Lefriec, C.; Suleiman, A.; Alexandre, A.

1992-07-01

168

Printed Circuit Boards with Integrated Heat Carrier Channels for Deep Geothermal Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploration of deep geothermal resources is still very expensive. A large amount of these costs is caused by the drilling process. The high price results from a high failure risk, slow drilling progress and a large amount of manual work. To develop deep heat mining to a sizeable contribution to the European energy portfolio, the exploration process has to become a lot cheaper. One step to achieve lower costs is to monitor and automate the drilling process. Therefore, electronic components such as sensors and data processing units must be integrated into the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA). The integration of electronics into the BHA faces the challenge of high ambient temperatures. The project "Packaging of Electronic Components for High Temperature Applications" within the "Geothermal Energy and High Performance-Drilling Collaborative Research Program (gebo)" develops a system of heat carrier channels integrated in printed circuit boards (PCB). These channels can be perfused with fluids such as water, oil or gas and provide high heat convection rates. Such PCBs will be able to withstand high ambient temperatures up to 250 °C. We have simulated, manufactured and are currently testing prototype boards with integrated heat carrier channels featuring a thickness of only 1.6 mm. As a simulation scenario, we chose a board measuring 25 mm x 100 mm, dimensions suitable for integration into a BHA. An ambient temperature of 250 °C was used. The simulation results presented in this contribution illustrate that cooling of the whole board as well as cooling of hotspots is possible. The cooling channel layout being the key for high convection rates was meticulously studied and optimized. Parameters such as necessary flow rate and fluid pressure were adjusted accordingly. Preliminary experiments validate the demonstrated and discussed simulation results. With the proposed cooling system, it is possible to integrate microelectronic components into the BHA for drilling applications in hot rock. Sensors and data processing units for measurement and logging can be used while drilling, thus providing a better data source for automation, navigation and planning. This will help to optimize drilling costs and to minimize failure risks.

Krühn, T.; Overmeyer, L.

2012-04-01

169

Integrated bioenergy complex for the production of power, heat and bio-ethanol  

SciTech Connect

In this paper an integrated bioenergy complex for the production of power, heat and bio-ethanol is presented. Ethanol, in fact, has been recognized as a high-quality transportation fuel. The reduction of petroleum consumption, especially for transport, is a strategic goal especially for those countries that already have or will experience an intensive industrial development in the next future. For these motivations, the production of bio-ethanol from Sweet Sorghum (which is now one of the most promising crop for this application in term of productivity, inputs demand, and flexibility) is of great interest in most of countries. The proposed integrated complex produces power, heat and bio-ethanol: the produced power and heat are partly used for bio-ethanol processing and biomass pre-treatment, partly to be sold to the market. This system has important innovations allowing a decentralized energy and ethanol production and creating new local jobs. The small power plant is based upon a steam cycle with an advanced low emission combustor, capable of burning different biomass resources with a modest decrease in the efficiency value. The Bioenergy Complex, suitable to satisfy the needs of a 3,000 inhabitants village, is composed by the following sub-systems: (1) Sweet Sorghum plantation (250 ha); the main products are: dry bagasse (approximately 3,900 Ton/year), grains (1,300 Ton/y) and sugar (1,850 Ton/y); (2) Cane crushing--sugar juice extraction system; (3) Sugar juice fermentation and distillation ethanol production (approx. 835 Ton/y); (4) Biomass pre-treatment components (grinding, drying, briquetting, storage, etc.); and (5) Cogeneration unit--the expansion unit is constituted by a last generation reciprocating steam engine, coupled with a 500 kWe alternator; the heat of the expanded flow is removed in the condenser, with an available thermal power of approximately 2,000 kWt.

Taviani, M.; Chiaramonti, D.; Tondi, G.; Grassi, G.

1998-07-01

170

Short-term exposure to heat stress attenuates appetite and intestinal integrity in growing pigs.  

PubMed

Acute heat stress (HS) and heat stroke can be detrimental to the health, well-being, and performance of mammals such as swine. Therefore, our objective was to chronologically characterize how a growing pig perceives and initially copes with a severe heat load. Crossbred gilts (n=32; 63.8±2.9 kg) were subjected to HS conditions (37°C and 40% humidity) with ad libitum intake for 0, 2, 4, or 6 h (n=8/time point). Rectal temperature (Tr), respiration rates (RR), and feed intake were determined every 2 h. Pigs were euthanized at each time point and fresh ileum and colon samples were mounted into modified Ussing chambers to assess ex vivo intestinal integrity and function. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FD4) permeability were assessed. As expected, Tr increased linearly over time (P<0.001) with the highest temperature observed at 6 h of HS. Compared to the 0-h thermal-neutral (TN) pigs, RR increased (230%; P<0.001) in the first 2 h and remained elevated over the 6 h of HS (P<0.05). Feed intake was dramatically reduced due to HS and this corresponded with significant changes in plasma glucose, ghrelin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (P<0.050). At as early as 2 h of HS, ileum TER linearly decreased (P<0.01), while FD4 linearly increased with time (P<0.05). Colon TER and FD4 changed due to HS in quadratic responses over time (P=0.050) similar to the ileum but were less pronounced. In response to HS, ileum and colon heat shock protein (HSP) 70 mRNA and protein abundance increased linearly over time (P<0.050). Altogether, these data indicated that a short duration of HS (2-6 h) compromised feed intake and intestinal integrity in growing pigs. PMID:25367514

Pearce, S C; Sanz-Fernandez, M V; Hollis, J H; Baumgard, L H; Gabler, N K

2014-12-01

171

Heating Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive, online activity introduces the idea that everything emits electromagnetic radiation, including students. Students discover how the light emitted from an object (a robot) changes as the object is heated. A graph shows the amount of light the robot emits in each wavelength region as the robot reaches higher temperatures. Students are challenged to relate the peak of the emitted light from the robot to the color it appears, thus connecting the temperature of an object with the color of light it emits. Students apply this information by plotting the peak wavelengths of four stars of their choice, and then determine the temperature of each. Upon completion of this activity, students will have identified peak wavelengths from graphical data and applied this concept to determine the relationship between temperature and star color. Students may complete this activity independently or in small groups. Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title page of the activity, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. This activity is part of the online exploration "Star Light, Star Bright" that focuses on the electromagnetic spectrum and that is available on the Amazing Space website.

172

Heat Stress Reduces Intestinal Barrier Integrity and Favors Intestinal Glucose Transport in Growing Pigs  

PubMed Central

Excessive heat exposure reduces intestinal integrity and post-absorptive energetics that can inhibit wellbeing and be fatal. Therefore, our objectives were to examine how acute heat stress (HS) alters intestinal integrity and metabolism in growing pigs. Animals were exposed to either thermal neutral (TN, 21°C; 35–50% humidity; n?=?8) or HS conditions (35°C; 24–43% humidity; n?=?8) for 24 h. Compared to TN, rectal temperatures in HS pigs increased by 1.6°C and respiration rates by 2-fold (P<0.05). As expected, HS decreased feed intake by 53% (P<0.05) and body weight (P<0.05) compared to TN pigs. Ileum heat shock protein 70 expression increased (P<0.05), while intestinal integrity was compromised in the HS pigs (ileum and colon TER decreased; P<0.05). Furthermore, HS increased serum endotoxin concentrations (P?=?0.05). Intestinal permeability was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (P<0.05) and casein kinase II-? (P?=?0.06). Protein expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the ileum revealed claudin 3 and occludin expression to be increased overall due to HS (P<0.05), while there were no differences in claudin 1 expression. Intestinal glucose transport and blood glucose were elevated due to HS (P<0.05). This was supported by increased ileum Na+/K+ ATPase activity in HS pigs. SGLT-1 protein expression was unaltered; however, HS increased ileal GLUT-2 protein expression (P?=?0.06). Altogether, these data indicate that HS reduce intestinal integrity and increase intestinal stress and glucose transport. PMID:23936392

Pearce, Sarah C.; Mani, Venkatesh; Boddicker, Rebecca L.; Johnson, Jay S.; Weber, Thomas E.; Ross, Jason W.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Gabler, Nicholas K.

2013-01-01

173

Heat stress reduces intestinal barrier integrity and favors intestinal glucose transport in growing pigs.  

PubMed

Excessive heat exposure reduces intestinal integrity and post-absorptive energetics that can inhibit wellbeing and be fatal. Therefore, our objectives were to examine how acute heat stress (HS) alters intestinal integrity and metabolism in growing pigs. Animals were exposed to either thermal neutral (TN, 21°C; 35-50% humidity; n=8) or HS conditions (35°C; 24-43% humidity; n=8) for 24 h. Compared to TN, rectal temperatures in HS pigs increased by 1.6°C and respiration rates by 2-fold (P<0.05). As expected, HS decreased feed intake by 53% (P<0.05) and body weight (P<0.05) compared to TN pigs. Ileum heat shock protein 70 expression increased (P<0.05), while intestinal integrity was compromised in the HS pigs (ileum and colon TER decreased; P<0.05). Furthermore, HS increased serum endotoxin concentrations (P=0.05). Intestinal permeability was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (P<0.05) and casein kinase II-? (P=0.06). Protein expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the ileum revealed claudin 3 and occludin expression to be increased overall due to HS (P<0.05), while there were no differences in claudin 1 expression. Intestinal glucose transport and blood glucose were elevated due to HS (P<0.05). This was supported by increased ileum Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in HS pigs. SGLT-1 protein expression was unaltered; however, HS increased ileal GLUT-2 protein expression (P=0.06). Altogether, these data indicate that HS reduce intestinal integrity and increase intestinal stress and glucose transport. PMID:23936392

Pearce, Sarah C; Mani, Venkatesh; Boddicker, Rebecca L; Johnson, Jay S; Weber, Thomas E; Ross, Jason W; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Gabler, Nicholas K

2013-01-01

174

Multiple source heat pump  

DOEpatents

A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01

175

Structural, Thermal, and Safety Analysis of Isotope Heat Source and Integrated Heat Exchangers for 6-kWe Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS)  

SciTech Connect

The design of the 30-kWt isotope heat source integrated with a Rankine boiler and a Brayton gas heater, which was described in the preceding paper in these proceedings, was subjected to structural, thermal, and safety analyses. The present paper describes and discusses the results of these analyses. Detailed structural analyses of the heat source integrated with the boiler and gas heater showed positive safety margins at all locations during the launch. Detailed thermal analyses showed acceptable temperatures at all locations, during assembly, transfer and orbital operations. Reentry thermal analyses showed that the clads have acceptable peak and impact temperatures. Loss-of-cooling analyses indicated the feasibility of a passive safety concept for preventing over temperatures. Static structural analysis showed positive safety margins at all locations, and dynamic analysis showed that there were no low-frequency resources. Continuum-mechanics code analyses of the effects of the impact of Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) fragments on the heat source and of the very unlikely impact of the full heat source on concrete indicated relatively modest fuel clad deformations and little or no fuel release.

Schock, Alfred

1989-01-01

176

Industrial heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the use of heat exchangers in the industrial plants. Topics considered include the US DOE and GRI research programs, advanced fixed boundary heat exchanger technology, commercial heat exchanger applications, thermo-hydraulic performance of heat-transfer equipment, field tests, the corrosion of heat exchanger materials, economics, cost benefit analysis, payback, and advanced assembly

A. J. Hayes; W. W. Liang; S. L. Richlen; E. S. Tabb

1985-01-01

177

Flue heat recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flue gas heat recovery system is disclosed comprising an exhaust gas to air heat exchanger, a hot air to water heat exchanger, a fan, a circulating pump, and a control system which senses the temperature of the exiting air from the air heat exchanger and the temperature of the water leaving the water heat exchanger in combination with the

Henriques

1983-01-01

178

Heat pipe radiator. [for spacecraft waste heat rejection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 15,000 watt spacecraft waste heat rejection system utilizing heat pipe radiator panels was investigated. Of the several concepts initially identified, a series system was selected for more in-depth analysis. As a demonstration of system feasibility, a nominal 500 watt radiator panel was designed, built and tested. The panel, which is a module of the 15,000 watt system, consists of a variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) header, and six isothermalizer heat pipes attached to a radiating fin. The thermal load to the VCHP is supplied by a Freon-21 liquid loop via an integral heat exchanger. Descriptions of the results of the system studies and details of the radiator design are included along with the test results for both the heat pipe components and the assembled radiator panel. These results support the feasibility of using heat pipes in a spacecraft waste heat rejection system.

Swerdling, B.; Alario, J.

1973-01-01

179

Thermoelectric systems incorporating rectangular heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention provides a low cost, compact, efficient thermoelectric system which has no moving parts for converting waste heat into electrical energy. The system includes a plurality of heat pipes having at least one substantially planar sidewall and integral heat collecting fins. The planar sidewalls on the heat pipes enable broad surface thermal contact with thermoelectric devices. The heat

S. L. Chao; R. A. Vining

1984-01-01

180

Heat pipe with embedded wick structure  

DOEpatents

A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

1999-01-01

181

Heat pipe with embedded wick structure  

DOEpatents

A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

1998-01-01

182

Control of heat source in a heat conduction problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mathematical model of thermal processes during the heat treatment of a moving axisymmetric environment, for example wire. is considered. The wire is heated by internal constantly or periodically operating heat source. It is presented in the form of initial-boundary value problem for the unsteady heat equation with internal constantly or periodically operating heat source. The purpose of the work is the definition of control parameter of temperature field of a moving area, which is heated by internal heat source. The control parameters are determined by solving a nonlocal problem for the heat equation. The problem of getting an adequate temperature distribution throughout the heating area is considered. Therefore, a problem of heat source control is solved, in particular, control by electric current. Control of the heat source allows to maintain the necessary, from a technological point of view, temperature in the heating area. In this paper, to find additional information about the source of heat. The integral condition is used in the control problem. Integral condition, which is considered in the work, determines the energy balance of the heating zone and connects the desired temperature distribution in the internal points of area with temperatures at the boundaries. Control quality in an extremum formulation of the problem is assessed using the quadratic functional. In function space, from a physical point of view, proposed functional is the absolute difference between the actual emission of energy and absorbed energy in the heating zone. The absorbed energy is calculated by solving of the boundary value problem. Methods of determining the control parameters of temperature field are proposed. The resulting problem is solved by iterative methods. At different physical conditions, numerical calculations are carried out, control parameters of the heat treatment process are obtained.

Lyashenko, V.; Kobilskaya, E.

2014-11-01

183

Energy Corner: Heat Reclamation Rescues Wasted Heat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heat reclamation systems added to pre-existing central heating systems provide maximum savings at minimum cost. The benefits of a particular appliance marketed under the brand name "Energizer" are discussed. (Author/MLF)

Daugherty, Thomas

1982-01-01

184

Critical heat flux around strongly heated nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study heat transfer from a heated nanoparticle into surrounding fluid using molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the fluid next to the nanoparticle can be heated well above its boiling point without a phase change. Under increasing nanoparticle temperature, the heat flux saturates, which is in sharp contrast with the case of flat interfaces, where a critical heat flux is observed followed by development of a vapor layer and heat flux drop. These differences in heat transfer are explained by the curvature-induced pressure close to the nanoparticle, which inhibits boiling. When the nanoparticle temperature is much larger than the critical fluid temperature, a very large temperature gradient develops, resulting in close to ambient temperature just a radius away from the particle surface. The behavior reported allows us to interpret recent experiments where nanoparticles can be heated up to the melting point, without observing boiling of the surrounding liquid.

Merabia, Samy; Keblinski, Pawel; Joly, Laurent; Lewis, Laurent J.; Barrat, Jean-Louis

2009-02-01

185

Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report  

SciTech Connect

The energy service needs of a net-zero-energy house (ZEH) include space heating and cooling, water heating, ventilation, dehumidification, and humidification, depending on the requirements of the specific location. These requirements differ in significant ways from those of current housing. For instance, the most recent DOE buildings energy data (DOE/BED 2007) indicate that on average {approx}43% of residential buildings primary energy use is for space heating and cooling, vs. {approx}12% for water heating (about a 3.6:1 ratio). In contrast, for the particular prototype ZEH structures used in the analyses in this report, that ratio ranges from about 0.3:1 to 1.6:1 depending on location. The high-performance envelope of a ZEH results in much lower space heating and cooling loads relative to current housing and also makes the house sufficiently air-tight to require mechanical ventilation for indoor air quality. These envelope characteristics mean that the space conditioning load will be closer in size to the water heating load, which depends on occupant behavior and thus is not expected to drop by any significant amount because of an improved envelope. In some locations such as the Gulf Coast area, additional dehumidification will almost certainly be required during the shoulder and cooling seasons. In locales with heavy space heating needs, supplemental humidification may be needed because of health concerns or may be desired for improved occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that achieving their ZEH goal will require energy service equipment that can meet these needs while using 50% less energy than current equipment. One promising approach to meeting this requirement is through an integrated heat pump (IHP) - a single system based on heat pumping technology. The energy benefits of an IHP stem from the ability to utilize otherwise wasted energy; for example, heat rejected by the space cooling operation can be used for water heating. With the greater energy savings the cost of the more energy efficient components required for the IHP can be recovered more quickly than if they were applied to individual pieces of equipment to meet each individual energy service need. An IHP can be designed to use either outdoor air or geothermal resources (e.g., ground, ground water, surface water) as the environmental energy source/sink. Based on a scoping study of a wide variety of possible approaches to meeting the energy service needs for a ZEH, DOE selected the IHP concept as the most promising and has supported research directed toward the development of both air- and ground-source versions. This report describes the ground-source IHP (GS-IHP) design and includes the lessons learned and best practices revealed by the research and development (R&D) effort throughout. Salient features of the GS-IHP include a variable-speed rotary compressor incorporating a brushless direct current permanent magnet motor which provides all refrigerant compression, a variable-speed fan for the indoor section, a multiple-speed ground coil circuit pump, and a single-speed pump for water heating operation. Laboratory IHP testing has thus far used R-22 because of the availability of the needed components that use this refrigerant. It is expected that HFC R-410A will be used for any products arising from the IHP concept. Data for a variable-speed compressor that uses R-410A has been incorporated into the DOE/ORNL Mark VI Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). HPDM was then linked to TRNSYS, a time-series-dependent simulation model capable of determining the energy use of building cooling and heating equipment as applied to a defined house on a sub-hourly basis. This provided a highly flexible design analysis capability for advanced heat pump equipment; however, the program also took a relatively long time to run. This approach was used with the initial prototype design reported in Murphy et al. (2007a) and in the business case analysis of Baxter (2007).

Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

2007-09-01

186

New integrated gas turbine CHP (combined heat and power) and incinerator plant.  

PubMed

Despite the complex nature of the project, the clients brief of a 14 month design and installation period was achieved within the approved budget of 2.5 million pounds. Early performance figures indicate that the scheme is on target to achieve the original payback of under four years. Queen Elizabeth Hospital: installation of integrated combined heat and power plant. Client: Central Birmingham Health Authority. Consulting Engineers/Project Managers: Yates, Edge and Partners. Architects: Temple Cox and Nichols. Structural Engineers: Peel and Fowler. Quantity Surveyor: West Midlands Regional Health Authority. PMID:10108578

Briggs, R A; Yates, B

1990-12-01

187

Absorption heat pump system  

DOEpatents

The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01

188

Locating Heat Recovery Opportunities  

E-print Network

Basic concepts of heat recovery are defined as they apply to the industrial community. Methods for locating, ranking, and developing heat recovery opportunities are presented and explained. The needs for useful heat 'sinks' are emphasized as equal...

Waterland, A. F.

1981-01-01

189

Steady response to heating: Gaussian heat source  

E-print Network

#12;Equatorial Waves Alternative theory for wave speed: ¡ Higher vertical mode structure causes phaseGill Model Steady response to heating: Gaussian heat source in center of domain. Boundary: Heating applied in region A. Only subsidence contours are drawn (there is upward motion elsewhere). From

Frierson, Dargan

190

Woven heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

Piscitella, R.R.

1984-07-16

191

Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

None

2010-09-01

192

Heat store for solar energy utilization in heating systems and water heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a survey of the main parameters for heat store construction, a new latent-heat store concept is described which takes account of the experience with stores in existing solar houses. The new concept is based on a modular construction. Each module has a finned heat pipe partitioned into 3 compartments (store space, heat source region, and heat sink region). The space between the fins is filled with a storage material which changes from the solid to the liquid phase when heat is added. The test model was operated with paraffin and wax ester. Finally, a proposal is made for an integration of the latent-heat store concept into a solar space and water heating system.

Abhat, A.

1977-05-01

193

Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

Not Available

2014-05-01

194

Thermostructural applications of heat pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of integrating heat pipes in high temperature structure to reduce local hot spot temperature was evaluated for a variety of hypersonic aerospace vehicles. From an initial list of twenty-two potential applications, the single stage to orbit wing leading edge showed the greatest promise and was selected for preliminary design of an integrated heat pipe thermostructural system. The design consisted of a Hastelloy X assembly with sodium heat pipe passages aligned normal to the wing leading edge. A d-shaped heat pipe cross section was determined to be optimum from the standpoint of structural weight.

Peeples, M. E.; Reeder, J. C.; Sontag, K. E.

1979-01-01

195

Using MathCad to Evaluate Exact Integral Formulations of Spacecraft Orbital Heats for Primitive Surfaces at Any Orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of high speed computing Monte Carlo ray tracing techniques has become the preferred method for evaluating spacecraft orbital heats. Monte Carlo has its greatest advantage where there are many interacting surfaces. However Monte Carlo programs are specialized programs that suffer from some inaccuracy, long calculation times and high purchase cost. A general orbital heating integral is presented here that is accurate, fast and runs on MathCad, a generally available engineering mathematics program. The integral is easy to read, understand and alter. The integral can be applied to unshaded primitive surfaces at any orientation. The method is limited to direct heating calculations. This integral formulation can be used for quick orbit evaluations and spot checking Monte Carlo results.

Pinckney, John

2010-01-01

196

Extreme Heat  

MedlinePLUS

... Stroke - A life-threatening condition. The victim's temperature control system, which produces sweating to cool the body, ... National Integrated Drought Information System Center For Disease Control and Prevention LISTEN TO LOCAL OFFICIALS Learn about ...

197

Performance of a variable conductance heat pipe heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an air to air heat exchanger in which heat is transferred to a finned evaporator and from a finned condenser via a heat pipe was evaluated. The variable conductance heat pipe is to the condenser fins a heat source and to the evaporator fins a heat sink. The principal advantage of the variable conductance heat pipe heat

P. D. Chancelor

1983-01-01

198

Interface Film Resistivities for Heat and Mass TransferssIntegral Relations Verified by Non-equilibrium Molecular Dynamics  

E-print Network

Interface Film Resistivities for Heat and Mass TransferssIntegral Relations Verified by Non; In Final Form: July 6, 2006 Integral relations that predict interface film transfer coefficients) the interface film, where transport processes are driven by jumps in temperature and chemical potential; and (3

Kjelstrup, Signe

199

Rotary magnetic heat pump  

DOEpatents

A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

Kirol, L.D.

1987-02-11

200

Antigravity heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general design and principle of operation of an antigravity heat pipe, in which the heat transfer agent is supplied to the evaporator against the force of gravity, are descussed. Analytical expressions describing the operation of the heat pipe are presented, as are experimental results obtained for an acetone-charged antigravity heat pipe.

N. I. Kliuev

1989-01-01

201

Loop heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are two-phase heat-transfer devices with capillary pumping of a working fluid. They possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but owing to the original design and special properties of the capillary structure are capable of transferring heat efficiency for distances up to several meters at any orientation in the gravity field, or to several

Yu. F. Maydanik

2005-01-01

202

Solar Heating Equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar Unlimited, Inc.'s suncatcher line includes a variety of solar arrays, derived from NASA's satellite program: water heating only, partial home heating, or water and whole house central heating. Solar Unlimited developed a set of vigorous requirements to avoid problems common to solar heating technologies.

1981-01-01

203

Direct fired heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1986-01-01

204

Woven heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

Piscitella, Roger R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

205

Nature's Heat Exchangers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

Barnes, George

1991-01-01

206

Mass and Heat Recovery  

E-print Network

In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building...

Hindawai, S. M.

2010-01-01

207

Thermoelectric heat exchange element  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

2007-08-14

208

Initial findings: The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This report is one in a series of reports describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building System Integration Research Program. The goal of the program is to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving integrated decision-making during design and construction. Improved decision-making could significantly reduce buildings' energy use by the year 2010. The objectives of the Commercial Building System Integration Research Program are: to identify and quantify the most significant energy-related interactions among building subsystems; to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving energy related interactions in building subsystems; and to provide guidance to designers, owners, and builders for improving the integration of building subsystems for energy efficiency. The lead laboratory for this program is the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A wide variety of expertise and resources from industry, academia, other government entities, and other DOE laboratories are used in planning, reviewing and conducting research activities. Cooperative and complementary research, development, and technology transfer activities with other interested organizations are actively pursued. In this report, the interactions of a water loop heat pump system and building structural mass and their effect on whole-building energy performance is analyzed. 10 refs., 54 figs., 1 tab.

Marseille, T.J.; Johnson, B.K.; Wallin, R.P.; Chiu, S.A.; Crawley, D.B.

1989-01-01

209

Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences  

SciTech Connect

The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

2008-06-18

210

An innovative system for heating and cooling a gymnasium using integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a new solar energy based system to heat and cool a gymnasium and to generate electricity in the city of Palermo, Italy. The gymnasium will be built in 1996 as part of the structures that will host the Universiadi Games in 1997. Main objectives of the project are: (a) to grant better environmental conditions in the area occupied by the public, with limited use of fossil energy; (b) to reduce the temperature of the photovoltaic elements, thus increasing their efficiency. The system consists of an array of 203 m{sup 2} integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar air collectors. In the winter mode of operation, the heated air is passed through the concrete benches where the public is seated. In the summer mode of operation outside air is evaporatively cooled, passed through the benches, then exhausted to the outside after passing through the collectors. The paper presents some of the results obtained by simulating the system at the design stage for winter conditions.

Fanchiotti, A. [Terza Univ. di Roma (Italy); Herkel, S.; Laukamp, H. [Fraunhofer-Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Priolo, C. [Conphoebus, Piano d`Arci (Italy)

1996-11-01

211

Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

212

Electrohydrodynamically augmented micro heat pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For high power density dissipation, micro heat pipes and micro grooves have demonstrated much promise. Several experimental investigations were conducted to evaluate the potential benefits of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) forces on the operation of micro heat pipes. In these experiments, electric fields were used to orient and guide the flow of the dielectric liquid within the micro heat pipes from the condenser to the evaporator. The first series of experiments indicate that the heat transport capability of the EHD micro heat pipes is increased by up to 6 times of that of conventional ones. Simultaneously, a theoretical model was developed to predict the maximum heat transport capability for various electric field intensities and micro heat pipe geometries. The analytical model agrees well with the experimental results. The model shows that large pore sizes are optimal from a heat transport capacity perspective. Finally, a critical assessment of the experimental results suggest an alternative design capable of achieving as much as a 240 times improvement in the heat transport capacity in comparison to traditional micro heat pipes. Another means to augment the heat transport capacity of micro heat pipes is to employ an ion-drag pumping. An analytical model is developed to evaluate the maximum heat transport capacity as a function of the applied electric field. The predictions indicate that ion drag pumping can achieve a four times increase in heat transport capacity under the application of an electric field relative to what would exist in the absence of a field. A transient analytical model was developed to permit variation of the electric field with applied thermal load. A proportional-integral-derivative controller was used to simulate active temperature control. The feasibility of achieving active temperature control was demonstrated experimentally. Finally, a simpler EHD enhanced micro groove model was constructed and tested. A pair of electrodes was used as a liquid artery to convey the working liquid from the condenser to the evaporator. A six times increase of the heat transport capability was obtained.

Yu, Zhiquan

2001-12-01

213

Increase of COP for heat transformer in water purification systems. Part I – Increasing heat source temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of a water purification system in a heat transformer allows a fraction of heat obtained by the heat transformer to be recycled, increasing the heat source temperature. Consequently, the evaporator and generator temperatures are also increased. For any operating conditions, keeping the condenser and absorber temperatures and also the heat load to the evaporator and generator, a higher

J. Siqueiros; R. J. Romero

2007-01-01

214

Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Business Case Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, 'HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment', ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. Table 1 summarizes the energy savings potential of the highest scoring options from the 2005 study for all five locations. All system options were scored by the ORNL building equipment research team and by William Goetzler of Navigant Consulting. These scores were reviewed by DOE/BT's Residential Integration program leaders and Building America team members. Based on these results, the two centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) systems (air source and ground source versions) were selected for advancement to Stage 2 (Exploratory Development) business case assessments in FY06. This report describes results of these business case assessments. It is a compilation of three separate reports describing the initial business case study (Baxter 2006a), an update to evaluate the impact of an economizer cooling option (Baxter 2006b), and a second update to evaluate the impact of a winter humidification option (Baxter 2007). In addition it reports some corrections made subsequent to release of the first two reports to correct so

Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2007-05-01

215

Heat Pipe Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heat pipe, a sealed chamber whose walls are lined with a "wick," a thin capillary network containing a working fluid in liquid form was developed for a heat distribution system for non-rotating satellites. Use of the heat pipe provides a continuous heat transfer mechanism. "Heat tubes" that improve temperature control in plastics manufacturing equipment incorporated the heat pipe technology. James M. Stewart, an independent consultant, patented the heat tubes he developed and granted a license to Kona Corporation. The Kona Nozzle for heaterless injection molding gets heat for its operation from an external source and has no internal heating bands, reducing machine maintenance and also eliminating electrical hazards associated with heater bands. The nozzles are used by Eastman Kodak, Bic Pen Corporation, Polaroid, Tupperware, Ford Motor Company, RCA, and Western Electric in the molding of their products.

1981-01-01

216

Enhancement of heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent publications on enhancement of heat transfer are reviewed, emphasizing the effects of roughness elements, fins, and porous surfaces. Enhancement of forced convective heat transfer on roughened surfaces, performance evaluation of enhanced surfaces, viscous flows in cooled tubes and tubes with swirlers, and active methods of enhancement are addressed. Aspects of pool boiling heat transfer are considered, including nucleate boiling heat transfer on rough surfaces and porous surfaces, and maximum and minimum heat fluxes. Evaporative heat transfer is discussed for thin-film evaporation on structured surfaces and liquid spray cooling of a heated surface. Condensation heat transfer on external surfaces is covered, including filmwise condensation on vertical finned and fluted surfaces and on horizontal tubes. In-tube boiling and condensation are treated, discussing their enhancement by fins and inserts, as well as critical heat flux in coiled, rifled, and corrugated tubes.

Nakayama, W.

217

Heat pump system with hot water defrost  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an integrated heat pump and hot water system that includes, a heat pump having an indoor heat exchanger unit and an outdoor heat exchanger unit that are selectively connected to a compressor inlet and a compressor outlet by a flow reversing means and to each other by a flow reversing means and to each other by a

1988-01-01

218

Extended fusion yield integral using pathway idea in case of Shock-compressed heated plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extended non-resonant thermonuclear reaction rate probability integral obtained in Haubold and Kumar [Haubold, H.J. and Kumar, D.: 2008, Extension of thermonuclear functions through the pathway model including Maxwell-Boltzmann and Tsallis distributions, Astroparticle Physics, 29, 70-76] is used to evaluate the fusion energy by itegrating it over temperature. The closed form representation of the extended reaction rate integral via Meijer's G-function is expressed as a solution of a homogeneous differential equation. A physical model of Guderley[Guderley G. :1942, Starke kugelige und zylindrische Verdichtungsstsse in der Nhe des Kugelmittelpunktes bzw. der Zylinderachse, Luftfahrtforschung, 19, 302] has been considered for the laser driven hydrodynamical process in a compressed fusion plasma and heated strong spherical shock wave. The fusion yield integral obtained in the paper is compared with the standard fusion yield ob-tained by Haubold and John [Haubold, H.J. and John, R.W.:1981, Analytical representation of the thermonuclear reaction rate and fusion energy production in a spherical plasma shock wave, Plasma Physics, 5, 399-411]. The pathway parameter used in this paper is given an interpretation in terms of moments.

Kumar, Dilip; Haubold, Hans

219

Heat transfer -- Portland 1995  

SciTech Connect

This Volume contains a total of forty seven papers, plus two abstracts, divided among eleven technical sessions on the following topics: Multiphase flow in waste management and environmental restoration, Parts 1 and 2; forced convection interphase transfer with particles; thermal-hydraulics in nuclear reactor systems, heat transfer phenomena in non-commercial reactors; heat transfer in containment; erosion, corrosion, and process heat transfer in power plant systems; innovative applications of solar energy; heat transfer aspects of space power and propulsion; fundamentals of heat pipes in space applications; and heat transfer and energy conversion in dual use power systems. Papers have been abstracted separately for inclusion on the data base.

El-Genk, M.S. [ed.] [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

220

Flexible Heating Head  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

United States Air Force is investigating method of repairing aircraft by use of adhesive bonding with induction heating to cure adhesive. Fast-acting and reliable induction heating device that is lightweight, portable, and easy to use needed for such applications. Newly developed flexible heating head lightweight and conforms to complex, curved surfaces. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun described in "Toroid Joining Gun for Fittings and Couplings" (LAR-14278). Concentrates heat in local area through induction heating. Flexible heating head contains tank circuit, connected via cable to source of power.

Fox, Robert L.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris

1994-01-01

221

Heat transfer system  

DOEpatents

A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

Not Available

1980-03-07

222

Heat transfer system  

DOEpatents

A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

223

Wound tube heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01

224

Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

2006-01-01

225

Summer HeatSummer Heat Heat stress solutions  

E-print Network

is older, over weight, in poor physical condition, taking allergy medication, or not used to being out to the heat. Become a weather watcher. Set up a small weather station (with a high/low thermom eter, rain

Liskiewicz, Maciej

226

INTEGRITY: Integration of Heat Treatment into Machine-Tools by Using Advanced Grinding Technology (INTEGRITY), project no.: BE96-3439  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Objectives Common industrial practice for the manufacturing sequence of high-quality steel parts consists usually of soft machining, hardening by heat treatment, and hard machining in separate processes at different locations. This causes inflexibility, throughput disadvantages on time-to-order demands, increased logistic and co-ordination efforts, and finally unjustified cost\\/benefit figures. The main objective of INTEGRITY was to develop an innovative grinding

Robert Bosch; Gleason Pfauter Italia

227

Integration, Transcription, and Control of a Drosophila Heat Shock Gene in Mouse Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse L cells were transformed with a cloned 3.6-kilobase (kb) segment of Drosophila melanogaster DNA carrying the 2.25-kb transcribed sequence for the Drosophila 70,000-dalton heat shock protein (hsp70) and 1.1 kb and 0.2 kb of 5' and 3' flanking DNA, respectively. Heat shock of one of three such transformed cell lines containing multiple copies of the intact Drosophila segment induced

Victor Corces; Angel Pellicer; Richard Axel; Matthew Meselson

1981-01-01

228

Heat Exchangers as Equipment and Integrated Items in Waste and Biomass Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat recovery systems play an important role in waste to energy and biomass processing. An efficient approach that follows a recommended hierarchy in design, process as a whole (e.g., incineration) ? subsystem of the process (e.g., heat recovery system) ? equipment (e.g., air pre-heater), is shown. Important factors have to be taken into consideration in processes for incineration (combustion of

Petr Stehlik

2007-01-01

229

Integrated modelling of steady-state scenarios and heating and current drive mixes for ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress on ITER steady-state (SS) scenario modelling by the ITPA-IOS group is reviewed. Code-to-code benchmarks as the IOS group's common activities for the two SS scenarios (weak shear scenario and internal transport barrier scenario) are discussed in terms of transport, kinetic profiles, and heating and current drive (CD) sources using various transport codes. Weak magnetic shear scenarios integrate the plasma core and edge by combining a theory-based transport model (GLF23) with scaled experimental boundary profiles. The edge profiles (at normalized radius ? = 0.8-1.0) are adopted from an edge-localized mode-averaged analysis of a DIII-D ITER demonstration discharge. A fully noninductive SS scenario is achieved with fusion gain Q = 4.3, noninductive fraction fNI = 100%, bootstrap current fraction fBS = 63% and normalized beta ?N = 2.7 at plasma current Ip = 8 MA and toroidal field BT = 5.3 T using ITER day-1 heating and CD capability. Substantial uncertainties come from outside the radius of setting the boundary conditions (? = 0.8). The present simulation assumed that ?N (?) at the top of the pedestal (? = 0.91) is about 25% above the peeling-ballooning threshold. ITER will have a challenge to achieve the boundary, considering different operating conditions (Te/Ti ? 1 and density peaking). Overall, the experimentally scaled edge is an optimistic side of the prediction. A number of SS scenarios with different heating and CD mixes in a wide range of conditions were explored by exploiting the weak-shear steady-state solution procedure with the GLF23 transport model and the scaled experimental edge. The results are also presented in the operation space for DT neutron power versus stationary burn pulse duration with assumed poloidal flux availability at the beginning of stationary burn, indicating that the long pulse operation goal (3000 s) at Ip = 9 MA is possible. Source calculations in these simulations have been revised for electron cyclotron current drive including parallel momentum conservation effects and for neutral beam current drive with finite orbit and magnetic pitch effects.

Murakami, M.; Park, J. M.; Giruzzi, G.; Garcia, J.; Bonoli, P.; Budny, R. V.; Doyle, E. J.; Fukuyama, A.; Hayashi, N.; Honda, M.; Hubbard, A.; Ide, S.; Imbeaux, F.; Jaeger, E. F.; Luce, T. C.; Na, Y.-S.; Oikawa, T.; Osborne, T. H.; Parail, V.; Polevoi, A.; Prater, R.; Sips, A. C. C.; Snipes, J.; St. John, H. E.; Snyder, P. B.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; ITPA/Integrated Operation Scenario Group

2011-10-01

230

Integrated modelling of steady-state scenarios and heating and current drive mixes for ITER  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress on ITER steady-state (SS) scenario modelling by the ITPA-IOS group is reviewed. Code-to-code benchmarks as the IOS group's common activities for the two SS scenarios (weak shear scenario and internal transport barrier scenario) are discussed in terms of transport, kinetic profiles, and heating and current drive (CD) sources using various transport codes. Weak magnetic shear scenarios integrate the plasma core and edge by combining a theory-based transport model (GLF23) with scaled experimental boundary profiles. The edge profiles (at normalized radius rho = 0.8-1.0) are adopted from an edge-localized mode-averaged analysis of a DIII-D ITER demonstration discharge. A fully noninductive SS scenario is achieved with fusion gain Q = 4.3, noninductive fraction f(NI) = 100%, bootstrap current fraction f(BS) = 63% and normalized beta beta(N) = 2.7 at plasma current I(p) = 8MA and toroidal field B(T) = 5.3 T using ITER day-1 heating and CD capability. Substantial uncertainties come from outside the radius of setting the boundary conditions (rho = 0.8). The present simulation assumed that beta(N)(rho) at the top of the pedestal (rho = 0.91) is about 25% above the peeling-ballooning threshold. ITER will have a challenge to achieve the boundary, considering different operating conditions (T(e)/T(i) approximate to 1 and density peaking). Overall, the experimentally scaled edge is an optimistic side of the prediction. A number of SS scenarios with different heating and CD mixes in a wide range of conditions were explored by exploiting the weak-shear steady-state solution procedure with the GLF23 transport model and the scaled experimental edge. The results are also presented in the operation space for DT neutron power versus stationary burn pulse duration with assumed poloidal flux availability at the beginning of stationary burn, indicating that the long pulse operation goal (3000s) at I(p) = 9 MA is possible. Source calculations in these simulations have been revised for electron cyclotron current drive including parallel momentum conservation effects and for neutral beam current drive with finite orbit and magnetic pitch effects.

Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Park, Jin Myung [ORNL; Giruzzi, G. [CEA, IRFM, France; Garcia, J. [CEA Cadarache, St. Paul lex Durance, France; Bonoli, P. T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Doyle, E. J. [University of California, Los Angeles; Fukuyama, A. [Kyoto University, Japan; Ferron, J.R. [General Atomics, San Diego; Hayashi, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Honda, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Hubbard, A. [MIT Plasma Science & Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA; Hong, R. M. [General Atomics, San Diego; Ide, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Imbeaux, F. [CEA Cadarache, St. Paul lex Durance, France; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Luce, T.C. [General Atomics, San Diego; Na, Y S [Seoul National University of Technology, Korea; Oikawa, T. [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Parail, V. [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, UK; Polevoi, A. [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Prater, R. [General Atomics; Sips, A C C [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany; Shafer, M. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Snipes, J. A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; St. John, H. E. [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Snyder, P. B. [General Atomics, San Diego; Voitsekhovitch, I [UKAEA Fusion, Culham UK

2011-01-01

231

Heat Wave Safety Checklist  

MedlinePLUS

... heat has caused more deaths than all other weather events, including floods. A heat wave is a ... stroke include hot, red skin which may be dry or moist; changes in consciousness; vomiting; and high ...

232

Monogroove liquid heat exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid supply control is disclosed for a heat transfer system which transports heat by liquid-vapor phase change of a working fluid. An assembly (10) of monogroove heat pipe legs (15) can be operated automatically as either heat acquisition devices or heat discharge sources. The liquid channels (27) of the heat pipe legs (15) are connected to a reservoir (35) which is filled and drained by respective filling and draining valves (30, 32). Information from liquid level sensors (50, 51) on the reservoir (35) is combined (60) with temperature information (55) from the liquid heat exchanger (12) and temperature information (56) from the assembly vapor conduit (42) to regulate filling and draining of the reservoir (35), so that the reservoir (35) in turn serves the liquid supply/drain needs of the heat pipe legs (15), on demand, by passive capillary action (20, 28).

Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor)

1990-01-01

233

HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS  

E-print Network

The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

Lenert, Andrej

2012-01-01

234

Radial heat flux transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unit moves heat radially from small diameter shell to larger diameter shell, or vice versa, with negligible temperature drop, making device useful wherever heating or cooling of concentrically arranged materials, substances, and structures is desired.

Basiulis, A.; Buzzard, R. J.

1971-01-01

235

Unsteady heat transfer in heat pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose was to investigate the unsteady heat transfer associated with a heat pipe during start up operation. Initial studies were conducted with a variety of heat pipe screen wick configurations in order to develop a mathematical expression for the flow velocity of a fluid inducted by the capillary structure of the wick. This mathematical model was solved first numerically and then simplified to provide a closed form solution. The results were compared with the experimental data and proved to provide consistent results with plus or minus 10%. A lumped parameter model of the heat pipe was next developed so that the transient operation of the heat pipe could be predicted. Upon evalaution of the model it was shown that the model and the experimental data agreed quite well in overall performance but an initial period of performance was identified where the experimental results differed significantly from the lumped parameter model. During this initial period of operation, large temperature gradients were observed, and it was theorized that the effect was a result of the interdependence of the hydrodynamics and the heat transfer characteristics of the heat pipe.

Beam, J. E.

236

Methods of Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To help students better understand conduction, convection, and radiation as methods of heat transfer in solids, liquids and gases. Let's look at all three methods of heat transfer ... Overview of Conduction, Convection, Radiation Conduction- 1. Explain what happens as heat energy is supplied to one part of a solid. 2. Explain how energy is transferred by conduction through a solid. Convection- 1. What is ?anything fluid? ? Include two examples. 2. Describe how and why heat is transferred in ...

Mrs. Carlone

2006-11-12

237

Urban Heat Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the urban heat island effect by investigating which areas of their schoolyard have higher temperatures - trees, grass, asphalt, and other materials. Based on their results, they hypothesize how concentrations of surfaces that absorb heat might affect the temperature in cities - the urban heat island effect. Then they analyze data about the history of Los Angeles heat waves and look for patterns in the Los Angeles climate data and explore patterns.

Lisa Gardiner

238

Isolated Quantum Heat Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theoretical and numerical analysis of a quantum system that is capable of functioning as a heat engine. This system could be realized experimentally using cold bosonic atoms confined to a double well potential that is created by splitting a harmonic trap with a focused laser. The system shows thermalization, and can model a reversible heat engine cycle. This is the first demonstration of the operation of a heat engine with a finite quantum heat bath.

Fialko, O.; Hallwood, D. W.

2012-02-01

239

Solar heat receiver  

DOEpatents

A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

1985-01-01

240

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

DOEpatents

A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

1984-10-23

241

COP prediction for the integration of a water purification process in a heat transformer: with and without energy recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A predictive model for a water purification process integrated in an absorption heat transformer, using an artificial neural network, is proposed in order to obtain on-line predictions of the coefficient of performance (COP). This model takes into account the input and output temperatures for each one of the four components (absorber, generator, evaporator, and condenser), as well as two pressure

J. A. Hernández; D. Juárez-Romero; L. I. Morales; J. Siqueiros

2008-01-01

242

Functional Integral approach to time-dependent heat exchange in open quantum systems: general method and applications  

E-print Network

We establish the path integral approach for the time-dependent heat exchange of an externally driven quantum system coupled to a thermal reservoir. We derive the relevant influence functional and present an exact formal expression for the moment generating functional which carries all statistical properties of the heat exchange process for general linear dissipation. The general method is applied to the time-dependent average heat transfer in the dissipative two-state system. We show that the heat can be written as a convolution integral which involves the population and coherence correlation functions of the two-state system and additional correlations due to a polarization of the reservoir. The corresponding expression can be solved in the weak-damping limit both for white noise and for quantum mechanical coloured noise. The implications of pure quantum effects are discussed. Altogether a complete description of the dynamics of the average heat transfer ranging from the classical regime down to zero temperature is achieved.

M. Carrega; P. Solinas; A. Braggio; M. Sassetti; U. Weiss

2014-12-22

243

Heat Transfer Guest Editorial  

E-print Network

Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer

Kandlikar, Satish

244

Champagne Heat Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

Jones, Jack A.

2004-01-01

245

Heat Recovery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ball Metal's design of ducting and controls for series of roof top heat exchangers was inspired by Tech Briefs. Heat exchangers are installed on eight press and coating lines used to decorate sheet metal. The heat recovery system provides an estimated energy savings of more than $250,000 per year.

1984-01-01

246

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOEpatents

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01

247

The heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat pipe is a device having a high thermal conductance which utilizes the transport of a vapour and rejection of latent heat to achieve efficient thermal energy transport. The theory of heat pipes is well developed. Their use in applications involving temperatures in the cryogenic regime, and with development units running as high as 2000 degrees C, shows that

P. D. Dunn; D. A. Reay

1973-01-01

248

Waste heat recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to a system for reclaiming or recovering heat which would otherwise be lost from a heating plant. The invention accordingly relates to a heating plant incorporating a plurality of boilers, including a stand-by boiler, there being means for supplying fuel and air to at least one of said boilers, except for the stand-by boiler, and flue gas

Beckett

1983-01-01

249

Waste heat recovery boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste heat recovery boiler is described which utilizes an exhaust gas of a gas turbine and generates steam for driving a steam turbine. The improvement wherein at least two denitrating devices for removing NO\\/sub x\\/ components in the exhaust gas therefrom are disposed inside the waste heat recovery boiler. The waste heat recovery boiler is equipped with fuel economizers

E. Yanai; T. Kuribayashi

1987-01-01

250

Waste heat recovery boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste heat recovery boiler for generating steam by utilizing a flue gas discharged from a gas turbine as a heat source comprises an economizer for preheating feedwater by the flue gas, an evaporator for evaporating the preheated feedwater, and a superheater for generating a steam for driving a steam prime mover by heating the evaporated feedwater. The economizer, the

H. Taiji Inui; M. Makoto Sasaki

1984-01-01

251

Waste heat recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a waste heat recovery system. It comprises a conduit for conveying an exhaust gas stream; a boiler assembly connected to the conduit including a heat recovery steam generator through which the exhaust gas if flowed, and characterized by a high temperature stream tube heat exchanger and, at a downstream location relative thereto, a water-tube boiler; an ammonia

E. M. Smith; R. C. Cornelison

1989-01-01

252

Fireplace heat generating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fireplace heat generating system includes a plurality of conduits which cooperate to define a grate for seating logs or other combustible material there atop. The conduits are in communication with a heat deflector or shield at the base thereof. Discharge or heat issuing conduits or other suitable conveyances are disposed at the top of the shield and are in

Emmendorfer

1981-01-01

253

Geothermal heat recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for recovering heat from a geothermal well includes a quantity of heavy drilling mud filling the bottom of the geothermal well. A hollow heat absorber is disposed within the drilling mud in the well bottom. The heat absorber is supplied with a working fluid such as freon through a supply pipe extending from the top of the well,

W. F. Ash; F. R. Ash

1978-01-01

254

Waste heat recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for recovering the waste heat normally exhausted into the atmosphere by chemical or other processing plants is described. The system comprises a substantially self-contained apparatus for receiving hot exhaust gases and extracting the waste heat for some beneficial use, such as pre-heating inlet air in an inlet plenum. The system may include temperature and pressure controls which enhance

J. J. Jr. Fallon; J. B. Blair; D. R. Phelps

1978-01-01

255

Electricity from waste heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In industry and in ships, large amounts of waste heat with quite a high release temperature are produced: examples are combustion gases and the exhaust gases of ceramic kilns. Very often they cannot be used for heating purposes because of long transport distances or because there is no local district heating network. Thus, a practical solution would be to convert

Jaakko Larjola; Olli Lindgren; Esa Vakkilainen

1991-01-01

256

Heat exchangers for low grade waste heat  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a user friendly computer program written for the design and optimization of roll bond aluminum heat exchangers and its validation against experimental test data. Test results for two different designs of heat exchanger panel, one serpentine and one dimple, are also given. The dimple design is shown to be superior to the serpentine one giving a 75% increase in heat transfer for a modest increase in pressure drop. Finally, a comparison of the economics of equivalent aluminum, stainless steel and titanium units for sea-water applications is presented.

Hay, E. [Nisymco Inc., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Al-Witry, A.; Aroussi, A.; Hay, N. [Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

257

Semicollisional heat flux in laser heated plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semicollisional transport theory in laser heated plasmas is presented. The Fokker-Planck equation that includes the electron-electron interaction up to the first anisotropy is solved numerically for arbitrary collisionality range. The inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of the laser energy by the electrons is taken into account. Nonlocal heat flux formulas due to the thermal gradients and to the laser heating, which are in good agreement with the numerical results, are proposed. These transport coefficients are compared with the results of the literature.

Tahraoui, A.; Bendib, A.

2002-07-01

258

A corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Richlen, S.L.

1987-08-10

259

Composite heat pipe development status: Development of lightweight prototype carbon-carbon heat pipe with integral fins and metal foil liner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses development and proof-of-concept testing of a new lightweight carbon-carbon (C-C) space radiator heat pipe, carried out under the NASA Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Program. The prototype heat pipe, equipped with a niobium-zirconium foil liner, was filled with potassium working fluid and tested for 11 hours, including startup from ambient temperature with the working fluid initially in the frozen state to near 700 K condenser temperature. Steady-state heat pipe input power during testing was facility limited to about 300 watts. Post test inspection showed the heat pipe to be in excellent condition after eight thermal cycles from ambient to steady-state operating temperature. Utilization of other liner materials and working fluids would greatly extend the spectrum of service temperatures for this technology, with potential applications ranging from small spacecraft heat rejection to aircraft and terrestrial uses.

Juhasz, Albert J.; Rovang, Richard D.

1995-01-01

260

Chemical heat pump  

DOEpatents

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

1980-01-01

261

THE INTEGRATION OF PROCESS HEAT APPLICATIONS TO HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature gas reactor, HTGR, can produce industrial process steam, high-temperature heat-transfer gases, and/or electricity. In conventional industrial processes, these products are generated by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, resulting in significant emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Heat or electricity produced in an HTGR could be used to supply process heat or electricity to conventional processes without generating any greenhouse gases. Process heat from a reactor needs to be transported by a gas to the industrial process. Two such gases were considered in this study: helium and steam. For this analysis, it was assumed that steam was delivered at 17 MPa and 540 C and helium was delivered at 7 MPa and at a variety of temperatures. The temperature of the gas returning from the industrial process and going to the HTGR must be within certain temperature ranges to maintain the correct reactor inlet temperature for a particular reactor outlet temperature. The returning gas may be below the reactor inlet temperature, ROT, but not above. The optimal return temperature produces the maximum process heat gas flow rate. For steam, the delivered pressure sets an optimal reactor outlet temperature based on the condensation temperature of the steam. ROTs greater than 769.7 C produce no additional advantage for the production of steam.

Michael G. McKellar

2011-11-01

262

Integration Of Heat Transfer Coefficient In Glass Forming Modeling With Special Interface Element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical modeling of the glass forming processes requires the accurate knowledge of the heat exchange between the glass and the forming tools. A laboratory testing is developed to determine the evolution of the heat transfer coefficient in different glass/mould contact conditions (contact pressure, temperature, lubrication…). In this paper, trials are performed to determine heat transfer coefficient evolutions in experimental conditions close to the industrial blow-and-blow process conditions. In parallel of this work, a special interface element is implemented in a commercial Finite Element code in order to deal with heat transfer between glass and mould for non-meshing meshes and evolutive contact. This special interface element, implemented by using user subroutines, permits to introduce the previous heat transfer coefficient evolutions in the numerical modelings at the glass/mould interface in function of the local temperatures, contact pressures, contact time and kind of lubrication. The blow-and-blow forming simulation of a perfume bottle is finally performed to assess the special interface element performance.

Moreau, P.; César de Sá, J.; Grégoire, S.; Lochegnies, D.

2007-05-01

263

Design Optimization of Loop Heat Pipes with Cylindrical Evaporator and Integral Reservoir for Space Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design optimization of a LHP system for a space application is considered. The system is composed of the LHP itself, an interface with the heat source (saddle) and a radiator. The criterion is minimal system mass while meeting the operational requirements. The optimization is performed with simultaneous consideration of hot and cold conditions with respect to imposed heat loads to the evaporator and external heat fluxes over the radiator panel. The design parameters of the system optimized are the active length of the evaporator, internal and external diameters of the primary wick, volume and size of the reservoir, thickness and width of the saddle, diameters and tube thickness of the transport lines and condenser, length of the condenser, dimensions of the radiator panel and the amount of the LHP working fluid charged. The LHP mass and optimal design parameters are obtained for three working fluids: ammonia, propylene and acetone; a comparative study of the optimal mass characteristics is performed. Fixed parameters are the required values of transferred heat loads, incident external heat fluxes for the hot and cold cases, length of the transport lines, material and fluid properties. Constraints include temperature limits for the attached equipment and the capillary limits of the LHP. A special steady state mathematical model was developed for the calculation of the LHP performance parameters and a global search metaheuristic, called Generalized Extremal Optimization (GEO), is used as the optimization tool.

Vlassov, Valeri V.; de Sousa, Fabiano L.; Riehl, Roger R.

2008-01-01

264

Experimental study of an integral catalytic combustor: Heat exchanger for Stirling engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using catalytic combustion with heat removal for the Stirling engine to reduce exhaust emissions and also improve heat transfer to the working fluid was studied using spaced parallel plates. An internally air-cooled heat exchanger was placed between two noble metal catalytic plates. A preheated fuel-air mixture passed between the plates and reacted on the surface of the catalyzed plates. Heat was removed from the catalytic surface by radiation and convection to the aircooled heat exchangers to control temperature and minimize thermal nitrogen oxide emissions. Test conditions were inlet combustion air temperatures from 850 to 900 K, inlet velocities of about 10 m/s, equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 0.9, and pressures from 1.3x10 to the 5th power to 2.0x10 to the 5th power Pa. Propane fuel was used for all testing. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were measured. Nitrogen oxide emissions ranged from 1.7 to 3.3 g NO2/kg fuel. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and indicate that further investigation of the concept is warranted.

Bulzan, D. L.

1982-01-01

265

Integration Of Heat Transfer Coefficient In Glass Forming Modeling With Special Interface Element  

SciTech Connect

Numerical modeling of the glass forming processes requires the accurate knowledge of the heat exchange between the glass and the forming tools. A laboratory testing is developed to determine the evolution of the heat transfer coefficient in different glass/mould contact conditions (contact pressure, temperature, lubrication...). In this paper, trials are performed to determine heat transfer coefficient evolutions in experimental conditions close to the industrial blow-and-blow process conditions. In parallel of this work, a special interface element is implemented in a commercial Finite Element code in order to deal with heat transfer between glass and mould for non-meshing meshes and evolutive contact. This special interface element, implemented by using user subroutines, permits to introduce the previous heat transfer coefficient evolutions in the numerical modelings at the glass/mould interface in function of the local temperatures, contact pressures, contact time and kind of lubrication. The blow-and-blow forming simulation of a perfume bottle is finally performed to assess the special interface element performance.

Moreau, P.; Gregoire, S.; Lochegnies, D. [LAMIH UMR CNRS 8530, University of Valenciennes, Le Mont-Houy, 59313 Valenciennes Cedex 9 (France); Cesar de Sa, J. [DEMEGI, University of Porto, Rua Dr Roberto Frias, s/n 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

2007-05-17

266

Ultrananocrystalline diamond tip integrated onto a heated atomic force microscope cantilever This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-print Network

Ultrananocrystalline diamond tip integrated onto a heated atomic force microscope cantilever.1088/0957-4484/23/49/495302 Ultrananocrystalline diamond tip integrated onto a heated atomic force microscope cantilever Hoe Joon Kim1, Nicolaie Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA 2 Advanced Diamond Technologies Inc., Romeoville, IL 60446, USA 3

King, William P.

267

"E" Heating Head  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two separate areas heated inductively for adhesive bonding in single operation. "E" heating head developed to satisfy need for fast-acting and reliable induction heating device. Used in attaching "high-hat" stiffeners to aircraft panels. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun. Width and length configured to provide variously sized heat zones, depending on bonding requirements. Lightweight, portable and provides rapid, reliable heating of dual areas in any environment. Well suited for flight-line and depot maintenance, and battlefield repair. Also useful in automotive assembly lines to strengthen automobile panels.

Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris; Copeland, Carl E.

1994-01-01

268

Absorption heat pump system  

DOEpatents

An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)

1984-01-01

269

Heat pipe investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The OAO-C spacecraft has three circular heat pipes, each of a different internal design, located in the space between the spacecraft structural tube and the experiment tube, which are designed to isothermalize the structure. Two of the pipes are used to transport high heat loads, and the third is for low heat loads. The test problems deal with the charging of the pipes, modifications, the mobile tilt table, the position indicator, and the heat input mechanisms. The final results showed that the techniques used were adequate for thermal-vacuum testing of heat pipes.

Marshburn, J. P.

1972-01-01

270

Heating and cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heating and cooling homes and businesses require a major energy commitment. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the energy needed to heat and cool homes and workplaces. Students explore energy requirements in the home and at work and discuss current technologies to improve heating and cooling efficiencies. Articles on heat pumps and solar heating and cooling techniques are accessible from a sidebar. A link to a PBS NewsHour article on air conditioning efficiency and a link to material discussing alternatives to air conditioning are also provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

271

Flexible heating head for induction heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An induction heating head includes a length of wire having first and second opposite ends and being wound in a flat spiral shape to form an induction coil, a capacitor connected to the first and second ends of the wire, the induction coil and capacitor defining a tank circuit, and a flexible, elastomeric body molded to encase the induction coil. When a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the body, and the tank circuit is powered, the susceptor is inductively heated.

Fox, Robert L. (inventor); Johnson, Samuel D. (inventor); Coultrip, Robert H. (inventor); Phillips, W. Morris (inventor)

1993-01-01

272

Stirling engine heat-actuated heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Stirling-engine-driven heat-actuated heat pump (HAHP) system developed at Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) consists of a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) driver, a diaphragm-actuated hydraulic coupling, and a Rankine-cycle, resonant-linear refrigerant compressor. This system has been under development at MTI for the past two years; within the last six months, the unit has been placed on test. This paper describes the

R. A. Ackerman; J. English; T. Moynihan

1983-01-01

273

Stirling engine heat-actuated heat pump  

SciTech Connect

A Stirling-engine-driven heat-actuated heat pump (HAHP) system developed at Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) consists of a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) driver, a diaphragm-actuated hydraulic coupling, and a Rankine-cycle, resonant-linear refrigerant compressor. This system has been under development at MTI for the past two years; within the last six months, the unit has been placed on test. This paper describes the system and test results achieved to date.

Ackerman, R.A.; English, J.; Moynihan, T.

1983-08-01

274

Heat pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

1983-01-01

275

Deployable Heat Pipe Radiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1.2- by 1.8-m variable conductance heat pipe radiator was designed, built, and tested. The radiator has deployment capability and can passively control Freon-21 fluid loop temperatures under varying loads and environments. It consists of six grooved variable conductance heat pipes attached to a 0.032-in. aluminum panel. Heat is supplied to the radiator via a fluid header or a single-fluid flexible heat pipe header. The heat pipe header is an artery design that has a flexible section capable of bending up to 90 degrees. Radiator loads as high as 850 watts were successfully tested. Over a load variation of 200 watts, the outlet temperature of the Freon-21 fluid varied by 7 F. An alternate control system was also investigated which used a variable conductance heat pipe header attached to the heat pipe radiator panel.

Edelstein, F.

1975-01-01

276

Nanofluid heat capacities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

2011-12-01

277

Active microchannel heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

2001-01-01

278

Ceramic heat recuperators for industrial heat recovery  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from a continuing program whose purpose is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of using ceramic heat recuperators for industrial heat recovery. The information presented can be used by engineers in industry to evaluate their specific furnace applications and to estimate the technical requirements and economic benefits from the use of ceramic heat recuperators. Chapter 2 presents methods that can be used to estimate the amount of energy savings by recuperation. Chapter 3 gives a brief background in heat exchanger design theory so that the reader can understand the procedures involved in designing and sizing heat exchangers for a given application. The specific GTE core design and the recuperator fabrication, housing and installation are discussed in Chapter 4. The demonstration project results are presented in Chapter 5. Each demonstration is described and the results, economics and problem areas discussed. The Appendices provide details that will allow the engineer in industry to select a core, size a heat exchanger, calculate the performance, determine energy saved and estimate the economics of using a ceramic recuperator for a specific industrial application. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-05-01

279

Absorption heat pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

1987-03-01

280

Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film Flowing over a Rotating Disk by Integral Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integral analysis of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk surface is presented for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. The model is found to capture the correct trends of the liquid film thickness variation over the disk surface and compare reasonably well with experimental results over the range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers covering both inertia and rotation dominated regimes. Nusselt number variation over the disk surface shows two types of behavior. At low rotation rates, the Nusselt number exhibits a radial decay with Nusselt number magnitudes increasing with higher inlet Reynolds number for both constant wall temperature and heat flux cases. At high rotation rates, the Nusselt number profiles exhibit a peak whose location advances radially outward with increasing film Reynolds number or inertia. The results also compare favorably with the full numerical simulation results from an earlier study as well as with the reported experimental results.

Basu, S.; Cetegen, B. M.

2005-01-01

281

Single-phase heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of an integral-spine-fin within an annulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laminar, single phase heat transfer and friction characteristics of an integral-spine-fin pipe within an annulus are presented. The heat transfer coefficient was determined using a modified version of the Wilson Plot method. The test fluid was pumped through the annulus of a straight, 3 m test section. Three fluids were investigated: (1) tap water, (2) 34% ethylene glycol/water mixture, and (3) 40% ethylene glycol/water mixture. These fluids produced a significant variation in the Prandtl number so that its exponential dependence could be determined. The annulus-Reynolds numbers were varied from 100 to 1400 to obtain the Reynolds number exponent. An empirical correlation for the Nusselt number was developed which accounts for the development of the thermal boundary layer. An empirical correlation for the friction factor is also presented. It is demonstrated that the spines enhance the heat transfer through additional surface area and fluid mixing.

Kedzierski, M. A.; Kim, M. S.

1994-06-01

282

Application of heat flux transducers to determine perioperative heat exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perioperative hypothermia is a common problem in anaesthesia. To maintain a constant body heat content it is necessary to achieve a steady state of metabolic heat production and external heat exchange. During anaesthesia and surgery this balance is disturbed. The heat production is decreased to a level below resting metabolic heat production while heat losses increase due to the surgical

T. Perl; A. Bräuer; W. Weyland; U. Braun

2004-01-01

283

Existing and Past Methods of Test and Rating Standards Related to Integrated Heat Pump Technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates existing and past US methods of test and rating standards related to electrically operated air, water, and ground source air conditioners and heat pumps, 65,000 Btu/hr and under in capacity, that potentiality incorporate a potable water heating function. Two AHRI (formerly ARI) standards and three DOE waivers were identified as directly related. Six other AHRI standards related to the test and rating of base units were identified as of interest, as they would form the basis of any new comprehensive test procedure. Numerous other AHRI and ASHRAE component test standards were also identified as perhaps being of help in developing a comprehensive test procedure.

Reedy, Wayne R. [Sentech, Inc.

2010-07-01

284

NEP heat pipe radiators. [Nuclear Electric Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper covers improvements of heat pipe radiators for the thermionic NEP design. Liquid metal heat pipes are suitable as spacecraft radiator elements because of high thermal conductance, low mass and reliability, but the NEP thermionic system design was too large and difficult to fabricate. The current integral collector-radiator design consisting of several layers of thermionic converters, the annular-tangential collector heat pipe, the radiator heat pipe, and the transition zone designed to minimize the temperature difference between the collector heat pipe and radiator heat pipe are described. Finally, the design of micrometeoroid armor protection and the fabrication of the stainless steel annular heat pipe with a tangential arm are discussed, and it is concluded that the heat rejection system for the thermionic NEP system is well advanced, but the collector-radiator heat pipe transition and the 8 to 10 m radiator heat pipe with two bends require evaluation.

Ernst, D. M.

1979-01-01

285

Heat pump system  

DOEpatents

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

1983-06-21

286

Heat pump system  

DOEpatents

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1983-01-01

287

Silicon Heat Pipe Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better suited for the cooling of semiconductor devices.

Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

2013-01-01

288

"Bottle-Brush" Heat Exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat exchanger consists of a metal tube with wires extending inward from wall. Conduction of heat along wires improves heat transfer to gas or other filling. Fluid is heated throughout the cross section of tube. Suggested applications are refrigerators, heat engines, thermal instrumentation, and heat switches.

Tward, E.; Gatewood, J. R.

1982-01-01

289

Optimization of cross flow heat exchangers for thermoelectric waste heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoelectric waste heat recovery is investigated for current thermoelectric materials with advanced heat exchangers. Numerical heat exchanger models integrated with models for Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules are validated against experimental data from previous cross flow heat exchanger studies as well as experiments using thermoelectrics between counterflow hot water and cooling air flow channels. The models are used in optimization studies of

Douglas T. Crane; Gregory S. Jackson

2004-01-01

290

Integrated three-dimensional module heat exchanger for power electronics cooling  

SciTech Connect

Embodiments discussed herein are directed to a power semiconductor packaging that removes heat from a semiconductor package through one or more cooling zones that are located in a laterally oriented position with respect to the semiconductor package. Additional embodiments are directed to circuit elements that are constructed from one or more modular power semiconductor packages.

Bennion, Kevin; Lustbader, Jason

2013-09-24

291

Integrated carbon dioxide/sludge gasification using waste heat from hot slags: Syngas production and sulfur dioxide fixation.  

PubMed

The integrated CO2/sludge gasification using the waste heat in hot slags, was explored with the aim of syngas production, waste heat recovery and sewage sludge disposal. The results demonstrated that hot slags presented multiple roles on sludge gasification, i.e., not only a good heat carrier (500-950°C) but also an effective desulfurizer (800-900°C). The total gas yields increased from 0.022kg/kgsludge at 500°C to 0.422kg/kgsludge at 900°C; meanwhile, the SO2 concentration at 900°C remarkably reduced from 164ppm to 114ppm by blast furnace slags (BFS) and 93ppm by steel slags (SS), respectively. A three-stage reaction was clarified including volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon using Gaussian fittings and the kinetic model was analyzed. Accordingly, a decline process using the integrated method was designed and the optimum slag/sludge ratio was deduced. These deciphered results appealed potential ways of reasonable disposal of sewage sludge and efficient recovery of waste heat from hot slags. PMID:25647028

Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong

2015-04-01

292

Heat fluctuations and initial ensembles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-integrated quantities such as work and heat increase incessantly in time during nonequilibrium processes near steady states. In the long-time limit, the average values of work and heat become asymptotically equivalent to each other, since they only differ by a finite energy change in average. However, the fluctuation theorem (FT) for the heat is found not to hold with the equilibrium initial ensemble, while the FT for the work holds. This reveals an intriguing effect of everlasting initial memory stored in rare events. We revisit the problem of a Brownian particle in a harmonic potential dragged with a constant velocity, which is in contact with a thermal reservoir. The heat and work fluctuations are investigated with initial Boltzmann ensembles at temperatures generally different from the reservoir temperature. We find that, in the infinite-time limit, the FT for the work is fully recovered for arbitrary initial temperatures, while the heat fluctuations significantly deviate from the FT characteristics except for the infinite initial-temperature limit (a uniform initial ensemble). Furthermore, we succeed in calculating finite-time corrections to the heat and work distributions analytically, using the modified saddle point integral method recently developed by us. Interestingly, we find noncommutativity between the infinite-time limit and the infinite-initial-temperature limit for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the heat.

Kim, Kwangmoo; Kwon, Chulan; Park, Hyunggyu

2014-09-01

293

Heat fluctuations and initial ensembles.  

PubMed

Time-integrated quantities such as work and heat increase incessantly in time during nonequilibrium processes near steady states. In the long-time limit, the average values of work and heat become asymptotically equivalent to each other, since they only differ by a finite energy change in average. However, the fluctuation theorem (FT) for the heat is found not to hold with the equilibrium initial ensemble, while the FT for the work holds. This reveals an intriguing effect of everlasting initial memory stored in rare events. We revisit the problem of a Brownian particle in a harmonic potential dragged with a constant velocity, which is in contact with a thermal reservoir. The heat and work fluctuations are investigated with initial Boltzmann ensembles at temperatures generally different from the reservoir temperature. We find that, in the infinite-time limit, the FT for the work is fully recovered for arbitrary initial temperatures, while the heat fluctuations significantly deviate from the FT characteristics except for the infinite initial-temperature limit (a uniform initial ensemble). Furthermore, we succeed in calculating finite-time corrections to the heat and work distributions analytically, using the modified saddle point integral method recently developed by us. Interestingly, we find noncommutativity between the infinite-time limit and the infinite-initial-temperature limit for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the heat. PMID:25314405

Kim, Kwangmoo; Kwon, Chulan; Park, Hyunggyu

2014-09-01

294

Heat transfer from oriented heat exchange areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the transfer of heat-driven heat transfer surface area in relation to the construction of the criterion equation for "n" horizontal pipe one about another. On the bases of theoretical models have been developed for calculating the thermal performance of natural convection by Churilla and Morgan, for various pipe diameters and temperatures. These models were compared with models created in CFD-Fluent Ansys the same boundary conditions. The aim of the analyse of heat and fluxional pipe fields "n" pipes one about another at natural convection is the creation of criterion equation on the basis of which the heat output of heat transfer from pipe oriented areas one above another with given spacing could be quantified. At presence a sum of criterion equations exists for simple geometrical shapes of individual oriented geometrical areas but the criterion equation which would consider interaction of fluxional field generated by free convection from multiple oriented areas is not mentioned in standardly accessible technical literature and other magazine publications.

Vantuch, Martin; Huzvar, Jozef; Kapjor, Andrej

2014-03-01

295

Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment (CRYOHP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the CRYOHP experiment is to conduct a shuttle experiment that demonstrates the reliable operation of two oxygen heat pipes in microgravity. The experiment will perform the following tasks: (1) demonstrate startup of the pipes from the supercritical state; (2) measure the heat transport capacity of the pipes; (3) measure evaporator and condenser film coefficients; and (4) work shuttle safety issues. The approach for the experiment is as follows: (1) fly two axially grooved oxygen heat pipes attached to mechanical stirling cycle tactical coolers; (2) integrate experiment in hitch-hiker canister; and (3) fly on shuttle and control from ground.

Mcintosh, Roy

1992-01-01

296

Heat-pipe Earth.  

PubMed

The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics. PMID:24067709

Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

2013-09-26

297

Heat pipe development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

Bienart, W. B.

1973-01-01

298

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOEpatents

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18

299

Induction Heating Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Induction heating technology, a magnetic non-deforming process, was developed by Langley researchers to join plastic and composite components in space. Under NASA license, Inductron Corporation uses the process to produce induction heating systems and equipment for numerous applications. The Torobonder, a portable system, comes with a number of interchangeable heads for aircraft repair. Other developments are the E Heating Head, the Toroid Joining Gun, and the Torobrazer. These products perform bonding applications more quickly, safely and efficiently than previous methods.

1991-01-01

300

NCSX Plasma Heating Methods  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.

H.W. Kugel, D. Spong, R. Majeski and M. Zarnstorff

2008-01-18

301

Saturn base heating handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A handbook containing a summary of model and flight test base heating data from the S-1, S-1B, S-4, S-1C, and S-2 stages is presented. A review of the available prediction methods is included. Experimental data are provided to make the handbook a single source of Saturn base heating data which can be used for preliminary base heating design predictions of launch vehicles.

Mullen, C. R.; Bender, R. L.; Bevill, R. L.; Reardon, J.; Hartley, L.

1972-01-01

302

Waste heat economic opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovering waste heat from compressor-station stack gases and generating steam for producing power, ethanol, gasohol, or process heat is a promising alternative-energy technology. NUS modeled four typical candidate installations - Stations A and B using gas-turbine-driven compressors, Stations C and D having reciprocating-engine prime movers. All four stations produced enough waste heat to generate either 18,000-63,000 lb\\/hr of steam or

Gault

1981-01-01

303

Heat pipe flight experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OAO 3 heat pipe flight experiments to check out weightlessness behavior are reported. Tested were a hollow channel screen system with helical grooves, a heat pipe with a wicking system of horizontal grooves, and a spiral artery pipe with multichannel fluid return to the evaporator. Flight experiment data proved that all heat pipe geometries containing wicking systems provided uninterrupted fluid return to the condensators during weightlessness and sufficient cooling for isothermalizing optical instruments onboard OAO.

Ollendorf, S.

1973-01-01

304

Conquer heat exchanger fouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fouling plays a dominant role in heat exchanger performance. It is extremely important to choose the most appropriate type of heat exchanger for a particular application and adopt proper values for fouling resistance. A design practice for shell-and-tube heat exchangers that will limit fouling to a minimum and thus ensure trouble-free operation is essential. Due to the availability of specialized

1996-01-01

305

Solar heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is disclosed for using solar energy to heat the interior of a structure. The system utilizes a low cost solar collector to heat a recirculating air mass which then flows through a series of interconnected ducts and passageways without the use of exterior fans or blowers. Heat is transferred from the air mass to the structure's interior and the air mass is then reheated.

Jensen, R. N. (inventor)

1977-01-01

306

Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter

2013-01-01

307

To Heat or Not to Heat?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to various types of energy with a focus on thermal energy and types of heat transfer as they are challenged to design a better travel thermos that is cost efficient, aesthetically pleasing and meets the design objective of keeping liquids hot. They base their design decisions on material properties such thermal conductivity, cost and function. These engineering and science concepts are paired with student experiences to build an understanding of heat transfer as it plays a role in their day-to-day lives. While this introduction only shows the top-level concepts surrounding the mathematics associated with heat transfer; the skills become immediately useful as students apply what they know to solve an engineering challenge.

2014-09-18

308

Heat exchanger mat  

SciTech Connect

An improved heat exchanger mat and a method of dislodging and retrieving the mat from the bottom of a solar pond without disturbing an established thermal gradient. The mat is separated from the pond bottom by the injection of a dislodging medium between the mat and the bottom of the pond. When the pond contains a liner, the dislodging medium is injected between the mat and the pond liner. The mat utilizes a dual conduit network of one integral conduit for the flow of heat exchanger fluid and a second integral conduit for the flow of dislodging medium. The dislodging medium enters the dislodging conduit via an inlet and exits through a plurality of outlets located on the underside of the mat. The medium, as it exits, forces the mat upward and frees it from the bottom of the pond. Once the dislodging medium has separated the mat from the pond bottom, attached retrieval cords are used to remove the mat by drawing it up the side of the pond.

Walmet, G. E.

1985-04-16

309

Heat Kills Know Your RightsPreventing Heat Illness Know the symptoms of heat illness  

E-print Network

to the weather During a heat wave you are at greater risk of getting sick. You need to watch yourselfHeat Kills Know Your RightsPreventing Heat Illness Know the symptoms of heat illness Watch-866-924-9757 Tell your supervisor if you are new to working in the heat or have had heat illness before. Stay alert

Burke, Peter

310

Heat and mass exchanger  

DOEpatents

A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

2011-06-28

311

Heat and mass exchanger  

DOEpatents

A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

2007-09-18

312

Heat transfer dynamics  

SciTech Connect

As heat transfer technology increases in complexity, it becomes more difficult for those without thermal dynamics engineering training to choose between competitive heat transfer systems offered to meet their drying requirements. A step back to the basics of heat transfer can help professional managers and papermakers make informed decisions on alternative equipment and methods. The primary forms of heat and mass transfer are reviewed with emphasis on the basics, so a practical understanding of each is gained. Finally, the principles and benefits of generating infrared energy by combusting a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel are explained.

Smith, T.M. (Marsden, Inc., Pennsauken, NJ (United States))

1994-08-01

313

Heating Different Earth Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will be reminded that when sunlight strikes the Earth's surface, energy is absorbed and the surface material is heated. But although the same amount of sunlight strikes different materials at a given location, they heat up at different rates. Students will use models to demonstrate conduction, convection, and radiation and to gain an understanding about what happens to create our planet's weather, ocean currents, and other types of heat transfer. They will also shine a light on four different kinds of materials to examine their different rates of heating.

Michael Passow

314

Heat flux measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new automated, computer controlled heat flux measurement facility is described. Continuous transient and steady-state surface heat flux values varying from about 0.3 to 6 MW/sq m over a temperature range of 100 to 1200 K can be obtained in the facility. An application of this facility is the development of heat flux gauges for continuous fast transient surface heat flux measurement on turbine blades operating in space shuttle main engine turbopumps. The facility is useful for durability testing at fast temperature transients.

Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

1989-01-01

315

Heat pipe technology issues  

SciTech Connect

Critical high temperature, high power applications in space nuclear power designs are near the current state of the art of heat pipe technology in terms of power density, operating temperature, and lifetime. Recent heat pipe development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory has involved performance testing of typical space reactor heat pipe designs to power levels in excess of 19 kW/cm/sup 2/ axially and 300 W/cm/sup 2/ radially at temperatures in the 1400 to 1500 K range. Operation at conditions in the 10 kW/cm/sup 2/ range has been sustained for periods of up to 1000 hours without evidence of performance degradation. The effective length for heat transport in these heat pipes was from 1.0 to 1.5 M. Materials used were molybdenum alloys with lithium employed as the heat pipe operating fluid. Shorter, somewhat lower power, molybdenum heat pipes have been life tested at Los Alamos for periods of greater than 25,000 hours at 1700 K with lithium and 20,000 hours at 1500/sup 0/K with sodium. These life test demonstrations and the attendant performance limit investigations provide an experimental basis for heat pipe application in space reactor design and represent the current state-of-the-art of high temperature heat pipe technology.

Merrigan, M.A.

1984-04-01

316

External artery heat pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

317

Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

1976-01-01

318

Heat rejection system  

DOEpatents

A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

319

Microtube strip heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchanger. DSI completed a heat exchanger stress analysis of the ten-module heat exchanger bank; and, performed a shell-side flow inhomogeneity analysis of the three-module heat exchanger bank. The company produced 50 tubestrips using an in-house CNC milling machine and began pressing them onto tube arrays. DSI revised some of the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips into the array to improve some of the prototype tooling. 2 refs., 4 figs.

Doty, F.D.

1991-07-08

320

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01

321

Reclaiming Waste Heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'Air-O-Space' heater, based on spacecraft heat, requires no fuel other than electricity to run fan. Installed in chimney flue, heat pipes transfer heat from waste hot gases (but not the gases themselves) to fresh air blown across the other end of the pipes. It can transport roughly 500 times the heat flux of the best solid conductors with a temperature drop of less than 3 degrees per foot. This instrument has also been used by Kin-Tek Laboratories Inc. to produce an instrument to calibrate gas analyzers for air-pollution monitoring.

1976-01-01

322

Heat pipe cooled probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic heat pipe principle is employed to provide a self-contained passively cooled probe that may be placed into a high temperature environment. The probe consists of an evaporator region of a heat pipe and a sensing instrument. Heat is absorbed as the working fluid evaporates in the probe. The vapor is transported to the vapor space of the condenser region. Heat is dissipated from the condenser region and fins causing condensation of the working fluid, which returns to the probe by gravity and the capillary action of the wick. Working fluid, wick and condenser configurations and structure materials can be selected to maintain the probe within an acceptable temperature range.

Camarda, C. J. (inventor); Couch, L. M.

1984-01-01

323

Heat Capacity Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore water. For temperatures in the trans-boiling regime (95 C to 114 C), the additional energy required to vaporize the pore water is accounted for in the rock-mass heat capacity. The rock-grain heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that explicitly account for the thermodynamic effects of the water within the rock porosity. The rock-mass heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that do not explicitly account for these thermodynamic effects, particularly boiling. The term specific heat is often used synonymously with heat capacity; however, the latter term is used throughout this document.

A. Findikakis

2004-11-01

324

NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed system performance maps that were developed by this testing program will be used to: (1) Target regions of the country that would benefit most from this technology; (2) Identify improvements in current systems to maximize homeowner cost savings; and (3) Explore opportunities for development of advanced hot water heating systems.

Not Available

2012-01-01

325

On hypersingular surface integrals in the symmetric Galerkin boundary element method: application to heat conduction in exponentially graded materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A symmetric Galerkin formulation and implementation for heat conduction in a three-dimensional functionally graded material is presented. The Green's function of the graded problem, in which the thermal conductivity varies exponentially in one co-ordinate, is used to develop a boundary-only formulation without any domain discretization. The main task is the evaluation of hypersingular and singular integrals, which is carried

Alok Sutradhar; Glaucio H. Paulino; L. J. Gray

2005-01-01

326

Convective heat transfer in planetary dynamo models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic fields of planets and stars are generated by the motions of electrically conducting fluids within them. These fluid motions are thought to be driven by convective processes, as internal heat is transported outward. The efficiency with which heat is transferred by convection is integral in understanding dynamo processes. Several heat transfer scaling laws have been proposed, but the

Eric M. King; Krista M. Soderlund; Ulrich R. Christensen; Johannes Wicht; Jonathan M. Aurnou

2010-01-01

327

THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED; SOLAR POWER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an

2011-01-01

328

Towards a new generation heat exchanger models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the quest for more dependable process models, attending to small detail and integrating increasing their internal complexity will improve dynamic behavior and simulation accuracy. Although detailed heat exchanger models in dedicated steady state design programs are common, steady state process models and dynamic simulations have been based largely on shorteut heat exchanger calculations. However, detailed heat exchanger models can

Geert W. Haarlemmer; Jérôme Pigourier

2008-01-01

329

Design and Assembly of an Integrated Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) Subassembly Engineering Development Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. The core of the MTSA technology is a sorbent bed that removes CO2 from the PLSS ventilation loop gas via a temperature swing. A Condensing Icing Heat eXchanger (CIHX) is used to warm the sorbent while also removing water from the ventilation loop gas. A Sublimation Heat eXchanger (SHX) is used to cool the sorbent. Research was performed to explore an MTSA designed for both lunar and Martian operations. Previously the sorbent bed, CIHX, and SHX had been built and tested individually on a scale relevant to PLSS operations, but they had not been done so as an integrated subassembly. Design and analysis of an integrated subassembly was performed based on this prior experience and an updated transient system model. Focus was on optimizing the design for Martian operations, but the design can also be used in lunar operations. An Engineering Development Unit (EDU) of an integrated MTSA subassembly was assembled based on the design. Its fabrication is discussed. Some details on the differences between the as-assembled EDU and the future flight unit are considered.

Padilla, Sebastian A.; Powers, Aaron; Iacomini, Christie S.; Bower, Chad E.; Paul, Heather L.

2012-01-01

330

Lunar Base Heat Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

1996-01-01

331

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A climate control system is disclosed for heating and cooling a building. The system uses solar energy for its heat source and concrete blocks for its collecting and storing material. The blocks are open faced and positioned to receive the radiation directly. An insulating enclosure is restrictably positioned to expose the blocks to the sun's radiation during the day and to enclose the blocks in the evening to trap the heat for later use. The system uses both natural and forced convection currents to transfer the heat to and from the building. In a preferred embodiment, an upper compartment with a transparent roof is built above the blocks. This compartment is comparatively small and heats quickly to high temperatures. Water pipes of the building heating system can be placed in this compartment and the heated air can be routed into the building or transmitted through a duct to the bottom of the concrete blocks to heat them. The upper compartment is particularly useful in the morning because the sun strikes it first and the heat produced can be used in the house or transmitted to the blocks to begin heating them before the sun is high enough to strike them. In addition to the insulation, the invention includes secondary walls on the exposure side of the collector, comprising transparent panels in the winter and screen louvered openings in the summer. Radiation passing through the transparent panels strikes the blocks and a hot house effect is created. When the night air is relatively cool and the days are hot, the insulating enclosure can be opened at night to pass cool air into the system to lower the temperature of the blocks so they can absorb heat from the building during the day.

Mummert, H.B.

1980-01-01

332

Planetary heat flow measurements.  

PubMed

The year 2005 marks the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 13 mission, probably the most successful failure in the history of manned spaceflight. Naturally, Apollo 13's scientific payload is far less known than the spectacular accident and subsequent rescue of its crew. Among other instruments, it carried the first instrument designed to measure the flux of heat on a planetary body other than Earth. The year 2005 also should have marked the launch of the Japanese LUNAR-A mission, and ESA's Rosetta mission is slowly approaching comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Both missions carry penetrators to study the heat flow from their target bodies. What is so interesting about planetary heat flow? What can we learn from it and how do we measure it?Not only the Sun, but all planets in the Solar System are essentially heat engines. Various heat sources or heat reservoirs drive intrinsic and surface processes, causing 'dead balls of rock, ice or gas' to evolve dynamically over time, driving convection that powers tectonic processes and spawns magnetic fields. The heat flow constrains models of the thermal evolution of a planet and also its composition because it provides an upper limit for the bulk abundance of radioactive elements. On Earth, the global variation of heat flow also reflects the tectonic activity: heat flow increases towards the young ocean ridges, whereas it is rather low on the old continental shields. It is not surprising that surface heat flow measurements, or even estimates, where performed, contributed greatly to our understanding of what happens inside the planets. In this article, I will review the results and the methods used in past heat flow measurements and speculate on the targets and design of future experiments. PMID:16286290

Hagermann, Axel

2005-12-15

333

Integration of Drosophila heat-shock genes transfected into cultured Drosophila melanogaster cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used DNA-mediated gene transfer to introduce intoDrosophila melanogaster cells DNA sequences for which no selective criteria exist. We have introduced a Drosophila heat-shock locus into culturedDrosophila cells by calcium phosphate cotransfection with the copia vector pCV31gpt and selection for xanthine utilization. We recovered cell lines containing between three and about 50 copies of both pCV31 gpt and pMH10A,

J. F. Burke; S. M. Pinchin; D. Ish-Horowicz; J. H. Sinclair; J. H. Sang

1984-01-01

334

Part I, FAB evaluation & application trials AFUE measurements: Part II, Integrated heating system (IHS) development  

SciTech Connect

An oil burner/boiler efficiency test stand has been set up in the BNL oil heat laboratory which can measure the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) of burner/boiler combinations in accordance with ASHRAE and DOE standards. Measurements include both steady state efficiencies and heat-up and cool-down characteristics so that cycling effects can be included in an estimate of seasonal average performance. In addition to AFUE measurements, the direct conversion of fuel energy content to enthalpy increase in the boiler water is monitored. The system is largely automated, with most control functions under computer control and data taken electronically and permanently recorded on disks for future reference. To date, a retention-head burner and a fan atomized burner (FAB) have been tested in a steel boiler, the latter operating at two different fuel flow rates. The results are presented below, and verify that the very tight construction of the FAB`s fan results in a significant decrease in off-cycle sensible heat losses. Tests were also performed on a center-flue water heater fired with a conventional retention-head burner and with an FAB. The tests conformed to DOE standard procedures for hot water heaters, and the results are discussed below.

Leigh, R.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Fisher, L. [BNL Consultant, Colrain, MA (United States)

1996-07-01

335

Heat Transfer Discussion: "Heat Transfer and Wall  

E-print Network

flow boiling curve extending from the single-phase region at point C to the fully developed boiling During Subcooled Flow Nucleate Boiling­A Review" (Warrier, G.R., and Dhir, V.K., 2006, Journal of Heat in the partial boiling region, along with Eqs. 13 - 14 . The authors of 1 further state that Kandlikar 3 in 1998

Kandlikar, Satish

336

Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust  

DOEpatents

An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2010-12-28

337

Proceedings of Heat Transfer 2003: ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference  

E-print Network

Proceedings of Heat Transfer 2003: ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference Las Vegas, Nevada, USA July 21-23, 2003 HT2003-47449 HEAT TRANSFER FROM A MOVING AND EVAPORATING MENISCUS ON A HEATED SURFACE meniscus with complete evaporation of water without any meniscus break-up. The experimental heat transfer

Kandlikar, Satish

338

24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506 Section 3280.506 Housing and...SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat...

2011-04-01

339

24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506 Section 3280.506 Housing and...SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat...

2010-04-01

340

The heat pipe exchanger with controllable heat exchanging area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat transfer rate through the heat exchanger in an industrial boiler that burns heavy oils must be controlled so as not to decrease the exhaust gas temperature below the dew point of sulfuric acid. Two systems of heat pipe exchangers are examined: one controls the heat exchange area of the condenser section of the heat pipes and the other

M. Oshiro; S. Takasu; M. Kurihara; K. Taneda; T. Nakamoto; H. Nakayama

1984-01-01

341

Greenhouse gas emission and exergy assessments of an integrated organic Rankine cycle with a biomass combustor for combined cooling, heating and power production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, greenhouse gas emission and exergy assessments of an integrated organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with a biomass combustor for combined cooling, heating, and power production as a trigeneration system are conducted. This trigeneration system consists of a biomass combustor, an ORC, a single-effect absorption chiller, and a heat exchanger. Four special cases are considered in this comprehensive study,

Fahad A. Al-Sulaiman; Feridun Hamdullahpur; Ibrahim Dincer

2011-01-01

342

Solar heat transport fluid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems are reported that are compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

1978-01-01

343

Introductory heat-transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to introduce some concepts of thermodynamics in existing heat-treating experiments using available items. The specific objectives are to define the thermal properties of materials and to visualize expansivity, conductivity, heat capacity, and the melting point of common metals. The experimental procedures are described.

Widener, Edward L.

1992-01-01

344

Chemical heat pump  

DOEpatents

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1981-01-01

345

Chemical heat pump  

DOEpatents

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01

346

Chemical heat pump  

DOEpatents

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01

347

Chemical heat pump  

DOEpatents

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01

348

Basic Comfort Heating Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

Dempster, Chalmer T.

349

Heat It Up!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a teacher demonstration using water, heat and food coloring, students see how convection moves the energy of the Sun from its core outwards. Students learn about the three different modes of heat transfer (convection, conduction, radiation) and how they are related to the Sun and life on our planet.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

350

The Heat Index \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now that summer has spread its oppressive ridge over most of the Southern Region, NWS phones are ringing off their hooks with questions about the Heat Index. Many questions regard the actual equation used in calculating the Heat Index. Some callers are satisfied with the response that it is extremely complicated. Some are satisfied with the nomogram (see Attachment 1).

Lans P. Rothfusz

351

Protected isotope heat source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radioactive isotope capsule is disposed in a container (heat shield) which will have a single stable trim attitude when reentering the earth's atmosphere and while falling to earth. The center of gravity of the heat source is located forward of the midpoint between the front face and the rear face of the container. The capsule is insulated from the

R. K. Burns; L. I. Shure; E. D. Katzen

1975-01-01

352

Nonequilibrium heat capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of steady state thermodynamics and statistical mechanics depends crucially on our ability to extend the notions of equilibrium thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS). The present paper considers the extension of heat capacity. A modified definition is proposed which continues to maintain the same relation to steady state Shannon entropy as in equilibrium, thus providing a thermodynamically consistent treatment of NESS heat capacity.

Mandal, Dibyendu

2013-12-01

353

Protect Yourself Heat Stress  

E-print Network

the worker to a cool, shaded area. · Loosen or remove heavy clothing. · Provide cool drinking water. · FanQUICK CARD TM Protect Yourself Heat Stress When the body is unable to cool itself by sweating; monitor yourself and coworkers. · Block out direct sun or other heat sources. · Use cooling fans

Burke, Peter

354

Waste heat boiler deskbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy management programs are vital to the economic life of any industry and heat recovery boilers play a dominant role in those projects which otherwise waste energy from hot flue gases. The book addresses various aspects of heat recovery boilers, such as engineering, specifying, system design, optimization and performance evaluation. Hence engineers and managers involved in several disciplines of energy

Ganapathy

1991-01-01

355

Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

356

Acoustic Heating Peter Ulmschneider  

E-print Network

Acoustic Heating Peter Ulmschneider lnstitut fiir Theoretische Astrophysik der Universitat Heidelberg Im Neuenheimer Feld 561, 6900 Heidelberg 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Abstract. Acoustic shock waves are a viable and prevalent heating mechanism both in early- and in late-type stars. Acoustic

Ulmschneider, Peter

357

Plumbing and Heating Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory and experience in the following areas are included in this plumbing curriculum: (1) plumbing fixtures and heating; (2) city water service; (3) fixture roughing; (4) venting; and (5) solar heating systems. The plumbing program manual includes the following sections: (1) general objectives for grades 10, 11, and 12; (2) a list of 33 major…

EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

358

The Earth's Heat Budget  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hands-on laboratory activity that allows students to investigate the effects of distance and angle on the input of solar radiation at Earth's surface, the role played by albedo, the heat capacity of land and water, and how these cause the seasons. Students predict radiative heating based on simple geometry and experiment to test their hypotheses.

Roy Plotnick

359

Heat pipe investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques associated with thermal-vacuum and bench testing, along with flight testing of the OAO-C spacecraft heat pipes are outlined, to show that the processes used in heat transfer design and testing are adequate for good performance evaluations.

Marshburn, J. P.

1973-01-01

360

Gyrotrons for Plasma Heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in gyrotron research have led to a new generation of devices that can operate at the megawatt power level at frequencies up to 170 GHz. These gyrotrons allow electron cyclotron heating (ECH) of plasmas to be conducted at the multimegawatt power levels needed for heating present day tokamaks and stellarators. In recent years, several breakthroughs have occurred in research

Richard Temkin

1998-01-01

361

Heat recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat recovery system for supplementing the exhaust mass flow from a gas turbine with additional flow of preheated air to provide greater steam output from a heat recovery unit such as a steam generator. The supplemental preheated air is ambient ventilation air which is used to cool the outer enclosure of the gas turbine. A diverter valve is employed

Pilarczyk

1985-01-01

362

Shape memory heat engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical shape memory effect associated with a thermoelastic martensitic transformation can be used to convert heat directly into mechanical work. Laboratory simulation of two types of heat engine cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) has been performed to measure the amount of work available per cycle in a Ni-45 at% Ti alloy. Tensile deformations at ambient temperature induced martensite, while a

R. Salzbrenner

1984-01-01

363

Heat transfer studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work continued from last quarter related to studies of heat transfer and fluid flow in porous media. One experiment focused on issues of drying in subresidually-saturated systems. The other experiment deals with studies of flows in a repository-like geometry around a heated horizontal annulus. In the subresidual saturation studies, elevated temperature environments were considered during this quarter. A 1 in.

R. Boehm; Y. T. Chen; A. K. Sathappan

1995-01-01

364

Industrial Heat Recovery - 1982  

E-print Network

Two years ago I summarized 20 years of experience on Industrial Heat Recovery for the Energy-source Technology Conference and Exhibition held in New Orleans, Louisiana. At the end of that paper I concluded with brief advice on 'How to specify heat...

Csathy, D.

1982-01-01

365

Solar heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector unit includes an air heating chamber including an insulating cover which transmits solar energy and an array of solar energy collectors spaced from the insulating cover. Each solar energy collector is formed by a tubular member having good heat transfer characteristics between its inner and outer surfaces. An opening in each collector faces the insulating cover

Lowe

1980-01-01

366

Modulated wick heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In heat pipes, modulation of evaporator wick thickness provides extra cross-sectional area for enhanced axial capillary liquid flow and extra evaporation surface area, with only a moderate increase in wick superheat (conduction resistance). This modulated wick (periodic stacks and grooves over a thin, uniform wick) is analyzed and optimized with a prescribed, empirical wick superheat limit. A thermal-hydraulic heat pipe

G. S. Hwang; M. Kaviany; W. G. Anderson; J. Zuo

2007-01-01

367

Heat Pipe Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heat pipe was developed to alternately cool and heat without using energy or any moving parts. It enables non-rotating spacecraft to maintain a constant temperature when the surface exposed to the Sun is excessively hot and the non Sun-facing side is very cold. Several organizations, such as Tropic-Kool Engineering Corporation, joined NASA in a subsequent program to refine and commercialize the technology. Heat pipes have been installed in fast food restaurants in areas where humid conditions cause materials to deteriorate quickly. Moisture removal was increased by 30 percent in a Clearwater, FL Burger King after heat pipes were installed. Relative humidity and power consumption were also reduced significantly. Similar results were recorded by Taco Bell, which now specifies heat pipe systems in new restaurants in the Southeast.

1993-01-01

368

Solar heating system  

DOEpatents

An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

1982-01-01

369

Improved solar heating systems  

DOEpatents

An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

1980-05-16

370

Biomass heat exchanger furnace  

SciTech Connect

A hot air heat exchanger furnace that uses crop residue as a fuel source is provided for producing the heat required for various purposes, such as the drying of grains, peanuts, soybeans and other materials and for the heating of buildings. The furnace includes a combustion chamber, an upper manifold, a lower manifold, a plenum and a number of exhaust tubes. The exhaust tubes direct the flow of combustion gases from the combustion chamber in a serpentine path in the plenum between the upper and lower manifolds and into a stack. Meanwhile, ambient air passes into the plenum, past the heat transfer surfaces of the combustion chamber and the exhaust tubes as heat transfers to it. Then it passes out of the furnace.

Sukup, E.G.

1984-05-22

371

Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10 degrees F (1 to 6 degrees C) hotter than nearby rural areas. Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. The materials available here describe the basic causes of the heat island effect, and what can be done to mitigate some of the impacts. There is also an overview of the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP), an initiative being conducted in five cities in the U.S. to adopt and evaluate heat island reduction strategies and programs.

372

Heat Flow Measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat gauges are used to measure heat flow in industrial activities. They must periodically be certified by instruments designed to provide a heat flux measurement standard. CSTAR, a NASA CCDS, and REMTECH have developed a portable heat flux checker/calibrator. The Q-CHEC can be carried to the heat gauge for certification, reducing out of service time for the gauge and eliminating the need for a replacement gauge during certification. It can provide an "end-to-end" check of the instrumentation measurement system or be used as a standalone calibrator. Because Q-CHEC offers on-site capability to detect and eliminate measurement errors, measurements do not have to be repeated, and money is saved.

1993-01-01

373

Heat flux microsensor measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

1992-12-01

374

Heat flux microsensor measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

1992-01-01

375

The Aries heat sink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure analysis performed for ARIES sounding rocket motor failures, and the remedy developed for motor overheating are described. The principal failure hypothesis was that the motor-dome insulator fails under high gravity boost and the subsequent radiant heating of the titanium motor dome weakens the pressure vessel. The supporting heat transfer and ablation analyses are summarized. These detailed analyses and digital simulations quantitatively correlated the precise time-of-failure with known ablation and heat transfer rates and established firm design criteria for the aluminum heat sink. Analysis of the international magnetospheric study test rocket temperature data is described. This analysis confirmed the validity of the design and the effectiveness of the heat sink.

Haerendel, G.; Jerger, J. J.; Jerger, J. H.

1980-06-01

376

Knudsen heat capacity  

SciTech Connect

We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

Babac, Gulru, E-mail: babac@itu.edu.tr [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey)] [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Reese, Jason M. [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

2014-05-15

377

Disposable heat storage unit  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a single use, disposable, heat storage unit comprising a sealed pouch forming a wholly internal, sealed chamber having a predetermined maximum volume; and a particulate, fluent, dry, latent heat storage substance within the chamber, the volume of the substance within the chamber being sufficiently less than the predetermined maximum volume that the particles of the substance do not fill the chamber and are freely movable in all directions within the chamber, the substance having a predetermined heat of fusion temperature in excess of 100C, the pouch being formed of pliable, moisture resistant, thermal transfer material capable of withstanding without adverse consequences being heated to an initial temperature higher than the heat of fusion temperature of the substance. Thermal heat storage apparatus comprising a disposable container having walls of thermally insulating material forming a compartment; a single use, disposable, sealed, flexible pouch positioned within the compartment and formed of moisture resistant, heat transfer material, the pouch forming a wholly internal, sealed chamber having a maximum volume; a dry, particulate, fluent, latent head storage substance accommodated in the chamber, the volume of the substance within the chamber being sufficiently less than the maximum volume that the particles of the substance do not fill the chamber and are freely movable in all directions within the chamber, the substance having a heat of fusion temperature in excess of 100; the material of the wall and the material of the pouch being capable of withstanding without adverse consequences being heated to an initial temperature in excess of the heat of fusion temperature of the substance.

Hartz, M.E.

1988-10-18

378

Heat Integration of the Water-Gas Shift Reaction System for Carbon Sequestration Ready IGCC Process with Chemical Looping  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been considered as an important alternative for efficient power systems that can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. One of the technological schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion as post gasification techniques in order to produce sequestration-ready CO2 and potentially reduce the size of the gas turbine. However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be applied to obtain an optimal flowsheet. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). This approach allows a rigorous evaluation of the alternative designs and their combinations avoiding all the AEA simplifications (linearized models of heat exchangers). A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case. Highly influential parameters for the pos gasification technologies (i.e. CO/steam ratio, gasifier temperature and pressure) were calculated to obtain the minimum cost of energy while chemical looping parameters (oxidation and reduction temperature) were ensured to be satisfied.

Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

2010-01-01

379

2. SALEMBROSIUS CONTINUOUS GASFIRED HEAT TREATING LINE AT HEAT TREATMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SALEM-BROSIUS CONTINUOUS GAS-FIRED HEAT TREATING LINE AT HEAT TREATMENT PLANT OF THE DUQUESNE WORKS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

380

Ultrasonic test application in geothermal heat exchangers and civil works to monitor the grout integrity (TUC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The working of a vertical geothermal probe, realized with a pipe U-tubes of high-density-polyethylene (HDPE) inserted in a grouted boreholes, is linked to the possibility to exchange heat with the surrounding soil. The concrete material useful for the borehole heat exchangers allows to satisfy a double purpose: sealing the polyethylene pipes from groundwater in the event of loss and increasing the thermal properties of the whole probe to provide a greater interaction with the underground. If this operation is not performed properly, the complete system may not satisfy the required heat demand, even with a well dimensioned installation, wasting the value of the entire carried out work. This paper offers to a wide group of professional actors a possible ultrasonic method of a draft and economically sustainable investigation for the identification of defects that could be present in the cementation realized inside a geothermal probe, but also in the realization of sonic piles. The instrument used for this type of test (TUC - Test Ultrasonic Cementation) has been designed and tested by the technicians of AG3, a Spin Off Company of Torino University, in collaboration with 3DM Electric and PASI companies, then subjected to patenting procedure (Patent Pending TO2011A000036). The main innovative feature of this approach has been the miniaturization of the equipment, able to investigate the geothermal probes with U-tubes with standard dimension (the maximum overall dimensions of the instruments detectors is 26 mm), maintaining a sampling rate appropriate to investigate the cementation and the early centimetres of the surrounding soil. The processing of the recorded data was performed by a dedicated Matlab software. In the first part of the article is presented the calibration process, that it was carried out through ad hoc creation of two situations likely to be investigated, while in the second part the paper reports the results obtained by the application of the TUC method to real case studies.

Mandrone, Giuseppe; Comina, Cesare; Giuliani, Andrea

2013-04-01

381

Heat-related illness.  

PubMed

Heat-related illness is a set of preventable conditions ranging from mild forms (e.g., heat exhaustion, heat cramps) to potentially fatal heat stroke. Hot and humid conditions challenge cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms. Once core temperature reaches 104°F (40°C), cellular damage occurs, initiating a cascade of events that may lead to organ failure and death. Early recognition of symptoms and accurate measurement of core temperature are crucial to rapid diagnosis. Milder forms of heat-related illness are manifested by symptoms such as headache, weakness, dizziness, and an inability to continue activity. These are managed by supportive measures including hydration and moving the patient to a cool place. Hyperthermia and central nervous system symptoms should prompt an evaluation for heat stroke. Initial treatments should focus on lowering core temperature through cold water immersion. Applying ice packs to the head, neck, axilla, and groin is an alternative. Additional measures include transporting the patient to a cool environment, removing excess clothing, and intravenous hydration. Delayed access to cooling is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with heat stroke. Identification of at-risk groups can help physicians and community health agencies provide preventive measures. PMID:21661715

Becker, Jonathan A; Stewart, Lynsey K

2011-06-01

382

Geothermal Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a heat transfer apparatus which consists of: heat exchanging means for orientation in the earth below ground substantially vertically, having a hollow conduit of length from top to bottom much greater than the span across the hollow conduit orthogonal to its length with a top, bottom and an intermediate portion contiguous and communicating with the top and bottom portions for allowing thermally conductive fluid to flow freely between the top, intermediate and bottom portions for immersion in thermally conductive fluid in the region around the heat exchanging means for increasing the heat flow between the latter and earth when inserted into a substantially vertical borehole in the earth with the top portion above the bottom portion. The heat exchanger consists of heat exchanging conduit means in the intermediate portion for carrying refrigerant. The heat exchanging conduit consisting of tubes of thermally conductive material for carrying the refrigerant and extending along the length of the hollow conduit for a tube length that is less than the length of the hollow conduit. The hollow conduit is formed with port means between the top and the plurality of tubes for allowing the thermally conductive fluid to pass in a flow path embracing the tubes, the bottom portion, an outer channel around the hollow conduit and the port means.

Basmajian, V.V.

1986-01-28

383

Micro heat barrier  

DOEpatents

A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

2003-08-12

384

Design and Analysis of High-Performance Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger with an Integrated Capillary-Pumped Loop Heat Pipe  

E-print Network

We report the design and analysis of a high-power air-cooled heat exchanger capable of dissipating over 1000 W with 33 W of input electrical power and an overall thermal resistance of less than 0.05 K/W. The novelty of the ...

McCarthy, Matthew

385

Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are considered. This effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

1976-01-01

386

Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are being developed. The effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

1977-01-01

387

Economic Options for Upgrading Waste Heat  

E-print Network

There are at least six major types of equipment that upgrade waste heat: (1) thermocompressor; (2) electric drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat...

Erickson, D. C.

1983-01-01

388

Laser surface heat treating  

SciTech Connect

Laser surface heat treating is a proven process that increases strength, hardness, and fatigue life, and reduces wear. The process can be accurately controlled and heat can be precisely positioned. As a result, hardness and strength may be increased in specified areas with very little part distortion. This process has been proven in automotive and aircraft applications, as well as the pulp and paper industries. Treated parts include, but are not limited to gears, shuttles, punches, valves, valve guides, and locomotive cylinders. This article describes the process and presents fundamental criteria that help determine if a component is a viable candidate for laser surface heat treating.

Wollenweber, J. [Laser Applications Inc., Westminster, MD (United States)

1996-12-01

389

What Is Heat?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the definition of heat as a form of energy and how it exists in everyday life. They learn about the three types of heat transfer—conduction, convection and radiation—as well as the connection between heat and insulation. Their learning is aided by teacher-led class demonstrations on thermal energy and conduction. A PowerPoint® presentation and quiz are provided. This prepares students for the associated activity in which they experiment with and measure what they learned in the lesson by designing and testing insulated bottles.

RESOURCE GK-12 Program, College of Engineering,

390

Heat treatment furnace  

DOEpatents

A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

2014-10-21

391

Subrelativistic Jet Heating Mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different physical processes, influencing the X-ray jet's thermal balance are considered. We focus on the problem of possible fast jet cooling via radiative losses. Thus, the contributions of each process to the jet thermal balance are calculated. We investigate the influence of shock wave propagation on jet heating, and the mechanism of jet kinetic energy transformation into heat via Coulomb collisions of jet and corona protons. Quantitative estimates are made for the case of Galactic microquasar SS433 based on previous results of the authors. The only important heating mechanism for this source turned out to be Coulomb collisions.

Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Krivosheyev, Y. M.

392

Specifying Waste Heat Boilers  

E-print Network

SPECIFYING WASTE HEAT BOILERS V.Ganapathy.ABCO Industries Abilene,Texas ABSTRACT Waste heat boilers or Heat Recovery Steam 'Generators(HRSGs) as they are often called are used to recover energy from waste gas streams in chemical plants... understand the need for boiler exit gas temperature control~Mention should also be made how the steam is being utilized so that proper steam purifying devices can be incorporated.lf the steam is used for injection into a gas turbine for NOx control...

Ganapathy, V.

393

Stirling engine heating system  

SciTech Connect

A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

1988-06-28

394

Containment condensing heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mechanistic heat transfer model that is valid for large scale containment heat sinks was presented. The model development is based on the determination that the condensation is controlled by mass diffusion through the vapor-air boundary layer, and the application of the classic Reynolds' analog to formulate expressions for the transfer of heat and mass based on hydrodynamic measurements of the momentum transfer. As a result, the analysis depends on the quantification of the shear stress (momentum transfer) at the interface between the condensate film and the vapor-air boundary layer. In addition, the currently used Tagami and Uchida test observations and their range of applicability are explained.

Gido, R. G.; Koestel, A.

395

Heat transfer in pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

Burbach, T.

1985-01-01

396

Inner heat source model with heat and moisture transfer in soil around the underground heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an inner heat source model of underground heat exchanger based on the heat and mass transfer theory in soil. A number of factors such as moisture movement in soil, soil type, and soil property were taken into account in the model. The underground heat exchanger was simplified as the equivalent inner heat source term in the model.

Xinguo Li; Jun Zhao; Qian Zhou

2005-01-01

397

Industrial Heat Pump Design Options  

E-print Network

%! This paper discusses ways to use heat pumps in new process and retrofit designs, including methods to overcome problems in heat exchange fouling and high lift applications. Examples of actual designs and a simple approximation of installed heat pump cost...

Gilbert, J. S.

398

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

EIA Publications

Weekly residential, wholesale, and spot prices; and production, demand, and stocks of heating fuels. (Weekly heating oil and propane prices are only collected during the heating season which extends from October through March.)

2015-01-01

399

Performance Analysis of a Thermoelectric Solar Collector Integrated with a Heat Pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel heat pump system is proposed. A thermoelectric solar collector was coupled to a solar-assisted heat pump (TESC-HP) to work as an evaporator. The cooling effect of the system's refrigerant allowed the cold side of the system's thermoelectric modules to work at lower temperature, improving the conversion efficiency. The TESC-HP system mainly consisted of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate that acted as a direct expansion-type collector/evaporator, an R-134a piston-type hermetic compressor, a water-cooled plate-type condenser, thermoelectric modules, and a water storage tank. Test results indicated that the TESC-HP has better coefficient of performance (COP) and conversion efficiency than the separate units. For the meteorological conditions in Mahasarakham, the COP of the TESC-HP system can reach 5.48 when the average temperature of 100 L of water is increased from 28°C to 40°C in 60 min with average ambient temperature of 32.5°C and average solar intensity of 815 W/m2, whereas the conversion efficiency of the TE power generator was around 2.03%.

Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Therdyothin, A.; Soponronnarit, S.

2013-07-01

400

Integration and software for thermal test of heat rate sensors. [space shuttle external tank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A minicomputer controlled radiant test facility is described which was developed and calibrated in an effort to verify analytical thermal models of instrumentation islands installed aboard the space shuttle external tank to measure thermal flight parameters during ascent. Software was provided for the facility as well as for development tests on the SRB actuator tail stock. Additional testing was conducted with the test facility to determine the temperature and heat flux rate and loads required to effect a change of color in the ET tank external paint. This requirement resulted from the review of photographs taken of the ET at separation from the orbiter which showed that 75% of the external tank paint coating had not changed color from its original white color. The paint on the remaining 25% of the tank was either brown or black, indicating that it had degraded due to heating or that the spray on form insulation had receded in these areas. The operational capability of the facility as well as the various tests which were conducted and their results are discussed.

Wojciechowski, C. J.; Shrider, K. R.

1982-01-01

401

Heat pipe cooled power magnetics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high frequency, high power, low specific weight (0.57 kg/kW) transformer developed for space use was redesigned with heat pipe cooling allowing both a reduction in weight and a lower internal temperature rise. The specific weight of the heat pipe cooled transformer was reduced to 0.4 kg/kW and the highest winding temperature rise was reduced from 40 C to 20 C in spite of 10 watts additional loss. The design loss/weight tradeoff was 18 W/kg. Additionally, allowing the same 40 C winding temperature rise as in the original design, the KVA rating is increased to 4.2 KVA, demonstrating a specific weight of 0.28 kg/kW with the internal loss increased by 50W. This space environment tested heat pipe cooled design performed as well electrically as the original conventional design, thus demonstrating the advantages of heat pipes integrated into a high power, high voltage magnetic. Another heat pipe cooled magnetic, a 3.7 kW, 20A input filter inductor was designed, developed, built, tested, and described. The heat pipe cooled magnetics are designed to be Earth operated in any orientation.

Chester, M. S.

1979-01-01

402

Solar dynamic heat receiver technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A full-size, solar dynamic heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements specified for electrical power modules on the U.S. Space Station, Freedom. The heat receiver supplies thermal energy to power a heat engine in a closed Brayton cycle using a mixture of helium-xenon gas as the working fluid. The electrical power output of the engine, 25 kW, requires a 100 kW thermal input throughout a 90 minute orbit, including when the spacecraft is eclipsed for up to 36 minutes from the sun. The heat receiver employs an integral thermal energy storage system utilizing the latent heat available through the phase change of a high-temperature salt mixture. A near eutectic mixture of lithium fluoride and calcium difluoride is used as the phase change material. The salt is contained within a felt metal matrix which enhances heat transfer and controls the salt void distribution during solidification. Fabrication of the receiver is complete and it was delivered to NASA for verification testing in a simulated low-Earth-orbit environment. This document reviews the receiver design and describes its fabrication history. The major elements required to operate the receiver during testing are also described.

Sedgwick, Leigh M.

1991-01-01

403

Heat generating and recycling system for utilizing waste heat  

SciTech Connect

The authors proposed an efficient utilization system of low temperature waste heat. It converts the low temperature thermal energy below 573 K into electric energy by using chemical heat pump systems and thermoelectric devices. They named this system a heat regenerating and recycling system. In this system, low temperature heat is recovered and its temperature is raised by the heat pump systems. They conducted the system analysis to clarify its performance. Two kinds of thermoelectric devices and two kinds of chemical heat pump systems are arranged in their analytical model. The authors examined how the efficiency of the chemical heat pumps, that of the thermoelectric devices, and heat flow influenced the efficiency of the system. By using the chemical heat pump system, the efficiency of the system not only is improved but also it is possible to store thermal energy as chemical energy. The authors show that the heat regenerating and recycling system contributes to use low temperature waste heat effectively.

Ando, Yuji; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Takashima, Takumi

1999-07-01

404

Homogenization heat treating cast microstructure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cast microstructures have variations in composition on the length scale of dendrites and homogenization heat treatments are performed to smooth out these variations. This problem is an integral analysis of the 1D diffusion mass transfer in this problem. The results using two different assumed profiles are compared.

Krane, Matthew J. M.

2008-10-25

405

Composite heat damage assessment  

SciTech Connect

The effects of heat damage were determined on the residual mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of IM6/3501-6 laminates, and potential nondestructive techniques to detect and assess material heat damage were evaluated. About one thousand preconditioned specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures, then cooled to room temperature and tested in compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, shore-D hardness, weight loss, and change in thickness. Specimens experienced significant and irreversible reduction in their residual properties when exposed to temperatures exceeding the material upper service temperature of this material (350{degrees}F). The Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Laser-Pumped Fluorescence techniques were found to be capable of rapid, in-service, nondestructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501- 6. These techniques also have the potential applicability to detect and assess heat damage effects in other polymer matrix composites.

Janke, C.J.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Philpot, H.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Powell, G.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

1993-12-31

406

Opportunity's Heat Shield Scene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity reveals the scene of the rover's heat shield impact. In this view, Opportunity is approximately 130 meters (427 feet) away from the device that protected it while hurtling through the martian atmosphere.

The rover spent 36 sols investigating how the severe heating during entry through the atmosphere affected the heat shield. The most obvious is the fact that the heat shield inverted upon impact.

This is the panoramic camera team's best current attempt at generating a true-color view of what this scene would look like if viewed by a human on Mars. It was generated from a mathematical combination of six calibrated, left-eye panoramic camera images acquired around 1:50 p.m. local solar time on Opportunity's sol 322 (Dec. 19, 2004) using filters ranging in wavelengths from 430 to 750 nanometers.

2005-01-01

407

Methane heat transfer investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and reusable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper base alloy material adjacent to he fuel coolant. High pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics recently evaluated at Rocketdyne using stainless steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

1984-01-01

408

Climate Wisconsin: Extreme Heat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video addresses the effects of heat waves on human populations, with African American residents of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as the visual subjects. The narrative is done by a young spoken- word artist.

Wisconsin Educational Communications Board

409

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating system is disclosed. A roof mounted panel collects heat from the sun; the panel having an upper sunlight-absorbing surface. A translucent cover is mounted above the panel to protect it from the weather. The panel has a lower surface for heat transfer to a stream of water. The panel is mounted in cooperative relation with a roof to form a passage for the stream of water. Means are connected to the panel for maintaining the stream of water in substantially uniform contact with said lower surface of the panel. Insulated tank means connected for receiving and storing the stream of water. Means are provided for controlling the stream of water under the panel in response to the temperature of the panel and the water in the tank, whereby the water collects heat from the panel only at useful temperatures. Air stream means are provided for preventing the roof from overheating.

Harrison, H.

1983-07-26

410

Solar-Heated Gasifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catalytic coal and biomass gasifer system heated by solar energy. Sunlight from solar concentrator focused through quartz window onto ceramic-honeycomb absorber surface, which raises temperature of reactant steam, fluidizing gas, and reactor walls.

Qader, S. A.

1985-01-01

411

Methane heat transfer investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper-base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and resuable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper-base alloy material adjacent to the fuel coolant. High-pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics were recently evaluated using stainless-steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper-base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

Cook, R. T.

1984-01-01

412

Investment casting heat transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calculate temperature profile and Biot number in mixed conduction and convection/radiation heat transfer from liquid metal through a ceramic mold to the environment, and suggest a design change to reduce the probability of shattering due to thermal stress.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2004-12-15

413

Heat pipe manufacturing study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

Edelstein, F.

1974-01-01

414

Heat Treatment Assistant Professor  

E-print Network

treatment. Residual stresses and decarburisation. 2 #12;Surface Hardening Case carburising, nitriding resistance-stabilising treatment and high temperature resistance-precipitation hardening, surface treatmentHeat Treatment R. Manna Assistant Professor Centre of Advanced Study Department of Metallurgical

Cambridge, University of

415

Light vs. Heat Bulbs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students measure the light output and temperature (as a measure of heat output) for three types of light bulbs to identify why some light bulbs are more efficient (more light with less energy) than others.

2014-09-18

416

Hurricanes as Heat Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students examine the effects of hurricanes on sea surface temperature using NASA data. They examine authentic sea surface temperature data to explore how hurricanes extract heat energy from the ocean surface.

My NASA Data

417

Heat leak measurements facility  

SciTech Connect

Heat leak measurements of superconducting magnet suspension systems, and multilayer insulation (MLI) systems are important for the optimum design of magnet cryostats. For this purpose, a cryogenic test facility was developed having a versatile functional end in which test components of differing geometrical configurations can be installed and evaluated. This paper details the test facility design and operating parameters. Experimental results of heat leak measurements to 4.5 K obtained on a post type support system having heat intercepts at 10 K and 80 K are presented. Included are measurements obtained while operating the 10 K intercept at temperatures above 10 K, i.e., in the 10-40 K range. Also reported is a description of the test facility conversion for a heat load study of several MLI systems with variations of MLI installation technique. The results of the first MLI system tested are presented.

Gonczy, J.D.; Kuchnir, M.; Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Powers, R.J.

1985-09-01

418

Heat recovery system  

SciTech Connect

A heat recovery system for supplementing the exhaust mass flow from a gas turbine with additional flow of preheated air to provide greater steam output from a heat recovery unit such as a steam generator. The supplemental preheated air is ambient ventilation air which is used to cool the outer enclosure of the gas turbine. A diverter valve is employed to selectively add to the mass flow from the gas turbine any appropriate mass flow of the ventilation air between zero and a maximum amount. An eductor may be used to aid a blower for moving the supplemental air. A duct burner upstream from the heat recovery unit is employed to raise the temperature of a mixture of turbine exhaust gases and ventilation air being supplied to the heat recovery unit. In a similar fashion, supplemental preheated air may be taken from air used for cooling a generator or other primary load being driven by the gas turbine.

Pilarczyk, K.

1985-12-03

419

Advanced heat pump cycle  

SciTech Connect

The desorption and absorption process of a vapor compression heat pump with a solution circuit (VCHSC) proceeds at gliding temperature intervals, which can be adjusted over a wide range. In case that the gliding temperature intervals in the desorber and the absorber overlap, a modification of the VCHSC employing a desorber/absorber heat exchange (DAHX) can be introduced, which results in an extreme reduction of the pressure ratio. Although the DAHX-cycle has features of a two-stage cycle, it still requires only one solution pump, one separator and one compressor. Such a cycle for the working pair ammonia/water is built in the Energy Laboratory of the Center for Environmental Energy Engineering at the University of Maryland. The experimental results obtained with the research plant are discussed and compared to those calculated with a simulation program. The possible temperature lift between heat source and heat sink depending on the achievable COP are presented.

Groll, E.A.; Radermacher, R.

1993-07-01

420

Beam induced heating  

E-print Network

In 2011, the rapid increase of the luminosity performance of LHC came at the expense of increased temperature and pressure readings on several near-beam LHC equipments. In some cases, this beam induced heating was suspected to cause beam dumps and even degradation of the equipment. This contribution aims at gathering the observations of beam induced heating due to beam coupling impedance, their current level of understanding and possible actions that could be implemented during the winter stop 2011-2012.

Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Esteban Mueller, J; Gentini, L; Goddar, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Nougaret, J L; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Sapinski, M; Shaposhinkova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wollmann, D

2012-01-01

421

Hurricanes as Heat Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As water vapor evaporates from the warm ocean surface, it is forced upward in the convective clouds that surround the eyewall and rainband regions of a storm. As the water vapor cools and condenses from a gas back to a liquid state, it releases latent heat. The release of latent heat warms the surrounding air, making it lighter and thus promoting more vigorous cloud development.

Susan Byrne

2000-05-03

422

Freezable heat pipe  

DOEpatents

A heat pipe whose fluid can be repeatedly frozen and thawed without damage to the casing. An additional part is added to a conventional heat pipe. This addition is a simple porous structure, such as a cylinder, self-supporting and free standing, which is dimensioned with its diameter not spanning the inside transverse dimension of the casing, and with its length surpassing the depth of maximum liquid.

Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA); Sanzi, James L. (Lancaster, PA)

1981-02-03

423

Geo-heat center  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of the Geo-Heat Center from its origin in 1974. The GHC has been involved in a number of studies and projects. A few of these are: construction of a greenhouse based on geothermal applications, an aquaculture project raising freshwater Malaysian prawns, an investigation of ground water characteristics and corrosion problems associated with the use of geothermal waters, and the assessment of the potential utilization of direct-heat applications of geothermal energy for an agribusiness.

Lienau, P.J.; Fornes, A.O.

1983-01-01

424

Microtube strip heat exchanger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Doty Scientific (DSI) believes their microtube-strip heat exchanger will contribute significantly to the following: (1) the closed Brayton cycles being pursued at MIT, NASA, and elsewhere; (2) reverse Brayton cycle cryocoolers, currently being investigated by NASA for space missions, being applied to MRI superconducting magnets; and (3) high-efficiency cryogenic gas separation schemes for CO2 removal from exhaust stacks. The goal of this current study is to show the potential for substantial progress in high-effectiveness, low-cost, gas-to-gas heat exchangers for diverse applications at temperatures from below 100 K to above 1000 K. To date, the highest effectiveness measured is about 98 percent and relative pressure drops below 0.1 percent with a specific conductance of about 45 W/kgK are reported. During the pre-award period DSI built and tested a 3-module heat exchanger bank using 103-tube microtube strip (MTS) modules. To add to their analytical capabilities, DSI has acquired computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This report describes the pre-award work and the status of the ten tasks of the current project, which are: analyze flow distribution and thermal stresses within individual modules; design a heat exchanger bank of ten modules with 400 microtube per module; obtain production quality tubestrip die and AISI 304 tubestrips; obtain production quality microtubing; construct revised MTS heat exchanger; construct dies and fixtures for prototype heat exchanger; construct 100 MTS modules; assemble 8 to 10 prototype MTS heat exchangers; test prototype MTS heat exchanger; and verify test through independent means.

Doty, F. D.

1990-12-01

425

Heat switches for ADRs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.

DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.

2014-07-01

426

NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger  

SciTech Connect

One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

2008-09-01

427

Heat pipes cool probe and sandwich panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two concepts integrate heat-pipe technology. Probe with heat-pipe cooled jacket is self-contained, passive, and has no moving parts, unlike conventional air and water cooled probes. It is used in hostile, high temperature environments like wind tunnels and powerplants or on high-speed research and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Heat-pipe sandwich panel combines structural efficiency of sandwich with thermal efficiency of heat-pipe. It is used to eliminate thermal gradients and stresses, minimize thermal distortions, and transfer heat from one face of panel to other.

Camarda, C. J.; Couch, L. M.; Kelly, H. N.

1981-01-01

428

Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production  

DOEpatents

A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange.

Brown, William R. (Zionsville, PA); Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA); Dunbobbin, Brian R. (Allentown, PA); Rao, Pradip (Allentown, PA); Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis, MD)

1986-01-01

429

Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production  

DOEpatents

A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

1986-10-14

430

Chimney heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

A heat exchanger for installation on the top of a chimney of a building includes a housing having a lower end receiving the top of the chimney and an upper end with openings permitting the escape of effluent from the chimney and a heat exchanger assembly disposed in the housing including a central chamber and a spirally arranged duct network defining an effluent spiral path between the top of the chimney and the central chamber and a fresh air spiral path between an inlet disposed at the lower end of the housing and the central chamber, the effluent and fresh air spiral paths being in heat exchange relationship such that air passing through the fresh air spiral path is heated by hot effluent gases passing upward through the chimney and the effluent spiral path for use in heating the building. A pollution trap can be disposed in the central chamber of the heat exchanger assembly for removing pollutants from the effluent, the pollution trap including a rotating cage carrying pumice stones for absorbing pollutants from the effluent with the surface of the pumice gradually ground off to reveal fresh stone as the cage rotates.

Whiteley, I.C.

1981-09-01

431

Intrinsically irreversible heat engine  

DOEpatents

A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1984-01-01

432

Convective heat flow probe  

DOEpatents

A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

Dunn, James C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

433

Intrinsically irreversible heat engine  

DOEpatents

A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1984-01-01

434

Convective heat flow probe  

DOEpatents

A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

1984-01-09

435

Radial flow heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

2001-01-01

436

Intrinsically irreversible heat engine  

DOEpatents

A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1984-12-25

437

Experimental Research on Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Re newable Energy Resources and a Greener Future Vol.VIII-2-3 Experimental Research on Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage Zongwei Han Maoyu Zheng Wei Liu Fang Wang...

Han, Z.; Zheng, M.; Liu, W.; Wang, F.

2006-01-01

438

Utilization of heat pipes for transfer heat from the flue gas into the heat transfer medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution is listed possible application of heat pipes in systems for obtaining heat from flue gas of small heat sources. It is also stated in the contribution design an experimental device on which to study the impact of fill (the quantity, type of load) at various temperature parameters (temperature heating and cooling) thermal power transferred to the heat pipe. Is listed measurement methodology using heat pipes designed experimental facility, measurement results and analysis of the results obtained.

Lenhard, Richard; Kaduchová, Katarína; Papu?ík, Štefan; Janda?ka, Jozef

2014-03-01

439

Latent heat sink in soil heat flux measurements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

440

Solar greenhouse heating using an underground heat exchange system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air temperature in a greenhouse on a sunny day often exceeds the optimum temperature level for the growth of crops. Therefore, there are frequent occasions when it becomes necessary to discharge the excess heat. This has given rise to the development by some investigators of an underground heat exchange system for heating greenhouses which utilizes this excess heat. The

T. Masao; D. Kiyoshi; O. Toshiaki; O. Yoshihiro

1982-01-01

441

Finite element procedure for heat conduction problems with internal heating  

SciTech Connect

Heat transfer problems involving temperature-dependent heat generation are formally equivalent to those involving variable specific heat such as occur in phase change situations. The use of distributed and lumped capacitance finite element methods for solving these problems is investigated. The technique is successfully applied to very severe internal heating problems such as the self-ignition of biological materials.

Pham, Q.T. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry

1995-05-01

442

Heat recovery with heat pipes, the savings are there  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing popularity of heat pipe heat exchangers as industrial energy recovery devices is reported as fuel costs are increasing. An impressive list of features which are causing this growth is furnished and the advantages of heat exchangers applications to an ever expanding variety of industrial processes are described. Waste heat recovery boilers are also considered.

Ruch

1982-01-01

443

Determining the best type of heat exchangers for heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a common problem to choose the most appropriate heat exchanger configuration for heat recovery. In this study, a new model has been developed for determining the area and type of the most appropriate waste heat recovery heat exchanger for maximum net gain. A non-dimensional E number has been defined based on known technical and economic parameters such as

?smail Teke; Özden A?ra; ?. Özgür Atay?lmaz; Hakan Demir

2010-01-01

444

Hot water heating and defrost in a heat pump circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a refrigeration circuit operable in modes and including heat exchange means, one of the heat exchange means operating as an evaporator in each mode of circuit operation, comprising: a refrigerant compressor having a suction port and a discharge port; means for storing liquid; first heat exchange means for transferring heat between refrigerant and an indoor space; second

1987-01-01

445

Bubble Enhanced Heat Transfer from a Vertical Heated Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rising bubble in a liquid can greatly enhance heat transfer from heated surfaces by acting like a bluff body, displacing fluid as it moves and via the wake generated by the bubble, increasing the mixing of the liquid. The current research quantifies the effect a single free rising ellipsoidal air bubble has on heat transfer from a vertical heated

Brian Donnelly; Darina B. Murray; Tadhg S. O'Donovan

2008-01-01

446

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating  

E-print Network

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren �stergaard Jensen

447

Heat source and heating load operation optimization control technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat source and heating load energy-saving operation optimization control system, which is suitable for boiler straightly providing type heating system is developed. Studied the relationship of flow and heat load in the quality - flow adjusting process and illustrated with piping supply and return water temperature function expression corresponding to the flow optimization coefficient. According to the outdoor temperature

Tao Ji; Shuying Zeng; Kun Liu; Changming Li; Ying Sun

2011-01-01

448

PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP  

E-print Network

PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP W. D. C. Richards and W. L. Auxer) which employs a natural gas fired Stirling engine to drive a Rankine cycle vapor compressor is presently by the heat pump effect. The Stirling engine/Rankine cycle refrigeration loop heat pump being developed would

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

449

Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

Koplow, Jeffrey P

2013-12-10

450

Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer  

SciTech Connect

Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

Koplow, Jeffrey P. (San Ramon, CA)

2012-07-24

451

Passive thermosyphon solar heating and cooling module with supplementary heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of three quarterly reports from Sigma Research, Inc., covering progress and status from January through September 1977 are presented. Three heat exchangers are developed for use in a solar heating and cooling system for installation into single-family dwellings. Each exchanger consists of one heating and cooling module and one submerged electric water heating element.

1977-01-01

452

Optimization of solar district heating systems: seasonal storage, heat pumps, and cogeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic energy, emission, and cost optimization model deeco is further developed and applied to the analysis of solar district heating systems with seasonal storage in a pilot project of the Bavarian Research Foundation. The optimum integration of condensing boilers, compression and absorption heat pumps, and cogeneration of heat and power is computed for 100 well insulated housing units with

D. Lindenberger; T. Bruckner; H.-M. Groscurth; R. Kummel

2000-01-01

453

CFD modeling of buoyancy driven cavities with internal heat source -Application to heated rooms  

E-print Network

1 CFD modeling of buoyancy driven cavities with internal heat source - Application to heated rooms. In addition, we present here a simplified approach in order to integrate a pure buoyancy source within our. Keywords: CFD - Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling; buoyancy driven cavity; heat source; thermal plume

454

Thermal electron heating rate: A derivation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal electron heating rate is an important heat source term in the ionospheric electron energy balance equation, representing heating by photoelectrons or by precipitating higher energy electrons. A formula for the thermal electron heating rate is derived from the kinetic equation using the electron-electron collision operator as given by the unified theory of Kihara and Aono. This collision operator includes collective interactions to produce a finite collision operator with an exact Coulomb logarithm term. The derived heating rate O(e) is the sum of three terms, O(e) = O(p) + S + O(int), which are respectively: (1) primary electron production term giving the heating from newly created electrons that have not yet suffered collisions with the ambient electrons; (2) a heating term evaluated on the energy surface m(e)/2 = E(T) at the transition between Maxwellian and tail electrons at E(T); and (3) the integral term representing heating of Maxwellian electrons by energetic tail electrons at energies ET. Published ionospheric electron temperature studies used only the integral term O(int) with differing lower integration limits. Use of the incomplete heating rate could lead to erroneous conclusions regarding electron heat balance, since O(e) is greater than O(int) by as much as a factor of two.

Hoegy, W. R.

1983-01-01

455

Greenhouse heating with condenser waste heat. [Sherco greenhouse, near Minneapolis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on three years of experiences with the Sherco Greenhouse, it is apparent that condenser reject heat, available at the relatively low temperature of 85 F, is a wholly satisfactory heat energy source for greenhouse heating in northern climates. It has also been shown that commercially-available heat-exchange equipment can be applied cost-effectively to extract sufficient heat from the low-temperature source.

G. C. Ashley; J. S. Hietala; R. V. Stansfield

1979-01-01

456

Enceladus' Enigmatic Heat Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate knowledge of Enceladus' heat flow is important because it provides a vital constraint on Enceladus' tidal dissipation mechanisms, orbital evolution, and the physical processes that generate the plumes. In 2011 we published an estimate of the current heat flow from Enceladus' active south polar terrain: 15.8 +/- 3.1 GW (Howett et al., 2011). This value was calculated by first estimating by modeling, and then removing, the passive component from 17 to 1000 micron observations made of the entire south polar terrain by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). The heat flow was then directly calculated from the residual, assumed endogenic, component. The derived heat flow of 15.8 GW was surprisingly high, about 10 times greater than that predicted by steady-state tidal heating (Meyer and Wisdom, 2007). CIRS has also returned high spatial resolution observations of Enceladus' active south polar terrain. Two separate observations are used: 9 to 16 micron observations taken over nearly the complete south polar terrain and a single 17 to 1000 micron scan over Damascus, Baghdad and Cairo. The shorter wavelength observations are only sensitive to high temperature emission (>70 K), and so longer wavelength observations are required (despite their limited spatial coverage) to estimate the low temperature emission from the stripes. Analysis of these higher resolution observations tells a different story of Enceladus' endogenic heat flow: the preliminary estimate of the heat flow from the active tiger stripes using these observations is 4.2 GW. An additional 0.5 GW must be added to this number to account for the latent heat release by the plumes (Ingersoll and Pankine 2009), giving a total preliminary estimate of 4.9 GW. The discrepancy in these two numbers is significant and we are currently investigating the cause. One possible reason is that there is significantly higher endogenic emission from the regions between the tiger stripes than we currently estimate (based on the comparison of the single long-wavelength scan across the fractures). It is also possible that the earlier modeling efforts underestimated Enceladus' passive emission, resulting in an overestimation of Enceladus' heat flow.

Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Spencer, D.; Verbiscer, A.; Hurford, T.; Segura, M.

2013-12-01

457

Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

2005-01-01

458

Electric Heating - Take Another Look  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages and disadvantages of electric heating methods are described and compared to other common methods of process heating. Brief descriptions of many electric heating methods are given, with references for the engineer who wishes to pursue any method in depth. Common process requirements, such as drying, melting, etc., are linked to the types of electric heating that are most

C. James Erickson

1980-01-01

459

Heat simulation via Scilab programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discussed the used of an open source sofware called Scilab to develop a heat simulator. In this paper, heat equation was used to simulate heat behavior in an object. The simulator was developed using finite difference method. Numerical experiment output show that Scilab can produce a good heat behavior simulation with marvellous visual output with only developing simple computer code.

Hasan, Mohammad Khatim; Sulaiman, Jumat; Karim, Samsul Arifin Abdul

2014-07-01

460

Heat exchanger wrap-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat exchangers are used between the collector fluid and the storage tank in active solar energy systems. The thermal performance of heat exchangers can be predicted if the two parameters are known: the number of transfer units, which is the ratio of characteristic size for heat transfer to the smaller of the heat capacity flow rates, and the ratio of

Lunde

1983-01-01

461

Solar heating thermal storage feasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative technical and economic merits of various approaches to thermal energy storage for solar heating applications are reported in this paper. A solar heating system was computer modeled, including solar collectors, building demand, and conventional heating system. Several approaches to thermal energy storage including specific heating, phase change, and combinations of the two were modeled and run in the

P. Joy; B. Shelpuk

1976-01-01

462

Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

Eninger, J. E.

1982-01-01

463

Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

464

Chromospheric and coronal heating mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the mechanisms which have been proposed for the heating of stellar chromospheres and coronae. These consist of heating by acoustic waves, by slow and fast mhd waves, by body and surface Alfvén waves, by current or magnetic field dissipation, by microflare heating and by heating due to bulk flows and magnetic flux emergence. Some relevant observational evidence has

U. Narain; P. Ulmschneider

1990-01-01

465

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating system for a structure in which a matrix of beverage containers of the convenient opening variety is mounted on a generally flat support member. The beverage containers extend through holes in the support member formed from alternating polygons of a generally checkerboard surface design. A resilient plug seals the opening at one end of each container and a pair of collector tubes extend through the plug into the interior of each container. The collector tubes of adjacent containers are connected together such that all containers are connected in a series relationship. Those surface areas of the support member not occupied by the containers are contoured and have an outer surface appropriate to reflect heat and light toward the containers which themselves have a coating of a heat and light conductive substance. Fluid is pumped from a reservoir and through the containers under sunny conditions or may be diverted from the matrix during cloudy conditions or at night. In the latter events, an insulated canopy may be extended to cover the matrix. The amount of heat taken from the system to heat the structure may also be appropriately controlled.

Root, E.J.

1980-03-11

466

Environmental heating system  

SciTech Connect

A heating system for heating a building includes a solar energy collector. The collector is constructed from a plurality of glass panels. A first group of glass panels are mounted in an inverted pyramid with mirror surfaces to reflect solar energy to the base of the pyramid. A second group of transparent panels form an upright pyramid which is joined with the first pyramid at the base. A collector coil containing a circulating liquid is mounted at the junction of the bases of the two pyramids to collect solar energy which passes through the transparent upper pyramid and which is also reflected from the inverted pyramid. Water or other fluid is circulated through the collector coil and stored in an insulated storage tank. Thermostatic control is used to control the circulation of the heating fluid in accordance with the temperature. The heating fluid is pumped from the storage tank to various use devices such as baseboard radiators, water heaters and other devices which require heat.

Komula, R.W.

1984-01-31

467

Residential heat recovery  

SciTech Connect

Interest in residential energy conservation has grown considerably in recent years. One trend is towards better-sealed and well insulated house envelopes associated with exhaust air/ventilation heat recovery. Another, which special consideration has recently been given to, is waste water heat recycling. As a result of these trends, residential waste heat recovery has become an attractive approach to efficient energy management. In a ''tightly sealed'' house without mechanical ventilation, the risk of indoor air contamination because of fewer natural air changes is a major concern. In addition, normal activities such as laundry, cooking and showers can produce excess humidity conditions. Excess humidity inside the house envelope can cause occupant discomfort, condensation on cool walls and windows, and bacterial or fungus growth. Excess humidity leaking through the house envelope (exfiltration) and condensing inside walls and attics can cause rot and collapse of wooden structural members. An innovative solution to these undesirable effects was the development of a new generation of heat pump based devices capable of providing mechanical ventilation, controlled humidity and improved indoor air quality while recovering a large part of the exhaust air energy for space and/or water heating.

Perlman, M.; Mills, B.E.

1986-06-01

468

Downhole heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

The downhole heat exchanger (DHE) eliminates the problem of disposal of geothermal fluid, since only heat is taken from the well. The exchanger consists of a system of pipes or tubes suspended in the well through which clean secondary water is pumped or allowed to circulate by natural convection. These systems offer substantial economic savings over surface heat exchangers where a single-well system is adequate (typically less than 0.8 MWt, with well depths up to about 500 ft) and may be economical under certain conditions at well depths to 1500 ft. Several designs have proven successful; but, the most popular are a simple hairpin loop or multiple loops of iron pipe (similar to the tubes in a U-tube and shell exchanger) extending to near the well bottom. An experimental design consisting of multiple small tubes with headers at each end suspended just below the water surface appears to offer economic and heating capacity advantages. The paper describes design and construction details and New Zealand`s experience with downhole heat exchangers.

Culver, G.; Lund, J.W. [Oregon Inst. of Tech., Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

1999-09-01

469

Heating system with vapour compressor heat pump and vertical U-tube ground heat exchanger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper a heating system with a vapour compressor heat pump and vertical U-tube ground heat exchanger for small residential house is considered. A mathematical model of the system: heated object - vapour compressor heat pump - ground heat exchanger is presented shortly. The system investigated is equipped, apart from the heat pump, with the additional conventional source of heat. The processes taking place in the analyzed system are of unsteady character. The model consists of three elements; the first containing the calculation model of the space to be heated, the second - the vertical U-tube ground heat exchanger with the adjoining area of the ground. The equations for the elements of vapour compressor heat pump form the third element of the general model. The period of one heating season is taken into consideration. The results of calculations for two variants of the ground heat exchanger are presented and compared. These results concern variable in time parameters at particular points of the system and energy consumption during the heating season. This paper presents the mutual influence of the ground heat exchanger subsystem, elements of vapour compressor heat pump and heated space.

Hanuszkiewicz-Drapa?a, Ma?gorzata; Sk?adzie?, Jan

2010-10-01

470

Heat pipe cooling for scramjet engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid metal heat pipe cooling systems have been investigated for the combustor liner and engine inlet leading edges of scramjet engines for a missile application. The combustor liner is cooled by a lithium-TZM molybdenum annular heat pipe, which incorporates a separate lithium reservoir. Heat is initially absorbed by the sensible thermal capacity of the heat pipe and liner, and subsequently by the vaporization and discharge of lithium to the atmosphere. The combustor liner temperature is maintained at 3400 F or less during steady-state cruise. The engine inlet leading edge is fabricated as a sodium-superalloy heat pipe. Cooling is accomplished by radiation of heat from the aft surface of the leading edge to the atmosphere. The leading edge temperature is limited to 1700 F or less. It is concluded that heat pipe cooling is a viable method for limiting scramjet combustor liner and engine inlet temperatures to levels at which structural integrity is greatly enhanced.

Silverstein, Calvin C.

1986-01-01

471

Heat exchanger for electrothermal devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved electrothermal device is disclosed. An electrothermal thruster utilizes a generally cylindrical heat exchanger chamber to convert electricity to heat which raises the propellant temperature. A textured, high emissivity heat element radiatively transfers heat to the inner wall of this chamber that is ion beam morphologically controlled for high absorptivity. This, in turn, raises the temperature of a porous heat exchanger material in an annular chamber surrounding the cylindrical chamber. Propellant gas flows through the annular chamber and is heated by the heat exchanger material.

Zavesky, Ralph J. (inventor); Sovey, James S. (inventor); Mirtich, Michael J. (inventor); Marinos, Charalampus (inventor); Penko, Paul F. (inventor)

1986-01-01

472

Induction heating coupler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An induction heating device includes a handle having a hollow interior and two opposite ends, a wrist connected to one end of the handle, a U-shaped pole piece having two spaced apart ends, a tank circuit including an induction coil wrapped around the pole piece and a capacitor connected to the induction coil, a head connected to the wrist and including a housing for receiving the U-shaped pole piece, the two spaced apart ends of the pole piece extending outwardely beyond the housing, and a power source connected to the tank circuit. When the tank circuit is energized and a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the ends of the U-shaped pole piece, the susceptor is heated by induction heating due to magnetic flux passing between the two ends of the pole piece.

Fox, Robert L. (inventor); Copeland, Carl E. (inventor); Swaim, Robert J. (inventor); Coultrip, Robert H. (inventor); Johnston, David F. (inventor); Phillips, W. Morris (inventor); Johnson, Samuel D. (inventor); Dinkins, James R. (inventor); Buckley, John D. (inventor)

1994-01-01

473

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A roof mounted panel collects heat from the sun. The panel has an upper sunlight-absorbing surface and a translucent cover is mounted above the panel to protect it from the weather. The panel has a lower surface for heat transfer to a stream of water. The panel is mounted in cooperative relation with a roof to form a passage for the stream of water. Means are connected to the panel for maintaining the stream of water in substantially uniform contact with said lower surface of the panel. Insulated tank means are connected for receiving and storing the stream of water. Means are provided for controlling the stream of water under the panel in response to the temperature of the panel and the water in the tank, whereby the water collects heat from the panel only at useful temperatures. Air stream means are provided for preventing the roof from overheating.

Harrison, H.

1980-12-09

474

Solar heat collector  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is a solar heat collector which is placed across an open window area for selectively heating the interior of a dwelling place or the like. The collector includes a plurality of fins transversely disposed across the window area between two panes of translucent material which form an insulating chamber. One end of the chamber communicates with a warm air outlet, the other end with a cool air inlet and the innermost pane is coated with a highly reflective material. Each fin is provided with an energy absorbant coating on one side thereof and has a reflective coating surface on the other so that upon normally aligning the absorbant side of the fins with respect to the sun's rays, the air within the chamber is heated and directed to the warm air outlet causing cold air to be drawn into the chamber through the cool air inlet. Reversal of the orientation of the fins causes incoming rays to be reflected.

Rice, F.H.

1981-11-24

475

Artificial muscles on heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 ?W when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

2014-03-01

476

Serpentine heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a furnace having a burner means for providing hot products of combustion, and an air flow means for circulating conditioned air, a heat exchanger for transferring heat from products of combustion to conditioned air. The heat exchanger comprises first and second matched clamshell plates assembled together. The plates connected at their respective edges by a sealing means for providing a seal thereat, each the plate having an internal surface defining a depression. The depressions together defining a serpentine passageway, an entrance and exhaust ported formed in the passageway. The surfaces including elongated ribs for obstructing fluid flow adjacent the exhaust portal and for directing fluid flow to under-utilized portions in the passageway.

Tomlinson, R.S.

1991-01-08

477

Overshooting by differential heating  

E-print Network

On the long nuclear time scale of stellar main-sequence evolution, even weak mixing processes can become relevant for redistributing chemical species in a star. We investigate a process of "differential heating," which occurs when a temperature fluctuation propagates by radiative diffusion from the boundary of a convection zone into the adjacent radiative zone. The resulting perturbation of the hydrostatic equilibrium causes a flow that extends some distance from the convection zone. We study a simplified differential-heating problem with a static temperature fluctuation imposed on a solid boundary. The astrophysically relevant limit of a high Reynolds number and a low P\\'eclet number (high thermal diffusivity) turns out to be interestingly non-intuitive. We derive a set of scaling relations for the stationary differential heating flow. A numerical method adapted to a high dynamic range in flow amplitude needed to detect weak flows is presented. Our two-dimensional simulations show that the flow reaches a sta...

Andrássy, R

2015-01-01

478

Laser-heated thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of computer codes for the thrust chamber of a rocket of which the propellant gas is heated by a CW laser beam was investigated. The following results are presented: (1) simplified models of laser heated thrusters for approximate parametric studies and performance mapping; (3) computer programs for thrust chamber design; and (3) shock tube experiment to measure absorption coefficients. Two thrust chamber design programs are outlined: (1) for seeded hydrogen, with both low temperature and high temperature seeds, which absorbs the laser radiation continuously, starting at the inlet gas temperature; and (2) for hydrogen seeded with cesium, in which a laser supported combustion wave stands near the gas inlet, and heats the gas up to a temperature at which the gas can absorb the laser energy.

Kemp, N. H.; Krech, R. H.

1980-01-01

479

Boiler with waste heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel-fired fluid heating appliance, such as a gas-fired boiler is provided for heating a fluid such as water circulating in a central heating system. The boiler includes a flue for discharging the combustion products, e.g. exhaust gas, to atmosphere by way of a heat exchanger incorporated within a portion of the flue external of the boiler housing. The heat

1984-01-01

480

Gas-operated heat pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all the currently known technologies for space heating, asserts West Germany's Saar-Ferngas AG, gas-fired compression heat pumps promise the greatest savings in primary energy. Gas heat pumps with heating capacities over 600,000 Btu (150,000 kcal)\\/hr are technically proven and economically manufacturable from components available on the market. Small gas heat pumps based on automotive engines are under development for

1977-01-01

481

Heat distribution ceramic processing method  

DOEpatents

A multi-layered heat distributor system is provided for use in a microwave process. The multi-layered heat distributors includes a first inner layer of a high thermal conductivity heat distributor material, a middle insulating layer and an optional third insulating outer layer. The multi-layered heat distributor system is placed around the ceramic composition or article to be processed and located in a microwave heating system. Sufficient microwave energy is applied to provide a high density, unflawed ceramic product.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2001-01-01

482

Integration of Thermoelectric Generators and Wood Stove to Produce Heat, Hot Water, and Electrical Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional fire stoves are characterized by low efficiency. In this experimental study, the combustion chamber of the stove is augmented by two devices. An electric fan can increase the air-to-fuel ratio in order to increase the system's efficiency and decrease air pollution by providing complete combustion of wood. In addition, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) produce power that can be used to satisfy all basic needs. In this study, a water-based cooling system is designed to increase the efficiency of the TEGs and also produce hot water for residential use. Through a range of tests, an average of 7.9 W was achieved by a commercial TEG with substrate area of 56 mm × 56 mm, which can produce 14.7 W output power at the maximum matched load. The total power generated by the stove is 166 W. Also, in this study a reasonable ratio of fuel to time is described for residential use. The presented prototype is designed to fulfill the basic needs of domestic electricity, hot water, and essential heat for warming the room and cooking.

Goudarzi, A. M.; Mazandarani, P.; Panahi, R.; Behsaz, H.; Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

2013-07-01

483

Optical heat flux gauge  

DOEpatents

A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic phosphors. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Borella, Henry M. (Santa Barbara, CA); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Turley, W. Dale (Santa Barbara, CA); MacArthur, Charles D. (Clayton, OH); Cala, Gregory C. (Dayton, OH)

1991-01-01

484

Optical heat flux gauge  

DOEpatents

A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Borella, Henry M. (Santa Barbara, CA); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Turley, W. Dale (Santa Barbara, CA); MacArthur, Charles D. (Clayton, OH); Cala, Gregory C. (Dayton, OH)

1991-01-01

485

Acoustical heat pumping engine  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

198