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1

Expression of Chlamydophila psittaci MOMP heat-labile toxin B subunit fusion gene in transgenic rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DNA fragment encoding the MOMP gene of Chlamydophila psittaci was fused to the heat-labile toxin B subunit gene (LTB-MOMP) and transferred into rice callus by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The LTB-MOMP fusion gene was detected in genomic DNA from transformed rice leaves by Southern blot and RT-PCR amplification. Synthesis and assembly of the LTB-MOMP fusion protein into pentamers was detected

Xiuxiang Zhang; Ziguo Yuan; Xuejun Guo; Jingwen Li; Zhaonan Li; Qingyu Wang

2008-01-01

2

Structure and function of cholera toxin and the related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.  

PubMed Central

Cholera and the related Escherichia coli-associated diarrheal disease are important problems confronting Third World nations and any area where water supplies can become contaminated. The disease is extremely debilitating and may be fatal in the absence of treatment. Symptoms are caused by the action of cholera toxin, secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or by a closely related heat-labile enterotoxin, produced by Escherichia coli, that causes a milder, more common traveler's diarrhea. Both toxins bind receptors in intestinal epithelial cells and insert an enzymatic subunit that modifies a G protein associated with the adenylate cyclase complex. The consequent stimulated production of cyclic AMP, or other factors such as increased synthesis of prostaglandins by intoxicated cells, initiates a metabolic cascade that results in the excessive secretion of fluid and electrolytes characteristic of the disease. The toxins have a very high degree of structural and functional homology and may be evolutionarily related. Several effective new vaccine formulations have been developed and tested, and a growing family of endogenous cofactors is being discovered in eukaryotic cells. The recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of the heat-labile enterotoxin has provided an opportunity to examine and compare the correlations between structure and function of the two toxins. This information may improve our understanding of the disease process itself, as well as illuminate the role of the toxin in studies of signal transduction and G-protein function. Images PMID:1480112

Spangler, B D

1992-01-01

3

Differential Biological and Adjuvant Activities of Cholera Toxin and Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Hybrids  

PubMed Central

Two bacterial products that have been demonstrated to function as mucosal adjuvants are cholera toxin (CT), produced by various strains of Vibrio cholerae, and the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) produced by some enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli. Although LT and CT have many features in common, they are clearly distinct molecules with biochemical and immunologic differences which make them unique. The goal of this study was to determine the basis for these biological differences by constructing and characterizing chimeric CT-LT molecules. Toxin gene fragments were subcloned to create two constructs, each expressing the enzymatically active A subunit of one toxin and the receptor binding B subunit of the other toxin. These hybrid toxins were purified, and the composition and assembly of CT A subunit (CT-A)-LT B subunit (LT-B) and LT A subunit (LT-A)-CT B subunit (CT-B) were confirmed. Hybrids were evaluated for enzymatic activity, as measured by the accumulation of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells, and the enterotoxicity of each toxin was assessed in a patent-mouse assay. The results demonstrated that LT-A–CT-B induces the accumulation of lower levels of cyclic AMP and has less enterotoxicity than either wild-type toxin or the other hybrid. Nonetheless, this hybrid retains adjuvant activity equivalent to or greater than that of either wild-type toxin or the other hybrid when used in conjunction with tetanus toxoid for intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice. Importantly, the ability of LT to induce a type 1 cytokine response was found to be a function of LT-A. Specifically, LT-A–CT-B was able to augment the levels of antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?) and interleukin 5 to levels comparable to those achieved with native LT, while CT-A–LT-B and native CT both produced lower levels of antigen-specific IFN-?. Thus, these toxin hybrids possess unique biological characteristics and provide information about the basis for differences in the biological activities observed for CT and LT. PMID:11179323

Bowman, Christal C.; Clements, John D.

2001-01-01

4

Functional Diversity of Heat-labile Toxins (LT) Produced by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Heat-labile toxins (LTs) have ADP-ribosylation activity and induce the secretory diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains in different mammalian hosts. LTs also act as adjuvants following delivery via mucosal, parenteral, or transcutaneous routes. Previously we have shown that LT produced by human-derived ETEC strains encompass a group of 16 polymorphic variants, including the reference toxin (LT1 or hLT) produced by the H10407 strain and one variant that is found mainly among bacterial strains isolated from pigs (LT4 or pLT). Herein, we show that LT4 (with six polymorphic sites in the A (K4R, K213E, and N238D) and B (S4T, A46E, and E102K) subunits) displays differential in vitro toxicity and in vivo adjuvant activities compared with LT1. One in vitro generated LT mutant (LTK4R), in which the lysine at position 4 of the A subunit was replaced by arginine, showed most of the LT4 features with an ?10-fold reduction of the cytotonic effects, ADP-ribosylation activity, and accumulation of intracellular cAMP in Y1 cells. Molecular dynamic studies of the A subunit showed that the K4R replacement reduces the N-terminal region flexibility and decreases the catalytic site crevice. Noticeably, LT4 showed a stronger Th1-biased adjuvant activity with regard to LT1, particularly concerning activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes when delivered via the intranasal route. Our results further emphasize the relevance of LT polymorphism among human-derived ETEC strains that may impact both the pathogenicity of the bacterial strain and the use of these toxins as potential vaccine adjuvants. PMID:21135101

Rodrigues, Juliana F.; Mathias-Santos, Camila; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria Elisabete; Amorim, Jaime H.; Cabrera-Crespo, Joaquim; Balan, Andrea; Ferreira, Luís C. S.

2011-01-01

5

A completely synthetic toxoid vaccine containing Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin and antigenic determinants of the heat-labile toxin B subunit.  

PubMed Central

The immunodeterminant regions of the Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit were identified by determining the antigenicity, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, of synthetically produced peptides corresponding to various segments of its 124-amino-acid sequence. The addition of the 18-amino-acid sequence of heat-stable toxin (ST) to some of these peptides enhanced their B subunit antigenicity. Peptide residues containing the 26 amino acids of B subunit sequence 58 to 83 joined to the 18-amino-acid sequence of ST yielded a 44-amino-acid peptide whose antigenicity was 50% that of both native B subunit and ST. This peptide was completely nontoxic when tested in Chinese hamster ovary tissue culture, suckling mouse, and rat ligated ileal loop assays. Peroral immunization of rats with the polymeric form of this peptide yielded a dose-dependent response of intestinal immunoglobulin A antitoxin titers to both the ST and B subunit components and provided strong protection against challenge with viable ST- and heat-labile toxin-producing E. coli strains. The immunogenicity of the synthetic peptide in rats was the same as that of ST and about 50% that of native B subunit. The completely synthetic peptide vaccine has the following advantages over previously described toxoid vaccines that consist of synthetic ST chemically cross-linked to native B subunit derived from bacterial cultures: it is produced by a single synthetic process, it is completely nontoxic, and it is immunogenic for both ST and B subunit. PMID:2581899

Houghten, R A; Engert, R F; Ostresh, J M; Hoffman, S R; Klipstein, F A

1985-01-01

6

Allele Variants of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin Are Globally Transmitted and Associated with Colonization Factors.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally. PMID:25404692

Joffré, Enrique; von Mentzer, Astrid; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Oezguen, Numan; Savidge, Tor; Dougan, Gordon; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjöling, Åsa

2015-01-15

7

Neutralization of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli heat?labile toxin by chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin Y and its antigen?binding fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY) and its antigen?binding FAb’ fragments was studied by their neutralization of heat?labile toxin (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain H10407. High levels of specific antibodies against LT were produced and maintained over a period of 8 months in eggs of hyper?immunized hens. The FAb’ fragment produced by peptic

E. M. Akita; S. Nakai

1998-01-01

8

Genetically Detoxified Mutants of Heat-Labile Toxin from Escherichia coli Are Able To Act as Oral Adjuvants  

PubMed Central

Detoxified mutants of the Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) act as mucosal adjuvants to intranasally presented coadministered antigens. Here, we compare the adjuvant activity of a panel of detoxified derivatives of LT, using both intranasal (i.n.) and oral (p.o.) routes of administration. The mutants used as adjuvants varied in sensitivity to proteases and toxicity. With keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as the bystander antigen, the immune responses to i.n. immunizations were consistently higher than the equivalent p.o.-delivered proteins. LT-G192, a mutant which demonstrates a 10-fold reduction in toxicity in vitro, demonstrated wild-type adjuvant activity both i.n. and p.o., inducing similar titers of KLH specific antibody in the sera and immunoglobulin A in local mucosal secretions as wild-type LT. In line with previous data, the nontoxic holotoxoid LT-K63 induced intermediate immune responses in both the serum and mucosal secretions which were lower than those achieved with wild-type LT but at least 10-fold higher than those measured when the antigen was administered with LT-B. Although significant levels of local and systemic anti-KLH antibodies were induced following p.o. immunization with LT-K63, cellular proliferative responses to KLH was poor or undetectable. In contrast, LT and LT-G192 induced significant T-cell responses to KLH following p.o. immunization. These proliferating cells secreted both gamma interferon and interleukin-5, suggesting that the type of immune response induced following p.o. coimmunization with LT and purified protein is a mixed Th1/Th2 response. PMID:10456880

Douce, Gill; Giannelli, Valentina; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Lewis, David; Everest, Paul; Rappuoli, Rino; Dougan, Gordon

1999-01-01

9

Characterization of heat-stable (STa) toxoids of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fused to double mutant heat-labile toxin peptide in inducing neutralizing Anti-STa antibodies.  

PubMed

A long-standing challenge in developing vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in children of developing countries and travelers to these countries, is to protect against heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa). STa and heat-labile toxin (LT) are virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. LT antigens are often used in vaccine development, but STa has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity and potent toxicity. Toxic STa is not safe for vaccines, but only STa possessing toxicity is believed to be able to induce neutralizing antibodies. However, recent studies demonstrated that nontoxic STa derivatives (toxoids), after being fused to an LT protein, induced neutralizing antibodies and suggested that different STa toxoids fused to an LT protein might exhibit different STa antigenic propensity. In this study, we selected 14 STa toxoids from a mini-STa toxoid library based on toxicity reduction and reactivity to anti-native STa antibodies, and genetically fused each toxoid to a monomeric double mutant LT (dmLT) peptide for 14 STa-toxoid-dmLT toxoid fusions. These toxoid fusions were used to immunize mice and were characterized for induction of anti-STa antibody response. The results showed that different STa toxoids (in fusions) varied greatly in anti-STa antigenicity. Among them, STaN12S, STaN12T, and STaA14H were the top toxoids in inducing anti-STa antibodies. In vitro neutralization assays indicated that antibodies induced by the 3×STaN12S-dmLT fusion antigen exhibited the greatest neutralizing activity against STa toxin. These results suggested 3×STaN12S-dmLT is a preferred fusion antigen to induce an anti-STa antibody response and provided long-awaited information for effective ETEC vaccine development. PMID:24549325

Ruan, Xiaosai; Robertson, Donald C; Nataro, James P; Clements, John D; Zhang, Weiping

2014-05-01

10

Heterogenic virulence in a diarrheagenic Escherichia coli: Evidence for an EPEC expressing heat-labile toxin of ETEC.  

PubMed

We have encountered an Escherichia coli strain isolated from a child with acute diarrhea. This strain harbored eae and elt genes encoding for E. coli attaching and effacing property and heat-labile enterotoxin of EPEC and ETEC, respectively. Due to the presence of these distinct virulence factors, we named this uncommon strain as EPEC/ETEC hybrid. The elt gene was identified in a conjugally transferable plasmid of the EPEC/ETEC hybrid. In addition, several virulence genes in the locus of enterocyte effacement have been identified, which confirms that the EPEC/ETEC has an EPEC genetic background. The hybrid nature of this strain was further confirmed by using tissue culture assays. In the multi locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, the EPEC/ETEC belonged to the sequence type ST328 and was belonging to ST278 Cplx. Sequence analysis of the plasmid DNA revealed presence of six large contigs with several insertion sequences. A phage integrase gene and the prophages of gp48 and gp49 have been found in the upstream of eltAB. In the downstream of elt, an urovirulence loci adhesion encoding (pap) cluster containing papG, and papC were also identified. Similar to other reports, we have identified a heterogenic virulence in a diarrheagenic E. coli but with different combination of genes. PMID:25465159

Dutta, Sanjucta; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Nataro, James P; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

2015-01-01

11

HEAT LABILE OPSONINS TO PNEUMOCOCCUS  

PubMed Central

Heat labile opsonins (HLO) in normal rat serum to both encapsulated and unencapsulated pneumococci (a) have the same heat lability as complement (C); (b) are active at 37°C but not at 0°C; (c) are inactivated proportionately to hemolytic C by the addition of immune aggregates to the serum; (d) are adsorbed from serum nonspecifically by bacteria at 37°C but not at 0°C; (e) are Ca++- and/or Mg++-dependent in their action; and (f) are inactivated by zymosan and a purified cobra venom factor, and in the case of encapsulated pneumococci, at least, by NH4OH. Like other opsonins, HLO to pneumococci act primarily on the bacteria rather than on the phagocytes. Their combined properties indicate that they involve multiple components of the hemolytic C system. Since HLO are immunologically polyspecific, they presumably play a broad protective role in the early (preantibody) phase of acute bacterial infections. PMID:4390899

Smith, Mary Ruth; Wood, W. Barry

1969-01-01

12

Mutational Analysis of Ganglioside GM1-Binding Ability, Pentamer Formation, and Epitopes of Cholera Toxin B (CTB) Subunits and CTB/Heat-Labile Enterotoxin B Subunit Chimeras  

PubMed Central

Variants of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) were made by bisulfite- and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of the ctxB gene. Variants were screened by a radial passive immune hemolysis assay (RPIHA) for loss of binding to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). Variant CTBs were characterized for the formation of immunoreactive pentamers, the ability to bind ganglioside GM1 in vitro, and reactivity with a panel of monoclonal anti-CTB antibodies. Substitutions at eight positions (i.e., positions 22, 29, 36, 45, 64, 86, 93, and 100) greatly reduced the yield of immunoreactive CTB. RPIHA-negative substitution variants that formed immunoreactive pentamers were obtained for residues 12, 33, 36, 51, 52 + 54, 91, and 95. Tyrosine-12 was identified as a novel residue important for GM1 binding since, among all of the novel variants isolated with altered RPIHA phenotypes, only CTB with aspartate substituted for tyrosine at position 12 failed to bind significantly to ganglioside GM1 in vitro. In contrast, CTB variants with single substitutions for several other residues (Glu-51, Lys-91, and Ala-95) that participate in GM1 binding, based on the crystal structure of CTB and the oligosaccharide of GM1, were not appreciably altered in their ability to bind GM1 in vitro, even though they showed altered RPIHA phenotypes and did not bind to SRBC. Hybrid B genes made by fusing ctxB and the related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin eltB genes at codon 56 produced CTB variants that had 7 or 12 heat-labile enterotoxin B residue substitutions in the amino or carboxyl halves of the monomer, respectively, each of which which also bound GM1 as well as wild-type CTB. This collection of variant CTBs in which 47 of the 103 residues were substituted was used to map the epitopes of nine anti-CTB monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Each MAb had a unique pattern of reactivity with the panel of CTB variants. Although no two of the epitopes recognized by different MAbs were identical, most of the single amino acid substitutions that altered the immunoreactivity of CTB affected more that one epitope. The tertiary structures of the epitopes of these anti-CTB MAbs are highly conformational and may involve structural elements both within and between CTB monomers. Substitution of valine for alanine at positions 10 and 46 had dramatic effects on the immunoreactivity of CTB, affecting epitopes recognized by eight or six MAbs, respectively. PMID:11854209

Jobling, Michael G.; Holmes, Randall K.

2002-01-01

13

Non-recombinant display of the B subunit of the heat labile toxin of Escherichia coli on wild type and mutant spores of Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Background Mucosal infections are a major global health problem and it is generally accepted that mucosal vaccination strategies, able to block infection at their entry site, would be preferable with respect to other prevention approaches. However, there are still relatively few mucosal vaccines available, mainly because of the lack of efficient delivery systems and of mucosal adjuvants. Recombinant bacterial spores displaying a heterologous antigen have been shown to induce protective immune responses and, therefore, proposed as a mucosal delivery system. A non-recombinant approach has been recently developed and tested to display antigens and enzymes. Results We report that the binding subunit of the heat-labile toxin (LTB) of Escherichia coli efficiently adsorbed on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spores. When nasally administered to groups of mice, spore-adsorbed LTB was able to induce a specific immune response with the production of serum IgG, fecal sIgA and of IFN-? in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of the immunized animals. Dot blotting experiments showed that the non-recombinant approach was more efficient than the recombinant system in displaying LTB and that the efficiency of display could be further increased by using mutant spores with an altered surface. In addition, immunofluorescence microscopy experiments showed that only when displayed on the spore surface by the non-recombinant approach LTB was found in its native, pentameric form. Conclusion Our results indicate that non-recombinant spores displaying LTB pentamers can be administered by the nasal route to induce a Th1-biased, specific immune response. Mutant spores with an altered coat are more efficient than wild type spores in adsorbing the antigen, allowing the use of a reduced number of spores in immunization procedures. Efficiency of display, ability to display the native form of the antigen and to induce a specific immune response propose this non-recombinant delivery system as a powerful mucosal vaccine delivery approach. PMID:24168229

2013-01-01

14

Effects of intranasal administration of cholera toxin (or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin) B subunits supplemented with a trace amount of the holotoxin on the brain.  

PubMed

Effects of intranasal administration of cholera toxin (CT) [or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)] B subunits supplemented with a trace amount of the holotoxin, CTB* or LTB*, on the brain were examined in BALB/c mice by comparing with those of the intracerebral injection. Intracerebral injection of CTB* at doses more than 10 microg/mouse caused significant body weight loss and dose-dependent death within 7 days, with localization of conjugates of horseradish peroxidase with CTB (HRP-CTB) in the ventricular system and in the perineural space of olfactory nerves of the nasal mucosa 3 h after injection. Intracerebral injection of CTB* at doses less than 3 microg/mouse (or LTB* at doses less than 22.7 microg/mouse) did not cause any significant body weight loss for 7 days, with localization of HRP-CTB in the brain but not in the nasal mucosa. On the other hand, intranasal administration of 10 microg of CTB* caused localization of HRP-CTB in the nasal mucosa but not in the brain 3 h after administration and caused body weight loss even after 30 administrations. Neither any histological changes of brain tissues nor marked changes in serum biochemical parameters were found in mice after the 30 administrations of CTB* or LTB*. These results suggest that 0.1 microg of CTB* or LTB*, which is known to be close to the minimal effective dose as an adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine in mice and corresponds to 100 microg per person, can be used as a safe nasal adjuvant without adversely affecting the brain. PMID:11166888

Hagiwara, Y; Iwasaki, T; Asanuma, H; Sato, Y; Sata, T; Aizawa, C; Kurata, T; Tamura, S

2001-02-01

15

The Adjuvant Double Mutant Escherichia coli Heat Labile Toxin Enhances IL-17A Production in Human T Cells Specific for Bacterial Vaccine Antigens  

PubMed Central

The strong adjuvant activity and low enterotoxicity of the novel mucosal adjuvant double mutant Escherichia coli heat labile toxin, LT(R192G/L211A) or dmLT, demonstrated in mice, makes this molecule a promising adjuvant candidate. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the adjuvant effect of dmLT or whether dmLT also has an adjuvant function in humans. We investigated the effect of dmLT on human T cell responses to different bacterial vaccine antigens: the mycobacterial purified protein derivative (PPD) antigen, tested in individuals previously vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, the LT binding subunit (LTB), evaluated in subjects immunised with oral inactivated whole cell vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae whole cell vaccine antigens, tested in subjects naturally exposed to pneumococci. We found that dmLT enhanced the production of IL-17A by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to all antigens tested. dmLT had comparable effects on IL-17A responses to PPD as the single mutant LT(R192G) adjuvant, which has demonstrated clinical adjuvant activity in humans. Neutralisation of IL-1? and IL-23, but not IL-6, suppressed the IL-17A-enhancing effect of dmLT. Furthermore, CD4+ T cells produced higher levels of IL-17A when stimulated with monocytes pulsed with PPD and dmLT compared to PPD alone, supporting an important role of antigen presenting cells in enhancing IL-17A responses. dmLT also potentiated mitogen-induced IL-17A and IL-13 production. However, dmLT had variable influences on IFN-? responses to the different stimuli tested. Our demonstration of a potent ability of dmLT to enhance human Th17 type T cell responses to bacterial vaccine antigens encourages further evaluation of the adjuvant function of dmLT in humans. PMID:23284753

Leach, Susannah; Clements, John D.; Kaim, Joanna; Lundgren, Anna

2012-01-01

16

The adjuvant double mutant Escherichia coli heat labile toxin enhances IL-17A production in human T cells specific for bacterial vaccine antigens.  

PubMed

The strong adjuvant activity and low enterotoxicity of the novel mucosal adjuvant double mutant Escherichia coli heat labile toxin, LT(R192G/L211A) or dmLT, demonstrated in mice, makes this molecule a promising adjuvant candidate. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the adjuvant effect of dmLT or whether dmLT also has an adjuvant function in humans. We investigated the effect of DMLT on human T Cell responses to different bacterial vaccine antigens: the mycobacterial purified protein derivative (PPD) antigen, tested in individuals previously vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, the LT binding subunit (LTB), evaluated in subjects immunised with oral inactivated whole cell vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae whole cell vaccine antigens, tested in subjects naturally exposed to pneumococci. We found that dmLT enhanced the production of IL-17A by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to all antigens tested. dmLT had comparable effects on IL-17A responses to PPD as the single mutant LT(R192G) adjuvant, which has demonstrated clinical adjuvant activity in humans. Neutralisation of IL-1? and IL-23, but not IL-6, suppressed the IL-17A-enhancing effect of dmLT. Furthermore, CD4+ T cells produced higher levels of IL-17A when stimulated with monocytes pulsed with PPD and dmLT compared to PPD alone, supporting an important role of antigen presenting cells in enhancing IL-17A responses. dmLT also potentiated mitogen-induced IL-17A and IL-13 production. However, dmLT had variable influences on IFN-? responses to the different stimuli tested.Our demonstration of a potent ability of dmLT to enhance human Th17 type T cell responses to bacterial vaccine antigens encourages further evaluation of the adjuvant function of dmLT in humans. PMID:23284753

Leach, Susannah; Clements, John D; Kaim, Joanna; Lundgren, Anna

2012-01-01

17

Biophysical Characteristics of Cholera Toxin and Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Structure and Chemistry Lead to Differential Toxicity.  

PubMed

The biophysical chemistry of macromolecular complexes confer their functional characteristics. We investigate the mechanisms that make the AB5 holotoxin of Vibrio cholerae (CT) a significantly more pathogenic molecule than the enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT) with which it shares 88% similarity and whose structure is homologous with a backbone RMSD of 0.84 Å and imposes its deleterious effects though the same process to constitutively ADP-ribosylate adenylate cyclase. We present computational data that characterizes the impact of amino acid variations in the A2 tail, which helps to explain experimental data that demonstrate CT's higher toxicity. A hydrophobic patch on the B pentamer interface and its interactions with the A subdomain are partially disrupted by the substitution of an aspartic acid (LT) for glycine in CT. CT's holotoxin has less solvent accessible surface area (94 Å(2) vs 54 Å(2)) and higher contact area (280 Å(2) vs 241 Å(2)) with S228, which is a gatekeeper, partially controlling the diffusion of water into the pore. CT excludes water from the top of the central pore whereas LT allows much more water to interact. These biophysical properties of the toxins lead to their differential toxicity and resulting impact to human health. PMID:25322200

Craft, John W; Shen, Tsai-Wei; Brier, Lindsey M; Briggs, James M

2015-01-22

18

Heat-Labile Enterotoxin: Beyond GM1 Binding  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One major virulence factor released by ETEC is the heat-labile enterotoxin LT, which is structurally and functionally similar to cholera toxin. LT consists of five B subunits carrying a single catalytically active A subunit. LTB binds the monosialoganglioside GM1, the toxin’s host receptor, but interactions with A-type blood sugars and E. coli lipopolysaccharide have also been identified within the past decade. Here, we review the regulation, assembly, and binding properties of the LT B-subunit pentamer and discuss the possible roles of its numerous molecular interactions. PMID:22069646

Mudrak, Benjamin; Kuehn, Meta J.

2010-01-01

19

A Functional Antigen in a Practical Crop: LT-B Producing Maize Protects Mice against Escherichia coli Heat Labile Enterotoxin (LT) and Cholera Toxin (CT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason; Kan Wang

2002-01-01

20

A functional antigen in a practical crop: LT-B producing maize protects mice against Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason

2002-01-01

21

Genetic fusions of heat-labile toxoid (LT) and heat-stable toxin b (STb) of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli elicit protective anti-LT and anti-STb antibodies.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-associated diarrhea causes a substantial economic loss to swine producers worldwide. The majority of ETEC strains causing porcine diarrhea, especially postweaning diarrhea (PWD), produce heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin b (STb). LT is commonly used in vaccine development, but STb has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity. As a virulence factor in porcine diarrhea, STb needs to be included as an antigen for development of broad-spectrum vaccines. In this study, we used an LT toxoid (LT(R192G) [hereafter, LT(192)]) derived from porcine ETEC to carry a mature STb peptide for LT(192)-STb fusions to enhance STb immunogenicity for potential vaccine application. Anti-LT and anti-STb antibodies were detected in immunized rabbits and pigs. In addition, when challenged with an STb-positive ETEC strain, all 10 suckling piglets borne by immunized gilts remained healthy, whereas 7 out 9 piglets borne by unimmunized gilts developed moderate diarrhea. This study indicates that the LT(192)-STb fusion enhanced anti-STb immunogenicity and suggests the LT(192)-STb fusion antigen can be used in future vaccine development against porcine ETEC diarrhea. PMID:20505006

Zhang, Weiping; Francis, David H

2010-08-01

22

Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein-Dependent Repression of Heat-Labile Enterotoxin ?  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is a major cause of acute diarrheal illness worldwide and is responsible for high infant and child mortality rates in developing nations. Two types of enterotoxins, one heat labile and the other heat stable, are known to cause diarrhea. The expression of soluble heat-labile toxin is subject to catabolite (glucose) activation, and three binding sites for cAMP receptor protein (CRP or CAP) were identified upstream and within the toxin promoter by DNase I footprinting. One CRP operator is centered at ?31.5, thus encompassing the promoter's ?35 hexamer. Potassium permanganate footprinting revealed that the occupancy of this operator prevents RNA polymerase from forming an open complex in vitro. However, the operator centered at ?31.5 is not sufficient for full repression in vivo because the deletion of the other two CRP binding sites partially relieved the CRP-dependent repression of the heat-labile toxin promoter. In contrast to heat-labile toxin, CRP positively regulates the expression of heat-stable toxin. Thus, the conditions for the optimal expression of one enterotoxin limit the expression of the other. Since glucose inhibits the activity of CRP by suppressing the pathogen's synthesis of cyclic AMP (cAMP), the concentration of glucose in the lumen of the small intestine may determine which enterotoxin is maximally expressed. In addition, our results suggest that the host may also modulate enterotoxin expression because cells intoxicated with heat-labile toxin overproduce and release cAMP. PMID:19075028

Bodero, Maria D.; Munson, George P.

2009-01-01

23

Cholera toxin, LT-I, LT-IIa, and LT-IIb: the critical role of ganglioside-binding in immunomodulation by Type I and Type II heat-labile enterotoxins  

PubMed Central

The heat-labile enterotoxins (HLT) expressed by Vibrio cholerae (cholera toxin) and Escherichia coli (LT-I, LT-IIa, and LT-IIb) are potent systemic and mucosal adjuvants. Co-administration of the enterotoxins with a foreign antigen (Ag) produces an augmented immune response to that antigen. Although each enterotoxin has potent adjuvant properties, the means by which the enterotoxins induce various immune responses are distinctive for each adjuvant. Various mutants have been engineered to dissect the functions of the enterotoxins required for their adjuvanticity. The capacity to strongly bind to one or more specific ganglioside receptors appears to drive the distinctive immunomodulatory properties associated with each enterotoxin. Mutant enterotoxins with ablated or altered ganglioside binding affinities have been employed to investigate the role of gangliosides in enterotoxin-dependent immunomodulation. PMID:17931161

Connell, Terry D.

2010-01-01

24

Characterization of a mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, LT(R192G/L211A), as a safe and effective oral adjuvant.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that the adjuvant properties of the heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli (LT) and Vibrio cholerae (CT) have been known for more than 20 years, there are no available oral vaccines containing these molecules as adjuvants, primarily because they are both very potent enterotoxins. A number of attempts with various degrees of success have been made to reduce or eliminate the enterotoxicity of LT and CT so they can safely be used as oral adjuvants or immunogens. In this report we characterize the structural, enzymatic, enterotoxic, and adjuvant properties of a novel mutant of LT, designated LT(R192G/L211A), or dmLT. dmLT was not sensitive to trypsin activation, had reduced enzymatic activity for induction of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells, and exhibited no enterotoxicity in the patent mouse assay. Importantly, dmLT retained the ability to function as an oral adjuvant for a coadministered antigen (tetanus toxoid) and to elicit anti-LT antibodies. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that the reduced enterotoxicity of this molecule compared to native LT or the single mutant, LT(R192G), is a consequence of increased sensitivity to proteolysis and rapid intracellular degradation in mammalian cells. In conclusion, dmLT is a safe and powerful detoxified enterotoxin with the potential to function as a mucosal adjuvant for coadministered antigens and to elicit anti-LT antibodies without undesirable side effects. PMID:21288994

Norton, Elizabeth B; Lawson, Louise B; Freytag, Lucy C; Clements, John D

2011-04-01

25

Characterization of a Mutant Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin, LT(R192G/L211A), as a Safe and Effective Oral Adjuvant ?  

PubMed Central

Despite the fact that the adjuvant properties of the heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli (LT) and Vibrio cholerae (CT) have been known for more than 20 years, there are no available oral vaccines containing these molecules as adjuvants, primarily because they are both very potent enterotoxins. A number of attempts with various degrees of success have been made to reduce or eliminate the enterotoxicity of LT and CT so they can safely be used as oral adjuvants or immunogens. In this report we characterize the structural, enzymatic, enterotoxic, and adjuvant properties of a novel mutant of LT, designated LT(R192G/L211A), or dmLT. dmLT was not sensitive to trypsin activation, had reduced enzymatic activity for induction of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells, and exhibited no enterotoxicity in the patent mouse assay. Importantly, dmLT retained the ability to function as an oral adjuvant for a coadministered antigen (tetanus toxoid) and to elicit anti-LT antibodies. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that the reduced enterotoxicity of this molecule compared to native LT or the single mutant, LT(R192G), is a consequence of increased sensitivity to proteolysis and rapid intracellular degradation in mammalian cells. In conclusion, dmLT is a safe and powerful detoxified enterotoxin with the potential to function as a mucosal adjuvant for coadministered antigens and to elicit anti-LT antibodies without undesirable side effects. PMID:21288994

Norton, Elizabeth B.; Lawson, Louise B.; Freytag, Lucy C.; Clements, John D.

2011-01-01

26

A double mutant heat-labile toxin from Escherichia coli, LT(R192G/L211A), is an effective mucosal adjuvant for vaccination against Helicobacter pylori infection.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach is a common cause of peptic ulcer disease and is a strong risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma, yet no effective vaccine against H. pylori infection is available to date. In mice, mucosal vaccination with H. pylori antigens when given together with cholera toxin (CT) adjuvant, but not without adjuvant, can induce protective immune responses against H. pylori infection. However, the toxicity of CT precludes its use as a mucosal adjuvant in humans. We evaluated a recently developed, essentially nontoxic double mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, LT(R192G/L211A) (dmLT), as a mucosal adjuvant in an experimental H. pylori vaccine and compared it to CT in promoting immune responses and protection against H. pylori infection in mice. Immunization via the sublingual or intragastric route with H. pylori lysate antigens and dmLT resulted in a significant decrease in bacterial load after challenge compared to that in unimmunized infection controls and to the same extent as when using CT as an adjuvant. Cellular immune responses in the sublingually immunized mice known to correlate with protection were also fully comparable when using dmLT and CT as adjuvants, resulting in enhanced in vitro proliferative and cytokine responses from spleen and mesenteric lymph node cells to H. pylori antigens. Our results suggest that dmLT is an attractive adjuvant for inclusion in a mucosal vaccine against H. pylori infection. PMID:23439305

Sjökvist Ottsjö, Louise; Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Clements, John; Holmgren, Jan; Raghavan, Sukanya

2013-05-01

27

A Double Mutant Heat-Labile Toxin from Escherichia coli, LT(R192G/L211A), Is an Effective Mucosal Adjuvant for Vaccination against Helicobacter pylori Infection  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach is a common cause of peptic ulcer disease and is a strong risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma, yet no effective vaccine against H. pylori infection is available to date. In mice, mucosal vaccination with H. pylori antigens when given together with cholera toxin (CT) adjuvant, but not without adjuvant, can induce protective immune responses against H. pylori infection. However, the toxicity of CT precludes its use as a mucosal adjuvant in humans. We evaluated a recently developed, essentially nontoxic double mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, LT(R192G/L211A) (dmLT), as a mucosal adjuvant in an experimental H. pylori vaccine and compared it to CT in promoting immune responses and protection against H. pylori infection in mice. Immunization via the sublingual or intragastric route with H. pylori lysate antigens and dmLT resulted in a significant decrease in bacterial load after challenge compared to that in unimmunized infection controls and to the same extent as when using CT as an adjuvant. Cellular immune responses in the sublingually immunized mice known to correlate with protection were also fully comparable when using dmLT and CT as adjuvants, resulting in enhanced in vitro proliferative and cytokine responses from spleen and mesenteric lymph node cells to H. pylori antigens. Our results suggest that dmLT is an attractive adjuvant for inclusion in a mucosal vaccine against H. pylori infection. PMID:23439305

Sjökvist Ottsjö, Louise; Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Clements, John; Holmgren, Jan

2013-01-01

28

Safety and immunogenicity of a single oral dose of recombinant double mutant heat-labile toxin derived from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a primary cause of traveler's diarrhea for which there is no licensed vaccine. This phase 1 trial determined the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinantly produced double mutant heat-labile enterotoxin (dmLT) of ETEC. It was administered as a single oral dose of dmLT in escalating doses of 5 ?g, 25 ?g, 50 ?g, and 100 ?g, followed by a 72-h inpatient observation, outpatient visits at 8, 14, and 28 days, and telephone calls at 2 and 6 months postvaccination. Safety was assessed by frequency of adverse events, and immune responses determined after immunization included dmLT-specific serum IgA and IgG, fecal IgA, antibody-secreting cells (ASC), and antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) responses. All doses were well tolerated by the 36 healthy adults enrolled. Immune responses were limited in the 5- and 25-?g dose recipients. The 50-?g dose recipients trended toward stronger responses than the 100-?g dose recipients by serum IgA (67% versus 33%, P = 0.22), serum IgG (58% versus 33%, P = 0.41), and fecal IgA (58% versus 33%, P = 0.41). By day 14 postvaccination, there were significantly more positive responders (?4-fold increase from baseline) among the 50- versus 100-?g dose recipients for serum IgA (P = 0.036) but not serum IgG (P = 0.21). In conclusion, a single oral dose of dmLT was well tolerated and immunogenic, with immune responses plateauing at the 50-?g dose. (This clinical trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT01147445.). PMID:24049109

El-Kamary, Samer S; Cohen, Mitchell B; Bourgeois, A Louis; Van De Verg, Lillian; Bauers, Nicole; Reymann, Mardi; Pasetti, Marcela F; Chen, Wilbur H

2013-11-01

29

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Single Oral Dose of Recombinant Double Mutant Heat-Labile Toxin Derived from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a primary cause of traveler's diarrhea for which there is no licensed vaccine. This phase 1 trial determined the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinantly produced double mutant heat-labile enterotoxin (dmLT) of ETEC. It was administered as a single oral dose of dmLT in escalating doses of 5 ?g, 25 ?g, 50 ?g, and 100 ?g, followed by a 72-h inpatient observation, outpatient visits at 8, 14, and 28 days, and telephone calls at 2 and 6 months postvaccination. Safety was assessed by frequency of adverse events, and immune responses determined after immunization included dmLT-specific serum IgA and IgG, fecal IgA, antibody-secreting cells (ASC), and antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) responses. All doses were well tolerated by the 36 healthy adults enrolled. Immune responses were limited in the 5- and 25-?g dose recipients. The 50-?g dose recipients trended toward stronger responses than the 100-?g dose recipients by serum IgA (67% versus 33%, P = 0.22), serum IgG (58% versus 33%, P = 0.41), and fecal IgA (58% versus 33%, P = 0.41). By day 14 postvaccination, there were significantly more positive responders (?4-fold increase from baseline) among the 50- versus 100-?g dose recipients for serum IgA (P = 0.036) but not serum IgG (P = 0.21). In conclusion, a single oral dose of dmLT was well tolerated and immunogenic, with immune responses plateauing at the 50-?g dose. (This clinical trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT01147445.) PMID:24049109

El-Kamary, Samer S.; Cohen, Mitchell B.; Bourgeois, A. Louis; Van De Verg, Lillian; Bauers, Nicole; Reymann, Mardi; Pasetti, Marcela F.

2013-01-01

30

Structure and mucosal adjuvanticity of cholera and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and cholera toxin are potent mucosal immunogens and adjuvants in animal models. Non-toxic mutants retaining adjuvant activity are useful tools to dissect the mechanism of mucosal adjuvanticity and promising candidates for development of human vaccines and immunotherapy. Clinical trials are expected to proceed in the near future.

Rino Rappuoli; Mariagrazia Pizza; Gill Douce; Gordon Dougan

1999-01-01

31

LT-IIb(T13I), a non-toxic type II heat-labile enterotoxin, augments the capacity of a ricin toxin subunit vaccine to evoke neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity.  

PubMed

Currently, there is a shortage of adjuvants that can be employed with protein subunit vaccines to enhance protection against biological threats. LT-IIb(T13I) is an engineered nontoxic derivative of LT-IIb, a member of the type II subfamily of heat labile enterotoxins expressed by Escherichia coli, that possesses potent mucosal adjuvant properties. In this study we evaluated the capacity of LT-IIb(T13I) to augment the potency of RiVax, a recombinant ricin toxin A subunit vaccine, when co-administered to mice via the intradermal (i.d.) and intranasal (i.n.) routes. We report that co-administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) by the i.d. route enhanced the levels of RiVax-specific serum IgG antibodies (Ab) and elevated the ratio of ricin-neutralizing to non-neutralizing Ab, as compared to RiVax alone. Protection against a lethal ricin challenge was also augmented by LT-IIb(T13I). While local inflammatory responses elicited by LT-IIb(T13I) were comparable to those elicited by aluminum salts (Imject®), LT-IIb(T13I) was more effective than aluminum salts at augmenting production of RiVax-specific serum IgG. Finally, i.n. administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) also increased levels of RiVax-specific serum and mucosal Ab and enhanced protection against ricin challenge. Collectively, these data highlight the potential of LT-IIb(T13I) as an effective next-generation i.d., or possibly i.n. adjuvant for enhancing the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines for biodefense. PMID:23936344

Greene, Christopher J; Chadwick, Chrystal M; Mandell, Lorrie M; Hu, John C; O'Hara, Joanne M; Brey, Robert N; Mantis, Nicholas J; Connell, Terry D

2013-01-01

32

Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxins from 50 Diverse Escherichia coli Isolates Belong Almost Exclusively to the LT-IIc Family and May Be Prophage Encoded  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produce a type II heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-II) that activates adenylate cyclase in susceptible cells but is not neutralized by antisera against cholera toxin or type I heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-I). LT-I variants encoded by plasmids in ETEC from humans and pigs have amino acid sequences that are ?95% identical. In contrast, LT-II toxins are chromosomally encoded

Michael G. Jobling; Randall K. Holmes

2012-01-01

33

Toward the development of a stable, freeze-dried formulation of Helicobacter pylori killed whole cell vaccine adjuvanted with a novel mutant of E. coli heat-labile toxin  

PubMed Central

No vaccine exists for the prevention of infection with the ubiquitous gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, and drug therapy for the infection is complicated by poor patient compliance, the high cost of treatment, and ineffectiveness against drug resistant strains. A new medical advancement is required to reduce the incidence of peptic ulcer disease and stomach cancer, two conditions caused by infection with H. pylori. Clinical trials have been performed with a formalin-inactivated Helicobacter pylori Whole Cell (HWC) vaccine, given orally in combination with the mucosal adjuvant mLT(R192G), a mutant of E. coli heat-labile toxin. Following the initial dose of this vaccine, some subjects experienced gastrointestinal side effects. To reduce side effects and potentially further increase the amount of adjuvant that can safely be administered with the HWC vaccine, experiments were performed with a form of LT that carried two mutations in the A subunit, a substitution of G for R at position 192, and A for L at position 211. The double-mutant LT (dmLT) adjuvant stimulated immune responses as effectively as the single mutant LT in mice. Additionally, following a challenge infection, the dmLT-adjuvanted vaccine was as effective as single mutant LT in reducing gastric urease levels (diagnostic for H. pylori infection), and H. pylori colonization in the stomach as assessed by quantitative analysis of stomach homogenates. A lyophilized formulation of HWC was developed to improve stability and to potentially reduce reliance on cold chain maintenance. It was observed that a dmLT-adjuvanted lyophilized vaccine was equally as protective in the mouse model as the liquid formulation as assessed by gastric urease analysis and analysis of stomach homogenates for viable H. pylori. No readily detectable effect of tonicity or moisture content was observed for the lyophilized vaccine within the formulation limits evaluated. In an accelerated stability study performed at 37°C the lyophilized vaccine remained equally as protective as vaccine stored at 2–8°C. The formulation selected for clinical development consisted of 2.5×1010 formalin-inactivated cells per ml in 6.5% trehalose, 0.5% mannitol, and 10 mM citrate buffer at pH 6.8. PMID:19897067

Summerton, Nancy A.; Welch, Richard W.; Bondoc, Laureano; Yang, Huei-Hsiung; Pleune, Brett; Ramachandran, Naryaswamy; Harris, Andrea M.; Bland, Desiree; Jackson, W. James; Park, Sukjoon; Clements, John D.; Nabors, Gary S.

2009-01-01

34

Toward the development of a stable, freeze-dried formulation of Helicobacter pylori killed whole cell vaccine adjuvanted with a novel mutant of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin.  

PubMed

No vaccine exists for the prevention of infection with the ubiquitous gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, and drug therapy for the infection is complicated by poor patient compliance, the high cost of treatment, and ineffectiveness against drug-resistant strains. A new medical advancement is required to reduce the incidence of peptic ulcer disease and stomach cancer, two conditions caused by infection with H. pylori. Clinical trials have been performed with a formalin-inactivated H. pylori whole cell (HWC) vaccine, given orally in combination with the mucosal adjuvant mLT(R192G), a mutant of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin. Following the initial dose of this vaccine, some subjects experienced gastrointestinal side effects. To reduce side effects and potentially further increase the amount of adjuvant that can safely be administered with the HWC vaccine, experiments were performed with a form of LT that carried two mutations in the A subunit, a substitution of G for R at position 192, and A for L at position 211. The double mutant LT (dmLT) adjuvant stimulated immune responses as effectively as the single mutant LT in mice. Additionally, following a challenge infection, the dmLT-adjuvanted vaccine was as effective as single mutant LT in reducing gastric urease levels (diagnostic for H. pylori infection), and H. pylori colonization in the stomach as assessed by quantitative analysis of stomach homogenates. A lyophilized formulation of HWC was developed to improve stability and to potentially reduce reliance on cold chain maintenance. It was observed that a dmLT-adjuvanted lyophilized vaccine was equally as protective in the mouse model as the liquid formulation as assessed by gastric urease analysis and analysis of stomach homogenates for viable H. pylori. No readily detectable effect of tonicity or moisture content was observed for the lyophilized vaccine within the formulation limits evaluated. In an accelerated stability study performed at 37 degrees C the lyophilized vaccine remained equally as protective as vaccine stored at 2-8 degrees C. The formulation selected for clinical development consisted of 2.5 x 10(10) formalin-inactivated cells per ml in 6.5% trehalose, 0.5% mannitol, and 10mM citrate buffer at pH 6.8. PMID:19897067

Summerton, Nancy A; Welch, Richard W; Bondoc, Laureano; Yang, Huei-Hsiung; Pleune, Brett; Ramachandran, Naryaswamy; Harris, Andrea M; Bland, Desiree; Jackson, W James; Park, Sukjoon; Clements, John D; Nabors, Gary S

2010-02-01

35

A tripartite fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B, of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) elicits antibodies that neutralize cholera toxin, inhibit adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 fimbriae, and protect pigs against K88ac/heat-labile toxin infection.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT(192)) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21813665

Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A; Zhang, Weiping

2011-10-01

36

Treatment with a hybrid between the synapsin ABC domains and the B subunit of E. coli heat-labile toxin reduces frequency of proinflammatory cells and cytokines in the central nervous system of rats with EAE.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are crucially dependent on the invasion of activated autoreactive lymphocytes and blood macrophages into the central nervous system (CNS). Proinflammatory mononuclear cells and activated local microglia mediate inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage at the target organ. Previously, we observed that the administration of a hybrid between the synapsin ABC domains and the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat labile-enterotoxin (LTBABC) to rats with EAE ameliorated disease by modulating the peripheral Th1 response to myelin basic protein (MBP). In the present study, we investigated the effect of LTBABC administration on proinflammatory cell frequency in the CNS of rats with EAE. Treatment with the hybrid in the inductive phase of EAE attenuated disease severity and diminished histological inflammatory infiltrates and demyelination in the spinal cord of rats with acute EAE. Lower frequencies of infiltrating and local macrophages as well as CD4+ T cells that produce the proinflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin (IL)-17 were found at the target organ. Concomitantly, low levels of INF-? and IL-17 and increased levels of IL-10 were measured in cultures of CNS infiltrating cells and spinal cord tissue. An increased frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3 cells was observed at the disease peak and at the beginning of the recovery stage. These results provide further evidence for the immunomodulatory properties of the fusion protein LTBABC in autoimmune demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system. PMID:25020120

Bibolini, M J; Scerbo, M J; Roth, G A; Monferran, C G

2014-09-26

37

Rapid visual detection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae Heat-labile enterotoxins by nitrocellulose enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

PubMed Central

A modification of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for a sensitive and rapid visual detection of heat-labile enterotoxins from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae is described. Small amounts of bacterial supernatant fluids are bound to nitrocellulose filters which are used as sorbents in the nitrocellulose enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The test is based on the immunological similarity between V. cholerae and E. coli heat-labile enterotoxins. Six isolates of V. cholerae and 48 isolates of E. coli were examined for heat-labile enterotoxins by the nitrocellulose enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Vero cell bioassay. With some strains, the nitrocellulose enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was found to be more sensitive for detection of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin than the Vero cell test. A similar result was obtained by endpoint titration of heat-labile enterotoxin-positive E. coli H10407 culture fluid in both assays. The sensitivity of the nitrocellulose enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of purified cholera toxin was at a total level of 1 ng, which is a good result when compared with other serological assays. Images PMID:6371043

Beutin, L; Bode, L; Richter, T; Peltre, G; Stephan, R

1984-01-01

38

Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin subunit B fusions with Streptococcus sobrinus antigens expressed by Salmonella typhimurium oral vaccine strains: importance of the linker for antigenicity and biological activities of the hybrid proteins.  

PubMed Central

A set of vectors possessing the genes for aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd) and the B subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT-B) has been developed. These vectors allow operon or gene fusions of foreign gene epitopes at the C-terminal end of LT-B. Two groups of vectors have been constructed with and without leader sequences to facilitate placing of the foreign antigen in different cell compartments. Two Streptococcus sobrinus genes coding for principal colonization factors, surface protein antigen A (SpaA), and dextranase (Dex), have been fused into the 3' end of the LT-B gene. Resulting protein fusions of approximately 120 to 130 kDa are extremely well recognized by antibodies directed against both SpaA and Dex as well as against LT-B domains and retain the enzymatic activity of dextranase and the biological activity of LT-B in that they bind to GM1 gangliosides. Maximum antigenicity was obtained with the vector possessing an intervening linker of at least six amino acids with two proline residues. Some of the fusion proteins also exhibited another property of LT-B in that they were exported into the periplasm where they oligomerized. LT-B-SpaA and LT-B-Dex hybrid proteins are expressed stably and at a high level in avirulent Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strains which are being used to investigate their immunogenicity and types of induced immune responses. The fusion vectors will also be useful for production and purification of LT-B fusion antigens to be used and evaluated in other vaccine compositions. Images PMID:8432584

Jagusztyn-Krynicka, E K; Clark-Curtiss, J E; Curtiss, R

1993-01-01

39

Heat-labile Enterotoxins as Adjuvants or Anti-Inflammatory Agents  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae produce structurally related AB5-type heat-labile enterotoxins which are classified into two major types. The Type I subfamily includes cholera toxin and E. coli LT-I, whereas the Type II subfamily comprises LT-IIa and LT-IIb. In addition to their roles in microbial pathogenesis, the enterotoxins are widely and intensively studied for their exceptionally strong adjuvant and immunomodulatory activities, which are not necessarily dependent upon their abilities to elevate intracellular cAMP levels. Despite general structural similarities, these molecules, in intact or derivative form, display notable differences in their interactions with gangliosides or Toll-like receptors. This divergence results in differential immune response outcomes, the underlying mechanisms of which remain largely uncharacterized. Whereas the study of these molecules has been pivotal in understanding basic mechanisms of immune regulation, a formidable challenge is to dissociate toxicity from useful properties that can be exploited in vaccine development or for the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory diseases. PMID:20461887

Liang, Shuang; Hajishengallis, George

2010-01-01

40

Radiation-induced heat-labile sites that convert into DNA double-strand breaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The yield of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in SV40 DNA irradiated in aqueous solution was found to increase by more than a factor of two as a result of postirradiation incubation of the DNA at 50 degrees C and pH 8.0 for 24 h. This is in agreement with data from studies performed at 37 degrees C that were published previously. Importantly, similar results were also obtained from irradiation of mammalian DNA in agarose plugs. These results suggest that heat-labile sites within locally multiply damaged sites are produced by radiation and are subsequently transformed into DSBs. Since incubation at 50 degrees C is typically employed for lysis of cells in commonly used pulsed-field gel assays for detection of DSBs in mammalian cells, the possibility that heat-labile sites are present in irradiated cells was also studied. An increase in the apparent number of DSBs as a function of lysis time at 50 degrees C was found with kinetics that was similar to that for irradiated DNA, although the magnitude of the increase was smaller. This suggests that heat-labile sites are also formed in the cell. If this is the case, a proportion of DSBs measured by the pulsed-field gel assays may occur during the lysis step and may not be present in the cell as breaks but as heat-labile sites. It is suggested that such sites consist mainly of heat-labile sugar lesions within locally multiply damaged sites. Comparing rejoining of DSBs measured with short and long lysis procedure indicates that the heat-labile sites are repaired with fast kinetics in comparison with repair of the bulk of DSBs.

Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

2000-01-01

41

[Expression of heat-labile enterotoxin and the strategy of purification and storage].  

PubMed

Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) from Escherichia coli is a bacterial protein toxin with an AB5 hexamer structure. LT is a powerful mucosal adjuvant when co-administered with soluble antigens. However, its use in mucosal immunity is inconvenient because of its low yield and depolymerization during long-term storage under normal condition. In this study, we report an efficient expression system and optimized purification and storage strategy of LT. A gene encoding LT was cloned into the vector pET11c and transformed in E. coli BL21(DE3). By growing this strain on modified M9-CAA medium, LT was expressed efficiently. About 46mg/L LT could be purified from the supernatant of bacteria lysate. Using D(+)-Immobilized galactose column, LT could be purified at a wide pH range with various elution buffers. The optimized elution buffers are TEAN (pH 7.3) containing 0.3mol/L galactose and carbonate buffer (pH 10.4) containing 0.3mol/L galactose. After dried by freeze and placed in 4 degrees C, LT dissolved in TEAN (pH 7.3) and carbonate buffer (pH 10.4) were assayed by HPLC. The results indicated that the integrity of AB5 hexamer was kept well. LT could undergo long-term storage under this condition. This was proved to be an optimized strategy of LT storage. The results of GM1 binding assay and toxicity assay showed that the purified recombinant LT has normal biological character. PMID:15969079

Feng, Qiang; Cai, Shao-Xi; Yang, Jun; Luo, Ping; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Zou, Quan-Ming

2003-09-01

42

Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxins from 50 Diverse Escherichia coli Isolates Belong Almost Exclusively to the LT-IIc Family and May Be Prophage Encoded  

PubMed Central

Some enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produce a type II heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-II) that activates adenylate cyclase in susceptible cells but is not neutralized by antisera against cholera toxin or type I heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-I). LT-I variants encoded by plasmids in ETEC from humans and pigs have amino acid sequences that are ?95% identical. In contrast, LT-II toxins are chromosomally encoded and are much more diverse. Early studies characterized LT-IIa and LT-IIb variants, but a novel LT-IIc was reported recently. Here we characterized the LT-II encoding loci from 48 additional ETEC isolates. Two encoded LT-IIa, none encoded LT-IIb, and 46 encoded highly related variants of LT-IIc. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the predicted LT-IIc toxins encoded by these loci could be assigned to 6 subgroups. The loci corresponding to individual toxins within each subgroup had DNA sequences that were more than 99% identical. The LT-IIc subgroups appear to have arisen by multiple recombinational events between progenitor loci encoding LT-IIc1- and LT-IIc3-like variants. All loci from representative isolates encoding the LT-IIa, LT-IIb, and each subgroup of LT-IIc enterotoxins are preceded by highly-related genes that are between 80 and 93% identical to predicted phage lysozyme genes. DNA sequences immediately following the B genes differ considerably between toxin subgroups, but all are most closely related to genomic sequences found in predicted prophages. Together these data suggest that the LT-II loci are inserted into lambdoid type prophages that may or may not be infectious. These findings raise the possibility that production of LT-II enterotoxins by ETEC may be determined by phage conversion and may be activated by induction of prophage, in a manner similar to control of production of Shiga-like toxins by converting phages in isolates of enterohemmorhagic E. coli. PMID:22242186

Jobling, Michael G.; Holmes, Randall K.

2012-01-01

43

Identification of a protein secretory pathway for the secretion of heat-labile enterotoxin by an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an enteric pathogen that causes cholera-like diarrhea in humans and animals. ETEC secretes a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), which resembles cholera toxin, but the actual mechanism of LT secretion is presently unknown. We have identified a previously unrecognized type II protein secretion pathway in the prototypic human ETEC strain, H10407 (serotype O78:H11). The genes for this pathway are absent from E. coli K-12, although examination of the K-12 genome suggests that it probably once possessed them. The secretory pathway bears significant homology at the amino acid level to the type II protein secretory pathway required by Vibrio cholerae for the secretion of cholera toxin. With this in mind, we determined whether the homologous pathway of E. coli H10407 played a role in the secretion of LT. To this end, we inactivated the pathway by inserting a kanamycin-resistance gene into one of the genes (gspD) of the type II secretion pathway by homologous recombination. LT secretion by E. coli H10407 and the gspD mutant was assayed by enzyme immunoassay, and its biological activity was assessed by using Y-1 adrenal cells. This investigation showed that the protein secretory pathway is functional and necessary for the secretion of LT by ETEC. Our findings have revealed the mechanism for the secretion of LT by ETEC, which previously was unknown, and provide further evidence of close biological similarities of the LT and cholera toxin. PMID:12011463

Tauschek, Marija; Gorrell, Rebecca J.; Strugnell, Richard A.; Robins-Browne, Roy M.

2002-01-01

44

Toll-like receptor 2 mediates cellular activation by the B subunits of type II heat-labile enterotoxins.  

PubMed

The type II heat-labile enterotoxins (LT-IIa and LT-IIb) of Escherichia coli have an AB5 subunit structure similar to that of cholera toxin (CT) and other type I enterotoxins, despite significant differences in the amino acid sequences of their B subunits and different ganglioside receptor specificities. LT-II holotoxins and their nontoxic B subunits display unique properties as immunological adjuvants distinct from those of CT and its B subunits. In contrast to type II holotoxins, the corresponding pentameric B subunits, LT-IIaB and LT-IIbB, stimulated cytokine release in both human and mouse cells dependent upon Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Induction of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, or tumor necrosis factor alpha in human THP-1 cells by LT-IIaB or LT-IIbB was inhibited by anti-TLR2 but not by anti-TLR4 antibody. Furthermore, transient expression of TLR1 and TLR2 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells resulted in activation of a nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent luciferase gene in response to LT-IIaB or LT-IIbB. Moreover, peritoneal macrophages from TLR2-deficient mice failed to respond to LT-IIaB or LT-IIbB, in contrast to wild-type or TLR4-deficient cells. These results demonstrate that besides their established binding to gangliosides, the B subunits of type II enterotoxins also interact with TLR2. Although a ganglioside-nonbinding mutant (T34I) of LT-IIaB effectively induced cytokine release, a phenotypically similar point mutation (T13I) in LT-IIbB abrogated cytokine induction, suggesting a variable requirement for gangliosides as coreceptors in TLR2 agonist activity. TLR2-dependent activation of mononuclear cells by type II enterotoxin B subunits appears to be a novel mechanism whereby these molecules may exert their immunomodulatory and adjuvant activities. PMID:15731031

Hajishengallis, George; Tapping, Richard I; Martin, Michael H; Nawar, Hesham; Lyle, Elizabeth A; Russell, Michael W; Connell, Terry D

2005-03-01

45

Type II Heat-labile Enterotoxins: Structure, Function, and Immunomofdulatory Properties  

PubMed Central

The heat-labile enterotoxins (HLTs) of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae are classified into two major types on the basis of genetic, biochemical, and immunological properties. Type I and Type II HLT have been intensively studied for their exceptionally strong adjuvant activities. Despite general structural similarities, these molecules, in intact or derivative (non-toxic) forms, display notable differences in their mode of immunomodulatory action. The molecular basis of these differences has remained largely uncharacterized until recently. This review focuses on the Type II HLTs and their immunomodulatory properties which depend largely on interactions with unique gangliosides and Toll-like receptors that are not utilized by the Type I HLTs. PMID:23137790

Hajishengallis, George; Connell, Terry D.

2012-01-01

46

Mucosal immunization of mice using CpG DNA and/or mutants of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as adjuvants.  

PubMed

Cholera toxin (CT) and the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are potent mucosal adjuvants in animals associated, at least in part, with their ability to induce cAMP. While toxicity generally precludes their use in humans, a number of different subunit or genetically detoxified mutants of CT and LT have been developed. Another type of adjuvant that has been shown to be effective at mucosal surfaces comprises synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG ODN). We have previously demonstrated a synergy between CpG ODN and native toxins after intranasal (IN) administration to mice, and herein have examined whether this synergy is linked to the cAMP activity. The adjuvanticity of CpG ODN was evaluated with IN and oral delivery of tetanus toxoid or the hepatitis B surface antigen, relative to and in combination with native LT holotoxin (LTh), three active site mutants (LTS61F, LTA69G, LTE112K), a protease site mutant (LTR192G), and the B subunit of LT (LTB). At an equivalent dose, the adjuvants could generally be divided into two groups: one that included CpG ODN, LTh, LTR192G, and LTA69G which acted as strong adjuvants; and the second which comprised LTB, LTS61F, and LTE112K, which produced significantly weaker immune responses. When CpG ODN was co-administered with bacterial toxin-derivatives, in most cases, no synergy between CpG and the LT derivatives was found for strength of the humoral response. Nevertheless, for both routes and antigens, CpG ODN combined with any LT derivative induced a more Type 1-like response than LT derivative alone. These results suggest that while the synergy seen previously with native toxins may have been due in part to inherent cAMP activity, it may have also depended on the particular antigen used and the route of immunization. PMID:11395211

McCluskie, M J; Weeratna, R D; Clements, J D; Davis, H L

2001-06-14

47

Genetic fusions of heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) toxoids of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli elicit neutralizing anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and farm animals. E. coli fimbriae, or colonization factor antigens (CFAs), and enterotoxins, including heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxins (ST), are the key virulence factors in ETEC diarrhea. Unlike fimbriae or LT, STa has not often been included as an antigen in development of vaccines against ETEC diarrhea because of its poor immunogenicity. STa becomes immunogenic only after being coupled with a strongly immunogenic carrier protein. However, native or shorter STa antigens either had to retain toxic activity in order to become antigenic or elicited anti-STa antibodies that were not sufficiently protective. In this study, we genetically mutated the porcine LT (pLT) gene for a pLT(192(R-->G)) toxoid and the porcine STa (pSTa) gene for three full-length pSTa toxoids [STa(11(N-->K)), STa(12(P-->F)), and STa(13(A-->Q))] and used the full-length pLT(192) as an adjuvant to carry the pSTa toxoid for pLT(192):pSTa-toxoid fusion antigens. Rabbits immunized with pLT(192):pSTa(12) or pLT(192):pSTa(13) fusion protein developed high titers of anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies. Furthermore, rabbit antiserum and antifecal antibodies were able to neutralize purified cholera toxin (CT) and STa toxin. In addition, preliminary data suggested that suckling piglets born by a sow immunized with the pLT(192):pSTa(13) fusion antigen were protected when challenged with an STa-positive ETEC strain. This study demonstrated that pSTa toxoids are antigenic when fused with a pLT toxoid and that the elicited anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies were protective. This fusion strategy could provide instructive information to develop effective toxoid vaccines against ETEC-associated diarrhea in animals and humans. PMID:19858307

Zhang, Weiping; Zhang, Chengxian; Francis, David H; Fang, Ying; Knudsen, David; Nataro, James P; Robertson, Donald C

2010-01-01

48

Role of receptor binding in toxicity, immunogenicity, and adjuvanticity of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.  

PubMed Central

The role of receptor binding in the toxicity, immunogenicity, and adjuvanticity of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT) was examined by comparing native LT and LT(G33D), a B-subunit receptor binding mutant, with respect to the ability to bind to galactose and to GM1, toxicity on mouse Y-1 adrenal tumor cells, the ability to stimulate adenylate cyclase in Caco-2 cells, enterotoxicity in the patent mouse model, and oral immunogenicity and adjuvanticity. In contrast to native LT, LT(G33D) was unable to bind to the galactosyl moiety of Sepharose 4B or GM1 but did retain the lectin-like ability to bind to immobilized galactose on 6% agarose beads. LT(G33D) had no enterotoxicity in the patent mouse model but exhibited residual toxicity on mouse Y-1 adrenal tumor cells and had an ability equivalent to that of native LT to stimulate adenylate cyclase in Caco-2 cells (5,000 versus 6,900 pmol per mg of protein). In addition, LT(G33D) was unable to serve as an effective oral adjuvant for induction of immunoglobulin G or A directed against a coadministered antigen. Furthermore, LT(G33D) elicited negligible serum and mucosal antibody responses against itself. These data indicate that the toxicity, immunogenicity, and oral adjuvanticity of LT are dependent upon binding of the B subunit to ganglioside GM1. PMID:9393780

Guidry, J J; Cárdenas, L; Cheng, E; Clements, J D

1997-01-01

49

Mutants of type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIa with altered ganglioside-binding activities and diminished toxicity are potent mucosal adjuvants.  

PubMed

The structure and function LT-IIa, a type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, are closely related to the structures and functions of cholera toxin and LT-I, the type I heat-labile enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, respectively. While LT-IIa is a potent systemic and mucosal adjuvant, recent studies demonstrated that mutant LT-IIa(T34I), which exhibits no detectable binding activity as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with gangliosides GD1b, GD1a, and GM1 is a very poor adjuvant. To evaluate whether other mutant LT-IIa enterotoxins that also exhibit diminished ganglioside-binding activities have greater adjuvant activities, BALB/c mice were immunized by the intranasal route with the surface adhesin protein AgI/II of Streptococcus mutans alone or in combination with LT-IIa, LT-IIa(T14S), LT-IIa(T14I), or LT-IIa(T14D). All three mutant enterotoxins potentiated strong mucosal immune responses that were equivalent to the response promulgated by wt LT-IIa. All three mutant enterotoxins augmented the systemic immune responses that correlated with their ganglioside-binding activities. Only LT-IIa and LT-IIa(T14S), however, enhanced expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and the costimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, and CD86 on splenic dendritic cells. LT-IIa(T14I) and LT-IIa(T14D) had extremely diminished toxicities in a mouse Y1 adrenal cell bioassay and reduced abilities to induce the accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP in a macrophage cell line. PMID:17118982

Nawar, Hesham F; Arce, Sergio; Russell, Michael W; Connell, Terry D

2007-02-01

50

Edible vaccine protects mice against Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT): potatoes expressing a synthetic LT-B gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have designed and constructed a plant-optimized synthetic gene encoding the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LT-B), for use in transgenic plants as an edible vaccine against enterotoxigenic E. coli. Expression of the synthetic LT-B gene in potato plants under the control of a constitutive promoter yielded increased accumulation of LT-B in leaves and tubers, as compared to

Hugh S. Mason; Tariq A. Haq; John D. Clements; Charles J. Arntzen

1998-01-01

51

Marine neurotoxins: Envenomations and contact toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Familiarity with the appearance and habitat of venomous sea creatures, the location of their stinging apparatus, and surveillance\\u000a of population concentrations within recreational waters are essential in avoiding envenomations. Compared with the thermo-stable\\u000a low molecular weighted ingestible seafood toxins, venomous toxins are often large molecular weight proteins and many are heat\\u000a labile, which provides opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Heat

Michael R. Watters; Elijah W. Stommel

2004-01-01

52

Induction of heat-labile sites in DNA of mammalian cells by the antitumor alkylating drug CC-1065  

SciTech Connect

CC-1065 is a very potent antitumor antibiotic capable of covalent and noncovalent binding to the minor groove of naked DNA. Upon thermal treatment, covalent adducts formed between CC-1065 and DNA generate strand break. The authors have shown that this molecular damage can be detected following CC-1065 treatment of mammalian whole cells. Using alkaline sucrose gradient analysis, They observe thermally induced breakage of ({sup 14}C)thymidine-prelabeled DNA from drug-treated African green monkey kidney BSC-1 cells. Very little damage to cellular DNA by CC-1065 can be detected without first heating the drug-treated samples. CC-1065 can also generate heat-labile sites within DNA during cell lysis and heating, subsequent to the exposure of cells to drug, suggesting that a pool of free and noncovalently bound drug is available for posttreatment adduct formation. This effect was controlled for by mixing ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled untreated cells with the ({sup 14}C)thymidine-labeled drug-treated samples. The lowest drug dose at which heat-labile sites were detected was 3 nM CC-1065 (3 single-stranded breaks/10{sup 6} base pairs). This concentration reduced survival of BSC-1 cells to 0.1% in cytotoxicity assays. The generation of CC-1065-induced lesions in cellular DNA is time dependent (the frequency of lesions caused by a 60 nM treatment reaching a plateau at 2 h) and is not readily reversible. The results of this study demonstrate that CC-1065 does generate heat-labile sites with the cellular DNA of intact cells and suggest that a mechanism of cytotoxic action of CC-1065 involves formation of covalent adducts to DNA.

Zsido, T.J.; Woynarowski, J.M.; Baker, R.M.; Gawron, L.S.; Beerman, T.A. (Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (USA))

1991-04-16

53

Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Detoxified Enterotoxin Modulates Dendritic Cell Function and Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Various mutant forms of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) have been used as a mucosal adjuvant for vaccines, as it enhances immune responses to specific antigens including antigen-specific IgA antibodies when administrated intranasally or orally. We hypothesized that a detoxified mutant form of LT, LTS61K, could modulate dendritic cell (DC) function and alleviate allergen-induced airway inflammation. Two protocols, preventative and therapeutic, were used to evaluate the effects of LTS61K in a Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p)-sensitized and challenged murine model of asthma. LTS61K or Der p-primed bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were also adoptively transferred into Der p-sensitized and challenged mice. Intranasal inoculations with LTS61K or LTS61K/Der p decreased allergen-induced airway inflammation and alleviated systemic TH2-type immune responses. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and sera from LTS61K/Der p-treated mice also had higher concentrations of Der p-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) A than those of other groups. In vitro, BMDCs stimulated with Der p underwent cellular maturation and secreted proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? In contrast, Der p-stimulated BMDCs that were pretreated with LTS61K showed decreased IL-6 and TNF? production and were less mature. Intratracheal adoptive transfer of LTS61K- or LTS61K/Der p-primed BMDCs into Der p-sensitized mice reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and TH2-type chemokines in BALF and alleviated airway inflammation in treated mice. LTS61K influenced DC maturation and decreased inflammatory cytokine production. Moreover, LTS61K/Der p induced increased Der p-specific IgA production to decrease allergic TH2 cytokine responses and alleviated airway inflammation in Der p-sensitized mice. These results suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of LTS61K may have clinical applications for allergy and asthma treatment. PMID:24637787

Kang, Ssu-Wei; Hsieh, Miao-His; Wang, Jiu-Yao

2014-01-01

54

Enhanced antigen uptake by dendritic cells induced by the B pentamer of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIa requires engagement of TLR2.  

PubMed

The potent mucosal adjuvant properties of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIa of Escherichia coli are dependent upon binding of the B pentamer of the enterotoxin (LT-IIa-B(5)) to ganglioside receptors on immunocompetent cells. To evaluate the immunomodulatory activities of LT-IIa-B(5), in vitro experiments employing bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) were performed. Uptake of OVA-FITC, a model antigen (Ag), was enhanced by treatment of BMDC with LT-IIa-B5, but not by treatment of cells with the B pentamer of cholera toxin (CTB). Expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC-II) and cytokines (IL-12p40, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma) was increased in BMDC treated with LT-IIa-B(5). The capacity of LT-IIa-B(5) to enhance Ag uptake and to induce expression of co-stimulatory receptors and cytokines by BMDC was dependent upon expression of TLR2 by the cell. Increased Ag uptake induced by LT-IIa-B(5) was correlated with increased Ag-specific proliferation of CD4(+) T cells in an in vitro syngeneic DO11.10 CD4(+) T cell proliferation assay. These experiments confirm that LT-IIa-B(5) exhibits potent immunomodulatory properties which may be exploitable as a non-toxic mucosal adjuvant. PMID:20332049

Lee, Chang Hoon; Nawar, Hesham F; Mandell, Lorrie; Liang, Shuang; Hajishengallis, George; Connell, Terry D

2010-05-01

55

Enhanced antigen uptake by dendritic cells induced by the B pentamer of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIa requires engagement of TLR2  

PubMed Central

The potent mucosal adjuvant properties of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIa of Escherichia coli are dependent upon binding of the B pentamer of the enterotoxin (LT-IIa-B5) to ganglioside receptors on immunocompetent cells. To evaluate the immunomodulatory activities of LT-IIa-B5, in vitro experiments employing bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) were performed. Uptake of OVA-FITC, a model antigen (Ag), was enhanced by treatment of BMDC with LT-IIa-B5, but not by treatment of cells with the B pentamer of cholera toxin (CTB). Expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC-II) and cytokines (IL-12p40, TNF-?, and IFN-?) was increased in BMDC treated with LT-IIa-B5. The capacity of LT-IIa-B5 to enhance Ag uptake and to induce expression of co-stimulatory receptors and cytokines by BMDC was dependent upon expression of TLR2 by the cell. Increased Ag uptake induced by LT-IIa-B5 was correlated with increased Ag-specific proliferation of CD4+ T cells in an in vitro syngeneic DO11.10 CD4+ T cell proliferation assay. These experiments confirm that LT-IIa-B5 exhibits potent immunomodulatory properties which may be exploitable as a non-toxic mucosal adjuvant. PMID:20332049

Lee, Chang Hoon; Nawar, Hesham F.; Mandell, Lorrie; Liang, Shuang; Hajishengallis, George; Connell, Terry D.

2010-01-01

56

Presence of heat-stable hemorrhagic toxins in snake venoms.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight snake venoms (seven Agkistrodon venoms, six Bothrops venoms, 13 Crotalus venoms, one Sistrurus venom, and one Bitis venom) were examined for the presence of heat-stable (100 degrees C, 5 min) hemorrhagic toxins. Both heated and unheated venoms were analyzed for their protein composition by SDS-PAGE, and tested for their hemorrhagic activity in vivo in mice and for their proteolytic activity on two different substrates. Heating all venoms led to the denaturation and loss of some proteins; however, most of the venoms retained a significant number of proteins. Seventeen venoms contained more than seven proteins after heating, whereas five venoms contained only one to three proteins. All but nine of the heated venoms had substantial hemorrhagic activity, and Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus venom had very high activity, almost four times that of the second most hemorrhagic venom from Crotalus viridis lutosus. Most venoms, heated or unheated, had activity on the two protease substrates. Using succinylated casein as the substrate, there was a wide range of activity, and heating drastically reduced the activity of all venoms except that of Crotalus ruber and Crotalus molossus molossus. With azocoll as substrate, all but two of the unheated venoms (Crotalus adamanteus and Crotalus viridis concolor) had very high activity, whereas upon heating, all except five venoms lost essentially all of their activity. Heated venoms from snakes in the Agkistrodon genus (except for Agkistrodon blomhoffi blomhoffi, an Asian snake) retained activity on azocoll, and this activity tended to correlate better with hemorrhagic activity of the venom than did proteolytic activity on casein. PMID:7985199

Ownby, C L; Colberg, T R; Li, Q

1994-08-01

57

Toxicity and immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-LT(S63K/R192G/L211A) in a murine model.  

PubMed

Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa) disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STa(P13F)) fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LT(R192G) elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011). In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STa(A14Q)) and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LT(S63K/R192G/L211A), tmLT), constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT) that carried 3 copies of STa(A14Q) for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:24146989

Zhang, Chengxian; Knudsen, David E; Liu, Mei; Robertson, Donald C; Zhang, Weiping

2013-01-01

58

Toxicity and Immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxoid Fusion 3xSTaA14Q-LTS63K/R192G/L211A in a Murine Model  

PubMed Central

Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa) disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STaP13F) fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LTR192G elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011). In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STaA14Q) and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LTS63K/R192G/L211A, tmLT), constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTaA14Q-tmLT) that carried 3 copies of STaA14Q for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTaA14Q-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:24146989

Zhang, Chengxian; Knudsen, David E.; Liu, Mei; Robertson, Donald C.; Zhang, Weiping

2013-01-01

59

LT-IIc, a new member of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin family encoded by an Escherichia coli strain obtained from a nonmammalian host.  

PubMed

Two families of bacterial heat-labile enterotoxins (HLTs) have been described: the type I HLTs are comprised of cholera toxin (CT) of Vibrio cholerae, LT-I of Escherichia coli, and several related HLTs; the type II HLTs are comprised of LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Herein, we report LT-IIc, a new type II HLT encoded from an enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strain isolated from an avian host. Using a mouse Y1 adrenal cell bioassay, LT-IIc was shown to be less cytotoxic than CT, LT-IIa, or LT-IIb. Cytotoxicity of LT-IIc was partially neutralized by antisera recognizing LT-IIa or LT-IIb but not by anti-CT antiserum. Genes encoding putative A polypeptide and B polypeptides of LT-IIc were arranged in an operon which was flanked by potential prophage sequences. Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences demonstrated that the A polypeptide of LT-IIc has moderate homology to the A polypeptides of CT and LT-I and high homology to the A polypeptides of LT-IIa and LT-IIb. The B polypeptide of LT-IIc exhibited no significant homology to the B polypeptides of CT and LT-I and only moderate homology to the B polypeptides of LT-IIa and LT-IIb. The binding pattern of LT-IIc for gangliosides was distinctive from that of either LT-IIa or LT-IIb. The data suggest that other types of the type II HLT subfamily are circulating in the environment and that host specificity of type II HLT is likely governed by changes in the B polypeptide which mediate binding to receptors. PMID:20713622

Nawar, Hesham F; King-Lyons, Natalie D; Hu, John C; Pasek, Raymond C; Connell, Terry D

2010-11-01

60

LT-IIc, a New Member of the Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Family Encoded by an Escherichia coli Strain Obtained from a Nonmammalian Host ?  

PubMed Central

Two families of bacterial heat-labile enterotoxins (HLTs) have been described: the type I HLTs are comprised of cholera toxin (CT) of Vibrio cholerae, LT-I of Escherichia coli, and several related HLTs; the type II HLTs are comprised of LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Herein, we report LT-IIc, a new type II HLT encoded from an enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strain isolated from an avian host. Using a mouse Y1 adrenal cell bioassay, LT-IIc was shown to be less cytotoxic than CT, LT-IIa, or LT-IIb. Cytotoxicity of LT-IIc was partially neutralized by antisera recognizing LT-IIa or LT-IIb but not by anti-CT antiserum. Genes encoding putative A polypeptide and B polypeptides of LT-IIc were arranged in an operon which was flanked by potential prophage sequences. Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences demonstrated that the A polypeptide of LT-IIc has moderate homology to the A polypeptides of CT and LT-I and high homology to the A polypeptides of LT-IIa and LT-IIb. The B polypeptide of LT-IIc exhibited no significant homology to the B polypeptides of CT and LT-I and only moderate homology to the B polypeptides of LT-IIa and LT-IIb. The binding pattern of LT-IIc for gangliosides was distinctive from that of either LT-IIa or LT-IIb. The data suggest that other types of the type II HLT subfamily are circulating in the environment and that host specificity of type II HLT is likely governed by changes in the B polypeptide which mediate binding to receptors. PMID:20713622

Nawar, Hesham F.; King-Lyons, Natalie D.; Hu, John C.; Pasek, Raymond C.; Connell, Terry D.

2010-01-01

61

Repair of radiation-induced heat-labile sites is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 or PARP  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation induces a variety of different DNA lesions: in addition to the most critical DNA damage, the DSB, numerous base alterations, SSBs and other modifications of the DNA double-helix are formed. When several non-DSB lesions are clustered within a short distance along DNA, or close to a DSB, they may interfere with the repair of DSBs and affect the measurement of DSB induction and repair. We have previously shown that a substantial fraction of DSBs measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are in fact due to heat-labile sites (HLS) within clustered lesions, thus reflecting an artifact of preparation of genomic DNA at elevated temperature. To further characterize the influence of HLS on DSB induction and repair, four human cell lines (GM5758, GM7166, M059K, U-1810) with apparently normal DSB rejoining were tested for bi-phasic rejoining after gamma irradiation. When heat-released DSBs were excluded from the measurements the fraction of fast rejoining decreased to less than 50% of the total. However, neither the half-times of the fast (t{sub 1/2} = 7-8 min) or slow (t{sub 1/2} = 2.5 h) DSB rejoining were changed significantly. At t=0 the heat-released DSBs accounted for almost 40% of the DSBs, corresponding to 10 extra DSB/cell/Gy in the initial DSB yield. These heat-released DSBs were repaired within 60-90 min in all tested cells, including M059K cells treated with wortmannin or DNA-PKcs defect M059J cells. Furthermore, cells lacking XRCC1 or Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) rejoined both total DSBs and heat-released DSBs similar to normal cells. In summary, the presence of heat-labile sites have a substantial impact on DSB induction yields and DSB rejoining rates measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and HLS repair is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 and PARP.

Stenerlöw, Bo; Karlsson, Karin H.; Radulescu, Irina; Rydberg, Bjorn; Stenerlow, Bo

2008-04-29

62

Purification and properties of a cytolytic toxin in venom of the jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A haemolytic toxin was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and FPLC gel filtration from the nematocysts of the jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis. Sheep red cells, but not human or rabbit red cells, were susceptible to lysis by the toxin. The toxin is a protein with an apparent molecular mass of about 102–107 kDa, is heat labile, highly unstable in polar media, inactivated

Giandomenico Rottini; Laura Gusmani; Elisabetta Parovel; Massimo Avian; Pierluigi Patriarca

1995-01-01

63

Tissue culture and expression of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit in transgenic Peperomia pellucida.  

PubMed

The B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB), a non-toxic molecule with potent biological properties, is a powerful mucosal and parenteral adjuvant that induces a strong immune response against co-administered or coupled antigens. We synthesized a gene encoding the LTB adapted to the optimized coding sequences in plants and fused to the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal SEKDEL to enhance its expression level and protein assembly in plants. The synthetic LTB gene was located into a plant expression vector under the control of CaMV 35S promoter and was introduced into Peperomia pellucida by biolistic transformation method. The integration of synthetic LTB gene into genomic DNA of transgenic plants was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR amplification method. The assembly of plant-produced LTB was detected by western blot analysis. The amount of LTB protein produced in transgenic P. pellucida leaves was approximately 0.75% of the total soluble plant protein. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that plant-synthesized LTB protein bound specifically to GM1-ganglioside, which is receptor for LTB on the cell surface, suggesting that the LTB subunits formed biological active pentamers. PMID:20176109

Loc, Nguyen Hoang; Bach, Nguyen Hoang; Kim, Tae-Geum; Yang, Moon-Sik

2010-07-01

64

Escherichia coli Expressing EAST1 Toxin Did Not Cause an Increase of cAMP or cGMP Levels in Cells, and No Diarrhea in 5Day Old Gnotobiotic Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEnterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea to humans and farm animals. These ETEC strains produce heat-labile toxin (LT) and\\/or heat-stable toxins that include type I (STa), type II (STb), and enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin 1 (EAST1). LT, STa, and STb (in pigs) are proven the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. However, significance of EAST1 in

Xiaosai Ruan; Scott S. Crupper; Bruce D. Schultz; Donald C. Robertson; Weiping Zhang

2012-01-01

65

Peracetic acid: a practical agent for sterilizing heat-labile polymeric tissue-engineering scaffolds.  

PubMed

Advanced biomaterials and sophisticated processing technologies aim at fabricating tissue-engineering scaffolds that can predictably interact within a biological environment at the cellular level. Sterilization of such scaffolds is at the core of patient safety and is an important regulatory issue that needs to be addressed before clinical translation. In addition, it is crucial that meticulously engineered micro- and nano- structures are preserved after sterilization. Conventional sterilization methods involving heat, steam, and radiation are not compatible with engineered polymeric systems because of scaffold degradation and loss of architecture. Using electrospun scaffolds made from polycaprolactone, a low melting polymer, and employing spores of Bacillus atrophaeus as biological indicators, we compared ethylene oxide, autoclaving and 80% ethanol to a known chemical sterilant, peracetic acid (PAA), for their ability to sterilize as well as their effects on scaffold properties. PAA diluted in 20% ethanol to 1000 ppm or above sterilized electrospun scaffolds in 15 min at room temperature while maintaining nano-architecture and mechanical properties. Scaffolds treated with PAA at 5000 ppm were rendered hydrophilic, with contact angles reduced to 0°. Therefore, PAA can provide economical, rapid, and effective sterilization of heat-sensitive polymeric electrospun scaffolds that are used in tissue engineering. PMID:24341350

Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Trahan, William R; Best, Al M; Bowlin, Gary L; Kitten, Todd O; Moon, Peter C; Madurantakam, Parthasarathy A

2014-09-01

66

Protective Effect of Immunization with Heat-Labile Enterotoxin in Gnotobiotic Rats Monocontaminated with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

The protective effect of active immunization with a purified preparation of the polymyxin-release form of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), administered using a parenteral prime and peroral boosts given after ablation of gastric secretion by means of cimetidine, was assessed in gnotobiotic rats which were challenged by monocontamination with enterotoxigenic strains of E. coli. Water transport was evaluated by the in vivo marker perfusion technique at weekly intervals over a 3-week period after contamination. Water transport in unimmunized control rats was consistently in absorption in those contaminated by a nontoxigenic strain, in secretion during only week 2 in those contaminated by an LT+/? strain, in secretion during weeks 2 and 3 in those contaminated by an LT+/ST+ (heat-stable enterotoxin) strain, and consistently in absorption in those contaminated by an ?/ST+ strain. Rats immunized with a booster dosage of 250 ?g had a significant increase (P < 0.001) in net water absorption as compared to unimmunized rats, with values in the borderline range of absorption, when challenged with either the LT+/? or LT+/ST+ strains. Rats immunized with a 10-fold-higher boosting dosage had a significant increase (P < 0.001) in net water absorption as compared to those boosted at the lower dosage; water absorption was within the normal range. There was no difference between the ileal bacterial counts of unimmunized and immunized rats challenged by the various strains. These observations indicate that this immunization program provides complete protection in an animal model against challenge by intestinal contamination with enterotoxigenic strains of E. coli which produce LT, either alone or in combination with ST. PMID:6991436

Klipstein, Frederick A.; Engert, Richard F.; Short, Helen B.

1980-01-01

67

Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii by heat labile bacteriocins produced by probiotic LAB isolated from healthy infants.  

PubMed

Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause bacteremia, meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most often in neonates with case-fatality rates that may reach 80%. The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against a wide range of foodborne pathogens is well-established in different types of food products. The objective of the current study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei isolated from feces of healthy infants against different strains of C. sakazakii in agar and a rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF) model. The inhibition zones of C. sakazakii around L. acidophilus or L. casei ranged from 22 to 32 mm on eMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar under aerobic conditions, while a slight reduction in antibacterial activity was noted on modified MRS (0.2% glucose) under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that pH-neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of L. acidophilus or L. casei was inhibitory against tested C. sakazakii strains. The inhibition zones of neutralized CFS were lower than the antibacterial activities of live cultures. The antibacterial activity of CFS was abolished when CFS from L. acidophilus or L. casei was heated at 60 or 80 °C for either 10 min or 2 h, or treated with trypsin or pepsin. This was considered strong evidence that the inhibition was due to the production of bacteriocins by L. casei and L. acidophilus. Both the CFS and active growing cells of L. casei and L. acidophilus were able to reduce the viability of C. sakazakii in the RIMF model. The results may extend the use of natural antimicrobials instead of conventional preservation methods to improve the safety of RIMF. PMID:23924352

Awaisheh, Saddam S; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Ibrahim, Salam; Holley, Richard

2013-09-01

68

Contribution of the Disulfide Bond of the A Subunit to the Action of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) consists of an A subunit and five B subunits. These subunits oligomerize into an assembled holotoxin within the periplasm. Structural analysis of LT has revealed that the A subunit interacts with the B subunit through its carboxy terminus. This indicates that the carboxy-terminal portion of the protein is required for assembly of holotoxin in the periplasm. However, it is not known whether other regions of the A subunit contribute to the assembly. The A subunit constituting the holotoxin contains a disulfide bond between Cys-187 and Cys-199. It has been observed in many proteins that the intramolecular disulfide bond is deeply involved in the function and tertiary structure of the protein. We speculated that the disulfide bond of the A subunit contributes to the assembly in the periplasm, although the bond is not a structural element of the carboxy-terminal portion of the A subunit. We replaced these cysteine residues of the A subunit by oligonucleotide-directed site-specific mutagenesis and analyzed the LTs produced by cells containing the mutant LT genes. The amount of the mutant holotoxin produced was small compared with that of the wild-type strain, indicating that the disulfide bond of the A subunit contributes to the structure which functions as the site of nucleation in the assembly. A reconstitution experiment in vitro supported the notion. Subsequently, we found that the mutant A subunit constituting holotoxin is easily degraded by trypsin and that in cells incubated with mutant LTs, the lag until the intracellular cyclic AMP begins to accumulate is longer than in cells incubated with native LTs. These results might be useful for the analysis of the interaction of LT with target cells at the molecular level. PMID:9515902

Okamoto, Keinosuke; Nomura, Tomohiko; Fujii, Yoshio; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu

1998-01-01

69

Characterization of antigen-presenting cells induced by intragastric immunization with recombinant chimeric immunogens constructed from Streptococcus mutans AgI/II and type I or type II heat-labile enterotoxins  

PubMed Central

Summary Intragastric (i.g.) immunization with recombinant chimeric proteins constructed from the saliva-binding region (SBR) of Streptococcus mutans surface antigen AgI/II and the A2/B subunits of enterobacterial heat-labile enterotoxins has been successfully used to induce salivary and circulating antibodies against S. mutans that have protective potential against dental caries. To investigate the mode of action of these vaccine constructs, mice were immunized i.g. with chimeric proteins constructed from SBR and cholera toxin (CT) or the type II enterotoxins of Escherichia coli, LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Antigen-presenting cells (APC) in Peyer’s patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were characterized by flow cytometry. Compared to immunization with SBR alone, chimeric proteins SBR-LTIIaA2/B and SBR-LTIIbA2/B increased the number of B cells and macrophages in PP and diminished B cell numbers in MLN, whereas SBR-CTA2/B diminished the numbers of B cells and macrophages in PP and MLN. Immunization with all three chimeric proteins led to upregulation of MHC class II molecules and costimulatory receptors CD40, CD80, and CD86 especially on dendritic cells in PP and also on APC in MLN. The results provide a molecular basis for the enhanced immune responses induced by chimeric proteins compared to uncoupled antigen, and for differential responses to chimeric proteins based on CT or type II enterotoxins. PMID:21545697

Zhao, Weiwei; Zhao, Ziming; Russell, Michael W.

2011-01-01

70

The Type II heat-labile enterotoxins LT-IIa and LT-IIb and their respective B pentamers differentially induce and regulate cytokine production in human monocytic cells.  

PubMed

The type II heat-labile enterotoxins, LT-IIa and LT-IIb, exhibit potent adjuvant properties. However, little is known about their immunomodulatory activities upon interaction with innate immune cells, unlike the widely studied type I enterotoxins that include cholera toxin (CT). We therefore investigated interactions of LT-IIa and LT-IIb with human monocytic THP-1 cells. We found that LT-II enterotoxins were inactive in stimulating cytokine release, whereas CT induced low levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-8. However, all three enterotoxins potently regulated cytokine induction in cells activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide or fimbriae. Induction of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha]) or chemotactic (IL-8) cytokines was downregulated, whereas induction of cytokines with anti-inflammatory (IL-10) or mucosal adjuvant properties (IL-1beta) was upregulated by the enterotoxins. These effects appeared to depend on their A subunits, because isolated B-pentameric subunits lacked regulatory activity. Enterotoxin-mediated inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine induction in activated cells was partially attributable to synergism for endogenous production of IL-10 and to an IL-10-independent inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. In sharp contrast to the holotoxins, the B pentamers (LT-IIaB and, to a greater extent, LT-IIbB) stimulated cytokine production, suggesting a link between the absence of the A subunit and increased proinflammatory properties. In this regard, the ability of LT-IIbB to activate NF-kappaB and induce TNF-alpha and IL-8 was antagonized by the LT-IIb holotoxin. These findings support distinct immunomodulatory roles for the LT-II holotoxins and their respective B pentamers. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory properties of the holotoxins may serve to suppress innate immunity and promote the survival of the pathogen. PMID:15501764

Hajishengallis, George; Nawar, Hesham; Tapping, Richard I; Russell, Michael W; Connell, Terry D

2004-11-01

71

Contribution of Humoral and Cellular Factors to the Resistance to Experimental Infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Mice I. Interaction Between Immunoglobulins, Heat-Labile Serum Factors, and Phagocytic Cells in the Killing of Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Techniques have been described for the purification of mouse polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and macrophages and for determining their bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a rotating suspension. Requirements for human anti-Pseudomonas opsonins and heat-labile mouse serum factors have been determined. In the macrophage system, although heat-labile mouse serum factors had enhancing properties, both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) opsonins alone sufficed to induce bactericidal activity. In contrast, both opsonins and heat-labile mouse serum factors were required for bactericidal activity by the mouse PMN. In the absence of heat-labile mouse serum factors, IgG and IgM opsonins contributed to the bactericidal activity of mouse macrophages to the same extent. However, in the presence of these factors, much less IgG than IgM antibody was required to achieve maximum bactericidal activity by these cells. Similarly, IgG opsonins were found to be more efficient than IgM opsonins in enhancing the killing of P. aeruginosa by mouse PMN. PMID:5005303

Bjornson, Ann B.; Michael, J. Gabriel

1971-01-01

72

Suppression of in vitro antibody response of human peripheral blood lymphocytes by a heat-labile factor in normal human serum.  

PubMed Central

When fresh autologous serum was added to normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), it suppressed greater than 90% of the in vitro anti-SRBC response of these cells. Heating the serum for 30 min at 56 degrees C reversed this suppression, Serum from a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and circulating immune complexes had no suppressive effect on the anti-SRBC response of normal human PBL, but serum from patients having the same disease, without circulating immune complexes, did suppress over 90% of the plaque-forming cell response. Serum from an agammaglobulinaemic patient was also suppressive. Addition of serum from patients with congenital deficiencies of C2, C3, C5 and C8 also has a suppressive effect. Absorption of normal serum with immune complexes markedly decreased levels of C1 and C4, and also reversed the suppressive effect of this serum. These data suggest that a heat-labile factor in normal human serum which can be absorbed by immune complexes suppresses the antibody response to a T-dependent antigen. Other immune suppressors found in normal human serum are heat-stable or do not suppress in the presence of normal serum proteins. Thus the suppressive protein described in these studies may be unique. It is possible that either C1 or C4 or both may play a role in the suppression noted here. PMID:7035034

Aldo-Benson, M A; Petersen, B H; Benson, M D

1981-01-01

73

Bacteria and their toxins tamed for immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Bacterial toxins share the ability to enter host cells to target various intracellular proteins and to modulate host immune responses. Over the last 20 years, toxins and their mutated variants, as well as live attenuated bacteria, have been exploited for vaccination and immunotherapy of various infectious, malignant and autoimmune diseases. The ability of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin to translocate its adenylate cyclase domain across the host cell membrane, as well as the pathways of intracellular trafficking of Bacillus anthracis lethal and edema toxins, Shigella dysenteriae shiga toxin or Escherichia coli shiga-like toxin, have been repeatedly exploited for the delivery of antigenic epitopes into host cells and for stimulation of antigen-specific T cell responses. Similarly, E. coli ?-hemolysin, or effector proteins of Yersinia and Salmonella secreted by the type III secretion systems, were used to facilitate the delivery of fused heterologous proteins or peptides for antigenic presentation. Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin, E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin, B. pertussis pertussis toxin or the Cry1A protein of Bacillus thuringiensis have shown a great potential to act as adjuvants and to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. The immunotherapeutic potential of some toxins, like Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin O, Streptococcus intermedius intermedilysin, or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumolysin needs to be evaluated further. The Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid used as a vaccine delivery tool, or Corynebacterium diphtheriae diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A-based immunotoxins, are currently in various phases of clinical trials for cancer immunotherapy, as are some antigen-delivering Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes strains. PMID:22339216

Adkins, Irena; Holubova, Jana; Kosova, Martina; Sadilkova, Lenka

2012-06-01

74

Heat-labile enterotoxin-induced activation of NF-?B and MAPK pathways in intestinal epithelial cells impacts enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adherence.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes human morbidity and mortality in developing nations and is an emerging threat to food safety in developed nations. The ETEC heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) not only causes diarrheal disease by deregulating host adenylate cyclase, but also enhances ETEC adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. The mechanism governing this LT pro-adherence phenotype is unclear. Here we investigated intestinal epithelial cell signal transduction pathways activated by ETEC and quantified the relative importance of these host pathways to LT-induced ETEC adherence. We show that ETEC activates both NF-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways through mechanisms that are primarily dependent upon LT. LT-induced NF-?B activation depends upon the cAMP-dependent activation of the Ras-like GTPase Rap1 but is independent of protein kinase A (PKA). By using inhibitors of these pathways, we demonstrate that inhibiting the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase prevents LT from increasing ETEC adherence. By contrast, the LT pro-adherence phenotype appears unrelated to both LT-induced Rap1 activity and to subsequent NF-?B activation. We speculate that LT may alter host signal transduction to induce the presentation of ligands for ETEC adhesins in such a way that promotes ETEC adherence. Our findings provide insight into previously unexplored functions of LT and their relative importance to ETEC virulence. PMID:22452361

Wang, Xiaogang; Gao, Xiaofei; Hardwidge, Philip R

2012-08-01

75

Subacute effects of maize-expressed vaccine protein, Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B (LTB), on the Springtail, Folsomia candida , and the earthworm, Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

The ecotoxicological effects of transgenic maize-expressed vaccine protein, Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B (LTB), on two soil invertebrates were studied under laboratory settings. After being reared for 28 days on LTB-maize-treated soils, no apparent mortality of the springtail, Folsomia candida , or the earthworm, Eisenia fetida , was observed at levels well above conservatively projected estimated environmental concentrations. Therefore, it is concluded that there would be no acutely toxic effect of LTB to these species. As for the subacute effect, no significant differences of F. candida mean reproduction and E. fetida mean growth were observed between LTB-maize-treated samples and non-GM-maize-treated controls. In addition, no LTB was detected in the E. fetida whole-body extraction assay, which indicates there was no tendency for bioaccumulation. On the basis of these observations, it is predicted that any adverse effects of LTB-maize on F. candida and E. fetida would be minimal, if any. PMID:19012409

Kosaki, Hirofumi; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Wang, Kan; Coats, Joel R

2008-12-10

76

Heat-labile enterotoxin-induced activation of NF-?B and MAPK pathways in intestinal epithelial cells impacts enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adherence  

PubMed Central

Summary Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes human morbidity and mortality in developing nations and is an emerging threat to food safety in developed nations. The ETEC heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) not only causes diarrheal disease by deregulating host adenylate cyclase, but also enhances ETEC adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. The mechanism governing this LT pro-adherence phenotype is unclear. Here we investigated intestinal epithelial cell signal transduction pathways activated by ETEC and quantified the relative importance of these host pathways to LT-induced ETEC adherence. We show that ETEC activates both NF-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways through mechanisms that are primarily dependent upon LT. LT-induced NF-?B activation depends upon the cAMP-dependent activation of the Ras-like GTPase Rap1 but is independent of protein kinase A (PKA). By using inhibitors of these pathways, we demonstrate that inhibiting the p38 MAPK prevents LT from increasing ETEC adherence. By contrast, the LT pro-adherence phenotype appears unrelated to both LT-induced Rap1 activity and to subsequent NF-?B activation. We speculate that LT may alter host signal transduction to induce the presentation of ligands for ETEC adhesins in such a way that promotes ETEC adherence. Our findings provide insight into previously unexplored functions of LT and their relative importance to ETEC virulence. PMID:22452361

Wang, Xiaogang; Gao, Xiaofei; Hardwidge, Philip R.

2012-01-01

77

Monomer of the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli has little ability to bind to GM1 ganglioside compared to its coligenoid.  

PubMed

Coligenoid, composed of the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, was separated into monomers in the presence of 2% propionic acid containing 6 M urea (pH 3.8). Monomers equilibrated against 0.75% or 0.5% propionic acid containing 3 M urea (pH 3.8) did not reassemble into coligenoid. Complexes of GM1 ganglioside and coligenoid in these buffers were detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but those of the GM1 ganglioside and monomers were not. The binding ability of monomer to GM1 ganglioside in these buffers was about 1% of that of normal coligenoid by GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, monomers in these buffers reassembled into coligenoid by buffering against original TEAN buffer, and the binding ability of the resulting coligenoid to GM1 ganglioside was identical to that of native coligenoid. These data suggest that although coligenoid formation is important for the receptor binding of the B subunit, little binding ability to GM1 ganglioside remains in monomer of the B subunit. PMID:8577273

Tsuji, T; Watanabe, K; Miyama, A

1995-01-01

78

Purification and properties of a heat-stable and cold-labile NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase from Sporosarcina ureae  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GluDH; EC 1.4.1.2) was purified to homogeneity from Sporosarcina ureae DSM 320; the native enzyme (Mr 250,000±25,000) is composed of subunits identical in molecular mass (Mr 42,000±3,000), suggesting a hexameric structure. In cell-free extracts and in its purified form, the enzyme was heat-stable, retaining 50% activity after 15 min incubation at temperatures up to 82°C. When exposed

Thomas Jahns; Heinrich Kaltwasser

1994-01-01

79

Analysis of Heat-Labile Sites Generated by Reactions of Depleted Uranium and Ascorbate in Plasmid DNA  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to characterize how depleted uranium (DU) causes DNA damage. Procedures were developed to assess the ability of organic and inorganic DNA adducts to convert to single strand breaks (SSB) in pBR322 plasmid DNA in the presence of heat or piperidine. DNA adducts formed by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), cis-platin (cis-Pt), and chromic chloride were compared to those formed by reaction of uranyl acetate (UA) and ascorbate (Asc). Uranyl ion in the presence of Asc produced U-DNA adducts that converted to SSB upon heating. Piperidine, which acted on DNA methylated by MMS to convert methyl-DNA adducts to SSB, served in the opposite fashion with U-DNA adducts by decreasing SSB. The observation that piperidine also decreased the gel shift for metal-DNA adducts formed by monofunctional cis-Pt and chromic chloride was interpreted to suggest that piperidine served to remove U-DNA adducts. Radical scavengers did not affect formation of U-induced SSB, suggesting that SSB arose from the presence of U-DNA adducts and not from free radicals. A model is proposed to predict how U-DNA adducts may serve as initial lesions that convert to SSB or AP sites. Results suggest that DU can act as a chemical genotoxin that does not require radiation for its mode of action. Characterizing the DNA lesions formed by DU is necessary to assess the relative importance of different DNA lesions in the formation of DU-induced mutations. Understanding mechanisms of formation of DU-induced mutations may contribute to identification of biomarkers of DU exposures in humans. PMID:24218036

Wilson, Janice; Young, Ashley; Civitello, Edgar R.

2013-01-01

80

Analysis of heat-labile sites generated by reactions of depleted uranium and ascorbate in plasmid DNA.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to characterize how depleted uranium (DU) causes DNA damage. Procedures were developed to assess the ability of organic and inorganic DNA adducts to convert to single-strand breaks (SSB) in pBR322 plasmid DNA in the presence of heat or piperidine. DNA adducts formed by methyl methanesulfonate, cisplatin, and chromic chloride were compared with those formed by reaction of uranyl acetate and ascorbate. Uranyl ion in the presence of ascorbate produced U-DNA adducts that converted to SSB on heating. Piperidine, which acted on DNA methylated by methyl methanesulfonate to convert methyl-DNA adducts to SSB, served in the opposite fashion as U-DNA adducts by decreasing the level of SSB. The observation that piperidine also decreased the gel shift for metal-DNA adducts formed by monofunctional cisplatin and chromic chloride was interpreted to suggest that piperidine served to remove U-DNA adducts. Radical scavengers did not affect the formation of uranium-induced SSB, suggesting that SSB arose from the presence of U-DNA adducts and not from the presence of free radicals. A model is proposed to predict how U-DNA adducts may serve as initial lesions that convert to SSB or AP sites. The results suggest that DU can act as a chemical genotoxin that does not require radiation for its mode of action. Characterizing the DNA lesions formed by DU is necessary to assess the relative importance of different DNA lesions in the formation of DU-induced mutations. Understanding the mechanisms of formation of DU-induced mutations may contribute to identification of biomarkers of DU exposure in humans. PMID:24218036

Wilson, Janice; Young, Ashley; Civitello, Edgar R; Stearns, Diane M

2014-01-01

81

Purification and characterization of Clostridium difficile toxin.  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence indicates that toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains are a major cause of antimicrobial-associated ileocecitis in laboratory animals and pseudomembranous colitis in humans. C. difficile ATCC 9689 was cultivated in a synthetic medium to which 3% ultrafiltrated proteose peptone was added. Purification of the toxin from broth filtrate was accomplished through ultrafiltration (100,000 nominal-molecular-weight-limit membrane), precipitation with 75% (NH4)2SO4, and chromatographic separation using Bio-Gel A 5m followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 column. The purified toxin displayed only one band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and approximately 170 pg was cytopathic for human amnion cells. The isolated toxin was neutralized by Clostridium sordelli antitoxin, heat labile (56 degrees C for 30 min), and inactivated at pH 4 and 9; it had an isoelectric point of 5.0, increased vascular permeability in rabbits, and caused ileocecitis in hamsters when injected intracecally. Treatment of the toxin with trypsin, chymotrypsin, pronase, amylase, or ethylmercurithiosalicylate caused inactivation, whereas lipase had no effect. By gel filtration, its molecular weight was estimated as 530,000. Upon reduction and denaturation, the toxin dissociated into 185,000- and 50,000-molecular-weight components, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Extensive dissociation yielded only the 50,000-molecular-weight component. The toxin appears to be protoplasmic and is released into the surrounding environment upon autolysis of the cells. Attempts to correlate specific enzymatic activity with the toxin have been unsuccessful. These studies will help delineate the role of C. difficile toxin in antimicrobial-associated colitis and diarrhea. Images PMID:478634

Rolfe, R D; Finegold, S M

1979-01-01

82

Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Ghosts Carrying the Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin B Subunit Are Capable of Inducing Enhanced Protective Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

The Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) is a potent vaccine adjuvant. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ghosts carrying LTB (S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts) were genetically constructed using a novel plasmid, pJHL187-LTB, designed for the coexpression of the LTB and E lysis proteins. S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts were characterized using scanning electron microscopy to visualize their transmembrane tunnel structures. The expression of LTB in S. Enteritidis-LTB ghost preparations was confirmed by immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The parenteral adjuvant activity of LTB was demonstrated by immunizing chickens with either S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts or S. Enteritidis ghosts. Chickens were intramuscularly primed at 5 weeks of age and subsequently boosted at 8 weeks of age. In total, 60 chickens were equally divided into three groups (n = 20 for each): group A, nonvaccinated control; group B, immunized with S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts; and group C, immunized with S. Enteritidis ghosts. Compared with the nonimmunized chickens (group A), the immunized chickens (groups B and C) exhibited increased titers of plasma IgG and intestinal secretory IgA antibodies. The CD3+ CD4+ subpopulation of T cells was also significantly increased in both immunized groups. Among the immunized chickens, those in group B exhibited significantly increased titers of specific plasma IgG and intestinal secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies compared with those in group C, indicating the immunomodulatory effects of the LTB adjuvant. Furthermore, both immunized groups exhibited decreased bacterial loads in their feces and internal organs. These results indicate that parenteral immunization with S. Enteritidis-LTB ghosts can stimulate superior induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses compared to immunization with S. Enteritidis ghosts alone, thus conferring efficient protection against salmonellosis. PMID:24671556

Jawale, Chetan V.

2014-01-01

83

Protection of piglets against enteric colibacillosis by intranasal immunization with K88ac (F4ac) fimbriae and heat labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important diarrheal agent of young domestic animals. Currently, there are no commercially available non-living vaccines to protect weaned pigs from the disease and no major veterinary biologics company markets a postweaning ETEC vaccine of any kind. While efforts have been made to develop a non-living postweaning ETEC vaccine for pigs, studies have been limited to the assessment of immune responses to experimental immunogens. In the present study, we describe a reproducible gnotobiotic piglet model of post-weaning ETEC diarrhea and efficacy tests in that model of subunit vaccines consisting of K88 (F4) fimbriae and/or heat labile enterotoxin (LT) delivered by the intranasal route. We also report antibody responses to the vaccine antigens. Piglets vaccinated with both antigens mounted a substantial immune response with serum and cecal antibody titers to K88 antigen significantly greater than those of controls. Serum anti-LT antibody titers were also significantly greater than those of controls. Piglets vaccinated with both antigens remained healthy following challenge with ETEC. At least some pigs vaccinated with either antigen alone, and most of the control piglets developed dehydrating diarrhea and suffered significant weight loss. The results of this study suggest that an intranasal vaccine consisting of both antigens is highly protective against a vigorous experimental challenge of pigs with K88+ ETEC, while that against either antigen alone is not. The current study provides a system whereby various ETEC antigens and/or combinations of antigens can be tested in exploring strategies for the development of vaccines for ETEC. PMID:23089483

Lin, Jun; Mateo, Kristina S; Zhao, Mojun; Erickson, Alan K; Garcia, Nuria; He, Dong; Moxley, Rodney A; Francis, David H

2013-03-23

84

Distinctive Immunomodulatory and Inflammatory Properties of the Escherichia coli Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxin LT-IIa and Its B Pentamer following Intradermal Administration?  

PubMed Central

The type I and type II heat-labile enterotoxins (LT-I and LT-II) are strong mucosal adjuvants when they are coadministered with soluble antigens. Nonetheless, data on the parenteral adjuvant activities of LT-II are still limited. Particularly, no previous study has evaluated the adjuvant effects and induced inflammatory reactions of LT-II holotoxins or their B pentameric subunits after delivery via the intradermal (i.d.) route to mice. In the present report, the adjuvant and local skin inflammatory effects of LT-IIa and its B subunit pentamer (LT-IIaB5) were determined. When coadministered with ovalbumin (OVA), LT-IIa and, to a lesser extent, LT-IIaB5 exhibited serum IgG adjuvant effects. In addition, LT-IIa but not LT-IIaB5 induced T cell-specific anti-OVA responses, particularly in respect to induction of antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. LT-IIa and LT-IIaB5 induced differential tissue permeability and local inflammatory reactions after i.d. injection. Of particular interest was the reduced or complete lack of local reactions, such as edema and tissue induration, in mice i.d. inoculated with LT-IIa and LT-IIaB5, respectively, compared with mice immunized with LT-I. In conclusion, the present results show that LT-IIa and, to a lesser extent, LT-IIaB5 exert adjuvant effects when they are delivered via the i.d. route. In addition, the low inflammatory effects of LT-IIa and LT-IIaB5 in comparison to those of LT-I support the usefulness of LT-IIa and LT-IIaB5 as parenterally delivered vaccine adjuvants. PMID:21677110

Mathias-Santos, Camila; Rodrigues, Juliana F.; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria Elisabete; Connell, Terry D.; Ferreira, Luís C. S.

2011-01-01

85

Effectiveness and safety of mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT H44A) as an adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

The effectiveness and safety of mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, LT H44A (His to Arg substitution at position 44 from the N-terminus of the A1 fragment of the A subunit) as an adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine were examined. (1) When 0.2 microg of LT H44A, together with 0.2 microg of influenza A/PR/8/34 virus (PR8, H1N1) vaccine, was administered intranasally into BALB/c mice (twice, 4 weeks apart), anti-PR8 hemagglutinin (HA) IgA and IgG antibody (Ab) responses were induced at levels that were sufficient to provide either complete protection against infection with a small volume of PR8 virus suspension or partial protection against infection with a lethal dose of the suspension. The dose of the mutant LT and vaccine used here (0.2 microg/ 20 g doses mouse) corresponded to the estimated dose per person, i.e. 0.1 mg/10 kg body weight. (2) Using these vaccination conditions, no additional total IgE Ab responses were induced. (3) The mutant was confirmed to be less toxic than the native LT when the toxicity was analyzed either using Y1 adrenal cells in vitro (1/483 EC(50)) or by an ileal loop test. (4) One hundred micrograms of the mutant, administered intranasally or intraperitoneally into guinea-pigs (Heartley strain, 0.3-0.4 kg), caused no body-weight changes 7 days after administration, although 100 microg of the native LT administered intraperitoneally caused death in all guinea-pigs due to diarrhea within 2 days. The intranasal administration of 100 microg of the mutant resulted in almost no pathological changes in the nasal mucosa 3 days after administration. These results suggest that LT H44A, which can be produced in high yields in an E. coli culture (about 5 mg/l), could be used as one of the effective and safe adjuvants for nasal influenza vaccine in humans. PMID:11228379

Hagiwar, Y; Tsuji, T; Iwasaki, T; Kadowaki, S; Asanuma, H; Chen, Z; Komase, K; Suzuki, Y; Aizawa, C; Kurata, T; Tamura, S

2001-02-28

86

Induction of Antigen-Specific Antibodies in Vaginal Secretions by Using a Nontoxic Mutant of Heat-Labile Enterotoxin as a Mucosal Adjuvant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunization of the female reproductive tract is important for protection against sexually transmitted diseases and other pathogens of the reproductive tract. However, intravaginal immunization with soluble antigensgenerallydoesnotinducehighlevelsofsecretoryimmunoglobulinA(IgA).Werecentlydevelopedsafe mucosal adjuvants by genetically detoxifyingEscherichia coliheat-labile enterotoxin, a molecule with a strong mucosal adjuvant activity, and here we describe the use of the nontoxic mutant LTK63 to induce a response in the mouse

ANNALISA DI TOMMASO; GIULIETTA SALETTI; MARIAGRAZIA PIZZA; RINO RAPPUOLI; GORDON DOUGAN; SERGIO ABRIGNANI; GILL DOUCE

87

Detection of virulence factors in culturable Escherichia coli isolates from water samples by DNA probes and recovery of toxin-bearing strains in minimal o-nitrophenol-beta-D-galactopyranoside-4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-g luc uronide media.  

PubMed Central

A total of 449 Escherichia coli isolates in treated and raw water sources were submitted to DNA-DNA hybridization using seven different DNA probes to detect homology to sequences that code for Shiga-like toxins I and II; heat-stabile and heat-labile toxins, adherence factors EAF and eae, and the fimbrial antigen of entero-hemorrhagic E. coli. Fifty-nine (13%) of the isolates demonstrated homology with one or more specific DNA probes. More than 50% of the isolates in treated water were not recovered in MMO-4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide media designed for detection of this indicator. Images PMID:1444424

Martins, M T; Rivera, I G; Clark, D L; Olson, B H

1992-01-01

88

Increased proteolysis of diphtheria toxin by human monocytes after heat shock: a subsidiary role for heat-shock protein 70 in antigen processing  

PubMed Central

The expression of heat-shock proteins (hsp) increases after exposure to various stresses including elevated temperatures, oxidative injury, infection and inflammation. As molecular chaperones, hsp have been shown to participate in antigen processing and presentation, in part through increasing the stability and expression of major histocompatibility complex molecules. Heat shock selectively increases human T-cell responses to processed antigen, but does not affect T-cell proliferation induced by non-processed antigens. Here, we have analysed the mechanisms by which stress such as heat shock, and the ensuing hsp over-expression affect the processing of diphtheria toxin (DT) in peripheral blood monocytes. We found that heat shock increased DT proteolysis in endosomes and lysosomes while the activities of the cathepsins B and D, classically involved in DT proteolysis, were decreased. These effects correlated with the heat-shock-mediated increase in hsp 70 expression observed in endosomes and lysosomes. Actinomycin D or blocking anti-hsp 70 antibodies abolished the heat-shock-mediated increase in DT proteolysis. These data indicate that the increased expression of hsp 70 constitutes a subsidiary mechanism that facilitates antigen proteolysis in stressed cells. Confirming these data, presentation by formaldehyde-fixed cells of DT proteolysates that were obtained with endosomes and lysosomes from heat-shocked peripheral blood monocytes showed higher stimulation of T cells than those generated with endosomes and lysosomes from control peripheral blood monocytes. PMID:17116171

Polla, Barbara S; Gabert, Françoise; Peyrusse, Brigitte M-N; Jacquier-Sarlin, Muriel R

2007-01-01

89

Recombinant expression of in silico identified Bcell epitope of epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens in translational fusion with a carrier protein  

PubMed Central

Epsilon toxin secreted by Clostridium perfringens types B and D has been directly implicated as the causative agent of fatal enterotoxemia in domestic animals. The aim of the present study is to use in silico approach for identification of B-cell epitope(s) of epsilon toxin, and its expression in fusion with a carrier protein to analyze its potential as vaccine candidate(s). Using different computational analyses and bioinformatics tools, a number of antigenic determinant regions of epsilon toxin were identified. One of the B cell epitopes of epsilon toxin comprising the region (amino acids 40-62) was identified as a promising antigenic determinant. This Etx epitope (Etx40-62) was cloned and expressed as a translational fusion with B-subunit of heat labile enterotoxin (LTB) of E. coli in a secretory expression system. Similar to the native LTB, the recombinant fusion protein retained the ability to pentamerize and bind to GM1 ganglioside receptor of LTB. The rLTB.Etx40-62 could be detected both with anti-Etx and anti-LTB antisera. The rLTB.Etx40-62 fusion protein thus can be evaluated as a potential vaccine candidate against C. perfringens. Abbreviations aa - amino acid(s), Etx - epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens, LTB - B-subunit of heat labile enterotoxin of E. coli. PMID:23904738

Kaushik, Himani; Deshmukh, Sachin; Mathur, Deepika Dayal; Tiwari, Archana; Garg, Lalit C

2013-01-01

90

Metal Complexes And Free Radical Toxins Produced By Pfiesteria Piscicida  

SciTech Connect

Metal-containing organic toxins produced by Pfiesteria piscicida were characterized, for the first time, by corroborating data obtained from five distinct instrumental methods: nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), liquid chromatography particle beam glow discharge mass spectrometry (LC/PB-GDMS), electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The high toxicity of the metal-containing toxins is due to metal-mediated free radical production. This mode of activity explains the toxicity of Pfiesteria, as well as previously reported difficulty in observing the molecular target, due to the ephemeral nature of radical species. The toxins are highly labile in purified form, maintaining activity for only 2-5 days before all activity is lost. The multiple toxin congeners in active extracts are also susceptible to decomposition in the presence of white light, pH variations, and prolonged heat. These findings represent the first formal isolation and characterization of a radical forming toxic organic-ligated metal complex isolated from estuarine/marine dinoflagellates. These findings add to an increased understanding regarding the active role of metals interacting with biological systems in the estuarine environment, as well as their links and implications to human health.

Moeller, P.D.R.; Beauchesne, K.R.; Huncik, K.M.; Davis, W.C.; Christopher, S.J.; Riggs-Gelasco, P.; Gelasco, A.K.

2009-06-03

91

Metal Complexes and Free Radical Toxins Produced by Pfiesteria piscicida  

SciTech Connect

Metal-containing organic toxins produced by Pfiesteria piscicida were characterized, for the first time, by corroborating data obtained from five distinct instrumental methods: nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), liquid chromatography particle beam glow discharge mass spectrometry (LC/PB-GDMS), electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The high toxicity of the metal-containing toxins is due to metal-mediated free radical production. This mode of activity explains the toxicity of Pfiesteria, as well as previously reported difficulty in observing the molecular target, due to the ephemeral nature of radical species. The toxins are highly labile in purified form, maintaining activity for only 2-5 days before all activity is lost. The multiple toxin congeners in active extracts are also susceptible to decomposition in the presence of white light, pH variations, and prolonged heat. These findings represent the first formal isolation and characterization of a radical forming toxic organic-ligated metal complex isolated from estuarine/marine dinoflagellates. These findings add to an increased understanding regarding the active role of metals interacting with biological systems in the estuarine environment, as well as their links and implications to human health.

Moeller,P.; Beauchesne, K.; Huncik, K.; Davis, W.; Christopher, S.; Riggs-Gelasco, P.; Gelasco, A.

2007-01-01

92

LT(K63/R72), a new mutant of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, exhibits characteristics more similar to LT(K63) than LT(R72).  

PubMed

LT(K63), a non-toxic mutant and LT(R72), a low toxic mutant of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin are frequently used mucosal adjuvants. In many cases, the adjuvanticity of LT(K63) is lower than that of LT(R72), but LT(K63), which induces a mixed Th1/Th2 response, exhibits a higher level of protection than LT(R72) which induces a polarized Th2-type response. To utilize the advantages of both adjuvants, a double-mutation LT(K63/R72) was generated and purified. The characterization results showed that there was no significant difference in production rate and immunogenicity between wild type LT and LT mutants. The results also showed that the toxicity and the trypsin sensitivity of LT(K63/R72) are between that of LT(K63) and LT(R72). Using HPLC, when samples in an OHpak SB-800 column were eluted by denatural buffer (TEAN containing 10 mg/ml SDS), we found the stability of LT(K63/R72) was higher than that of LT(R72) and lower than that of LT(K63). Through further analyzes, we found that LT(K63/R72) exhibits characteristics more closely related to LT(K63) than LT(R72). PMID:15685370

Feng, Qiang; Yang, Jun; Luo, Ping; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Zou, Quan-Ming

2005-02-01

93

Randomized Clinical Trial Assessing the Safety and Immunogenicity of Oral Microencapsulated Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Surface Antigen 6 with or without Heat-Labile Enterotoxin with Mutation R192G?  

PubMed Central

An oral, microencapsulated anti-colonization factor 6 antigen (meCS6) vaccine, with or without heat-labile enterotoxin with mutation R192G (LTR192G) (mucosal adjuvant), against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was evaluated for regimen and adjuvant effects on safety and immunogenicity. Sixty subjects were enrolled into a three-dose, 2-week interval or four-dose, 2-day interval regimen. Each regimen was randomized into two equal groups of meCS6 alone (1 mg) or meCS6 with adjuvant (2 ?g of LTR192G). The vaccine was well tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported. Serologic response to CS6 was low in all regimens (0 to 27%). CS6-immunogloublin A (IgA) antibody-secreting cell (ASC) responses ranged from 36 to 86%, with the highest level in the three-dose adjuvanted regimen; however, the magnitude was low. As expected, serologic and ASC LT responses were limited to adjuvanted regimens, with the exception of fecal IgA, which appeared to be nonspecific to LT administration. Further modifications to the delivery strategy and CS6 and adjuvant dose optimization will be needed before conducting further clinical trials with this epidemiologically important class of ETEC. PMID:18579693

Lapa, Joyce A.; Sincock, Stephanie A.; Ananthakrishnan, Madhumita; Porter, Chad K.; Cassels, Frederick J.; Brinkley, Carl; Hall, Eric R.; van Hamont, John; Gramling, Joseph D.; Carpenter, Colleen M.; Baqar, S.; Tribble, David R.

2008-01-01

94

Comparison of the mechanisms of action of cholera toxin and the heat-stable enterotoxins of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms which enable cholera toxin (CT) and the Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxins (STa and STb) to stimulate intestinal secretion of water and electrolytes are only partially understood. CT evokes the synthesis of 3',5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP), and STa is known to elevate intestinal levels of 3',5'-cyclic GMP (cGMP). Neither of these recognized second messengers appears to mediate E. coli STb responses. We compared the secretory effects of CT, STa, and STb using the pig intestinal loop model and also measured the effects of toxin challenge on the synthesis of cAMP, cGMP, and prostaglandins (e.g., prostaglandin E2 [PGE2]), as well as on the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from intestinal enterochromaffin cells. All three enterotoxins elicited fluid accumulation within a 2-h observation period. A combination of maximal doses of STa with STb yielded additive effects on fluid accumulation, which suggested different mechanisms of action for these toxins. Similarly, challenge of pig intestinal loops with a combination of CT and STb resulted in additive effects on fluid accumulation and luminal release of 5-HT. Unlike its effect on intestinal tissues from other animals, CT did not appear to elicit a dose-dependent cAMP response measurable in mucosal extracts from pig small intestine. In contrast, luminal fluid from CT-challenged pig intestinal loops contained dose-related amounts of cAMP and PGE2 that had been secreted from the mucosa. cAMP responses to STa or STb could not be demonstrated in either mucosal tissue or luminal fluid. In contrast, cGMP levels were increased in the intestinal fluid of loops challenged with STa but not in those challenged with STb. While the mechanisms of action of CT and STa are thought to involve impulse transmission via the enteric nervous system, we demonstrated significant stimulation of PGE2 synthesis and 5-HT release for CT and STb but very little for STa. We conclude from these data that the mechanisms of action of STa, STb, and CT are distinct, although the mode of action of STb may have some similarity to that of CT. Since STb stimulated the release of both PGE2 and 5-HT from the intestinal mucosa, the data suggested the potential for an effect of STb on the enteric nervous system. PMID:7890409

Peterson, J W; Whipp, S C

1995-01-01

95

Protection against neonatal Escherichia coli diarrhoea in pigs by vaccination of sows with a new vaccine that contains purified enterotoxic E. coli virulence factors F4ac, F4ab, F5 and F6 fimbrial antigens and heat-labile E. coli enterotoxin (LT) toxoid.  

PubMed

The efficacy of a new vaccine against neonatal Escherichia coli diarrhoea in piglets containing purified F4ab, F4ac, F5 and F6 fimbriae and detoxified heat-labile toxin (LT) was tested in challenge experiments by the method described by the European Pharmacopoeia (3rd edn, EDQM, Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France). A group of 11 young sows from a herd without E. coli problems was vaccinated 6-8 and 2-4 weeks prior to expected farrowing and another group of nine young sows were non-vaccinated controls. Escherichia coli antibody titres were determined in serum samples taken from the sows before first vaccination and before farrowing and in colostrum samples. The newborn piglets were allowed to suckle colostrum from their mother immediately after birth. The piglets were marked with individually numbered ear tags. Approximately 12 h after birth, 118 piglets from vaccinated sows and 79 piglets from non-vaccinated control sows were challenged by oral instillation of 5 ml of a freshly prepared culture of one of the challenge strains [O8:K87:F4ab (LT+) or O149:K91:F4ac (LT+) or O9:K30:F5 or O9:K103:F6 respectively]. The challenge cultures contained as a mean 6.8x10(9) CFU/ml. After challenge the piglets were observed for 7 days and mortality and morbidity were recorded. Vaccinated sows developed significant levels of antibody titres in colostrum and serum. Control sows stayed at a low/seronegative level. The protective efficacy was excellent because 66.7-87.5% of the piglets from vaccinated sows remained without clinical signs after challenge. Only 0.0-28.0% of the piglets from non-vaccinated sows remained healthy and more than 47.1% of the piglets in this group died after challenge. It is concluded that the new vaccine is very effective in protection of piglets against neonatal E. coli diarrhoea. PMID:16219094

Riising, H-J; Murmans, M; Witvliet, M

2005-08-01

96

The A Subunit of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Functions as a Mucosal Adjuvant and Promotes IgG2a, IgA, and Th17 Responses to Vaccine Antigens  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produces both heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins and is a major cause of diarrhea in infants in developing countries and in travelers to those regions. In addition to inducing fluid secretion, LT is a powerful mucosal adjuvant capable of promoting immune responses to coadministered antigens. In this study, we examined purified A subunit to further understand the toxicity and adjuvanticity of LT. Purified A subunit was enzymatically active but sensitive to proteolytic degradation and unable to bind gangliosides, and even in the presence of admixed B subunit, it displayed low cyclic AMP (cAMP) induction and no enterotoxicity. Thus, the AB5 structure plays a key role in protecting the A subunit from proteolytic degradation and in delivering the enzymatic signals required for secretion. In contrast, the A subunit alone was capable of activating dendritic cells and enhanced immune responses to multiple antigens following intranasal immunization; therefore, unlike toxicity, LT adjuvanticity is not dependent on the AB5 holotoxin structure or the presence of the B subunit. However, immune responses were maximal when signals were received from both subunits either in an AB5 structure or with A and B admixed. Furthermore, the quality of the immune response (i.e., IgG1/IgG2 balance and mucosal IgA and IL-17 secretion) was determined by the presence of an A subunit, revealing for the first time induction of Th17 responses with the A subunit alone. These results have important implications for understanding ETEC pathogenesis, unraveling immunologic responses induced by LT-based adjuvants, and developing new mucosal vaccines. PMID:22526674

Norton, Elizabeth B.; Lawson, Louise B.; Mahdi, Zaid; Freytag, Lucy C.

2012-01-01

97

Mucous hypersecretion induced in isolated mucociliated epithelial cells by a factor in heated serum.  

PubMed

A factor in the serum of the marine coelomate, Sipunculus nudus, induced by injecting a mixture of a marine bacterial vibrio and a solution of dried cholera toxin, will, after heating to 85 to 90 C, cause intensive continuous hypersecretion of mucus in isolated free-swimming mucociliated cells from another Sipunculus. The factor, released from coleomic cells into the serum, is heat stable to 90 C, withstands several freeze-thawings, is induced only by specific stimuli, is rapidly released into the serum, persists for different time spans depending on the stimulus, and is not present in normal heated sera. It is proposed that in nature this factor is balanced by a heat labile inhibitory factor. Cholera toxin alone is a feeble stimulus. The marine vibrio alone is a powerful stimulus to mucus secretion but lethal for the host. In combination with cholera toxin, the vibrio is nonlethal. PMID:5049431

Bang, B G; Bang, F B

1972-08-01

98

Mucous Hypersecretion Induced in Isolated Mucociliated Epithelial Cells by a Factor in Heated Serum  

PubMed Central

A factor in the serum of the marine coelomate, Sipunculus nudus, induced by injecting a mixture of a marine bacterial vibrio and a solution of dried cholera toxin, will, after heating to 85 to 90 C, cause intensive continuous hypersecretion of mucus in isolated free-swimming mucociliated cells from another Sipunculus. The factor, released from coleomic cells into the serum, is heat stable to 90 C, withstands several freeze-thawings, is induced only by specific stimuli, is rapidly released into the serum, persists for different time spans depending on the stimulus, and is not present in normal heated sera. It is proposed that in nature this factor is balanced by a heat labile inhibitory factor. Cholera toxin alone is a feeble stimulus. The marine vibrio alone is a powerful stimulus to mucus secretion but lethal for the host. In combination with cholera toxin, the vibrio is nonlethal. ImagesFig 1Fig 2AFig 2B PMID:5049431

Bang, B. G.; Bang, F. B.

1972-01-01

99

Characterization of Immunological Cross-Reactivity between Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Toxin and Human Guanylin and Uroguanylin  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing the heat-stable toxin (ST) (human-type [STh] and porcine-type [STp] variants) is among the five most important enteric pathogens in young children living in low- and middle-income countries. ST mediates diarrheal disease through activation of the guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor and is an attractive vaccine target with the potential to confer protection against a wide range of ETEC strains. However, immunological cross-reactivity to the endogenous GC-C ligands guanylin and uroguanylin is a major concern because of the similarities to ST in amino acid sequence, structure, and function. We have investigated the presence of similar epitopes on STh, STp, guanylin, and uroguanylin by analyzing these peptides in eight distinct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A fraction (27%) of a polyclonal anti-STh antibody and an anti-STh monoclonal antibody (MAb) cross-reacted with uroguanylin, the latter with a 73-fold-lower affinity. In contrast, none of the antibodies raised against STp, one polyclonal antibody and three MAbs, cross-reacted with the endogenous peptides. Antibodies raised against guanylin and uroguanylin showed partial cross-reactivity with the ST peptides. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that immunological cross-reactions between ST and the endogenous peptides can occur. However, the partial nature and low affinity of the observed cross-reactions suggest that the risk of adverse effects from a future ST vaccine may be low. Furthermore, our results suggest that this risk may be reduced or eliminated by basing an ST immunogen on STp or a selectively mutated variant of STh. PMID:24778111

Taxt, Arne M.; Diaz, Yuleima; Bacle, Amélie; Grauffel, Cédric; Reuter, Nathalie; Aasland, Rein; Sommerfelt, Halvor

2014-01-01

100

Intradermal Administration of the Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxins LT-IIb and LT-IIc of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Enhances Humoral and CD8+ T Cell Immunity to a Co-Administered Antigen  

PubMed Central

Vaccinations are extremely effective at combating infectious diseases. Many conserved antigen (Ag) targets, however, are poorly immunogenic. Protein subunit vaccines frequently elicit only humoral immune responses and fail to confer protection against serious intracellular pathogens. These barriers to vaccine development are often overcome by the use of appropriate adjuvants. Heat-labile enterotoxins (HLT) produced by enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli are potent adjuvants when administered by mucosal or systemic routes. The efficacy of the type II HLT, however, has not been well-defined when administered by the intradermal (ID) route. Using a murine ID immunization model, the adjuvant properties of LT-IIb and LT-IIc, two type II HLTs, were compared with those of LT-I, a prototypical type I HLT. While all three HLT adjuvants enhanced Ag-specific humoral responses to similar levels, LT-IIb and LT-IIc, in contrast to LT-I, induced a more vigorous Ag-specific CD8+ T cell response and proffered faster clearance of Listeria monocytogenes in a challenge model. Additionally, LT-IIb and LT-IIc induced distinct differences in the profiles of the Ag-specific CD8+ T cell responses. While LT-IIc stimulated a robust and rapid primary CD8+ T cell response, LT-IIb exhibited slower CD8+ T cell expansion and contraction kinetics with the formation of higher percentages of effector memory cells. In comparison to LT-I and LT-IIc, LT-IIb evoked better long-term protection after immunization. Furthermore, LT-IIb and LT-IIc enhanced the total number of dendritic cells (DC) in the draining lymph node (DLN) and expression of costimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and CD40 on DCs. In contrast to LT-I, LT-IIb and LT-IIc induced less edema, cellular infiltrates, and general inflammation at the site of ID injection. Thus, LT-IIb and LT-IIc are attractive comprehensive ID adjuvants with unique characteristic that enhance humoral and cellular immunity to a co-administered protein Ag. PMID:25536061

Hu, John C.; Mathias-Santos, Camila; Greene, Christopher J.; King-Lyons, Natalie D.; Rodrigues, Juliana F.; Hajishengallis, George; Ferreira, Luís C. S.; Connell, Terry D.

2014-01-01

101

Structure–activity correlations of variant forms of the B pentamer of Escherichia coli type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIb with Toll-like receptor 2 binding  

PubMed Central

The pentameric B subunit of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT-IIb-B5) is a potent signaling molecule capable of modulating innate immune responses. It has previously been shown that LT-IIb-B5, but not the LT-IIb-­B5 Ser74Asp variant [LT-IIb-B5(S74D)], activates Toll-like receptor (TLR2) signaling in macrophages. Consistent with this, the LT-IIb-B5(S74D) variant failed to bind TLR2, in contrast to LT-IIb-B5 and the LT-IIb-B5 Thr13Ile [LT-IIb-B5(T13I)] and LT-IIb-B5 Ser74Ala [LT-IIb-B5(S74A)] variants, which displayed the highest binding activity to TLR2. Crystal structures of the Ser74Asp, Ser74Ala and Thr13Ile variants of LT-­IIb-B5 have been determined to 1.90, 1.40 and 1.90?Å resolution, respectively. The structural data for the Ser74Asp variant reveal that the carboxylate side chain points into the pore, thereby reducing the pore size compared with that of the wild-type or the Ser74Ala variant B pentamer. On the basis of these crystallographic data, the reduced TLR2-binding affinity of the LT-IIb-B5(S74D) variant may be the result of the pore of the pentamer being closed. On the other hand, the explanation for the enhanced TLR2-binding activity of the LT-IIb-B5(S74A) variant is more complex as its activity is greater than that of the wild-type B pentamer, which also has an open pore as the Ser74 side chain points away from the pore opening. Data for the LT-IIb-B5(T13I) variant show that four of the five variant side chains point to the outside surface of the pentamer and one residue points inside. These data are consistent with the lack of binding of the LT-IIb-B5(T13I) variant to GD1a ganglioside. PMID:23151625

Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Nawar, Hesham F.; King-Lyons, Natalie; Liang, Shuang; Connell, Terry D.; Hajishengallis, George

2012-01-01

102

Structure-activity correlations of variant forms of the B pentamer of Escherichia coli type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIb with Toll-like receptor 2 binding.  

PubMed

The pentameric B subunit of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT-IIb-B(5)) is a potent signaling molecule capable of modulating innate immune responses. It has previously been shown that LT-IIb-B(5), but not the LT-IIb-B(5) Ser74Asp variant [LT-IIb-B(5)(S74D)], activates Toll-like receptor (TLR2) signaling in macrophages. Consistent with this, the LT-IIb-B(5)(S74D) variant failed to bind TLR2, in contrast to LT-IIb-B(5) and the LT-IIb-B(5) Thr13Ile [LT-IIb-B(5)(T13I)] and LT-IIb-B(5) Ser74Ala [LT-IIb-B(5)(S74A)] variants, which displayed the highest binding activity to TLR2. Crystal structures of the Ser74Asp, Ser74Ala and Thr13Ile variants of LT-IIb-B(5) have been determined to 1.90, 1.40 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively. The structural data for the Ser74Asp variant reveal that the carboxylate side chain points into the pore, thereby reducing the pore size compared with that of the wild-type or the Ser74Ala variant B pentamer. On the basis of these crystallographic data, the reduced TLR2-binding affinity of the LT-IIb-B(5)(S74D) variant may be the result of the pore of the pentamer being closed. On the other hand, the explanation for the enhanced TLR2-binding activity of the LT-IIb-B(5)(S74A) variant is more complex as its activity is greater than that of the wild-type B pentamer, which also has an open pore as the Ser74 side chain points away from the pore opening. Data for the LT-IIb-B(5)(T13I) variant show that four of the five variant side chains point to the outside surface of the pentamer and one residue points inside. These data are consistent with the lack of binding of the LT-IIb-B(5)(T13I) variant to GD1a ganglioside. PMID:23151625

Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Nawar, Hesham F; King-Lyons, Natalie; Liang, Shuang; Connell, Terry D; Hajishengallis, George

2012-12-01

103

LT-IIc, a new member of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin family, exhibits potent immunomodulatory properties that are different from those induced by LT-IIa or LT-IIb.  

PubMed

A plethora of human pathogens invade and/or colonize mucosal surfaces. Elaboration of strong, protective immune responses against those pathogens by mucosal vaccination, however, is hampered by endogenous regulatory systems in the mucosae that dampen responses to foreign antigens (Ags). To overcome those natural barriers, mucosal adjuvants must be employed. Using a mouse mucosal immunization model and AgI/II, a weak immunogen from Streptococcus mutans, LT-IIc, a new member of the type II subgroup of the heat-labile enterotoxin family, was shown to have potent mucosal adjuvant properties. In comparison to mice intranasally immunized only with AgI/II, co-administration of AgI/II with LT-IIc enhanced production of Ag-specific IgA antibodies in the saliva and vaginal fluids and Ag-specific IgA and IgG in the serum. Secretion of IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IFN-?, and TNF-? was enhanced in cultures of AgI/II-stimulated splenic cells isolated from mice that had received LT-IIc as a mucosal adjuvant. In contrast, secretion of IL-10 was suppressed in those cells. This pattern of cytokine secretion suggested that LT-IIc stimulates both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. In contrast to LT-IIa and LT-IIb, the original members of the type II subgroup that also are mucosal adjuvants, LT-IIc dramatically enhanced secretion of IL-1? and IL-1? in peritoneal macrophages that had been co-cultured with LPS. Furthermore, the B pentameric subunit of LT-IIc augmented uptake of Ag by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells to levels that exceeded those attained by use of LPS or by the B pentamers of LT-IIa or LT-IIb. These data confirmed that LT-IIc is a strong mucosal adjuvant with immunomodulatory properties that are distinguishable from those of LT-IIa and LT-IIb and which has immunomodulatory properties that may be exploitable in vaccine development. PMID:21095251

Nawar, Hesham F; Greene, Christopher J; Lee, Chang Hoon; Mandell, Lorrie M; Hajishengallis, George; Connell, Terry D

2011-01-17

104

LT-IIc, a new member of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin family, exhibits potent immunomodulatory properties that are different from those induced by LT-IIa or LT-IIb  

PubMed Central

A plethora of human pathogens invade and/or colonize mucosal surfaces. Elaboration of strong, protective immune responses against those pathogens by mucosal vaccination, however, is hampered by endogenous regulatory systems in the mucosae that dampen responses to foreign antigens (Ag). To overcome those natural barriers, mucosal adjuvants must be employed. Using a mouse mucosal immunization model and AgI/II, a weak immunogen from Streptococcus mutans, LT-IIc, a new member of the type II subgroup of the heat-labile enterotoxin family, was shown to have potent mucosal adjuvant properties. In comparison to mice intranasally immunized only with AgI/II, co-administration of AgI/II with LT-IIc enhanced production of Ag-specific IgA antibodies in the saliva and vaginal fluids and Ag-specific IgA and IgG in the serum. Secretion of IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IFN-?, and TNF-? was enhanced in cultures of AgI/II-stimulated splenic cells isolated from mice that had received LT-IIc as a mucosal adjuvant. In contrast, secretion of IL-10 was suppressed in those cells. This pattern of cytokine secretion suggested that LT-IIc stimulates both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. In contrast to LT-IIa and LT-IIb, the original members of the type II subgroup that also are mucosal adjuvants, LT-IIc dramatically enhanced secretion of IL-1? and IL-1? in peritoneal macrophages that had been co-cultured with LPS. Furthermore, the B pentameric subunit of LT-IIc augmented uptake of Ag by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells to levels that exceeded those attained by use of LPS or by the B pentamers of LT-IIa or LT-IIb. These data confirmed that LT-IIc is a strong mucosal adjuvant with immunomodulatory properties that are distinguishable from those of LT-IIa and LT-IIb and which has immunomodulatory properties that may be exploitable in vaccine development. PMID:21095251

Nawar, Hesham F.; Greene, Christopher J.; Lee, Chang Hoon; Mandell, Lorrie; Connell, Terry D.

2010-01-01

105

Novel Proteinaceous Toxins from the Box Jellyfish (Sea Wasp) Carybdea rastoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

During summer and autumn, the box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea rastoni is one of the most bothersome stinging pests to swimmers and bathers on the Japanese coast. Two labile but potent hemolytic toxins from the tentacles of Carybdea rastoni were isolated in their active forms using newly developed purification methods. The molecular masses of the isolated C. rastoni toxin-A and

Hiroshi Nagai; Kyoko Takuwa; Masahiro Nakao; Emiko Ito; Masami Miyake; Masatoshi Noda; Terumi Nakajima

2000-01-01

106

Escherichia coli Expressing EAST1 Toxin Did Not Cause an Increase of cAMP or cGMP Levels in Cells, and No Diarrhea in 5-Day Old Gnotobiotic Pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea to humans and farm animals. These ETEC strains produce heat-labile toxin (LT) and/or heat-stable toxins that include type I (STa), type II (STb), and enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin 1 (EAST1). LT, STa, and STb (in pigs) are proven the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. However, significance of EAST1 in ETEC-associated diarrheal has not been determined, even though EAST1 is highly prevalent among ETEC strains. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we constructed E. coli strains to express EAST1 toxin as the only toxin and studied them in cell lines and five-day old gnotobiotic piglets to determine significance of EAST1 toxin. Data from in vitro studies indicated that EAST1 did not stimulate an increase of intracellular cyclic AMP or GMP levels in T-84 cells or porcine cell line IPEC-J2, nor did it enhance LT or STa toxin of ETEC strains in stimulation of cAMP or cGMP in T-84 cells. In addition, 5-day old gnotobiotic pigs challenged with E. coli strains expressing EAST1 as the only toxin did not developed diarrhea or signs of clinical disease during 72 h post-inoculation. Conclusion/Significance Results from this study indicated that EAST1 alone is not sufficient to cause diarrhea in five-day old gnotobiotic pigs, and suggest that EAST1 likely is not a virulence determinant in ETEC-associated diarrhea. PMID:22905235

Ruan, Xiaosai; Crupper, Scott S.; Schultz, Bruce D.; Robertson, Donald C.; Zhang, Weiping

2012-01-01

107

Marine toxins.  

PubMed

Seafood products are important both nutritionally and economically. Within Europe, some 12 billion Pounds of fishery products are consumed annually and an enormous variety of species are available. Although seafood is rarely implicated in food poisoning, compared to other food sources, it does provide some specific human health hazards unique to this particular resource. Generally, these are toxins from toxic microscopic algae which accumulate through the food-chain. The toxins can cause various neurological and gastrointestinal illnesses and, potentially, consumers are exposed from seafood produced within Europe, from imported products, or from seafood eaten while travelling abroad. The symptoms of illness which may be encountered, the source and mode of action of the toxins, and some emerging problems are described. European legislation aims to ensure the quality and safety of seafood products by prohibiting sale of some toxic species, setting toxin limits, requiring monitoring and controlling imports. PMID:10885118

Whittle, K; Gallacher, S

2000-01-01

108

Microfluidic biosensor for cholera toxin detection in fecal samples.  

PubMed

Sample preparation and processing steps are the most critical assay aspects that require our attention in the development of diagnostic devices for analytes present in complex matrices. In the best scenarios, diagnostic devices should use only simple sample processing. We have therefore investigated minimal preparation of stool samples and their effect on our sensitive microfluidic immunosensor for the detection of cholera toxin. This biosensor was previously developed and tested in buffer solutions only, using either fluorescence or electrochemical detection strategies. The microfluidic devices were made from polydimethylsiloxane using soft lithography and silicon templates. Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB)-specific antibodies immobilized onto superparamagnetic beads and ganglioside GM1-containing liposomes were used for CTB recognition in the detection system. Quantification of CTB was tested by spiking it in human stool samples. Here, optimal minimal sample processing steps, including filtration and centrifugation, were optimized using a microtiter plate assay owing to its high-throughput capabilities. Subsequently, it was transferred to the microfluidic systems, enhancing the diagnostic characteristic of the biosensor. It was found that the debris removal obtained through simple centrifugation resulted in an acceptable removal of matrix effects for the fluorescence format, reaching a limit of detection of only 9.0 ng/mL. However, the electron transfer in the electrochemical format was slightly negatively affected (limit of detection of 31.7 ng/mL). Subsequently, cross-reactivity using the heat-labile Escherichia coli toxin was investigated using the electrochemical microfluidic immunosensors and was determined to be negligible. With minimal sample preparation required, these microfluidic liposome-based systems have demonstrated excellent analytical performance in a complex matrix and will thus be applicable to other sample matrices. PMID:24958345

Bunyakul, Natinan; Promptmas, Chamras; Baeumner, Antje J

2015-01-01

109

Labile sulfide and sulfite in phytochelatin complexes  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metals such as cadmium induce tomato cell cultures to synthesize the metal binding polypeptides ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 3} and ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 4}-Gly (phytochelatins). Tomato cells selected for growth on normally lethal concentrations of CdCl{sub 2} synthesize higher quantities of these polypeptides. Cd{sup r} cells are not cross-resistant to other heavy metals, and recent work suggests that metal detoxification by these peptides may be Cd-specific. The occurrence of labile sulfur as a component of the metal complex raises questions concerning possible functions of phytochelatins besides that of Cd binding. The presence of acid-labile sulfide ion in phytochelatin complexes has been reported by several groups. We report the additional finding that labile sulfite is also present in these complexes and in higher amounts than sulfide. Sulfide and sulfite are both released from the metal binding complex by acidification or by treatment with EDTA.

Eannetta, N.T.; Steffens, J.C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1989-04-01

110

Toward the development of a stable, freeze-dried formulation of Helicobacter pylori killed whole cell vaccine adjuvanted with a novel mutant of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

No vaccine exists for the prevention of infection with the ubiquitous gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, and drug therapy for the infection is complicated by poor patient compliance, the high cost of treatment, and ineffectiveness against drug-resistant strains. A new medical advancement is required to reduce the incidence of peptic ulcer disease and stomach cancer, two conditions caused by infection with

Nancy A. Summerton; Richard W. Welch; Laureano Bondoc; Huei-Hsiung Yang; Brett Pleune; Naryaswamy Ramachandran; Andrea M. Harris; Desiree Bland; W. James Jackson; John D. Clements; Gary S. Nabors

2010-01-01

111

Transcutaneous Immunization with Cross-Reacting Material CRM197 of Diphtheria Toxin Boosts Functional Antibody Levels in Mice Primed Parenterally with Adsorbed Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccine?  

PubMed Central

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) capitalizes on the accessibility and immunocompetence of the skin, elicits protective immunity, simplifies vaccine delivery, and may be particularly advantageous when frequent boosting is required. In this study we examined the potential of TCI to boost preexisting immune responses to diphtheria in mice. The cross-reacting material (CRM197) of diphtheria toxin was used as the boosting antigen and was administered alone or together with either one of two commonly used mucosal adjuvants, cholera toxin (CT) and a partially detoxified mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTR72). We report that TCI with CRM197 significantly boosted preexisting immune responses elicited after parenteral priming with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid (DTxd) vaccine. In the presence of LTR72 as an adjuvant, toxin-neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher than those elicited by CRM197 alone and were comparable to the functional antibody levels induced after parenteral booster immunization with the adsorbed DTxd vaccine. Time course study showed that high levels of toxin-neutralizing antibodies persisted for at least 14 weeks after the transcutaneous boost. In addition, TCI resulted in a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response in all groups of mice boosted with the CRM197 protein. These findings highlight the promising prospect of using booster administrations of CRM197 via the transcutaneous route to establish good herd immunity against diphtheria. PMID:18227167

Stickings, Paul; Peyre, Marisa; Coombes, Laura; Muller, Sylviane; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Sesardic, Dorothea

2008-01-01

112

Characterization of an RTX toxin from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.  

PubMed Central

A hemolytic determinant of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is encoded on a 90-kbp plasmid (pO157). This enterohemorrhagic E. coli toxin (Ehx) is a newly described RTX cytotoxin. The prototype RTX toxin is the E. coli hemolysin (Hly) associated with extraintestinal E. coli infections. We expressed Ehx from E. coli K-12 strains harboring either pSK3, a pO157 derivative marked with Tn801 unlinked to Ehx, or a recombinant plasmid containing an 11.9-kbp subclone (pEO40) of pSK3. The Ehx activities and antibody reactivities were compared with those of Hly. Little Ehx was secreted extracellularly from the strain harboring pSK3; however, when the Hly transport genes hlyBD were supplied in trans, both intracellular and extracellular levels of Ehx were enhanced more than 15-fold. The strain harboring pEO40 secreted at least 140-fold more Ehx than did the strain harboring pSK3, and neither intracellular nor extracellular levels were significantly enhanced by the addition of hlyBD in trans. Polyclonal anti-HlyA antiserum and several anti-HlyA monoclonal antibodies, including the monoclonal antibody A10, which is panreactive for nearly all RTX toxins, reacted with EhxA antigen by immunoblot analysis. In hemolysis and 51Cr release assays, Ehx demonstrated similar efficiencies in lysis of BL-3 cells (cells from a bovine lymphoma cell line) and sheep and human erythrocytes. Surprisingly, it demonstrated very little activity against two human lymphoma cell lines. In contrast, Hly lysed all five cell types tested, each to a greater extent than that demonstrated by comparable amounts of Ehx. As with other RTX toxins, Ehx activity was calcium dependent and heat labile. PMID:8557336

Bauer, M E; Welch, R A

1996-01-01

113

Clinical features of infections due to Escherichia coli producing heat-stable toxin during an outbreak in Wisconsin: a rarely suspected cause of diarrhea in the United States.  

PubMed

In September 1994, a foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection occurred in attendees of a banquet in Milwaukee. E. coli was isolated from stool specimens from 13 patients that were comprehensively tested; isolates from five patients were positive for E. coli producing heat-stable toxin, were biochemically identified and serotyped as E. coli O153:H45, and were all resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, and streptomycin. Diarrhea (100%) and abdominal cramps (83%) were the most prevalent symptoms in 205 cases; vomiting (13%) and fever (19%) were less common. The median duration of diarrhea and abdominal cramps was 6 days and 5 days, respectively. In the United States, health care providers rarely consider ETEC as a possible cause of diarrhea in their patients, and few laboratories offer testing to identify ETEC. Hence, outbreaks of ETEC infection may be underdiagnosed and underreported. As in this outbreak, the relatively high prevalence of diarrhea and cramps lasting > or = 4 days and the low prevalence of vomiting and fever can help distinguish ETEC infection from Norwalk-like virus infection and gastroenteritis due to other causes with incubation times of > or = 15 hours and can provide direction for confirmatory laboratory testing. PMID:9564472

Roels, T H; Proctor, M E; Robinson, L C; Hulbert, K; Bopp, C A; Davis, J P

1998-04-01

114

The binding of cholera toxin to the periplasmic vestibule of the type II secretion channel  

PubMed Central

The type II secretion system (T2SS) is a large macromolecular complex spanning the inner and outer membranes of many Gram-negative bacteria. The T2SS is responsible for the secretion of virulence factors such as cholera toxin (CT) and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) from Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, respectively. CT and LT are closely related AB5 heterohexamers, composed of one A subunit and a B-pentamer. Both CT and LT are translocated, as folded protein complexes, from the periplasm across the outer membrane through the type II secretion channel, the secretin GspD. We recently published the 19 Å structure of the V. cholerae secretin (VcGspD) in its closed state and showed by SPR measurements that the periplasmic domain of GspD interacts with the B-pentamer complex. Here we extend these studies by characterizing the binding of the cholera toxin B-pentamer to VcGspD using electron microscopy of negatively stained preparations. Our studies indicate that the pentamer is captured within the large periplasmic vestibule of VcGspD. These new results agree well with our previously published studies and are in accord with a piston-driven type II secretion mechanism. PMID:21406971

Gonen, Melissa; Sun, Ji; Delarosa, Jaclyn R

2011-01-01

115

The binding of cholera toxin to the periplasmic vestibule of the type II secretion channel.  

PubMed

The type II secretion system (T2SS) is a large macromolecular complex spanning the inner and outer membranes of many gram-negative bacteria. The T2SS is responsible for the secretion of virulence factors such as cholera toxin (CT) and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) from Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, respectively. CT and LT are closely related AB5 heterohexamers, composed of one A subunit and a B-pentamer. Both CT and LT are translocated, as folded protein complexes, from the periplasm across the outer membrane through the type II secretion channel, the secretin GspD. We recently published the 19 Å structure of the V. cholerae secretin (VcGspD) in its closed state and showed by SPR measurements that the periplasmic domain of GspD interacts with the B-pentamer complex. Here we extend these studies by characterizing the binding of the cholera toxin B-pentamer to VcGspD using electron microscopy of negatively stained preparations. Our studies indicate that the pentamer is captured within the large periplasmic vestibule of VcGspD. These new results agree well with our previously published studies and are in accord with a piston-driven type II secretion mechanism. PMID:21406971

Reichow, Steve L; Korotkov, Konstantin V; Gonen, Melissa; Sun, Ji; Delarosa, Jaclyn R; Hol, Wim G J; Gonen, Tamir

2011-01-01

116

The 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of cholera toxin B subunit pentamer: Choleragenoid  

SciTech Connect

Cholera toxin, a heterohexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin released by Vibrio cholera, induces a profuse secretory diarrhea in susceptible hosts. Choleragenoid, the B subunit pentamer of cholera toxin, directs the enzymatic A subunit to its target by binding to GM{sub 1} gangliosides exposed on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells. We have solved the crystal structure of choleragenoid at 2.3 {Angstrom} resolution by combining single isomorphous replacement with non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The structure of the B subunits, and their pentameric arrangement, closely resembles that reported for the intact holotoxin (choleragen), the heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli, and for a choleragenoid-GM{sub 1} pentasaccharide complex. In the absence of the A subunit the central cavity of the B pentamer is a highly solvated channel. The binding of the A subunit or the receptor pentasaccharide to choleragenoid has only a modest effect on the local stereochemistry and does not perceptibly alter the subunit interface.

Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Maulik, P.R.; Reed, R.A.; Shipley, G. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine; Westbrook, E.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Scott, D.L.; Otwinowski, Z. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

1996-02-01

117

Development of an Immunochromatographic Test Strip for Detection of Cholera Toxin  

PubMed Central

Because cholera toxin (CT) is responsible for most of the symptoms induced by Vibrio cholerae infection, detection of CT is critical for diagnosis of the disease. In this study, we constructed an immunochromatographic test strip for detection of CT (CT-IC) with polyclonal antibodies developed against purified recombinant whole CT protein. The detection limit of the CT-IC was 10?ng/mL of purified recombinant CT, and it could detect the CT in culture supernatant of all 15 toxigenic V. cholerae isolates examined, whereas no false-positive signal was detected in all 5 nontoxigenic V. cholerae isolates examined. The specificity of the CT-IC was examined with recombinant heat-labile toxin (LT), which shares high homology with CT, and it was revealed that the minimum detection limit for LT was 100 times higher than that for CT. In addition, lt gene-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was examined by CT-IC. The false-positive signals were observed in 3 out of 12 ETEC isolates, but these signals were considerably faint. The CT-IC did not develop false-positive signals with all 7 V. parahaemolyticus isolates. These results showed the high specificity of CT-IC and the feasible use of it for the detection and surveillance of toxigenic V. cholerae. PMID:24308002

Yamasaki, Eiki; Sakamoto, Ryuta; Matsumoto, Takashi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Kurazono, Takayuki; Hiroi, Toyoko; Nair, G. Balakrish; Kurazono, Hisao

2013-01-01

118

Inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives. II. Physical methods  

SciTech Connect

The thermal inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives was evaluated by addition of marker viruses (VSV, Sindbis, Sendai, EMC) to anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) concentrates. The rate of virus inactivation at 60 degrees C was decreased by at least 100- to 700-fold by inclusion of 2.75 M glycine and 50 percent sucrose, or 3.0 M potassium citrate, additives which contribute to retention of protein biologic activity. Nonetheless, at least 10(4) infectious units of each virus was inactivated within 10 hours. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 70 or 80 degrees C caused a 90 percent or greater loss in AHF activity. An even greater decline in the rate of virus inactivation was observed on heating AHF in the lyophilized state, although no loss in AHF activity was observed after 72 hours of heating at 60 degrees C. Several of the proteins present in lyophilized AHF concentrates displayed an altered electrophoretic mobility as a result of exposure to 60 degrees C for 24 hours. Exposure of lyophilized AHF to irradiation from a cobalt 60 source resulted in an acceptable yield of AHF at 1.0, but not at 2.0, megarads. At 1 megarad, greater than or equal to 6.0 logs of VSV and 3.3 logs of Sindbis virus were inactivated.

Horowitz, B.; Wiebe, M.E.; Lippin, A.; Vandersande, J.; Stryker, M.H.

1985-11-01

119

Labile Soil Phosphorus as Influenced by Methods of  

E-print Network

Labile Soil Phosphorus as Influenced by Methods of Applying Radioactive Phosphorus Vilma V. Selvaratnam, Senay Siimer, A. J. Andersen, J. D. Thomsen and G. Gissel Nielsen #12;RISÃ?-R-409 LABILE SOIL barley, ijuckwheat, and rye grass for the L- value determination. The four soils differed greatly

120

Action of gravireceptors: lability hypothesis and model.  

PubMed

The plagiogravitropic growth stage usually occurring after gravitropic stimulation can be explained if 1) the liminal angle is interpreted as the angle to which the gravitropic response system tends to react after displacement and 2) the liminal angle is assumed to be labile, tending to equalise itself with the actual apex angle from the gravity vector. The process of equalisation may be interpreted as adaptation of gravity-receptors to exposure angle. Based on these assumptions, an adaptational model of the gravitropic response was proposed. It is in agreement with experimental data and describes adequately the plagiogravitropic growth stage occurring after gravitropic stimulation. It is supposed that such a mechanism acts in cooperation with others for initiation and maintenance of plagiogravitropic growth. PMID:11538643

Stockus, A

1996-01-01

121

Identification of labile Zn sites in drug-target proteins.  

PubMed

Labile Zn fingers (Zfs) in proteins contain Zn-bound thiolates that can react with electrophilic agents, causing Zn(2+) ejection and protein unfolding. Such labile Zfs have been shown to be Cys4 or Cys3His cores whose Zn-bound Cys have no hydrogen bonds. Our aim here is to identify labile Zfs in proteins that are promising drug targets using these features. To prove the strategy used, we showed that five proteins with predicted labile Zfs reacted with Zn-ejecting agents, whereas five proteins with no or inert Zfs did not. The comprehensive set of labile Zfs provides new drug targets and guidelines to redesign Zn-ejecting compounds with improved specificity. PMID:24010488

Lee, Yu-Ming; Wang, Yi-Ting; Duh, Yulander; Yuan, Hanna S; Lim, Carmay

2013-09-25

122

*CYANOBACTERIA AND THEIR TOXINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, are naturally-occurring contaminants of surface waters worldwide. These photosynthesizing prokaryotes thrive in warm, shallow, nutrient-rich waters. Many produce potent toxins as secondary metabolites. Cyanobacteria toxins have been document...

123

Production of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin.  

PubMed Central

In an effort to develop new approaches to the study and control of infectious diarrhea, we prepared murine monoclonal antibodies to the Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa). The toxin was purified from E. coli culture media and conjugated to bovine serum albumin. The STa-bovine serum albumin conjugate was used to immunize BALB/c mice, and the immune spleen cells from these mice were fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells. Resultant hybridomas were screened in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol against 500 ng of STa-bovine serum albumin bound to microtiter wells as the solid-phase antigen. Five stable clones were selected and grown further in ascites fluid, which demonstrated anti-STa activity at dilutions of up to 1:500,000 in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for heat-stable enterotoxin. In a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format, the antibodies recognized several human and porcine strains of STa to various extents, but did not recognize E. coli heat-labile toxin, cholera toxin, or staphylococcal enterotoxin B. The antibodies were all able to bind lactoperoxidase-labeled [125I]STa, and antibody 20B3 was also able to dissociate [125I]STa bound to toxin receptors on rat jejunal villous cells. Preincubation of STa with antibodies 20B3 or 20F5 led to a concentration-dependent neutralization of toxin activity in a suckling mouse intestinal secretion assay. These antibodies are likely to provide new tools for the continued study of STa structure-function relationships and may lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of E. coli-induced infectious diarrhea. PMID:3880723

Brandwein, H; Deutsch, A; Thompson, M; Giannella, R

1985-01-01

124

Why is firefly oxyluciferin a notoriously labile substance?  

PubMed

The chemistry of firefly bioluminescence is important for numerous applications in biochemistry and analytical chemistry. The emitter of this bioluminescent system, firefly oxyluciferin, is difficult to handle. The cause of its lability was clarified while its synthesis was reinvestigated. A side product was identified and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The reason for the lability of oxyluciferin is now ascribed to autodimerization of the coexisting enol and keto forms in a Mannich-type reaction. PMID:24282138

Maltsev, Oleg V; Nath, Naba K; Naumov, Pan?e; Hintermann, Lukas

2014-01-13

125

Secretion of methanol-insoluble heat-stable enterotoxin (STB): energy- and secA-dependent conversion of pre-STB to an intermediate indistinguishable from the extracellular toxin.  

PubMed Central

The methanol-insoluble, heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli synthesized by clinical strains or strains that harbor the cloned gene was shown to be an extracellular polypeptide. The toxin (STB) was first detected as an 8,100-Mr precursor (pre-STB) that was converted to a transiently cell-associated 5,200-Mr form. Proteolytic conversion of pre-STB to STB was shown to be inhibited by the proton motive force uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and did not occur in a secA background. After STB was detected as a cell-associated molecule, an extracellular form with identical electrophoretic mobility became apparent. The results suggest that there is no proteolytic processing during the mobilization of STB from the periplasm to the culture supernatant. The determined amino acid sequence of STB coincides fully with the 48 carboxy-terminal amino acids inferred from the DNA sequence. The 23 amino-terminal residues inferred from the DNA sequence were absent in the mature toxin. Images PMID:2158970

Kupersztoch, Y M; Tachias, K; Moomaw, C R; Dreyfus, L A; Urban, R; Slaughter, C; Whipp, S

1990-01-01

126

Nanoparticle-detained toxins for safe and effective vaccination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxoid vaccines--vaccines based on inactivated bacterial toxins--are routinely used to promote antitoxin immunity for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. Following chemical or heat denaturation, inactivated toxins can be administered to mount toxin-specific immune responses. However, retaining faithful antigenic presentation while removing toxin virulence remains a major challenge and presents a trade-off between efficacy and safety in toxoid development. Here, we show a nanoparticle-based toxin-detainment strategy that safely delivers non-disrupted pore-forming toxins for immune processing. Using erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles and staphylococcal ?-haemolysin, we demonstrate effective virulence neutralization via spontaneous particle entrapment. Compared with vaccination with heat-denatured toxin, mice vaccinated with the nanoparticle-detained toxin showed superior protective immunity against toxin-mediated adverse effects. We find that the non-disruptive detoxification approach benefited the immunogenicity and efficacy of toxoid vaccines. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of antitoxin vaccines against the many virulence factors that threaten public health.

Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang

2013-12-01

127

The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks.

Bengtson, Per

2014-05-01

128

Cell Motility by Labile Association of Molecules  

PubMed Central

This article summarizes our current views on the dynamic structure of the mitotic spindle and its relation to mitotic chromosome movements. The following statements are based on measurements of birefringence of spindle fibers in living cells, normally developing or experimentally modified by various physical and chemical agents, including high and low temperatures, antimitotic drugs, heavy water, and ultraviolet microbeam irradiation. Data were also obtained concomitantly with electron microscopy employing a new fixative and through measurements of isolated spindle protein. Spindle fibers in living cells are labile dynamic structures whose constituent filaments (microtubules) undergo cyclic breakdown and reformation. The dynamic state is maintained by an equilibrium between a pool of protein molecules and their linearly aggregated polymers, which constitute the microtubules or filaments. In living cells under physiological conditions, the association of the molecules into polymers is very weak (absolute value of ?F25°C < 1 kcal), and the equilibrium is readily shifted to dissociation by low temperature or by high hydrostatic pressure. The equilibrium is shifted toward formation of polymer by increase in temperature (with a large increase in entropy: ?S25°C ? 100 eu) or by the addition of heavy water. The spindle proteins tend to polymerize with orienting centers as their geometrical foci. The centrioles, kinetochores, and cell plate act as orienting centers successively during mitosis. Filaments are more concentrated adjacent to an orienting center and yield higher birefringence. Astral rays, continuous fibers, chromosomal fibers, and phragmoplast fibers are thus formed by successive reorganization of the same protein molecules. During late prophase and metaphase, polymerization takes place predominantly at the kinetochores; in metaphase and anaphase, depolymerization is prevalent near the spindle poles. When the concentration of spindle protein is high, fusiform bundles of polymer are precipitated out even in the absence of obvious orienting centers. The shift of equilibrium from free protein molecules to polymer increases the length and number of the spindle microtubules or filaments. Slow depolymerization of the polymers, which can be brought about by low concentrations of colchicine or by gradual cooling, allows the filaments to shorten and perform work. The dynamic equilibrium controlled by orienting centers and other factors provides a plasusible mechanism by which chromosomes and other organelles, as well as the cell surface, are deformed or moved by temporarily organized arrays of microtubules or filaments. PMID:6058222

Inoué, Shinya; Sato, Hidemi

1967-01-01

129

Toxin–antitoxin systems  

PubMed Central

Toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements composed of a toxin gene and its cognate antitoxin. The toxins of all known TA systems are proteins while the antitoxins are either proteins or non-coding RNAs. Based on the molecular nature of the antitoxin and its mode of interaction with the toxin the TA modules are currently grouped into five classes. In general, the toxin is more stable than the antitoxin but the latter is expressed to a higher level. If supply of the antitoxin stops, for instance under special growth conditions or by plasmid loss in case of plasmid encoded TA systems, the antitoxin is rapidly degraded and can no longer counteract the toxin. Consequently, the toxin becomes activated and can act on its cellular targets. Typically, TA toxins act on crucial cellular processes including translation, replication, cytoskeleton formation, membrane integrity, and cell wall biosynthesis. TA systems and their components are also versatile tools for a multitude of purposes in basic research and biotechnology. Currently, TA systems are frequently used for selection in cloning and for single protein expression in living bacterial cells. Since several TA toxins exhibit activity in yeast and mammalian cells they may be useful for applications in eukaryotic systems. TA modules are also considered as promising targets for the development of antibacterial drugs and their potential to combat viral infection may aid in controlling infectious diseases. PMID:24251069

Unterholzner, Simon J; Poppenberger, Brigitte; Rozhon, Wilfried

2013-01-01

130

Botulinum toxin injection - larynx  

MedlinePLUS

Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

131

STUDIES ON THE TOXIN PRODUCTION OF THE SHIGA BACILLI  

PubMed Central

1. The S, R, and Rn variants of the Shiga bacillus are equally toxic. 2. The effect of the toxin upon rabbits is the same, whether it is derived from filtrates of broth cultures (3 to 6 days old), or is obtained by autolysis of the killed bacteria, grown on agar surface. Rabbits show in both cases prostration, loss in weight, paralysis, and diarrhea. 3. When the toxin is heated to 80°C. for 1 hour, its poisonous effect nearly disappears, but its immunizing ability is unaltered. This heated toxin induces a formation of antitoxin, which can protect against the unheated toxins. 4. The anatomical changes observed in the spinal cord (degeneration of the motor neurons) and in the cecum (hyperemia and hemorrhages) are in agreement with the statements of previous authors. Furthermore, the toxin causes hyperemia and hemorrhages in the heart, hyperemia and degeneration in the kidneys and the liver. PMID:19870453

Waaler, Erik

1936-01-01

132

Total Dissolved Cobalt and Labile Cobalt in the North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the total and labile dissolved cobalt distributions from the North Atlantic GEOTRACES Zonal Transect expeditions of the fall of 2010 and 2011. Labile cobalt was detected in much of the water column below the euphotic zone, suggesting that strong cobalt binding ligands were not present in excess of the total cobalt concentration. Near complete complexation of cobalt was observed in surface waters, and linear relationships were observed when both total and labile cobalt were compared to phosphate in surface waters, indicative of a strong biological influence on cobalt cycling. Decoupling of cobalt and macronutrients in the surface waters was observed approaching the North American coast, and a relationship between cobalt and salinity was observed, suggesting that coastal inputs may dominate the distributions of cobalt there. In deep waters, both total and labile cobalt were generally lower in concentration than at intermediate depths, which is evidence of scavenging processes removing cobalt from the water column. Elevated concentrations of labile and total cobalt were observed in samples taken within the TAG hydrothermal plume, and a reverse relationship between cobalt and oxygen was observed in the western basin OMZ.

Saito, M. A.; Noble, A.

2012-12-01

133

Toxins from Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Bacterial toxins damage the host at the site of bacterial infection or distanced from the site of infections. Bacterial toxins can be single proteins or organized as oligomeric protein complexes and are organized with distinct AB structure-function properties. The A domain encodes a catalytic activity; ADP-ribosylation of host proteins is the earliest post-translational modification determine to be performed by bacterial toxin, and now include glucosylation and proteolysis among other s. Bacterial toxins also catalyze the non-covalent modification of host protein function or can modify host cell properties through direct protein-protein interactions. The B domain includes two functional domains: a receptor-binding domain, which defines the tropism of a toxin for a cell and a translocation domain that delivers A domain across a lipid bilayer, either on the plasma membrane or the endosome. Bacterial toxins are often characterized based upon the section mechanism that delivers the toxin out of the bacterium, termed type I–VII. This review will overview the major families of bacterial toxins and will also describe the specific structure-function properties of the botulinum neurotoxins. PMID:20358680

Henkel, James S.; Baldwin, Michael R.; Barbieri, Joseph T.

2010-01-01

134

[Techniques of preparation and indications of labile blood products].  

PubMed

Labile blood products are obtained from samples of whole blood or aphaeresis. The techniques of preparation evolve with technological advances, which allow both an increasing automation and an intensification of the sanitary safety of the blood products. Over the last ten years, thanks to the availability of new technologies, several measures have been introduced in order to reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens and prevent the onset of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): leukoreduction, use of platelet storage solutions, inactivation of plasma and presumably of platelets in a very near future. The control of transfusion risk also depends on proper use of labile blood products. To assist the prescriber in his treatment options and to standardize practices, the French Agency for Sanitary Safety of Health Products has issued recommendations in terms of utilization of blood products that are detailed in this review of major labile blood products available. PMID:21474355

Clément, S

2011-04-01

135

Carbon Mineralization and Labile Organic Carbon Pools in the Sandy  

E-print Network

Carbon Mineralization and Labile Organic Carbon Pools in the Sandy Soils of a North Florida of California, Riverside, Riverside, California 92521, USA ABSTRACT The large pool of actively cycling carbon (C words: hot-water-extractable carbon; acid- hydrolyzable carbon; carbon mineralization; coastal plain

Grunwald, Sabine

136

Neuropsychological Correlates of Emotional Lability in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association remain currently unknown. To address this question, we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms…

Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Bjorn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

2012-01-01

137

ORIGINAL PAPER Increases in soil respiration following labile carbon  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Increases in soil respiration following labile carbon additions linked to rapid between rates of heterotrophic soil respiration and abiotic factors, including temper- ature and moisture from native plant litter, and analyzed the effects of the treatments on soil respiration and microbial

Cleveland, Cory

138

A Novel Mode of Translocation for Cytolethal Distending Toxin  

PubMed Central

Summary Thermal instability in the toxin catalytic subunit may be a common property of toxins that exit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by exploiting the mechanism of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) does not utilize ERAD to exit the ER, so we predicted the structural properties of its catalytic subunit (HdCdtB) would differ from other ER-translocating toxins. Here, we document the heat-stable properties of HdCdtB which distinguish it from other ER-translocating toxins. Cell-based assays further suggested that HdCdtB does not unfold before exiting the ER and that it may move directly from the ER lumen to the nucleoplasm. These observations suggest a novel mode of ER exit for HdCdtB. PMID:19118582

Guerra, Lina; Nemec, Kathleen N.; Massey, Shane; Tatulian, Suren A.; Thelestam, Monica; Frisan, Teresa; Teter, Ken

2008-01-01

139

Basis for a new procedure to eliminate diarrheic shellfish toxins from a contaminated matrix.  

PubMed

The natural contamination of shellfish with diarrheic shellfish toxins (DSP) has important public health implications. To avoid the economic effects of toxic episodes on shellfish farmers and the related industry, research on artificial methods alternative to the natural detoxification of shellfish is needed. Because the usual thermal processes are not efficient, alternative technologies have to be studied. Here preliminary results are presented about the lability of the DSP toxin okadaic acid in a supercritical atmosphere of carbon dioxide with acetic acid. Most of the toxin is eliminated (up to 90%), and the biological activity against its target enzyme is also severely affected (up to 70% reduction). Detoxification of contaminated shellfish requires a partial dehydration, and the detoxification yield is lower than that obtained with free toxin. Mass spectrometry experiments suggest that acetylation of the toxin molecule is not the basis of the inactivating mechanism, but a conformational change is suggested. This is the first report of the use of supercritical fluids to inactivate toxins. PMID:11782215

González, José C; Fontal, Olga I; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Vieites, Juan M; Botana, Luis M

2002-01-16

140

Paralytic shellfish toxins inhibit copper uptake in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxins are secondary metabolites produced by several species of dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria. Known targets of these toxins, which typically occur at detrimental concentrations during harmful algal blooms, include voltage-gated ion channels in humans and other mammals. However, the effects of the toxins on the co-occurring phytoplankton community remain unknown. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms of the model photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in response to saxitoxin exposure as a means of gaining insight into the phytoplankton community response to a bloom. Previous work with yeast indicated that saxitoxin inhibited copper uptake, so experiments were designed to examine whether saxitoxin exhibited a similar mode of action in algae. Expression profiling following exposure to saxitoxin or a copper chelator produced similar profiles in copper homeostasis genes, notably induction of the cytochrome c6 (CYC6) and copper transporter (COPT1, CTR1) genes. Cytochrome c6 is used as an alternative to plastocyanin under conditions of copper deficiency, and immunofluorescence data showed this protein to be present in a significantly greater proportion of saxitoxin-exposed cells compared to controls. Live-cell imaging with a copper-sensor probe for intracellular labile Cu(I) confirmed that saxitoxin blocked copper uptake. Extrapolations of these data to phytoplankton metabolic processes along with the copper transporter as a molecular target of saxitoxin based on existing structural models are discussed. PMID:23423950

Cusick, Kathleen D; Wetzel, Randall K; Minkin, Steven C; Dodani, Sheel C; Wilhelm, Steven W; Sayler, Gary S

2013-06-01

141

Marine and freshwater toxins.  

PubMed

In a very busy and exciting year, 2005 included First Action approval of a much needed official method for paralytic shellfish toxins and multiple international toxin symposia highlighted by groundbreaking research. These are the first-year milestones and activities of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force and Analytical Community. Inaugurated in 2004 and described in detail in last year's General Referee Report (1) this international toxins group has grown to 150 members from many regions and countries. Perhaps most important they are now making important and global contributions to food safety and to providing alternatives to animal-based assays. Official Method 2005.06 was first approved in late 2004 by the Task Force and subsequently Official First Action in 2005 (2) by the Methods Committee on Natural Toxins and Food Allergens and the Official Methods Board. This nonproprietary method (3) is a precolumn oxidation, liquid chromatographic method that makes good use of fluorescence detection to provide high sensitivity detection of the saxitoxins. It has also proven to be rugged enough for regulatory use and the highest level of validation. As pointed out in the report of method principle investigator and Study Director James Lawrence, approval of 2005.06 now provides the first official alternative to the mouse bioassay after many decades of shellfish monitoring. This past year in April 2005 the group also held their first international conference, "Marine and Freshwater Toxins Analysis: Ist Joint Symposium and AOAC Task Force Meeting," in Baiona, Spain. The 4-day conference consisted of research and stakeholder presentations and symposium-integrated subgroup sessions on ciguatoxins, saxitoxin assays and liquid chromatography (LC) methods for saxitoxins and domoic acids, okadaiates and azaspiracids, and yessotoxins. Many of these subgroups were recently formed in 2005 and are working towards their goals of producing officially validated analytical methods. (Abstracts from the Baiona 2005 meeting cited in this report can be found in the online version of the conference abstract book in the Files and Folders section of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins online community at www.aoac.org.) An active topic for discussion in Baiona and subsequent Task Force activities was the expert consultation for Codex which met in Oslo, Norway in 2004 (previously described and cited in last year's GR report, ref 1). The consultation group's executive summary report (http://www.fao.org/es/ESN/food/risk_biotoxin en.stm) describes suggested changes in action levels as well as methods, method validation, and other issues. September 2005 saw the AOAC Task Force efforts further supported by another symposium, "Marine and Freshwater Toxins: Quality Methods for Food Safety and International Trade," at the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Annual Conference in Orlando, Florida. The multidisciplinary talks at this full day symposium ranged from ciguatoxins to cyanobacterial toxins, and spanned toxicology, biochemistry, molecular biology and analytical chemistry. Again, the symposium preceded Task Force meetings. Toxin subgroups, including a new group on cyanobacterial toxins, met for engaging and productive subgroup discussions. All of these activities were preceded by a Wiley Award symposium for Task Force member Mike Quilliam of NRC Canada. These talks, presented at a half-day symposium on the first day of the Annual Meeting, focused on Quilliam's work with LC tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and certified reference standards and materials, and included related presentations by some of his many research collaborators. To maintain flow and continuity between symposia and between Task Force meetings, the group now uses new electronic discussion forums. Individual subgroup areas, under the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force, comprise this online community. First introduced by AOAC INTERNATIONAL in early 2005, these new resources are being used to distribute information and to supplement the in-person subgroup meetings and electroni

Hungerford, James M

2006-01-01

142

Marine Toxins: An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceans provide enormous and diverse space for marine life. Invertebrates are conspicuous inhabitants in certain zones such as the intertidal; many are soft-bodied, relatively immobile and lack obvious physical defenses. These animals frequently have evolved chemical defenses against predators and overgrowth by fouling organisms. Marine animals may accumulate and use a variety of toxins from prey organisms and from symbiotic microorganisms for their own purposes. Thus, toxic animals are particularly abundant in the oceans. The toxins vary from small molecules to high molecular weight proteins and display unique chemical and biological features of scientific interest. Many of these substances can serve as useful research tools or molecular models for the design of new drugs and pesticides. This chapter provides an initial survey of these toxins and their salient properties.

Fusetani, Nobuhiro

143

Ciguatera Toxin Information Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the marine toxin disease Ciguatera, which is caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated ciguatoxin in their tissues. The toxin is produced by a microscopic dinoflagellate (Gambierdiscus toxicus) that lives on the surfaces of macroalgae in coral reef ecosystems. The dinoflagellates are inadvertently consumed by herbivorous fish during grazing and the toxins bioaccumulate in the food chain, attaining highest levels in carnivores. The site includes an introduction to ciguatera, information about the symptoms with links to reported cases and medical treatments, non-medical solutions, an education section, list of retailers, news releases, related links, and more. The site is published by ToxiTech, suppliers of Cigua-CheckÂ, which is a commercially available test kit for screening fish for ciguatoxin prior to consumption.

ToxiTech

144

Toxin Plasmids of Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In both humans and animals, Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of histotoxic infections and diseases originating in the intestines, such as enteritis and enterotoxemia. The virulence of this Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium is heavily dependent upon its prolific toxin-producing ability. Many of the ?16 toxins produced by C. perfringens are encoded by large plasmids that range in size from ?45 kb to ?140 kb. These plasmid-encoded toxins are often closely associated with mobile elements. A C. perfringens strain can carry up to three different toxin plasmids, with a single plasmid carrying up to three distinct toxin genes. Molecular Koch's postulate analyses have established the importance of several plasmid-encoded toxins when C. perfringens disease strains cause enteritis or enterotoxemias. Many toxin plasmids are closely related, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. In particular, most toxin plasmids and some antibiotic resistance plasmids of C. perfringens share an ?35-kb region containing a Tn916-related conjugation locus named tcp (transfer of clostridial plasmids). This tcp locus can mediate highly efficient conjugative transfer of these toxin or resistance plasmids. For example, conjugative transfer of a toxin plasmid from an infecting strain to C. perfringens normal intestinal flora strains may help to amplify and prolong an infection. Therefore, the presence of toxin genes on conjugative plasmids, particularly in association with insertion sequences that may mobilize these toxin genes, likely provides C. perfringens with considerable virulence plasticity and adaptability when it causes diseases originating in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23699255

Li, Jihong; Adams, Vicki; Bannam, Trudi L.; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Garcia, Jorge P.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Rood, Julian I.

2013-01-01

145

CYANOBACTERIA AND THEIR TOXINS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Science Questions Harmful algal blooms (HAB) of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, have recently become more spatially and temporally prevalent in the US and worldwide. Cyanobacteria and their highly potent toxins are a significant hazard for human health and ...

146

CYANOBACTERIA AND THEIR TOXINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Science Questions Harmful algal blooms (HAB) of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, have recently become more spatially and temporally prevalent in the US and worldwide. Cyanobacteria and their highly potent toxins are a significant hazard for human health and ...

147

Diversity of bacterial type II toxin–antitoxin systems: a comprehensive search and functional analysis of novel families  

PubMed Central

Type II toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems are generally composed of two genes organized in an operon, encoding a labile antitoxin and a stable toxin. They were first discovered on plasmids where they contribute to plasmid stability by a phenomenon denoted as ‘addiction’, and subsequently in bacterial chromosomes. To discover novel families of antitoxins and toxins, we developed a bioinformatics approach based on the ‘guilt by association’ principle. Extensive experimental validation in Escherichia coli of predicted antitoxins and toxins increased significantly the number of validated systems and defined novel toxin and antitoxin families. Our data suggest that toxin families as well as antitoxin families originate from distinct ancestors that were assembled multiple times during evolution. Toxin and antitoxin families found on plasmids tend to be promiscuous and widespread, indicating that TA systems move through horizontal gene transfer. We propose that due to their addictive properties, TA systems are likely to be maintained in chromosomes even though they do not necessarily confer an advantage to their bacterial hosts. Therefore, addiction might play a major role in the evolutionary success of TA systems both on mobile genetic elements and in bacterial chromosomes. PMID:21422074

Leplae, Raphaël; Geeraerts, Damien; Hallez, Régis; Guglielmini, Julien; Drèze, Pierre; Van Melderen, Laurence

2011-01-01

148

Autoproteolytic Activation of Bacterial Toxins  

PubMed Central

Protease domains within toxins typically act as the primary effector domain within target cells. By contrast, the primary function of the cysteine protease domain (CPD) in Multifunctional Autoprocessing RTX-like (MARTX) and Clostridium sp. glucosylating toxin families is to proteolytically cleave the toxin and release its cognate effector domains. The CPD becomes activated upon binding to the eukaryotic-specific small molecule, inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6), which is found abundantly in the eukaryotic cytosol. This property allows the CPD to spatially and temporally regulate toxin activation, making it a prime candidate for developing anti-toxin therapeutics. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to defining the regulation of toxin function by the CPD and the development of inhibitors to prevent CPD-mediated activation of bacterial toxins. PMID:22069620

Shen, Aimee

2010-01-01

149

Pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR) increase labile iron in pancreatic cancer?  

PubMed Central

Labile iron, i.e. iron that is weakly bound and is relatively unrestricted in its redox activity, has been implicated in both the pathogenesis as well as treatment of cancer. Two cancer treatments where labile iron may contribute to their mechanism of action are pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR). Pharmacological ascorbate has been shown to have tumor-specific toxic effects due to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. By catalyzing the oxidation of ascorbate, labile iron can enhance the rate of formation of hydrogen peroxide; labile iron can also react with hydrogen peroxide. Here we have investigated the magnitude of the labile iron pool in tumor and normal tissue. We also examined the ability of pharmacological ascorbate and IR to change the size of the labile iron pool. Although a significant amount of labile iron was seen in tumors (MIA PaCa-2 cells in athymic nude mice), higher levels were seen in murine tissues that were not susceptible to pharmacological ascorbate. Pharmacological ascorbate and irradiation were shown to increase the labile iron in tumor homogenates from this murine model of pancreatic cancer. As both IR and pharmacological ascorbate may rely on labile iron for their effects on tumor tissues, our data suggest that pharmacological ascorbate could be used as a radio-sensitizing agent for some radio-resistant tumors. PMID:24396727

Moser, Justin C.; Rawal, Malvika; Wagner, Brett A.; Du, Juan; Cullen, Joseph J.; Buettner, Garry R.

2013-01-01

150

Acid-Labile Polyvinylamine Micro- and Nanogel Capsules  

PubMed Central

Hollow nanoparticles represent an emerging area of development for the encapsulation of active ingredients. Expanding the capabilities of these nanomaterials will require continued efforts to infill properties such as size control, biodegradability, and environmental responsiveness. Acid-labile poly(N-vinylformamide) (PNVF) nanocapsules were synthesized by free radical polymerization of N-vinylformamide on the surface of silica nanoparticles. Polymerization in the presence of a novel crosslinker that contains an acid-labile ketal facilitated stable etching of silica nanoparticle templates using sodium hydroxide and recovery of degradable PNVF nanocapsules. The formamido side group of PNVF was then hydrolyzed by extended exposure to sodium hydroxide to produce polyvinylamine (PVAm) micro- and nanocapsules. Both capsule types demonstrated an increasing dissolution rate as pH decreased. In addition, PVAm nanocapsules exhibited swelling in proportion to the relative charge density of the PVAm network (a function of the degree of formamide hydrolysis and pH), presumably due to the repulsion of positively charged amino groups within the elastic shell network. The synthetic approaches reported provide methods to endow nanocapsules with key attributes such as size control, pH sensitive degradation, swelling in response to pH, and amine functionality. PMID:18797513

Shi, Lianjun; Berkland, Cory

2008-01-01

151

Toxins and drug discovery.  

PubMed

Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. PMID:25448391

Harvey, Alan L

2014-12-15

152

Marine neurotoxins: Ingestible toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Fish and shellfish account for a significant portion of food-borne illnesses throughout the world. In general, three classes\\u000a of diseases result from seafood consumption—intoxication, allergies, and infections. In this review, the authors discuss several\\u000a seafood-borne toxins, including domoic acid, which acts on the central nervous system. In addition, the authors discuss ciguatoxin-,\\u000a brevetoxin-, saxitoxin-, tetrodotoxin-, and scombroid-related histamine toxicity,

Elijah W. Stommel; Michael R. Watters

2004-01-01

153

Children and environmental toxins.  

PubMed

Environmental toxins have been shown to produce harmful effects in children, who may be exposed in the home, in public spaces, and by passive contact with adults. This review discusses common toxic substances, including lead, radon, tobacco smoke, asbestos, pesticides, mercury, carbon monoxide, and electric/magnetic fields. The focus is on identification, environmental abatement, and parent education. Practical suggestions for the primary care clinician in a community setting are emphasized. PMID:7777638

Little, D N

1995-03-01

154

Whole-ecosystem labile carbon production in a north temperate deciduous forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labile carbon (C), which is principally comprised of non-structural carbohydrates, is an essential intermediary between C assimilation and structural growth in deciduous forests. We developed a new approach that combined meteorological and biometric C cycling data for a mixed deciduous forest in Michigan, USA, to provide novel estimates of whole-ecosystem labile C production and reallocation to structural net primary production

Christopher M. Gough; Charles E. Flower; Christoph S. Vogel; Danilo Dragoni; Peter S. Curtis

2009-01-01

155

Labile iron in parenteral iron formulations: a quantitative and comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Evidence of iron-mediated oxidative stress, neutrophil dysfunction and enhanced bacterial growth after intravenous (IV) iron administration has been ascribed to a labile or bioactive iron fraction present in all IV iron agents. Methods. To quantify and compare the size of the labile fraction in several classes of IV iron agents, we examined iron donation to transferrin (Tf) in vitro

David Van Wyck; Jaime Anderson; Kevin Johnson

156

Ratcheting up protein translocation with anthrax toxin  

PubMed Central

Energy-consuming nanomachines catalyze the directed movement of biopolymers in the cell. They are found both dissolved in the aqueous cytosol as well as embedded in lipid bilayers. Inquiries into the molecular mechanism of nanomachine-catalyzed biopolymer transport have revealed that these machines are equipped with molecular parts, including adjustable clamps, levers, and adaptors, which interact favorably with substrate polypeptides. Biological nanomachines that catalyze protein transport, known as translocases, often require that their substrate proteins unfold before translocation. An unstructured protein chain is likely entropically challenging to bind, push, or pull in a directional manner, especially in a way that produces an unfolding force. A number of ingenious solutions to this problem are now evident in the anthrax toxin system, a model used to study protein translocation. Here we highlight molecular ratchets and current research on anthrax toxin translocation. A picture is emerging of proton-gradient-driven anthrax toxin translocation, and its associated ratchet mechanism likely applies broadly to other systems. We suggest a cyclical thermodynamic order-to-disorder mechanism (akin to a heat-engine cycle) is central to underlying protein translocation: peptide substrates nonspecifically bind to molecular clamps, which possess adjustable affinities; polypeptide substrates compress into helical structures; these clamps undergo proton-gated switching; and the substrate subsequently expands regaining its unfolded state conformational entropy upon translocation. PMID:22374876

Feld, Geoffrey K; Brown, Michael J; Krantz, Bryan A

2012-01-01

157

The role of labile sulfur compounds in thermochemical sulfate reduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reduction of sulfate to sulfide coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide, commonly referred to as thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), is an important abiotic alteration process that most commonly occurs in hot carbonate petroleum reservoirs. In the present study we focus on the role that organic labile sulfur compounds play in increasing the rate of TSR. A series of gold-tube hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted with n-octane and CaSO4 in the presence of reduced sulfur (e.g. H2S, S??, organic S) at temperatures of 330 and 356 ??C under a constant confining pressure. The in-situ pH was buffered to 3.5 (???6.3 at room temperature) with talc and silica. For comparison, three types of oil with different total S and labile S contents were reacted under similar conditions. The results show that the initial presence of organic or inorganic sulfur compounds increases the rate of TSR. However, organic sulfur compounds, such as 1-pentanethiol or diethyldisulfide, were significantly more effective in increasing the rate of TSR than H2S or elemental sulfur (on a mole S basis). The increase in rate is achieved at relatively low concentrations of 1-pentanethiol, less than 1 wt% of the total n-octane, which is comparable to the concentration of organic S that is common in many oils (???0.3 wt%). We examined several potential reaction mechanisms to explain the observed reactivity of organic LSC. First, the release of H2S from the thermal degradation of thiols was discounted as an important mechanism due to the significantly greater reactivity of thiol compared to an equivalent amount of H2S. Second, we considered the generation of olefines in association with the elimination of H2S during thermal degradation of thiols because olefines are much more reactive than n-alkanes during TSR. In our experiments, olefines increased the rate of TSR, but were less effective than 1-pentanethiol and other organic LSC. Third, the thermal decomposition of organic LSC creates free-radicals that in turn might initiate a radical chain-reaction that creates more reactive species. Experiments involving radical initiators, such as diethyldisulfide and benzyldisulfide, did not show an increase in reactivity compared to 1-pentanethiol. Therefore, we conclude that none of these can sufficiently explain our observations of the initial stages of TSR; they may, however, be important in the later stages. In order to gain greater insight into the potential mechanism for the observed reactivity of these organic sulfur compounds during TSR, we applied density functional theory-based molecular modeling techniques to our system. The results of these calculations indicate that 1-pentanethiol or its thermal degradation products may directly react with sulfate and reduce the activation energy required to rupture the first S-O bond through the formation of a sulfate ester. This study demonstrates the importance of labile sulfur compounds in reducing the onset timing and temperature of TSR. It is therefore essential that labile sulfur concentrations are taken into consideration when trying to make accurate predictions of TSR kinetics and the potential for H2S accumulation in petroleum reservoirs. ?? 2008.

Amrani, A.; Zhang, T.; Ma, Q.; Ellis, G.S.; Tang, Y.

2008-01-01

158

Chemical leaching methods and measurements of marine labile particulate Fe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for life. Yet its low solubility and concentration in the ocean limits marine phytoplankton productivity in many regions of the world. Dissolved phase Fe (<0.4?m) has traditionally been considered the most biologically accessible form, however, the particulate phase (>0.4?m) may contain an important, labile reservoir of Fe that may also be available to phytoplankton. However, concentration data alone cannot elucidate the sources of particulate Fe to the ocean and to what extent particulate iron may support phytoplankton growth. Isotopic analysis of natural particles may help to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of Fe, though it is important to find a leaching method which accesses bioavailable Fe. Thirty-three different chemical leaches were performed on a marine sediment reference material, MESS-3. The combinations included four different acids (25% acetic acid, 0.01M HCl, 0.5M HCl, 0.1M H2SO4 at pH2), various redox conditions (0.02M hydroxylamine hydrochloride or 0.02M H2O2), three temperatures (25°C, 60°C, 90°C), and three time points (10 minutes, 2 hours, 24 hours). Leached Fe concentrations varied from 1mg/g to 35mg/g, with longer treatment times, stronger acids, and hotter temperatures generally associated with an increase in leached Fe. ?56Fe in these leaches varied from -1.0‰ to +0.2‰. Interestingly, regardless of leaching method used, there was a very similar relationship between the amount of Fe leached from the particles and the ?56Fe of this iron. Isotopically lighter ?56Fe values were associated with smaller amounts of leached Fe whereas isotopically heavier ?56Fe values were associated with larger amounts of leached Fe. Two alternate hypotheses could explain these data. Either, the particles may contain pools of isotopically light Fe that are easily accessed early in dissolution, or isotopically light Fe may be preferentially leached from the particle due to a kinetic isotope effect during dissolution. To explore the first hypothesis, we modeled dissolution of Fe from particles assuming two separate pools, labile and refractory. The model produces a good fit to the data assuming 3mg/g of a labile Fe pool with ?56Fe = -0.9‰ and a refractory Fe pool with ?56Fe = +0.1‰. If the second hypothesis is true, and there is a kinetic isotope effect during dissolution, the similar relationship between amount of Fe leached and ?56Fe for both organic and mineral acids suggests that Fe is leached from particles via proton-promoted dissolution. Several of these leaching techniques will be employed on sediment trap material from the Cariaco Basin to further investigate the relationship between ?56Fe and the labile, bioavailable fraction of iron particles. A leach or series of leaches will be chosen to provide the most useful information about the bioavailability of iron from particles, and they will be applied to filtered particle samples from portions of the US GEOTRACES A10 (North Atlantic) transect. ?56Fe values from particulate material in these regions will provide a better understanding of the sources of particulate iron to the ocean, and may help to trace how particulate iron is involved in global biogeochemical cycles.

Revels, B. N.; John, S.

2012-12-01

159

Antiangiogenic nanotherapy with lipase-labile Sn-2 fumagillin prodrug  

PubMed Central

Background The chemical instability of antiangiogenic fumagillin, combined with its poor retention during intravascular transit, requires an innovative solution for clinical translation. We hypothesized that an Sn-2 lipase-labile fumagillin prodrug in combination with a contact-facilitated drug delivery mechanism, could be used to address these problems. Methods ?v?3-targeted and nontargeted nanoparticles with and without fumagillin in the prodrug or native forms were evaluated in vitro and in vivo in the Matrigel™ (BD Biosciences, CA, USA) plug model of angiogenesis in mice. Results In vitro experiments demonstrated that the new fumagillin prodrug decreased viability at least as efficacious as the parent compound, on an equimolar basis. In the Matrigel mouse angiogenesis model, ?v?3-fumagillin prodrug decreased angiogenesis as measured by MRI (3T), while the neovasculature was unaffected with the control nanoparticles. Conclusion The present approach resolved the previously intractable problems of drug instability and premature release in transit to target sites. PMID:22709347

Pan, Dipanjan; Sanyal, Nibedita; Schmieder, Anne H; Senpan, Angana; Kim, Benjamin; Yang, Xiaoxia; Hu, Grace; Allen, John S; Gross, Richard W; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

2012-01-01

160

A clinical electrophysiological study of emotional lability in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Neuropsychiatric symptoms are well recognized in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with depression and anxiety often reported. The authors' clinical observations suggested emotional lability might also be a noteworthy symptom. In a consecutive series of systemic lupus erythematosus clinic attendees the authors therefore measured depression, anxiety, and emotional lability. Additionally, based on reports linking emotional reactivity and transient mood changes to alterations in early attentional processes, the authors investigated event-related potential indices of preattentive and early orienting responses to auditory stimuli (N1, MMN, P3a and P3b). The authors observed that 15 of 32 participants with systemic lupus erythematosus had high lability scores and, comparing event-related potential measures between the high and low lability subgroups, noted that those with greater emotional lability demonstrated reduced response latencies in N1 and MMN paradigms. PMID:18451191

Langosch, Jens; Rand, Stacey; Ghosh, Boyd; Sharma, Simeran; Tench, Colin; Stratton, Richard; D'Cruz, David; Trimble, Michael; Barrett, Geoff; Ring, Howard

2008-01-01

161

Mzm1 Influences a Labile Pool of Mitochondrial Zinc Important for Respiratory Function*  

PubMed Central

Zinc is essential for function of mitochondria as a cofactor for several matrix zinc metalloproteins. We demonstrate that a labile cationic zinc component of low molecular mass exists in the yeast mitochondrial matrix. This zinc pool is homeostatically regulated in response to the cellular zinc status. This pool of zinc is functionally important because matrix targeting of a cytosolic zinc-binding protein reduces the level of labile zinc and interferes with mitochondrial respiratory function. We identified a series of proteins that modulate the matrix zinc pool, one of which is a novel conserved mitochondrial protein designated Mzm1. Mutant mzm1? cells have reduced total and labile mitochondrial zinc, and these cells are hypersensitive to perturbations of the labile pool. In addition, mzm1? cells have a destabilized cytochrome c reductase (Complex III) without any effects on Complexes IV or V. Thus, we have established that a link exists between Complex III integrity and the labile mitochondrial zinc pool. PMID:20404342

Atkinson, Aaron; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Smith, Pamela; Sabic, Hana; Eide, David; Winge, Dennis R.

2010-01-01

162

Toxins from the box-jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.  

PubMed

Two myotoxins (T1 and T2) with mol. wts of approximately 600,000 and 150,000, respectively, and a haemolysin (T3) with a mol. wt of approximately 70,000 were isolated from the crude nematocyst venom of C. fleckeri by the use of Sephadex G-200 chromatography. A neurotoxic fraction (T4) and a haemolytic fraction (T5) containing proteins with apparent mol. wts of approximately 150,000 and 70,000, respectively, were also isolated by Sephadex chromatography from crude extracts of tentacular material from which nematocysts had been removed. The three nematocyst toxins and the two toxic fractions from tentacle extracts were lethal to mice on i.v. injection. After SDS-PAGE the myotoxins T1 and T2 yielded similar major bands corresponding with mol. wts different from those yielded by T3 and the toxic tentacle fractions. T1 and T2 appeared to be comprised of aggregations of subunits with mol. wts of approximately 18,000. On HPLC, crude nematocyst venom and the nematocyst toxins T1 and T2 lost their myotoxic properties. The need for thorough removal of extraneous tentacular material from isolated nematocysts, the need for effective rupture of nematocysts, the need to counter the lability of the nematocyst venom and the need to use myotoxicity as a criterion of venom activity if the active components of the venom are to be purified and characterized are emphasized. PMID:8099238

Endean, R; Monks, S A; Cameron, A M

1993-04-01

163

Botulinum toxin in ophthalmology.  

PubMed

Alan B. Scott selected, researched and developed Type A Botulinum toxin for clinical use in ophthalmology. This unique drug has proved invaluable for treatment of a number of conditions which are difficult to treat in ophthalmology and in a variety of other disciplines. The indications, methods and problems of its use are described and the results of treatment of 133 patients are discussed. Up to December 1986 over 13,000 patients have been treated in a multicentre international trial without significant complications. PMID:3401395

Dunlop, D; Pittar, G; Dunlop, C

1988-02-01

164

Transcytosis of Staphylococcal Superantigen Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Staphylococcus aureus produces a set of proteins (e.g., staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), SEB, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1)) which act both as superantigens (SAgs) and toxins. Although their mode of action as SAgs is well understood, little is known about how they enter the body via the intestine and cause food poisoning. To examine this problem we used

Rahim A. Hamad; Philippa Marrack; John W. Kappler

2010-01-01

165

TOXINS FROM CYANOBACTERIA IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is part of a larger U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) effort, which includes the Office of Water, to investigate algal toxins in surface water supplies and drinking water. Toxins produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are among the most potent known ...

166

Yeast killer plasmid mutations affecting toxin secretion and activity and toxin immunity function  

SciTech Connect

M double-stranded RNA (MdsRNA) plasmid mutants were obtained by mutagenesis and screening of a diploid killer culture partially heat cured of the plasmid, so that a high proportion of the cells could be expected to have only one M plasmid. Mutants with neutral (K/sup -/), immune (R/sup +/) or suicide (killer (K/sup +/), sensitive (R/sup -/)) phenotypes were examined. All mutants became K/sup -/ R/sup -/ sensitives on heat curing of the MdsRNA plasmid, and showed cytoplasmic inheritance by random spore analysis. In some cases, M plasmid mutations were indicated by altered mobility of the MdsRNA by agarose gel electrophoresis or by altered size of in vitro translation products from denatured dsRNA. Neutral mutants were of two types: nonsecretors of the toxin protein or secretors of an inactive toxin. Of three neutral nonsecretors examined, one (NLP-1), probably a nonsense mutation, made a smaller protoxin precursor in vitro and in vivo, and two made full-size protoxin molecules. The in vivo protoxin of 43,000 molecular weight was unstable in the wild type and kinetically showed a precursor product relationship to the processed, secreted 11,000-molecular-weight toxin. In one nonsecretor (N1), the protoxin appeared more stable in a pulse-chase experiment, and could be altered in a recognition site required for protein processing.

Bussey, H.; Sacks, W.; Galley, D.; Saville, D.

1982-04-01

167

Toxin production by Campylobacter spp.  

PubMed Central

Of all the virulence factors that were proposed for Campylobacter jejuni and related species to cause disease in humans, the discovery of toxin production was the most promising but led to a rather confusing and even disappointing stream of data. The discussion of whether proteinaceous exotoxins are relevant in disease remains open. One important reason for this lack of consensus is the anecdotal nature of the literature reports. To provide a basis for an unbiased opinion, this review compiles all described exotoxins, compares their reported properties, and provides a summary of animal model studies and clinical data. The toxins are divided into enterotoxins and cytotoxins and are sorted according to their biochemical properties. Since many Campylobacter toxins have been compared with toxins of other species, some key examples of the latter are also discussed. Future directions of toxin research that appear promising are defined. PMID:9227862

Wassenaar, T M

1997-01-01

168

Toxin-Based Therapeutic Approaches  

PubMed Central

Protein toxins confer a defense against predation/grazing or a superior pathogenic competence upon the producing organism. Such toxins have been perfected through evolution in poisonous animals/plants and pathogenic bacteria. Over the past five decades, a lot of effort has been invested in studying their mechanism of action, the way they contribute to pathogenicity and in the development of antidotes that neutralize their action. In parallel, many research groups turned to explore the pharmaceutical potential of such toxins when they are used to efficiently impair essential cellular processes and/or damage the integrity of their target cells. The following review summarizes major advances in the field of toxin based therapeutics and offers a comprehensive description of the mode of action of each applied toxin. PMID:22069564

Shapira, Assaf; Benhar, Itai

2010-01-01

169

Inflammatory events induced by brown spider venom and its recombinant dermonecrotic toxin: a pharmacological investigation.  

PubMed

Accidents involving Brown spider (Loxosceles sp.) venom produce a massive inflammatory response in injured region. This venom has a complex mixture of different toxins, and the dermonecrotic toxin is the major contributor to toxic effects. The ability of Loxosceles intermedia venom and a recombinant isoform of dermonecrotic toxin to induce edema and increase in vascular permeability was investigated. These toxins were injected into hind paws and caused a marked dose and time-dependent edema and increase in vascular permeability in mice. Furthermore, the enzymatic activity of venom toxins may be primal for these effects. A mutated recombinant isoform of dermonecrotic toxin, that has only residual enzymatic activity, was not able to induce these inflammatory events. Besides the previous heating of toxins markedly reduced the paw edema and vascular permeability showing that thermolabile constituents can trigger these effects. In addition, the ability of these venom toxins to evoke inflammatory events was partially reduced in compound 48/80-pretreated animals, suggesting that mast cells may be involved in these responses. Pretreating mice with histamine (prometazine and cetirizine) and serotonin (methysergide) receptor antagonists significantly attenuated toxins induced edema and vascular permeability. Moreover, HPLC analysis of whole venom showed the presence of histamine sufficient to induce inflammatory responses. In conclusion, these inflammatory events may result from the activation of mast cells, which in turn release bioamines and may be related to intrinsic histamine content of venom. PMID:19041422

Paludo, Katia Sabrina; Biscaia, Stellee Marcela Petris; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Naliwaiko, Katya; Dombrowski, Patrícia Andréia; Franco, Célia Regina Cavichiolo; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

2009-04-01

170

Food toxin detection with atomic force microscope  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Externally introduced toxins or internal spoilage correlated pathogens and their metabolites are all potential sources of food toxins. To prevent and protect unsafe food, many food toxin detection techniques have been developed to detect various toxins for quality control. Although several routine m...

171

The three-dimensional crystal structure of cholera toxin  

SciTech Connect

The clinical manifestations of cholera are largely attributable to the actions of a secreted hexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin (choleragen). We have solved the three-dimensional structure of choleragen at 2.5 {Angstrom} resolution and compared the refined coordinates with those of choleragenoid (isolated B pentamer) and the heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (LT). The crystalline coordinates provide a detailed view of the stereochemistry implicated in binding to GM1 gangliosides and in carrying out ADP-ribosylation. The A2 chain of choleragen, in contrast to that of LT, is a nearly continuous {alpha}-helix with an interpretable carboxyl tail.

Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L.; Nance, S.; Spangler, B.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Scott, D.L. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry; Westbrook, E.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1996-02-01

172

High Sensitivity Combined with Extended Structural Coverage of Labile Compounds via Nanoelectrospray Ionization at Subambient Pressures  

SciTech Connect

Subambient pressure ionization with nanoelectrospray (SPIN) has proven to be effective in producing ions with high efficiency and transmitting them to low pressures for high sensitivity mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Here we present evidence that not only does the SPIN source improve MS sensitivity but also allows for gentler ionization conditions. The gentleness of a conventional heated capillary electrospray ionization (ESI) source and the SPIN source was compared by the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of colominic acid. Colominic acid is a mixture of sialic acid polymers of different lengths containing labile glycosidic linkages between monomer units necessitating a gentle ion source. By coupling the SPIN source with high resolution mass spectrometry and using advanced data processing tools, we demonstrate much extended coverage of sialic acid polymer chains as compared to using the conventional ESI source. Additionally we show that SPIN-LC-MS is effective in elucidating polymer features with high efficiency and high sensitivity previously unattainable by the conventional ESI-LC-MS methods. ?

Cox, Jonathan T.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Shukla, Anil K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi

2014-10-07

173

Bioactive toxins from stinging jellyfish.  

PubMed

Jellyfish blooms occur throughout the world. Human contact with a jellyfish induces a local reaction of the skin, which can be painful and leave scaring. Systemic symptoms are also observed and contact with some species is lethal. A number of studies have evaluated the in vitro biological activity of whole jellyfish venom or of purified fractions. Hemolytic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic or enzymatic activities are commonly observed. Some toxins have been purified and characterized. A family of pore forming toxins specific to Medusozoans has been identified. There remains a need for detailed characterization of jellyfish toxins to fully understand the symptoms observed in vivo. PMID:25286397

Badré, Sophie

2014-12-01

174

Lincomycin-induced over-expression of mature recombinant cholera toxin B subunit and the holotoxin in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Cholera toxin (CT) B subunit (CTB) was overproduced using a novel expression system in Escherichia coli. An expression plasmid was constructed by inserting the gene encoding the full-length CTB and the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence derived from CTB or from the heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) of enterotoxigenic E. coli into the lacZalpha gene fragment in the pBluescript SK(+) vector. The E. coli strain MV1184 was transformed with each plasmid and then cultured in CAYE broth containing lincomycin. Recombinant CTB (rCTB) was purified from each cell extract. rCTB was overproduced in both transformants without obvious toxicity and was structurally and biologically identical to that of CT purified from Vibrio cholerae, indicating that the original SD and CTB signal sequences were also sufficient to express rCTB in E. coli. Lincomycin-induced rCTB expression was inhibited by mutating the lac promoter, suggesting that lincomycin affects the lactose operon. Based on these findings, we constructed a plasmid that contained the wild-type CT operon and successfully overproduced CT (rCT) using the same procedure for rCTB. Although rCT had an intact A subunit, the amino-terminal modifications and biological properties of the A and B subunits of rCT were identical to those of CT. These results suggest that this novel rCTB over-expression system would also be useful to generate both wild-type and mutant CT proteins that will facilitate further studies on the characteristics of CT, such as mucosal adjuvant activity. PMID:19410003

Arimitsu, Hideyuki; Tsukamoto, Kentaro; Ochi, Sadayuki; Sasaki, Keiko; Kato, Michio; Taniguchi, Koki; Oguma, Keiji; Tsuji, Takao

2009-10-01

175

Functional role of intracellular labile zinc in pulmonary endothelium.  

PubMed

After iron, zinc is the most abundant essential trace metal. Intracellular zinc ([Zn](i)) is maintained across a wide range of cells and species in a tight quota (100 to 500 ?M) by a dynamic process of transport, intracellular vesicular storage, and binding to a large number of proteins (estimated at 3-10% of human proteome). As such, zinc is an integral component of numerous metalloenzymes, structural proteins, and transcription factors. It is generally assumed that a vanishingly small component of [Zn](i,) referred to as free or labile zinc, and operationally defined as the pool sensitive to chelation (by agents such as N, N, N', N'-tetrakis [2-pyridylmethyl] ethylenediamine [TPEN]) and capable of detection by a variety of chemical and genetic sensors, participates in signal transduction pathways. Zinc deficiencies, per se, can arise from acquired (malnutrition, alcoholism) or genetic (mutations in molecules affecting zinc homeostasis, the informative and first example being acrodermatitis enteropathica) factors or as a component of various diseases (e.g., sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, sepsis). Hypozincemia has profound effects on developing humans, and all facets of physiological function (neuronal, endocrine, immunological) are affected, although considerably less is known regarding cardiovascular pathophysiology. In this review, we provide an update on current knowledge of molecular and cellular aspects of zinc homeostasis and then focus on implications of zinc signaling in pulmonary endothelium as it relates to programmed cell death, altered contractility, and septic and aseptic injury to this segment of the lung. PMID:23372928

Thambiayya, Kalidasan; Kaynar, A Murat; St Croix, Claudette M; Pitt, Bruce R

2012-10-01

176

A Bivalent Tarantula Toxin Activates the Capsaicin Receptor, TRPV1, by Targeting the Outer Pore Domain  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Toxins have evolved to target regions of membrane ion channels that underlie ligand binding, gating, or ion permeation, and have thus served as invaluable tools for probing channel structure and function. Here we describe a peptide toxin from the Earth Tiger tarantula that selectively and irreversibly activates the capsaicin- and heat-sensitive channel, TRPV1. This high avidity interaction derives from a unique tandem repeat structure of the toxin that endows it with an antibody-like bivalency, illustrating a new paradigm in toxin structure and evolution. The ‘double-knot’ toxin traps TRPV1 in the open state by interacting with residues in the presumptive pore-forming region of the channel, highlighting the importance of conformational changes in the outer pore region of TRP channels during activation. PMID:20510930

Bohlen, Christopher J.; Priel, Avi; Zhou, Sharleen; King, David; Siemens, Jan; Julius, David

2010-01-01

177

Stereochemical Lability of Azatitanacyclopropanes: Dynamic Kinetic Resolution in Reductive Cross-Coupling Reactions with Allylic Alcohols‡  

PubMed Central

Azatitanacyclopropanes (titanaziridines) are shown to be stereochemically labile under reaction conditions for reductive cross-coupling. This fundamental property has been employed to realize highly selective asymmetric coupling reactions with allylic alcohols that proceed by dynamic kinetic resolution. PMID:23963189

Yang, Dexi

2014-01-01

178

DETERMINATION OF APPARENT QUANTUM YIELD SPECTRA FOR THE FORMATION OF BIOLOGICALLY LABILE PHOTOPRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantum yield spectra for the photochemical formation of biologically labile photoproducts from dissolved organic matter (DOM) have not been available previously, although they would greatly facilitate attempts to model photoproduct formation rates across latitudinal, seasonal, a...

179

Cholera Toxin Mechanism of Action  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This single image file shows the steps of action of cholera toxin, beginning at protein synthesis in the bacteria and proceeding through all of the major known steps of interaction with the host cell.

American Society For Microbiology;

2002-08-29

180

Development and Application of Analytical Methods for Marine Toxins.  

E-print Network

??Shellfish accumulate marine toxins from their microalgal diet. The marine toxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) also accumulates in seafood, but via unknown mechanisms. Toxin determinations have traditionally… (more)

McNabb, Paul Simon

2014-01-01

181

Yeast Killer Toxins Technology Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Among the different competitive mechanisms which microorganisms can use to multiply and survive in natural communities, the\\u000a production of antimicrobial toxins represents a common, efficient and specific ecological way to eliminate competitor strains\\/species\\u000a from the same habitat. By killing or severely reducing the fitness of sensitive strains, toxin-producing microorganisms which\\u000a are self-immune can be selected and so dominate in specific

Walter Magliani; Stefania Conti; Laura Giovati; Luciano Polonelli

182

Biogeochemical implications of labile phosphorus in forest soils determined by the Hedley fractionation procedure.  

PubMed

Forest ecologists and biogeochemists have used a variety of extraction techniques to assess labile vs. non-labile soil P pools in chronosequences, the balance between biological vs. geochemical control of P transformations across a wide range of soil orders, the role of plants with either N-fixing or mycorrhizal symbionts in controlling soil P fractions, and to make inferences about plant-available P. Currently, variants of the sequential extraction procedure developed by M. J. Hedley and co-workers afford the greatest discrimination among labile and non-labile organic and inorganic P pools. Results of recent studies that used this technique to evaluate P fractions in forest soils indicate the following: (1) in intact, highly weathered forest soils of the humid tropics, Hedley-labile P values are several times larger than extractable P values resulting from mildly acidic extracting solutions which were commonly used in the past 2 decades; (2) pools of Hedley-labile P are several times larger than the annual forest P requirement and P required from the soil annually in both temperate and tropical forests; (3) long-term trends in non-labile P pools during pedogenesis are adequately represented by the Walker and Syers' model of changes in P fractionation during soil development. However, to better represent trends in pools that can supply plant-available P across forest soils of different age and weathering status, the paradigm should be modified; and (4) across a wide range of tropical and temperate forest soils, organic matter content is an important determinant of Hedley-labile P. PMID:12695899

Johnson, Arthur H; Frizano, Jaqueline; Vann, David R

2003-05-01

183

8-hydroxyquinoline method for labile and total aluminum in soil extracts  

SciTech Connect

The 8-hydroxyquinoline method was modified to measure kinetically labile Al in aqueous soil extracts containing Al-complexing ligands and to measure total soluble Al after removal of fluoride and origanic C. Nonlabile Al complexed by F, C, Si, and OH in the original samples is calculated as the difference between total and labile forms. The method measured as little as 100 ng of AL in soil extracts and natural water samples. 19 references, 6 figures.

James, B.R.; Clark, C.J.; Riha, S.J.

1983-01-01

184

The five-factor model of impulsivity-like traits and emotional lability in aggressive behavior.  

PubMed

Factors that increase automatic psychological processes may result in impulsive action and, consequently, aggressive behavior. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between the five-factor model of impulsivity-like traits (negative urgency, positive urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking), emotional lability, and physically aggressive behaviors among college students (n = 481) in a negative binomial hurdle model. In the logistic portion of the model, emotional lability was related to a higher likelihood of engaging in aggressive acts in the past 6 months. The association between emotional lability and the likelihood of aggressive behavior was moderated by two impulsivity-like traits: negative urgency and positive urgency. Specifically, emotional lability was related to engaging in aggressive acts among those with high negative urgency, and among those with low positive urgency. In the count portion of the model, emotional lability was uniquely related to the number of aggressive acts in the past 6 months. Our results indicate that emotional lability and facets of impulsivity interactively relate to engagement in aggressive behavior, suggesting that these variables be integrated into models of aggression. PMID:23471690

Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Kuvaas, Nicholas J

2013-01-01

185

Antibody-based biological toxin detection  

SciTech Connect

Fiber optic evanescent fluorosensors are under investigation in our laboratory for the study of drug-receptor interactions for detection of threat agents and antibody-antigen interactions for detection of biological toxins. In a direct competition assay, antibodies against Cholera toxin, Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B or ricin were noncovalently immobilized on quartz fibers and probed with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) - labeled toxins. In the indirect competition assay, Cholera toxin or Botulinum toxoid A was immobilized onto the fiber, followed by incubation in an antiserum or partially purified anti-toxin IgG. These were then probed with FITC-anti-IgG antibodies. Unlabeled toxins competed with labeled toxins or anti-toxin IgG in a dose dependent manner and the detection of the toxins was in the nanomolar range.

Menking, D.E.; Goode, M.T. [Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-12-01

186

Inositol Hexakisphosphate-dependent Processing of Clostridium sordellii Lethal Toxin and Clostridium novyi ?-Toxin*  

PubMed Central

Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin and Clostridium novyi ?-toxin, which are virulence factors involved in the toxic shock and gas gangrene syndromes, are members of the family of clostridial glucosylating toxins. The toxins inactivate Rho/Ras proteins by glucosylation or attachment of GlcNAc (?-toxin). Here, we studied the activation of the autoproteolytic processing of the toxins by inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) and compared it with the processing of Clostridium difficile toxin B. In the presence of low concentrations of InsP6 (<1 ?m), toxin fragments consisting of the N-terminal glucosyltransferase (or GlcNAc-transferase) domains and the cysteine protease domains (CPDs) of C. sordellii lethal toxin, C. novyi ?-toxin, and C. difficile toxin B were autocatalytically processed. The cleavage sites of lethal toxin (Leu-543) and ?-toxin (Leu-548) and the catalytic cysteine residues (Cys-698 of lethal toxin and Cys-707 of ?-toxin) were identified. Affinity of the CPDs for binding InsP6 was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. In contrast to full-length toxin B and ?-toxin, autocatalytic cleavage and InsP6 binding of full-length lethal toxin depended on low pH (pH 5) conditions. The data indicate that C. sordellii lethal toxin and C. novyi ?-toxin are InsP6-dependently processed. However, full-length lethal toxin, but not its short toxin fragments consisting of the glucosyltransferase domain and the CPD, requires a pH-sensitive conformational change to allow binding of InsP6 and subsequent processing of the toxin. PMID:21385871

Guttenberg, Gregor; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Genisyuerek, Selda; Lü, Wei; Jank, Thomas; Einsle, Oliver; Aktories, Klaus

2011-01-01

187

Sodium Channel Inhibiting Marine Toxins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their many chemical relatives are part of our daily lives. From killing people who eat seafood containing these toxins, to being valuable research tools unveiling the invisible structures of their pharmacological receptor, their global impact is beyond measure. The pharmacological receptor for these toxins is the voltage-gated sodium channel which transports Na ions between the exterior to the interior of cells. The two structurally divergent families of STX and TTX analogues bind at the same location on these Na channels to stop the flow of ions. This can affect nerves, muscles and biological senses of most animals. It is through these and other toxins that we have developed much of our fundamental understanding of the Na channel and its part in generating action potentials in excitable cells.

Llewellyn, Lyndon E.

188

Differential priming of soil carbon driven by soil depth and root impacts on carbon lability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increase in root-derived labile soil carbon (C) inputs (e.g. exudates) can stimulate decomposition of more recalcitrant soil organic carbon (SOC) by priming microbial activity, which can lead to a net loss of soil C storage. This priming effect can be small or large and negative or positive, but the mechanisms by which root-C controls the magnitude and direction of SOC decomposition remain poorly understood. With this study we evaluated how small versus large differences in labile soil C availability affect microbial processing of simulated root exudate inputs and decomposition of SOC. We conducted a laboratory incubation experiment (60 days) with soils collected from under six switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) cultivars to a depth of 60 cm. Differences in specific root length among cultivars were expected to result in small differences in labile soil C availability, whereas differences associated with soil depth were expected to result in large differences in labile soil C availability. Soil cores were divided into 0-10 cm, 20-30 cm and 40-60 cm depth increments, and soils of all cultivars (no roots) across all three depths were incubated with addition of either: (1) water (60% water holding capacity), or (2) labile C provided as a 13C-labeled synthetic root exudate cocktail. We measured CO2 respiration throughout the experiment. The switchgrass was grown for three years in soils that formerly supported C3 pasture grasses, and the natural difference in 13C signature between C3 and C4 plants enabled quantification of differences in the lability of root-derived C among cultivars. Moreover the 13C labeled synthetic root-exudate cocktail amendment to soils allowed us to assess impacts of exudates-C addition on priming in soil derived from the different cultivars and from different depths. Our experiment led to three main results: (1) different cultivars of switchgrass regulate labile C availability across the soil profile differently; (2) small differences in labile C among the soils derived from different cultivars did not significantly mediate the impact of exudates-C additions on priming; (3) but, large differences in labile soil C contents among depths led to differences in priming effects, where greater priming effects were observed for shallow relative to deep soils across all days of the experiment. These results suggest that increased root-derived C inputs will have marginal impacts on decomposition of more stable SOC at depth and that their impact on priming will be similar in soils with small differences in available soil C.

De Graaff, M.; Jastrow, J. D.; Gilette, S.; Johns, A.; Wullschleger, S. D.

2012-12-01

189

Importance of Toxin A, Toxin B, and CDT in Virulence of an Epidemic Clostridium difficile Strain  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile infection is the main cause of healthcare-acquired diarrhea in the developed world. In addition to the main virulence factors toxin A and B, epidemic, PCR Ribotype 027 strains, such as R20291, produce a third toxin, CDT. To develop effective medical countermeasures, it is important to understand the importance of each toxin. Accordingly, we created all possible combinations of isogenic toxin mutants of R20291 and assessed their virulence. We demonstrated that either toxin A or toxin B alone can cause fulminant disease in the hamster infection model and present tantalizing data that C. difficile toxin may also contribute to virulence. PMID:23935202

Kuehne, Sarah A.; Collery, Mark M.; Kelly, Michelle L.; Cartman, Stephen T.; Cockayne, Alan; Minton, Nigel P.

2014-01-01

190

Natural Toxins: The Past and the Present  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different bacteria, viruses and toxins constitute a potential menace for people. The number of toxins that could be applied\\u000a for a bioterrorist attack with real public health risk, though, is relatively limited. However, these natural toxins could\\u000a cause difficult troubles. The objective of this paper is focused on the toxins of various origins that might be used as a\\u000a biological

E. Grishin

191

Mzm1 influences a labile pool of mitochondrial zinc important for respiratory function.  

PubMed

Zinc is essential for function of mitochondria as a cofactor for several matrix zinc metalloproteins. We demonstrate that a labile cationic zinc component of low molecular mass exists in the yeast mitochondrial matrix. This zinc pool is homeostatically regulated in response to the cellular zinc status. This pool of zinc is functionally important because matrix targeting of a cytosolic zinc-binding protein reduces the level of labile zinc and interferes with mitochondrial respiratory function. We identified a series of proteins that modulate the matrix zinc pool, one of which is a novel conserved mitochondrial protein designated Mzm1. Mutant mzm1Delta cells have reduced total and labile mitochondrial zinc, and these cells are hypersensitive to perturbations of the labile pool. In addition, mzm1Delta cells have a destabilized cytochrome c reductase (Complex III) without any effects on Complexes IV or V. Thus, we have established that a link exists between Complex III integrity and the labile mitochondrial zinc pool. PMID:20404342

Atkinson, Aaron; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Smith, Pamela; Sabic, Hana; Eide, David; Winge, Dennis R

2010-06-18

192

Hard Exercise, Affect Lability, and Personality Among Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

The current study explores the personality traits of compulsivity (e.g., sense of orderliness and duty to perform tasks completely) and restricted expression (e.g., emotion expression difficulties) as potential moderators of the relation between affect lability and frequency of hard exercise episodes in a sample of individuals with bulimic pathology. Participants were 204 adult females recruited in five Midwestern cities who met criteria for threshold or subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). Compulsivity was found to significantly moderate the relation between affect lability and number of hard exercise episodes over the past 28 days, such that among those with high compulsivity, level of affect lability was associated with the number of hard exercise episodes; whereas, among those with low compulsivity, affect lability was not associated with the number of hard exercise episodes. The same pattern of findings emerged for restricted expression; however, this finding approached, but did not reach statistical significance. As such, it appears that affect lability is differentially related to hard exercise among individuals with BN depending upon the level of compulsivity and, to a more limited extent, restricted expression. These results suggest that, for individuals with BN with either compulsivity or restricted expression, focusing treatment on increasing flexibility and/or verbal expression of emotions may help them in the context of intense, fluctuating affect. PMID:24183126

Brownstone, Lisa M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.

2013-01-01

193

Yeast killer toxins and dimorphism.  

PubMed Central

The differential action of four selected yeast killer toxins on the mycelial and yeast forms of four isolates of the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii was comparatively evaluated. The results confirmed that the yeast killer phenomenon is present among hyphomycetes and yeasts and that both morphological forms of S. schenckii are susceptible to the action of the same yeast killer toxin. Quantitative differences in the response to the killer action of the mycelial and yeast forms in individual strains were also observed. To avoid retroconversion of the dimorphic forms, we used a modification of the conventional killer system. Images PMID:2754015

Polonelli, L; Conti, S; Campani, L; Morace, G; Fanti, F

1989-01-01

194

Shiga toxins induce autophagy leading to differential signaling pathways in toxin-sensitive and toxin-resistant human cells  

PubMed Central

Summary The bacterial virulence factors Shiga toxins (Stxs) are expressed by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and certain Escherichia coli strains. Stxs are protein synthesis inhibitors and induce apoptosis in many cell types. Stxs induce apoptosis via prolonged ER stress signaling to activate both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in human myeloid cells. Studies have shown that autophagy, a lysosome-dependent catabolic process, may be associated with activation of pro-survival or death processes. It is currently unknown if autophagy contributes to apoptosis or protects cells from Stxs. To study cellular responses to Stxs, we intoxicated toxin-sensitive cells (THP-1 and HK-2 cells), and toxin-resistant cells (primary human monocyte-derived macrophages) and examined toxin intracellular trafficking and autophagosome formation. Stxs translocated to different cell compartments in toxin-resistant versus toxin-sensitive cells. Confocal microscopy revealed autophagosome formation in both toxin-resistant and toxin-sensitive cells. Proteolytic cleavage of Atg5 and Beclin-1 play pivotal roles in switching non-cytotoxic autophagy to cell death signaling. We detected cleaved forms of Atg5 and Beclin-1 in Stx-treated toxin-sensitive cells, while cleaved caspases, calpains, Atg5 and Beclin-1 were not detected in toxin-resistant primary human monocytes and macrophages. These findings suggest that toxin sensitivity correlates with caspase and calpain activation, leading to Atg5 and Beclin-1 cleavage. PMID:21722286

Lee, Moo-Seung; Cherla, Rama P.; Jenson, Matthew H.; Leyva-Illades, Dinorah; Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita; Tesh, Vernon L.

2011-01-01

195

The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor increases mercury lability and methylation in intertidal mudflats.  

PubMed

The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor engineers its environment by creating oxygenated burrows in anoxic intertidal sediments. The authors carried out a laboratory microcosm experiment to test the impact of polychaete burrowing and feeding activity on the lability and methylation of mercury in sediments from the Bay of Fundy, Canada. The concentration of labile inorganic mercury and methylmercury in burrow walls was elevated compared to worm-free sediments. Mucus secretions and organic detritus in worm burrows increased labile mercury concentrations. Worms decreased sulfide concentrations, which increased Hg bioavailability to sulfate-reducing bacteria and increased methylmercury concentrations in burrow linings. Because the walls of polychaete burrows have a greater interaction with organisms, and the overlying water, the concentrations of mercury and methylmercury they contain is more toxicologically relevant to the base of a coastal food web than bulk samples. The authors recommend that researchers examining Hg in marine environments account for sediment dwelling invertebrate activity to more fully assess mercury bioavailability. PMID:23633443

Sizmur, Tom; Canário, João; Edmonds, Samuel; Godfrey, Adam; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

2013-08-01

196

Labile iron in cells and body fluids: physiology, pathology, and pharmacology  

PubMed Central

In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI) composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the medium redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower ?M range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS) formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (Tf; that renders iron essentially non-labile), in systemic iron overload (IO), the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma Tf approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI) emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of IO, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in intravenous iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI) following parenteral iron administration. PMID:24659969

Cabantchik, Zvi Ioav

2014-01-01

197

Labile iron in cells and body fluids: physiology, pathology, and pharmacology.  

PubMed

In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI) composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the medium redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower ?M range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS) formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (Tf; that renders iron essentially non-labile), in systemic iron overload (IO), the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma Tf approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI) emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of IO, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in intravenous iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI) following parenteral iron administration. PMID:24659969

Cabantchik, Zvi Ioav

2014-01-01

198

Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins  

PubMed Central

Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved. PMID:24226039

Munday, Rex; Reeve, John

2013-01-01

199

Recombinant Toxins for Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant toxins target cell surface receptors and antigens on tumor cells. They kill by mechanisms different from conventional chemotherapy, so that cross resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents should not be a problem. Furthermore, they are not mutagens and should not induce secondary malignancies or accelerate progression of benign malignancies. They can be mass-produced cheaply in bacteria as homogeneous proteins. Either

Ira Pastan; David Fitzgerald

1991-01-01

200

Nemertean Toxin Genes Revealed through Transcriptome Sequencing.  

PubMed

Nemerteans are one of few animal groups that have evolved the ability to utilize toxins for both defense and subduing prey, but little is known about specific nemertean toxins. In particular, no study has identified specific toxin genes even though peptide toxins are known from some nemertean species. Information about toxin genes is needed to better understand evolution of toxins across animals and possibly provide novel targets for pharmaceutical and industrial applications. We sequenced and annotated transcriptomes of two free-living and one commensal nemertean and annotated an additional six publicly available nemertean transcriptomes to identify putative toxin genes. Approximately 63-74% of predicted open reading frames in each transcriptome were annotated with gene names, and all species had similar percentages of transcripts annotated with each higher-level GO term. Every nemertean analyzed possessed genes with high sequence similarities to known animal toxins including those from stonefish, cephalopods, and sea anemones. One toxin-like gene found in all nemerteans analyzed had high sequence similarity to Plancitoxin-1, a DNase II hepatotoxin that may function well at low pH, which suggests that the acidic body walls of some nemerteans could work to enhance the efficacy of protein toxins. The highest number of toxin-like genes found in any one species was seven and the lowest was three. The diversity of toxin-like nemertean genes found here is greater than previously documented, and these animals are likely an ideal system for exploring toxin evolution and industrial applications of toxins. PMID:25432940

Whelan, Nathan V; Kocot, Kevin M; Santos, Scott R; Halanych, Kenneth M

2014-01-01

201

Rapid decomposition of labile soil organic matter inputs obscures sensitivity of heterotrophic respiration to temperature: A model analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labile carbon, although often a small fraction of soil organic matter (SOM), significantly affects heterotrophic respiration at short time scales because of its rapid decomposition. However, in the current literature, most soil respiration measurements are interpreted without simultaneous information on labile carbon pool dynamics. Sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature is routinely derived directly from field observations and such relationships

W. M. Post; L. Gu; A. W. King

2003-01-01

202

Protective Immunity to Ricin Toxin Conferred by Antibodies against the Toxin’s Binding Subunit (RTB)  

PubMed Central

The B subunit (RTB) of ricin toxin is a galactose-/N-acetyl galactosamine-specific lectin that promotes attachment and entry of ricin into host cells. RTB is also the archetype of the so-called R-type lectin family, whose members include haemagglutinins of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) progenitor toxins, as well as the binding subunits of cytolethal distending toxins. Although RTB is an appealing subunit vaccine candidate, as well as a potential target for immunotherapeutics, the degree to which RTB immunization elicits protective antibodies against ricin toxin remains unresolved. To address this issue, groups of mice were immunized with RTB and then challenged with 5xLD50s of ricin administered intraperitoneally. Despite high RTB-specific serum antibody titers, groups of RTB immunized mice were only partially immune to ricin challenge. Analysis of a collection of RTB-specific B cell hybridomas suggested that only a small fraction of antibodies against RTB have demonstrable neutralizing activity. Two RTB-specific neutralizing monoclonal IgG1 antibodies, 24B11 and SylH3, when passively administered to mice, were sufficient to protect the animals against a 5xLD50 dose of ricin. Both 24B11 and SylH3 blocked ricin attachment to terminal galactose residues and prevented toxin binding to the surfaces of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM), suggesting that they function by steric hindrance and recognize epitopes located on RTB’s carbohydrate recognition sub-domains (1? or 2?). These data raise the possibility of using specific RTB sub-domains, rather than RTB itself, as antigens to more efficiently elicit neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against ricin. PMID:21872634

Yermakova, Anastasiya; Mantis, Nicholas J.

2011-01-01

203

A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability/Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children  

PubMed Central

The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that, for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion regulation was a mediator between emotion lability/negativity and internalizing symptomatology, whereas emotion lability/negativity was not a mediator between emotion regulation and internalizing symptomatology. Early maltreatment was associated with high emotion lability/negativity (age 7) that contributed to poor emotion regulation (age 8), which in turn was predictive of increases in internalizing symptomatology (from age 8 to 9). The results imply important roles of emotion regulation in the development of internalizing symptomatology, especially for children with high emotion lability/negativity. PMID:23034132

Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

2013-01-01

204

Enzymatically- and Ultraviolet-labile Phosphorus in Humic Acid Fractions From Rice Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Humic acid is an important soil component which can improve nutrient availability and impact other important chemical, biological, and physical properties of soils. We investigated the lability of phosphorus (P) in the mobile humic acid (MHA) and calcium humate (CaHA) fractions of four rice soils as...

205

Temperature effects on decomposition rates of soil organic matter with differing proportions of labile and  

E-print Network

soil carbon cycle models predict that climate warming will stimulate microbial decomposition of labile carbon cycle. Soil is this natural carbon sink because carbon is sequestered as biomass, such as plant disagreement regarding the effects of climate change on global soil carbon stocks. Soil carbon stocks

Vallino, Joseph J.

206

14C as a tracer of labile organic matter in Antarctic benthic food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

14C measurements were made on surface plankton, particle-trap material, surface sediment, benthic invertebrate gut contents, and body tissue samples to assess the effectiveness of this radioisotope as a tracer of labile organic carbon in Antarctic benthic food webs. Samples were collected on five cruises to the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) shelf between November 1999 and March 2001 as part of

Brett L. Purinton; David J. DeMaster; Carrie J. Thomas; Craig R. Smith

2008-01-01

207

Mayolenes: Labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar (Pieris rapae)  

E-print Network

larvae of a laboratory population of P. rapae maintained on cabbage plants (Brassica oleraceaeMayolenes: Labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar (Pieris rapae) Scott R, Pieris rapae (Pieridae), are beset with glandular hairs, bearing droplets of a clear oily secretion

Rutowski, Ronald L.

208

Solubility and lability of cadmium and zinc in two soils treated with organic matter  

SciTech Connect

The effect of organic matter (pig manure, sus scrofa) addition on solubility and free Cd(II) and Zn(II) speciation was studied in two mineral soils. The soils were extracted with ultra pure 0.01 M KNO{sub 3}, and the extracts were analyzed for total dissolved Cd and Zn by graphite furnace AAS and ICP, respectively, and for labile Cd and Zn by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Based on the assumption that the non-ASV-labile fraction of the total dissolved Cd and Zn was organically bound to fulvic acid (FA), the relative fraction of labile to total dissolved Cd and Zn was used to estimate conditional stability constants (log K) for the formation of Cd-Fulvate (CdFA) and Zn-Fulvate (ZnFA). Species of organically and inorganically associated Cd and Zn, as affected by the addition of pig manure to the two different soil types, were calculated. The addition of organic matter increased the solubility of Cd and Zn in both soils by the formation of organo-metallic complexes. The lability of Zn was, however, reduced substantially, whereas for Cd it was unaffected. The conditional log K values calculated indicate that the stability of organo-metallic complexes with Cd and Zn may be more important than reported previously. This implies that increasing concentrations of dissolved organic acids can increase their solubility, thus leading to the leaching of Cd and Zn into ground water.

Almaas, A.R.; McBride, M.B.; Singh, B.R.

2000-03-01

209

The toxin and antidote puzzle  

PubMed Central

Insects carry out essential ecological functions, such as pollination, but also cause extensive damage to agricultural crops and transmit human diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Advances in insect transgenesis are making it increasingly feasible to engineer genes conferring desirable phenotypes, and gene drive systems are required to spread these genes into wild populations. Medea provides one solution, being able to spread into a population from very low initial frequencies through the action of a maternally-expressed toxin linked to a zygotically-expressed antidote. Several other toxin-antidote combinations are imaginable that distort the offspring ratio in favor of a desired transgene, or drive the population towards an all-male crash. We explore two such systems—Semele, which is capable of spreading a desired transgene into an isolated population in a confined manner; and Merea, which is capable of inducing a local population crash when located on the Z chromosome of a Lepidopteron pest. PMID:21876382

2011-01-01

210

Determination of various types of labile atmospheric iron over remote oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric deposition of iron (Fe) is a major source of the micronutrient to the remote ocean. Most studies have focused on the total atmospheric Fe fluxes to the oceans while fewer studies have focused on the chemistry and chemical speciation of atmospheric Fe. This speciation of Fe in the atmosphere is critical to understanding the fraction of Fe that will be labile in surface waters after deposition and consequently has implications for the bioavailability of this atmospherically derived Fe. In this study, 24-hour aerosol samples were collected using a high-volume dichotomous virtual impactor (HVDVI) that collected coarse (Dp > 2.5 ?m) and fine (Dp< 2.5 ?m) aerosol fractions on two 90-mm Teflon membrane filters, over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. A sequential aqueous extraction procedure using a pH 4.5 buffer solution and a chemical reductant (hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA)) was used to measure various labile Fe fractions. The extraction procedure was performed immediately after aerosol sample collection and used time series measurements of Fe(II) using long path length absorbance spectroscopy (LPAS) for analysis of Fe(II). The method measured both the quantities of labile Fe and also the dissolution and reduction kinetics of the labile Fe. Comparisons of HA-reducible Fe and photoreducible Fe concentrations were conducted on board and showed that both reduction processes had similar reduction kinetics and final Fe(II) concentrations during the initial 90 min. The average pseudo-first-order rate constants for the increase in Fe(II) were 0.020 and 0.0076 min-1 for the photoreducible Fe extraction and HA-reduction extraction, respectively. This HA-reducible Fe amount could potentially be used to determine the maximum amount of labile atmospheric Fe that is deposited into the ocean.

Chen, Y.; Siefert, R. L.

2003-12-01

211

Effects of wetland recovery on soil labile carbon and nitrogen in the Sanjiang Plain.  

PubMed

Soil management significantly affects the soil labile organic factors. Understanding carbon and nitrogen dynamics is extremely helpful in conducting research on active carbon and nitrogen components for different kinds of soil management. In this paper, we examined the changes in microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to assess the effect and mechanisms of land types, organic input, soil respiration, microbial species, and vegetation recovery under Deyeuxia angustifolia freshwater marshes (DAMs) and recovered freshwater marsh (RFM) in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Identifying the relationship among the dynamics of labile carbon, nitrogen, and soil qualification mechanism using different land management practices is therefore important. Cultivation and land use affect intensely the DOC, DON, MBC, and MBN in the soil. After DAM soil tillage, the DOC, DON, MBC, and MBN at the surface of the agricultural soil layer declined significantly. In contrast, their recovery was significant in the RFM surface soil. A long time was needed for the concentration of cultivated soil total organic carbon and total nitrogen to be restored to the wetland level. The labile carbon and nitrogen fractions can reach a level similar to that of the wetland within a short time. Typical wetland ecosystem signs, such as vegetation, microbes, and animals, can be recovered by soil labile carbon and nitrogen fraction restoration. In this paper, the D. angustifolia biomass attained natural wetland level after 8 years, indicating that wetland soil labile fractions can support wetland eco-function in a short period of time (4 to 8 years) for reconstructed wetland under suitable environmental conditions. PMID:23151838

Huang, Jingyu; Song, Changchun; Nkrumah, Philip Nti

2013-07-01

212

Soil-specific response functions of organic matter mineralization to the availability of labile carbon.  

PubMed

Soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization processes are central to the functioning of soils in relation to feedbacks with atmospheric CO2 concentration, to sustainable nutrient supply, to structural stability and in supporting biodiversity. Recognition that labile C-inputs to soil (e.g. plant-derived) can significantly affect mineralization of SOM ('priming effects') complicates prediction of environmental and land-use change effects on SOM dynamics and soil C-balance. The aim of this study is to construct response functions for SOM priming to labile C (glucose) addition rates, for four contrasting soils. Six rates of glucose (3 atm% (13) C) addition (in the range 0-1 mg glucose g(-1) soil day(-1) ) were applied for 8 days. Soil CO2 efflux was partitioned into SOM- and glucose-derived components by isotopic mass balance, allowing quantification of SOM priming over time for each soil type. Priming effects resulting from pool substitution effects in the microbial biomass ('apparent priming') were accounted for by determining treatment effects on microbial biomass size and isotopic composition. In general, SOM priming increased with glucose addition rate, approaching maximum rates specific for each soil (up to 200%). Where glucose additions saturated microbial utilization capacity (>0.5 mg glucose g(-1) soil), priming was a soil-specific function of glucose mineralization rate. At low to intermediate glucose addition rates, the magnitude (and direction) of priming effects was more variable. These results are consistent with the view that SOM priming is supported by the availability of labile C, that priming is not a ubiquitous function of all components of microbial communities and that soils differ in the extent to which labile C stimulates priming. That priming effects can be represented as response functions to labile C addition rates may be a means of their explicit representation in soil C-models. However, these response functions are soil-specific and may be affected by several interacting factors at lower addition rates. PMID:23505211

Paterson, Eric; Sim, Allan

2013-05-01

213

An update on uremic toxins.  

PubMed

In the last decade, uremic toxicity as a potential cause for the excess of cardiovascular disease and mortality observed in chronic kidney disease gained more and more interest. This review focuses on uremic toxins with known cardiovascular effects and their removal. For protein-bound solutes, for example, indoxylsulfate and the conjugates of p-cresol, and for small water-soluble solutes, for example, guanidines, such as ADMA and SDMA, there is a growing evidence for a role in cardiovascular toxicity in vitro (e.g., affecting leukocyte, endothelial, vascular smooth muscle cell function) and/or in vivo. Several middle molecules (e.g., beta-2-microglobulin, interleukin-6, TNF-alpha and FGF-23) were shown to be predictors for cardiovascular disease and/or mortality. Most of these solutes, however, are difficult to remove during dialysis, which is traditionally assessed by studying the removal of urea, which can be considered as a relatively inert uremic retention solute. However, even the effective removal of other small water-soluble toxins than urea can be hampered by their larger distribution volumes. Middle molecules (beta-2-microglobulin as prototype, but not necessarily representative for others) are cleared more efficiently when the pore size of the dialyzer membrane increases, convection is applied and dialysis time is prolonged. Only adding convection to diffusion improves the removal of protein-bound toxins. Therefore, alternative removal strategies, such as intestinal adsorption, drugs interfering with toxic biochemical pathways or decreasing toxin concentration, and extracorporeal plasma adsorption, as well as kinetic behavior during dialysis need further investigation. Even more importantly, randomized clinical studies are required to demonstrate a survival advantage through these strategies. PMID:22893494

Neirynck, N; Vanholder, R; Schepers, E; Eloot, S; Pletinck, A; Glorieux, G

2013-02-01

214

Novel Class of Spider Toxin  

PubMed Central

Venom of the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium (Miturgidae) was found unique in terms of molecular composition. Its principal toxic component CpTx 1 (15.1 kDa) was purified, and its full amino acid sequence (134 residues) was established by protein chemistry and mass spectrometry techniques. CpTx 1 represents a novel class of spider toxin with modular architecture. It consists of two different yet homologous domains (modules) each containing a putative inhibitor cystine knot motif, characteristic of the widespread single domain spider neurotoxins. Venom gland cDNA sequencing provided precursor protein (prepropeptide) structures of three CpTx 1 isoforms (a–c) that differ by single residue substitutions. The toxin possesses potent insecticidal (paralytic and lethal), cytotoxic, and membrane-damaging activities. In both fly and frog neuromuscular preparations, it causes stable and irreversible depolarization of muscle fibers leading to contracture. This effect appears to be receptor-independent and is inhibited by high concentrations of divalent cations. CpTx 1 lyses cell membranes, as visualized by confocal microscopy, and destabilizes artificial membranes in a manner reminiscent of other membrane-active peptides by causing numerous defects of variable conductance and leading to bilayer rupture. The newly discovered class of modular polypeptides enhances our knowledge of the toxin universe. PMID:20657014

Vassilevski, Alexander A.; Fedorova, Irina M.; Maleeva, Ekaterina E.; Korolkova, Yuliya V.; Efimova, Svetlana S.; Samsonova, Olga V.; Schagina, Ludmila V.; Feofanov, Alexei V.; Magazanik, Lev G.; Grishin, Eugene V.

2010-01-01

215

Bacterial protein toxins and inflammation.  

PubMed

Although human mucosal linings are continuously exposed to microbes, the microbes rarely induce disease. This is because mucosal surfaces are protected by a first line of defence termed the innate immunity system. Inflammatory processes are activated as a consequence of a complex interplay between microbes and host target cells. Although inflammation is essential for clearing out infectious agents, it can also be harmful to the host and is therefore subjected to tight control at multiple levels. It was recently discovered that the bacterial protein toxin alpha-haemolysin (HlyA), secreted by uropathogenic Escherichia coli, induces constant, low-frequency Ca2+ oscillations in renal epithelial cells. Ca2+ oscillation occurs at a characteristic periodicity of 12 min, and affects gene expression in target epithelial cells. Specifically, the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokine IL-8 were induced by HlyA-induced Ca2+ oscillations. A few additional bacterial protein toxins have been reported to induce Ca2+ oscillations in target epithelial cells, although their effects are poorly understood. However, the pioneering work on HlyA demonstrates a novel feature of bacterial protein toxins on host target cells: as inducers of second messenger responses which fine-tune gene expression in target epithelial cells. PMID:14620146

Söderblom, Tomas; Oxhamre, Camilla; Torstensson, Elisabeth; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta

2003-01-01

216

A Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor mediates cell lineage ablation after toxin administration  

E-print Network

A Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor mediates cell lineage ablation after toxin administration in oligodendrocytes, we observed myelin loss after intraperitoneal DT injections. Thus, DT crosses the blood

Cai, Long

217

Bt toxin modification for enhanced efficacy.  

PubMed

Insect-specific toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide a valuable resource for pest suppression. Here we review the different strategies that have been employed to enhance toxicity against specific target species including those that have evolved resistance to Bt, or to modify the host range of Bt crystal (Cry) and cytolytic (Cyt) toxins. These strategies include toxin truncation, modification of protease cleavage sites, domain swapping, site-directed mutagenesis, peptide addition, and phage display screens for mutated toxins with enhanced activity. Toxin optimization provides a useful approach to extend the utility of these proteins for suppression of pests that exhibit low susceptibility to native Bt toxins, and to overcome field resistance. PMID:25340556

Deist, Benjamin R; Rausch, Michael A; Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Adang, Michael J; Bonning, Bryony C

2014-10-01

218

Toxin-Antitoxin Genes of the Gram-Positive Pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae: So Few and Yet So Many  

PubMed Central

Summary: Pneumococcal infections cause up to 2 million deaths annually and raise a large economic burden and thus constitute an important threat to mankind. Because of the increase in the antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates, there is an urgent need to find new antimicrobial approaches to triumph over pneumococcal infections. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems (TAS), which are present in most living bacteria but not in eukaryotes, have been proposed as an effective strategy to combat bacterial infections. Type II TAS comprise a stable toxin and a labile antitoxin that form an innocuous TA complex under normal conditions. Under stress conditions, TA synthesis will be triggered, resulting in the degradation of the labile antitoxin and the release of the toxin protein, which would poison the host cells. The three functional chromosomal TAS from S. pneumoniae that have been studied as well as their molecular characteristics are discussed in detail in this review. Furthermore, a meticulous bioinformatics search has been performed for 48 pneumococcal genomes that are found in public databases, and more putative TAS, homologous to well-characterized ones, have been revealed. Strikingly, several unusual putative TAS, in terms of components and genetic organizations previously not envisaged, have been discovered and are further discussed. Previously, we reported a novel finding in which a unique pneumococcal DNA signature, the BOX element, affected the regulation of the pneumococcal yefM-yoeB TAS. This BOX element has also been found in some of the other pneumococcal TAS. In this review, we also discuss possible relationships between some of the pneumococcal TAS with pathogenicity, competence, biofilm formation, persistence, and an interesting phenomenon called bistability. PMID:23204366

Chan, Wai Ting; Moreno-Córdoba, Inma

2012-01-01

219

Microwave heating inactivates Shiga Toxin (Stx2) in pH 7.4 buffer and in reconstituted fat-free Milk and adversely affects the nutritional value of cell culture medium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microwave exposure is a convenient and widely used method for defrosting, heating, and cooking numerous foods. Microwave cooking is also reported to kill pathogenic microorganisms that often contaminate food. Microwaves act by causing polar molecules in food, such as water, to rapidly rotate, thus...

220

Prokaryotic toxin–antitoxin stress response loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although toxin–antitoxin gene cassettes were first found in plasmids, recent database mining has shown that these loci are abundant in free-living prokaryotes, including many pathogenic bacteria. For example, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has 38 chromosomal toxin–antitoxin loci, including 3 relBE and 9 mazEF loci. RelE and MazF are toxins that cleave mRNA in response to nutritional stress. RelE cleaves mRNAs that are

Susanne K. Christensen; Anders Løbner-Olesen; Kenn Gerdes

2005-01-01

221

TOXINS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY / 1 Animal Toxins in the World of Modern  

E-print Network

TOXINS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY / 1 Animal Toxins in the World of Modern Biotechnology JEAN-MARC SABATIER1 Biotechnologies, Bâtiment Biopolis, 5, avenue du Grand Sablon, 38700 La Tronche, France. Tel.: +33-4-56520563; Fax: +33-4-56520637; E-mail address: michel.dewaard@ujf-grenoble.fr Running title: Toxins in Biotechnology

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

222

Experiments with cholera toxin detoxified with glutaraldehyde*  

PubMed Central

Studies on the production, purification, and detoxification of cholera toxin are reported. The toxin was first partially purified with aluminium hydroxide and further purification was effected with Bio Gel A-5m and Sephadex G-75. The toxins were detoxified with glutaraldehyde; the toxoids so obtained, when injected into the skin of rabbits, appeared to have no residual toxicity. All the toxins were immunogenic. The toxoid partially purified with aluminium hydroxide retained most of its immunizing capacity, but the highly purified toxoids did not retain their capacity to stimulate antibody production in rabbits. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 1 PMID:4219758

Saletti, M.; Ricci, A.

1974-01-01

223

Evaluation of the extraction efficiency of thermally labile bioactive compounds in Gastrodia elata Blume by pressurized hot water extraction and microwave-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

Our earlier work showed that the stability of the bioactive compounds gastrodin (GA) and vanillyl alcohol (VA) in Gastrodia elata Blume behaved differently with varying compositions of water-ethanol using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) at room temperature. To have a better understanding of the extraction process of these thermally labile compounds under elevated temperature conditions, pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) methods were proposed. PHWE and MAE showed that GA and VA could be extracted using pure water under optimized conditions of temperature and extraction time. The extraction efficiency of GA and VA by the proposed methods was found to be higher or comparable to heating under reflux using water. The marker compounds present in the plant extracts were determined by RP-HPLC. The optimized conditions were found to be different for the two proposed methods on extraction of GA and VA. The method precision (RSD, n=6) was found to vary from 0.92% to 3.36% for the two proposed methods on different days. Hence, PHWE and MAE methods were shown to be feasible alternatives for the extraction of thermally labile marker compounds present in medicinal plants. PMID:18206897

Teo, Chin Chye; Tan, Swee Ngin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong; Hew, Choy Sin; Ong, Eng Shi

2008-02-22

224

Role of Heat-Stable Enterotoxins in the Induction of Early Immune Responses in Piglets after Infection with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce heat-stable (ST) and/or heat - labile (LT) enterotoxins are cause of post – weaning diarrhea in piglets. However, the relative importance of the different enterotoxins in host immune responses against ETEC infection has been poorly defined. In the present study, several isogenic mutant strains of an O149:F4ac+, LT+ STa+ STb+ ETEC strain were constructed that lack the expression of LT in combination with one or both types of ST enterotoxins (STa and/or STb). The small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique and microarray analysis were used to study host early immune responses induced by these mutant strains 4 h after infection in comparison to the wild type strain and a PBS control. Simultaneously, net fluid absorption of pig small intestinal mucosa was measured 4 h after infection, allowing us to correlate enterotoxin secretion with gene regulation. Microarray analysis showed on the one hand a non-toxin related general antibacterial response comprising genes such as PAP, MMP1 and IL8. On the other hand, results suggest a dominant role for STb in small intestinal secretion early after post-weaning infection, as well as in the induced innate immune response through differential regulation of immune mediators like interleukin 1 and interleukin 17. PMID:22815904

Schauvliege, Stijn; Gasthuys, Frank; van der Meulen, Jan; Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Goddeeris, Bruno M.; Niewold, Theo; Cox, Eric

2012-01-01

225

42 CFR 73.3 - HHS select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...toxins: Abrin Botulinum neurotoxins Botulinum neurotoxin producing species of Clostridium Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (Herpes B virus) Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin Coccidioides posadasii/Coccidioides immitis Conotoxins...

2010-10-01

226

Initial studies of the structural signal for extracellular transport of cholera toxin and other proteins recognized by Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed Central

The specificity of the pathway used by Vibrio cholerae for extracellular transport of cholera toxin (CT) and other proteins was examined in several different ways. First, V. cholerae was tested for the ability to secrete the B polypeptides of the type II heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli. Genes encoding the B polypeptide of LT-IIb in pBluescriptKS- phagemids were introduced into V. cholerae by electroporation. Culture supernatants and periplasmic extracts were collected from cultures of the V. cholerae transformants, and the enterotoxin B subunits were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results confirmed that the B polypeptides of both LT-IIa and LT-IIb were secreted by V. cholerae with efficiencies comparable to that measured for secretion of CT. Second, the plasmid clones were introduced into strain M14, an epsE mutant of V. cholerae. M14 failed to transport the B polypeptides of LT-IIa and LT-IIb to the extracellular medium, demonstrating that secretion of type II enterotoxins by V. cholerae proceeds by the same pathway used for extracellular transport of CT. These data suggest that an extracellular transport signal recognized by the secretory machinery of V. cholerae is present in LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Furthermore, since the B polypeptide of CT has little, if any, primary amino acid sequence homology with the B polypeptide of LT-IIa or LT-IIb, the transport signal is likely to be a conformation-dependent motif. Third, a mutant of the B subunit of CT (CT-B) with lysine substituted for glutamate at amino acid position 11 was shown to be secreted poorly by V. cholerae, although it exhibited immunoreactivity and ganglioside GM1-binding activity comparable to that of wild-type CT-B. These findings suggest that Glu-11 may be within or near the extracellular transport motif of CT-B. Finally, the genetic lesion in the epsE allele of V. cholerae M14 was determined by nucleotide sequence analysis. PMID:7558324

Connell, T D; Metzger, D J; Wang, M; Jobling, M G; Holmes, R K

1995-01-01

227

Enzymatically active peptide from the adenosine diphosphate-ribosylating toxin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

A nontoxic peptide (molecular weight, 26,000), which is active in catalyzing the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation of elongation factor 2, has been isolated from the culture supernatant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 103 in stationary phase. Like fragment A from diphtheria toxin, the active peptide catalyzed the hydrolysis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as well as the ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2 and showed similarities to fragment A in specific activity, kinetic constants, pH optimum, and ionic sensitivity. These results provide strong evidence for a high degree of homology in the structures of their active sites. That the peptide is not identical to fragment A is shown by the fact that it was not neutralized by fragment A-specific antiserum and was different in amino acid composition and pH and thermal labilities. Although definitive evidence is lacking, there are data suggesting that this peptide is a proteolytic fragment from the ADP-ribosylating toxin (exotoxin A; molecular weight, 66,000) produced by the same strain of P. aeruginosa. Images PMID:19354

Chung, D W; Collier, R J

1977-01-01

228

Comparison of the relative toxicities of Shiga-like toxins type I and type II for mice.  

PubMed Central

In earlier studies using a streptomycin-treated mouse model of infection caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), animals fed Shiga-like toxin type II (SLT-II)-producing strains developed acute renal cortical necrosis and died, while mice fed Shiga-like toxin type I (SLT-I)-producing clones did not die (E. A. Wadolkowski, L. M. Sung, J. A. Burris, J. E. Samuel, and A. D. O'Brien, Infect. Immun. 58:3959-3965, 1990). To examine the bases for the differences we noted between the two toxins in the murine infection model, we injected mice with purified toxins and carried out histopathological examinations. Despite the genetic and structural similarities between the two toxins, SLT-II had a 50% lethal dose (LD50) which was approximately 400 times lower than that of SLT-I when injected intravenously or intraperitoneally into mice. Histopathologic examination of toxin-injected mice revealed that detectable damage was limited to renal cortical tubule epithelial cells. Passive administration of anti-SLT-II antibodies protected mice from SLT-II-mediated kidney damage and death. Immunofluorescence staining of normal murine kidney sections incubated with purified SLT-I or SLT-II demonstrated that both toxins bound to cortical tubule and medullary duct epithelial cells. Compared with SLT-I, SLT-II was more heat and pH stable, suggesting that SLT-II is a relatively more stable macromolecule. Although both toxins bound to globotriaosylceramide, SLT-I bound with a higher affinity in a solid-phase binding assay. Differences in enzymatic activity between the two toxins were not detected. These data suggest that structural/functional differences between the two toxins, possibly involving holotoxin stability and/or receptor affinity, may contribute to the differential LD50s in mice. Images PMID:8335369

Tesh, V L; Burris, J A; Owens, J W; Gordon, V M; Wadolkowski, E A; O'Brien, A D; Samuel, J E

1993-01-01

229

Comparison of the relative toxicities of Shiga-like toxins type I and type II for mice.  

PubMed

In earlier studies using a streptomycin-treated mouse model of infection caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), animals fed Shiga-like toxin type II (SLT-II)-producing strains developed acute renal cortical necrosis and died, while mice fed Shiga-like toxin type I (SLT-I)-producing clones did not die (E. A. Wadolkowski, L. M. Sung, J. A. Burris, J. E. Samuel, and A. D. O'Brien, Infect. Immun. 58:3959-3965, 1990). To examine the bases for the differences we noted between the two toxins in the murine infection model, we injected mice with purified toxins and carried out histopathological examinations. Despite the genetic and structural similarities between the two toxins, SLT-II had a 50% lethal dose (LD50) which was approximately 400 times lower than that of SLT-I when injected intravenously or intraperitoneally into mice. Histopathologic examination of toxin-injected mice revealed that detectable damage was limited to renal cortical tubule epithelial cells. Passive administration of anti-SLT-II antibodies protected mice from SLT-II-mediated kidney damage and death. Immunofluorescence staining of normal murine kidney sections incubated with purified SLT-I or SLT-II demonstrated that both toxins bound to cortical tubule and medullary duct epithelial cells. Compared with SLT-I, SLT-II was more heat and pH stable, suggesting that SLT-II is a relatively more stable macromolecule. Although both toxins bound to globotriaosylceramide, SLT-I bound with a higher affinity in a solid-phase binding assay. Differences in enzymatic activity between the two toxins were not detected. These data suggest that structural/functional differences between the two toxins, possibly involving holotoxin stability and/or receptor affinity, may contribute to the differential LD50s in mice. PMID:8335369

Tesh, V L; Burris, J A; Owens, J W; Gordon, V M; Wadolkowski, E A; O'Brien, A D; Samuel, J E

1993-08-01

230

Designing Inhibitors of Anthrax Toxin  

PubMed Central

Introduction Present-day rational drug design approaches are based on exploiting unique features of the target biomolecules, small- or macromolecule drug candidates, and physical forces that govern their interactions. The 2013 Nobel Prize in chemistry awarded “for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems” once again demonstrated the importance of the tailored drug discovery that reduces the role of the trial and error approach to a minimum. The “rational drug design” term is rather comprehensive as it includes all contemporary methods of drug discovery where serendipity and screening are substituted by the information-guided search for new and existing compounds. Successful implementation of these innovative drug discovery approaches is inevitably preceded by learning the physics, chemistry, and physiology of functioning of biological structures under normal and pathological conditions. Areas covered This article provides an overview of the recent rational drug design approaches to discover inhibitors of anthrax toxin. Some of the examples include small-molecule and peptide-based post-exposure therapeutic agents as well as several polyvalent compounds. The review also directs the reader to the vast literature on the recognized advances and future possibilities in the field. Expert opinion Existing options to combat anthrax toxin lethality are limited. With the only anthrax toxin inhibiting therapy (PA-targeting with a monoclonal antibody, raxibacumab) approved to treat inhalational anthrax, in our view, the situation is still insecure. The FDA’s animal rule for drug approval, which clears compounds without validated efficacy studies on humans, creates a high level of uncertainty, especially when a well-characterized animal model does not exist. Besides, unlike PA, which is known to be unstable, LF remains active in cells and in animal tissues for days. Therefore, the effectiveness of the post-exposure treatment of the individuals with anti-PA therapeutics can be time-dependent, requiring coordinated use of membrane permeable small-molecule inhibitors, which block the LF and EF enzymatic activity intracellularly. The desperate search for an ideal anthrax antitoxin allowed researchers to gain important knowledge of the basic principles of small-molecule interactions with their protein targets that could be easily transferred to other systems. At the same time, better identification and validation of anthrax toxin therapeutic targets at the molecular level, which include understanding of the physical forces underlying the target/drug interaction, as well as elucidation of the parameters determining the corresponding therapeutic windows, require further examination. PMID:24447197

Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

2014-01-01

231

Botulinum toxin: The Midas touch.  

PubMed

Botulinum Toxin (BT) is a natural molecule produced during growth and autolysis of bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. Use of BT for cosmetic purposes has gained popularity over past two decades, and recently, other therapeutic uses of BT has been extensively studied. BT is considered as a minimally invasive agent that can be used in the treatment of various orofacial disorders and improving the quality of life in such patients. The objective of this article is to review the nature, mechanism of action of BT, and its application in various head and neck diseases. PMID:24678189

Shilpa, P S; Kaul, Rachna; Sultana, Nishat; Bhat, Suraksha

2014-01-01

232

Botulinum toxin: The Midas touch  

PubMed Central

Botulinum Toxin (BT) is a natural molecule produced during growth and autolysis of bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. Use of BT for cosmetic purposes has gained popularity over past two decades, and recently, other therapeutic uses of BT has been extensively studied. BT is considered as a minimally invasive agent that can be used in the treatment of various orofacial disorders and improving the quality of life in such patients. The objective of this article is to review the nature, mechanism of action of BT, and its application in various head and neck diseases. PMID:24678189

Shilpa, P. S.; Kaul, Rachna; Sultana, Nishat; Bhat, Suraksha

2014-01-01

233

Effect of hydrogen sulfide on phosphorus lability in lake sediments amended with drinking water treatment residuals.  

PubMed

The use of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) to immobilize P in sediments is a novel approach for lake restoration. However, the lability of P in WTRs-amended sediments may vary with many factors, e.g., hydrogen sulfide content. Earlier works in our laboratory have demonstrated that WTRs are effective sorbents for hydrogen sulfide in water. Thus, we hypothesized that the lability of P in WTRs-amended sediments would not be increased by hydrogen sulfide. The results of this work suggested that this hypothesis was tenable. Compared to the raw sediments, the amended sediments had significantly lower P desorption potential in the presence of hydrogen sulfide at different times, pH and concentrations. Moreover, the amended sediments were also better able to adsorb hydrogen sulfide. In the amended sediments, the P, which was easily desorbed due to the effect of hydrogen sulfide, was transformed into the Fe/Al bound P. PMID:23453604

Wang, Changhui; Liu, Juanfeng; Pei, Yuansheng

2013-05-01

234

Temporal repolarization lability differences among genotyped patients with the long QT syndrome.  

PubMed

The investigators sought to test whether certain long QT syndrome (LQTS) mutations are associated with increased repolarization lability and whether repolarization lability (quantified by the QT variability index [QTVI]) is increased in patients with LQTS compared with controls. In 32 genotyped patients with LQTS type 1 (LQT1), 32 genotyped patients with LQTS type 2 (LQT2), and 32 controls, the QTVI was increased in patients with LQT2 (-0.973 +/- 0.394, p = 0.01 vs controls) and in patients with LQT1 with mutations other than KCNQ1-FIN (-0.942 +/- 0.264, p = 0.04 vs controls) but was similar between the KCNQ1-FIN group and controls. PMID:15541256

Bilchick, Kenneth; Viitasalo, Matti; Oikarinen, Lasse; Fetics, Barry; Tomaselli, Gordon; Swan, Heikki; Laitinen, Päivi J; Väänänen, Heikki; Kontula, Kimmo; Berger, Ronald D

2004-11-15

235

Toxin Kid uncouples DNA replication and cell division to enforce retention of plasmid R1 in Escherichia coli cells  

PubMed Central

Worldwide dissemination of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is facilitated by plasmids that encode postsegregational killing (PSK) systems. These produce a stable toxin (T) and a labile antitoxin (A) conditioning cell survival to plasmid maintenance, because only this ensures neutralization of toxicity. Shortage of antibiotic alternatives and the link of TA pairs to PSK have stimulated the opinion that premature toxin activation could be used to kill these recalcitrant organisms in the clinic. However, validation of TA pairs as therapeutic targets requires unambiguous understanding of their mode of action, consequences for cell viability, and function in plasmids. Conflicting with widespread notions concerning these issues, we had proposed that the TA pair kis-kid (killing suppressor-killing determinant) might function as a plasmid rescue system and not as a PSK system, but this remained to be validated. Here, we aimed to clarify unsettled mechanistic aspects of Kid activation, and of the effects of this for kis-kid–bearing plasmids and their host cells. We confirm that activation of Kid occurs in cells that are about to lose the toxin-encoding plasmid, and we show that this provokes highly selective restriction of protein outputs that inhibits cell division temporarily, avoiding plasmid loss, and stimulates DNA replication, promoting plasmid rescue. Kis and Kid are conserved in plasmids encoding multiple antibiotic resistance genes, including extended spectrum ?-lactamases, for which therapeutic options are scarce, and our findings advise against the activation of this TA pair to fight pathogens carrying these extrachromosomal DNAs. PMID:24449860

Pimentel, Belén; Nair, Radhika; Bermejo-Rodríguez, Camino; Preston, Mark A.; Agu, Chukwuma A.; Wang, Xindan; Bernal, Juan A.; Sherratt, David J.; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

2014-01-01

236

Botulinum Toxin and Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders  

PubMed Central

The history of botulinum toxin is fascinating. First recognized as the cause of botulism nearly 200 years ago, it was originally feared as a deadly poison. Over the last 30 years, however, botulinum toxin has been transformed into a readily available medication used to treat a variety of medical disorders. Interest in the use of botulinum toxin has been particularly strong for patients with spastic smooth muscle disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients with achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, gastroparesis, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and anal fissures have all been treated with botulinum toxin injections, often with impressive results. However, not all patients respond to botulinum toxin therapy, and large randomized controlled trials are lacking for many conditions commonly treated with botulinum toxin. This paper reviews the history, microbiology, and pharmacology of botulinum toxin, discusses its mechanism of action, and then presents recent evidence from the literature regarding the use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of a variety of gastrointestinal tract disorders. PMID:21960915

Weiser, Kirsten; Kennedy, Abigail

2008-01-01

237

Synthesis of Near-IR Fluorescent Oxazine Dyes with Esterase-labile Sulfonate Esters  

PubMed Central

Near-IR oxazine dyes are reported that contain sulfonate esters which are rapidly cleaved by esterase activity to unmask highly polar anionic sulfonates. Strategies for the synthesis of these dyes included the development of milder dye condensation conditions with improved functional compatibility, and the use of an alkyl halide that allows for the introduction of esterase-labile sulfonates without the need for sulfonation of the target molecule. PMID:22047733

Pauff, Steven M.

2011-01-01

238

Calcium oscillations and T-wave lability precede ventricular arrhythmias in acquired long QT type 2  

PubMed Central

Background Alternans of intracellular Ca2+ (Cai) underlies T-wave alternans, a predictor of cardiac arrhythmias. A related phenomenon, T-Wave Lability (TWL), precedes Torsade de Pointes (TdP) in patients and animal models with impaired repolarization. However, the role of Cai in TWL remains unexplored. Methods Action potentials (APs) and Cai transients, (CaTs) were mapped optically from paced Langendorff female rabbit hearts (n=8) at 1.2s cycle length, after AV node ablation. Hearts were perfused with normal Tyrode's solution then with dofetilide (0.5 ?M) and reduced [K+] (2 mM) and [Mg2+] (0.5 mM) to elicit long QT type 2 (LQT2). Lability of EKG, voltage and Cai signals were evaluated during regular paced rhythm, before and after dofetilide perfusion. Results In LQT2, lability of Cai, voltage and EKG signals increased during paced rhythm, before the appearance of early afterdepolarizations (EADs). LQT2 resulted in AP prolongation and multiple (1-3) additional Cai upstrokes, while APs remained monophasic. When EADs appeared, Cai rose before voltage upstrokes at the origins of propagating EADs. Interventions (i.e. ryanodine and thapsigargin, n=3 or low [Ca]o and nifedipine, n=4) that suppressed Cai oscillations also abolished EADs. Conclusions In LQT2, Cai oscillations (CaiO) precede EADs by minutes, indicating that they result from spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release rather than spontaneous ICaL reactivation. CaiO likely produce oscillations of Na/Ca exchange current, INCX. Depolarizing INCX during the AP plateau contributes to the generation of EADs by re-activating Ca2+-channels that have recovered from inactivation. TWL reflects CaTs and APs lability that occur before EADs and TdP. PMID:20599524

N?mec, Jan; Kim, Jong J.; Gabris, Beth; Salama, Guy

2010-01-01

239

Identification of nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria from living Sassafras ( Atherosperma moschatum Labill.) trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria (Enterobacter agglomerans and Citrobacter freundii) were commonly found associated with the microflora of stained Sassafras (Atherosperma moschatum Labill.) in forests of SE Tasmania. However, their populations never exceeded 3× 104 cells g?1 dry wood and comprised at most 3% of the total bacterial flora. Bacterial colonization of the wood appeared to coincide with\\u000a that by non-hymenocetous fungi: bacteria

M. A. Line

1990-01-01

240

Effects on plant production after addition of labile carbon to arctic\\/alpine soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass production was analysed in Festuca vivipara, grown for 3 months in pots with non-sterilized or sterilized soil after factorial addition of three levels of labile carbon\\u000a combined with high and low levels of N and P. The soil was a nutrient-poor subarctic heath soil. In the non-sterilized soil\\u000a plant biomass production increased strongly only in the treatment with high

Inger K. Schmidt; Anders Michelsen; Sven Jonasson

1997-01-01

241

Protection of Pyruvate,Pi Dikinase from Maize against Cold Lability by Compatible Solutes 1  

PubMed Central

Most C4 species are chilling sensitive and certain enzymes like pyruvate,Pi dikinase of the C4 pathway are also cold labile. The ability of cations and compatible solutes to protect maize (Zea mays) dikinase against cold lability was examined. The enzyme in desalted extracts at pH 8 from preilluminated leaves could be protected against cold lability (at 0°C) by the divalent cations Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+. There was substantial protection by sulfate based salts but little protection by chloride based salts of potassium or ammonium (concentration 250 millimolar). The degree of protection against cold lability under limiting MgCl2 (5 millimolar) was pH sensitive (maximum protection at pH 8), but independent of ionic strength (up to 250 millimolar by addition of KCl). In catalysis Mg2+ is required and Mn2+ could not substitute as a cofactor. Several compatible solutes reduced or prevented the cold inactivation of dikinase (in desalted extracts and the partially purified enzyme), including glycerol, proline, glycinebetaine and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). TMAO and Mg2+ had an additive effect in protecting dikinase against cold inactivation. TMAO could largely substitute for the divalent cation and addition of TMAO during cold treatment prevented further inactivation. Cold inactivation was partially reversed by incubation at room temperature; with addition of TMAO reversal was complete. The temperature dependence of inactivation at pH 8 and 3 millimolar MgCl2 was evaluated by incubation at 2 to 17°C for 45 minutes, followed by assay at room temperature. At preincubation temperatures below 11°C there was a progressive inactivation which could be prevented by TMAO (450 millimolar). The results are discussed relative to possible effects of the solutes on the quaternary structure of this enzyme, which is known to dissociate at low temperatures. PMID:16666527

Krall, John P.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Andreo, Carlos S.

1989-01-01

242

Glycosylation efficiencies on different solid supports using a hydrogenolysis-labile linker  

PubMed Central

Summary Automated oligosaccharide assembly requires suitable linkers to connect the first monosaccharide to a solid support. A new hydrogenolysis-labile linker that is stable under both acidic and basic conditions was designed, synthesized and coupled to different resins. Glycosylation and cleavage efficiencies on these functionalized solid supports were investigated, and restrictions for the choice of solid support for oligosaccharide synthesis were found. PMID:23400514

Collot, Mayeul; Eller, Steffen; Weishaupt, Markus

2013-01-01

243

The short-term cover crops increase soil labile organic carbon in southeastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available about the effects of cover crops on soil labile organic carbon (C), especially in Australia.\\u000a In this study, two cover crop species, i.e., wheat and Saia oat, were broadcast-seeded in May 2009 and then crop biomass was\\u000a crimp-rolled onto the soil surface at anthesis in October 2009 in southeastern Australia. Soil and crop residue samples were

Xiaoqi Zhou; Chengrong Chen; Shunbao Lu; Yichao Rui; Hanwen Wu; Zhihong Xu

244

The toxin component of targeted anti-tumor toxins determines their efficacy increase by saponins.  

PubMed

Tumor-targeting protein toxins are composed of a toxic enzyme coupled to a specific cell binding domain that targets cancer-associated antigens. The anti-tumor treatment by targeted toxins is accompanied by dose-limiting side effects. The future prospects of targeted toxins for therapeutic use in humans will be determined by reduce side effects. Certain plant secondary metabolites (saponins) were shown to increase the efficacy of a particular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted toxin, paralleled by a tremendous decrease of side effects. This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of substituting different toxin moieties fused to an EGF ligand binding domain on the augmentative ability of saponins for each against therapeutic potential of the saponin-mediated efficacy increase for different anti-tumor toxins targeting the EGFR. We designed several EGFR-targeted toxins varying in the toxic moiety. Each targeted toxin was used in combination with a purified saponin (SA1641), isolated from the ornamental plant Gypsophila paniculata L. SA1641 was characterized and the SA1641-mediated efficacy increase was investigated on EGFR-transfected NIH-3T3 cells. We observed a high dependency of the SA1641-mediated efficacy increase on the nature of toxin used for the construction of the targeted toxin, indicating high specificity. Structural alignments revealed a high homology between saporin and dianthin-30, the two toxic moieties that benefit most from the combination with SA1641. We further demonstrate that SA1641 did not influence the plasma membrane permeability, indicating an intracellular interaction of SA1641 and the toxin components of targeted toxins. Surface plasmon resonance measurements point to a transient binding of SA1641 to the toxin components of targeted toxins. PMID:22309811

Weng, Alexander; Thakur, Mayank; Beceren-Braun, Figen; Bachran, Diana; Bachran, Christopher; Riese, Sebastian B; Jenett-Siems, Kristina; Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik

2012-06-01

245

Brown spider dermonecrotic toxin directly induces nephrotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom can induce dermonecrotic lesions at the bite site and systemic manifestations including fever, vomiting, convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. The venom is composed of a mixture of proteins with several molecules biochemically and biologically well characterized. The mechanism by which the venom induces renal damage is unknown. By using mice exposed to Loxosceles intermedia recombinant dermonecrotic toxin (LiRecDT), we showed direct induction of renal injuries. Microscopic analysis of renal biopsies from dermonecrotic toxin-treated mice showed histological alterations including glomerular edema and tubular necrosis. Hyalinization of tubules with deposition of proteinaceous material in the tubule lumen, tubule epithelial cell vacuoles, tubular edema and epithelial cell lysis was also observed. Leukocytic infiltration was neither observed in the glomerulus nor the tubules. Renal vessels showed no sign of inflammatory response. Additionally, biochemical analyses showed such toxin-induced changes in renal function as urine alkalinization, hematuria and azotemia with elevation of blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunofluorescence with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies and confocal microscopy analysis showed deposition and direct binding of this toxin to renal intrinsic structures. By immunoblotting with a hyperimmune dermonecrotic toxin antiserum on renal lysates from toxin-treated mice, we detected a positive signal at the region of 33-35 kDa, which strengthens the idea that renal failure is directly induced by dermonecrotic toxin. Immunofluorescence reaction with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies revealed deposition and binding of this toxin directly in MDCK epithelial cells in culture. Similarly, dermonecrotic toxin treatment caused morphological alterations of MDCK cells including cytoplasmic vacuoles, blebs, evoked impaired spreading and detached cells from each other and from culture substratum. In addition, dermonecrotic toxin treatment of MDCK cells changed their viability evaluated by XTT and Neutral-Red Uptake methodologies. The present results point to brown spider dermonecrotic toxin cytotoxicity upon renal structures in vivo and renal cells in vitro and provide experimental evidence that this brown spider toxin is directly involved in nephrotoxicity evoked during Loxosceles spider venom accidents.

Chaim, Olga Meiri [Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Parana, Jardim das Americas, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Sade, Youssef Bacila [Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Parana, Jardim das Americas, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Bertoni da Silveira, Rafael [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Toma, Leny [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kalapothakis, Evanguedes [Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Mangili, Oldemir Carlos [Department of Physiology, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Gremski, Waldemiro [Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Parana, Jardim das Americas, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Catholic University of Parana, Health and Biological Sciences Institute, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Dietrich, Carl Peter von [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nader, Helena B. [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sanches Veiga, Silvio [Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Parana, Jardim das Americas, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)]. E-mail: veigass@ufpr.br

2006-02-15

246

Comparison of metal lability in air-dried and fresh dewatered drinking water treatment residuals.  

PubMed

In this work, the labilities of Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in air-dried (for 60 days) and fresh dewatered WTRs were compared using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), fractionation, in vitro digestion and a plant enrichment test. The results showed that the air-dried and fresh dewatered WTRs had different properties, e.g., organic matter composition and available nutrients. The air-dried and fresh dewatered WTRs were non-haf zardous according to the TCLP assessment method used in the United States; however, the metals in the two types of WTRs had different lability. Compared with the metals in the fresh dewatered WTRs, those in the air-dried WTRs tended to be in more stable fractions and also exhibited lower bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, air-drying can decrease the metal lability and thereby reduce the potential metal pollution risk of WTRs. PMID:25560259

Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhao, Yaqian

2015-01-28

247

Substrate lability and plant activity controls greenhouse gas release from Neotropical peatland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost one third of global CO2 emissions resulting from land use change and substantial CH4 emissions originate from tropical peatlands. However, our understanding of the controls of CO2 and CH4 release from tropical peatlands are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peat lability and the activity of the vegetation on gas release using a combination of field and laboratory experiments. We demonstrated that peat lability constrained CH4 production to the surface peat under anaerobic conditions. The presence of plants shifted the C balance from a C source to a C sink with respect to CO2 while the activity of the root system strongly influenced CH4 emissions through its impact on soil O2 inputs. Both field and laboratory data suggest a coupling between the photosynthetic activity of the vegetation and the release of both CO2 and CH4 following the circadian rhythm of the dominant plant functional types. Forest clearance for agriculture resulted in elevated CH4 release, which we attribute in part to the cessation of root O2 inputs to the peat. We conclude that high emissions of CO2 and CH4 from forested tropical peatlands are likely driven by labile C inputs from the vegetation but that root O2 release may limit CH4 emissions.

Sjogersten, Sofie; Hoyos, Jorge; Lomax, Barry; Turner, Ben; Wright, Emma

2014-05-01

248

Labile soil carbon inputs mediate the soil microbial community composition and plant residue decomposition rates  

SciTech Connect

Root carbon (C) inputs may regulate decomposition rates in soil, and in this study we ask: how do labile C inputs regulate decomposition of plant residues, and soil microbial communities? In a 14 d laboratory incubation, we added C compounds often found in root exudates in seven different concentrations (0, 0.7, 1.4, 3.6, 7.2, 14.4 and 21.7 mg C g{sup -1} soil) to soils amended with and without {sup 13}C-labeled plant residue. We measured CO{sub 2} respiration and shifts in relative fungal and bacterial rRNA gene copy numbers using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Increased labile C input enhanced total C respiration, but only addition of C at low concentrations (0.7 mg C g{sup -1}) stimulated plant residue decomposition (+2%). Intermediate concentrations (1.4, 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) had no impact on plant residue decomposition, while greater concentrations of C (> 7.2 mg C g{sup -1}) reduced decomposition (-50%). Concurrently, high exudate concentrations (> 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) increased fungal and bacterial gene copy numbers, whereas low exudate concentrations (< 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) increased metabolic activity rather than gene copy numbers. These results underscore that labile soil C inputs can regulate decomposition of more recalcitrant soil C by controlling the activity and relative abundance of fungi and bacteria.

De Graaff, Marie-Anne [ORNL; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Castro Gonzalez, Hector F [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

2010-01-01

249

The Enterotoxicity of Clostridium difficile Toxins  

PubMed Central

The major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are two large exotoxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB). However, our understanding of the specific roles of these toxins in CDI is still evolving. It is now accepted that both toxins are enterotoxic and proinflammatory in the human intestine. Both purified TcdA and TcdB are capable of inducing the pathophysiology of CDI, although most studies have focused on TcdA. C. difficile toxins exert a wide array of biological activities by acting directly on intestinal epithelial cells. Alternatively, the toxins may target immune cells and neurons once the intestinal epithelial barrier is disrupted. The toxins may also act indirectly by stimulating cells to produce chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, neuropeptides and other neuroimmune signals. This review considers the mechanisms of TcdA- and TcdB-induced enterotoxicity, and recent developments in this field. PMID:22069662

Sun, Xingmin; Savidge, Tor; Feng, Hanping

2010-01-01

250

Immunotoxins: The Role of the Toxin  

PubMed Central

Immunotoxins are antibody-toxin bifunctional molecules that rely on intracellular toxin action to kill target cells. Target specificity is determined via the binding attributes of the chosen antibody. Mostly, but not exclusively, immunotoxins are purpose-built to kill cancer cells as part of novel treatment approaches. Other applications for immunotoxins include immune regulation and the treatment of viral or parasitic diseases. Here we discuss the utility of protein toxins, of both bacterial and plant origin, joined to antibodies for targeting cancer cells. Finally, while clinical goals are focused on the development of novel cancer treatments, much has been learned about toxin action and intracellular pathways. Thus toxins are considered both medicines for treating human disease and probes of cellular function. PMID:23965432

Antignani, Antonella; FitzGerald, David

2013-01-01

251

Crystallization of isoelectrically homogeneous cholera toxin  

SciTech Connect

Past difficulty in growing good crystals of cholera toxin has prevented the study of the crystal structure of this important protein. The authors have determined that failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well has been due to its heterogeneity. They have now succeeded in overcoming the problem by isolating a single isoelectric variant of this oligomeric protein (one A subunit and five B subunits). Cholera toxin purified by their procedure readily forms large single crystals. The crystal form has been described previously. They have recorded data from native crystals of cholera toxin to 3.0-{angstrom} resolution with our electronic area detectors. With these data, they have found the orientation of a 5-fold symmetry axis within these crystals, perpendicular to the screw dyad of the crystal. They are now determining the crystal structure of cholera toxin by a combination of multiple heavy-atom isomorphous replacement and density modification techniques, making use of rotational 5-fold averaging of the B subunits.

Spangler, B.D.; Westbrook, E.M. (Argonne National Laboratory, IL (USA))

1989-02-07

252

Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT) and diarrhea.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is a major enteropathogen of humans. It produces two main virulence factors, toxins A and B. A third, less well known toxin, C. difficile toxin (CDT), is a binary toxin composed of distinct enzymatic (CdtA) and cell binding/translocation (CdtB) proteins. We used a novel enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA) to detect CdtB protein in feces and culture fluids. Additionally, PCR was used to assay C. difficile isolates from fecal samples for the CDT locus (CdtLoc). Although the results from 80 isolates suggest no relationship between toxin concentrations in situ and in vitro, there is a good correlation between PCR detection of the cdtB gene and EIA detection of CdtB protein in vitro. Possible implications of the detection of CDT in patients are discussed. PMID:21376825

Carman, Robert J; Stevens, Adam L; Lyerly, Matthew W; Hiltonsmith, Megan F; Stiles, Bradley G; Wilkins, Tracy D

2011-08-01

253

Micropropagation of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill M. Wiecheteck M.E. Cortezzi Graga2 A.J. de Arajo3  

E-print Network

Micropropagation of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill M. Wiecheteck M.E. Cortezzi Graga2 A.J. de Araújo3 rhizogenesis (Mehra Palta, 1982). This paper describes a more successful system for micropropagation of E

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

254

Assessing the Selectivity of Extractant Solutions for Recovering Labile Arsenic Associated with Iron (Hydr)oxides and Sulfides in Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

Sequential extractions can provide analytical constraints on the identification of mineral phases that control arsenic speciation in sediments. Model solids were used in this study to evaluate different solutions designed to extract arsenic from relatively labile solid phases. ...

255

Reduced contribution of thermally-labile sugar lesions to DNA double-strand break formation after exposure to neutrons.  

PubMed

In cells exposed to ionizing radiation, double-strand breaks (DSBs) form within clustered damage sites from lesions disrupting the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone. It is commonly assumed that DSBs form promptly and are immediately detected and processed by the cellular DNA damage response apparatus. However, DSBs also form by delayed chemical conversion of thermally-labile sugar lesions (TLSL) to breaks. We recently reported that conversion of thermally-labile sugar lesions to breaks occurs in cells maintained at physiological temperatures. Here, we investigate the influence of radiation quality on the formation of thermally-labile sugar lesions dependent DSBs. We show that, although the yields of total DSBs are very similar after exposure to neutrons and X rays, the yields of thermally-labile sugar lesions dependent DSBs from neutrons are decreased in comparison to that from X rays. Thus, the yields of prompt DSBs for neutrons are greater than for X rays. Notably, after neutron irradiation the decreased yield of thermally-labile sugar lesion dependent DSBs is strongly cell line dependent, likely reflecting subtle differences in DNA organization. We propose that the higher ionization density of neutrons generates with higher probability prompt DSBs within ionization clusters and renders the ensuing chemical evolution of thermally-labile sugar lesions inconsequential to DNA integrity. Modification of thermally-labile sugar lesion evolution may define novel radiation protection strategies aiming at decreasing DSB formation by chemically preserving thermally-labile sugar lesions until other DSB contributing lesions within the clustered damage site are removed by non-DSB repair pathways. PMID:23088767

Singh, Satyendra K; Wu, Wenqi; Stuschke, Martin; Bockisch, Andreas; Iliakis, George

2012-12-01

256

9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...seized agent or toxin to an entity eligible to receive such agent or toxin or destroys the agent or toxin by a recognized sterilization or inactivation process. (2) The Federal law enforcement agency safeguards and secures the seized agent or toxin...

2010-01-01

257

9 CFR 121.3 - VS select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...seized agent or toxin to an entity eligible to receive such agent or toxin or destroys the agent or toxin by a recognized sterilization or inactivation process. (2) The Federal law enforcement agency safeguards and secures the seized agent or toxin...

2010-01-01

258

MATERIALS FOR BINDING MYCOTOXINS AND THEIR USE IN TOXIN DETECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Materials capable of binding mycotoxins find numerous uses. These include components of test kits for toxin detection, as agents for isolation of toxins from foods or toxin purification, and as binding agents to prevent toxin uptake and thereby protect domestic animals. There is no shortage of mat...

259

A food-poisoning incident caused by Clostridium botulinum toxin A in Japan.  

PubMed Central

Food poisoning caused by Clostridium botulinum toxin A occurred in Japan. Eleven (31%) of 36 patients from 14 different areas died of botulism. Most of the patients had eaten commercial fried lotus-rhizome solid mustard without heating. The food, which implicated one of the special local products used for gifts in Kumamoto, was found to have been produced by a manufacturer in Kumamoto prefecture. In Fukuoka prefecture, two of three patients died on days 4 and 8 after eating the food; they had typical symptoms of botulism. A total of 42 packages of the food bought as gifts was collected from different districts in Fukuoka prefecture for examination for both organism and toxin. Thirteen of these (31%) were contaminated with the organism, and in 11 (26%) a small amount of toxin A had been produced. PMID:3301378

Otofuji, T.; Tokiwa, H.; Takahashi, K.

1987-01-01

260

A food-poisoning incident caused by Clostridium botulinum toxin A in Japan.  

PubMed

Food poisoning caused by Clostridium botulinum toxin A occurred in Japan. Eleven (31%) of 36 patients from 14 different areas died of botulism. Most of the patients had eaten commercial fried lotus-rhizome solid mustard without heating. The food, which implicated one of the special local products used for gifts in Kumamoto, was found to have been produced by a manufacturer in Kumamoto prefecture. In Fukuoka prefecture, two of three patients died on days 4 and 8 after eating the food; they had typical symptoms of botulism. A total of 42 packages of the food bought as gifts was collected from different districts in Fukuoka prefecture for examination for both organism and toxin. Thirteen of these (31%) were contaminated with the organism, and in 11 (26%) a small amount of toxin A had been produced. PMID:3301378

Otofuji, T; Tokiwa, H; Takahashi, K

1987-08-01

261

Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles.

Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S

2005-03-15

262

Botulinum toxin injection for facial wrinkles.  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin injection for treatment of facial wrinkles is the most frequently performed cosmetic procedure in the United States, and it is one of the most common entry procedures for clinicians seeking to incorporate aesthetic treatments into their practice. Treatment of frown lines and crow's feet, which are the cosmetic indications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and horizontal forehead lines, offers predictable results, has few adverse effects, and is associated with high patient satisfaction. Wrinkles are formed by dermal atrophy and repetitive contraction of underlying facial musculature. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Injection of small quantities of botulinum toxin into specific overactive muscles causes localized muscle relaxation that smooths the overlying skin and reduces wrinkles. Botulinum toxin effects take about two weeks to fully develop and last three to four months. Dynamic wrinkles, seen during muscle contraction, yield more dramatic results than static wrinkles, which are visible at rest. Botulinum toxin injection is contraindicated in persons with keloidal scarring, neuromuscular disorders (e.g., myasthenia gravis), allergies to constituents of botulinum toxin products, and body dysmorphic disorder. Minor bruising can occur with botulinum toxin injection. Temporary blepharoptosis and eyebrow ptosis are rare complications that are technique-dependent; incidence declines as injector skill improves. PMID:25077722

Small, Rebecca

2014-08-01

263

Paradichlorobenzene (toxin)-induced leucoencephalopathy.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old woman with a history of polysubstance abuse, hypertension, depression and anxiety with panic attacks admitted to the emergency room at the request of her primary physician owing to progressive decline in her mental status associated with anorexia and generalised pruritic skin rashes. Initial outpatient workup and that during two previous hospital admissions including thyroid function and syphilis tests, urine toxicology screen and brain imaging studies were unremarkable. Repeat MRI of the brain during her third hospital admission showed diffuse periventricular and white matter disease. This prompted further questioning of family members which revealed chronic ingestion of mothballs and toilet cakes containing paradichlorobenzene in the patient leading to toxin-induced leucoencephalopathy consistent with her neurological symptoms of altered mental status, ataxic gait, cogwheel rigidity in the arms and characteristic skin rashes. Subsequently, a feeding tube was placed to address her worsening nutritional status and she was discharged home in a stable state. PMID:23608871

Buckman, Francis

2013-01-01

264

The role of toxin A and toxin B in the virulence of Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

During the past decade, there has been a striking increase in Clostridium difficile nosocomial infections worldwide predominantly due to the emergence of epidemic or hypervirulent isolates, leading to an increased research focus on this bacterium. Particular interest has surrounded the two large clostridial toxins encoded by most virulent isolates, known as toxin A and toxin B. Toxin A was thought to be the major virulence factor for many years; however, it is becoming increasingly evident that toxin B plays a much more important role than anticipated. It is clear that further experiments are required to accurately determine the relative roles of each toxin in disease, especially in more clinically relevant current epidemic isolates. PMID:22154163

Carter, Glen P; Rood, Julian I; Lyras, Dena

2012-01-01

265

In vitro induction of immunoglobulin A (IgA)- and IgM-secreting plasma blasts by cholera toxin depends on T-cell help and is mediated by CD154 up-regulation and inhibition of gamma interferon synthesis.  

PubMed

Cholera toxin (CT) and the type II heat-labile enterotoxins (LT-IIa and LT-IIb) are potent immunological adjuvants which are hypothesized to enhance the production of antibody (Ab)-secreting cells, although their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. The treatment of splenic cells with concanavalin A (ConA) plus CT enhanced the production of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM by dividing cells that expressed high levels of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), CD19, and CD138 and low levels of B220 a phenotype characteristic of plasma blasts. LT-IIa or LT-IIb moderately enhanced IgA and IgM production without enhancing plasma blast differentiation. CT up-regulated CD25, CD69, CD80, CD86, and MHC-II in isolated B cells but failed to induce proliferation or differentiation. The treatment of unfractionated splenic cells with ConA plus CT induced B-cell proliferation and differentiation, but the elimination of CD4(+) T cells inhibited this effect. CT treatment of ConA-activated CD4(+) T cells up-regulated CD134 and CD154, whereas the blockage of CD40-CD154 interactions inhibited the induction of plasma blasts and Ig synthesis. The treatment of unfractionated splenic cells with CT, LT-IIa, or LT-IIb enhanced the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10, whereas the production of gamma interferon was inhibited in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells mostly by CT. Thus, major regulatory effects of CT on lymphocytes are likely exerted early during the induction of immune responses when B and T cells initially encounter antigen. Neither LT-IIa or LT-IIb had these effects, indicating that type II enterotoxins augment Ab responses by other mechanisms. PMID:17220318

Arce, Sergio; Nawar, Hesham F; Muehlinghaus, Gwendolin; Russell, Michael W; Connell, Terry D

2007-03-01

266

Isogenic Lysogens of Diverse Shiga Toxin 2Encoding Bacteriophages Produce Markedly Different Amounts of Shiga Toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We produced isogenic Escherichia coli K-12 lysogens of seven different Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-encoding bacteriophages derived from clinical Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates of serotypes O157:H7, O145, O111, and O83 to assess the variability among these phages and determine if there were phage-related differences in toxin production. Phage genomic restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and superinfection resistance studies revealed

PATRICK L. WAGNER; DAVID W. K. ACHESON; MATTHEW K. WALDOR

1999-01-01

267

The Interactions of Human Neutrophils with Shiga Toxins and Related Plant Toxins: Danger or Safety?  

PubMed Central

Shiga toxins and ricin are well characterized similar toxins belonging to quite different biological kingdoms. Plant and bacteria have evolved the ability to produce these powerful toxins in parallel, while humans have evolved a defense system that recognizes molecular patterns common to foreign molecules through specific receptors expressed on the surface of the main actors of innate immunity, namely monocytes and neutrophils. The interactions between these toxins and neutrophils have been widely described and have stimulated intense debate. This paper is aimed at reviewing the topic, focusing particularly on implications for the pathogenesis and diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome. PMID:22741061

Brigotti, Maurizio

2012-01-01

268

Core-Shell Hydrogel Particles Harvest, Concentrate and Preserve Labile Low Abundance Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Background The blood proteome is thought to represent a rich source of biomarkers for early stage disease detection. Nevertheless, three major challenges have hindered biomarker discovery: a) candidate biomarkers exist at extremely low concentrations in blood; b) high abundance resident proteins such as albumin mask the rare biomarkers; c) biomarkers are rapidly degraded by endogenous and exogenous proteinases. Methodology and Principal Findings Hydrogel nanoparticles created with a N-isopropylacrylamide based core (365 nm)-shell (167 nm) and functionalized with a charged based bait (acrylic acid) were studied as a technology for addressing all these biomarker discovery problems, in one step, in solution. These harvesting core-shell nanoparticles are designed to simultaneously conduct size exclusion and affinity chromatography in solution. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), a clinically relevant, highly labile, and very low abundance biomarker, was chosen as a model. PDGF, spiked in human serum, was completely sequestered from its carrier protein albumin, concentrated, and fully preserved, within minutes by the particles. Particle sequestered PDGF was fully protected from exogenously added tryptic degradation. When the nanoparticles were added to a 1 mL dilute solution of PDGF at non detectable levels (less than 20 picograms per mL) the concentration of the PDGF released from the polymeric matrix of the particles increased within the detection range of ELISA and mass spectrometry. Beyond PDGF, the sequestration and protection from degradation for a series of additional very low abundance and very labile cytokines were verified. Conclusions and Significance We envision the application of harvesting core-shell nanoparticles to whole blood for concentration and immediate preservation of low abundance and labile analytes at the time of venipuncture. PMID:19274087

Longo, Caterina; Patanarut, Alexis; George, Tony; Bishop, Barney; Zhou, Weidong; Fredolini, Claudia; Ross, Mark M.; Espina, Virginia; Pellacani, Giovanni; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Luchini, Alessandra

2009-01-01

269

Labile Dissolved Organic Carbon Availability Controls Hyporheic Denitrification: a 15N Tracer Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used an in situ 15N-labeled nitrate (15NO3-) and acetate injection experiment to determine how the availability of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as acetate influences microbial denitrification in the hyporheic zone (HZ) of an upland (3rd-order) agricultural stream. A 48 h steady-state injection of a conservative tracer, chloride, and 15NO3- was used to quantify ambient HZ denitrification via 15N2 production. Following ambient plateau measurements of denitrification during the first 24 h, a second conservative tracer, bromide, and labile DOC source, acetate, were co-injected for an additional 24 h to measure HZ denitrification under increased DOC supply. Conservative tracers were observed at 4 of the 6 down gradient wells. Receiving wells represented HZ median residence times of 7.0 to 13.1 h, nominal flowpath lengths of 0.7 to 3.7 m, and hypoxic conditions (7.5 to 9.3 mg-O2 L-1 deficit). All 4 receiving wells demonstrated 15N2 production during ambient conditions indicating that the HZ was an active denitrification environment. Acetate addition stimulated significant increases in 15N2 production by factors of 2.7 to 26.1 in all receiving wells, and significant decreases of NO3- and DOC aromaticity (via SUVA254) in the two wells most hydrologically connected to the injection. In all receiving wells, increases of bromide and 15N2 production occurred without concurrent increases in acetate indicating that 100% of acetate was retained in the HZ, a portion of which is due to biological consumption. These results support our hypothesis that microbial denitrification in anaerobic portions of the hyporheic zone is limited by labile DOC supply.

Zarnetske, J. P.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.; Baker, M. A.

2009-12-01

270

INVESTIGATOIN OF CYANOBACTERIA TOXINS IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: Approximately 80 alkaloid and cyclic peptide toxins produced by various freshwater and marine cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) have been identified and their structures determined. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency has identified two neurotoxin alkalo...

271

How Parkinsonian Toxins Dysregulate the Autophagy Machinery  

PubMed Central

Since their discovery, Parkinsonian toxins (6-hydroxydopamine, MPP+, paraquat, and rotenone) have been widely employed as in vivo and in vitro chemical models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alterations in mitochondrial homeostasis, protein quality control pathways, and more recently, autophagy/mitophagy have been implicated in neurotoxin models of PD. Here, we highlight the molecular mechanisms by which different PD toxins dysregulate autophagy/mitophagy and how alterations of these pathways play beneficial or detrimental roles in dopamine neurons. The convergent and divergent effects of PD toxins on mitochondrial function and autophagy/mitophagy are also discussed in this review. Furthermore, we propose new diagnostic tools and discuss how pharmacological modulators of autophagy/mitophagy can be developed as disease-modifying treatments for PD. Finally, we discuss the critical need to identify endogenous and synthetic forms of PD toxins and develop efficient health preventive programs to mitigate the risk of developing PD. PMID:24217228

Dagda, Ruben K.; Das Banerjee, Tania; Janda, Elzbieta

2013-01-01

272

[Botulinum toxin in disabling dermatological diseases].  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin could represent nowadays a new treatment modality especially for cutaneous conditions in course of which conventional treatments remain unsuccessful. Besides palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis, botulinum toxin has demonstrated efficacy in different conditions associated with hyperhidrosis, such as dyshidrosis, multiple eccrine hidrocystomas, hidradenitis suppurativa, Frey syndrome, but also in different conditions worsened by hyperhidrosis such as Hailey-Hailey disease, Darier disease, inversed psoriasis, aquagenic palmoplantar keratoderma, pachyonychia congenital. Moreover, different cutaneous conditions associated with sensitive disorders and/or neurological involvements could benefit from botulinum toxin, for example anal fissures, leg ulcers, lichen simplex, notalgia paresthetica, vestibulitis. Endly, a case of cutis laxa was described where the patient was improved by cutaneous injections of botulinum toxin. PMID:19576479

Messikh, R; Atallah, L; Aubin, F; Humbert, P

2009-05-01

273

Botulinum Toxin Therapy in Congenital Blepharospasm  

PubMed Central

Botulinum toxin injections are the treatment of choice for the management of essential blepharospasm in adults. No cases of congenital blepharospasm have been described in the literature so far, and no cases of botulinum toxin injection in an infant have been reported. A 4-week-old girl was referred to our department with absent eye opening and spasmodically closed eyes. Pregnancy and delivery had been normal. A neuropediatric examination did not reveal useful findings. A periorbital injection of botulinum toxin was performed at the age of 2 months to prevent deprivation amblyopia. Four days later, clearly visible bilateral eye opening and commencement of eye contact were observed. At the age of 3 years, her eyelids remain open and no side effects of botulinum toxin therapy have occurred. PMID:25606035

Wabbels, Bettina

2014-01-01

274

ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin: functional analysis of a cellular system that stimulates the enzymic activity of cholera toxin fragment A/sub 1/  

SciTech Connect

The authors have clarified relationships between cholera toxin, cholera toxin substrates, a membrane protein S that is required for toxin activity, and a soluble protein CF that is needed for the function of S. The toxin has little intrinsic ability to catalyze ADP-ribosylations unless it encounters the active form of the S protein, which is S liganded to GTP or to a GTP analogue. In the presence of CF, S x GTP forms readily, though reversibly, but a more permanent active species, S-guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (S x GTP..gamma..S), forms over a period of 10-15 min at 37/sup 0/C. Both guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) and GTP block this quasi-permanent activation. Some S x GTP..gamma..S forms in membranes that are exposed to CF alone and then to GTP..gamma..S, with a wash in between, and it is possible that CF facilitates a G nucleotide exchange. S x GTP..gamma..S dissolved by nonionic detergents persists in solution and can be used to support the ADP-ribosylation of nucleotide-free substrates. In this circumstance, added guanyl nucleotides have no further effect. This active form of S is unstable, especially when heated, but the thermal inactivation above 45/sup 0/C is decreased by GTP..gamma..S. Active S is required equally for the ADP-ribosylation of all of cholera toxin's protein substrates, regardless of whether they bind GTP or not. They suggest that active S interacts directly with the enzymic A/sub 1/ fragments of cholera toxin and not with any toxin substrate. The activation and activity of S are independent of the state, or even the presence, of adenylate cyclase and seem to be involved with the cyclase system only via cholera toxin. S is apparently not related by function to certain other GTP binding proteins, including p21/sup ras/, and appears to be a new GTP binding protein whose physiologic role remains to be identified.

Gill, D.M.; Coburn, J.

1987-10-06

275

Organic chemistry of basal ice - presence of labile, low molecular weight compounds available for microbial metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies show that subglacial environments previously thought to be devoid of life contain a host of active microbial organisms. Presence of liquid water due to overburden pressure, the release of nutrients from chemical erosion of bedrock, and the potential carbon sources in overridden sediments facilitate life in this extreme environment. However, little is still known of concentrations and diversity of labile organic compounds essential for sustaining microbial metabolism in subglacial environments. Three subglacial ecosystems that considerably differ in range and amount of available organic compounds were selected for this study 1-Engabreen, northern Norway, overlying high-grade metamorphic rocks with low organic carbon content; 2-Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, overriding ancient black shales with a relatively high carbon content yet recalcitrant to microbiological consumption; and 3-Russell Glacier in western Greenland with recently overridden quaternary organic rich paleosols. Basal and pressure ridge ice samples were collected and subsequently analysed for low molecular weight organic compounds, with the emphasis on volatile fatty acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. The highest concentration of labile organic compounds in Greenland basal ice suggest that recently overridden paleosols have the greatest potential for sustaining microbial populations present within and underneath basal ice. The high concentration of "ancient" organic carbon in basal ice from Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, doesn't correlate with the presence of labile organic compounds. This indicates the inability of microbes to digest recalcitrant kerogen carbon in cold temperatures. In all three investigated environments, concentrations of labile organic compounds are elevated in basal ice with a high debris content. Until recently, most models of the global carbon cycle tend to neglect the pool of subglacial organic carbon as little is known about the range and concentrations of organic compounds as well as the composition of microbial communities and their ability to degrade and metabolize organic carbon at low temperatures. Recently overridden paleosols in western Greenland may serve as a biogeochemical model for vast pool of organic carbon from areas of boreal forest and tundra overridden during the Quaternary glacial cycles.

Lis, Grzegorz P.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Lawson, Emily; Stibal, Marek; Telling, Jon

2010-05-01

276

REE distribution pattern in river sediments: partitioning into residual and labile fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess rare earth element (REE) distribution, fractionation during weathering processes and river transport, a sequential extraction procedure was applied to 36 river sediments collected from different rivers in Argentina, Brazil, France and Morocco. The results show that labile REE fractions are mainly linked to carbonates, iron oxides or organic matter according to the river. Moreover the leached REE do not behave as a coherent group: middle REE are mainly bound to carbonates or organic matter, whereas light REE (except cerium) are preferentially linked to organic matter and heavy REE and cerium are associated with iron oxides.

Leleyter, Lydia; Probst, Jean-Luc; Depetris, Pedro; Haida, Souad; Mortatti, Jefferson; Rouault, Robert; Samuel, Jean

1999-08-01

277

The enteric toxins of Clostridium perfringens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens is a major cause of human and veterinary enteric disease largely because this bacterium can produce several toxins when present inside the gastrointestinal tract. The enteric toxins of C. perfringens share two common features: (1) they are all single polypeptides of modest (~25–35 kDa) size, although lacking in sequence homology, and (2) they generally act by

J. G. Smedley III; D. J. Fisher; S. Sayeed; G. Chakrabarti; B. A. McClane

2004-01-01

278

The enteric toxins of Clostridium perfringens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gram-positive pathogenClostridium perfringens is a major cause of human and veterinary enteric disease largely because this bacterium can produce several toxins when present\\u000a inside the gastrointestinal tract. The enteric toxins of C. perfringens share two common features: (1) they are all single polypeptides of modest (~25—35 kDa) size, although lacking in sequence\\u000a homology, and (2) they generally act by

J. G. Smedley; D. J. Fisher; S. Sayeed; G. Chakrabarti; B. A. McClane

279

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and\\/or oxy acids: [d-O-Leu-d-Ala-l-O-Val-l-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the

Per Einar Granum; Terje Lund

1997-01-01

280

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

In the United States, it is estimated that non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause more illnesses than STEC O157:H7, and the majority of cases of non-O157 STEC infections are due to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, referred to as the top six non-O157 STEC. The diseases caused by non-O157 STEC are generally milder than those induced by O157 STEC; nonetheless, non-O157 STEC strains have also been associated with serious illnesses such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome, as well as death. Ruminants, particularly cattle, are reservoirs for both O157 and non-O157 STEC, which are transmitted to humans by person-to-person or animal contact and by ingestion of food or water contaminated with animal feces. Improved strategies to control STEC colonization and shedding in cattle and contamination of meat and produce are needed. In general, non-O157 STEC respond to stresses such as acid, heat, and other stresses induced during food preparation similar to O157 STEC. Similar to O157:H7, the top six non-O157 STEC are classified as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, and regulatory testing for these pathogens began in June 2012. Due to the genetic and phenotypic variability of non-O157 STEC strains, the development of accurate and reliable methods for detection and isolation of these pathogens has been challenging. Since the non-O157 STEC are responsible for a large portion of STEC-related illnesses, more extensive studies on their physiology, genetics, pathogenicity, and evolution are needed in order to develop more effective control strategies. PMID:24377855

Smith, James L; Fratamico, Pina M; Gunther, Nereus W

2014-01-01

281

Is cardiorespiratory failure induced by bacterial toxins the cause of sudden infant death syndrome? Studies with an animal model (the rabbit).  

PubMed

Recent studies have implicated various toxigenic bacteria and their toxins in the aetiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Therefore the effect of six bacterial toxins on the cardiorespiratory system of the rabbit was studied as a model for SIDS. The toxins' effect on the heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and breathing of anaesthetized rabbits was determined and their action compared to that of endotoxin. Intravenous injection of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and alpha-toxin, Staphylococcus enterotoxin B, Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin (STa), Clostridium difficile toxin A and B reduced heart rate, blood pressure, respiration and increased, slowed and prolonged thorax expansion, and at higher concentrations caused sudden death without visible stress or trauma. A combination of a low concentration of enterotoxins caused a greater reduction of these activities and sudden death. These effects were generally similar to those produced by endotoxin. In non-anaesthetized rabbits, the toxins slowed metabolism until death occurred without agitation, spasms, visible distress or prolonged illness. Intestinal production of these toxins by toxigenic strains, when conditions are suitable, and their systemic absorption, could therefore cause SIDS by an endotoxin-like shock mechanism. PMID:7660368

Siarakas, S; Damas, E; Murrell, W G

1995-05-01

282

Identification of the Cellular Receptor of Clostridium spiroforme Toxin  

PubMed Central

Clostridium spiroforme produces the binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin CST (C. spiroforme toxin), which has been proposed to be responsible for diarrhea, enterocolitis, and eventually death, especially in rabbits. Here we report on the recombinant production of the enzyme component (CSTa) and the binding component (CSTb) of C. spiroforme toxin in Bacillus megaterium. By using the recombinant toxin components, we show that CST enters target cells via the lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR), which has been recently identified as the host cell receptor of the binary toxins Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT) and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin. Microscopic studies revealed that CST, but not the related Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin, colocalized with LSR during toxin uptake and traffic to endosomal compartments. Our findings indicate that CST shares LSR with C. difficile CDT and C. perfringens iota toxin as a host cell surface receptor. PMID:22252869

Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Wilczek, Claudia; Nölke, Thilo; Guttenberg, Gregor; Hornuss, Daniel; Schwan, Carsten

2012-01-01

283

Frequency of Binary Toxin Genes among Clostridium difficile Strains That Do Not Produce Large Clostridial Toxins  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic strains of Clostridium difficile commonly produce two large clostridial toxins (LCTs), A and B, virulence factors responsible for C. difficile disease. Some strains have been reported to produce an additional toxin, a binary toxin designated CDT. Binary toxin has cytotoxic effects on cells in culture, but its role in human disease is not yet defined. In this study we examined the frequency of binary toxin genes (cdtB and cdtA) among C. difficile isolates that do not produce LCTs (A? B?) from a large United States-based collection organized by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) typing. Of 58 strains tested, 9 (15.5%) were cdtB and cdtA positive, including 4 of 46 (8.7%) non-LCT-producing REA groups, with an estimated prevalence of at least 2% of all non-LCT-producing isolates within the collection. Five of the binary toxin-positive strains belonged to toxinotype XI, which does not produce LCTs but has minor parts of the LCT coding region or pathogenicity locus (PaLoc). We describe two new binary toxin-positive variants, one without any remnant of the LCT genes. This previously unknown variation was found in three isolates that were unrelated by REA typing. LCT-negative, binary toxin-positive strains were isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients and from the hospital environment. PMID:14605169

Geric, Barbara; Johnson, Stuart; Gerding, Dale N.; Grabnar, Miklavz; Rupnik, Maja

2003-01-01

284

Heterotrophic activity and biodegradation of labile and refractory compounds by groundwater and stream microbial populations.  

PubMed

The bacteriology and heterotrophic activity of a stream and of nearby groundwater in Marmot Basin, Alberta, Canada, were studied. Acridine orange direct counts indicated that bacterial populations in the groundwater were greater than in the stream. Bacteria that were isolated from the groundwater were similar to species associated with soils. Utilization of labile dissolved organic material as measured by the heterotrophic potential technique with glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and glycolic acid as substrates was generally greater in the groundwater. In addition, specific activity indices for the populations suggested greater metabolic activity per bacterium in the groundwater. 14C-labeled lignocellulose, preferentially labeled in the lignin fraction by feeding Picea engelmannii [14C]phenylalanine, was mineralized by microorganisms in both the groundwater and the stream, but no more than 4% of the added radioactivity was lost as 14CO2 within 960 h. Up to 20% of [3'-14C]cinnamic acid was mineralized by microorganisms in both environments within 500 h. Both microbial populations appear to influence the levels of labile and recalcitrant dissolved organic material in mountain streams. PMID:7125651

Ladd, T I; Ventullo, R M; Wallis, P M; Costerton, J W

1982-08-01

285

Constraints on Transport and Emplacement Mechanisms of Labile Fractions in Lunar Cold Traps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sustaining the scientific exploration of the Solar System will require a significant proportion of the necessary fuels and propellants, as well as other bulk commodities, to be produced from local raw materials [1]. The viability of mineral production depends on the ability to locate and characterize mineable deposits of the necessary feedstocks. This requires, among other things, a workable understanding of the mechanisms by which such deposits form, which is the subject of Economic Geology. Multiple deposition scenarios are possible for labile materials on the Moon. This paper suggests labile fractions moved diffusely through space; deposits may grow richer with depth until low porosity rock; lateral transport is likely to have occurred with the regolith, at least for short distances; crystalline ice may not exist; the constituent phases could be extremely complex. At present we can constrain the sources only mildly; once on the Moon, the transport mechanisms inherently mix and therefore obscure the origins. However, the importance of expanding our understanding of ore-forming processes on the Moon behooves us to make the attempt. Thus begins a time of new inquiry for Economic Geology.

Rickman, D.; Gertsch, L.

2014-01-01

286

Tracing of labile zinc in live fish hepatocytes using FluoZin-3.  

PubMed

Intracellular zinc levels are homeostatically regulated and although most is bound, a pool of labile Zn(II) is present in cells. We show here that the zinc probe FluoZin-3 is useful to monitor zinc fluxes during fluorescent imaging of the trout hepatic cell line D11. Nuclei and bulk cytosol appeared to lack detectable labile zinc, while the punctuate staining pattern colocalized with a lysosome-specific probe. Applying extracellular zinc alone resulted in vesicular sequestration of the metal ion. Together with Na-pyrithione a delayed and toxic rise in cellular fluorescence was triggered. When using another ionophore, 4-Br A23187, a zinc buffering effect of the vesicular pools was evident. Secondly, N-ethylmaleimide induced a homogeneous fluorescence rise, which was strongly enhanced by addition of Zn-pyrithione and disappeared after TPEN washing. This suggests the involvement of thiol residues in controlling available cytosolic zinc. Our observations have implications for the interpretation of calculated intracellular Zn2+ concentrations. PMID:16841253

Muylle, Frederik A R; Adriaensen, Dirk; De Coen, Wim; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Blust, Ronny

2006-08-01

287

Lack of correlation between non-labile iron parameters, total carbonyl and malondialdehyde in major thalassemia  

PubMed Central

Thalassemia patients are at high risk of iron-induced toxicity and oxidative stress consequences. The present cross-sectional study is conducted to determine whether or not lipid peroxidation or protein oxidation is correlated with iron parameters in patients with thalassemia major. To prove this hypothesis, malondialdehyde and total carbonyl were correlated with the degree of excess iron concentration in the patients. A total of 118 Arabic Iraqi patients and 30 healthy children were participated in the present study. Results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum total carbonyls, malondialdehyde and the iron indices of patients as compared with the control group. Total iron binding capacity and transferrin concentrations decreased significantly (p<0.05) in patients with thalassemia compared with the control group. The results also showed a lack of a significant correlation between each serum malondialdehyde and total carbonyl with each component of iron status. In conclusion, total carbonyls and malondialdehyde were increased in thalassemia patients indicating the vulnerability of these patients to tissue injury caused by oxidative stress. The formation of total carbonyl and malondialdehyde are independent of excess non-labile iron concentration, indicating that different mechanisms are involved in injury caused by the labile iron and in the formation of oxidation end products. PMID:25411527

Al-Hakeim, Hussein Kadhem; Auda, Furqan Muein; Ali, Basim Muhammed

2014-01-01

288

Heterotrophic activity and biodegradation of labile and refractory compounds by groundwater and stream microbial populations.  

PubMed Central

The bacteriology and heterotrophic activity of a stream and of nearby groundwater in Marmot Basin, Alberta, Canada, were studied. Acridine orange direct counts indicated that bacterial populations in the groundwater were greater than in the stream. Bacteria that were isolated from the groundwater were similar to species associated with soils. Utilization of labile dissolved organic material as measured by the heterotrophic potential technique with glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and glycolic acid as substrates was generally greater in the groundwater. In addition, specific activity indices for the populations suggested greater metabolic activity per bacterium in the groundwater. 14C-labeled lignocellulose, preferentially labeled in the lignin fraction by feeding Picea engelmannii [14C]phenylalanine, was mineralized by microorganisms in both the groundwater and the stream, but no more than 4% of the added radioactivity was lost as 14CO2 within 960 h. Up to 20% of [3'-14C]cinnamic acid was mineralized by microorganisms in both environments within 500 h. Both microbial populations appear to influence the levels of labile and recalcitrant dissolved organic material in mountain streams. PMID:7125651

Ladd, T I; Ventullo, R M; Wallis, P M; Costerton, J W

1982-01-01

289

High rates of soil respiration suggest large fluxes of labile C in a turfgrass system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured high rates of soil respiration (up to 19 ?mol C m-2 sec-1) in a study of management effects on turfgrass lawns. Estimates based on these measurements indicate that annual soil respiration is on the order of 15-30 Mg C ha-1, which seems high, given measured NPP of 3-6 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and 0-10 cm soil C pools of 15-20 Mg C ha-1 which showed no net change over the study period. We contend that this flux is plausible, given irrigation and fertilizer applications, and hypothesize that in this context, soil respiration is driven largely by assimilate availability. We provide several lines of evidence supporting the idea that large fluxes of readily labile C move through this system: Biomass growth rates were highly correlated with soil respiration rates; we observed statistically significant variation in soil C stocks, dramatic changes in microbial biomass stoichiometry, and major shifts in N mineralization and nitrification over the course of a single growing season; and long-term soil incubations appear to show the accumulation and depletion of a substantial pool of labile C.

Lilly, P.; Jenkins, J. C.; Carroll, M.

2013-12-01

290

Labile Capping Bonds in Lanthanide(III) Complexes: Shorter and Weaker.  

PubMed

For a wide range of trivalent lanthanide ion coordination complexes of tricapped trigonal prism or monocapped square antiprism configurations, the bonds between the central lanthanide ions and the capping ligands are found to violate Badger's rule: they can get weaker as they get shorter. We demonstrate that this observation originates from the screening and repulsion effect of the prism ligands. Both effects enhance as the electric field of the central ion or the softness of the prism ligands increases. Thus, for heavier lanthanides, despite the fact that the capping bond could be shorter, it is more efficient to be weakened by the prism ligands, being inherently labile. This concept of "labile capping bonds phenomenon" is then successfully used to interpret many problems in lanthanide(III) hydration, e.g., why the water exchange rate of a lanthanide(III) complex is much higher in a twisted square antiprism than in square antiprism configuration. Thus, the theory proposed in this paper offers new insights in understanding chemical problems. PMID:25547783

Zhang, Jun; Dolg, Michael

2015-01-29

291

Localization of alkali-labile sites in donkey (Equus asinus) and stallion (Equus caballus) spermatozoa.  

PubMed

The presence of constitutive alkali-labile sites (ALS) has been investigated using a protocol of DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization and comet assay in spermatozoa of donkey (Equus asinus) and stallion (Equus caballus). These results were compared with those obtained using a similar experimental approach using somatic cells. The relative abundance of ALS was of the order of four times more in spermatozoa than in somatic cells. Alkali-labile sites showed a tendency to cluster localized at the equatorial-distal regions of the sperm. The amount of hybridized signal in the ALS in the sperm of donkey (Equus asinus) was 1.3 times greater than in stallion (Equus caballus), and the length of the comet tail obtained in donkey sperm was 1.6 times longer than that observed in stallion (P < 0.05); however, these differences were not appreciated in somatic cells. In conclusion, ALS localization in sperm is not a randomized event and a different pattern of ALS distribution occurs for each species. These results suggest that ALS represents a species-specific issue related to chromatin organization in sperm and somatic cells in mammalian species, and they might diverge even with very short phylogenetic distances. PMID:24182740

Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; López-Fernández, Carmen; Fernández, José Luis; Crespo, Francisco; Gosálvez, Jaime

2014-01-15

292

[Botulinum toxin therapy for spasticity].  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin (BTX) administered as an adjunct to other interventions for spasticity can act as a useful and effective therapeutic tool for treating patients disabled by spasticity. Presence of other non-reflex motor disorders (muscle stiffness, shortness, and contracture) can complicate the clinical course and disturb rehabilitative process of patients with spasticity. Treatment of spasticity using BTX can improve paralysis by correcting muscular imbalance that follows these diseases. In patients with chronic severe spasticity, we also have to address unique and difficult-to-treat clinical conditions such as abnormal posture and movement disorders. The effectiveness of BTX in treating some of these conditions is discussed. Because patients with neurological disabilities can show complex dysfunctions, specific functional limitations, goals, and expected outcomes of treatment should be evaluated and discussed with the patient, family members, and caregivers, prior to initiating BTX therapy. BTX therapy might improve not only care, passive function, but also motor functions in these patients by supplementing intensive rehabilitation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct-current stimulation, peripheral electrical stimulation, muscle stretching, and other rehabilitation strategies. PMID:25200575

Masakado, Yoshihisa

2014-09-01

293

Analysis of remineralisation, lability, temperature sensitivity and structural composition of organic matter from the upper ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic carbon (OC) synthesised by plankton is exported out of the surface layer as particulate (POC) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon. This 'biological pump' constitutes a major pathway in the global marine carbon cycle, each year exporting about 10 Pg C into the ocean interior, where it is subsequently remineralised via biological decomposition. Remineralised inorganic nutrients and carbon are, ultimately, again brought to the surface by advection and turbulent mixing which closes the OC-cycle in the upper ocean. Thus, remineralisation rates of OC are a critical component of the biological pump. These rates are regulated by the lability of the material and the environmental conditions in the ambient water. Temperature is particularly important in regulating the rate of microbial respiration and, thus, remineralisation rates. A significant temperature dependence of the microbial metabolic activity in the ocean interior is expected, as this is a feature observed elsewhere in the biosphere. Such temperature dependence of microbial remineralisation of POC and DOC will alter the amount of material available for transport by the biological pump to the deep ocean. Very few studies on the lability of OC and temperature sensitivity of microbial degradation processes in the mesopelagic zone (?100-1000 m) have, to date, been carried out. Here, we present a comprehensive new experimental data set from all major ocean basins and quantify remineralisation rates of OC and their temperature sensitivity in long-term incubations of water from the upper 350 m. Microbial respiration was measured by non-invasive oxygen optodes and oxygen consumption was used as a constraint for determining the remineralisation rates and temperature sensitivity by two complementary methods. First, we analysed the oxygen consumption from a multi-component OC-model where the concentration, remineralisation rates and temperature sensitivity of two bio-available (labile) pools of organic carbon were fitted to the data via a non-linear fitting procedure. Thereafter, a continuous OC-model was fitted to the data through an inverse method and information about lability, temperature sensitivity and structural composition of the OC-pool was analysed together with the results from the two-pool solutions. Median values of remineralisation rates from all experiments on material characterising sinking POC were found to be 0.6 and 0.05 days-1 for the two decomposable pools corresponding to turnover times of 2 and 21 days, respectively. Accordingly, solutions from the continuous model resulted in median turnover times between 6 and 11 days. Similar analyses were carried out for the OC-pool characterising DOC. A significant bio-available OC-pool was found to be present in the surface layer with a median value from all experiments of 30 ?M TOC. The median values of all remineralisation rates from the two bio-available OC-pools were found to be 0.2 and 0.02 days-1, corresponding to turnover times of 5 and 56 days, respectively, in good agreement with previous studies. The corresponding temperature sensitivities, characterised by a Q10-value, were found to be about 1.9 for the POC-fraction whereas the DOC fraction was characterised with values above 2.8 for the continuous OC-models. The analysis of the structural composition indicated that the TOC distribution in the surface layer was characterised by more heterogeneous material in terms of lability compared with the POC material sampled from the upper 350 m. Finally, we analyse the potential impact of the calculated temperature sensitivity on the general OC-cycling in the upper ocean and show that the implied reduction in OC-flux in a warmer ocean may have significant impact on nutrient cycling in general and also tends to reduce future ocean carbon uptake significantly.

Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.; Richardson, Katherine

2015-01-01

294

Shiga Toxin (Stx) Classification, Structure, and Function  

PubMed Central

Shiga toxin (Stx) is one of the most potent bacterial toxins known. Stx is found in Shigella dysenteriae 1 and in some serogroups of Escherichia coli (called Stx1 in E. coli). In addition to or instead of Stx1, some E. coli strains produce a second type of Stx, Stx2, that has the same mode of action as Stx/Stx1 but that is antigenically distinct. Because subtypes of each toxin have been identified, the prototype toxin for each group is now designated Stx1a or Stx2a. The Stxs consist of two major subunits, an A subunit that joins noncovalently to a pentamer of five identical B subunits. The A subunit of the toxin injures the eukaryotic ribosome, and halts protein synthesis in target cells. The function of the B pentamer is to bind to the cellular receptor, globotriaosylceramide, Gb3, found primarily on endothelial cells. The Stxs traffic in a retrograde manner within the cell, such that the A subunit of the toxin reaches the cytosol only after the toxin moves from the endosome to the Golgi and then to the endoplasmic reticulum. In humans infected with Stx-producing E. coli (STEC), the most serious manifestation of the disease, the hemolytic uremic syndrome or HUS, is more often associated with strains that produce Stx2a rather than Stx1a, and that relative toxicity is replicated in mice and baboons. Stx1a and Stx2a also exhibit differences in cytotoxicity to various cell types, bind dissimilarly to receptor analogs or mimics, induce differential chemokine responses, and have several distinctive structural characteristics.

Melton-Celsa, Angela R.

2014-01-01

295

Inhibition of Cereulide Toxin Synthesis by Emetic Bacillus cereus via Long-Chain Polyphosphates ?  

PubMed Central

Severe intoxications caused by the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin cereulide can hardly be prevented due to the ubiquitous distribution and heat resistance of spores and the extreme thermal and chemical stability of cereulide. It would therefore be desirable to inhibit cereulide synthesis during food manufacturing processes or in prepared foods, which are stored under time-temperature abuse conditions. Toward this end, the impacts of three long-chain polyphosphate (polyP) formulations on growth and cereulide production were examined. The inhibition was dependent on the concentration and the type of the polyP blend, indicating that polyPs and not the orthophosphates were effective. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) monitoring at sublethal concentrations revealed that polyPs reduced the transcription of ces nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes by 3- to 4-fold along with a significantly reduced toxin production level. At lower concentrations, toxin synthesis was decreased, although the growth rate was not affected. These data indicate a differential effect on toxin synthesis independent of growth inhibition. The inhibition of toxin synthesis in food was also observed. Despite the growth of B. cereus, toxin synthesis was reduced by 70 to 100% in two model food systems (reconstituted infant food and oat milk), which were analyzed with HEp-2 cell culture assays and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). Accordingly, ces promoter activity was strongly downregulated, as visualized by using a lux-based reporter strain. These data illustrate the potential of polyphosphate formulations to reduce the risk of cereulide synthesis in food and may contribute to targeted hurdle concepts. PMID:21169440

Frenzel, Elrike; Letzel, Thomas; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

2011-01-01

296

A model genetic system for testing the in vivo function of peptide toxins.  

PubMed

We have developed a model genetic system for analyzing the function of peptide toxins from animal venoms. We engineered and propagated strains of Drosophila melanogaster expressing heat-inducible transgenes encoding either kappa-ACTX-Hv1c or omega-ACTX-Hv1a, two insect-specific neurotoxic peptides found in the venom of the Australian funnel-web spider Hadronyche versuta. Heat induction of transgene expression for 20 min was sufficient to kill all transgenic flies, indicating that the ion channels targeted by these toxins are viable insecticide targets. The unusual phenotype of flies induced to express omega-ACTX-Hv1a recapitulates that of a hypomorphic allele of the high-voltage-activated calcium channel Dmca1D, suggesting that this is likely to be the target of omega-ACTX-Hv1a. PMID:17141372

Tedford, Hugo W; Maggio, Francesco; Reenan, Robert A; King, Glenn

2007-01-01

297

Sources, lability and solubility of Pb in alluvial soils of the River Trent catchment, U.K.  

PubMed

Alluvial soils are reservoirs of metal contaminants such as Pb that originate from many different sources and are integrated temporally and spatially through erosional and depositional processes. In this study the source, lability and solubility of Pb were examined in a range of alluvial soils from the middle and lower River Trent and its tributary the River Dove using Pb isotope apportionment and isotopic dilution. All samples were collected within 10 m of the river bank to represent the soil that is most likely to be remobilised during bank erosion. Paired samples were taken from the topsoil (0-15 cm) and subsoil (35-50 cm) to assess differences with depth. Lead concentrations in soil ranged from 43 to 1282 mg/kg. The lability of soil Pb varied between 9 and 56% of total metal concentration whilst Pb concentrations in pore water varied between 0.2 and 6.5 ?g/L. There was little difference in the % Pb lability between paired top and sub soils, possibly because soil characteristics such as pH, iron oxides and clay content were generally similar; a result of the recycling of eroded and deposited soils within the river system. Soil pH was found to be negatively correlated with % Pb lability. Source apportionment using (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios showed that the isotopic ratios of Pb in the total, labile and solution pools fitted along a mixing line between Broken Hill Type ('BHT') Pb, used as an additive in UK petrol, and the local coal/Southern Pennine ore Pb. Various anomalies were found in the Pb isotopes of the bankside alluvial soils which were explained by point source pollution. Statistically significant differences were found between (i) the isotopic composition of Pb in the total soil pool and the labile/solution pools and (ii) the isotopic composition of Pb in the labile and solution pools, suggesting an enrichment of recent non-Pennine sources of Pb entering the soils in the labile and solution pools. PMID:22771468

Izquierdo, M; Tye, A M; Chenery, S R

2012-09-01

298

Genetic characteristics of toxigenic Clostridia and toxin gene evolution.  

PubMed

Clostridia comprise a heterogenous group of environmental bacteria containing 15 pathogenic species, which produce the most potent toxins. The origin of toxins is still enigmatic. It is hypothesized that toxins exhibiting an enzymatic activity have derived from hydrolytic enzymes, which are abundantly secreted by these bacteria, and that pore-forming toxins have evolved from an ancestor transmembrane protein. The presence of related toxin genes in distinct Clostridium species and the variability of some toxin genes support horizontal toxin gene transfer and subsequent independent evolution from strain to strain. Clostridium perfringens toxin genes involved in myonecrosis, mainly alpha toxin and perfringolysin genes, are chromosomally located, whereas toxin genes responsible for intestinal and food borne diseases are localized on plasmids except the enterotoxin gene which can be located either on the chromosome or plasmids. The distribution of these plasmids containing one or several toxin genes accounts for the diverse C. perfringens toxinotypes. Clostridium difficile strains show a high genetic variability. But in contrast to C. perfringens, toxin genes are clustered in pathogenicity locus located on chromosome. The presence of related toxin genes in distinct clostridial species like Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium novyi, and C. perfringens supports interspecies mobilization of this locus. The multiple C. difficile toxinotypes based on toxin gene variants possibly reflect strain adaptation to the intestinal environment. Botulinum toxin genes also show a high level of genetic variation. They have a diverse genetic localization including chromosome, plasmid or phage, and are spread in various Clostridium species (Clostridium botulinum groups, Clostridium argentinense, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium baratii). Exchange of toxin genes not only include transfers between Clostridium species but also between Clostridium and other bacterial species as well as eukaryotic cells as supported by the wide distribution of related pore-forming toxins of the aerolysin family in various clostridial and non-clostridial species, animal, mushroom and plant. PMID:23707611

Popoff, Michel R; Bouvet, Philippe

2013-12-01

299

A Truncated Diphtheria Toxin Based Recombinant Porcine CTLA-4 Fusion Toxin  

PubMed Central

Targeted cell therapies are possible through the generation of recombinant fusion proteins that combine a toxin, such as diphtheria toxin (DT), with an antibody or other molecule that confers specificity. Upon binding of the fusion protein to the cell of interest, the diphtheria toxin is internalized which results in protein synthesis inhibition and subsequent cell death. We have recently expressed and purified the recombinant soluble porcine CTLA-4 both with and without N-glycosylation in yeast Pichia Pastoris for in vivo use in our preclinical swine model. The glycosylated and non-N-glycosylated versions of this recombinant protein each bind to a porcine CD80 expressing B-cell lymphoma line (LCL13271) with equal affinity (KD = 13 nM). In this study we have linked each of the glycosylated and non-N-glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 proteins to the truncated diphtheria toxin DT390 through genetic engineering yielding three versions of the porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxins: 1) monovalent glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin; 2) monovalent non-N-glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin and 3) bivalent non-N-glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin. Protein synthesis inhibition analysis demonstrated that while all three fusion toxins are capable of inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro, the non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 isoforms function most efficiently. Binding analysis using flow cytometry of the porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxins to LCL13271 cells also demonstrated that the non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 isoforms bind to theses cells with higher affinity compared to the glycosylated fusion toxin. The monovalent non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin was tested in vivo. NSG (NOD/SCID IL-2 receptor ??/?) mice were injected with porcine CD80+ LCL13271 tumor cells. All animals succumbed to tumors and those treated with the monovalent non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin survived longer based on a symptomatic scoring system compared to the untreated controls. This recombinant protein may therefore provide a novel approach for in vivo depletion of porcine antigen presenting cells (APCs) for studies investigating the induction of transplantation tolerance, autoimmune disease and cancer treatment. PMID:23470981

Peraino, Jaclyn Stromp; Schenk, Marian; Zhang, Huiping; Li, Guoying; Hermanrud, Christina E.; Neville, David M.; Sachs, David H.; Huang, Christene A.; Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Wang, Zhirui

2013-01-01

300

Cyanobacterial Toxin Degrading Bacteria: Who Are They?  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in nature and are both beneficial and detrimental to humans. Benefits include being food supplements and producing bioactive compounds, like antimicrobial and anticancer substances, while their detrimental effects are evident by toxin production, causing major ecological problems at the ecosystem level. To date, there are several ways to degrade or transform these toxins by chemical methods, while the biodegradation of these compounds is understudied. In this paper, we present a meta-analysis of the currently available 16S rRNA and mlrA (microcystinase) genes diversity of isolates known to degrade cyanobacterial toxins. The available data revealed that these bacteria belong primarily to the Proteobacteria, with several strains from the sphingomonads, and one from each of the Methylobacillus and Paucibacter genera. Other strains belonged to the genera Arthrobacter, Bacillus, and Lactobacillus. By combining the ecological knowledge on the distribution, abundance, and ecophysiology of the bacteria that cooccur with toxic cyanobacterial blooms and newly developed molecular approaches, it is possible not only to discover more strains with cyanobacterial toxin degradation abilities, but also to reveal the genes associated with the degradation of these toxins. PMID:23841072

Kormas, Konstantinos Ar.; Lymperopoulou, Despoina S.

2013-01-01

301

Array biosensor for detection of toxins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The array biosensor is capable of detecting multiple targets rapidly and simultaneously on the surface of a single waveguide. Sandwich and competitive fluoroimmunoassays have been developed to detect high and low molecular weight toxins, respectively, in complex samples. Recognition molecules (usually antibodies) were first immobilized in specific locations on the waveguide and the resultant patterned array was used to interrogate up to 12 different samples for the presence of multiple different analytes. Upon binding of a fluorescent analyte or fluorescent immunocomplex, the pattern of fluorescent spots was detected using a CCD camera. Automated image analysis was used to determine a mean fluorescence value for each assay spot and to subtract the local background signal. The location of the spot and its mean fluorescence value were used to determine the toxin identity and concentration. Toxins were measured in clinical fluids, environmental samples and foods, with minimal sample preparation. Results are shown for rapid analyses of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, ricin, cholera toxin, botulinum toxoids, trinitrotoluene, and the mycotoxin fumonisin. Toxins were detected at levels as low as 0.5 ng mL(-1).

Ligler, Frances S.; Taitt, Chris Rowe; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Shubin, Yura; Golden, Joel P.

2003-01-01

302

Thermal degradation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in scallop digestive glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestive glands containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were isolated from toxic scallops. Citrate\\/phosphate buffers with the pH values ranging from 3 to 7 were added to achieve predetermined pH levels. The samples were heated at 90, 100, 110, 120 and 130°C using a computer controlled oil bath, and three tubes at each pH level were transferred into an ice

W. M Indrasena; T. A Gill

1999-01-01

303

Evolutionary lability of a complex life cycle in the aphid genus Brachycaudus  

PubMed Central

Background Most aphid species complete their life cycle on the same set of host-plant species, but some (heteroecious species) alternate between different hosts, migrating from primary (woody) to secondary (herbaceous) host plants. The evolutionary processes behind the evolution of this complex life cycle have often been debated. One widely accepted scenario is that heteroecy evolved from monoecy on woody host plants. Several shifts towards monoecy on herbaceous plants have subsequently occurred and resulted in the radiation of aphids. Host alternation would have persisted in some cases due to developmental constraints preventing aphids from shifting their entire life cycle to herbaceous hosts (which are thought to be more favourable). According to this scenario, if aphids lose their primary host during evolution they should not regain it. The genus Brachycaudus includes species with all the types of life cycle (monoecy on woody plants, heteroecy, monoecy on herbs). We used this genus to test hypotheses concerning the evolution of life cycles in aphids. Results Phylogenetic investigation and character reconstruction suggest that life cycle is evolutionary labile in the genus. Though ancestral character states can be ambiguous depending on optimization methods, all analyses suggest that transitions from monoecy on herbs towards heteroecy have occurred several times. Transitions from heteroecy towards monoecy, are also likely. There have been many shifts in feeding behaviour but we found no significant correlation between life cycle changes and changes in diet. Conclusions The transitions from monoecy on herbs towards heteroecy observed in this study go against a widely accepted evolutionary scenario: aphids in the genus Brachycaudus seem to be able to recapture their supposedly ancestral woody host. This suggests that the determinants of host alternation are probably not as complicated as previously thought. Definitive proofs of the lability of life cycle in Brachycaudus will necessitate investigation of these determinants. Life cycle changes, whether corresponding to the loss or acquisition of a primary host, necessarily promote speciation, by inducing shifts of the reproductive phase on different plants. We suggest that the evolutionary lability of life cycle may have driven speciation events in the Brachycaudus genus. PMID:20920188

2010-01-01

304

42 CFR 73.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.  

...at http://www.selectagents.gov/. (2) If an excluded attenuated strain or modified toxin is subjected to any manipulation that restores or enhances its virulence or toxic activity, the resulting select agent or toxin will be subject to the...

2014-10-01

305

Developmental Change and Intraindividual Variability: Relating Cognitive Aging to Cognitive Plasticity, Cardiovascular Lability, and Emotional Diversity  

PubMed Central

Repeated assessments obtained over years can be used to measure individuals’ developmental change, whereas repeated assessments obtained over a few weeks can be used to measure individuals’ dynamic characteristics. Using data from a burst of measurement embedded in the Berlin Aging Study (BASE: Baltes & Mayer, 1999), we illustrate and examine how long-term changes in cognitive ability are related to short-term changes in cognitive performance, cardiovascular function, and emotional experience. Our findings suggest that “better” cognitive aging over approximately13 years was associated with greater cognitive plasticity, less cardiovascular lability, and less emotional diversity over approximately 2 weeks at age 90 years. The study highlights the potential benefits of multi-time scale longitudinal designs for the study of individual function and development. PMID:21443355

Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis; Lindenberger, Ulman; Smith, Jacqui

2010-01-01

306

A superior drug carrier – aponeocarzinostatin in partially unfolded state fully protects the labile antitumor enediyne  

PubMed Central

Background Neocarzinostatin is a potent antitumor drug consisting of an enediyne chromophore and a protein carrier. Methods We characterized an intermediate in the equilibrium unfolding pathway of aponeocarzinostatin, using a variety of biophysical techniques including 1-anilino-8-napthalene sulfonate binding studies, size-exclusion fast protein liquid chromatography, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, circular dichroism, and 1H-15N heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy. Results The partially unfolded protein is in molten globule-like state, in which ~60% and ~20% tertiary and secondary structure is disrupted respectively. Despite lacking a fully coordinated tertiary structure for assembling a functional binding cleft, the protein in molten globule-like state is still able to fully protect the labile chromophore. Titration of chromophore leads the partially denatured apoprotein to fold into its native state. Conclusion These findings bring insight into conserving mechanism of neocarzinostatin under harsh environment, where even the partially denatured apoprotein exhibits protective effect, confirming the superiority of the drug carrier. PMID:19463188

Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh; Huang, Chiy-Mey; Yu, Chin; Chin, Der-Hang

2009-01-01

307

Bioavailability of labile and desorption-resistant phenanthrene sorbed to montmorillonite clay containing humic fractions  

SciTech Connect

The biodegradation of {sup 14}C-labeled phenanthrene in the presence of particles of montmorillonite and fulvic and humic acid-montmorillonite complexes was studied in a batch system. A mathematical model that takes into account the contribution to mineralization by the slowly desorbing compound was used to calculate the initial mineralization rates. Sorption of phenanthrene to the particles was determined in sorption isotherms, and desorption was measured during successive water extractions. Mineralization rates in equilibrated suspensions were higher than predicted from aqueous equilibrium concentrations, and in some cases, montmorillonite and fulvic acid-montmorillonite complexes stimulated the phenanthrene transformation rates. In contrast with the high bioavailability exhibited by phenanthrene sorbed as a labile form, biodegradation of the desorption-resistant phenanthrene occurred slowly and followed zero-order kinetics, which indicated a limitation caused by slow desorption. The results suggest that the mechanism of sorption may cause a differential bioavailability of the sorbed compound.

Lahlou, M.; Ortega-Calvo, J.J.

1999-12-01

308

Significance of Isotopically Labile Organic Hydrogen in Thermal Maturation of Organic Matter  

SciTech Connect

Isotopically labile organic hydrogen in fossil fuels occupies chemical positions that participate in isotopic exchange and in chemical reactions during thermal maturation from kerogen to bitumen, oil and gas. Carbon-bound organic hydrogen is isotopically far less exchangeable than hydrogen bound to nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. We explore why organic hydrogen isotope ratios express a relationship with organic nitrogen isotope ratios in kerogen at low to moderate maturity. We develop and apply new techniques to utilize organic D/H ratios in organic matter fractions and on a molecular level as tools for exploration for fossil fuels and for paleoenvironmental research. The scope of our samples includes naturally and artificially matured substrates, such as coal, shale, oil and gas.

Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz

2010-03-30

309

The induction of toxin neutralizing antibodies to Clostridium perfringens types C and D toxins in horses  

E-print Network

THE INDUCTION OF TOXIN NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES TO CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS TYPES C AND D TOXINS IN HORSES A Thes1s by FRANCES LYNN BROOKS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... and content by: Russe B. Simpson~~ (Chairman of Committee) (21 ) /'' James E. Grimes (Nember) John M. Bowen (Nember) Ian R. Tizard (Head of Department) December 1983 ABSTRACT The Induction of Toxin Neutraliz1ng Ant1bodies to Clostridium Oeeff ti...

Brooks, Frances Lynn

2012-06-07

310

Natural Toxins for Use in Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Natural toxins are a source of new chemical classes of pesticides, as well as environmentally and toxicologically safer molecules than many of the currently used pesticides. Furthermore, they often have molecular target sites that are not exploited by currently marketed pesticides. There are highly successful products based on natural compounds in the major pesticide classes. These include the herbicide glufosinate (synthetic phosphinothricin), the spinosad insecticides, and the strobilurin fungicides. These and other examples of currently marketed natural product-based pesticides, as well as natural toxins that show promise as pesticides from our own research are discussed. PMID:22069667

Duke, Stephen O.; Cantrell, Charles L.; Meepagala, Kumudini M.; Wedge, David E.; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Schrader, Kevin K.

2010-01-01

311

MICROBIOLOGY: Arresting Features of Bacterial Toxins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: Bacteria produce an arsenal of sophisticated toxins that disrupt the normal processes of the host cell, usually by modifying or inactivating host cell proteins. Now, as Coburn and Leong discuss in their Perspective, members of the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) family have been identified as enzymes that attack DNA (and not protein) within the host cell (Lara-Tejero and Galán). By attacking DNA, perhaps during chromosomal replication, CDTs cause the host cell to halt in G2 phase of the cell cycle.

Jenifer Coburn (Tufts-New England Medical Center;Division of Rheumatology and Immunology); John M. Leong (University of Massachusetts Medical School;Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology)

2000-10-13

312

Effect of temperature on the decomposition rate of labile and stable organic matter in an agrochernozem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An hypothesis about the different temperature dependences of the decomposition of the labile and stable organic carbon pools has been tested using an agrochernozem sampled from an experimental plot of 42-year-old continuous corn in Voronezh oblast. The partitioning of the CO2 loss during the decomposition of the labile and stable soil organic matter (SOM) at 2, 12, and 22°C in a long-term incubation experiment was performed using the method of 13C natural abundance by C3-C4 transition. On the basis of the determined decomposition constants, the SOM pools have been arranged in an order according to their increasing stability: plant residues < new (C4) SOM < old (C3) SOM. The tested hypothesis has been found valid only for a limited temperature interval. The temperature coefficient Q 10 increases in the stability order from 1.2 to 4.3 in the interval of 12-22°C. At low temperatures (2-12°C), the values of Q 10 insignificantly vary among the SOM pools and lie in the range of 2.2-2.8. Along with the decomposition constants of the SOM, the new-to-old carbon ratio in the CO2 efflux from the soil and the magnitude of the negative priming effect for the old SOM caused by the input of new organic matter depend on the temperature. In the soil under continuous corn fertilized with NPK, the increased decomposition of C3 SOM is observed compared to the unfertilized control; the temperature dependences of the SOM decomposition are similar in both agrochernozem treatments.

Larionova, A. A.; Kvitkina, A. K.; Yevdokimov, I. V.; Bykhovets, S. S.; Stulin, A. F.

2014-05-01

313

High lability of sexual system over 250 million years of evolution in morphologically conservative tadpole shrimps  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual system is a key factor affecting the genetic diversity, population structure, genome structure and the evolutionary potential of species. The sexual system androdioecy – where males and hermaphrodites coexist in populations – is extremely rare, yet is found in three crustacean groups, barnacles, a genus of clam shrimps Eulimnadia, and in the order Notostraca, the tadpole shrimps. In the ancient crustacean order Notostraca, high morphological conservatism contrasts with a wide diversity of sexual systems, including androdioecy. An understanding of the evolution of sexual systems in this group has been hampered by poor phylogenetic resolution and confounded by the widespread occurrence of cryptic species. Here we use a multigene supermatrix for 30 taxa to produce a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of Notostraca. Based on this phylogenetic reconstruction we use character mapping techniques to investigate the evolution of sexual systems. We also tested the hypothesis that reproductive assurance has driven the evolution of androdioecy in Notostraca. Results Character mapping analysis showed that sexual system is an extremely flexible trait within Notostraca, with repeated shifts between gonochorism and androdioecy, the latter having evolved a minimum of five times. In agreement with the reproductive assurance hypothesis androdioecious notostracans are found at significantly higher latitudes than gonochoric ones indicating that post glacial re-colonisation may have selected for the higher colonisation ability conferred by androdioecy. Conclusions In contrast to their conserved morphology, sexual system in Notostraca is highly labile and the rare reproductive mode androdioecy has evolved repeatedly within the order. Furthermore, we conclude that this lability of sexual system has been maintained for at least 250 million years and may have contributed to the long term evolutionary persistence of Notostraca. Our results further our understanding of the evolution of androdioecy and indicate that reproductive assurance is a recurrent theme involved in the evolution of this sexual system. PMID:23384124

2013-01-01

314

Poly(ortho ester amides): Acid-labile Temperature-responsive Copolymers for Potential Biomedical Applications  

PubMed Central

A new, convenient pathway is developed to synthesize highly hydrolytically labile poly(ortho ester amide) (POEA) copolymers that overcomes some of the major weaknesses of the traditional methods of synthesizing poly(ortho esters) and their derivatives. A diamine monomer containing a built-in, stabilized ortho ester group was synthesized and was used for polycondensation with diacid esters, giving rise to a series of POEA copolymers with unique stimuli-responsive properties. The POEA undergoes temperature-responsive, reversible sol-gel phase transition in water. Phase diagrams of the POEA/H2O mixture reveal the concentration-dependent existence of different phases, including hydrogel and opaque or clear solution. Such behavior may be attributed to the temperature-dependent hydrogen-bonding involving the amide groups in the POEA backbone and hydrophobic interactions between POEA chains, and it is tunable by selecting diacid monomers with different chemical structures. The kinetics of POEA mass loss in physiological aqueous buffers and release of a model macromolecular drug, fluorescently labeled dextran, are nearly zero-order, suggesting predominantly surface-restricted polymer erosion. The rates of polymer erosion and drug release are much faster at pH 5.0 than pH 7.4. No cytotoxicity was found for the polymer extracts and the polymer degradation products at concentrations as high as 1 mg/ml. The normal morphology of fibroblasts cultured directly in contact with POEA films was not altered. These novel acid-labile temperature-responsive POEA copolymers may be potentially useful for a wide range of biomedical applications such as minimal invasive delivery of controlled-release drug formulations that respond to biological temperature and acidic-pH environments in cells and tissues. PMID:19281150

Tang, Rupei; Palumbo, R. Noelle; Ji, Weihang; Wang, Chun

2009-01-01

315

Molecular insights into the microbial formation of marine dissolved organic matter: recalcitrant or labile?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important control variable in the global carbon cycle and dependent on the DOM composition. For our understanding of the kinetics of organic matter cycling in the ocean, it is therefore crucial to achieve a mechanistic and molecular understanding of its transformation processes. A long-term microbial experiment was performed to follow the production of non-labile DOM by marine bacteria. Two different glucose concentrations and dissolved algal exudates were used as substrates. We monitored the bacterial abundance, concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), nutrients, amino acids, and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) for two years. Ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) allowed the molecular characterization of extracted DOM after 70 days and after ∼2 years of incubation. Although glucose was quickly degraded, a DOC background was generated in glucose incubations. Only 20% of the organic carbon from algal exudate was degraded within the 2 years of incubation. TEP, which are released by micro-organisms, were produced during glucose degradation but decreased within less than three weeks back to half of the maximum concentration and were below detection in all treatments after 2 years. The molecular analysis demonstrated that DOM generated during glucose degradation differed appreciably from DOM produced during the degradation of the algal exudates. Our results led to several conclusions: (i) Higher substrate levels result in a higher level of non-labile DOC which is an important prerequisite for carbon sequestration in the ocean; (ii) TEP are generated by bacteria but are also degraded rapidly, thus limiting their potential contribution to carbon sequestration; (iii) The molecular signatures of DOM derived from algal exudates or glucose after 70 days of incubation differed strongly from refractory DOM. After 2 years, however, the molecular patterns of DOM in glucose incubations were more similar to deep ocean DOM whereas the degraded exudate was still different.

Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.; Witt, M.; Passow, U.

2014-02-01

316

High-throughput production of two disulphide-bridge toxins.  

PubMed

A quick and efficient production method compatible with high-throughput screening was developed using 36 toxins belonging to four different families of two disulphide-bridge toxins. Final toxins were characterized using HPLC co-elution, CD and pharmacological studies. PMID:24947561

Upert, Grégory; Mourier, Gilles; Pastor, Alexandra; Verdenaud, Marion; Alili, Doria; Servent, Denis; Gilles, Nicolas

2014-08-01

317

Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

2013-08-01

318

Staphylococcus aureus ?-Toxin: Nearly a Century of Intrigue  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus secretes a number of host-injurious toxins, among the most prominent of which is the small ?-barrel pore-forming toxin ?-hemolysin. Initially named based on its properties as a red blood cell lytic toxin, early studies suggested a far greater complexity of ?-hemolysin action as nucleated cells also exhibited distinct responses to intoxication. The hemolysin, most aptly referred to as ?-toxin based on its broad range of cellular specificity, has long been recognized as an important cause of injury in the context of both skin necrosis and lethal infection. The recent identification of ADAM10 as a cellular receptor for ?-toxin has provided keen insight on the biology of toxin action during disease pathogenesis, demonstrating the molecular mechanisms by which the toxin causes tissue barrier disruption at host interfaces lined by epithelial or endothelial cells. This review highlights both the historical studies that laid the groundwork for nearly a century of research on ?-toxin and key findings on the structural and functional biology of the toxin, in addition to discussing emerging observations that have significantly expanded our understanding of this toxin in S. aureus disease. The identification of ADAM10 as a proteinaceous receptor for the toxin not only provides a greater appreciation of truths uncovered by many historic studies, but now affords the opportunity to more extensively probe and understand the role of ?-toxin in modulation of the complex interaction of S. aureus with its human host. PMID:23888516

Berube, Bryan J.; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane

2013-01-01

319

Mutants of Pertussis Toxin Suitable for Vaccine Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunization with chemically detoxified pertussis toxin can prevent severe whooping cough with an efficacy similar to that of the cellular pertussis vaccine, which normally gives unwanted side effects. To avoid the reversion to toxicity and the loss of immunogenicity that may follow chemical treatment of pertussis toxin, inactive toxins were constructed by genetic manipulation. A number of genetically engineered alleles

Mariagrazia Pizza; Antonio Covacci; Antonella Bartoloni; Maria Perugini; Luciano Nencioni; Maria Teresa de Magistris; Luigi Villa; Daniele Nucci; Roberto Manetti; Massimo Bugnoli; Franco Giovannoni; Roberto Olivieri; Joseph T. Barbieri; Hiroko Sato; Rino Rappuoli

1989-01-01

320

Effects of nicotine on bacterial toxins associated with cot death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxins produced by staphylococci and enterobacteria isolated from the nasopharynx of cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) have a lethal effect when injected into chick embryos. If the toxins are progressively diluted the lethal effect disappears, but certain combinations of toxins show synergy so that if sublethal doses are mixed a highly lethal effect is produced. In this paper

N M Sayers; D B Drucker; D R Telford; J A Morris

1995-01-01

321

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 22502263 Dynamics of labile and recalcitrant soil carbon pools in a sorghum  

E-print Network

pools in a sorghum free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) agroecosystem L. Chenga,d,Ã?, S.W. Leavitta , B labile and recalcitrant soil carbon pools and the translocation among these pools of sorghum residues that increased new sorghum residue input to the recalcitrant pool mainly accounts for this change, especially

Williams, David G.

322

On the Labile Memory Buffer in the Attentional Blink: Masking the T2 Representation by Onset Transients Mediates the AB  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Report of a second target (T2) is impaired when presented within 500 ms of the first (T1). This attentional blink (AB) is known to cause a delay in T2 processing during which T2 must be stored in a labile memory buffer. We explored the buffer's characteristics using different types of masks after T2. These characteristics were inferred by…

Jannati, Ali; Spalek, Thomas M.; Di Lollo, Vincent

2011-01-01

323

Relationships between labile organic matter and nitrogen mineralization in Japanese agricultural soils with reference to land use and soil type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the amount of organic matter determined using various extraction methods and the nitrogen mineralization potential (N0) in soil was examined with reference to land use (upland and paddy soils) and soil type (non-volcanic and volcanic soils). Surface soils were collected from agricultural lands all over Japan (n = 72). Seven methods of extracting labile organic matter were used: water

Shuji Sano; Junta Yanai; Takashi Kosaki

2006-01-01

324

Effects of phosphate buffer capacity on critical levels and relationships between soil tests and labile phosphate in wheat growing soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-nine soils from northern New South Wales were used to examine the effects of phosphate buffer capacity on (i) the extraction of labile phosphate by four soil tests, (ii) the relationships between the four soil tests, and (iii) the critical level of each soil test required for near-maximum yield of wheat under field conditions. The results confirmed the principle, recently

I. C. R. Holford

1980-01-01

325

)Pieris rapaeMayolenes: Labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar ( Renwick, Ronald Rutowski, and Thomas Eisner  

E-print Network

of P. rapae maintained on cabbage plants (Brassica oleraceae). The larvae used in the ant bioassays)Pieris rapaeMayolenes: Labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar ( Renwick defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar (Pieris rapae) Scott R. Smedley*, Frank C

Weibel, Douglas B.

326

Targeting the lysosome: fluorescent iron(III) chelators to selectively monitor endosomal/lysosomal labile iron pools.  

PubMed

Iron-sensitive fluorescent chemosensors in combination with digital fluorescence spectroscopy have led to the identification of a distinct subcellular compartmentation of intracellular redox-active "labile" iron. To investigate the distribution of labile iron, our research has been focused on the development of fluorescent iron sensors targeting the endosomal/lysosomal system. Following the recent introduction of a series of 3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (HPO) based fluorescent probes we present here two novel HPO sensors capable of accumulating and monitoring iron exclusively in endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Flow cytometric and confocal microscopy studies in murine macrophages revealed endosomal/lysosomal sequestration of the probes and high responsiveness toward alterations of vesicular labile iron concentrations. This allowed assessment of cellular iron status with high sensitivity in response to the clinically applied medications desferrioxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox. The probes represent a powerful class of sensors for quantitative iron detection and clinical real-time monitoring of subcellular labile iron levels in health and disease. PMID:18624421

Fakih, Sarah; Podinovskaia, Maria; Kong, Xiaole; Collins, Helen L; Schaible, Ulrich E; Hider, Robert C

2008-08-14

327

Plant-Soil Relationships of Bromus tectorum L.: Interactions among Labile Carbon Additions, Soil Invasion Status, and Fertilizer.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Invasion of western North America by the annual exotic grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) has been an ecological disaster. High soil bioavailability of nitrogen is a contributing factor in the invasive potential of B. tectorum. Application of labile carbon sources to the soil can immobilize soil ...

328

Detection of iron-containing proteins contributing to the cellular labile iron pool by a native electrophoresis metal blotting technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The labile iron pool (LIP) plays a role in generation of free radicals and is thus the target of chelators used for the treatment of iron overload. We have previously shown that the LIP is bound mostly to high molecular weight carriers (MW>5000). However, the iron does not remain associated with these proteins during native gel electrophoresis. In this study

Ji??? Petrák; Daniel Vyoral

2001-01-01

329

Paralytic shellfish toxin profiles and toxin variability of the genus Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) isolated from the Southeast China Sea.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) profiles of 16 Alexandrium isolates from the Southeast China Sea were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Toxin content and composition of three A. tamarense isolates, ATDH01, ATGX02 and ATMJ02, were also investigated at different growth phases and under various culture conditions. Our results showed that six strains of A. affine were non-toxic, while 10 strains of A. tamarense and A. catenella were toxic. These toxic isolates grown in the same culture conditions consistently produced an unusually high proportion of the N-sulfocarbamoyl toxin C1/2 (around 60-80% of total toxins) and medium amounts of gonyautoxin GTX5 (around 15-30% of total) with only trace quantities (<5% of total) of other saxitoxin derivatives (i.e. GTX1, GTX3, GTX4 and neoSTX). The toxin composition of three A. tamarense isolates did not vary with the growth phases, although higher toxin contents (Qt, fmolcell(-1)) were found in the exponential phase. Variations in temperature, salinity and nutrient levels affected toxin content of three A. tamarense isolates but they did not have pronounced effects on the toxin composition (mole %). These results indicate that toxin composition remained relatively constant under various culture conditions, suggesting that toxin composition could be used as a stable biomarker for the Alexandrium species in this region. However, comparison of toxin profiles between isolates from different localities require special caution since isolates even from the same region can have distinct toxin profiles. PMID:16859722

Wang, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Shu-Gang; Gu, Hai-Feng; Chan, Leo Lai; Hong, Hua-Sheng

2006-08-01

330

General Aspects and Recent Advances on Bacterial Protein Toxins  

PubMed Central

Bacterial pathogens produce protein toxins to influence host–pathogen interactions and tip the outcome of these encounters toward the benefit of the pathogen. Protein toxins modify host-specific targets through posttranslational modifications (PTMs) or noncovalent interactions that may inhibit or activate host cell physiology to benefit the pathogen. Recent advances have identified new PTMs and host targets for toxin action. Understanding the mechanisms of toxin action provides a basis to develop vaccines and therapies to combat bacterial pathogens and to develop new strategies to use toxin derivatives for the treatment of human disease. PMID:23378599

Lemichez, Emmanuel; Barbieri, Joseph T.

2013-01-01

331

Algal Toxins Alter Copepod Feeding Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of

Jiarong Hong; Siddharth Talapatra; Joseph Katz; Patricia A. Tester; Rebecca J. Waggett

2012-01-01

332

Cyanobacterial toxins: biosynthetic routes and evolutionary roots.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria produce an unparalleled variety of toxins that can cause severe health problems or even death in humans, and wild or domestic animals. In the last decade, biosynthetic pathways have been assigned to the majority of the known toxin families. This review summarizes current knowledge about the enzymatic basis for the production of the hepatotoxins microcystin and nodularin, the cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin, the neurotoxins anatoxin and saxitoxin, and the dermatotoxin lyngbyatoxin. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways of the toxins has paved the way for the development of molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of the producing cyanobacteria in different environments. Phylogenetic analyses of related clusters from a large number of strains has also allowed for the reconstruction of the evolutionary scenarios that have led to the emergence, diversification, and loss of such gene clusters in different strains and genera of cyanobacteria. Advances in the understanding of toxin biosynthesis and evolution have provided new methods for drinking-water quality control and may inspire the development of techniques for the management of bloom formation in the future. PMID:23051004

Dittmann, Elke; Fewer, David P; Neilan, Brett A

2013-01-01

333

Cyanobacterial toxins: biosynthetic routes and evolutionary roots.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria produce an unparalleled variety of toxins that can cause severe health problems or even death in humans, and wild or domestic animals. In the last decade, biosynthetic pathways have been assigned to the majority of the known toxin families. This review summarizes current knowledge about the enzymatic basis for the production of the hepatotoxins microcystin and nodularin, the cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin, the neurotoxins anatoxin and saxitoxin and the dermatotoxin lyngbyatoxin. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways of the toxins has paved the way for the development of molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of the producing cyanobacteria in different environments. Phylogenetic analyses of related clusters from a large number of strains has also allowed for the reconstruction of the evolutionary scenarios that have led to the emergence, diversification and loss of such gene clusters in different strains and genera of cyanobacteria. Advances in the understanding of toxin biosynthesis and evolution have provided new methods for drinking water quality control and may inspire the development of techniques for the management of bloom formation in the future. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell PublishingLtd. All rights reserved. PMID:22978321

Dittmann, Elke; Fewer, David P; Neilan, Brett A

2012-09-15

334

Insecticidal toxins from black widow spider venom  

PubMed Central

The biological effects of Latrodectus spider venom are similar in animals from different phyla, but these symptoms are caused by distinct phylum-specific neurotoxins (collectively called latrotoxins) with molecular masses ranging from 110 to 140 kDa. To date, the venom has been found to contain five insecticidal toxins, termed ?, ?, ?, ? and ?-latroinsectotoxins (LITs). There is also a vertebrate-specific neurotoxin, ?-latrotoxin (?-LTX), and one toxin affecting crustaceans, ?-latrocrustatoxin (?-LCT). These toxins stimulate massive release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals and act (1) by binding to specific receptors, some of which mediate an exocytotic signal, and (2) by inserting themselves into the membrane and forming ion-permeable pores. Specific receptors for LITs have yet to be identified, but all three classes of vertebrate receptors known to bind ?-LTX are also present in insects. All LTXs whose structures have been elucidated (?-LIT, ?-LIT, ?-LTX and ?-LCT) are highly homologous and have a similar domain architecture, which consists of a unique N-terminal sequence and a large domain composed of 13–22 ankyrin repeats. Three-dimensional (3D) structure analysis, so far done for ?-LTX only, has revealed its dimeric nature and an ability to form symmetrical tetramers, a feature probably common to all LTXs. Only tetramers have been observed to insert into membranes and form pores. A preliminary 3D reconstruction of a ?-LIT monomer demonstrates the spatial similarity of this toxin to the monomer of ?-LTX. PMID:17210168

Rohou, A.; Nield, J.; Ushkaryov, Y.A.

2007-01-01

335

Toxins and antimicrobial peptides: interactions with membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The innate immunity to pathogenic invasion of organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms relies upon cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as the first line of defense. In addition to these natural peptide antibiotics, similar cationic peptides, such as the bee venom toxin melittin, act as nonspecific toxins. Molecular details of AMP and peptide toxin action are not known, but the universal function of these peptides to disrupt cell membranes of pathogenic bacteria (AMPs) or a diverse set of eukaryotes and prokaryotes (melittin) is widely accepted. Here, we have utilized spectroscopic techniques to elucidate peptide-membrane interactions of alpha-helical human and mouse AMPs of the cathelicidin family as well as the peptide toxin melittin. The activity of these natural peptides and their engineered analogs was studied on eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane mimics consisting of <200-nm bilayer vesicles composed of anionic and neutral lipids as well as cholesterol. Vesicle disruption, or peptide potency, was monitored with a sensitive fluorescence leakage assay. Detailed molecular information on peptidemembrane interactions and peptide structure was further gained through vibrational spectroscopy combined with circular dichroism. Finally, steady-state fluorescence experiments yielded insight into the local environment of native or engineered tryptophan residues in melittin and human cathelicidin embedded in bilayer vesicles. Collectively, our results provide clues to the functional structures of the engineered and toxic peptides and may impact the design of synthetic antibiotic peptides that can be used against the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

2009-08-01

336

Paralytic strabismus: the role of botulinum toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five adults with acute extraocular muscle palsies followed by limited recovery of muscle function were treated with injections of botulinum toxin A to the ipsilateral antagonist of the affected muscle. Three were cases of unilateral sixth nerve palsy, one of bilateral sixth nerve palsy, and one of third nerve palsy. After a period of paralysis, during which the strabismus was

J S Elston; J P Lee

1985-01-01

337

The insecticidal potential of scorpion ?-toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voltage-gated sodium channels are a major target for toxins and insecticides due to their central role in excitability, but due to the conservation of these channels in Animalia most insecticides do not distinguish between those of insects and mammals, thereby imposing risks to humans and livestock. Evidently, as long as modern agriculture depends heavily on the use of insecticides there

Michael Gurevitz; Izhar Karbat; Lior Cohen; Nitza Ilan; Roy Kahn; Michael Turkov; Maria Stankiewicz; Walter Stühmer; Ke Dong; Dalia Gordon

2007-01-01

338

Okadaic Acid: More than a Diarrheic Toxin  

PubMed Central

Okadaic acid (OA) is one of the most frequent and worldwide distributed marine toxins. It is easily accumulated by shellfish, mainly bivalve mollusks and fish, and, subsequently, can be consumed by humans causing alimentary intoxications. OA is the main representative diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin and its ingestion induces gastrointestinal symptoms, although it is not considered lethal. At the molecular level, OA is a specific inhibitor of several types of serine/threonine protein phosphatases and a tumor promoter in animal carcinogenesis experiments. In the last few decades, the potential toxic effects of OA, beyond its role as a DSP toxin, have been investigated in a number of studies. Alterations in DNA and cellular components, as well as effects on immune and nervous system, and even on embryonic development, have been increasingly reported. In this manuscript, results from all these studies are compiled and reviewed to clarify the role of this toxin not only as a DSP inductor but also as cause of alterations at the cellular and molecular levels, and to highlight the relevance of biomonitoring its effects on human health. Despite further investigations are required to elucidate OA mechanisms of action, toxicokinetics, and harmful effects, there are enough evidences illustrating its toxicity, not related to DSP induction, and, consequently, supporting a revision of the current regulation on OA levels in food. PMID:24184795

Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Prego-Faraldo, María Verónica; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina; Laffon, Blanca

2013-01-01

339

(-)-Botryodiplodin, A Unique Ribose Analog Toxin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many toxins owe their mechanisms of action to being structural analogs of essential metabolites, messengers or structural components. Examples range from tubo-curare to penicillin. Ribose plays a unique role in the metabolism of living organisms, whether prokaryotes or eukaryotes. It and its deri...

340

Bacterial degradation of paralytic shellfish toxins.  

PubMed

Bacteria isolated from the digestive tracts of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were screened for the ability to reduce the toxicity of a PST mixture in vitro. Bacteria were isolated on marine agar and grown in marine broth supplemented with a mussel extract and an algal extract containing PSTs (saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, gonyautoxins 2 and 3, decarbamoyl-gonyautoxins 2 and 3 and C1/C2 toxins). Toxin levels were measured before and after 5d of incubation, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and reduction of overall toxicity verified by mouse bioassays. Of the 73 bacterial cultures screened, seven isolates were designated "competent" PST degraders, individually reducing the overall toxicity of the PSTs by at least 90% within 3d. Most isolates degraded 100% of the saxitoxin and neosaxitoxin within 1-3d. In all cases, the overall kinetics of degradation of the toxicities was first order, as were the individual degradation kinetics of most of the individual toxins. This is the first report of nearly complete elimination of PSTs through bacterial action and may perhaps result in the development of a practical means to eliminate or reduce the risk of PSP intoxication associated with shellfish consumption. PMID:18573270

Donovan, Carrie J; Ku, John C; Quilliam, Michael A; Gill, Tom A

2008-07-01

341

Toxins and antimicrobial peptides: Interactions with membranes  

PubMed Central

The innate immunity to pathogenic invasion of organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms relies upon cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as the first line of defense. In addition to these natural peptide antibiotics, similar cationic peptides, such as the bee venom toxin melittin, act as nonspecific toxins. Molecular details of AMP and peptide toxin action are not known, but the universal function of these peptides to disrupt cell membranes of pathogenic bacteria (AMPs) or a diverse set of eukaryotes and prokaryotes (melittin) is widely accepted. Here, we have utilized spectroscopic techniques to elucidate peptide-membrane interactions of alpha-helical human and mouse AMPs of the cathelicidin family as well as the peptide toxin melittin. The activity of these natural peptides and their engineered analogs was studied on eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane mimics consisting of <200-nm bilayer vesicles composed of anionic and neutral lipids as well as cholesterol. Vesicle disruption, or peptide potency, was monitored with a sensitive fluorescence leakage assay. Detailed molecular information on peptide-membrane interactions and peptide structure was further gained through vibrational spectroscopy combined with circular dichroism. Finally, steady-state fluorescence experiments yielded insight into the local environment of native or engineered tryptophan residues in melittin and human cathelicidin embedded in bilayer vesicles. Collectively, our results provide clues to the functional structures of the engineered and toxic peptides and may impact the design of synthetic antibiotic peptides that can be used against the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

2014-01-01

342

Rab12 localizes to Shiga toxin-induced plasma membrane invaginations and controls toxin transport.  

PubMed

Several exogenous and endogenous cargo proteins are internalized independently of clathrin, including the bacterial Shiga toxin. The mechanisms underlying early steps of clathrin-independent uptake remain largely unknown. In this study, we have designed a protocol to obtain gradient fractions containing Shiga toxin internalization intermediates. Using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and quantitative mass spectrometry, Rab12 was found in association with these very early uptake carriers. The localization of the GTPase on Shiga toxin-induced plasma membrane invaginations was shown by fluorescence microscopy in cells transfected with GFP-Rab12. Furthermore, using a quantitative biochemical assay, it was found that the amount of receptor-binding B-subunit of Shiga toxin reaching the trans-Golgi/TGN membranes was decreased in Rab12-depleted cells, and that cells were partially protected against intoxication by Shiga-like toxin 1 under these conditions. These findings demonstrate the functional importance of Rab12 for retrograde toxin trafficking. Among several other intracellular transport pathways, only the steady-state localizations of TGN46 and cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor were affected. These data thus strongly suggest that Rab12 functions in the retrograde transport route. PMID:24703428

Rydell, Gustaf E; Renard, Henri-François; Garcia-Castillo, Maria-Daniela; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Lamaze, Christophe; Römer, Winfried; Johannes, Ludger

2014-07-01

343

Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin reduces human alveolar epithelial barrier function.  

PubMed

The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. PMID:23027535

Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin; Metcalf, Jordan Patrick

2012-12-01

344

Bacillus anthracis Lethal Toxin Reduces Human Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Function  

PubMed Central

The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. PMID:23027535

Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M.; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin

2012-01-01

345

Pre-selecting resistance against individual Bti Cry toxins facilitates the development of resistance to the Bti toxins cocktail.  

PubMed

The bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a larvicide used worldwide for mosquito control, which contains three Cry toxins and one Cyt toxin. We investigated for the first time in Aedes aegypti (1) the evolution of resistance and cross-resistance of strains selected with each Cry toxin, and (2) the effect of pre-selection with Cry toxin on the evolution of resistance to a mix of Bti toxins. Cross resistance was higher between Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa than between Cry4Aa and either Cry4Ba or Cry11Aa, suggesting both common and specific mechanisms of resistance. Pre-selecting resistance to each Cry toxins facilitated the development of resistance to the full Bti toxins cocktail. PMID:24768915

Stalinski, Renaud; Tetreau, Guillaume; Gaude, Thierry; Després, Laurence

2014-06-01

346

Preservation of labile organic matter in soils of drained thaw lakes in Northern Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of studies predict changing organic matter (OM) dynamics in arctic soils due to global warming. In contrast to rather slowly altering bulk soil properties, single soil organic matter (SOM) fractions can provide a more detailed picture of the dynamics of differently preserved SOM pools in climate sensitive arctic regions. By the study of the chemical composition of such distinctive SOM fractions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) together with radiocarbon analyses it is possible to evaluate the stability of the major OM pools. Approximately 50-75% of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain is covered with thaw lakes and drained thaw lakes that follow a 5,000 yr cycle of development (between creation and final drainage), thus forming a natural soil chronosequence. The drained thaw lakes offer the possibility to study SOM dynamics affected by permafrost processes over millennial timescales. In April 2010 we sampled 16 soil cores (including the active and permanent layer) reaching from young drained lakes (0-50 years since drainage) to ancient drained lakes (3000-5500 years since drainage). Air dried soil samples from soil horizons of the active and permanent layer were subjected to density fractionation in order to differentiate particulate OM and mineral associated OM. The chemical composition of the SOM fractions was analyzed by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. For a soil core of a young and an ancient drained thaw lake basin we also analyzed the 14C content. For the studied soils we can show that up to over 25 kg OC per square meter are stored mostly as labile, easily degradable organic matter rich in carbohydrates. In contrast only 10 kg OC per square meter were sequestered as presumably more stable mineral associated OC dominated by aliphatic compounds. Comparable to soils of temperate regions, we found small POM (< 20 µm) occluded in aggregated soil structures which differed in the chemical composition from larger organic particles. This was clearly shown by increased amounts of aliphatic C in these small POM fractions. As revealed by 13C CPMAS NMR, with advancing soil age increasing aliphaticity was also detected in occluded small POM fractions. By 14C dating we could show the stabilization of younger more labile OM at greater depth in buried O horizons. Additionally the study of the microscale elemental distributions, using nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) showed the initial formation of aggregates and organo-mineral interfaces in the studied permafrost soils.

Mueller, Carsten W.; Rethemeyer, Janet; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny; Löppmann, Sebastian; Hinkel, Kenneth; Bockheim, James

2014-05-01

347

Intracellular Survival of Leishmania major in Neutrophil Granulocytes after Uptake in the Absence of Heat-Labile Serum Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) in defense against the intracellular parasite Leishmania is poorly understood. In the present study, the interaction of human PMN with Leishmania major promastigotes was investigated in vitro. In the presence of fresh human serum, about 50% of PMN phagocy- tosed the parasites within 10 min and the parasite uptake led to PMN activation,

Helmut Laufs; Kerstin Müller; Jens Fleischer; Norbert Reiling; Nicole Jahnke; Jens C. Jensenius; Werner Solbach; Tamás Laskay

2002-01-01

348

Bacterial RTX toxins allow acute ATP release from human erythrocytes directly through the toxin pore.  

PubMed

ATP is as an extracellular signaling molecule able to amplify the cell lysis inflicted by certain bacterial toxins including the two RTX toxins ?-hemolysin (HlyA) from Escherichia coli and leukotoxin A (LtxA) from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Inhibition of P2X receptors completely blocks the RTX toxin-induced hemolysis over a larger concentration range. It is, however, at present not known how the ATP that provides the amplification is released from the attacked cells. Here we show that both HlyA and LtxA trigger acute release of ATP from human erythrocytes that preceded and were not caused by cell lysis. This early ATP release did not occur via previously described ATP-release pathways in the erythrocyte. Both HlyA and LtxA were capable of triggering ATP release in the presence of the pannexin 1 blockers carbenoxolone and probenecid, and the HlyA-induced ATP release was found to be similar in erythrocytes from pannexin 1 wild type and knock-out mice. Moreover, the voltage-dependent anion channel antagonist TRO19622 had no effect on ATP release by either of the toxins. Finally, we showed that both HlyA and LtxA were able to release ATP from ATP-loaded lipid (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine) vesicles devoid of any erythrocyte channels or transporters. Again we were able to show that this happened in a non-lytic fashion, using calcein-containing vesicles as controls. These data show that both toxins incorporate into lipid vesicles and allow ATP to be released. We suggest that both toxins cause acute ATP release by letting ATP pass the toxin pores in both human erythrocytes and artificial membranes. PMID:24860098

Skals, Marianne; Bjaelde, Randi G; Reinholdt, Jesper; Poulsen, Knud; Vad, Brian S; Otzen, Daniel E; Leipziger, Jens; Praetorius, Helle A

2014-07-01

349

Actin as target for modification by bacterial protein toxins.  

PubMed

Various bacterial protein toxins and effectors target the actin cytoskeleton. At least three groups of toxins/effectors can be identified, which directly modify actin molecules. One group of toxins/effectors causes ADP-ribosylation of actin at arginine-177, thereby inhibiting actin polymerization. Members of this group are numerous binary actin-ADP-ribosylating exotoxins (e.g. Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin) as well as several bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferases (e.g. Salmonella enterica SpvB) which are not binary in structure. The second group includes toxins that modify actin to promote actin polymerization and the formation of actin aggregates. To this group belongs a toxin from the Photorhabdus luminescens Tc toxin complex that ADP-ribosylates actin at threonine-148. A third group of bacterial toxins/effectors (e.g. Vibrio cholerae multifunctional, autoprocessing RTX toxin) catalyses a chemical crosslinking reaction of actin thereby forming oligomers, while blocking the polymerization of actin to functional filaments. Novel findings about members of these toxin groups are discussed in detail. PMID:21466657

Aktories, Klaus; Lang, Alexander E; Schwan, Carsten; Mannherz, Hans G

2011-12-01

350

Diphtheria toxin translocation across cellular membranes is regulated by sphingolipids  

SciTech Connect

Diphtheria toxin is translocated across cellular membranes when receptor-bound toxin is exposed to low pH. To study the role of sphingolipids for toxin translocation, both a mutant cell line lacking the first enzyme in de novo sphingolipid synthesis, serine palmitoyltransferase, and a specific inhibitor of the same enzyme, myriocin, were used. The serine palmitoyltransferase-deficient cell line (LY-B) was found to be 10-15 times more sensitive to diphtheria toxin than the genetically complemented cell line (LY-B/cLCB1) and the wild-type cell line (CHO-K1), both when toxin translocation directly across the plasma membrane was induced by exposing cells with surface-bound toxin to low pH, and when the toxin followed its normal route via acidified endosomes into the cytosol. Toxin binding was similar in these three cell lines. Furthermore, inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase activity by addition of myriocin sensitized the two control cell lines (LY-B/cLCB1 and CHO-K1) to diphtheria toxin, whereas, as expected, no effect was observed in cells lacking serine palmitoyltransferase (LY-B). In conclusion, diphtheria toxin translocation is facilitated by depletion of membrane sphingolipids.

Spilsberg, Bjorn [Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, N-0310 Oslo (Norway); Hanada, Kentaro [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1, Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Sandvig, Kirsten [Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, N-0310 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: ksandvig@radium.uio.no

2005-04-08

351

Bacterial toxins affect early events of T lymphocyte activation.  

PubMed Central

The effects of pertussis toxin and cholera toxin on early events of T lymphocyte activation were examined in the T lymphocyte cell line, Jurkat. Pertussis toxin treatment of these T cells increased inositol phosphates production and led to increases in intracellular free calcium concentration. These effects were produced by the isolated B (binding) subunit of pertussis toxin, alone. Inositol phosphates production resulting from perturbation of the T cell antigen receptor-CD3 complex by MAb was not affected by pertussis toxin treatment but was markedly inhibited by cholera toxin. This effect of cholera toxin paralleled elevations in cAMP content. However, forskolin, in concentrations equipotent for cAMP production, was a weaker inhibitor of inositol phosphates production. Cholera toxin inhibition of inositol phosphates production did not result from inhibition of baseline incorporation of inositol into phosphoinositide substrates of phospholipase C. These studies underline the complexity of toxin effects on cellular systems and suggest that other approaches will be required to implicate guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in control of the early events of T lymphocyte activation. However, the data presented here provide a molecular basis for the clinical observations of lymphocytosis and the in vitro observations of lymphocyte mitogenesis after pertussis toxin stimulation. Images PMID:2536043

Stewart, S J; Prpic, V; Johns, J A; Powers, F S; Graber, S E; Forbes, J T; Exton, J H

1989-01-01

352

Role of glycosylation in expression of functional diphtheria toxin receptors.  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated, by using a detergent-solubilized system, the existence of specific diphtheria toxin-binding glycoproteins on the surface of toxin-sensitive cells. We have now tested the effect of tunicamycin treatment on the sensitivity of cells in culture to diphtheria toxin and have investigated the toxin sensitivity of mutant cells with known defects in glycosylation of asparagine-linked glycoproteins. Treatment of CHO-K1 cells with tunicamycin, which blocks the synthesis of both high-mannose-type and complex-type oligosaccharide chains of asparagine-linked glycoproteins, resulted in a 50- to 100-fold decrease in sensitivity to diphtheria toxin. In contrast, CHO-K1 mutants, defective in the synthesis of either high-mannose-type or complex-type oligosaccharides, showed no difference in toxin sensitivity compared with that of their parental cell lines. When we used an acid shock system, which is believed to result in receptor-dependent direct toxin penetration at the cell surface, the toxin sensitivity of tunicamycin-treated cells was not restored to that of untreated cells, suggesting that tunicamycin treatment results in a decrease in functional toxin receptors. Direct binding studies with 125I-labeled toxin demonstrated that this decrease in functional receptors is due to a decrease in the affinity of the receptors rather than to a change in the number of receptors. Taken together, these data are consistent with the interpretation that the diphtheria toxin receptor is a glycoprotein and suggest that the toxin binds neither to carbohydrate residues unique to the high-mannose-type oligosaccharides nor to those unique to the complex-type oligosaccharides. Furthermore, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that diphtheria toxin binds to the peptide backbone of the glycoprotein receptor. PMID:3926647

Hranitzky, K W; Durham, D L; Hart, D A; Eidels, L

1985-01-01

353

Selective Labilization of Specific Granules in Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes by Phorbol Myristate Acetate  

PubMed Central

The action of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), the active principle of croton oil, on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has been evaluated in this study. Small amounts of PMA caused the rapid development of vacuoles in neutrophils and the disappearance of specific granules. Histochemical and cytochemical studies revealed that alkaline phosphatase activity was transferred to vacuoles and disappeared from the cells, while myeloperoxidase activity remained associated with intact azurophilic lysosomes. Electron-dense tracers indicated that the vacuole membranes originated, at least in part, from the cell wall of the neutrophils. The results indicate that PMA stimulates events remarkably similar to those which take place when bacteria are engulfed by PMNs, except for the failure of azurophilic lysosomes to participate in PMA-induced vacuole formation. PMA appears to be the first chemical agent capable of inducing selective labilization of specific granules in the neutrophil. ImagesFigs 5 and 6Fig 1Fig 2Figs 7 and 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:4133056

White, James G.; Estensen, Richard D.

1974-01-01

354

Development and bioorthogonal activation of palladium-labile prodrugs of gemcitabine.  

PubMed

Bioorthogonal chemistry has become one of the main driving forces in current chemical biology, inspiring the search for novel biocompatible chemospecific reactions for the past decade. Alongside the well-established labeling strategies that originated the bioorthogonal paradigm, we have recently proposed the use of heterogeneous palladium chemistry and bioorthogonal Pd(0)-labile prodrugs to develop spatially targeted therapies. Herein, we report the generation of biologically inert precursors of cytotoxic gemcitabine by introducing Pd(0)-cleavable groups in positions that are mechanistically relevant for gemcitabine's pharmacological activity. Cell viability studies in pancreatic cancer cells showed that carbamate functionalization of the 4-amino group of gemcitabine significantly reduced (>23-fold) the prodrugs' cytotoxicity. The N-propargyloxycarbonyl (N-Poc) promoiety displayed the highest sensitivity to heterogeneous palladium catalysis under biocompatible conditions, with a reaction half-life of less than 6 h. Zebrafish studies with allyl, propargyl, and benzyl carbamate-protected rhodamines confirmed N-Poc as the most suitable masking group for implementing in vivo bioorthogonal organometallic chemistry. PMID:24867590

Weiss, Jason T; Dawson, John C; Fraser, Craig; Rybski, Witold; Torres-Sánchez, Carmen; Bradley, Mark; Patton, E Elizabeth; Carragher, Neil O; Unciti-Broceta, Asier

2014-06-26

355

Nitric oxide is necessary for labilization of a consolidated context memory during reconsolidation in terrestrial snails.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be involved in associative memory formation. We investigated the influence of blocking NO function on the reconsolidation of context memory in terrestrial snails (Helix lucorum L.). After a 10 day session of electric shocks in one context only, context memory in snails was observed in test sessions as the significant difference of amplitudes of withdrawal responses to tactile stimuli in two different contexts. After a 1 day rest, a session of 'reminding' was performed, preceded by injection in different groups of the snails with either vehicle or combination of the protein synthesis blocker anisomycin (ANI) with one of the following drugs: the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO, the NO-synthase inhibitors N-omega-nitro-L-arginin, nitroindazole and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, or the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine. Testing the context memory at different time intervals after the reminder under ANI injection showed that the context memory was impaired at 24 h and later, whereas the reminder under combined injection of ANI and each of the NO-synthase inhibitors used or the NO scavenger showed no impairment of long-term context memory. Injection of the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine with or without reminder had no effect on context memory. The results obtained demonstrated that NO is necessary for labilization of a consolidated context memory. PMID:24910164

Balaban, Pavel M; Roshchin, Matvey; Timoshenko, Alia K; Gainutdinov, Khalil L; Bogodvid, Tatiana K; Muranova, Lyudmila N; Zuzina, Alena B; Korshunova, Tatiana A

2014-09-01

356

Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex. Roem. & Schult.) DC. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. interactions when administered with diazepam.  

PubMed

The safety of natural drugs is defined by their side effects and toxicity as well as any interactions that may occur if taken together with other drugs. In particular, it is essential to identify synergies, antagonisms and other types of interference with other drugs so that the correct choice can be made from the range of phytomedicines available. The aim of this work was to investigate changes in the pharmacological effect of diazepam (2?mg/kg) on the CNS when administered together with a medicinal plant: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (eucalyptus 6?mg/kg and 3.25?mg/kg) or Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult). DC. (cat's claw, 7.14?mg/kg and 3.54?mg/kg). Various different psychopharmacological effects were evaluated through assessing exploratory behavior, muscle relaxation and spontaneous motor activity. Both phytodrugs interacted with the benzodiazepine. Eucalyptus had an inhibitory effect at both doses and could be useful at the highest dose in cases where the desired effect of the depressant is moderate anxiolytic activity without marked muscle relaxation. Cat's claw, at both doses, enhanced the action of diazepam on spontaneous motor activity and, at the lowest dose, exploratory ability. These herbal drugs could be useful for their antiinflammatory activity in musculoskeletal pathologies treated with benzodiazepines. PMID:21928376

Quílez, A M; Saenz, M T; García, M D

2012-03-01

357

Stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) for the passive, integrative sampling of labile metals in water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is described for potential use as an in situ, passive, integrative sampler for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in natural waters. The SLMD (patent pending) consists of a 2.5-cm-wide by 15-cm-long strip of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tubing containing 1 mL of an equal mixture (v/v) of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and EMO-8Q (7-[4-ethyl-1-methyloctyl]-8-quinolinol). The reagent mixture continuously diffuses to the exterior surface of the LDPE membrane, and provides for sequestration of several divalent metals for up to several weeks. Depending on sampler configuration, concentration factors of several thousand can be realized for these metal ions after just a few days. In addition to in situ deployment, the SLMD may be useful for laboratory determination of labile metal species in grab samples. Methods for minimizing the effects of water flow on the sampling rate are currently under investigation.

Brumbaugh, W.G.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Manahan, S.E.

2002-01-01

358

Determination of labile copper, cobalt, and chromium in textile mill wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Copper, chromium, and cobalt species present in filtered wastewater effluent were separated by cation exchange and reverse phase chromatography. Three sample fractions were obtained: one containing metal cations (i.e., trivalent Cr, divalent Cu, and divalent Co), one containing organic species (including metallized dyes), and one containing other unretained species. The metal content of each fraction was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The sum of the corrected data was compared to the metal content of a filtered effluent aliquot digested totally with fuming sulfuric acid. Other aliquots of the filtered effluent were spiked with the metals of interest and digested to confirm chemical yield and accuracy. Method detection limits were consistently below 20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu, 30 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Co, and 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cr. Spike recoveries for undifferentiated Cu and Cr were statistically indistinguishable from unity; although Co spike recoveries were slightly low ({approximately}95%), its chemical yield was 98%. Copper retention on the sodium sulfonate cation exchange resin was closely correlated with the [EDTA]/[Cu] ratio, suggesting that metals retained upon the cation exchange column were assignable to labile metal species; however, mass balances for all three elements, though reasonable ({approximately}90%), were significantly different from unity. Mechanical factors may have contributed to the material loss, but other data suggest that some metal species reacted irreversibly with the reverse phase column. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Crain, J.S.; Essling, A.M.; Kiely, J.T. [and others

1997-01-01

359

Protein kinase C-? isoform mediates lysosome labilization in DNA damage-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

A lysosomal pathway, characterized by the partial rupture or labilization of lysosomal membranes (LLM) and cathepsin release into the cytosol, is evoked during the early events of 20-S-camptothecin lactone (CPT)-induced apoptosis in human cancer cells, including human histiocytic lymphoma U-937 cells. These lysosomal events begin rapidly and simultaneously with mitochondrial permeabilization and caspase activation within 3 h after drug treatment. Recently, in a comparative proteomics analysis performed on highly-enriched lysosomal extracts, we identified proteins whose translocation to lysosomes correlated with LLM induction after CPT treatment, including protein kinase C-? (PKC-?). In this study, we show that the PKC-? translocation to lysosomes is required for LLM, as silencing its expression with RNA interference or suppressing its activity with the inhibitor, rottlerin, prevents CPT-induced LLM. PKC-? translocation to lysosomes is associated with lysosomal acidic sphingomyelinase (ASM) phosphorylation and activation, which in turn leads to an increase in ceramide (CER) content in lysosomes. The accumulation of endogenous CER in lysosomes is a critical event for CPT-induced LLM as suppressing PKC-? or ASM activity reduces both the CPT-mediated CER generation in lysosomes and CPT-induced LLM. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which PKC-? mediates ASM phosphorylation/activation and CER accumulation in lysosomes in CPT-induced LLM, rapidly activating the lysosomal pathway of apoptosis after CPT treatment. PMID:21174057

Parent, Nicolas; Scherer, Max; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd; Bertrand, Richard

2011-02-01

360

Energy evaluation of forest residues originated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill in Galicia.  

PubMed

The possibility of retrieving the energy contained in forest residues originating from wood exploitation in Galicia (Spain) is evaluated. This study was made on Eucalyptus globulus Labill occupying a forest surface of 240000 ha. This species plays an important role in the economical development of Galicia, as it is the main forest species for production of pulp. Sampling was made over 1999 in seven different zones, three main stations plus four selected for comparison, situated in Galicia. The residues originating from cutting were sorted into three different groups and their calorific values were measured by static bomb calorimetry. These calorific values, close to 7200 kJ kg(-1), make possible the use of this residual biomass as an energy source. Calorific values were measured by static bomb calorimeter in an oxygen atmosphere. Flammability was determined using a standard epiradiator. Simultaneously, some other parameters, elementary chemical composition, heavy metal contents, moisture, density, ash percentage after combustion in the bomb, and main bioclimatic characteristics, were also determined. PMID:11848377

Núñez-Regueira, L; Proupín-Castiñeiras, J; Rodríguez-Añón, J A

2002-03-01

361

Labile Zn ions on octacalcium phosphate-derived Zn-containing hydroxyapatite surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously synthesized and characterized zinc-containing octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and its hydrolyzed Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (HA). In the present report, we attempted to define the state of Zn in the OCP-derived Zn-calcium phosphates (CaPs) in relation to the presence of specific amino acids. Zn-containing OCPs were prepared in solutions that included Zn ions up to a concentration of 3.5 mM, and their hydrolyzates [hydrolyzed (hy)-Zn-CaP] were obtained in hot water. The materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The concentration of Ca and Zn ions at room temperature was determined by analyzing the supernatant after incubating the materials in ?-minimal essential medium (?-MEM) and HEPES buffer including cysteine, histidine, lysine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. Zn ions were more dissolved in ?-MEM than HEPES buffer in the absence of amino acids. The inclusion of the amino acids enhanced Zn dissolution by several hundred fold, even in HEPES buffer. Among the amino acids, both cysteine and histidine enhanced the release of Zn. The effect was particularly remarkable with cysteine even in the presence of the other amino acids tested. These results indicate that Zn ions are present as a surface labile pool, which tends to be preferentially desorbed by cysteine, a ubiquitous molecule present in serum.

Honda, Yoshitomo; Anada, Takahisa; Morimoto, Shinji; Suzuki, Osamu

2013-05-01

362

Parasite maturation and host serum iron influence the labile iron pool of erythrocyte stage Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Iron is a critical and tightly regulated nutrient for both the malaria parasite and its human host. The importance of the relationship between host iron and the parasite has been underscored recently by studies showing that host iron supplementation may increase the risk of falciparum malaria. It is unclear what host iron sources the parasite is able to access. We developed a flow cytometry-based method for measuring the labile iron pool (LIP) of parasitized erythrocytes using the nucleic acid dye STYO 61 and the iron sensitive dye, calcein acetoxymethyl ester (CA-AM). This new approach enabled us to measure the LIP of P. falciparum through the course of its erythrocytic life cycle and in response to the addition of host serum iron sources. We found that the LIP increases as the malaria parasite develops from early ring to late schizont stage, and that the addition of either transferrin or ferric citrate to culture media increases the LIP of trophozoites. Our method for detecting the LIP within malaria parasitized RBCs provides evidence that the parasite is able to access serum iron sources as part of the host vs. parasite arms race for iron. PMID:23398516

Clark, Martha; Fisher, Nancy C; Kasthuri, Raj; Cerami Hand, Carla

2013-04-01

363

DGT-labile As, Cd, Cu and Ni monitoring in freshwater: toward a framework for interpretation of in situ deployment.  

PubMed

The use of the Diffusive Gradient in Thin Film sampler (DGT) as a monitoring tool for regulatory programs is currently evaluated. In this context, the impact of commonly followed procedures on the accuracy of DGT-labile As, Cd, Cu, and Ni quantification was studied. Initial sampler contamination yields to define quantification limits instead of using blank subtraction, thus avoiding artifact concentrations. Not considering the alteration of element diffusion by the filter membrane leads to significant underestimation. However, diffusion coefficients determined on a non-fouled membrane were found to be suitable for the studied site, making it possible to use data from the literature. When diffusive boundary layer formation is neglected, no loss of accuracy is recorded provided the layer is thinner than 0.5 mm. Finally, exploration of potential biases allowed initiating a framework that might help limit inaccuracies in DGT-labile concentration estimation and interpretation, especially in a low contamination context. PMID:24886969

Buzier, Rémy; Charriau, Adeline; Corona, David; Lenain, Jean-François; Fondanèche, Patrice; Joussein, Emmanuel; Poulier, Gaëlle; Lissalde, Sophie; Mazzella, Nicolas; Guibaud, Gilles

2014-09-01

364

Synthesis of Protein Conjugates and Development of Immunoassays for AAL Toxins  

E-print Network

Synthesis of Protein Conjugates and Development of Immunoassays for AAL Toxins Ferenc Szurdoki and animal feeds. We developed novel methods for the synthesis of protein conjugates of the AAL toxin TA toxins. Keywords: AAL toxins; fumonisins; synthesis of conjugates of AAL toxin TA; polyclonal mouse

Hammock, Bruce D.

365

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin: The third most potent bacterial toxin known.  

PubMed

Epsilon toxin (ETX) is produced by Clostridium perfringens type B and D strains and causes enterotoxemia, a highly lethal disease with major impacts on the farming of domestic ruminants, particularly sheep. ETX belongs to the aerolysin-like pore-forming toxin family. Although ETX has striking similarities to other toxins in this family, ETX is often more potent, with an LD50 of 100 ng/kg in mice. Due to this high potency, ETX is considered as a potential bioterrorism agent and has been classified as a category B biological agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the United States. The protoxin is converted to an active toxin through proteolytic cleavage performed by specific proteases. ETX is absorbed and acts locally in the intestines then subsequently binds to and causes lesions in other organs, including the kidneys, lungs and brain. The importance of this toxin for veterinary medicine and its possible use as a biological weapon have drawn the attention of researchers and have led to a large number of studies investigating ETX. The aim of the present work is to review the existing knowledge on ETX from C. perfringens type B and D. PMID:25234332

Alves, Guilherme Guerra; Machado de Ávila, Ricardo Andrez; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos Delfin; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

2014-12-01

366

Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests  

PubMed Central

The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

2012-01-01

367

Toxins for transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.  

PubMed

The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Bonning, Bryony C

2012-06-01

368

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins.  

PubMed

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and/or oxy acids: [D-O-Leu-D-Ala-L-O-Val-L-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the potassium ionophore valinomycin. Two of the three enterotoxins have been shown to be involved in food poisoning. They both consist of three different proteins that act together. One of these enterotoxins is also a haemolysin. This haemolytic enterotoxin is transcribed from one operon. The third enterotoxin is a single component protein, but has not been shown to be involved in food poisoning. PMID:9435100

Granum, P E; Lund, T

1997-12-15

369

Impact of labile and recalcitrant carbon treatments on available nitrogen and plant communities in a semiarid ecosystem.  

PubMed

In a 10-year study, we assessed the influence of five carbon (C) treatments on the labile C and nitrogen (N) pools of historically N-enriched plots on the Shortgrass Steppe Long Term Ecological Research site located in northeastern Colorado. For eight years, we applied sawdust, sugar, industrial lignin, sawdust + sugar, and lignin + sugar to plots that had received N and water additions in the early 1970s. Previous work showed that past water and N additions altered plant species composition and enhanced rates of nutrient cycling; these effects were still apparent 25 years later. We hypothesized that labile C amendments would stimulate microbial activity and suppress rates of N mineralization, whereas complex forms of carbon (sawdust and lignin) could enhance humification and lead to longer-term reductions in N availability. Results indicated that, of the five carbon treatments, sugar, sawdust, and sawdust + sugar suppressed N availability, with sawdust + sugar being the most effective treatment to reduce N availability. The year after treatments stopped, N availability remained less in the sawdust + sugar treatment plots than in the high-N control plots. Three years after treatments ended, reductions in N availability were smaller (40-60%). Our results suggest that highly labile forms of carbon generate strong short-term N sinks, but these effects dissipate within one year of application, and that more recalcitrant forms reduce N longer. Sawdust + sugar was the most effective treatment to decrease exotic species canopy cover and increase native species density over the long term. Labile carbon had neither short- nor long-term effects on exotic species. Even though the organic amendments did not contribute to recovery of the dominant native species Bouteloua gracilis, they were effective in increasing another native species, Carex eleocharis. These results indicate that organic amendments may be a useful tool for restoring some native species in the shortgrass steppe, though not all. PMID:23734484

Burke, I C; Bontti, E E; Barrett, J E; Lowe, P N; Lauenroth, W K; Riggle, R

2013-04-01

370

Use of botulinum toxin in musculoskeletal pain  

PubMed Central

Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a common cause of chronic pain, which is associated with a total cost of $635 billion per year in the U.S. Emerging evidence suggests an anti-nociceptive action of botulinum toxin, independent of its muscle paralyzing action. This review provides a summary of data from both non-randomized and randomized clinical studies of botulinum toxin in back pain and various osteoarticular conditions, including osteoarthritis, tennis elbow, low back pain and hand pain. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of small sizes provide evidence of short-term efficacy of a single intra-articular injection of 100 units of botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A) for the relief of pain and the improvement of both function and quality of life in patients with chronic joint pain due to arthritis. Three RCTs studied intramuscular BoNT/A for tennis elbow with one showing a significant improvement in pain relief compared with placebo, another one showing no difference from placebo, and the third finding that pain and function improvement with BoNT/A injection were similar to those obtained with surgical release. One RCT of intramuscular BoNT/A for low back pain found improvement in pain and function compared to placebo. Single RCTs using local injections of BoNT in patients with either temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain or plantar fasciitis found superior efficacy compared to placebo. One RCT of intramuscular BoNT/B in patients with hand pain and carpal tunnel syndrome found improvement in pain in both BoNT/B and placebo groups, but no significant difference between groups. Most evidence is based on small studies, but the use of BoNT is supported by a single, and sometimes up to three, RCTs for several chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. This indicates that botulinum toxin may be a promising potential new treatment for chronic refractory musculoskeletal pain. Well-designed large clinical trials are needed. PMID:24715952

Singh, Jasvinder A

2013-01-01

371

Saxitoxins (PSP toxins) in Danish lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of neurotoxic cyanobacteria and saxitoxins in Danish lakes was investigated from 104 phytoplankton samples representing 96 localities. Mouse bioassays demonstrated neurotoxicity in 11 localities (13 samples) of which eight (10 samples) contained saxitoxins and the remaining three anatoxin-a(s). The common cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a was not detected. The toxin profiles of the samples containing saxitoxins were characterised using standards

Hanne Kaas; Peter Henriksen

2000-01-01

372

Insecticidal toxins from black widow spider venom.  

PubMed

The biological effects of Latrodectus spider venom are similar in animals from different phyla, but these symptoms are caused by distinct phylum-specific neurotoxins (collectively called latrotoxins) with molecular masses ranging from 110 to 140 kDa. To date, the venom has been found to contain five insecticidal toxins, termed alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon-latroinsectotoxins (LITs). There is also a vertebrate-specific neurotoxin, alpha-latrotoxin (alpha-LTX), and one toxin affecting crustaceans, alpha-latrocrustatoxin (alpha-LCT). These toxins stimulate massive release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals and act (1) by binding to specific receptors, some of which mediate an exocytotic signal, and (2) by inserting themselves into the membrane and forming ion-permeable pores. Specific receptors for LITs have yet to be identified, but all three classes of vertebrate receptors known to bind alpha-LTX are also present in insects. All LTXs whose structures have been elucidated (alpha-LIT, delta-LIT, alpha-LTX and alpha-LCT) are highly homologous and have a similar domain architecture, which consists of a unique N-terminal sequence and a large domain composed of 13-22 ankyrin repeats. Three-dimensional (3D) structure analysis, so far done for alpha-LTX only, has revealed its dimeric nature and an ability to form symmetrical tetramers, a feature probably common to all LTXs. Only tetramers have been observed to insert into membranes and form pores. A preliminary 3D reconstruction of a delta-LIT monomer demonstrates the spatial similarity of this toxin to the monomer of alpha-LTX. PMID:17210168

Rohou, A; Nield, J; Ushkaryov, Y A

2007-03-15

373

Visualization of Peroxynitrite-Induced Changes of Labile Zn2+ in the Endoplasmic Reticulum with Benzoresorufin-based Fluorescent Probes  

PubMed Central

Zn2+ plays essential roles in biology, and the homeostasis of Zn2+ is tightly regulated in all cells. Subcellular distribution and trafficking of labile Zn2+, and its interrelation with reactive nitrogen species, are poorly understood due to the scarcity of appropriate imaging tools. We report a new family of red-emitting fluorescent sensors for labile Zn2+, ZBR1-3, based on a benzoresorufin platform functionalized with dipicolylamine or picolylamine-derived metal binding groups. In combination, the pendant amines and fluorophore afford an [N3O] binding motif that resembles that of previously reported fluorescein-based sensors of the Zinpyr family, reproducing well their binding capabilities and yielding comparable Kd values in the subnanomolar and picomolar range. The ZBR sensors display up to 8.4-fold emission fluorescence enhancement upon Zn2+ binding in the cuvette, with similar responses obtained in live cells using standard wide-field fluorescence microscopy imaging. The new sensors localize spontaneously in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of various tested cell lines, allowing for organelle-specific monitoring of zinc levels in live cells. Study of ER zinc levels in neural stem cells (NSC) treated with a peroxynitrite generator, Sin-1, revealed an immediate decrease in labile Zn2+ thus providing evidence for a direct connection between ER stress and ER Zn2+ homeostasis. PMID:23902285

Lin, Wei; Buccella, Daniela; Lippard, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

374

Characterisation and tumour targeting of PEGylated polylysine dendrimers bearing doxorubicin via a pH labile linker.  

PubMed

Polylysine dendrimers have potential as biodegradable vectors for the delivery of cytotoxic drugs to solid tumours. Here, the cytotoxicity, drug release and tumour targeting properties of Generation 5 PEGylated polylysine dendrimers comprising an outer generation of l-lysine or succinimyldipropyldiamine (SPN) and containing doxorubicin (DOX) linked through an acid labile 4-(hydrazinosulfonyl) benzoic acid (HSBA) linker have been characterised. Less than 10% of the DOX load was released from LYS or SPN dendrimers in pH 7.4 buffer over 3 days. In contrast approximately 100% release was evident at pH 5. The DOX-conjugated dendrimers also retained similar cytotoxic properties to free DOX in in vitro cell culture studies (presumably as a result of in situ liberation of free DOX). The clearance patterns of the DOX conjugated SPN and all-lysine dendrimers were similar to the equivalent non-DOX conjugated systems, however the SPN dendrimers showed reduced metabolic lability and increased uptake into RES organs when compared to the equivalent all-lysine dendrimers. In vivo assessment of the DOX-conjugated, PEGylated polylysine dendrimers (both SPN and LYS constructs) in rats bearing Walker 256 tumours revealed higher uptake into tumour tissue when compared with control tissue such as muscle (~8 fold) and heart (~3 fold). The data suggest that polylysine dendrimers containing DOX conjugated via an acid labile HSBA linker may provide a mechanism to target the delivery of DOX to tumours. PMID:21315119

Kaminskas, Lisa M; Kelly, Brian D; McLeod, Victoria M; Sberna, Gian; Owen, David J; Boyd, Ben J; Porter, Christopher J H

2011-06-10

375

Microwave-assisted extraction performed in low temperature and in vacuo for the extraction of labile compounds in food samples.  

PubMed

In this study, low temperature vacuum microwave-assisted extraction, which simultaneous performed microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) in low temperature and in vacuo environment, was proposed. The influencing parameters including solid/liquid ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time, degree of vacuum and microwave power were discussed. The predominance of low temperature vacuum microwave-assisted extraction was investigated by comparing the extraction yields of vitamin C, ?-carotene, aloin A and astaxanthin in different foods with that in MAE and solvent extraction, and 5.2-243% increments were obtained. On the other hand, the chemical kinetics of vitamin C and aloin A, which composed two different steps including the extraction step of analyte transferred from matrix into solvent and the decomposition step of analyte degraded in the extraction solvent, were proposed. All of the decomposition rates (K(2)) for the selected analyte in low temperature, in vacuo and in nitrogen atmosphere decreased significantly comparing with that in conventional MAE, which are in agreement with that obtained from experiments. Consequently, the present method was successfully applied to extract labile compound from different food samples. These results showed that low temperature and/or in vacuo environment in microwave-assisted extraction system was especially important to prevent the degradation of labile components and have good potential on the extraction of labile compound in foods, pharmaceutical and natural products. PMID:22177069

Xiao, Xiaohua; Song, Wei; Wang, Jiayue; Li, Gongke

2012-01-27

376

Suppression of inflammation in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis using targeted lipase-labile fumagillin prodrug nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle-based therapeutics are emerging technologies that have the potential to greatly impact the treatment of many human diseases. However, drug instability and premature release from the nanoparticles during circulation currently preclude clinical translation. Herein, we use a lipase-labile (Sn 2) fumagillin prodrug platform coupled with a unique lipid surface-to-surface targeted delivery mechanism, termed contact-facilitated drug delivery, to counter the premature drug release and overcome the inherent photo-instability of fumagillin, an established anti-angiogenic agent. We show that ?v?3-integrin targeted fumagillin prodrug nanoparticles, administered at 0.3 mg of fumagillin prodrug/kg of body weight suppress the clinical disease indices of KRN serum-mediated arthritis in a dose-dependent manner when compared to treatment with the control nanoparticles with no drug. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of this lipase-labile prodrug nanocarrier in a relevant preclinical model that approximates human rheumatoid arthritis. The lipase-labile prodrug paradigm offers a translatable approach that is broadly applicable to many targeted nanosystems and increases the translational potential of this platform for many diseases. PMID:22922023

Zhou, Hui-fang; Yan, Huimin; Senpan, Angana; Wickline, Samuel A.; Pan, Dipanjan; Lanza, Gregory M.; Pham, Christine T.N.

2013-01-01

377

Enumeration of labile hydrogens in natural organic matter by use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method to enumerate labile hydrogens in all constituents of molecular ensemble of natural organic matter (NOM) based on our previously developed simple hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange (electrospray ionization (ESI) ion source (Kostyukevich et al. Anal. Chem. 2013, 85, 5330) and ultra-high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is presented. The method was applied for analysis of Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), which is an International Humic Substances Society standard, as well as Siberian crude oil; and lignosulfonate. We found that SRFA and lignosulfonate molecules contain 2-5 labile hydrogens, and their number increases with the number of oxygens in the molecule. Also, we observed that compounds of Siberian crude oil ionizing in positive-ESI mode do not have labile hydrogens, while compounds ionizing in negative-ESI mode have one labile hydrogen that detaches during ESI ionization. PMID:24098913

Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Kharybin, Oleg; Perminova, Irina; Konstantinov, Andrey; Nikolaev, Eugene

2013-11-19

378

Visualization of Peroxynitrite-Induced Changes of Labile Zn[superscript 2+] in the Endoplasmic Reticulum with Benzoresorufin-based Fluorescent Probes  

E-print Network

Zn[superscript 2+] plays essential roles in biology, and the homeostasis of Zn[superscript 2+] is tightly regulated in all cells. Subcellular distribution and trafficking of labile Zn[superscript 2+], and its inter-relation ...

Lin, Wei

379

Overview of Scorpion Species from China and Their Toxins  

PubMed Central

Scorpions are one of the most ancient groups of terrestrial animals. They have maintained a steady morphology over more than 400 million years of evolution. Their venom arsenals for capturing prey and defending against predators may play a critical role in their ancient and conservative appearance. In the current review, we present the scorpion fauna of China: 53 species covering five families and 12 genera. We also systematically list toxins or genes from Chinese scorpion species, involving eight species covering four families. Furthermore, we review the diverse functions of typical toxins from Chinese scorpion species, involving Na+ channel modulators, K+ channel blockers, antimicrobial peptides and protease inhibitors. Using scorpion species and their toxins from China as an example, we build the bridge between scorpion species and their toxins, which helps us to understand the molecular and functional diversity of scorpion venom arsenal, the dynamic and functional evolution of scorpion toxins, and the potential relationships of scorpion species and their toxins. PMID:24577583

Cao, Zhijian; Di, Zhiyong; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin

2014-01-01

380

Fold modulating function: bacterial toxins to functional amyloids  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria produce cytolytic toxins that target host cells or other competing microbes. It is well known that environmental factors control toxin expression, however, recent work suggests that some bacteria manipulate the fold of these protein toxins to control their function. The ?-sheet rich amyloid fold is a highly stable ordered aggregate that many toxins form in response to specific environmental conditions. When in the amyloid state, toxins become inert, losing the cytolytic activity they display in the soluble form. Emerging evidence suggest that some amyloids function as toxin storage systems until they are again needed, while other bacteria utilize amyloids as a structural matrix component of biofilms. This amyloid matrix component facilitates resistance to biofilm disruptive challenges. The bacterial amyloids discussed in this review reveal an elegant system where changes in protein fold and solubility dictate the function of proteins in response to the environment. PMID:25136340

Syed, Adnan K.; Boles, Blaise R.

2014-01-01

381

Widespread presence of hydrophobic paralytic shellfish toxins in Gymnodinium catenatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham produces a newly discovered sub-class of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs, saxitoxins) that contain a hydroxybenzoate moiety in place of the carbamoyl group (GC toxins: GC1–GC3). GC toxins bind strongly to sodium channels and their lipophilic nature may increase their potential to bioaccumulate in marine organisms. Cultures Australian G. catenatum strains were found to contain

Andrew P. Negri; Christopher J. S. Bolch; Stephanie Geier; David H. Green; Tae-Gyu Park; Susan I. Blackburn

2007-01-01

382

Critical Care Seizures Related to Illicit Drugs and Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seizures caused by ingestion of drugs and toxins require specific treatment aiming to terminate epileptiform activity and\\u000a to eliminate the toxin. Withdrawal from regularly ingested drugs can also be accompanied by seizures requiring admission to\\u000a an intensive care unit. This chapter discusses diagnostic and therapeutic particulars of seizures induced by illicit drugs\\u000a of abuse, environmental toxins, and heavy metals.

Andreas R. Luft

383

Critical Care Seizures Related to Illicit Drugs and Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Seizures caused by ingestion of drugs and toxins do require specific treatment aiming to terminate epileptiform activity and\\u000a to eliminate the toxin. Withdrawal from regularly ingested drugs can also be accompanied by seizures requiring ICU care. This\\u000a chapter discusses diagnostic and therapeutic particularities of seizures induced by illicit drugs of abuse, environmental\\u000a toxins, and heavy metals.

Andreas R. Luft

384

Fusarial toxins: secondary metabolites of Fusarium fungi.  

PubMed

Exposure to mycotoxins occurs worldwide, even though there are geographic and climatic differences in the amounts produced and occurrence of these substances.Mycotoxins are secondary chemical metabolites of different fungi. They are natural contaminants of cereals, so their presence is often inevitable. Among many genera that produce mycotoxins, Fusarium fungi are the most widespread in cereal-growing areas of the planet. Fusarium fungi produce a diversity of mycotoxin types, whose distributions are also diverse. What is produced and where it is produced is influenced primarily by environmental conditions, and crop production and storage methods. The amount of toxin produced depends on physical (viz., moisture, relative humidity, temperature, and mechanical damage), chemical (viz., carbon dioxide,oxygen, composition of substrate, insecticides and fungicides), and biological factors (viz., plant variety, stress, insects, spore load, etc.). Moisture and temperature have a major influence on mold growth rate and mycotoxin production.Among the most toxic and prevalent fusaria) toxins are the following: zearalenone,fumonisins, moniliformin and trichothecenes (T-2/HT-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol,diacetoxyscirpenol, nivalenol). Zearalenone (ZEA; ZON, F-2 toxin) isaphy to estrogenic compound, primarily a field contaminant, which exhibits estrogenic activity and has been implicated in numerous mycotoxicoses of farm animals,especially pigs. Recently, evidence suggests that ZEA has potential to stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells. Fumonisins are also cancer-promoting metabolites,of which Fumonisin 8 I (FBI) is the most important. Moniliformin (MON) isalso highly toxic to both animals and humans. Trichothecenes are classified as gastrointestinal toxins, dermatotoxins, immunotoxins, hematotoxins, and gene toxins.T-2 and HT-2 toxin, and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, anguidine) are the most toxic mycotoxins among the trichothecene group. Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) and nivalenol although less toxic are important because they frequently occur at levels high enough to cause adverse effects.The presence of mycotoxins in the animal diet can produce significant production losses. Any considerable presence of mycotoxins, in major dietary components,confirms the need to adopt a continuous prevention and control program. Such programs are usually based on several common approaches to minimize mycotoxin contamination in the food chain. Major strategies include preventing fungal growth and therefore mycotoxin formation, reducing or eliminating mycotoxins from contaminated feedstuffs, or diverting contaminated products to low risk uses. Because of the complexity of their chemical structures, mycotoxins also present a major analytical challenge. They are also found in a vast array of feed matrices. Analysis is essential for determining the extent of mycotoxin contamination, for risk analysis, confirming the diagnosis of a mycotoxicosis and for monitoring mycotoxin mitigation strategies.For the future, adequately controlling the mycotoxin problem in the livestock economy will depend on implementing appropriate agricultural management policies,as well as augmenting production and storage systems and analysis methods.Only such policies offer the opportunity to bring solid and long-lasting economical results to the livestock industry that is afflicted with the mycotoxin problem. PMID:24162094

Nesic, Ksenija; Ivanovic, Snezana; Nesic, Vladimir

2014-01-01

385

Lipid requirements for entry of protein toxins into cells.  

PubMed

The plant toxin ricin and the bacterial toxin Shiga toxin both belong to a group of protein toxins having one moiety that binds to the cell surface, and another, enzymatically active moiety, that enters the cytosol and inhibits protein synthesis by inactivating ribosomes. Both toxins travel all the way from the cell surface to endosomes, the Golgi apparatus and the ER before the ribosome-inactivating moiety enters the cytosol. Shiga toxin binds to the neutral glycosphingolipid Gb3 at the cell surface and is therefore dependent on this lipid for transport into the cells, whereas ricin binds both glycoproteins and glycolipids with terminal galactose. The different steps of transport used by these toxins have specific requirements for lipid species, and with the recent developments in mass spectrometry analysis of lipids and microscopical and biochemical dissection of transport in cells, we are starting to see the complexity of endocytosis and intracellular transport. In this article we describe lipid requirements and the consequences of lipid changes for the entry and intoxication with ricin and Shiga toxin. These toxins can be a threat to human health, but can also be exploited for diagnosis and therapy, and have proven valuable as tools to study intracellular transport. PMID:24462587

Sandvig, Kirsten; Bergan, Jonas; Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Skotland, Tore

2014-04-01

386

ArachnoServer: a database of protein toxins from spiders  

PubMed Central

Background Venomous animals incapacitate their prey using complex venoms that can contain hundreds of unique protein toxins. The realisation that many of these toxins may have pharmaceutical and insecticidal potential due to their remarkable potency and selectivity against target receptors has led to an explosion in the number of new toxins being discovered and characterised. From an evolutionary perspective, spiders are the most successful venomous animals and they maintain by far the largest pool of toxic peptides. However, at present, there are no databases dedicated to spider toxins and hence it is difficult to realise their full potential as drugs, insecticides, and pharmacological probes. Description We have developed ArachnoServer, a manually curated database that provides detailed information about proteinaceous toxins from spiders. Key features of ArachnoServer include a new molecular target ontology designed especially for venom toxins, the most up-to-date taxonomic information available, and a powerful advanced search interface. Toxin information can be browsed through dynamic trees, and each toxin has a dedicated page summarising all available information about its sequence, structure, and biological activity. ArachnoServer currently manages 567 protein sequences, 334 nucleic acid sequences, and 51 protein structures. Conclusion ArachnoServer provides a single source of high-quality information about proteinaceous spider toxins that will be an invaluable resource for pharmacologists, neuroscientists, toxinologists, medicinal chemists, ion channel scientists, clinicians, and structural biologists. ArachnoServer is available online at http://www.arachnoserver.org. PMID:19674480

2009-01-01

387

9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS...Burkholderia mallei; Burkholderia pseudomallei; Hendra virus; Nipah virus; Rift Valley fever virus; Venezuelan...

2012-01-01

388

9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS...Burkholderia mallei; *Burkholderia pseudomallei; Hendra virus; Nipah virus; Rift Valley fever virus; Venezuelan equine...

2013-01-01

389

9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS...Burkholderia mallei; Burkholderia pseudomallei; Hendra virus; Nipah virus; Rift Valley fever virus; Venezuelan...

2011-01-01

390

9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.  

...HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS...Burkholderia mallei; *Burkholderia pseudomallei; Hendra virus; Nipah virus; Rift Valley fever virus; Venezuelan equine...

2014-01-01

391

Staphylococcal alpha-toxin causes increased tracheal epithelial permeability.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of pulmonary infections. The role of S. aureus alpha-toxin as a virulence factor is unclear. We hypothesized that airway epithelium is a target of S. aureus alpha-toxin and that exposure of airway epithelium to alpha-toxin results in damage to the airway epithelium. To examine the hypothesis that alpha-toxin is capable of independently producing airway epithelium damage as measured by permeability and morphometry, an isolated whole mouse trachea test apparatus was developed. In vitro epithelial permeability (P) was calculated and digital micrographs were analyzed morphometrically. Purified S. aureus alpha-toxin produced a significant increase in tracheal epithelial P (P < 0.05). Morphometric analysis revealed the ratio of adherent tracheal epithelium attached to the basement membrane divided by the total length of the basement membrane decreased in a dose-dependent manner with 1 microg/ml alpha-toxin and 10 microg/ml alpha-toxin (P < 0.05). We developed a novel isolated whole mouse trachea test apparatus for the measurement of tracheal epithelium damage. Increased P and separation of the tracheal epithelium from the basement membrane occurred after S. aureus alpha-toxin exposure. We conclude that mammalian airway epithelium is a target of S. aureus alpha-toxin. PMID:16998922

Phillips, James R; Tripp, Timothy J; Regelmann, Warren E; Schlievert, Patrick M; Wangensteen, O Douglas

2006-12-01

392

Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus enhance mosquitocidal cry-toxin activity and suppress cry-resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

The interaction of Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus (formerly Bacillus sphaericus) with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins and the influence of such interactions on Cry-resistance were evaluated in susceptible and Cry-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 were observed to be active against both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes; however varying levels of cross-resistance toward Mtx toxins were observed in the resistant mosquitoes. A 1:1 mixture of either Mtx-1 or Mtx-2 with different Cry toxins generally showed moderate synergism, but some combinations were highly toxic to resistant larvae and suppressed resistance. Toxin synergy has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for enhancing activity and managing Cry-resistance in mosquitoes, thus Mtx toxins may be useful as components of engineered bacterial larvicides. PMID:24144574

Wirth, Margaret C; Berry, Colin; Walton, William E; Federici, Brian A

2014-01-01

393

75 FR 20771 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products and Patent Term Restoration; Nonsubstantive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...124 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0069] Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products...SUMMARY: We are amending the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act regulations concerning...contain provisions implementing the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act, as amended...

2010-04-21

394

75 FR 39437 - Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States...Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States...scientific enterprise that utilizes biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) is...

2010-07-08

395

Temperature-dependent shift from labile to recalcitrant carbon sources of arctic heterotrophs.  

PubMed

Soils of high latitudes store approximately one-third of the global soil carbon pool. Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) is expected to increase in response to global warming, which is most pronounced in northern latitudes. It is, however, unclear if microorganisms are able to utilize more stable, recalcitrant C pools, when labile soil carbon pools will be depleted due to increasing temperatures. Here we report on an incubation experiment with intact soil cores of a frost-boil tundra ecosystem at three different temperatures (2 degrees C, 12 degrees C and 24 degrees C). In order to assess which fractions of the SOM are available for decomposition at various temperatures, we analyzed the isotopic signature of respired CO2 and of different SOM fractions. The delta13C values of CO2 respired were negatively correlated with temperature, indicating the utilization of SOM fractions that were depleted in 13C at higher temperatures. Chemical fractionation of SOM showed that the water-soluble fraction (presumably the most easily available substrates for microbial respiration) was most enriched in 13C, while the acid-insoluble pool (recalcitrant substrates) was most depleted in 13C. Our results therefore suggest that, at higher temperatures, recalcitrant compounds are preferentially respired by arctic microbes. When the isotopic signatures of respired CO2 of soils which had been incubated at 24 degrees C were measured at 12 degrees C, the delta13C values shifted to values found in soils incubated at 12 degrees C, indicating the reversible use of more easily available substrates. Analysis of phospholipid fatty acid profiles showed significant differences in microbial community structure at various incubation temperatures indicating that microorganisms with preference for more recalcitrant compounds establish as temperatures increase. In summary our results demonstrate that a large portion of tundra SOM is potentially mineralizable. PMID:15880633

Biasi, Christina; Rusalimova, Olga; Meyer, Hildegard; Kaiser, Christina; Wanek, Wolfgang; Barsukov, Pavel; Junger, Högne; Richter, Andreas

2005-01-01

396

Isolation, determination of structure and synthesis of the acid-labile conjugate of aldosterone.  

PubMed Central

1. After administration of 600mg of 3H-labelled aldosterone to human volunteers, 57 mg of homogeneous acid-labile conjugate was isolated from the urine and identified as aldosterone 18 beta-D-glucosiduronic acid. 2. Esterification and acetylation of the conjugate gave a tetra-acetate methyl ester, which, by measurement of the optical rotation and nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectrum, was shown to be a beta-glucosiduronate. This tetra-acetate methyl ester was synthesized in approx. 10% yield by the Koenigs-Knorr procedure. 3. Removal of the acetyl and methyl ester groups from the tetra-acetate methyl ester with alkali was accompanied by almost complete isomerization at C-17 to give 17-isoaldosterone 18 beta-D-glucosiduronic acid. 4. To prevent inversion at C-17 during removal of the acetate and ester groups of beta-glucosiduronate (a) the 3,20-disemicarbazone was prepared, (b) the acetate and ester groups were removed from the disemicarbazone by treatment with alkali, and (c) the semicarbazone groups were removed from the product at pH 2.0, and aldosterone 18 beta-D-glucosiduronic acid was obtained in 47% overall yield. 5. In the presence of components used to synthesize beta-glucosiduronate by the Koenigs-Knorr reaction this substance is converted slowly into the alpha-glucosiduronate; this conversion is responsible, in part, for the low yield of beta-glucosiduronate. 6. Two additional conjugates were obtained in the Koenigs-Knorr reaction; a provisional structure was assigned to one substrate. The other substance is a C-18 alpha-glucosiduronate. Removal of the acetyl and ester groups from C-18 alpha-glucosiduronate gave the alpha-glucosiduronic acid in 84% yield and the 17-isoaldosterone alpha-glucosiduronic acid in 12% yield. 7. The rate at which several types of beta-glucuronidase hydrolyse the foregoing steroidal alpha- and beta-glucosiduronic acids is given. PMID:962850

Carpenter, P C; Mattox, V R

1976-01-01

397

Antibody-mediated inhibition of ricin toxin retrograde transport.  

PubMed

Ricin is a member of the ubiquitous family of plant and bacterial AB toxins that gain entry into the cytosol of host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and retrograde traffic through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While a few ricin toxin-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been identified, the mechanisms by which these antibodies prevent toxin-induced cell death are largely unknown. Using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and a TGN-specific sulfation assay, we demonstrate that 24B11, a MAb against ricin's binding subunit (RTB), associates with ricin in solution or when prebound to cell surfaces and then markedly enhances toxin uptake into host cells. Following endocytosis, however, toxin-antibody complexes failed to reach the TGN; instead, they were shunted to Rab7-positive late endosomes and LAMP-1-positive lysosomes. Monovalent 24B11 Fab fragments also interfered with toxin retrograde transport, indicating that neither cross-linking of membrane glycoproteins/glycolipids nor the recently identified intracellular Fc receptor is required to derail ricin en route to the TGN. Identification of the mechanism(s) by which antibodies like 24B11 neutralize ricin will advance our fundamental understanding of protein trafficking in mammalian cells and may lead to the discovery of new classes of toxin inhibitors and therapeutics for biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. IMPORTANCE Ricin is the prototypic member of the AB family of medically important plant and bacterial toxins that includes cholera and Shiga toxins. Ricin is also a category B biothreat agent. Despite ongoing efforts to develop vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics against ricin, very little is known about the mechanisms by which antibodies neutralize this toxin. In general, it is thought that antibodies simply prevent toxins from attaching to cell surface receptors or promote their clearance through Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated uptake. In this report, however, we describe a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) against ricin's binding subunit (RTB) that not only associates with ricin after the toxin has bound to the cell's surface but actually enhances toxin uptake into host cells. Following endocytosis, the antibody-toxin complexes are then routed for degradation. The results of this study are important because they reveal a previously unappreciated role for B-subunit-specific antibodies in intracellular neutralization of ricin toxin. PMID:24713323

Yermakova, Anastasiya; Klokk, Tove Irene; Cole, Richard; Sandvig, Kirsten; Mantis, Nicholas J

2014-01-01

398

The ether lipid precursor hexadecylglycerol protects against Shiga toxins.  

PubMed

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli bacteria cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. Currently, only supportive treatment is available for diagnosed patients. We show here that 24-h pretreatment with an ether lipid precursor, the alkylglycerol sn-1-O-hexadecylglycerol (HG), protects HEp-2 cells against Shiga toxin and Shiga toxin 2. Also the endothelial cell lines HMEC-1 and HBMEC are protected against Shiga toxins after HG pretreatment. In contrast, the corresponding acylglycerol, DL-?-palmitin, has no effect on Shiga toxicity. Although HG treatment provides a strong protection (~30 times higher IC??) against Shiga toxin, only a moderate reduction in toxin binding was observed, suggesting that retrograde transport of the toxin from the plasma membrane to the cytosol is perturbed. Furthermore, endocytosis of Shiga toxin and retrograde sorting from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus remain intact, but transport from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum is inhibited by HG treatment. As previously described, HG reduces the total level of all quantified glycosphingolipids to 50-70% of control, including the Shiga toxin receptor globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), in HEp-2 cells. In accordance with this, we find that interfering with Gb3 biosynthesis by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Gb3 synthase for 24 h causes a similar cytotoxic protection and only a moderate reduction in toxin binding (to 70% of control cells). Alkylglycerols, including HG, have been administered to humans for investigation of therapeutic roles in disorders where ether lipid biosynthesis is deficient, as well as in cancer therapy. Further studies may reveal if HG can also have a therapeutic potential in Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infections. PMID:24740796

Bergan, Jonas; Skotland, Tore; Lingelem, Anne Berit Dyve; Simm, Roger; Spilsberg, Bjørn; Lindbäck, Toril; Sylvänne, Tuulia; Simolin, Helena; Ekroos, Kim; Sandvig, Kirsten

2014-11-01

399

Binding of Diphtheria Toxin to Phospholipids in Liposomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diphtheria toxin bound to the phosphate portion of some, but not all, phospholipids in liposomes. Liposomes consisting of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol did not bind toxin. Addition of 20 mol% (compared to dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine) of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid, dicetyl phosphate, phosphatidylinositol phosphate, cardiolipin, or phosphatidylserine in the liposomes resulted in substantial binding of toxin. Inclusion of phosphatidylinositol in dimyristol phosphatidylcholine / cholesterol liposomes did not result in toxin binding. The calcium salt of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid was more effective than the sodium salt, and the highest level of binding occurred with liposomes consisting only of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (calcium salt) and cholesterol. Binding of toxin to liposomes was dependent on pH, and the pattern of pH dependence varied with liposomes having different compositions. Incubation of diphtheria toxin with liposomes containing dicetyl phosphate resulted in maximal binding at pH 3.6, whereas binding to liposomes containing phosphatidylinositol phosphate was maximal above pH 7. Toxin did not bind to liposomes containing 20 mol% of a free fatty acid (palmitic acid) or a sulfated lipid (3-sulfogalactosylceramide). Toxin binding to dicetyl phosphate or phosphatidylinositol phosphate was inhibited by UTP, ATP, phosphocholine, or p-nitrophenyl phosphate, but not by uracil. We conclude that (a) diphtheria toxin binds specifically to the phosphate portion of certain phospholipids, (b) binding to phospholipids in liposomes is dependent on pH, but is not due only to electrostatic interaction, and (c) binding may be strongly influenced by the composition of adjacent phospholipids that do not bind toxin. We propose that a minor membrane phospholipid (such as phosphatidylinositol phosphate or phosphatidic acid), or that some other phosphorylated membrane molecule (such as a phosphoprotein) may be important in the initial binding of diphtheria toxin to cells.

Alving, Carl R.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Urban, Katharine A.; Moss, Joel; Richards, Roberta L.; Sadoff, Jerald C.