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1

Production of Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (LT) B subunit in soybean seed and analysis of its immunogenicity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Expression of the heat-labile toxin B subunit of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (LT) B was directed to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of soybean seed storage parenchyma cells for immunogen sequestration in de novo synthesized, ER-derived protein accretions in transgenic seed. Pentameric LTB accumu...

2

Parenteral Adjuvant Effects of an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Natural Heat-Labile Toxin Variant.  

PubMed

Native type I heat-labile toxins (LTs) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains exert strong adjuvant effects on both antibody and T cell responses to soluble and particulate antigens following co-administration via mucosal routes. However, inherent enterotoxicity and neurotoxicity (following intra-nasal delivery) had reduced the interest in the use of these toxins as mucosal adjuvants. LTs can also behave as powerful and safe adjuvants following delivery via parenteral routes, particularly for activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes. In the present study, we evaluated the adjuvant effects of a new natural LT polymorphic form (LT2), after delivery via intradermal (i.d.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes, with regard to both antibody and T cell responses. A recombinant HIV-1 p24 protein was employed as a model antigen for determination of antigen-specific immune responses while the reference LT (LT1), produced by the ETEC H10407 strain, and a non-toxigenic LT form (LTK63) were employed as previously characterized LT types. LT-treated mice submitted to a four dose-base immunization regimen elicited similar p24-specific serum IgG responses and CD4(+) T cell activation. Nonetheless, mice immunized with LT1 or LT2 induced higher numbers of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells and in vivo cytotoxic responses compared to mice immunized with the non-toxic LT derivative. These effects were correlated with stronger activation of local dendritic cell populations. In addition, mice immunized with LT1 and LT2, but not with LTK63, via s.c. or i.d. routes developed local inflammatory reactions. Altogether, the present results confirmed that the two most prevalent natural polymorphic LT variants (LT1 or LT2) display similar and strong adjuvant effects for subunit vaccines administered via i.d. or s.c. routes. PMID:24432018

Braga, Catarina J M; Rodrigues, Juliana F; Medina-Armenteros, Yordanka; Farinha-Arcieri, Luís E; Ventura, Armando M; Boscardin, Silvia B; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria E; Ferreira, Luís C S

2014-01-01

3

Allele variants of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin are globally transmitted and associated with colonization factors.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally. PMID:25404692

Joffré, Enrique; von Mentzer, Astrid; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Oezguen, Numan; Savidge, Tor; Dougan, Gordon; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjöling, Åsa

2015-01-01

4

Expression and immunogenicity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit in transgenic rice callus.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in developing countries, and the disease may be fatal in the absence of treatment. Enterotoxigenic E. coli heat-labile toxin B subunit (LTB) can be used as an adjuvant, as a carrier of fused antigens, or as an antigen itself. The synthetic LTB (sLTB) gene, optimized for plant codon usage, has been introduced into rice cells by particle bombardment-mediated transformation. The integration and expression of the sLTB gene were observed via genomic DNA PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The binding activity of LTB protein expressed in transgenic rice callus to G(M1)-ganglioside, a receptor for biologically active LTB, was confirmed by G(M1)-ELISA. Oral inoculation of mice with lyophilized transgenic rice calli containing LTB generated significant IgG antibody titers against bacterial LTB, and the sera of immunized mice inhibited the binding of bacterial LTB to G(M1)-ganglioside. Mice orally immunized with non-transgenic rice calli failed to generate detectable anti-LTB IgG antibody titers. Mice immunized with plant-produced LTB generated higher IgG1 antibody titers than IgG2a, indicating a Th2-type immune response. Mice orally immunized with lyophilized transgenic rice calli containing LTB elicited higher fecal IgA antibody titers than mice immunized with non-transgenic rice calli. These experimental results demonstrate that LTB proteins produced in transgenic rice callus and given to mice by oral administration induce humoral and secreted antibody immune responses. We suggest that transgenic rice callus may be suitable as a plant-based edible vaccine to provide effective protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli heat-labile toxin. PMID:19657748

Kim, Tae-Geum; Kim, Bang-Geul; Kim, Mi-Young; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jung, Eun-Sun; Yang, Moon-Sik

2010-01-01

5

Different Assay Conditions for Detecting the Production and Release of Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Isolates  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable enterotoxins (ST). Despite that, the mechanism of action of both toxins are well known, there is great controversy in the literature concerning the in vitro production and release of LT and, for ST, no major concerns have been discussed. Furthermore, the majority of published papers describe the use of only one or a few ETEC isolates to define the production and release of these toxins, which hinders the detection of ETEC by phenotypic approaches. Thus, the present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of ST and LT toxin production and release under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, a collection of 90 LT-, ST-, and ST/LT-producing ETEC isolates was used to determine a protocol for toxin production and release aimed at ETEC detection. For this, we used previously raised anti-LT antibodies and the anti-ST monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies described herein. The presence of bile salts and the use of certain antibiotics improved ETEC toxin production/release. Triton X-100, as chemical treatment, proved to be an alternative method for toxin release. Consequently, a common protocol that can increase the production and release of LT and ST toxins could facilitate and enhance the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for ETEC using the raised and described antibodies in the present work. PMID:24316604

Rocha, Letícia B.; Ozaki, Christiane Y.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Menezes, Caroline A.; Silva, Anderson; Fernandes, Irene; Magnoli, Fabio C.; Vaz, Tania M. I.; Guth, Beatriz E. C.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

2013-01-01

6

Different assay conditions for detecting the production and release of heat-labile and heat-stable toxins in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable enterotoxins (ST). Despite that, the mechanism of action of both toxins are well known, there is great controversy in the literature concerning the in vitro production and release of LT and, for ST, no major concerns have been discussed. Furthermore, the majority of published papers describe the use of only one or a few ETEC isolates to define the production and release of these toxins, which hinders the detection of ETEC by phenotypic approaches. Thus, the present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of ST and LT toxin production and release under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, a collection of 90 LT-, ST-, and ST/LT-producing ETEC isolates was used to determine a protocol for toxin production and release aimed at ETEC detection. For this, we used previously raised anti-LT antibodies and the anti-ST monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies described herein. The presence of bile salts and the use of certain antibiotics improved ETEC toxin production/release. Triton X-100, as chemical treatment, proved to be an alternative method for toxin release. Consequently, a common protocol that can increase the production and release of LT and ST toxins could facilitate and enhance the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for ETEC using the raised and described antibodies in the present work. PMID:24316604

Rocha, Letícia B; Ozaki, Christiane Y; Horton, Denise S P Q; Menezes, Caroline A; Silva, Anderson; Fernandes, Irene; Magnoli, Fabio C; Vaz, Tania M I; Guth, Beatriz E C; Piazza, Roxane M F

2013-12-01

7

E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) inactivation by specific polyphenols is aggregation dependent.  

PubMed

Recently, polyphenol extracts were suggested to inhibit binding of Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT) to its intestinal receptor GM1. Therefore, polyphenols are promising feed or food supplements to combat enterotoxigenic infections. Little is known of the precise mechanism, or the type of polyphenol required. Here, seven different polyphenols were tested in vitro (1) for inhibition of LT binding to GM1 (GM1-ELISA), (2) for LT inhibitory activity in the cAMP Vero-cell assay, and (3) by testing the aggregating properties of polyphenols with LT using molecular weight exclusion membrane filters, and by centrifugation techniques. Results showed only three out of seven polyphenols, pentagalloylglucose (PGG), epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) and gallocatechingallate (GCG), to effectively inhibit binding of LT to GM1, and to inhibit induction of cAMP in Vero cells, and that PGG is the most effective. Blocking of the GM1 receptor is unlikely as a mechanism because pre-incubation of GM1 with polyphenols had no effect. Co-incubation of polyphenols with forskolin did not interfere with cAMP production in Vero cells, showing that polyphenol activity is not directly related to cAMP. It is concluded that the inhibitory activities of these three polyphenols may coincide with the formation of large (>100 kDa) LT-polyphenol aggregates. Enterotoxin inactivation appears to require a minimum of two galloyl moieties in polyphenol structure and the pentagalloyl PGG is the most effective. PMID:23391440

Verhelst, R; Schroyen, M; Buys, N; Niewold, T A

2013-05-01

8

Plasmid Vectors Encoding Cholera Toxin or the Heat-Labile Enterotoxin from Escherichia coli Are Strong Adjuvants for DNA Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Two plasmid vectors encoding the A and B subunits of cholera toxin (CT) and two additional vectors encoding the A and B subunits of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) were evaluated for their ability to serve as genetic adjuvants for particle-mediated DNA vaccines administered to the epidermis of laboratory animals. Both the CT and the LT vectors strongly augmented Th1 cytokine responses (gamma interferon [IFN-?]) to multiple viral antigens when codelivered with DNA vaccines. In addition, Th2 cytokine responses (interleukin 4 [IL-4]) were also augmented by both sets of vectors, with the effects of the LT vectors on IL-4 responses being more antigen dependent. The activities of both sets of vectors on antibody responses were antigen dependent and ranged from no effect to sharp reductions in the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)-to-IgG2a ratios. Overall, the LT vectors exhibited stronger adjuvant effects in terms of T-cell responses than did the CT vectors, and this was correlated with the induction of greater levels of cyclic AMP by the LT vectors following vector transfection into cultured cells. The adjuvant effects observed in vivo were due to the biological effects of the encoded proteins and not due to CpG motifs in the bacterial genes. Interestingly, the individual LT A and B subunit vectors exhibited partial adjuvant activity that was strongly influenced by the presence or absence of signal peptide coding sequences directing the encoded subunit to either intracellular or extracellular locations. Particle-mediated delivery of either the CT or LT adjuvant vectors in rodents and domestic pigs was well tolerated, suggesting that bacterial toxin-based genetic adjuvants may be a safe and effective strategy to enhance the potency of both prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccines for the induction of strong cellular immunity. PMID:11932419

Arrington, Joshua; Braun, Ralph P.; Dong, Lichun; Fuller, Deborah H.; Macklin, Michael D.; Umlauf, Scott W.; Wagner, Sarah J.; Wu, Mary S.; Payne, Lendon G.; Haynes, Joel R.

2002-01-01

9

Characterization of Heat-Stable (STa) Toxoids of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Fused to Double Mutant Heat-Labile Toxin Peptide in Inducing Neutralizing Anti-STa Antibodies  

PubMed Central

A long-standing challenge in developing vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in children of developing countries and travelers to these countries, is to protect against heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa). STa and heat-labile toxin (LT) are virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. LT antigens are often used in vaccine development, but STa has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity and potent toxicity. Toxic STa is not safe for vaccines, but only STa possessing toxicity is believed to be able to induce neutralizing antibodies. However, recent studies demonstrated that nontoxic STa derivatives (toxoids), after being fused to an LT protein, induced neutralizing antibodies and suggested that different STa toxoids fused to an LT protein might exhibit different STa antigenic propensity. In this study, we selected 14 STa toxoids from a mini-STa toxoid library based on toxicity reduction and reactivity to anti-native STa antibodies, and genetically fused each toxoid to a monomeric double mutant LT (dmLT) peptide for 14 STa-toxoid-dmLT toxoid fusions. These toxoid fusions were used to immunize mice and were characterized for induction of anti-STa antibody response. The results showed that different STa toxoids (in fusions) varied greatly in anti-STa antigenicity. Among them, STaN12S, STaN12T, and STaA14H were the top toxoids in inducing anti-STa antibodies. In vitro neutralization assays indicated that antibodies induced by the 3×STaN12S-dmLT fusion antigen exhibited the greatest neutralizing activity against STa toxin. These results suggested 3×STaN12S-dmLT is a preferred fusion antigen to induce an anti-STa antibody response and provided long-awaited information for effective ETEC vaccine development. PMID:24549325

Ruan, Xiaosai; Robertson, Donald C.; Nataro, James P.; Clements, John D.

2014-01-01

10

Characterization of heat-stable (STa) toxoids of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fused to double mutant heat-labile toxin peptide in inducing neutralizing Anti-STa antibodies.  

PubMed

A long-standing challenge in developing vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in children of developing countries and travelers to these countries, is to protect against heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa). STa and heat-labile toxin (LT) are virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. LT antigens are often used in vaccine development, but STa has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity and potent toxicity. Toxic STa is not safe for vaccines, but only STa possessing toxicity is believed to be able to induce neutralizing antibodies. However, recent studies demonstrated that nontoxic STa derivatives (toxoids), after being fused to an LT protein, induced neutralizing antibodies and suggested that different STa toxoids fused to an LT protein might exhibit different STa antigenic propensity. In this study, we selected 14 STa toxoids from a mini-STa toxoid library based on toxicity reduction and reactivity to anti-native STa antibodies, and genetically fused each toxoid to a monomeric double mutant LT (dmLT) peptide for 14 STa-toxoid-dmLT toxoid fusions. These toxoid fusions were used to immunize mice and were characterized for induction of anti-STa antibody response. The results showed that different STa toxoids (in fusions) varied greatly in anti-STa antigenicity. Among them, STaN12S, STaN12T, and STaA14H were the top toxoids in inducing anti-STa antibodies. In vitro neutralization assays indicated that antibodies induced by the 3×STaN12S-dmLT fusion antigen exhibited the greatest neutralizing activity against STa toxin. These results suggested 3×STaN12S-dmLT is a preferred fusion antigen to induce an anti-STa antibody response and provided long-awaited information for effective ETEC vaccine development. PMID:24549325

Ruan, Xiaosai; Robertson, Donald C; Nataro, James P; Clements, John D; Zhang, Weiping

2014-05-01

11

Selection of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) inhibitors using both the GM1-ELISA and the cAMP vero cell assay.  

PubMed

Weaned piglets are very susceptible to diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. In the past, various natural components were proposed to have beneficial effects by reducing the effects of diarrheal infectious diseases in humans and animals, and thus may represent an alternative for the use of (prophylactic) antibiotics. Alternatives may inactivate enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) by interfering with toxin binding to the cellular receptor GM1. In this study, various plants and other natural substances were tested for inhibitory properties, in the GM1 binding assay, and in the LT-induced cAMP production in Vero cells. The toxic dose of each compound was determined in a cell viability assay, and the highest nontoxic concentrations were used in the GM1 and cAMP assays. Results demonstrated that only d-(+)-galactose, lactose, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, and two tea extracts were able to inhibit the binding of LT to its GM1 receptor. In the cAMP assay, only the two tea extracts showed inhibitory activity. This shows that d-(+)-galactose, lactose, and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine can indeed inhibit LT binding to GM1 based on structural homology with GM1 in the absence of living cells. However, in the cAMP assay, d-(+)-galactose, and lactose, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine are apparently metabolized to below their effective inhibitory concentration, likely predicting limited practical applicability in vivo. Both tea extracts maintained their activity in the presence of cells. The active compounds in both are probably polyphenols, which are not easily metabolized, and most likely work by aggregating the toxin. In conclusion, the combination of methods used here is a convenient and fast method for preselecting natural substances containing potentially toxin-binding compounds. Furthermore, if antidiarrhea activity is attributed to compounds found inactive here, their activity is unlikely based on interference with toxin binding. PMID:23692076

Verhelst, Roderick; Schroyen, Martine; Buys, Nadine; Niewold, Theo

2013-07-01

12

Nucleotide sequence comparison between heat-labile toxin B-subunit cistrons from Escherichia coli of human and porcine origin.  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide sequence of the LT-BH cistron (eltBH) from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain infectious for humans was determined and compared with the LT-B cistron sequence from a porcine E. coli isolate. Both cistrons were shown to comprise 375 nucleotide base pairs, and discrepancies were detected at eight positions. Of the nonhomologous base pairs, six resulted in codon changes that would lead to amino acid variations. The nucleotide sequence distal to both LT-B cistrons was also determined, and only three differences were detected in 197 base pairs. An HhaI site unique to eltBH was shown to be present in all the heat-labile (LT) genes from 31 human isolates surveyed, whereas the restriction enzyme recognition site was absent in the gene from 46 porcine E. coli isolates. The results suggest that two genetically discernable LT groups are identifiable and that the groups are also distinguishable by the isolation source (human or porcine) of the infecting E. coli strains. Images PMID:3884513

Leong, J; Vinal, A C; Dallas, W S

1985-01-01

13

Expression and functional validation of heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) and cholera toxin B (CTB) subunits in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa).  

PubMed

We expressed the heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) subunit from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and the cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit from Vibrio cholerae under the control of the rice (Oryza sativa) globulin (Glb) promoter. Binding of recombinant LTB and CTB proteins was confirmed based on GM1-ganglioside binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA). Real-time PCR of three generations (T3, T4, and T5) in homozygous lines (LCI-11) showed single copies of LTB, CTB, bar and Tnos. LTB and CTB proteins in rice transgenic lines were detected by Western blot analysis. Immunogenicity trials of rice-derived CTB and LTB antigens were evaluated through oral and intraperitoneal administration in mice, respectively. The results revealed that LTB- and CTB-specific IgG levels were enhanced in the sera of intraperitoneally immunized mice. Similarly, the toxin-neutralizing activity of CTB and LTB in serum of orally immunized mice was associated with elevated levels of both IgG and IgA. The results of the present study suggest that the combined expression of CTB and LTB proteins can be utilized to produce vaccines against enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholera, for the prevention of diarrhea. PMID:25853032

Soh, Ho Seob; Chung, Ha Young; Lee, Hyun Ho; Ajjappala, Hemavathi; Jang, Kyoungok; Park, Jong-Hwa; Sim, Joon-Soo; Lee, Gee Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Han, Young Hee; Lim, Jae Wook; Choi, Inchan; Chung, In Sik; Hahn, Bum-Soo

2015-01-01

14

Design and characterization of a chimeric multiepitope construct containing CfaB, heat-stable toxoid, CssA, CssB, and heat-labile toxin subunit B of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: a bioinformatic approach.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Enterotoxins and colonization factors (CFs) are two key virulence factors in ETEC pathogenesis, and the heterogeneity of the CFs is the bottleneck in reaching an effective vaccine. In this study, a candidate subunit vaccine, which is composed of CfaB, CssA and CssB, structural subunits of colonization factor antigen I and CS6 CFs, labile toxin subunit B, and the binding subunit of heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid, was designed to provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. The different features of chimeric gene, its mRNA stability, and chimeric protein properties were analyzed by using bioinformatic tools. The optimized chimeric gene was chemically synthesized and expressed successfully in a prokaryotic host. The purified protein was used for assessment of bioinformatic data by experimental methods. PMID:24372617

Zeinalzadeh, Narges; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Ahangari, Ghasem; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Amani, Jafar; Bathaie, S Zahra; Jafari, Mahyat

2014-01-01

15

Mutational Analysis of Ganglioside GM1-Binding Ability, Pentamer Formation, and Epitopes of Cholera Toxin B (CTB) Subunits and CTB/Heat-Labile Enterotoxin B Subunit Chimeras  

PubMed Central

Variants of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) were made by bisulfite- and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of the ctxB gene. Variants were screened by a radial passive immune hemolysis assay (RPIHA) for loss of binding to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). Variant CTBs were characterized for the formation of immunoreactive pentamers, the ability to bind ganglioside GM1 in vitro, and reactivity with a panel of monoclonal anti-CTB antibodies. Substitutions at eight positions (i.e., positions 22, 29, 36, 45, 64, 86, 93, and 100) greatly reduced the yield of immunoreactive CTB. RPIHA-negative substitution variants that formed immunoreactive pentamers were obtained for residues 12, 33, 36, 51, 52 + 54, 91, and 95. Tyrosine-12 was identified as a novel residue important for GM1 binding since, among all of the novel variants isolated with altered RPIHA phenotypes, only CTB with aspartate substituted for tyrosine at position 12 failed to bind significantly to ganglioside GM1 in vitro. In contrast, CTB variants with single substitutions for several other residues (Glu-51, Lys-91, and Ala-95) that participate in GM1 binding, based on the crystal structure of CTB and the oligosaccharide of GM1, were not appreciably altered in their ability to bind GM1 in vitro, even though they showed altered RPIHA phenotypes and did not bind to SRBC. Hybrid B genes made by fusing ctxB and the related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin eltB genes at codon 56 produced CTB variants that had 7 or 12 heat-labile enterotoxin B residue substitutions in the amino or carboxyl halves of the monomer, respectively, each of which which also bound GM1 as well as wild-type CTB. This collection of variant CTBs in which 47 of the 103 residues were substituted was used to map the epitopes of nine anti-CTB monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Each MAb had a unique pattern of reactivity with the panel of CTB variants. Although no two of the epitopes recognized by different MAbs were identical, most of the single amino acid substitutions that altered the immunoreactivity of CTB affected more that one epitope. The tertiary structures of the epitopes of these anti-CTB MAbs are highly conformational and may involve structural elements both within and between CTB monomers. Substitution of valine for alanine at positions 10 and 46 had dramatic effects on the immunoreactivity of CTB, affecting epitopes recognized by eight or six MAbs, respectively. PMID:11854209

Jobling, Michael G.; Holmes, Randall K.

2002-01-01

16

A Functional Antigen in a Practical Crop: LT-B Producing Maize Protects Mice against Escherichia coli Heat Labile Enterotoxin (LT) and Cholera Toxin (CT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason; Kan Wang

2002-01-01

17

A functional antigen in a practical crop: LT-B producing maize protects mice against Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason

2002-01-01

18

Genetic fusions of heat-labile toxoid (LT) and heat-stable toxin b (STb) of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli elicit protective anti-LT and anti-STb antibodies.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-associated diarrhea causes a substantial economic loss to swine producers worldwide. The majority of ETEC strains causing porcine diarrhea, especially postweaning diarrhea (PWD), produce heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin b (STb). LT is commonly used in vaccine development, but STb has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity. As a virulence factor in porcine diarrhea, STb needs to be included as an antigen for development of broad-spectrum vaccines. In this study, we used an LT toxoid (LT(R192G) [hereafter, LT(192)]) derived from porcine ETEC to carry a mature STb peptide for LT(192)-STb fusions to enhance STb immunogenicity for potential vaccine application. Anti-LT and anti-STb antibodies were detected in immunized rabbits and pigs. In addition, when challenged with an STb-positive ETEC strain, all 10 suckling piglets borne by immunized gilts remained healthy, whereas 7 out 9 piglets borne by unimmunized gilts developed moderate diarrhea. This study indicates that the LT(192)-STb fusion enhanced anti-STb immunogenicity and suggests the LT(192)-STb fusion antigen can be used in future vaccine development against porcine ETEC diarrhea. PMID:20505006

Zhang, Weiping; Francis, David H

2010-08-01

19

Safety and immunogenicity of a single oral dose of recombinant double mutant heat-labile toxin derived from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a primary cause of traveler's diarrhea for which there is no licensed vaccine. This phase 1 trial determined the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinantly produced double mutant heat-labile enterotoxin (dmLT) of ETEC. It was administered as a single oral dose of dmLT in escalating doses of 5 ?g, 25 ?g, 50 ?g, and 100 ?g, followed by a 72-h inpatient observation, outpatient visits at 8, 14, and 28 days, and telephone calls at 2 and 6 months postvaccination. Safety was assessed by frequency of adverse events, and immune responses determined after immunization included dmLT-specific serum IgA and IgG, fecal IgA, antibody-secreting cells (ASC), and antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) responses. All doses were well tolerated by the 36 healthy adults enrolled. Immune responses were limited in the 5- and 25-?g dose recipients. The 50-?g dose recipients trended toward stronger responses than the 100-?g dose recipients by serum IgA (67% versus 33%, P = 0.22), serum IgG (58% versus 33%, P = 0.41), and fecal IgA (58% versus 33%, P = 0.41). By day 14 postvaccination, there were significantly more positive responders (?4-fold increase from baseline) among the 50- versus 100-?g dose recipients for serum IgA (P = 0.036) but not serum IgG (P = 0.21). In conclusion, a single oral dose of dmLT was well tolerated and immunogenic, with immune responses plateauing at the 50-?g dose. (This clinical trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT01147445.). PMID:24049109

El-Kamary, Samer S; Cohen, Mitchell B; Bourgeois, A Louis; Van De Verg, Lillian; Bauers, Nicole; Reymann, Mardi; Pasetti, Marcela F; Chen, Wilbur H

2013-11-01

20

Genetic Fusions of a CFA/I/II/IV MEFA (Multiepitope Fusion Antigen) and a Toxoid Fusion of Heat-Stable Toxin (STa) and Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Retain Broad Anti-CFA and Antitoxin Antigenicity  

PubMed Central

Immunological heterogeneity has long been the major challenge in developing broadly effective vaccines to protect humans and animals against bacterial and viral infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in humans, express at least 23 immunologically different colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and two distinct enterotoxins [heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa)]. ETEC strains expressing any one or two CFAs and either toxin cause diarrhea, therefore vaccines inducing broad immunity against a majority of CFAs, if not all, and both toxins are expected to be effective against ETEC. In this study, we applied the multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) strategy to construct ETEC antigens and examined antigens for broad anti-CFA and antitoxin immunogenicity. CFA MEFA CFA/I/II/IV [CVI 2014, 21(2):243-9], which carried epitopes of seven CFAs [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, CS3), CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6)] expressed by the most prevalent and virulent ETEC strains, was genetically fused to LT-STa toxoid fusion monomer 3xSTaA14Q-dmLT or 3xSTaN12S-dmLT [IAI 2014, 82(5):1823-32] for CFA/I/II/IV-STaA14Q-dmLT and CFA/I/II/IV-STaN12S-dmLT MEFAs. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with either CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA developed antibodies specific to seven CFAs and both toxins, at levels equivalent or comparable to those induced from co-administration of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA and toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT. Moreover, induced antibodies showed in vitro adherence inhibition activities against ETEC or E. coli strains expressing these seven CFAs and neutralization activities against both toxins. These results indicated CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA or CFA/I/II/IV MEFA combined with 3xSTaN12S-dmLT induced broadly protective anti-CFA and antitoxin immunity, and suggested their potential application in broadly effective ETEC vaccine development. This MEFA strategy may be generally used in multivalent vaccine development. PMID:25803825

Ruan, Xiaosai; Sack, David A.; Zhang, Weiping

2015-01-01

21

Modulation of innate and acquired immune responses by Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin: distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of the nontoxic AB complex and the enzyme activity.  

PubMed

We have examined the roles of enzyme activity and the nontoxic AB complex of heat-labile toxin (LT) from Escherichia coli on its adjuvant and immunomodulatory properties. LTK63, an LT mutant that is completely devoid of enzyme activity, enhanced Th1 responses to coinjected Ags at low adjuvant dose. In contrast, LTR72, a partially detoxified mutant, enhanced Th2 responses and when administered intranasally to mice before infection with Bordetella pertussis suppressed Th1 responses and delayed bacterial clearance from the lungs. LTR72 or wild-type LT inhibited Ag-induced IFN-gamma production by Th1 cells, and LT enhanced IL-5 production by Th2 cells in vitro. Each of the toxins enhanced B7-1 expression on macrophages, but enhancement of B7-2 expression was dependent on enzyme activity. We also observed distinct effects of the nontoxic AB complex and enzyme activity on inflammatory cytokine production. LT and LTR72 suppressed LPS and IFN-gamma induced TNF-alpha and IL-12 production, but enhanced IL-10 secretion by macrophages in vitro and suppressed IL-12 production in vivo in a murine model of LPS-induced shock. In contrast, LTK63 augmented the production of IL-12 and TNF-alpha. Furthermore, LTK63 enhanced NF-kappaB translocation, whereas low doses of LTR72 or LT failed to activate NF-kappaB, but stimulated cAMP production. Thus, E. coli LT appears to be capable of suppressing Th1 responses and enhancing Th2 responses through the modulatory effects of enzyme activity on NF-kappaB activation and IL-12 production. In contrast, the nontoxic AB complex can stimulate acquired immune responses by activating components of the innate immune system. PMID:11067933

Ryan, E J; McNeela, E; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R; O'Neill, L; Mills, K H

2000-11-15

22

Toward the development of a stable, freeze-dried formulation of Helicobacter pylori killed whole cell vaccine adjuvanted with a novel mutant of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin.  

PubMed

No vaccine exists for the prevention of infection with the ubiquitous gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, and drug therapy for the infection is complicated by poor patient compliance, the high cost of treatment, and ineffectiveness against drug-resistant strains. A new medical advancement is required to reduce the incidence of peptic ulcer disease and stomach cancer, two conditions caused by infection with H. pylori. Clinical trials have been performed with a formalin-inactivated H. pylori whole cell (HWC) vaccine, given orally in combination with the mucosal adjuvant mLT(R192G), a mutant of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin. Following the initial dose of this vaccine, some subjects experienced gastrointestinal side effects. To reduce side effects and potentially further increase the amount of adjuvant that can safely be administered with the HWC vaccine, experiments were performed with a form of LT that carried two mutations in the A subunit, a substitution of G for R at position 192, and A for L at position 211. The double mutant LT (dmLT) adjuvant stimulated immune responses as effectively as the single mutant LT in mice. Additionally, following a challenge infection, the dmLT-adjuvanted vaccine was as effective as single mutant LT in reducing gastric urease levels (diagnostic for H. pylori infection), and H. pylori colonization in the stomach as assessed by quantitative analysis of stomach homogenates. A lyophilized formulation of HWC was developed to improve stability and to potentially reduce reliance on cold chain maintenance. It was observed that a dmLT-adjuvanted lyophilized vaccine was equally as protective in the mouse model as the liquid formulation as assessed by gastric urease analysis and analysis of stomach homogenates for viable H. pylori. No readily detectable effect of tonicity or moisture content was observed for the lyophilized vaccine within the formulation limits evaluated. In an accelerated stability study performed at 37 degrees C the lyophilized vaccine remained equally as protective as vaccine stored at 2-8 degrees C. The formulation selected for clinical development consisted of 2.5 x 10(10) formalin-inactivated cells per ml in 6.5% trehalose, 0.5% mannitol, and 10mM citrate buffer at pH 6.8. PMID:19897067

Summerton, Nancy A; Welch, Richard W; Bondoc, Laureano; Yang, Huei-Hsiung; Pleune, Brett; Ramachandran, Naryaswamy; Harris, Andrea M; Bland, Desiree; Jackson, W James; Park, Sukjoon; Clements, John D; Nabors, Gary S

2010-02-01

23

Modified Heat-Stable Toxins (hSTa) of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Lose Toxicity but Display Antigenicity after Being Genetically Fused to Heat-Labile Toxoid LT(R192G)  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrhea in humans and animals. Heat-stable (STa) and heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins produced by ETEC disrupt fluid homeostasis in host small intestinal epithelial cells and cause fluid and electrolyte hyper-secretion that leads to diarrhea. ETEC strains producing STa or LT are sufficiently virulent to cause diarrhea, therefore STa and LT antigens must be included in ETEC vaccines. However, potent toxicity and poor immunogenicity (of STa) prevent them from being directly applied as vaccine components. While LT toxoids, especially LT(R192G), being used in vaccine development, STa toxoids have not been included. A recent study (IAI, 78:316-325) demonstrated porcine-type STa toxoids [pSTa(P12F) and pSTa(A13Q)] elicited protective anti-STa antibodies after being fused to a porcine-type LT toxoid [pLT(R192G)]. In this study, we substituted the 8th, 9th, 16th, or the 17th amino acid of a human-type STa (hSTa) and generated 28 modified STa peptides. We tested each STa peptide for toxicity and structure integrity, and found nearly all modified STa proteins showed structure alteration and toxicity reduction. Based on structure similarity and toxic activity, three modified STa peptides: STa(E8A), STa(T16Q) and STa(G17S), were selected to construct LT192-STa-toxoid fusions. Constructed fusions were used to immunize mice, and immunized mice developed anti-STa antibodies. Results from this study provide useful information in developing toxoid vaccines against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:22069760

Liu, Mei; Zhang, Chengxian; Mateo, Kristy; Nataro, James P.; Robertson, Donald C.; Zhang, Weiping

2011-01-01

24

Analysis and modeling of heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli suggests a novel space with insights into receptor preference.  

PubMed

Features of heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli which make them fit to use as novel receptors for antidiarrheals are not completely explored. Data-set of 14 different serovars of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli producing heat-labile toxins were taken from NCBI Genbank database and used in the study. Sequence analysis showed mutations in different subunits and also at their interface residues. As these toxins lack crystallography structures, homology modeling using Modeller 9.11 led to the structural approximation for the E. coli producing heat-labile toxins. Interaction of modeled toxin subunits with proanthocyanidin, an antidiarrheal showed several strong hydrogen bonding interactions at the cost of minimized energy. The hits were subsequently characterized by molecular dynamics simulation studies to monitor their binding stabilities. This study looks into novel space where the ligand can choose the receptor preference not as a whole but as an individual subunit. Mutation at interface residues and interaction among subunits along with the binding of ligand to individual subunits would help to design a non-toxic labile toxin and also to improve the therapeutics. PMID:25375068

Krishna Raja, M; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Vino, S; Sajitha Lulu, S

2014-11-01

25

A tripartite fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B, of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) elicits antibodies that neutralize cholera toxin, inhibit adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 fimbriae, and protect pigs against K88ac/heat-labile toxin infection.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT(192)) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21813665

Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A; Zhang, Weiping

2011-10-01

26

A Tripartite Fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B, of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Elicits Antibodies That Neutralize Cholera Toxin, Inhibit Adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 Fimbriae, and Protect Pigs against K88ac/Heat-Labile Toxin Infection ?  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT192) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21813665

Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A.; Zhang, Weiping

2011-01-01

27

Intranasal Administration of 2/6-Rotavirus-Like Particles with Mutant Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin (LT-R192G) Induces Antibody-Secreting Cell Responses but Not Protective Immunity in Gnotobiotic Pigs  

PubMed Central

We investigated the immunogenicity of recombinant double-layered rotavirus-like particle (2/6-VLPs) vaccines derived from simian SA11 or human (VP6) Wa and bovine RF (VP2) rotavirus strains. The 2/6-VLPs were administered to gnotobiotic pigs intranasally (i.n.) with a mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, LT-R192G (mLT), as mucosal adjuvant. Pigs were challenged with virulent Wa (P1A[8],G1) human rotavirus at postinoculation day (PID) 21 (two-dose VLP regimen) or 28 (three-dose VLP regimen). In vivo antigen-activated antibody-secreting cells (ASC) (effector B cells) and in vitro antigen-reactivated ASC (derived from memory B cells) from intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues (duodenum, ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN], spleen, peripheral blood lymphocytes [PBL], and bone marrow lymphocytes) collected at selected times were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunospot assays. Rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG ASC and memory B-cell responses were detected by PID 21 or 28 in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues after i.n. inoculation with two or three doses of 2/6-VLPs with or without mLT. Greater mean numbers of virus-specific ASC and memory B cells in all tissues prechallenge were induced in pigs inoculated with two doses of SA11 2/6-VLPs plus mLT compared to SA11 2/6-VLPs without mLT. After challenge, anamnestic IgA and IgG ASC and memory B-cell responses were detected in intestinal lymphoid tissues of all VLP-inoculated groups, but serum virus-neutralizing antibody titers were not significantly enhanced compared to the challenged controls. Pigs inoculated with Wa-RF 2/6-VLPs (with or without mLT) developed higher anamnestic IgA and IgG ASC responses in ileum after challenge compared to pigs inoculated with SA11 2/6-VLPs (with or without mLT). Three doses of SA 11 2/6-VLP plus mLT induced the highest mean numbers of IgG memory B cells in MLN, spleen, and PBL among all groups postchallenge. However, no significant protection against diarrhea or virus shedding was evident in any of the 2/6-VLP (with or without mLT)-inoculated pigs after challenge with virulent Wa human rotavirus. These results indicate that 2/6-VLP vaccines are immunogenic in gnotobiotic pigs when inoculated i.n. and that the adjuvant mLT enhanced their immunogenicity. However, i.n. inoculation of gnotobiotic pigs with 2/6-VLPs did not confer protection against human rotavirus challenge. PMID:10982326

Yuan, Lijuan; Geyer, Annelise; Hodgins, Douglas C.; Fan, Zhiqian; Qian, Yuan; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Crawford, Sue E.; Parreño, Viviana; Ward, Lucy A.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.; Saif, Linda J.

2000-01-01

28

Transcutaneous Immunization Using Colonization Factor and Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Induces Correlates of Protective Immunity for Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrheal disease is a worldwide problem that may be addressed by transcutaneous delivery of a vaccine. In several human settings, protective immunity has been associated with immune responses to E. coli colonization factors and to the heat-labile toxin that induces the diarrhea. In this set of animal studies, transcutaneous immunization (TCI) using recombinant colonization factor CS6

Jianmei Yu; Frederick Cassels; Tanya Scharton-Kersten; Scott A. Hammond; Antoinette Hartman; Evelina Angov; Blaise Corthésy; Carl Alving; Gregory Glenn; Walter Reed Army

2002-01-01

29

Development and accuracy of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for detection and quantification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat labile and heat stable toxin genes in travelers' diarrhea samples.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the leading bacterial pathogen of travelers' diarrhea, is routinely detected by an established DNA hybridization protocol that is neither sensitive nor quantitative. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays that detect the ETEC toxin genes eltA, sta1, and sta2 in clinical stool samples were developed and tested using donor stool inoculated with known quantities of ETEC bacteria. The sensitivity of the qPCR assays is 89%, compared with 22% for the DNA hybridization assay, and the limits of detection are 10,000-fold lower than the DNA hybridization assays performed in parallel. Ninety-three clinical stool samples, previously characterized by DNA hybridization, were tested using the new ETEC qPCR assays. Discordant toxin profiles were observed for 22 samples, notably, four samples originally typed as ETEC negative were ETEC positive. The qPCR assays are unique in their sensitivity and ability to quantify the three toxin genes in clinical stool samples. PMID:24189361

Youmans, Bonnie P; Ajami, Nadim J; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Petrosino, Joseph F; DuPont, Herbert L; Highlander, Sarah K

2014-01-01

30

Development and Accuracy of Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for Detection and Quantification of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Heat Labile and Heat Stable Toxin Genes in Travelers' Diarrhea Samples  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the leading bacterial pathogen of travelers' diarrhea, is routinely detected by an established DNA hybridization protocol that is neither sensitive nor quantitative. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays that detect the ETEC toxin genes eltA, sta1, and sta2 in clinical stool samples were developed and tested using donor stool inoculated with known quantities of ETEC bacteria. The sensitivity of the qPCR assays is 89%, compared with 22% for the DNA hybridization assay, and the limits of detection are 10,000-fold lower than the DNA hybridization assays performed in parallel. Ninety-three clinical stool samples, previously characterized by DNA hybridization, were tested using the new ETEC qPCR assays. Discordant toxin profiles were observed for 22 samples, notably, four samples originally typed as ETEC negative were ETEC positive. The qPCR assays are unique in their sensitivity and ability to quantify the three toxin genes in clinical stool samples. PMID:24189361

Youmans, Bonnie P.; Ajami, Nadim J.; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Petrosino, Joseph F.; DuPont, Herbert L.; Highlander, Sarah K.

2014-01-01

31

Bacteriophage conversion of heat-labile enterotoxin in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

A temperate phage designated obeta1 (omicron beta) was mitomycin C induced and isolated from heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)-producing Escherichia coli E2631-C2. Phage obeta1 infected the nonlysogenic, nontoxigenic, mitomycin C-sensitive strain of E. coli K-12 (CSH38) and converted it to lysogeny and enterotoxigenicity. After the establishment of lysogeny, E. coli CSH38(obeta1) produced produced LT and phage particles at maximal levels following mitomycin C induction. The LT Tox+ character is carried by the temperate phage obeta1. PMID:338578

Takeda, Y; Murphy, J R

1978-01-01

32

Nutritional requirements for synthesis of heat-labile enterotoxin by enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Optimal growth conditions have been established for production of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) by both porcine and human strains of enterotoxigenic (ENT(+)) Escherichia coli. There were no unusual growth factor requirements, and some strains produced fairly high levels of LT in a basal salts medium containing 0.5% glucose if the pH was carefully controlled. Several amino acids markedly stimulated LT synthesis when added to the basal salts-glucose medium. Methionine and lysine were the most stimulatory for both human and porcine strains. Either aspartic acid or glutamic acid further enhanced LT synthesis in the presence of methionine and lysine, with aspartic acid being more stimulatory for porcine strains and glutamic acid more stimulatory for human strains. There were no apparent vitamin requirements and no unusual cations needed for toxin synthesis except that Fe(3+) was slightly stimulatory for porcine strains. The stimulation by Fe(3+) was observed only in the presence of the three amino acids, suggesting that the effect was indirect rather than on toxin synthesis. The carbon source also influenced the yield of LT. Glucose supported maximal synthesis, but other carbon sources which exhibit a high degree of catabolite repression also supported high levels of synthesis. Little or no LT was released below pH 7.0; therefore, because the pH drops during growth from 7.5 to 6.8, even in highly buffered media, it was necessary to adjust the pH to 8.0 to effect complete release of cell-associated toxin. The defined medium containing three amino acids reduced the amount of UV-absorbing material in culture supernatants about fivefold and increased LT activity for various strains from two- to fivefold over a complex Casamino Acids-yeast extract medium. Conditions found to be optimal for synthesis of LT were inhibitory for the heat-stable enterotoxin. PMID:33900

Gilligan, P H; Robertson, D C

1979-01-01

33

Residues of Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Involved in Bacterial Cell Surface Binding? §  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. One major virulence factor released by this pathogen is the heat-labile enterotoxin LT, which upsets the balance of electrolytes in the intestine. After export, LT binds to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the bacterial surface. Although the residues responsible for LT's binding to its host receptor are known, the portion of the toxin which mediates LPS binding has not been defined previously. Here, we describe mutations in LT that impair the binding of the toxin to the external surface of E. coli without altering holotoxin assembly. One mutation in particular, T47A, nearly abrogates surface binding without adversely affecting expression or secretion in ETEC. Interestingly, T47A is able to bind mutant E. coli expressing highly truncated forms of LPS, indicating that LT binding to wild-type LPS may be due primarily to association with an outer core sugar. Consequently, we have identified a region of LT distinct from the pocket involved in eukaryotic receptor binding that is responsible for binding to the surface of E. coli. PMID:19270095

Mudrak, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Daniel L.; Kuehn, Meta J.

2009-01-01

34

Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a Vaccine Strain CVD 1204 Expressing Colonization Factor Antigen I and Mutant Heat-Labile Enterotoxin of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multivalent live oral vaccine against both Shigella spp. and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is being developed based on the hypothesis that protection can be achieved if attenuated shigellae express ETEC fimbrial colonization factors and genetically detoxified heat-labile toxin from a human ETEC isolate (LTh). Two detoxified derivatives of LTh, LThK63 and LThR72, were engineered by substitution—serine to lysine at

HILARY KOPROWSKI; MYRON M. LEVINE; RICHARD J. ANDERSON; GENEVIEVE LOSONSKY; MARIAGRAZIA PIZZA; EILEEN M. BARRY

2000-01-01

35

Intermolecular Interactions Between the A and B Subunits of Heat-Labile Entrotoxin from Escherichia coli Promote Holotoxin Assembly and Stability in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholera toxin and the related heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) produced by Escherichia coli consist of a holotoxin of one A subunit and five B subunits (AB_5). Here we investigate the domains of the A subunit (EtxA) of E. coli LT which influence the events of B-subunit (EtxB) oligomerization and the formation of a stable AB_5 holotoxin complex. We show that the

Stephen J. Streatfield; Maria Sandkvist; Titia K. Sixma; Michael Bagdasarian; Wim G. J. Hol; Timothy R. Hirst

1992-01-01

36

Antibody against recombinant heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (rLTB) could block LT binding to ganglioside M1 receptor  

PubMed Central

Objectives Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most common agents of diarrhea among other bacterial agents. Designing and producing vaccine against these bacteria is one of the major purposes of World Health Organization (WHO). Due to presence of diverse clones of ETEC strains in the world, the use of global vaccines for ETEC infection is controversial. B subunit of heat labile toxin (LTB) was introduced as a vaccine candidate molecule by several investigators. The expression of LTB gene isolated from a local bacterial strain and investigation of its immunological property was the objective of this study. Materials and Methods LTB gene was isolated from a local isolated ETEC, cloned and expressed using pET28a expression vector. For LTB gene expression, the three main expression parameters (IPTG concentration, time and temperature of induction) were investigated. The recombinant protein was purified (>95%) with Ni-NTA column using 6XHis-tag and used as an antigen in ELISA test. Results The immunological analyses showed production of high titer of specific antibody in immunized mice. Anti LTB Antibody could bind to whole toxin and neutralize the toxin through inhibition of its binding to the Ganglioside M1 receptor. Conclusion The recombinant LTB protein is a highly immunogenic molecule. Considering the LTB role in ETEC pathogenesis, it can be taken into account as one of the most important components of vaccines against local ETEC. PMID:22347560

Salimian, J; Salmanian, AH; Khalesi, R; Mohseni, M; Moazzeni, SM

2010-01-01

37

Radiation-induced heat-labile sites that convert into DNA double-strand breaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The yield of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in SV40 DNA irradiated in aqueous solution was found to increase by more than a factor of two as a result of postirradiation incubation of the DNA at 50 degrees C and pH 8.0 for 24 h. This is in agreement with data from studies performed at 37 degrees C that were published previously. Importantly, similar results were also obtained from irradiation of mammalian DNA in agarose plugs. These results suggest that heat-labile sites within locally multiply damaged sites are produced by radiation and are subsequently transformed into DSBs. Since incubation at 50 degrees C is typically employed for lysis of cells in commonly used pulsed-field gel assays for detection of DSBs in mammalian cells, the possibility that heat-labile sites are present in irradiated cells was also studied. An increase in the apparent number of DSBs as a function of lysis time at 50 degrees C was found with kinetics that was similar to that for irradiated DNA, although the magnitude of the increase was smaller. This suggests that heat-labile sites are also formed in the cell. If this is the case, a proportion of DSBs measured by the pulsed-field gel assays may occur during the lysis step and may not be present in the cell as breaks but as heat-labile sites. It is suggested that such sites consist mainly of heat-labile sugar lesions within locally multiply damaged sites. Comparing rejoining of DSBs measured with short and long lysis procedure indicates that the heat-labile sites are repaired with fast kinetics in comparison with repair of the bulk of DSBs.

Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

2000-01-01

38

Simultaneous exposure to Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins increases fluid secretion and alters cyclic nucleotide and cytokine production by intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of diarrheal disease and death, especially in children in developing countries. ETEC causes disease by colonizing the small intestine and producing heat-labile toxin (LT), heat-stable toxin (ST), or both LT and ST (LT+ST). The majority of ETEC strains produce both ST and LT. Despite the prevalence of LT+ST-producing organisms, few studies have examined the physiologic or immunologic consequences of simultaneous exposure to these two potent enterotoxins. In the current report, we demonstrate that when LT and ST are both present, they increase water movement into the intestinal lumen over and above the levels observed with either toxin alone. As expected, cultured intestinal epithelial cells increased their expression of intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) when treated with ST and their expression of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) when treated with LT. When both toxins were present, cGMP levels but not cAMP levels were synergistically elevated compared with the levels of expression caused by the corresponding single-toxin treatment. Our data also demonstrate that the levels of inflammatory cytokines produced by intestinal epithelial cells in response to LT are significantly reduced in animals exposed to both enterotoxins. These findings suggest that there may be complex differences between the epithelial cell intoxication and, potentially, secretory outcomes induced by ETEC strains expressing LT+ST compared with strains that express LT or ST only. Our results also reveal a novel mechanism wherein ST production may reduce the hosts' ability to mount an effective innate or adaptive immune response to infecting organisms. PMID:25287923

Read, Lisa T; Hahn, Rachel W; Thompson, Carli C; Bauer, David L; Norton, Elizabeth B; Clements, John D

2014-12-01

39

Bacterial Surface Association of Heat-labile Enterotoxin through Lipopolysaccharide after Secretion via the General Secretory Pathway*  

PubMed Central

Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is an important virulence factor expressed by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The route of LT secretion through the outer membrane and the cellular and extracellular localization of secreted LT were examined. Using a fluorescently labeled receptor, LT was found to be specifically secreted onto the surface of wild type enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The main terminal branch of the general secretory pathway (GSP) was necessary and sufficient to localize LT to the bacterial surface in a K-12 strain. LT is a heteromeric toxin, and we determined that its cell surface localization was mediated by the its B subunit independent of an intact GM1 ganglioside binding site and that LT binds lipopolysaccharide and GM1 concurrently. The majority of LT secreted into the culture supernatant by the GSP in E. coli associated with vesicles. Only a mutation in hns, not overexpression of the GSP or LT, caused an increase in vesicle yield, supporting a specific vesicle formation machinery regulated by the nucleoid-associated protein HNS. We propose a model in which LT is secreted by the GSP across the outer membrane, secreted LT binds lipopolysaccharide via a GM1-independent binding region on its B subunit, and LT on the surface of released outer membrane vesicles interacts with host cell receptors, leading to intoxication. These data explain a novel mechanism of vesicle-mediated receptor-dependent delivery of a bacterial toxin into a host cell. PMID:12087095

Horstman, Amanda L.; Kuehn, Meta J.

2015-01-01

40

Parvalbumin, labile heat and slowing of relaxation in mouse soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles.  

PubMed Central

1. Parvalbumin content, heat rate and rate of relaxation were measured in two mouse muscles: the slow-twitch soleus and the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL). 2. No trace of parvalbumin was found in the soleus; EDL contained a mean of 4.86 mg of this protein per gram of fresh muscle (S.D. = 1.25). 3. Heat rate during 7 s isometric tetani in isolated soleus muscle at 20 degrees C can be described by the sum of an exponentially decaying term and a constant term. The exponential term is reduced by 67% in a second tetanus performed 1 s after a first one; its repriming is complete after a resting period of about 1 min. The exponential term has therefore the properties of labile heat. 4. Relaxation rate measured during 15 s of isometric interrupted tetani at 20 degrees C is nearly constant in the soleus, but decreases continuously with increasing tetanus duration in the EDL. In the latter, isometric tension also decreases continuously. 5. Therefore, parvalbumin can account neither for the labile heat production in mouse soleus nor for the slowing of relaxation associated with muscle fatigue observed after a few seconds of tetanus in EDL. The role of parvalbumin in striated muscles is thus reassessed, and other possible causes of labile heat production and slowing of relaxation are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1501147

Berquin, A; Lebacq, J

1992-01-01

41

Heat-Labile- and Heat-Stable-Toxoid Fusions (LTR192G-STaP13F) of Human Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Elicit Neutralizing Antitoxin Antibodies ?  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Adhesins and enterotoxins, including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (STa) toxins, are the key virulence factors. Antigenic adhesin and LT antigens have been used in developing vaccines against ETEC diarrhea. However, STa has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity and potent toxicity. Our recent study showed that porcine-type STa toxoids became immunogenic and elicited neutralizing anti-STa antibodies after being genetically fused to a full-length porcine-type LT toxoid, LTR192G (W. Zhang et al., Infect. Immun. 78:316-325, 2010). In this study, we mutated human-type LT and STa genes, which are highly homologous to porcine-type toxin genes, for a full-length LT toxoid (LTR192G) and a full-length STa toxoid (STaP13F) and genetically fused them to produce LT192-STa13 toxoid fusions. Mice immunized with LT192-STa13 fusion antigens developed anti-LT and anti-STa IgG (in serum and feces) and IgA antibodies (in feces). Moreover, secretory IgA antibodies from immunized mice were shown to neutralize STa and cholera toxins in T-84 cells. In addition, we fused the STa13 toxoid at the N terminus and C terminus, between the A1 and A2 peptides, and between the A and B subunits of LT192 to obtain different fusions in order to explore strategies for enhancing STa immunogenicity. This study demonstrated that human-type LT192-STa13 fusions induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies and provided important information for developing toxoid vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21788385

Liu, Mei; Ruan, Xiaosai; Zhang, Chengxian; Lawson, Steve R.; Knudsen, David E.; Nataro, James P.; Robertson, Donald C.; Zhang, Weiping

2011-01-01

42

Hereditary heat-labile hexosaminidase B: its implication for recognizing Tay-Sachs genotypes.  

PubMed

Two pairs of alleles, at the two loci of hexosaminidase (HEX), were found to segregate in an Arab inbred family: the normal and the mutant Tay-Sachs (TSD) alleles of HEX A, and the normal and a mutant allele of HEX B. Since the mutant HEX B is heat labile, no reliable identification of TSD genotypes can be obtained in its presence, as long as the proportions of HEX A and B are estimated by the routinely used heat-inactivation method. The genotypes may be correctly identified in such cases by separation of the two isoenzymes on ion-exchange chromatography, estimating their individual activities, and calculating the ratio between them. Of the nine genotype combinations possible with these two pairs of alleles, five have been identified in the reported family by this procedure. PMID:6459736

Navon, R; Nutman, J; Kopel, R; Gaber, L; Gadoth, N; Goldman, B; Nitzan, M

1981-11-01

43

Influence of dietary restriction on accumulation of heat-labile enzyme molecules in the liver and brain of mice.  

PubMed

The influence of dietary restriction on alterations of two aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases was investigated in mouse tissues. Mice were fed a restricted diet (first 80% and then 60% of the ad libitum intake) from 23.5 months of age for 70 days. Before dietary restriction, about 35 and 25% of these enzymes in the brain and liver, respectively, were heat-labile. Dietary restriction resulted in a decrease in the percentage of heat-labile enzyme in both tissues: After 40 and 70 days of dietary restriction the percentage of heat-labile enzyme decreased to about 20 and 10%, respectively, in the brain and to undetectable or very low levels in the liver. These results suggest an interesting possibility that prolongation of the life span by dietary restriction is due to reduction in the level of altered enzyme molecules whose accumulation may be detrimental to cellular functions. PMID:2443075

Takahashi, R; Goto, S

1987-08-15

44

Expression of the B Subunit of E. coli Heat-labile Enterotoxin in the Chloroplasts of Plants and its Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic chloroplasts have become attractive systems for heterologous gene expressions because of unique advantages. Here, we report a feasibility study for producing the nontoxic B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) via chloroplast transformation of tobacco. Stable site-specific integration of the LTB gene into chloroplast genome was confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blot analysis in transformed plants. Immunoblot

Tae-Jin Kang; Nguyen-Hoang Loc; Mi-Ok Jang; Yong-Suk Jang; Young-Sook Kim; Jo-Eun Seo; Moon-Sik Yang

2003-01-01

45

Genetic fusions of heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) toxoids of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli elicit neutralizing anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and farm animals. E. coli fimbriae, or colonization factor antigens (CFAs), and enterotoxins, including heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxins (ST), are the key virulence factors in ETEC diarrhea. Unlike fimbriae or LT, STa has not often been included as an antigen in development of vaccines against ETEC diarrhea because of its poor immunogenicity. STa becomes immunogenic only after being coupled with a strongly immunogenic carrier protein. However, native or shorter STa antigens either had to retain toxic activity in order to become antigenic or elicited anti-STa antibodies that were not sufficiently protective. In this study, we genetically mutated the porcine LT (pLT) gene for a pLT(192(R-->G)) toxoid and the porcine STa (pSTa) gene for three full-length pSTa toxoids [STa(11(N-->K)), STa(12(P-->F)), and STa(13(A-->Q))] and used the full-length pLT(192) as an adjuvant to carry the pSTa toxoid for pLT(192):pSTa-toxoid fusion antigens. Rabbits immunized with pLT(192):pSTa(12) or pLT(192):pSTa(13) fusion protein developed high titers of anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies. Furthermore, rabbit antiserum and antifecal antibodies were able to neutralize purified cholera toxin (CT) and STa toxin. In addition, preliminary data suggested that suckling piglets born by a sow immunized with the pLT(192):pSTa(13) fusion antigen were protected when challenged with an STa-positive ETEC strain. This study demonstrated that pSTa toxoids are antigenic when fused with a pLT toxoid and that the elicited anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies were protective. This fusion strategy could provide instructive information to develop effective toxoid vaccines against ETEC-associated diarrhea in animals and humans. PMID:19858307

Zhang, Weiping; Zhang, Chengxian; Francis, David H; Fang, Ying; Knudsen, David; Nataro, James P; Robertson, Donald C

2010-01-01

46

Identification of a heat-labile cellular nuclease in Staphylococcus aureus with properties similar to the extracellular nuclease (EC 3.1.4.7)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides the well-known heat-stable extracellular staphylococcal nuclease (EC 3.1.4.7) and cell surface bound nuclease, one more nuclease, which is heat-labile, has been identified and purified on phosphorylated cellulose column and characterized. Analyses by Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography indicates that the heat-labile cellular nuclease has molecular weight of about 16,000 similar to those of extracellular and cell-surface bound nucleases. Like the

B. V. Vakil; N. Ramakrishnan; D. S. Pradhan

1984-01-01

47

Edible vaccine protects mice against Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT): potatoes expressing a synthetic LT-B gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have designed and constructed a plant-optimized synthetic gene encoding the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LT-B), for use in transgenic plants as an edible vaccine against enterotoxigenic E. coli. Expression of the synthetic LT-B gene in potato plants under the control of a constitutive promoter yielded increased accumulation of LT-B in leaves and tubers, as compared to

Hugh S. Mason; Tariq A. Haq; John D. Clements; Charles J. Arntzen

1998-01-01

48

Suppression of temperature-sensitive assembly mutants of heat-labile enterotoxin B subunits.  

PubMed

Deletions or substitutions of amino acids at the carboxyl-terminus of the heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (EtxB) affect its assembly into pentamers in a temperature-dependent manner. At 42 degrees C, the mutations prevent the B subunits from achieving their final pentameric structure resulting in membrane association of the monomers. However, mutant B subunits produced at 30 degrees C assemble, in the periplasm, into pentamers that remain stable when transferred to 42 degrees C, indicating that the mutant pentamers are stable under conditions where their formation is inhibited. The mutant pentamers are, similarly to wild-type pentamers, SDS-resistant and stable, in vitro, at temperatures up to 65 degrees C. This suggests that although the C-terminal amino acids are part of the subunit interface, they appear not to contribute significantly to the stability of the final pentameric complex, but are instead essential for the formation or stabilization of an assembly intermediate in the pentamerization process. Single second site mutations suppress the assembly defect of mutant EtxB191.5, which carries substitutions at its C-terminus. The Thr-->Ile replacement at position 75 in the alpha 2-helix probably restores the van der Waals contact between residues 75 and 101, which had been greatly reduced by the Met-->Leu substitution at position 101 in the beta 6-strand of EtxB191.5. Interaction between the alpha 2-helix and beta 6-strand which contains the C-terminus probably stabilizes a conformation essential for assembly and is therefore required for the formation of pentamers. PMID:7968540

Sandkvist, M; Bagdasarian, M

1993-11-01

49

Induction of heat-labile sites in DNA of mammalian cells by the antitumor alkylating drug CC-1065  

SciTech Connect

CC-1065 is a very potent antitumor antibiotic capable of covalent and noncovalent binding to the minor groove of naked DNA. Upon thermal treatment, covalent adducts formed between CC-1065 and DNA generate strand break. The authors have shown that this molecular damage can be detected following CC-1065 treatment of mammalian whole cells. Using alkaline sucrose gradient analysis, They observe thermally induced breakage of ({sup 14}C)thymidine-prelabeled DNA from drug-treated African green monkey kidney BSC-1 cells. Very little damage to cellular DNA by CC-1065 can be detected without first heating the drug-treated samples. CC-1065 can also generate heat-labile sites within DNA during cell lysis and heating, subsequent to the exposure of cells to drug, suggesting that a pool of free and noncovalently bound drug is available for posttreatment adduct formation. This effect was controlled for by mixing ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled untreated cells with the ({sup 14}C)thymidine-labeled drug-treated samples. The lowest drug dose at which heat-labile sites were detected was 3 nM CC-1065 (3 single-stranded breaks/10{sup 6} base pairs). This concentration reduced survival of BSC-1 cells to 0.1% in cytotoxicity assays. The generation of CC-1065-induced lesions in cellular DNA is time dependent (the frequency of lesions caused by a 60 nM treatment reaching a plateau at 2 h) and is not readily reversible. The results of this study demonstrate that CC-1065 does generate heat-labile sites with the cellular DNA of intact cells and suggest that a mechanism of cytotoxic action of CC-1065 involves formation of covalent adducts to DNA.

Zsido, T.J.; Woynarowski, J.M.; Baker, R.M.; Gawron, L.S.; Beerman, T.A. (Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (USA))

1991-04-16

50

Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Detoxified Enterotoxin Modulates Dendritic Cell Function and Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Various mutant forms of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) have been used as a mucosal adjuvant for vaccines, as it enhances immune responses to specific antigens including antigen-specific IgA antibodies when administrated intranasally or orally. We hypothesized that a detoxified mutant form of LT, LTS61K, could modulate dendritic cell (DC) function and alleviate allergen-induced airway inflammation. Two protocols, preventative and therapeutic, were used to evaluate the effects of LTS61K in a Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p)-sensitized and challenged murine model of asthma. LTS61K or Der p-primed bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were also adoptively transferred into Der p-sensitized and challenged mice. Intranasal inoculations with LTS61K or LTS61K/Der p decreased allergen-induced airway inflammation and alleviated systemic TH2-type immune responses. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and sera from LTS61K/Der p-treated mice also had higher concentrations of Der p-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) A than those of other groups. In vitro, BMDCs stimulated with Der p underwent cellular maturation and secreted proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? In contrast, Der p-stimulated BMDCs that were pretreated with LTS61K showed decreased IL-6 and TNF? production and were less mature. Intratracheal adoptive transfer of LTS61K- or LTS61K/Der p-primed BMDCs into Der p-sensitized mice reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and TH2-type chemokines in BALF and alleviated airway inflammation in treated mice. LTS61K influenced DC maturation and decreased inflammatory cytokine production. Moreover, LTS61K/Der p induced increased Der p-specific IgA production to decrease allergic TH2 cytokine responses and alleviated airway inflammation in Der p-sensitized mice. These results suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of LTS61K may have clinical applications for allergy and asthma treatment. PMID:24637787

Kang, Ssu-Wei; Hsieh, Miao-His; Wang, Jiu-Yao

2014-01-01

51

Significance of Heat-Stable and Heat-Labile Enterotoxins in Porcine Colibacillosis in an Additive Model for Pathogenicity Studies†  

PubMed Central

Although heat-stable (ST) and heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) have been documented as important factors associated with diarrheal diseases, investigations assessing the contributions of individual enterotoxins to the pathogenesis of E. coli infection have been limited. To address the individual roles of enterotoxins in the diarrheal disease caused by K88-positive ETEC in young pigs, enterotoxin-positive and -negative isogenic E. coli strains were constructed by using pBR322 to clone and express LT and STb. Four strains, K88+ astA, K88+ astA/pBR322, K88+ astA STb+, and K88+ astA LT+, were constructed and subsequently included in gnotobiotic piglet challenge studies, and their pathogenesis was assessed. The results indicated that all K88+ isogenic strains were able to colonize the small intestines of piglets exhibiting the K88 receptor. However, only LT- and STb-positive strains caused appreciable diarrhea. Piglets inoculated with the K88+ astA LT+ strain became dehydrated within 18 h, while those inoculated with the K88+ astA STb+ strain did not, although diarrhea developed in several piglets. The changes in the blood packed-cell volume and plasma total protein of gnotobiotic piglets inoculated with the LT-positive strains were significantly greater than those of pigs inoculated with the K88 astA/pBR322 strain (P = 0.012, P = 0.002). Immunochemistry image analysis also suggested that LT enhanced bacterial colonization in a gnotobiotic piglet model. This investigation suggested that LT is a major contributor to the virulence of K88+ ETEC and that isogenic constructs are a useful tool for studying the pathogenesis of ETEC infection. PMID:16714538

Zhang, Weiping; Berberov, Emil M.; Freeling, Jessica; He, D.; Moxley, Rodney A.; Francis, David H.

2006-01-01

52

Presence of heat-stable hemorrhagic toxins in snake venoms.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight snake venoms (seven Agkistrodon venoms, six Bothrops venoms, 13 Crotalus venoms, one Sistrurus venom, and one Bitis venom) were examined for the presence of heat-stable (100 degrees C, 5 min) hemorrhagic toxins. Both heated and unheated venoms were analyzed for their protein composition by SDS-PAGE, and tested for their hemorrhagic activity in vivo in mice and for their proteolytic activity on two different substrates. Heating all venoms led to the denaturation and loss of some proteins; however, most of the venoms retained a significant number of proteins. Seventeen venoms contained more than seven proteins after heating, whereas five venoms contained only one to three proteins. All but nine of the heated venoms had substantial hemorrhagic activity, and Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus venom had very high activity, almost four times that of the second most hemorrhagic venom from Crotalus viridis lutosus. Most venoms, heated or unheated, had activity on the two protease substrates. Using succinylated casein as the substrate, there was a wide range of activity, and heating drastically reduced the activity of all venoms except that of Crotalus ruber and Crotalus molossus molossus. With azocoll as substrate, all but two of the unheated venoms (Crotalus adamanteus and Crotalus viridis concolor) had very high activity, whereas upon heating, all except five venoms lost essentially all of their activity. Heated venoms from snakes in the Agkistrodon genus (except for Agkistrodon blomhoffi blomhoffi, an Asian snake) retained activity on azocoll, and this activity tended to correlate better with hemorrhagic activity of the venom than did proteolytic activity on casein. PMID:7985199

Ownby, C L; Colberg, T R; Li, Q

1994-08-01

53

Toxicity and Immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxoid Fusion 3xSTaA14Q-LTS63K/R192G/L211A in a Murine Model  

PubMed Central

Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa) disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STaP13F) fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LTR192G elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011). In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STaA14Q) and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LTS63K/R192G/L211A, tmLT), constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTaA14Q-tmLT) that carried 3 copies of STaA14Q for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTaA14Q-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:24146989

Zhang, Chengxian; Knudsen, David E.; Liu, Mei; Robertson, Donald C.; Zhang, Weiping

2013-01-01

54

Intermolecular interactions between the A and B subunits of heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli promote holotoxin assembly and stability in vivo.  

PubMed

Cholera toxin and the related heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) produced by Escherichia coli consist of a holotoxin of one A subunit and five B subunits (AB5). Here we investigate the domains of the A subunit (EtxA) of E. coli LT which influence the events of B-subunit (EtxB) oligomerization and the formation of a stable AB5 holotoxin complex. We show that the C-terminal 14 amino acids of the A subunit comprise two functional domains that differentially affect oligomerization and holotoxin stability. Deletion of the last 14 amino acids (-14) from the A subunit resulted in a molecule that was significantly impaired in its capacity to promote the assembly of a mutant B subunit, EtxB191.5. In contrast, deletion of the last four amino acids (-4) from the A subunit gave a molecule that retained such a capacity. This suggests that C-terminal residues within the -14 to -4 region of the A subunit are important for promoting the oligomerization of EtxB. In addition, we demonstrate that the truncated A subunit lacking the last 4 amino acids was unable to form a stable AB5 holotoxin complex even though it promoted B-subunit oligomerization. This suggests that the last 4 residues of the A subunit function as an "anchoring" sequence responsible for maintaining the stability of A/B subunit interaction during holotoxin assembly. These data represent an important example of how intermolecular interactions between polypeptides in vivo can modulate the folding and assembly of a macromolecular complex. PMID:1465452

Streatfield, S J; Sandkvist, M; Sixma, T K; Bagdasarian, M; Hol, W G; Hirst, T R

1992-12-15

55

Inhibition of T-cell response by Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-treated epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is an extensively studied adjuvant of mucosal responses. Nevertheless, its mode of action as an adjuvant remains incompletely understood. In this study, we describe a simplified in vitro model with which to look at some aspects of immunoregulation by LT. The interaction of LT with the apical surface of a monolayer of CaCo-2 epithelial cells induces the release of a soluble factor which inhibits the antigen-induced release of interleukin-2 by T cells cultured at the basolateral side of the cells. The release of this factor requires the ADP-ribosylating activity of LT since the isolated B subunit, as well as an enzymatically silent LT mutant, loses biological activity in this model. The inhibitory activity is likely to be due to prostaglandin release, since it is blocked by indomethacin. The contribution of LT-induced prostaglandin release to the complex immunoregulatory activity of LT is discussed. PMID:11083810

Lopes, L M; Maroof, A; Dougan, G; Chain, B M

2000-12-01

56

Repair of radiation-induced heat-labile sites is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 or PARP  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation induces a variety of different DNA lesions: in addition to the most critical DNA damage, the DSB, numerous base alterations, SSBs and other modifications of the DNA double-helix are formed. When several non-DSB lesions are clustered within a short distance along DNA, or close to a DSB, they may interfere with the repair of DSBs and affect the measurement of DSB induction and repair. We have previously shown that a substantial fraction of DSBs measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are in fact due to heat-labile sites (HLS) within clustered lesions, thus reflecting an artifact of preparation of genomic DNA at elevated temperature. To further characterize the influence of HLS on DSB induction and repair, four human cell lines (GM5758, GM7166, M059K, U-1810) with apparently normal DSB rejoining were tested for bi-phasic rejoining after gamma irradiation. When heat-released DSBs were excluded from the measurements the fraction of fast rejoining decreased to less than 50% of the total. However, neither the half-times of the fast (t{sub 1/2} = 7-8 min) or slow (t{sub 1/2} = 2.5 h) DSB rejoining were changed significantly. At t=0 the heat-released DSBs accounted for almost 40% of the DSBs, corresponding to 10 extra DSB/cell/Gy in the initial DSB yield. These heat-released DSBs were repaired within 60-90 min in all tested cells, including M059K cells treated with wortmannin or DNA-PKcs defect M059J cells. Furthermore, cells lacking XRCC1 or Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) rejoined both total DSBs and heat-released DSBs similar to normal cells. In summary, the presence of heat-labile sites have a substantial impact on DSB induction yields and DSB rejoining rates measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and HLS repair is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 and PARP.

Stenerlöw, Bo; Karlsson, Karin H.; Radulescu, Irina; Rydberg, Bjorn; Stenerlow, Bo

2008-04-29

57

Evaluation of heat-labile enterotoxins type IIa and type IIb in the pathogenicity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli for neonatal pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Type II heat-labile enterotoxins (LT-II) have been reported in Escherichia coli isolates from humans, animals, food and water samples. The roles of the antigenically distinguishable LT-IIa and LT-IIb subtypes in pathogenesis and virulence of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) have not been previously re...

58

The presence of heat-labile factors interfering with binding analysis of fibrinogen with ferritin in horse plasma  

PubMed Central

Background Horse fibrinogen has been identified as a plasma specific ferritin-binding protein. There are two ways in the binding of ferritin-binding protein with ferritin: one is direct binding and the other is indirect binding which is heme-mediated. The aim of this study was to analyze the binding between horse fibrinogen and ferritin. Findings Although fibrinogen in horse plasma did not show the binding to ferritin coated on the plate wells, after following heat-treatment (60°C, 30 min) of horse plasma, plasma fibrinogen as well as purified horse fibrinogen bound to plates coated with horse spleen ferritin, but not with its apoferritin which lost heme as well as iron after the treatment of reducing reagent. Binding of purified or plasma fibrinogen to ferritin was inhibited by hemin and Sn-protoporphyrin IX (Sn-PPIX), but not by PPIX or Zn-PPIX. Conclusions Heat-treatment of horse plasma enabled plasma fibrinogen to bind to plate well coated with holo-ferritin. From the binding analysis of fibrinogen and ferritin, it is suggested that horse fibrinogen recognized iron or tin in complexed with the heme- or the hemin-ring, and also suggest that some fibrinogens circulate in the form of a complex with ferritin and/or heat-labile factors which inhibit the binding of fibrinogen with ferritin. PMID:24053588

2013-01-01

59

Purification and properties of a cytolytic toxin in venom of the jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A haemolytic toxin was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and FPLC gel filtration from the nematocysts of the jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis. Sheep red cells, but not human or rabbit red cells, were susceptible to lysis by the toxin. The toxin is a protein with an apparent molecular mass of about 102–107 kDa, is heat labile, highly unstable in polar media, inactivated

Giandomenico Rottini; Laura Gusmani; Elisabetta Parovel; Massimo Avian; Pierluigi Patriarca

1995-01-01

60

The suppressive activities of six sources of medicinal ferns known as gusuibu on heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.  

PubMed

Diarrheal disease is one of the most important worldwide health problems. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most frequently isolated enteropathogen in diarrheal diseases. In developing countries, a very large number of people, especially children, suffer from diarrhea. To combat this problem, World Health Organization has constituted the Diarrhea Diseases Control Program which guides studies on traditional medicinal practices and preventive measures. Gusuibu, a traditional folk medicine, has been claimed to heal certain types of diarrhea. However, so far no scientific study has been carried out on the anti-diarrheal mechanism of Gusiubu. The present study was performed to examine the suppressive activities of ethanol extracts of six sources of folk medicinal ferns used as Gusuibu on heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)-induced diarrhea. Inhibitory effects of six sources were evaluated on the ETEC LT subunit B (LTB) and monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GMI) interaction by GM1-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and patent mouse gut assay. Our results indicated that Drynaria fortunei had no anti-diarrheal effect, while, among the remaining five folk medicinal ferns, four belonging to family Davalliaceae had significant abilities on both the blocking of LTB and GM1 interaction and the inhibition of LT-induced diarrhea. In conclusion, these findings suggested the potential application of Gusuibu as an anti-diarrheal remedy. PMID:24552982

Chang, Hung-Chi; Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Yang, Jiun-Long; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

2014-01-01

61

Regulation of intestinal immunity: effects of the oral adjuvant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin on migrating dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (Etx) is an oral adjuvant in mice. We show that this is also true for rats. To understand this adjuvant activity we examined lymph dendritic cells (DC) migrating from the intestine to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) in animals fed Etx. These DC can prime antigen-specific antibody responses. We show that in rats the small intestine contains 7-24 million DC and 8 x 10(5 )of these migrate to MLN each day. Surprisingly, Etx does not stimulate increased migration of lymph DC. However, oral Etx affects the activation, antigen transport and localization of migratory DC. Specifically, expression of CD25 increases on the CD172a(high) subset of lymph DC. Oral Etx also increases the number of CD172a(high) lymph DC containing co-administered ovalbumin. CD172a(high) lymph DC treated with Etx in vitro, or purified from the lymph of animals fed Etx, stimulate stronger proliferative responses from primed T cells. Etx also directs more of the CD172a(high) lymph DC into the central region of the MLN T cell areas. This change in DC localization is associated with an increase in the expression of CCR7. These data help advance our understanding of the role of DC in initiating mucosal immune responses in vivo. PMID:17163449

Milling, Simon W F; Yrlid, Ulf; Jenkins, Chris; Richards, Claire M; Williams, Neil A; MacPherson, Gordon

2007-01-01

62

Delineation and comparison of ganglioside-binding epitopes for the toxins of Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium tetani: evidence for overlapping epitopes.  

PubMed Central

Binding studies of various glycolipids, mainly belonging to the ganglio series, to the toxins isolated from Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium tetani have been performed, using the microtiter well assay. By using the found binding preferences in conjunction with minimum-energy conformations obtained from molecular modeling of the various ligands, binding epitopes on the natural receptor glycolipids for the toxins have been defined. The binding preferences for the cholera toxin and the heat-labile E. coli toxin are very similar, with the ganglioside GM1 being the most efficient ligand. The tetanus toxin binds strongly to gangliosides of the G1b series, with GT1b as the most efficient ligand. It is found that the binding epitope on GM1 for the cholera and heat-labile toxins to a large extent overlaps with the epitope on GQ1b for the tetanus toxin. PMID:7527546

Angström, J; Teneberg, S; Karlsson, K A

1994-01-01

63

Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic properties of heat-labile enterotoxin are responsible for LT-enhanced adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to porcine IPEC-J2 cells.  

PubMed

Previous studies in piglets indicate that heat labile enterotoxin (LT) expression enhances intestinal colonization by K88 adhesin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) as wild-type ETEC adhered to intestinal epithelium in substantially greater numbers than did non-toxigenic constructs. Enzymatic activity of the toxin was also shown to contribute to the adhesion of ETEC and non-ETEC bacteria to epithelial cells in culture. To further characterize the contribution of LT to host cell adhesion, a nontoxigenic, K88-producing E. coli was transformed with either the gene encoding for LT holotoxin, a catalytically-attenuated form of the toxin [LT(R192G)], or LTB subunits, and resultant changes in bacterial adherence to IPEC-J2 porcine intestinal epithelial cells were measured. Strains expressing LT holotoxin or mutants were able to adhere in significantly higher numbers to IPEC-J2 cells than was an isogenic, toxin-negative construct. LT+ strains were also able to significantly block binding of a wild-type LT+ ETEC strain to IPEC-J2 cells. Adherence of isogenic strains to IPEC-J2 cells was unaltered by cycloheximide treatment, suggesting that LT enhances ETEC adherence to IPEC-J2 cells independent of host cell protein synthesis. However, pretreating IPEC-J2 cells with LT promoted adherence of negatively charged latex beads (a surrogate for bacteria which carry a negative change), which adherence was inhibited by cycloheximide, suggesting LT may induce a change in epithelial cell membrane potential. Overall, these data suggest that LT may enhance ETEC adherence by promoting an association between LTB and epithelial cells, and by altering the surface charge of the host plasma membrane to promote non-specific adherence. PMID:23517763

Fekete, Peter Z; Mateo, Kristina S; Zhang, Weiping; Moxley, Rodney A; Kaushik, Radhey S; Francis, David H

2013-06-28

64

Analysis of immune response in young and aged mice vaccinated with corn-derived antigen against Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli produce a heat-labile holotoxin (LT), which causes diarrhea. We engineered corn seeds to produce LT-B, the nontoxic subunit\\u000a of LT, to serve as a plant-derived vaccine to traveler's diarrhea and as an adjuvant for co-administered proteins. We previously\\u000a demonstrated that a strong mucosal and systemic antibody response is elicited in young mice with oral administration

Sule Karaman; Joan Cunnick; Kan Wang

2006-01-01

65

Expression of synthetic neutralizing epitope of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus fused with synthetic B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin in tobacco plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pentameric B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) can be used as an efficient mucosal carrier of either immunogenic or tolerogenic T-cell epitopes. Co-delivery of therapeutic proteins with carrier proteins could increase the effectiveness of the antigen. This paper reports the ability of transgenic tobacco plants to express a fusion protein consisting of the synthetic LTB and a

Tae-Jin Kang; So-Chon Han; Moon-Sik Yang; Yong-Suk Jang

2006-01-01

66

Expression of a synthetic neutralizing epitope of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus fused with synthetic B subunit of Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin in rice endosperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epitopes often require co-delivery with adjuvant and targeting proteins to enable recognition by the immune system, and this\\u000a approach may also increase the efficacy of the antigen. In this study, we assess and describe the ability of transgenic rice\\u000a plants to express a fusion protein consisting of the B-subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) and a synthetic core-neutralizing

Maria Oszvald; Tae-Jin Kang; Sandor Tomoskozi; Cecilia Tamas; Laszlo Tamas; Tae-Geum Kim; Moon-Sik Yang

2007-01-01

67

Specificity of the protein secretory apparatus: secretion of the heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit pentamers by different species of Gram - bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The B-subunit pentamer(s) (EtxBp) of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are secreted from Vibrio cholerae via the general secretion pathway (GSP), but remain periplasmic in E. coli. In order to determine if other Gram-bacteria were also able to secrete the ExtBp, the etxB gene, which encodes EtxB was introduced into different bacteria. Of the bacteria examined, most species of Vibrio

Linda Overbye Michel; Maria Sandkvist; Michael Bagdasarian

1995-01-01

68

Glucose Significantly Enhances Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Intestinal Epithelial Cells through Its Effects on Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Production  

PubMed Central

The present study tested whether exposure of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to glucose at different concentrations in the media results in increased bacterial adherence to host cells through increased heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) production, thereby suggesting the effects are physiological. Porcine-origin ETEC strains grown in Casamino acid yeast extract medium containing different concentrations of glucose were washed and inoculated onto IPEC-J2 porcine intestinal epithelial cells to test for effects on adherence and host cell cAMP concentrations. Consistent with previous studies, all LT+ strains had higher ETEC adherence to IPEC-J2 cells than did LT? strains. Adherence of the LT? but not the LT+ strains was increased by pre-incubating the IPEC-J2 cells with LT and decreased by co-incubation with GM1 ganglioside in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). To determine whether the glucose concentration of the cell culture media has an effect on adherence, IPEC-J2 cells were inoculated with LT+ or LT? strains in cell culture media containing a final glucose concentration of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0%, and incubated for 4 h. Only media containing 0.25% glucose resulted in increased adherence and cAMP levels, and this was limited to IPEC-J2 cells inoculated with LT+ strains. This study supports the hypothesis that glucose, at a concentration optimal for LT expression, enhances bacterial adherence through the promotion of LT production. Hence, these results establish the physiological relevance of the effects of glucose on LT production and provide a basis for how glucose intake may influence the severity of ETEC infection. PMID:25409235

Wijemanne, Prageeth; Moxley, Rodney A.

2014-01-01

69

Relationship between Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Secretion Capacity and Virulence in Wild Type Porcine-Origin Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains  

PubMed Central

Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is an important virulence factor secreted by some strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The prototypic human-origin strain H10407 secretes LT via a type II secretion system (T2SS). We sought to determine the relationship between the capacity to secrete LT and virulence in porcine-origin wild type (WT) ETEC strains. Sixteen WT ETEC strains isolated from cases of severe diarrheal disease were analyzed by GM1ganglioside enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure LT concentrations in culture supernatants. All strains had detectable LT in supernatants by 2 h of culture and 1 strain, which was particularly virulent in gnotobiotic piglets (3030-2), had the highest LT secretion level all porcine-origin WT strains tested (P<0.05). The level of LT secretion (concentration in supernatants at 6-h culture) explained 92% of the variation in time-to-a-moribund-condition (R2 = 0.92, P<0.0001) in gnotobiotic piglets inoculated with either strain 3030-2, or an ETEC strain of lesser virulence (2534-86), or a non-enterotoxigenic WT strain (G58-1). All 16 porcine ETEC strains were positive by PCR analysis for the T2SS genes, gspD and gspK, and bioinformatic analysis of 4 porcine-origin strains for which complete genomic sequences were available revealed a T2SS with a high degree of homology to that of H10407. Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees constructed using T2SS genes gspC, gspD, gspE and homologs showed that strains 2534-86 and 3030-2 clustered together in the same clade with other porcine-origin ETEC strains in the database, UMNK88 and UMN18. Protein modeling of the ATPase gene (gspE) further revealed a direct relationship between the predicted ATP-binding capacities and LT secretion levels as follows: H10407, -8.8 kcal/mol and 199 ng/ml; 3030-2, -8.6 kcal/mol and 133 ng/ml; and 2534-86, -8.5 kcal/mol and 80 ng/ml. This study demonstrated a direct relationship between predicted ATP-binding capacity of GspE and LT secretion, and between the latter and virulence. PMID:25768732

Wijemanne, Prageeth; Xing, Jun; Berberov, Emil M.; Marx, David B.; Francis, David H.; Moxley, Rodney A.

2015-01-01

70

Oral immunisation of mice with a recombinant rabies virus vaccine incorporating the heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit of Escherichia coli in an attenuated Salmonella strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate effective new rabies vaccines, a fusion protein consisting of the rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein and the heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit of Escherichia coli (LTB) was successfully constructed and delivered in a live attenuated Salmonella strain LH430. Mice were immunised with LH430 carrying pVAX1-G, pVAX1-G-LTB or pVAX1-ori-G-LTB. The antibody titres of mice immunised with oral LH430 carrying pVAX1-G-LTB or

Xuelin Wang; Juan Liu; Xiuping Wu; Lu Yu; Haiying Chen; Heng Guo; Huiping Li; Xue Liu; Shumin Sun; Lijing Zhao; Lixin Chu; Duo Xu; Mingyuan Liu

71

Treatment of PCR products with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase improves the visibility of combined bisulfite restriction analysis  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Incubating PCR products at a high temperature causes smears in gel electrophoresis. {yields} Smears interfere with the interpretation of methylation analysis using COBRA. {yields} Treatment with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase eliminates smears. {yields} The elimination of smears improves the visibility of COBRA. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Abnormal promoter hypermethylation is an important mechanism of inactivating tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) is a widely used method for identifying the DNA methylation of specific CpG sites. Here, we report that exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase can be used for PCR purification for COBRA, improving the visibility of gel electrophoresis after restriction digestion. This improvement is observed when restriction digestion is performed at a high temperature, such as 60 {sup o}C or 65 {sup o}C, with BstUI and TaqI, respectively. This simple method can be applied instead of DNA purification using spin columns or phenol/chloroform extraction. It can also be applied to other situations when PCR products are digested by thermophile-derived restriction enzymes, such as PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

Watanabe, Kousuke; Emoto, Noriko; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Kawakami, Masanori; Kage, Hidenori; Nagase, Takahide; Ohishi, Nobuya [Department of Respiratory Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)] [Department of Respiratory Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Takai, Daiya, E-mail: dtakai-ind@umin.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

2010-08-27

72

Influence of Host Interleukin-10 Polymorphisms on Development of Traveler's Diarrhea Due to Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Travelers from the United States Who Are Visiting Mexico?  

PubMed Central

Up to 60% of U.S. visitors to Mexico develop traveler's diarrhea (TD), mostly due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins. Distinct single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter have been associated with high, intermediate, or low production of IL-10. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the association of SNPs in the IL-10 promoter and the occurrence of TD in ETEC LT-exposed travelers. Sera from U.S. travelers to Mexico collected on arrival and departure were studied for ETEC LT seroconversion by using cholera toxin as the antigen. Pyrosequencing was performed to genotype IL-10 SNPs. Stools from subjects who developed diarrhea were also studied for other enteropathogens. One hundred twenty-one of 569 (21.3%) travelers seroconverted to ETEC LT, and among them 75 (62%) developed diarrhea. Symptomatic seroconversion was more commonly seen in subjects who carried a genotype producing high levels of IL-10; it was seen in 83% of subjects with the GG genotype versus 54% of subjects with the AA genotype at IL-10 gene position ?1082 (P, 0.02), in 71% of those with the CC genotype versus 33% of those with the TT genotype at position ?819 (P, 0.005), and in 71% of those with the CC genotype versus 38% of those with the AA genotype at position ?592 (P, 0.02). Travelers with the GCC haplotype were more likely to have symptomatic seroconversion than those with the ATA haplotype (71% versus 38%; P, 0.002). Travelers genetically predisposed to produce high levels of IL-10 were more likely to experience symptomatic ETEC TD. PMID:18579697

Flores, Jose; DuPont, Herbert L.; Lee, Stephanie A.; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Paredes, Mercedes; Mohamed, Jamal A.; Armitige, Lisa Y.; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Okhuysen, Pablo C.

2008-01-01

73

Construction and preclinical evaluation of recombinant Peru15 expressing high levels of the cholera toxin B subunit as a vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the leading cause of traveler's diarrhea. The heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) toxins mediate ETEC induced diarrhea. ETEC strains may express LT, ST, or both LT and ST, with LT-expressing strains accounting for ?50–60% of ETEC-related traveler's diarrhea. Cholera toxin (CT) is >80% homologous to LT and vaccination with CT-B subunit (CT-B) –based vaccines elicit

Kenneth L. Roland; Cheryl Cloninger; Sims K. Kochi; Lawrence J. Thomas; Steven A. Tinge; Craig Rouskey; Kevin P. Killeen

2007-01-01

74

Specificity of the protein secretory apparatus: secretion of the heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit pentamers by different species of gram- bacteria.  

PubMed

The B-subunit pentamer(s) (EtxBp) of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are secreted from Vibrio cholerae via the general secretion pathway (GSP), but remain periplasmic in E. coli. In order to determine if other Gram- bacteria were also able to secrete the ExtBp, the etxB gene, which encodes EtxB was introduced into different bacteria. Of the bacteria examined, most species of Vibrio and Aeromonas were able to secrete this protein through the outer membrane; other Gram- genera, including Erwinia, Klebsiella and Xanthomonas were not, even though they encode GSP genes homologous to those of V. cholerae. Thus, the ability to recognize the EtxBp as a secretable protein is confined to bacteria that were identified as being closely related to V. cholerae by examination of their 5S rRNA [MacDonell and Colwell, Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6 (1985) 171-182]. PMID:7828926

Michel, L O; Sandkvist, M; Bagdasarian, M

1995-01-11

75

Incorporation of membrane-anchored flagellin or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit enhances the immunogenicity of rabies virus-like particles in mice and dogs.  

PubMed

Rabies remains an important worldwide public health threat, so safe, effective, and affordable vaccines are still being sought. Virus-like particle-based vaccines targeting various viral pathogens have been successfully produced, licensed, and commercialized. Here, we designed and constructed two chimeric rabies virus-like particles (cRVLPs) containing rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G), matrix (M) protein, and membrane-anchored flagellin (EVLP-F) or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (EVLP-L) as molecular adjuvants to enhance the immune response against rabies. The immunogenicity and potential of cRVLPs as novel rabies vaccine were evaluated by intramuscular vaccination in mouse and dog models. Mouse studies demonstrated that both EVLP-F and EVLP-L induced faster and larger virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) responses and elicited greater numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells secreting IFN-? or IL-4 compared with a standard rabies VLP (sRVLP) containing only G and M. Moreover, cRVLPs recruited and/or activated more B cells and dendritic cells in inguinal lymph nodes. EVLP-F induced a strong, specific IgG2a response but not an IgG1 response, suggesting the activation of Th1 class immunity; in contrast, Th2 class immunity was observed with EVLP-L. The significantly enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses induced by cRVLPs provided complete protection against lethal challenge with RABV. Most importantly, dogs vaccinated with EVLP-F or EVLP-L exhibited increased VNA titers in sera and enhanced IFN-? and IL-4 secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Taken together, these results illustrate that when incorporated into sRVLP, membrane-anchored flagellin, and heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit possess strong adjuvant activity. EVLP-F and EVLP-L induce significantly enhanced RABV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in both mouse and dog. Therefore, these cRVLPs may be developed as safe and more efficacious rabies vaccine candidate for animals. PMID:25784906

Qi, Yinglin; Kang, Hongtao; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

2015-01-01

76

Incorporation of membrane-anchored flagellin or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit enhances the immunogenicity of rabies virus-like particles in mice and dogs  

PubMed Central

Rabies remains an important worldwide public health threat, so safe, effective, and affordable vaccines are still being sought. Virus-like particle-based vaccines targeting various viral pathogens have been successfully produced, licensed, and commercialized. Here, we designed and constructed two chimeric rabies virus-like particles (cRVLPs) containing rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G), matrix (M) protein, and membrane-anchored flagellin (EVLP-F) or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (EVLP-L) as molecular adjuvants to enhance the immune response against rabies. The immunogenicity and potential of cRVLPs as novel rabies vaccine were evaluated by intramuscular vaccination in mouse and dog models. Mouse studies demonstrated that both EVLP-F and EVLP-L induced faster and larger virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) responses and elicited greater numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells secreting IFN-? or IL-4 compared with a standard rabies VLP (sRVLP) containing only G and M. Moreover, cRVLPs recruited and/or activated more B cells and dendritic cells in inguinal lymph nodes. EVLP-F induced a strong, specific IgG2a response but not an IgG1 response, suggesting the activation of Th1 class immunity; in contrast, Th2 class immunity was observed with EVLP-L. The significantly enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses induced by cRVLPs provided complete protection against lethal challenge with RABV. Most importantly, dogs vaccinated with EVLP-F or EVLP-L exhibited increased VNA titers in sera and enhanced IFN-? and IL-4 secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Taken together, these results illustrate that when incorporated into sRVLP, membrane-anchored flagellin, and heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit possess strong adjuvant activity. EVLP-F and EVLP-L induce significantly enhanced RABV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in both mouse and dog. Therefore, these cRVLPs may be developed as safe and more efficacious rabies vaccine candidate for animals.

Qi, Yinglin; Kang, Hongtao; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

2015-01-01

77

Local and systemic immune responses induced by a recombinant chimeric protein containing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens fused to the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin LTB.  

PubMed

A multi-antigen chimera composed of three antigens of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (R1, P42, and NrdF) and the mucosal adjuvant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) was constructed, and its antigenic and immunogenic properties were evaluated in mice and pigs. In addition, we compared the effect of the fusion and co-administration of these proteins in mice. Antibodies against each subunit recognized the chimeric protein. Intranasal and intramuscular immunization of mice with the chimeric protein significantly increased IgG and IgA levels in the serum and tracheobronchial lavages, respectively, against some of the antigens present in the chimeric. Swine immunized with the chimeric protein developed an immune response against all M. hyopneumoniae antigens present in the fusion with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The adjuvant rLTB enhanced the immune response in both fused and co-administered antigens; however, better results were obtained with the chimeric protein. This multi-antigen is a promising vaccine candidate that may help control M. hyopneumoniae infection. PMID:25091529

Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Fisch, Andressa; Gomes, Charles K; Jorge, Sérgio; Galli, Vanessa; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek; Dellagostin, Odir; Conceição, Fabricio R

2014-09-17

78

Alterations at the carboxyl terminus change assembly and secretion properties of the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.  

PubMed

The gene encoding the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin (etxB) was mutated at its 3' end by targeted addition of random nucleotide sequences. Gene products from five mutated etxB genes, all of which were shown to encode B subunits with short carboxy-terminal amino acid extensions, were analyzed with respect to a range of functional and structural properties. One class of altered B subunits, exemplified by EtxB124 and EtxB138, which both have seven extra amino acid residues, were found to be specifically defective in their ability to stably associate with A subunits and form holotoxin. Other altered B subunits were less subtlely affected by extensions at their C termini and were, in addition to their failure to associate with A subunits, unable to translocate into the periplasm of Escherichia coli, to pentamerize, or to bind to GM1 ganglioside. This suggests that the carboxy-terminal domain of EtxB mediates A subunit-B subunit interaction. PMID:2820934

Sandkvist, M; Hirst, T R; Bagdasarian, M

1987-10-01

79

Shiga toxin Stx2 is heat-stable and not inactivated by pasteurization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shiga toxins are expressed by Escherichia coli (STEC) and are associated with food-borne diseases. Pasteurization is used to retard microbial growth in milk, and an open question is whether milk pasteurization inactivates shiga toxins. To answer this question we measure shiga toxin’s inhibition effe...

80

Analysis of Heat-Labile Sites Generated by Reactions of Depleted Uranium and Ascorbate in Plasmid DNA  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to characterize how depleted uranium (DU) causes DNA damage. Procedures were developed to assess the ability of organic and inorganic DNA adducts to convert to single strand breaks (SSB) in pBR322 plasmid DNA in the presence of heat or piperidine. DNA adducts formed by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), cis-platin (cis-Pt), and chromic chloride were compared to those formed by reaction of uranyl acetate (UA) and ascorbate (Asc). Uranyl ion in the presence of Asc produced U-DNA adducts that converted to SSB upon heating. Piperidine, which acted on DNA methylated by MMS to convert methyl-DNA adducts to SSB, served in the opposite fashion with U-DNA adducts by decreasing SSB. The observation that piperidine also decreased the gel shift for metal-DNA adducts formed by monofunctional cis-Pt and chromic chloride was interpreted to suggest that piperidine served to remove U-DNA adducts. Radical scavengers did not affect formation of U-induced SSB, suggesting that SSB arose from the presence of U-DNA adducts and not from free radicals. A model is proposed to predict how U-DNA adducts may serve as initial lesions that convert to SSB or AP sites. Results suggest that DU can act as a chemical genotoxin that does not require radiation for its mode of action. Characterizing the DNA lesions formed by DU is necessary to assess the relative importance of different DNA lesions in the formation of DU-induced mutations. Understanding mechanisms of formation of DU-induced mutations may contribute to identification of biomarkers of DU exposures in humans. PMID:24218036

Wilson, Janice; Young, Ashley; Civitello, Edgar R.

2013-01-01

81

The LTR72 Mutant of Heat-Labile Enterotoxin of Escherichia coli Enhances the Ability of Peptide Antigens To Elicit CD4+ T Cells and Secrete Gamma Interferon after Coapplication onto Bare Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of antigens with an adjuvant onto bare skin is a needle-free and pain-free immunization procedure that delivers antigens to the immunocompetent cells of the epidermis. We tested here the immu- nogenicity and adjuvanticity of two mutants of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of Escherichia coli, LTK63 and LTR72. Both mutants were shown to be immunogenic, inducing serum and mucosal antibody responses.

A.-S. Beignon; J.-P. Briand; R. Rappuoli; S. Muller; C. D. Partidos

2002-01-01

82

Induction of antigen-specific antibodies in vaginal secretions by using a nontoxic mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin as a mucosal adjuvant.  

PubMed Central

Immunization of the female reproductive tract is important for protection against sexually transmitted diseases and other pathogens of the reproductive tract. However, intravaginal immunization with soluble antigens generally does not induce high levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA). We recently developed safe mucosal adjuvants by genetically detoxifying Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, a molecule with a strong mucosal adjuvant activity, and here we describe the use of the nontoxic mutant LTK63 to induce a response in the mouse vagina against ovalbumin (Ova). We compared intravaginal and intranasal routes of immunization for induction of systemic and vaginal responses against LTK63 and Ova. We found that LTK63 is a potent mucosal immunogen when given by either the intravaginal or intranasal route. It induces a strong systemic antibody response and IgG and long-lasting IgA in the vagina. The appearance of vaginal IgA is delayed in the intranasally immunized mice, but the levels of vaginal anti-LTK63 IgA after repeated immunizations are higher in the intranasally immunized mice than in the intravaginally immunized mice. LTK63 also acts as a mucosal adjuvant, inducing a serum response against Ova, when given by both the intravaginal and intranasal routes. However, vaginal IgA against Ova is stimulated more efficiently when LTK63 and antigen are given intranasally. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that LTK63 can be used as a mucosal adjuvant to induce antigen-specific antibodies in vaginal secretions and show that the intranasal route of immunization is the most effective for this purpose. PMID:8641809

Di Tommaso, A; Saletti, G; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R; Dougan, G; Abrignani, S; Douce, G; De Magistris, M T

1996-01-01

83

Protection of piglets against enteric colibacillosis by intranasal immunization with K88ac (F4ac) fimbriae and heat labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important diarrheal agent of young domestic animals. Currently, there are no commercially available non-living vaccines to protect weaned pigs from the disease and no major veterinary biologics company markets a postweaning ETEC vaccine of any kind. While efforts have been made to develop a non-living postweaning ETEC vaccine for pigs, studies have been limited to the assessment of immune responses to experimental immunogens. In the present study, we describe a reproducible gnotobiotic piglet model of post-weaning ETEC diarrhea and efficacy tests in that model of subunit vaccines consisting of K88 (F4) fimbriae and/or heat labile enterotoxin (LT) delivered by the intranasal route. We also report antibody responses to the vaccine antigens. Piglets vaccinated with both antigens mounted a substantial immune response with serum and cecal antibody titers to K88 antigen significantly greater than those of controls. Serum anti-LT antibody titers were also significantly greater than those of controls. Piglets vaccinated with both antigens remained healthy following challenge with ETEC. At least some pigs vaccinated with either antigen alone, and most of the control piglets developed dehydrating diarrhea and suffered significant weight loss. The results of this study suggest that an intranasal vaccine consisting of both antigens is highly protective against a vigorous experimental challenge of pigs with K88+ ETEC, while that against either antigen alone is not. The current study provides a system whereby various ETEC antigens and/or combinations of antigens can be tested in exploring strategies for the development of vaccines for ETEC. PMID:23089483

Lin, Jun; Mateo, Kristina S; Zhao, Mojun; Erickson, Alan K; Garcia, Nuria; He, Dong; Moxley, Rodney A; Francis, David H

2013-03-23

84

6?Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin (LTS61K) Modulates Dendritic Cell Function and Attenuates Airway Inflammation in Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) with different mutant forms has been used as adjuvant for vaccines due to its ability to enhance immune response to specific antigen in vivo. We hypothesis that LTS61K or LTS61K mixed with dust mite allergen, Der p, (LTS61K/Der p) can modulate dendritic cells (DCs) s' functions thus alleviate allergen-induced airway inflammation. Methods Two protocols (ie, preventive and therapeutic protocol) were designed to evaluate the effects of LTS61K in Der p sensitized and challenged mouse model of asthma. Results Both intranasal inoculations with LTS61K or LTS61K/Der p decreased allergen-induced airway inflammation and alleviated systemic TH2-type immune response. In addition, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and sera from LTS61K/Der p treated mice have higher concentrations of Der p-specific IgA than those of other groups. In the in vitro study, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and DC cell line, DC2.4 cells stimulated with LTS61K/Der p both secreted pro-inflammation cytokines IL-6 and TNF-a. In contrast, after LTS61K treatment, only BMDCs decreased production of IL-6 and TNF-a as well as decreased maturation. Furthermore, we found that pre-treatment BMDC with LTS61K inhibited Der p-induced NF-kB translocation which might explain the delayed maturation and decreased productions of IL-6 and TNF-a in LTS61K pre-treated BMDCs. Intratracheally adoptive transferred with LTS61K- or LTS61K/Der p-primed DC2.4 cells or BMDCS into Der p-sensitized mice decreased inflammatory cells infiltration and TH2-type chemokines in BAL fluids and alleviated airway inflammation. Conclusions Our results show that LTS61K may influence DCs maturation and its cytokine production. On the other hands, LTS61K/Der p may induce more Der p-specific IgA production to decrease allergic TH2 cytokine responses and alleviate airway inflammation in murine model of asthma. These finding suggested that LTS61K may have clinical application as an immune-modulator effect on the diseases of allergy and asthma.

Wang, Jiu-yao; Hsu Hsu, Yu-Shen; Lin, I-Ping

2012-01-01

85

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1): a new toxin with an old twist.  

PubMed

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) is a small protein that was first detected more than a decade ago in an enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strain isolated from the stools of a diarrheic child. The EAST1 gene, astA, is not solely present in EAEC, but also in other categories of diarrheagenic E. coli. Strains expressing EAST1 have been shown to induce diarrhea principally in humans, although they have also been associated with piglets and calves. EAST1 toxin has been proposed as a virulence factor implicated in the mechanism of pathogenesis of EAEC and could play a role in the pathogenicity of other enteropathogens as well. This toxin is often compared to E. coli STa enterotoxin because they share some physical and mechanistic similarities. This review summarizes the various observations on EAST1 since its discovery. PMID:12003040

Ménard, Louis-Philippe; Dubreuil, J Daniel

2002-01-01

86

Antigenicity and immunogenicity of fused B-subunit of heat labile toxin of Escherichia coli and colonization factor antigen I polyepitopes.  

PubMed

Linear B-cell epitopes ((93)AKEFEAAAL(101) and (66)PQLTDVLN(73)) of CfaB were genetically fused to ltb-(gly)5-cfaB(1-25). Sera of rabbits immunized with fusion proteins reacted strongly with solid-phase bound ETEC bacteria bearing CFA/I fimbriae. Sera failed to agglutinate or inhibit hemagglutination promoted by CFA/I-positive strain which may be due to solvent inaccessibility of epitope residues on intact fimbriae. PMID:25108290

Savar, Nastaran Sadat; Dashti, Amir; Darzi Eslam, Elham; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Jafari, Anis

2014-11-01

87

[Study on differentially expressed proteins of effect of kudiezi injection on cerebral cortexin rats with cerebral ischemic stroke and heat toxin syndrome].  

PubMed

This study is to investigate the modulation of Kudiezi (KDZ) injection on differential protein expression in cerebral cortex of rats with cerebral ischemic stroke and heat toxin syndrome established by intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) methods. According to random number table rats were divided into three groups: drug group, model group and sham group. The tripheye tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and HE staining were used to observe brain tissue injury of rats. After therapeutic intervention with above drug for seventy-two hours, the level of differential protein expression was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The results show that there are differential protein expressions between cerebral ischemic stroke and heat toxin syndrome rats and sham rats. Furthermore, as a Chinese medicine injection with effect of clearing heat, resolving toxin and dredging collaterals, KDZ injection can decrease alleviate morphological changes of cerebral ischemia, regulate the levels of some differential proteins expression. PMID:25282898

Wang, Feng-Li; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Liu, Xue-Mei; Wang, Xin-Xiang; Zheng, Hong; Zhang, Xin-Yang; Gao, Fang; Yao, Ting

2014-05-01

88

Bacterial toxins: friends or foes?  

PubMed Central

Many emerging and reemerging bacterial pathogens synthesize toxins that serve as primary virulence factors. We highlight seven bacterial toxins produced by well-established or newly emergent pathogenic microbes. These toxins, which affect eukaryotic cells by a variety of means, include Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin, Shiga toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1, Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin, botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins, and S. aureus toxic-shock syndrome toxin. For each, we discuss the information available on its synthesis and structure, mode of action, and contribution to virulence. We also review the role certain toxins have played in unraveling signal pathways in eukaryotic cells and summarize the beneficial uses of toxins and toxoids. Our intent is to illustrate the importance of the analysis of bacterial toxins to both basic and applied sciences. PMID:10221874

Schmitt, C. K.; Meysick, K. C.; O'Brien, A. D.

1999-01-01

89

Heat-induced transcription of diphtheria toxin A or its variants, CRM176 and CRM197: implications for pancreatic cancer gene therapy.  

PubMed

Vectors combining the heat shock proteins (HSPs) promoter with the catalytic subunit A of the diphtheria toxin (DTA) or its variants, cross-reacting material (CRM) 176 and 197, were engineered to investigate the effect of bacterial toxins on pancreatic cancer (PC) cells. Three heat-inducible enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-expression vectors were obtained: V1 (91% homology to HSPA6), V2 (five heat shock elements upstream the minimal HSPA6 promoter) and V3 (V1 and V2 combined). The highest eGFP transcription and translation levels were found in V3 transfected PC cells. The V3 promoter was used to control DTA, CRM176 and CRM197 expression, treatment response being investigated in four PC cell lines. DTAwt or CRM176 transfected cell growth was completely arrested after heat shock. CRM197 toxin presumed to be inactive, caused mild distress at 37 degrees C and induced a 25-50% reduction in cell growth after heat shock. Preliminary in vivo findings showed that heat treatment arrests tumor growth in DTA197 stably transfected PSN1 cells. In conclusion, the efficient HSP promoter identified in this study may be extremely useful in controlling the transcription of toxins such as CRM197, which have lethal dose-related effects, and may thus be a promising tool in PC gene therapy in vivo. PMID:19609296

Fogar, P; Navaglia, F; Basso, D; Zambon, C-F; Moserle, L; Indraccolo, S; Stranges, A; Greco, E; Fadi, E; Padoan, A; Pantano, G; Sanzari, M C; Pedrazzoli, S; Montecucco, C; Plebani, M

2010-01-01

90

Rapid simultaneous ultrasensitive immunodetection of five bacterial toxins.  

PubMed

Rapid ultrasensitive detection of gastrointestinal pathogens presents a great interest for medical diagnostics and epidemiologic services. Though conventional immunochemical and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods are sensitive enough for many applications, they usually require several hours for assay, whereas as sensitive but more rapid methods are needed in many practical cases. Here, we report a new microarray-based analytical technique for simultaneous detection of five bacterial toxins: the cholera toxin, the E. coli heat-labile toxin, and three S. aureus toxins (the enterotoxins A and B and the toxic shock syndrome toxin). The assay involves three major steps: electrophoretic collection of toxins on an antibody microarray, labeling of captured antigens with secondary biotinylated antibodies, and detection of biotin labels by scanning the microarray surface with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads in a shear-flow. All the stages are performed in a single flow cell allowing application of electric and magnetic fields as well as optical detection of microarray-bound beads. Replacement of diffusion with a forced transport at all the recognition steps allows one to dramatically decrease both the limit of detection (LOD) and the assay time. We demonstrate here that application of this "active" assay technique to the detection of bacterial toxins in water samples from natural sources and in food samples (milk and meat extracts) allowed one to perform the assay in less than 10 min and to decrease the LOD to 0.1-1 pg/mL for water and to 1 pg/mL for food samples. PMID:22724559

Shlyapnikov, Yuri M; Shlyapnikova, Elena A; Simonova, Maria A; Shepelyakovskaya, Anna O; Brovko, Fedor A; Komaleva, Ravilya L; Grishin, Eugene V; Morozov, Victor N

2012-07-01

91

Microwave Heating Inactivates Shiga Toxin (Stx2) in Reconstituted Fat-Free Milk and Adversely Affects the Nutritional Value of Cell Culture Medium.  

PubMed

Microwave exposure is a convenient and widely used method for defrosting, heating, and cooking numerous foods. Microwave cooking is also reported to kill pathogenic microorganisms that often contaminate food. In this study, we tested whether microwaves would inactivate the toxicity of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) added to 5% reconstituted fat-free milk administered to monkey kidney Vero cells. Heating of milk spiked with Stx2 in a microwave oven using a 10% duty cycle (cycle period of 30 s) for a total of 165 kJ energy or thermal heating (pasteurization), widely used to kill pathogenic bacteria, did not destroy the biological effect of the toxin in the Vero cells. However, conventional heating of milk to 95 °C for 5 min or at an increased microwave energy of 198 kJ reduced the Stx2 activity. Gel electrophoresis showed that exposure of the protein toxin to high-energy microwaves resulted in the degradation of its original structure. In addition, two independent assays showed that exposure of the cell culture medium to microwave energy of 198 kJ completely destroyed the nutritional value of the culture medium used to grow the Vero cells, possibly by damaging susceptible essential nutrients present in the medium. These observations suggest that microwave heating has the potential to destroy the Shiga toxin in liquid food. PMID:24669932

Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

2014-03-26

92

Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Toxin b Impairs Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function by Altering Tight Junction Proteins  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin b (STb) causes diarrhea in animals. STb binds to sulfatide, its receptor, and is then internalized. In the cytoplasm, through a cascade of events, STb triggers the opening of ion channels, allowing ion secretion and water loss and leading to diarrhea. Tight junctions (TJs) are well known for controlling paracellular traffic of ions and water by forming a physical intercellular barrier in epithelial cells, and some bacterial toxins are known to affect adversely TJs. The present study aimed at determining the effect of STb on TJs. T84 cells were treated for 24 h with purified STb and a nontoxic STb mutant (D30V). Transepithelial resistance (TER), paracellular flux marker, and confocal microscopy were used to analyze the effect of STb on TJs. Purified STb caused a significant reduction of TER parallel to an increase in paracellular permeability compared to the results seen in untreated cells or mutant D30V. The increased paracellular permeability was associated with a marked alteration of F-actin stress fibers. F-actin filament dissolution and condensation were accompanied by redistribution and/or fragmentation of ZO-1, claudin-1, and occludin. These changes were also observed following treatment of T84 cells with an 8-amino-acid peptide found in the STb sequence corresponding to a consensus sequence of Vibrio cholerae Zot toxin. These effects were not observed with a scrambled peptide or mutant D30V. Our findings indicate that STb induces epithelial barrier dysfunction through changes in TJ proteins that could contribute to diarrhea. PMID:23716609

Ngendahayo Mukiza, Clément

2013-01-01

93

Metal complexes and free radical toxins produced by Pfiesteria piscicida.  

PubMed

Metal-containing organic toxins produced by Pfiesteria piscicida were characterized, for the first time, by corroborating data obtained from five distinct instrumental methods: nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), liquid chromatography particle beam glow discharge mass spectrometry (LC/PB-G DMS), electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The high toxicity of the metal-containing toxins is due to metal-mediated free radical production. This mode of activity explains the toxicity of Pfiesteria, as well as previously reported difficulty in observing the molecular target, due to the ephemeral nature of radical species. The toxins are highly labile in purified form, maintaining activity for only 2-5 days before all activity is lost. The multiple toxin congeners in active extracts are also susceptible to decomposition in the presence of white light, pH variations, and prolonged heat. These findings represent the first formal isolation and characterization of a radical forming toxic organic-ligated metal complex isolated from estuarine/marine dinoflagellates. These findings add to an increased understanding regarding the active role of metals interacting with biological systems in the estuarine environment, as well as their links and implications to human health. PMID:17598275

Moeller, Peter D R; Beauchesne, Kevin R; Huncik, Kevin M; Davis, W Clay; Christopher, Steven J; Riggs-Gelasco, Pamela; Gelasco, Andrew K

2007-02-15

94

Immunogenicity of a Fusion Protein Comprising Coli Surface Antigen 3 and Labile B Subunit of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the major causes of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Colonization factors and enterotoxins are the major virulence factors in ETEC pathogenesis. For the broad-spectrum protection against ETEC, one could focus on colonization factors and non-toxic heat labile as a vaccine candidate. Methods: A fusion protein is composed of a major fimbrial subunit of coli surface antigen 3, and the heat-labile B subunit (LTB) was constructed as a chimeric immunogen. For optimum level expression of protein, the gene was synthesized with codon bias of E. coli. Also, recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21DE3. ELISA and Western tests were carried out for determination of antigen and specificity of antibody raised against recombinant protein in animals. The anti-toxicity and anti-adherence properties of the immune sera against ETEC were also evaluated. Results: Immunological analyses showed the production of high titer of specific antibody in immunized mice. The built-in LTB retains native toxin properties which were approved by GM1 binding assay. Pre-treatment of the ETEC cells with anti-sera significantly decreased their adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Conclusion: The results indicated the efficacy of the recombinant chimeric protein as an effective immunogen inducing strong humoral response. The designated chimer would be an interesting prototype for a vaccine and worthy of further investigation. PMID:25326019

Alerasol, Masoome; Mousavi Gargari, Seyed Latif; Nazarian, Shahram; Bagheri, Samane

2014-01-01

95

Virulence profiles of enterotoxigenic, shiga toxin and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in South African pigs.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and shiga toxin E. coli (STEC) are important causes of colibacillosis in piglets. Recently, enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST-1) has been implicated in pig diarrhoea. This study investigated the prevalence of enterotoxin [heat-labile toxins (LT), heat-stable toxin a (STa), heat-stable toxin b (STb)], shiga toxins (Stx1, Stx2, Stx2e), enteroaggregative heat-stable E. coli (EAST-1), associated fimbriae (F4, F5, F6, F41, F18ab, F18ac) and non-fimbrial adhesins [adhesin involved in diffuse adherence 1 (AIDA-1), attaching and effacing factor, porcine attaching- and effacing-associated factor] in South African pigs. A total of 263 E. coli strains were isolated from Landrace (n = 24), Large White (n = 126), Duroc (n = 28) and indigenous (n = 85) breeds of piglets aged between 9 and 136 days. PCR was used in the analysis. Virulent genes were detected in 40.3% of the isolates, of which 18.6, 0.4 and 17.5% were classified as ETEC, STEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), respectively. Individual genes were found in the following proportions: STb (19.01%), LT (0.4%), STa (3.4%), St2xe (1.1%) and EAST-1 (20.2%) toxins. None of the tested fimbriae were detected in ETEC and STEC isolates. About one third of the ETEC and STEC isolates was tested negative for both fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesins. Twenty-five pathotypes from ETEC-, EAEC- and STEC-positive strains were identified. Pathotypes EAST-1 (30.2%), STb (13.2%) and STb/AIDA-1 (10.4%) were most prevalent. The study provided insight on possible causes of colibacillosis in South African pigs. PMID:23417826

Mohlatlole, Ramadimetja Prescilla; Madoroba, Evelyn; Muchadeyi, Farai Catherine; Chimonyo, Michael; Kanengoni, Arnold Tapera; Dzomba, Edgar Farai

2013-08-01

96

Evaluation of the immunogenicity of a transgenic tobacco plant expressing the recombinant fusion protein of GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin in pigs.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) can be used as an adjuvant for co-administered antigens. Our previous study showed that the expression of neutralizing epitope GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in transgenic tobacco plant (GP5-T) could induce PRRSV-specific immune responses in pigs. A transgenic tobacco plant co-expressing LTB and PRRSV GP5 as a fusion protein (LTB-GP5-T) was further constructed and its immunogenicity was evaluated. Pigs were given orally three consecutive doses of equal concentration of recombinant GP5 protein expressed in leaves of LTB-GP5-T or GP5-T at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks post-initial immunization. Pigs receiving LTB-GP5-T or GP5-T developed PRRSV-specific antibody- and cell-mediated immunity and showed significantly lower viremia and tissue viral load and milder lung lesions than wild type tobacco plant (W-T). The LTB-GP5-T-treated group had relatively higher immune responses than the GP5-T-treated group, although the differences were not statistically significant. PMID:21277027

Chia, Min-Yuan; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Chan, Hui-Ting; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling; Chang, Hui-Wen; Tsai, Yi-Chieh; Lin, Chun-Ming; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren

2011-04-15

97

Minimal deletion of amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin causes defects in its assembly and release from the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Minimal alterations at the carboxyl terminus of the B subunit (EtxB) of heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli were found to have a marked effect on the assembly and release of this polypeptide into the periplasm. Nine mutant EtxB polypeptides were obtained by genetic manipulation of the 3'-end of the etxB gene using Bal31 nuclease digestion and codon substitution. A correlation was observed between the magnitude of the changes introduced at the carboxyl terminus and the extent to which the mutant polypeptides were defective in assembly and release. Some of the mutant B subunits, exemplified by those in which the last 2 amino acids had been deleted or in which the last 4 residues had been replaced by three different ones, were found to be only partially defective, with a proportion being associated with the periplasmic face of the cytoplasmic membrane and the remainder being exported to the periplasm. The portion associated with membranes was detected as monomers on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, whereas the portion exported to the periplasm were detected as assembled oligomers. We conclude that the last few amino acids at the carboxyl terminus of EtxB exert a profound influence on the assembly and release of the B subunit from the cytoplasmic membrane during export in E. coli. PMID:2203772

Sandkvist, M; Hirst, T R; Bagdasarian, M

1990-09-01

98

Structure of the cholera toxin secretion channel in its closed state  

PubMed Central

The type II secretion system (T2SS) is a macromolecular complex spanning the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. Remarkably, the T2SS secretes folded proteins including multimeric assemblies like cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin from Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, respectively. The major outer membrane T2SS protein is the “secretin” GspD. Electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of the V. cholerae secretin at 19 Å resolution reveals a dodecameric structure reminiscent of a barrel with a large channel at its center that appears to contain a closed periplasmic gate. The GspD periplasmic domain forms a vestibule with a conserved constriction, and binds to a pentameric exoprotein and to the trimeric tip of the T2SS pseudopilus. By combining our results with structures of the cholera toxin and T2SS pseudopilus, we provide a structural basis for a possible secretion mechanism of the T2SS. PMID:20852644

Reichow, Steve L.; Korotkov, Konstantin V.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Gonen, Tamir

2010-01-01

99

Clostridial toxins.  

PubMed

Clostridia produce the highest number of toxins of any type of bacteria and are involved in severe diseases in humans and other animals. Most of the clostridial toxins are pore-forming toxins responsible for gangrenes and gastrointestinal diseases. Among them, perfringolysin has been extensively studied and it is the paradigm of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, whereas Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin and Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin, which are related to aerolysin, are the prototypes of clostridial toxins that form small pores. Other toxins active on the cell surface possess an enzymatic activity, such as phospholipase C and collagenase, and are involved in the degradation of specific cell-membrane or extracellular-matrix components. Three groups of clostridial toxins have the ability to enter cells: large clostridial glucosylating toxins, binary toxins and neurotoxins. The binary and large clostridial glucosylating toxins alter the actin cytoskeleton by enzymatically modifying the actin monomers and the regulatory proteins from the Rho family, respectively. Clostridial neurotoxins proteolyse key components of neuroexocytosis. Botulinum neurotoxins inhibit neurotransmission at neuromuscular junctions, whereas tetanus toxin targets the inhibitory interneurons of the CNS. The high potency of clostridial toxins results from their specific targets, which have an essential cellular function, and from the type of modification that they induce. In addition, clostridial toxins are useful pharmacological and biological tools. PMID:19824793

Popoff, Michel R; Bouvet, Philippe

2009-10-01

100

Oral immunization with an attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant as a fowl typhoid vaccine with a live adjuvant strain secreting the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin  

PubMed Central

Background The Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) lon/cpxR deletion mutant JOL916 was developed as a live vaccine candidate for fowl typhoid (FT), and a SG mutant secreting an Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB), designated JOL1229, was recently constructed as an adjuvant strain for oral vaccination against FT. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective properties of the SG mutant JOL916 and the LTB adjuvant strain JOL1229 in order to establish a prime and boost immunization strategy for each strain. In addition, we compared the increase in body weight, the immunogenicity, the egg production rates, and the bacteriological egg contamination of these strains with those of SG 9R, a widely used commercial vaccine. Results Plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA (sIgA), and cell-mediated responses were significantly induced after a boost inoculation with a mixture of JOL916 and JOL1229, and significant reductions in the mortality of chickens challenged with a wild-type SG strain were observed in the immunized groups. There were no significant differences in increases in body weight, cell-mediated immune responses, or systemic IgG responses between our vaccine mixture and the SG 9R vaccine groups. However, there was a significant elevation in intestinal sIgA in chickens immunized with our mixture at 3 weeks post-prime-immunization and at 3 weeks post-boost-immunization, while sIgA levels in SG 9R-immunized chickens were not significantly elevated compared to the control. In addition, the SG strain was not detected in the eggs of chickens immunized with our mixture. Conclusion Our results suggest that immunization with the LTB-adjuvant strain JOL1229 can significantly increase the immune response, and provide efficient protection against FT with no side effects on body weight, egg production, or egg contamination. PMID:23647814

2013-01-01

101

Characterization of Immunological Cross-Reactivity between Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Toxin and Human Guanylin and Uroguanylin  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing the heat-stable toxin (ST) (human-type [STh] and porcine-type [STp] variants) is among the five most important enteric pathogens in young children living in low- and middle-income countries. ST mediates diarrheal disease through activation of the guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor and is an attractive vaccine target with the potential to confer protection against a wide range of ETEC strains. However, immunological cross-reactivity to the endogenous GC-C ligands guanylin and uroguanylin is a major concern because of the similarities to ST in amino acid sequence, structure, and function. We have investigated the presence of similar epitopes on STh, STp, guanylin, and uroguanylin by analyzing these peptides in eight distinct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A fraction (27%) of a polyclonal anti-STh antibody and an anti-STh monoclonal antibody (MAb) cross-reacted with uroguanylin, the latter with a 73-fold-lower affinity. In contrast, none of the antibodies raised against STp, one polyclonal antibody and three MAbs, cross-reacted with the endogenous peptides. Antibodies raised against guanylin and uroguanylin showed partial cross-reactivity with the ST peptides. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that immunological cross-reactions between ST and the endogenous peptides can occur. However, the partial nature and low affinity of the observed cross-reactions suggest that the risk of adverse effects from a future ST vaccine may be low. Furthermore, our results suggest that this risk may be reduced or eliminated by basing an ST immunogen on STp or a selectively mutated variant of STh. PMID:24778111

Taxt, Arne M.; Diaz, Yuleima; Bacle, Amélie; Grauffel, Cédric; Reuter, Nathalie; Aasland, Rein; Sommerfelt, Halvor

2014-01-01

102

Characterization of immunological cross-reactivity between enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin and human guanylin and uroguanylin.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing the heat-stable toxin (ST) (human-type [STh] and porcine-type [STp] variants) is among the five most important enteric pathogens in young children living in low- and middle-income countries. ST mediates diarrheal disease through activation of the guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor and is an attractive vaccine target with the potential to confer protection against a wide range of ETEC strains. However, immunological cross-reactivity to the endogenous GC-C ligands guanylin and uroguanylin is a major concern because of the similarities to ST in amino acid sequence, structure, and function. We have investigated the presence of similar epitopes on STh, STp, guanylin, and uroguanylin by analyzing these peptides in eight distinct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A fraction (27%) of a polyclonal anti-STh antibody and an anti-STh monoclonal antibody (MAb) cross-reacted with uroguanylin, the latter with a 73-fold-lower affinity. In contrast, none of the antibodies raised against STp, one polyclonal antibody and three MAbs, cross-reacted with the endogenous peptides. Antibodies raised against guanylin and uroguanylin showed partial cross-reactivity with the ST peptides. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that immunological cross-reactions between ST and the endogenous peptides can occur. However, the partial nature and low affinity of the observed cross-reactions suggest that the risk of adverse effects from a future ST vaccine may be low. Furthermore, our results suggest that this risk may be reduced or eliminated by basing an ST immunogen on STp or a selectively mutated variant of STh. PMID:24778111

Taxt, Arne M; Diaz, Yuleima; Bacle, Amélie; Grauffel, Cédric; Reuter, Nathalie; Aasland, Rein; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Puntervoll, Pål

2014-07-01

103

Intradermal Administration of the Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxins LT-IIb and LT-IIc of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Enhances Humoral and CD8+ T Cell Immunity to a Co-Administered Antigen  

PubMed Central

Vaccinations are extremely effective at combating infectious diseases. Many conserved antigen (Ag) targets, however, are poorly immunogenic. Protein subunit vaccines frequently elicit only humoral immune responses and fail to confer protection against serious intracellular pathogens. These barriers to vaccine development are often overcome by the use of appropriate adjuvants. Heat-labile enterotoxins (HLT) produced by enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli are potent adjuvants when administered by mucosal or systemic routes. The efficacy of the type II HLT, however, has not been well-defined when administered by the intradermal (ID) route. Using a murine ID immunization model, the adjuvant properties of LT-IIb and LT-IIc, two type II HLTs, were compared with those of LT-I, a prototypical type I HLT. While all three HLT adjuvants enhanced Ag-specific humoral responses to similar levels, LT-IIb and LT-IIc, in contrast to LT-I, induced a more vigorous Ag-specific CD8+ T cell response and proffered faster clearance of Listeria monocytogenes in a challenge model. Additionally, LT-IIb and LT-IIc induced distinct differences in the profiles of the Ag-specific CD8+ T cell responses. While LT-IIc stimulated a robust and rapid primary CD8+ T cell response, LT-IIb exhibited slower CD8+ T cell expansion and contraction kinetics with the formation of higher percentages of effector memory cells. In comparison to LT-I and LT-IIc, LT-IIb evoked better long-term protection after immunization. Furthermore, LT-IIb and LT-IIc enhanced the total number of dendritic cells (DC) in the draining lymph node (DLN) and expression of costimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and CD40 on DCs. In contrast to LT-I, LT-IIb and LT-IIc induced less edema, cellular infiltrates, and general inflammation at the site of ID injection. Thus, LT-IIb and LT-IIc are attractive comprehensive ID adjuvants with unique characteristic that enhance humoral and cellular immunity to a co-administered protein Ag. PMID:25536061

Hu, John C.; Mathias-Santos, Camila; Greene, Christopher J.; King-Lyons, Natalie D.; Rodrigues, Juliana F.; Hajishengallis, George; Ferreira, Luís C. S.; Connell, Terry D.

2014-01-01

104

Effect of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin, cholera toxin and theophylline on ion transport in porcine colon  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) of Escherichia coli, cholera toxin (CT), and theophylline (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) on ion and water transport was studied with an in vivo isolated loop system of the pig colon. 2. All three agents abolished net Na absorption as a result of a decrease in the lumen to blood Na flux alone. With all three agents, net Cl absorption was reduced, but not abolished, and net HCO3 secretion was elicited. Luminal pCO2 was reduced with CT and theophylline from that observed in normal Ringer alone. 3. Theophylline resulted in a prompt and sustained increase in both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) levels in colonic mucosa studied in vitro. ST selectively elevated cyclic GMP, whereas CT selectively elevated cyclic AMP. These responses paralleled the time course and magnitude of response of the transepithelial electrical potential difference (?LB) measured in vivo. 4. Ion replacement studies in the presence or absence of theophylline showed that in the absence of Na, Cl absorption was slightly reduced and HCO3 secretion was elicited; no further additive effects of theophylline in the absence of luminal Na were observed. In the absence of luminal Cl, net Na absorption was abolished and HCO3 was absorbed; theophylline resulted in significant net Na and HCO3 secretion. Theophylline also increased ?LB in the absence of either luminal Na or Cl. 5. Results suggest that in the presence of theophylline or enterotoxin, the coupled Na—H and Cl—HCO3 exchange processes that are normally responsible for at least half of the net NaCl absorption by this tissue are interrupted. Active HCO3 secretion is observed and Cl absorption under these conditions can be entirely explained as a consequence of ?LB. Thus, these studies indicate that the colon may participate in the production of diarrhoea of enterotoxigenic origin. They also suggest an important functional role of cyclic nucleotides in controlling the acidity and volume of colonic contents. PMID:6275079

Argenzio, R. A.; Whipp, S. C.

1981-01-01

105

A toxin-antitoxin system encoded by the Xylella fastidiosa chromosome regulates growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacteria encode toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems consisting of a stable toxin and a cognate labile antitoxin. When encoded by a plasmid, TA systems confer stable plasmid inheritance. When encoded by the chromosome, TA systems may confer advantageous responses to environmental stress. The chromosome of...

106

Novel Proteinaceous Toxins from the Box Jellyfish (Sea Wasp) Carybdea rastoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

During summer and autumn, the box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea rastoni is one of the most bothersome stinging pests to swimmers and bathers on the Japanese coast. Two labile but potent hemolytic toxins from the tentacles of Carybdea rastoni were isolated in their active forms using newly developed purification methods. The molecular masses of the isolated C. rastoni toxin-A and

Hiroshi Nagai; Kyoko Takuwa; Masahiro Nakao; Emiko Ito; Masami Miyake; Masatoshi Noda; Terumi Nakajima

2000-01-01

107

Escherichia coli Expressing EAST1 Toxin Did Not Cause an Increase of cAMP or cGMP Levels in Cells, and No Diarrhea in 5-Day Old Gnotobiotic Pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea to humans and farm animals. These ETEC strains produce heat-labile toxin (LT) and/or heat-stable toxins that include type I (STa), type II (STb), and enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin 1 (EAST1). LT, STa, and STb (in pigs) are proven the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. However, significance of EAST1 in ETEC-associated diarrheal has not been determined, even though EAST1 is highly prevalent among ETEC strains. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we constructed E. coli strains to express EAST1 toxin as the only toxin and studied them in cell lines and five-day old gnotobiotic piglets to determine significance of EAST1 toxin. Data from in vitro studies indicated that EAST1 did not stimulate an increase of intracellular cyclic AMP or GMP levels in T-84 cells or porcine cell line IPEC-J2, nor did it enhance LT or STa toxin of ETEC strains in stimulation of cAMP or cGMP in T-84 cells. In addition, 5-day old gnotobiotic pigs challenged with E. coli strains expressing EAST1 as the only toxin did not developed diarrhea or signs of clinical disease during 72 h post-inoculation. Conclusion/Significance Results from this study indicated that EAST1 alone is not sufficient to cause diarrhea in five-day old gnotobiotic pigs, and suggest that EAST1 likely is not a virulence determinant in ETEC-associated diarrhea. PMID:22905235

Ruan, Xiaosai; Crupper, Scott S.; Schultz, Bruce D.; Robertson, Donald C.; Zhang, Weiping

2012-01-01

108

Clinical and biochemical significance of toxin production by Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed Central

Production of cytotoxin and enterotoxin by Aeromonas strains obtained from stools of 50 children in Mexico and Texas and from blood of 9 children with sepsis was determined. Results were correlated with clinical features of infected children as well as with biochemical traits of Aeromonas strains. Cytotoxin was produced by 40 of 42 Aeromonas strains (95%) isolated from stools of children with diarrhea, by all 8 isolates from stools of well children, and by all 9 isolates from children with sepsis. There was no difference in the quantities (amount of cytotoxin per milligram of protein required to kill 50% of the cells) of cytotoxin produced and in clinical manifestations among the groups. None of the isolates produced a toxin that could be neutralized by antiserum raised against Shiga toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae 1 60R. Heat-labile-like enterotoxin (LT) was produced by 26 of 42 stool isolates (62%), while only 1 of the 42 isolates (2%) produced enterotoxinlike activity in suckling mice; 65% of the cytotoxin-producing strains also produced an LT-like material. All strains from blood produced LT-like material, and 2 of 6 (33%) produced activity in suckling mice. All strains produced hemolysin; 37 of 57 (65%) were Voges-Proskauer positive; 27 of 57 (47%) were lysine decarboxylase positive by API 20E strips, none were positive for lysine decarboxylose production by lysin-iron agar slants at 24 h, but 17 of 54 (31%) were positive at 48 h. There was no correlation between biochemical reactions and enterotoxin or cytotoxin production. There appears to be no correlation between toxin production by Aeromonas spp. and gastroenteritis. PMID:3584426

Kindschuh, M; Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Ruiz-Palacios, G

1987-01-01

109

BOTULINUM TOXIN  

PubMed Central

Botulinum toxin, one of the most poisonous biological substances known, is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum elaborates eight antigenically distinguishable exotoxins (A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F and G). All serotypes interfere with neural transmission by blocking the release of acetylcholine, the principal neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle paralysis. The weakness induced by injection with botulinum toxin A usually lasts about three months. Botulinum toxins now play a very significant role in the management of a wide variety of medical conditions, especially strabismus and focal dystonias, hemifacial spasm, and various spastic movement disorders, headaches, hypersalivation, hyperhidrosis, and some chronic conditions that respond only partially to medical treatment. The list of possible new indications is rapidly expanding. The cosmetological applications include correction of lines, creases and wrinkling all over the face, chin, neck, and chest to dermatological applications such as hyperhidrosis. Injections with botulinum toxin are generally well tolerated and side effects are few. A precise knowledge and understanding of the functional anatomy of the mimetic muscles is absolutely necessary to correctly use botulinum toxins in clinical practice. PMID:20418969

Nigam, P K; Nigam, Anjana

2010-01-01

110

Toward the development of a stable, freeze-dried formulation of Helicobacter pylori killed whole cell vaccine adjuvanted with a novel mutant of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

No vaccine exists for the prevention of infection with the ubiquitous gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, and drug therapy for the infection is complicated by poor patient compliance, the high cost of treatment, and ineffectiveness against drug-resistant strains. A new medical advancement is required to reduce the incidence of peptic ulcer disease and stomach cancer, two conditions caused by infection with

Nancy A. Summerton; Richard W. Welch; Laureano Bondoc; Huei-Hsiung Yang; Brett Pleune; Naryaswamy Ramachandran; Andrea M. Harris; Desiree Bland; W. James Jackson; John D. Clements; Gary S. Nabors

2010-01-01

111

Lability of Humic-Bound Phosphorus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) has long been known to be present in humic substances from various sources. However, information on the lability of humic-bound P is very limited although such information is critical for understanding the role of humic substances in P cycling and nutrition. In this presentation, we d...

112

Transcutaneous Immunization with Cross-Reacting Material CRM197 of Diphtheria Toxin Boosts Functional Antibody Levels in Mice Primed Parenterally with Adsorbed Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccine?  

PubMed Central

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) capitalizes on the accessibility and immunocompetence of the skin, elicits protective immunity, simplifies vaccine delivery, and may be particularly advantageous when frequent boosting is required. In this study we examined the potential of TCI to boost preexisting immune responses to diphtheria in mice. The cross-reacting material (CRM197) of diphtheria toxin was used as the boosting antigen and was administered alone or together with either one of two commonly used mucosal adjuvants, cholera toxin (CT) and a partially detoxified mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTR72). We report that TCI with CRM197 significantly boosted preexisting immune responses elicited after parenteral priming with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid (DTxd) vaccine. In the presence of LTR72 as an adjuvant, toxin-neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher than those elicited by CRM197 alone and were comparable to the functional antibody levels induced after parenteral booster immunization with the adsorbed DTxd vaccine. Time course study showed that high levels of toxin-neutralizing antibodies persisted for at least 14 weeks after the transcutaneous boost. In addition, TCI resulted in a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response in all groups of mice boosted with the CRM197 protein. These findings highlight the promising prospect of using booster administrations of CRM197 via the transcutaneous route to establish good herd immunity against diphtheria. PMID:18227167

Stickings, Paul; Peyre, Marisa; Coombes, Laura; Muller, Sylviane; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Sesardic, Dorothea

2008-01-01

113

Biological properties of Shigella flexneri 2A toxin and its serological relationship to Shigella dysenteriae 1 toxin.  

PubMed Central

A toxin extracted from heat-inactivated, alkaline-treated Shigella flexneri 2a showed biological properties similar to those of Shigella dysenteria 1 toxin. The S, flexneri 2a toxin was lethal to mice, enterotoxic for ileal loops of rabbits, and cytotoxic for HeLa cells. A serological relationship between S. flexneri 2a and S. dysenteriae 1 toxin was shown with cross neutralization tests. PMID:323142

O'Brien, A D; Thompson, M R; Gemski, P; Doctor, B P; Formal, S B

1977-01-01

114

The 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of cholera toxin B subunit pentamer: Choleragenoid  

SciTech Connect

Cholera toxin, a heterohexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin released by Vibrio cholera, induces a profuse secretory diarrhea in susceptible hosts. Choleragenoid, the B subunit pentamer of cholera toxin, directs the enzymatic A subunit to its target by binding to GM{sub 1} gangliosides exposed on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells. We have solved the crystal structure of choleragenoid at 2.3 {Angstrom} resolution by combining single isomorphous replacement with non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The structure of the B subunits, and their pentameric arrangement, closely resembles that reported for the intact holotoxin (choleragen), the heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli, and for a choleragenoid-GM{sub 1} pentasaccharide complex. In the absence of the A subunit the central cavity of the B pentamer is a highly solvated channel. The binding of the A subunit or the receptor pentasaccharide to choleragenoid has only a modest effect on the local stereochemistry and does not perceptibly alter the subunit interface.

Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Maulik, P.R.; Reed, R.A.; Shipley, G. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine; Westbrook, E.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Scott, D.L.; Otwinowski, Z. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

1996-02-01

115

Development of an Immunochromatographic Test Strip for Detection of Cholera Toxin  

PubMed Central

Because cholera toxin (CT) is responsible for most of the symptoms induced by Vibrio cholerae infection, detection of CT is critical for diagnosis of the disease. In this study, we constructed an immunochromatographic test strip for detection of CT (CT-IC) with polyclonal antibodies developed against purified recombinant whole CT protein. The detection limit of the CT-IC was 10?ng/mL of purified recombinant CT, and it could detect the CT in culture supernatant of all 15 toxigenic V. cholerae isolates examined, whereas no false-positive signal was detected in all 5 nontoxigenic V. cholerae isolates examined. The specificity of the CT-IC was examined with recombinant heat-labile toxin (LT), which shares high homology with CT, and it was revealed that the minimum detection limit for LT was 100 times higher than that for CT. In addition, lt gene-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was examined by CT-IC. The false-positive signals were observed in 3 out of 12 ETEC isolates, but these signals were considerably faint. The CT-IC did not develop false-positive signals with all 7 V. parahaemolyticus isolates. These results showed the high specificity of CT-IC and the feasible use of it for the detection and surveillance of toxigenic V. cholerae. PMID:24308002

Yamasaki, Eiki; Sakamoto, Ryuta; Matsumoto, Takashi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Kurazono, Takayuki; Hiroi, Toyoko; Nair, G. Balakrish; Kurazono, Hisao

2013-01-01

116

Serum Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Is a Labile Enzyme  

PubMed Central

Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) is a multifunctional oxidoreductase and is well known as an essential component of four mammalian mitochondrial multienzyme complexes: pyruvate dehydrogenase, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, branched chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase, and the glycine cleavage system. However, existence of extracellular DLDH in mammals, if any, has not been clearly defined. The present article reports identification and biochemical characterization of serum DLDH. Proteomic analysis of rat serum using blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) and mass spectrometry peptide sequencing led to generation of 6 tryptic peptides in one band that matched to mitochondrial DLDH, indicating the existence of DLDH in rat serum. Measurement of enzymatic activity also indicated the existence of DLDH in human and mouse serum. Further biochemical analysis of rat serum DLDH revealed that this enzyme lacked diaphorase activity and could not be detected on Western blots probed with antibodies that recognized mitochondrial DLDH. Moreover, both ammonium sulfate fractioning and gel filtration of serum samples rendered a great loss in DLDH activity, indicating that the enzyme activity of this serum protein, unlike that of mitochondrial DLDH, is very labile. When DTT was supplemented in the buffer used for gel filtration, DLDH activity was found to be largely preserved; indicating that serum DLDH is susceptible to air-implicated inactivation. Results of the present study indicate that serum DLDH differs from mitochondrial DLDH in that it is a very labile enzyme. PMID:23646291

Yan, Liang-Jun; Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Sumien, Nathalie; Forster, Michael J.

2013-01-01

117

Inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives. II. Physical methods  

SciTech Connect

The thermal inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives was evaluated by addition of marker viruses (VSV, Sindbis, Sendai, EMC) to anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) concentrates. The rate of virus inactivation at 60 degrees C was decreased by at least 100- to 700-fold by inclusion of 2.75 M glycine and 50 percent sucrose, or 3.0 M potassium citrate, additives which contribute to retention of protein biologic activity. Nonetheless, at least 10(4) infectious units of each virus was inactivated within 10 hours. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 70 or 80 degrees C caused a 90 percent or greater loss in AHF activity. An even greater decline in the rate of virus inactivation was observed on heating AHF in the lyophilized state, although no loss in AHF activity was observed after 72 hours of heating at 60 degrees C. Several of the proteins present in lyophilized AHF concentrates displayed an altered electrophoretic mobility as a result of exposure to 60 degrees C for 24 hours. Exposure of lyophilized AHF to irradiation from a cobalt 60 source resulted in an acceptable yield of AHF at 1.0, but not at 2.0, megarads. At 1 megarad, greater than or equal to 6.0 logs of VSV and 3.3 logs of Sindbis virus were inactivated.

Horowitz, B.; Wiebe, M.E.; Lippin, A.; Vandersande, J.; Stryker, M.H.

1985-11-01

118

Fate and lability of silver in soils: Effect of ageing  

EPA Science Inventory

The fate and lability of added soluble Ag in soils over time was examined by measurement of labile metal (E-value) by isotopic dilution using the 110mAg radioactive isotope and the solid-phase speciation of Ag by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrosco...

119

Botulinum Toxin Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... toxin Botulinum toxin therapy Also called botulinum rejuvenation Brand names: Botox® Cosmetic, Dysport®, MYOBLOC®, and XEOMIN® When ... M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Advertising, marketing and sponsorships ...

120

*CYANOBACTERIA AND THEIR TOXINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, are naturally-occurring contaminants of surface waters worldwide. These photosynthesizing prokaryotes thrive in warm, shallow, nutrient-rich waters. Many produce potent toxins as secondary metabolites. Cyanobacteria toxins have been document...

121

Functional and Structural Insights of a Staphylococcus aureus Apoptotic-like Membrane Peptide from a Toxin-Antitoxin  

E-print Network

Functional and Structural Insights of a Staphylococcus aureus Apoptotic-like Membrane Peptide from of Staphylococcus aureus, has been solved. Conclusion: S. aureus has a functional type I TA system that induces, Staphylococcus aureus. TA sys- tems consist of stable toxins and labile antitoxins encoded within small genetic

Rennes, Université de

122

Nanoparticle-detained toxins for safe and effective vaccination.  

PubMed

Toxoid vaccines--vaccines based on inactivated bacterial toxins--are routinely used to promote antitoxin immunity for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. Following chemical or heat denaturation, inactivated toxins can be administered to mount toxin-specific immune responses. However, retaining faithful antigenic presentation while removing toxin virulence remains a major challenge and presents a trade-off between efficacy and safety in toxoid development. Here, we show a nanoparticle-based toxin-detainment strategy that safely delivers non-disrupted pore-forming toxins for immune processing. Using erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles and staphylococcal ?-haemolysin, we demonstrate effective virulence neutralization via spontaneous particle entrapment. Compared with vaccination with heat-denatured toxin, mice vaccinated with the nanoparticle-detained toxin showed superior protective immunity against toxin-mediated adverse effects. We find that the non-disruptive detoxification approach benefited the immunogenicity and efficacy of toxoid vaccines. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of antitoxin vaccines against the many virulence factors that threaten public health. PMID:24292514

Hu, Che-Ming J; Fang, Ronnie H; Luk, Brian T; Zhang, Liangfang

2013-12-01

123

Nanoparticle-detained toxins for safe and effective vaccination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxoid vaccines--vaccines based on inactivated bacterial toxins--are routinely used to promote antitoxin immunity for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. Following chemical or heat denaturation, inactivated toxins can be administered to mount toxin-specific immune responses. However, retaining faithful antigenic presentation while removing toxin virulence remains a major challenge and presents a trade-off between efficacy and safety in toxoid development. Here, we show a nanoparticle-based toxin-detainment strategy that safely delivers non-disrupted pore-forming toxins for immune processing. Using erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles and staphylococcal ?-haemolysin, we demonstrate effective virulence neutralization via spontaneous particle entrapment. Compared with vaccination with heat-denatured toxin, mice vaccinated with the nanoparticle-detained toxin showed superior protective immunity against toxin-mediated adverse effects. We find that the non-disruptive detoxification approach benefited the immunogenicity and efficacy of toxoid vaccines. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of antitoxin vaccines against the many virulence factors that threaten public health.

Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang

2013-12-01

124

[Hemolysis of Scolopendra toxins].  

PubMed

The hemolysis of toxins from alive Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, medicinal material of Scolopendra subspimipes mutilans and S. multidens have been compared. The result shows that all the toxins have hemolytic activity. The hemolytic activity of the toxin from the medicinal materials of S. subspinipes mutilans is obviously lower than that from alive ones, and that from fresh medicinal materials are twice as high that from old ones, and that from S. multidens is higher than that from S. subspinipes multilans. PMID:12572496

Deng, F; Fang, H; Wang, K

1997-01-01

125

Toxin–antitoxin systems  

PubMed Central

Toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements composed of a toxin gene and its cognate antitoxin. The toxins of all known TA systems are proteins while the antitoxins are either proteins or non-coding RNAs. Based on the molecular nature of the antitoxin and its mode of interaction with the toxin the TA modules are currently grouped into five classes. In general, the toxin is more stable than the antitoxin but the latter is expressed to a higher level. If supply of the antitoxin stops, for instance under special growth conditions or by plasmid loss in case of plasmid encoded TA systems, the antitoxin is rapidly degraded and can no longer counteract the toxin. Consequently, the toxin becomes activated and can act on its cellular targets. Typically, TA toxins act on crucial cellular processes including translation, replication, cytoskeleton formation, membrane integrity, and cell wall biosynthesis. TA systems and their components are also versatile tools for a multitude of purposes in basic research and biotechnology. Currently, TA systems are frequently used for selection in cloning and for single protein expression in living bacterial cells. Since several TA toxins exhibit activity in yeast and mammalian cells they may be useful for applications in eukaryotic systems. TA modules are also considered as promising targets for the development of antibacterial drugs and their potential to combat viral infection may aid in controlling infectious diseases. PMID:24251069

Unterholzner, Simon J; Poppenberger, Brigitte; Rozhon, Wilfried

2013-01-01

126

The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks.

Bengtson, Per

2014-05-01

127

Cell Motility by Labile Association of Molecules  

PubMed Central

This article summarizes our current views on the dynamic structure of the mitotic spindle and its relation to mitotic chromosome movements. The following statements are based on measurements of birefringence of spindle fibers in living cells, normally developing or experimentally modified by various physical and chemical agents, including high and low temperatures, antimitotic drugs, heavy water, and ultraviolet microbeam irradiation. Data were also obtained concomitantly with electron microscopy employing a new fixative and through measurements of isolated spindle protein. Spindle fibers in living cells are labile dynamic structures whose constituent filaments (microtubules) undergo cyclic breakdown and reformation. The dynamic state is maintained by an equilibrium between a pool of protein molecules and their linearly aggregated polymers, which constitute the microtubules or filaments. In living cells under physiological conditions, the association of the molecules into polymers is very weak (absolute value of ?F25°C < 1 kcal), and the equilibrium is readily shifted to dissociation by low temperature or by high hydrostatic pressure. The equilibrium is shifted toward formation of polymer by increase in temperature (with a large increase in entropy: ?S25°C ? 100 eu) or by the addition of heavy water. The spindle proteins tend to polymerize with orienting centers as their geometrical foci. The centrioles, kinetochores, and cell plate act as orienting centers successively during mitosis. Filaments are more concentrated adjacent to an orienting center and yield higher birefringence. Astral rays, continuous fibers, chromosomal fibers, and phragmoplast fibers are thus formed by successive reorganization of the same protein molecules. During late prophase and metaphase, polymerization takes place predominantly at the kinetochores; in metaphase and anaphase, depolymerization is prevalent near the spindle poles. When the concentration of spindle protein is high, fusiform bundles of polymer are precipitated out even in the absence of obvious orienting centers. The shift of equilibrium from free protein molecules to polymer increases the length and number of the spindle microtubules or filaments. Slow depolymerization of the polymers, which can be brought about by low concentrations of colchicine or by gradual cooling, allows the filaments to shorten and perform work. The dynamic equilibrium controlled by orienting centers and other factors provides a plasusible mechanism by which chromosomes and other organelles, as well as the cell surface, are deformed or moved by temporarily organized arrays of microtubules or filaments. PMID:6058222

Inoué, Shinya; Sato, Hidemi

1967-01-01

128

Toxins from Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Bacterial toxins damage the host at the site of bacterial infection or distanced from the site of infections. Bacterial toxins can be single proteins or organized as oligomeric protein complexes and are organized with distinct AB structure-function properties. The A domain encodes a catalytic activity; ADP-ribosylation of host proteins is the earliest post-translational modification determine to be performed by bacterial toxin, and now include glucosylation and proteolysis among other s. Bacterial toxins also catalyze the non-covalent modification of host protein function or can modify host cell properties through direct protein-protein interactions. The B domain includes two functional domains: a receptor-binding domain, which defines the tropism of a toxin for a cell and a translocation domain that delivers A domain across a lipid bilayer, either on the plasma membrane or the endosome. Bacterial toxins are often characterized based upon the section mechanism that delivers the toxin out of the bacterium, termed type I–VII. This review will overview the major families of bacterial toxins and will also describe the specific structure-function properties of the botulinum neurotoxins. PMID:20358680

Henkel, James S.; Baldwin, Michael R.; Barbieri, Joseph T.

2010-01-01

129

ESBL-plasmids carrying toxin-antitoxin systems can be “cured” of wild-type Escherichia coli using a heat technique  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-enzymes are frequently produced by Escherichia coli. Several ESBL-plasmids contain genes for toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, which assure the maintenance of plasmids in bacteria and prevent the cells from “post-segregational killing”. These systems limit options to “cure” plasmids of ESBL-wild-type strains due to the death of the bacterial cells. A helpful tool to understand the role of ESBL-plasmids in the dissemination of pandemic multi-resistant E. coli are ESBL-plasmid-“cured”-variants (PCVs) and their comparison to ESBL-wild-type strains. The purpose of this study was to construct PCVs of ESBL-wild-type E. coli strains despite the presence of genes for TA systems. Findings Using enhanced temperatures and brain-heart-infusion broth it was possible to construct viable PCVs of wild-type ESBL-E. coli strains. The occurrence of TA system-genes including hok/sok, srnB/C, vagC/D, pemI/K on ESBL-plasmids of replicon types FIA or FIB was demonstrated by bioinformatic analyses. The loss of the plasmid and the genetic identity of PCV and corresponding wild-type strain was confirmed via different methods including plasmid-profile-analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and bioinformatics using generated whole genome data of the strains. Conclusions This short report describes the successful construction of viable PCVs of ESBL-wild-type E. coli strains. The results are hence surprising due to the fact that all “cured” ESBL-plasmids contained at least one complete toxin-antitoxin system, whose loss would normally mean the death of bacterial cells. PMID:24245987

2013-01-01

130

Effects of nitric oxide in 5-hydroxytryptamine-, cholera toxin-, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli- and Salmonella Typhimurium-induced secretion in the porcine small intestine.  

PubMed

The effects of nitric oxide (NO) in the secretory response to the endogenous secretagogue 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), the enterotoxins heat-labile enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT), and various cultures of ETEC and Salmonella serotype Typhimurium in the porcine small intestine (Sus scrofa) were investigated. In anaesthetized pigs, jejunal tied-off loops were instilled with 5-HT, LT, CT, various cultures of ETEC or S. Typhimurium. Pigs were given intravenously isotonic saline or isotonic saline containing the NO synthase inhibitor, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). L-NAME significantly induced an increased fluid accumulation in loops induced by 5-HT, ETEC and stn-mutated S. Typhimurium. Fluid accumulation in loops instilled with wild-type S. Typhimurium was increased by L-NAME, although not significantly, while there was no effect on fluid accumulation induced by an invH-mutated isogenic strain. No significant effect of L-NAME was observed on the fluid accumulation induced by the purified enterotoxins LT and CT. The results also demonstrated a relatively large difference in the ability to induce fluid accumulation between the bacteria strains. Diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressures were significantly increased and the body temperature was significantly decreased in groups of pigs treated with L-NAME. In conclusion, the results suggest that NO has a proabsorptive effect in the intact porcine jejunum and is involved in the systemic vascular tone. PMID:16098780

Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Unmack, Martin Andreas; Ragnarsdóttir, Helga Berglind; Hansen, Mark Berner; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Skadhauge, Erik

2005-08-01

131

Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2Dependent Lethal Toxin Killing In Vivo  

E-print Network

Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2­Dependent Lethal Toxin Killing In Vivo Heather M. Scobie1,2 , Darran J Jolla, California, United States of America Anthrax toxin receptors 1 and 2 (ANTXR1 and ANTXR2) have by residue D683 of the protective antigen (PA) subunit of anthrax toxin. The receptor-bound metal ion and PA

Sejnowski, Terrence J.

132

Labile trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites - A survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented on 14 trace elements, including Co, Au, Ga, Rb, Sb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, and In (nearly all of which are moderately or highly labile in meteorites), obtained by radiochemical neutron activation analyses of 42 C2-C6 chondrites, all but three from Antarctica. The data indicate that carbonaceous chondrites of petrographic types 2-6 define compositional continua. It is suggested that carbonaceous C2-C6 chondrites may reflect a mixture of material that formed at low temperatures and that contained cosmic levels of highly labile elements, with material that was devoid of them.

Xiao, Xiaoyue; Lipschutz, Michael E.

1992-01-01

133

Topical Botulinum Toxin  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing discipline that capitalizes on the unique properties of matter engineered on the nanoscale. Vehicles incorporating nanotechnology have led to great strides in drug delivery, allowing for increased active ingredient stability, bioavailability, and site-specific targeting. Botulinum toxin has historically been used for the correction of neurological and neuromuscular disorders, such as torticollis, blepharospasm, and strabismus. Recent dermatological indications have been for the management of axillary hyperhydrosis and facial rhytides. Traditional methods of botulinum toxin delivery have been needle-based. These have been associated with increased pain and cost. Newer methods of botulinum toxin formulation have yielded topical preparations that are bioactive in small pilot clinical studies. While there are some risks associated with topical delivery, the refinement and standardization of delivery systems and techniques for the topical administration of botulinum toxin using nanotechnology is anticipated in the near future. PMID:20725542

Collins, Ashley

2010-01-01

134

Neuropsychological Correlates of Emotional Lability in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association remain currently unknown. To address this question, we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms…

Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Bjorn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

2012-01-01

135

Memory expression is independent of memory labilization/reconsolidation.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that certain reactivation conditions restrict the onset of both the destabilization phase and the restabilization process or reconsolidation. However, it is not yet clear how changes in memory expression during the retrieval experience can influence the emergence of the labilization/reconsolidation process. To address this issue, we used the context-signal memory model of Chasmagnathus. In this paradigm a short reminder that does not include reinforcement allows us to evaluate memory labilization and reconsolidation, whereas a short but reinforced reminder restricts the onset of such a process. The current study investigated the effects of the glutamate antagonists, APV (0.6 or 1.5 ?g/g) and CNQX (1 ?g/g), prior to the reminder session on both behavioral expression and the reconsolidation process. Under conditions where the reminder does not initiate the labilization/reconsolidation process, APV prevented memory expression without affecting long-term memory retention. In contrast, APV induced amnesic effects in the long-term when administered before a reminder session that triggers reconsolidation. Under the present parametric conditions, the administration of CNQX prior to the reminder that allows memory to enter reconsolidation impairs this process without disrupting memory expression. Overall, the present findings suggest that memory reactivation--but not memory expression--is necessary for labilization and reconsolidation. Retrieval and memory expression therefore appear not to be interchangeable concepts. PMID:24149057

Barreiro, Karina A; Suárez, Luis D; Lynch, Victoria M; Molina, Víctor A; Delorenzi, Alejandro

2013-11-01

136

How to Compute Labile Metal-Ligand Equilibria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The different methods used for computing labile metal-ligand complexes, which are suitable for an iterative computer solution, are illustrated. The ligand function has allowed students to relegate otherwise tedious iterations to a computer, while retaining complete control over what is calculated.

de Levie, Robert

2007-01-01

137

Oxygen lability on thin oxide films on Mo(110)  

SciTech Connect

The formation and lability of doubly bound, terminal oxygen in thin-film oxides thermally grown on Mo(110) is studied using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and the implications for studies of oxidation reactions on these films is discussed. Isotopic labeling studies show that there is facile exchange of terminal oxygen with oxygen in high coordination sites mediated by defects, even for temperatures on the order of 100 K. The nature and heterogeneity of the Mo--O moieties depends strongly on the temperature used for oxidation. There are two different Mo--O species on an oxide prepared at high temperature, 1,200 K, signified by vibrational peaks in the range of 995-999 and 1017--1026 cm{sup {minus}1}, attributed to Mo--O moieties on terraces and at steps, respectively. Oxidation at lower temperature, 800 K, yields a more homogeneous film based on selective population of the peak in the range of 995--999 cm{sup {minus}1}. The presence of the higher frequency peak is associated with formation of multiple steps bunched together on the surface, based on STM studies. The formation of these step bunches is reversible and is related to the amount of oxygen on the surface. Heating so as to diffuse oxygen into the bulk of the sample leads to the disappearance of the vibrations characteristic of terminal oxygen. Oxygen diffusion is proposed to occur preferentially at step edges based on STM results. The rate of depletion of the terminal oxygen is a diffusive process and has an activation barrier of {approximately}0.26 eV. The low barrier is attributed in part to the presence of defects, e.g., steps and oxygen vacancies. Interestingly, a peroxide-like species can also be formed on the oxide by dosing oxygen at low temperature (100 K). This species is signified by a band at 900 cm{sup {minus}1} which shifts to 853 cm{sup {minus}1} upon {sup 18}O labeling. The adsorbed O{sub 2} dissociates in the range of 200--300 K, forming a terminal site species with a {nu}(Mo=O) at 986 cm{sup {minus}1}.

Nart, F.C.; Kelling, S.; Friend, C.M.

2000-04-13

138

Affective lability in patients with bipolar disorders is associated with high levels of childhood trauma.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate associations between a history of childhood trauma and levels of affective lability in bipolar patients compared to controls. Forty-two patients and 14 controls were assessed using the Affective Lability Scale (ALS) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Affective Lability Score was significantly associated with scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. A multivariate regression model indicated a relationship between childhood trauma scores and differences in affective lability between patients and controls. PMID:24803185

Aas, Monica; Aminoff, Sofie R; Vik Lagerberg, Trine; Etain, Bruno; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

2014-08-15

139

Valence Focus and Self-Esteem Lability: Reacting to Hedonic Cues in the Social Environment  

E-print Network

Valence Focus and Self-Esteem Lability: Reacting to Hedonic Cues in the Social Environment Paula R experience) demonstrated greater self-esteem lability (i.e., larger changes in self-esteem) to pleasant. Keywords: valence focus, emotion, self-esteem lability, experience sampling, social interactions Hedonic

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

140

Targeted silencing of anthrax toxin receptors protects against anthrax toxins.  

PubMed

Anthrax spores can be aerosolized and dispersed as a bioweapon. Current postexposure treatments are inadequate at later stages of infection, when high levels of anthrax toxins are present. Anthrax toxins enter cells via two identified anthrax toxin receptors: tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2). We hypothesized that host cells would be protected from anthrax toxins if anthrax toxin receptor expression was effectively silenced using RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Thus, anthrax toxin receptors in mouse and human macrophages were silenced using targeted siRNAs or blocked with specific antibody prior to challenge with anthrax lethal toxin. Viability assays were used to assess protection in macrophages treated with specific siRNA or antibody as compared with untreated cells. Silencing CMG2 using targeted siRNAs provided almost complete protection against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cytotoxicity and death in murine and human macrophages. The same results were obtained by prebinding cells with specific antibody prior to treatment with anthrax lethal toxin. In addition, TEM8-targeted siRNAs also offered significant protection against lethal toxin in human macrophage-like cells. Furthermore, silencing CMG2, TEM8, or both receptors in combination was also protective against MEK2 cleavage by lethal toxin or adenylyl cyclase activity by edema toxin in human kidney cells. Thus, anthrax toxin receptor-targeted RNAi has the potential to be developed as a life-saving, postexposure therapy against anthrax. PMID:24742682

Arévalo, Maria T; Navarro, Ashley; Arico, Chenoa D; Li, Junwei; Alkhatib, Omar; Chen, Shan; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Zeng, Mingtao

2014-05-30

141

Construction of nontoxic derivatives of cholera toxin and characterization of the immunological response against the A subunit.  

PubMed Central

Using computer modelling, we have identified some of the residues of the A subunit of cholera toxin (CT) and heat-labile toxin that are involved in NAD binding, catalysis, and toxicity. Here we describe the site-directed mutagenesis of the CT gene and the construction of CT mutants. Nine mutations of the A subunit gene were generated. Six of them encoded proteins that were fully assembled in the AB5 structure and were nontoxic; these proteins were CT-D53 (Val-53-->Asp), CT-K63 (Ser-63-->Lys), CT-K97 (Val-97-->Lys), CT-K104 (Tyr-104-->Lys), CT-S106 (Pro-106-->Ser), and the double mutant CT-D53/K63 (Val-53-->Asp, Ser-63-->Lys). Two of the mutations encoded proteins that were assembled into the AB5 structure but were still toxic; these proteins were CT-H54 (Arg-54-->His) and CT-N107 (His-107-->Asn). Finally, one of the mutant proteins, CT-E114 (Ser-114-->Glu), was unable to assemble the A and the B subunits and produced only the B oligomer. The six nontoxic mutants were purified from the culture supernatants of recombinant Vibrio cholerae strains and further characterized. The CT-K63 mutant, which was the most efficient in assembly of the AB5 structure, was used to immunize rabbits and was shown to be able to induce neutralizing antibodies against both the A and B subunits. This molecule may be useful for the construction of improved vaccines against cholera. PMID:7768621

Fontana, M R; Manetti, R; Giannelli, V; Magagnoli, C; Marchini, A; Olivieri, R; Domenighini, M; Rappuoli, R; Pizza, M

1995-01-01

142

Naturally Occurring Food Toxins  

PubMed Central

Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

2010-01-01

143

Ciguatera Toxin Information Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the marine toxin disease Ciguatera, which is caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated ciguatoxin in their tissues. The toxin is produced by a microscopic dinoflagellate (Gambierdiscus toxicus) that lives on the surfaces of macroalgae in coral reef ecosystems. The dinoflagellates are inadvertently consumed by herbivorous fish during grazing and the toxins bioaccumulate in the food chain, attaining highest levels in carnivores. The site includes an introduction to ciguatera, information about the symptoms with links to reported cases and medical treatments, non-medical solutions, an education section, list of retailers, news releases, related links, and more. The site is published by ToxiTech, suppliers of Cigua-CheckÂ, which is a commercially available test kit for screening fish for ciguatoxin prior to consumption.

ToxiTech

144

Photo-lability of deep ocean dissolved black carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved black carbon (DBC), defined here as condensed aromatics isolated from seawater via PPL solid phase extraction and quantified as benzene polycarboxylic acid oxidation products, is a significant component of the oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool. These condensed aromatics are widely distributed in the open ocean and appear to be tens of thousands of years old. As such DBC is regarded as highly refractory. In the current study, the photo-lability of DBC, DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM; ultraviolet-visible absorbance) were determined over the course of a 28 d irradiation of North Atlantic Deep Water under a solar simulator. During the irradiation DBC fell from 1044 ± 164 nM C to 55 ± 15 nM C, a 20-fold decrease in concentration. Dissolved black carbon photo-degradation was more rapid and more extensive than for bulk CDOM and DOC. Further, the photo-lability of components of the DBC pool increased with their degree of aromatic condensation. These trends indicate that a continuum of compounds of varying photo-lability exists within the marine DOC pool. In this continuum, photo-lability scales with aromatic character, specifically the degree of condensation. Scaling the rapid photo-degradation of DBC to rates of DOC photo-mineralisation for the global ocean leads to an estimated photo-chemical half-life for oceanic DBC of less than 800 yr. This is more than an order of magnitude shorter than the apparent age of DBC in the ocean. Photo-degradation is therefore posited as the primary sink for oceanic DBC and the survival of DBC molecules in the oceans for millennia appears to be facilitated not by their inherent inertness but by the rate at which they are cycled through the surface ocean's photic zone.

Stubbins, A.; Niggemann, J.; Dittmar, T.

2012-01-01

145

Biodegradation of the Polyketide Toxin Cercosporin  

PubMed Central

Cercosporin is a non-host-specific polyketide toxin produced by many species of plant pathogens belonging to the genus Cercospora. This red-pigmented, light-activated toxin is an important pathogenicity determinant for Cercospora species. In this study, we screened 244 bacterial isolates representing 12 different genera for the ability to degrade cercosporin. Cercosporin degradation was determined by screening for the presence of cleared zones surrounding colonies on cercosporin-containing culture medium and was confirmed by assaying the kinetics of degradation in liquid medium. Bacteria belonging to four different genera exhibited the cercosporin-degrading phenotype. The isolates with the greatest cercosporin-degrading activity belonged to Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae and X. campestris pv. pruni. Isolates of these pathovars removed over 90% of the cercosporin from culture medium within 48 h. Bacterial degradation of red cercosporin was accompanied by a shift in the color of the growth medium to brown and then green. The disappearance of cercosporin was accompanied by the appearance of a transient green product, designated xanosporic acid. Xanosporic acid and its more stable lactone derivative, xanosporolactone, are nontoxic to cercosporin-sensitive fungi and to plant tissue and are labile in the presence of light. Detailed spectroscopic analysis (to be reported in a separate publication) of xanosporolactone revealed that cercosporin loses one methoxyl group and gains one oxygen atom in the bacterial conversion. The resulting chromophore (4,9-dihydroxy-3-oxaperlylen-10H-10-one) has never been reported before but is biosynthetically plausible via oxygen insertion by a cytochrome P-450 enzyme. PMID:12200262

Mitchell, Thomas K.; Chilton, William Scott; Daub, Margaret E.

2002-01-01

146

Labile disulfide bonds are common at the leucocyte cell surface.  

PubMed

Redox conditions change in events such as immune and platelet activation, and during viral infection, but the biochemical consequences are not well characterized. There is evidence that some disulfide bonds in membrane proteins are labile while others that are probably structurally important are not exposed at the protein surface. We have developed a proteomic/mass spectrometry method to screen for and identify non-structural, redox-labile disulfide bonds in leucocyte cell-surface proteins. These labile disulfide bonds are common, with several classes of proteins being identified and around 30 membrane proteins regularly identified under different reducing conditions including using enzymes such as thioredoxin. The proteins identified include integrins, receptors, transporters and cell-cell recognition proteins. In many cases, at least one cysteine residue was identified by mass spectrometry as being modified by the reduction process. In some cases, functional changes are predicted (e.g. in integrins and cytokine receptors) but the scale of molecular changes in membrane proteins observed suggests that widespread effects are likely on many different types of proteins including enzymes, adhesion proteins and transporters. The results imply that membrane protein activity is being modulated by a 'redox regulator' mechanism. PMID:22645650

Metcalfe, Clive; Cresswell, Peter; Ciaccia, Laura; Thomas, Benjamin; Barclay, A Neil

2011-11-01

147

Paralytic shellfish toxins inhibit copper uptake in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxins are secondary metabolites produced by several species of dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria. Known targets of these toxins, which typically occur at detrimental concentrations during harmful algal blooms, include voltage-gated ion channels in humans and other mammals. However, the effects of the toxins on the co-occurring phytoplankton community remain unknown. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms of the model photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in response to saxitoxin exposure as a means of gaining insight into the phytoplankton community response to a bloom. Previous work with yeast indicated that saxitoxin inhibited copper uptake, so experiments were designed to examine whether saxitoxin exhibited a similar mode of action in algae. Expression profiling following exposure to saxitoxin or a copper chelator produced similar profiles in copper homeostasis genes, notably induction of the cytochrome c6 (CYC6) and copper transporter (COPT1, CTR1) genes. Cytochrome c6 is used as an alternative to plastocyanin under conditions of copper deficiency, and immunofluorescence data showed this protein to be present in a significantly greater proportion of saxitoxin-exposed cells compared to controls. Live-cell imaging with a copper-sensor probe for intracellular labile Cu(I) confirmed that saxitoxin blocked copper uptake. Extrapolations of these data to phytoplankton metabolic processes along with the copper transporter as a molecular target of saxitoxin based on existing structural models are discussed. PMID:23423950

Cusick, Kathleen D; Wetzel, Randall K; Minkin, Steven C; Dodani, Sheel C; Wilhelm, Steven W; Sayler, Gary S

2013-06-01

148

Toxin Plasmids of Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In both humans and animals, Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of histotoxic infections and diseases originating in the intestines, such as enteritis and enterotoxemia. The virulence of this Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium is heavily dependent upon its prolific toxin-producing ability. Many of the ?16 toxins produced by C. perfringens are encoded by large plasmids that range in size from ?45 kb to ?140 kb. These plasmid-encoded toxins are often closely associated with mobile elements. A C. perfringens strain can carry up to three different toxin plasmids, with a single plasmid carrying up to three distinct toxin genes. Molecular Koch's postulate analyses have established the importance of several plasmid-encoded toxins when C. perfringens disease strains cause enteritis or enterotoxemias. Many toxin plasmids are closely related, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. In particular, most toxin plasmids and some antibiotic resistance plasmids of C. perfringens share an ?35-kb region containing a Tn916-related conjugation locus named tcp (transfer of clostridial plasmids). This tcp locus can mediate highly efficient conjugative transfer of these toxin or resistance plasmids. For example, conjugative transfer of a toxin plasmid from an infecting strain to C. perfringens normal intestinal flora strains may help to amplify and prolong an infection. Therefore, the presence of toxin genes on conjugative plasmids, particularly in association with insertion sequences that may mobilize these toxin genes, likely provides C. perfringens with considerable virulence plasticity and adaptability when it causes diseases originating in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23699255

Li, Jihong; Adams, Vicki; Bannam, Trudi L.; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Garcia, Jorge P.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Rood, Julian I.

2013-01-01

149

Toxin-induced respiratory distress.  

PubMed

This article describes the impact of various toxic substances on the airway and pulmonary system. Pulmonary anatomy and physiology provide the basis for understanding the response to toxin-induced injury. Simple asphyxiants displace oxygen from the inspired air. Respiratory irritants include water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Several inhaled agents produce direct airway injury, which may be mediated by caustic, thermal, and hydrocarbon exposures. Unique pulmonary toxins and toxicants are discussed, as well as inhaled toxin mixtures. Several inhaled toxins may also impair oxygen transport. The pulmonary system may also provide a mechanism for systemic toxin delivery on respiratory exposure. PMID:24275172

McKay, Charles A

2014-02-01

150

CYANOBACTERIA AND THEIR TOXINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Science Questions Harmful algal blooms (HAB) of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, have recently become more spatially and temporally prevalent in the US and worldwide. Cyanobacteria and their highly potent toxins are a significant hazard for human health and ...

151

CYANOBACTERIA AND THEIR TOXINS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Science Questions Harmful algal blooms (HAB) of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, have recently become more spatially and temporally prevalent in the US and worldwide. Cyanobacteria and their highly potent toxins are a significant hazard for human health and ...

152

Botulinum Toxin in Ophthalmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its introduction into clinical medicine in 1980, botulinum toxin has become a major therapeutic drug with applications valuable to many medical sub-specialties. Its use was spearheaded in ophthalmology where its potential applications have expanded to cover a broad range of visually related disorders. These include dystonic movement disorders, strabismus, nystagmus, headache syndromes such as migraine, lacrimal hypersecretion syndromes, eyelid

Jonathan J. Dutton; Amy M. Fowler

2007-01-01

153

Toxins and drug discovery.  

PubMed

Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. PMID:25448391

Harvey, Alan L

2014-12-15

154

Marine neurotoxins: Ingestible toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Fish and shellfish account for a significant portion of food-borne illnesses throughout the world. In general, three classes\\u000a of diseases result from seafood consumption—intoxication, allergies, and infections. In this review, the authors discuss several\\u000a seafood-borne toxins, including domoic acid, which acts on the central nervous system. In addition, the authors discuss ciguatoxin-,\\u000a brevetoxin-, saxitoxin-, tetrodotoxin-, and scombroid-related histamine toxicity,

Elijah W. Stommel; Michael R. Watters

2004-01-01

155

[Cytolethal distending toxins].  

PubMed

Cytolethal distending toxins (CDT) are intracellularly acting proteins which interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle. They are produced by Gram-negative bacteria with affinity to mucocutaneous surfaces and could play a role in the pathogenesis of various mammalian diseases. The functional toxin is composed of three proteins: CdtB entering the nucleus and by its nuclease activity inducing nuclear fragmentation and chromatin disintegration, CdtA, and CdtC, the two latter being responsible for toxin attachment to the surface of the target cell. Cytotoxic effect of CDT leads to the cell cycle arrest before the cell enters mitosis and to further changes (cell distension and death, apoptosis) depending on the cell type. Thus, CDT may function as a virulence factor in pathogenic bacteria that produce it and thus may contribute to the initiation of certain diseases. Most important are inflammatory bowel diseases caused by intestinal bacteria, periodontitis with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans as the aetiologic agent and ulcus molle where Haemophilus ducreyi is the causative agent. PMID:25025680

Curová, K; Kme?ová, M; Siegfried, L

2014-06-01

156

Selective Lability of Ruthenium(II) Arene Amino Acid Complexes.  

PubMed

A series of organometallic complexes of the form [(PhH)Ru(amino acid)](+) have been synthesized using amino acids able to act as tridentate ligands. The straightforward syntheses gave enantiomerically pure complexes with two stereogenic centers due to the enantiopurity of the chelating ligands. Complexes were characterized in the solid-state and/or solution-state where the stability of the complex allowed. The propensity toward labilization of the coordinatively saturated complexes was investigated. The links between complex stability and structural features are very subtle. Nonetheless, H/D exchange rates of coordinated amino groups reveal more significant differences in reactivity linked to metallocycle ring size resulting in decreasing stability of the metallocycle as the amino acid side-chain length increases. The behavior of these systems in acid is unusual, apparently labilizing the carboxylate residue of the amino acid. This acid-catalyzed hemilability in an organometallic is relevant to the use of Ru(II) arenes in medicinal contexts due to the relatively low pH of cancerous cells. PMID:25799231

Scrase, Tom G; O'Neill, Michael J; Peel, Andrew J; Senior, Paul W; Matthews, Peter D; Shi, Heyao; Boss, Sally R; Barker, Paul D

2015-04-01

157

Ricin detection: tracking active toxin.  

PubMed

Ricin is a plant toxin with high bioterrorism potential due to its natural abundance and potency in inducing cell death. Early detection of the active toxin is essential for developing appropriate countermeasures. Here we review concepts for designing ricin detection methods, including mechanism of action of the toxin, advantages and disadvantages of current detection assays, and perspectives on the future development of rapid and reliable methods for detecting ricin in environmental samples. PMID:25481398

Bozza, William P; Tolleson, William H; Rosado, Leslie A Rivera; Zhang, Baolin

2015-01-01

158

Recombinant Toxins for Cancer Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recombinant toxins target cell surface receptors and antigens on tumor cells. They kill by mechanisms different from conventional chemotherapy, so that cross resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents should not be a problem. Furthermore, they are not mutagens and should not induce secondary malignancies or accelerate progression of benign malignancies. They can be mass-produced cheaply in bacteria as homogeneous proteins. Either growth factor-toxin fusions or antibody-toxin fusions can be chosen, depending on the cellular target.

Pastan, Ira; Fitzgerald, David

1991-11-01

159

Ratcheting up protein translocation with anthrax toxin.  

PubMed

Energy-consuming nanomachines catalyze the directed movement of biopolymers in the cell. They are found both dissolved in the aqueous cytosol as well as embedded in lipid bilayers. Inquiries into the molecular mechanism of nanomachine-catalyzed biopolymer transport have revealed that these machines are equipped with molecular parts, including adjustable clamps, levers, and adaptors, which interact favorably with substrate polypeptides. Biological nanomachines that catalyze protein transport, known as translocases, often require that their substrate proteins unfold before translocation. An unstructured protein chain is likely entropically challenging to bind, push, or pull in a directional manner, especially in a way that produces an unfolding force. A number of ingenious solutions to this problem are now evident in the anthrax toxin system, a model used to study protein translocation. Here we highlight molecular ratchets and current research on anthrax toxin translocation. A picture is emerging of proton-gradient-driven anthrax toxin translocation, and its associated ratchet mechanism likely applies broadly to other systems. We suggest a cyclical thermodynamic order-to-disorder mechanism (akin to a heat-engine cycle) is central to underlying protein translocation: peptide substrates nonspecifically bind to molecular clamps, which possess adjustable affinities; polypeptide substrates compress into helical structures; these clamps undergo proton-gated switching; and the substrate subsequently expands regaining its unfolded state conformational entropy upon translocation. PMID:22374876

Feld, Geoffrey K; Brown, Michael J; Krantz, Bryan A

2012-05-01

160

Ratcheting up protein translocation with anthrax toxin  

PubMed Central

Energy-consuming nanomachines catalyze the directed movement of biopolymers in the cell. They are found both dissolved in the aqueous cytosol as well as embedded in lipid bilayers. Inquiries into the molecular mechanism of nanomachine-catalyzed biopolymer transport have revealed that these machines are equipped with molecular parts, including adjustable clamps, levers, and adaptors, which interact favorably with substrate polypeptides. Biological nanomachines that catalyze protein transport, known as translocases, often require that their substrate proteins unfold before translocation. An unstructured protein chain is likely entropically challenging to bind, push, or pull in a directional manner, especially in a way that produces an unfolding force. A number of ingenious solutions to this problem are now evident in the anthrax toxin system, a model used to study protein translocation. Here we highlight molecular ratchets and current research on anthrax toxin translocation. A picture is emerging of proton-gradient-driven anthrax toxin translocation, and its associated ratchet mechanism likely applies broadly to other systems. We suggest a cyclical thermodynamic order-to-disorder mechanism (akin to a heat-engine cycle) is central to underlying protein translocation: peptide substrates nonspecifically bind to molecular clamps, which possess adjustable affinities; polypeptide substrates compress into helical structures; these clamps undergo proton-gated switching; and the substrate subsequently expands regaining its unfolded state conformational entropy upon translocation. PMID:22374876

Feld, Geoffrey K; Brown, Michael J; Krantz, Bryan A

2012-01-01

161

Bacterial insecticidal toxins.  

PubMed

Over the years it has been important for humans to control the populations of harmful insects and insecticides have been used for this purpose in agricultural and horticultural sectors. Synthetic insecticides, owing to their various side effects, have been widely replaced by biological insecticides. In this review we attempt to describe three bacterial species that are known to produce insecticidal toxins of tremendous biotechnological, agricultural, and economic importance. Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) accounts for 90% of the bioinsecticide market and it produces insecticidal toxins referred to as delta endotoxins. The other two bacteria belong to the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, which are symbiotically associated with entomopathogenic nematodes of the families Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae respectively. Whereas, Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus exist in a mutualistic association with the entomopathogenic nematodes, BT act alone. BT formulations are widely used in the field against insects; however, over the years there has been a gradual development of insect resistance against BT toxins. No resistance against Xenorhabdus or Photorhabdus has been reported to date. More recently BT transgenic crops have been prepared; however, there are growing concerns about the safety of these genetically modified crops. Nematodal formulations are also used in the field to curb harmful insect populations. Resistance development to entomopathogenic nematodes is unlikely due to the physical macroscopic nature of infection. Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus transgenes have not yet been prepared; but are predicted to be available in the near future. In this review we start with an overview of the synthetic insecticides and then discuss Bacillus thuringiensis, Xenorhabdus nematophilus, and Photorhabdus luminescens in greater detail. PMID:15116762

Chattopadhyay, Abanti; Bhatnagar, N B; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

2004-01-01

162

B-cell epitope of beta toxin of Clostridium perfringens genetically conjugated to a carrier protein: expression, purification and characterization of the chimeric protein.  

PubMed

Beta toxin (btx) is the prime virulence factor for the pathogenesis of Clostridium perfringens type C strain, known to cause necrotic enteritis and enterotoxaemia in mammalian species. The existing vaccines targeting btx are formaldehyde inactivated culture filtrates of Clostridium. These filtrates raise antigenic load in the host leading to nonspecific and poor responses. The present study aimed to overcome these drawbacks and generate a chimeric protein carrying in silico identified B-cell epitope of btx fused with a carrier protein as a vaccine candidate. Using bioinformatic tools, three stretches of amino acids were predicted as putative B-cell epitopes. One of the epitopes spanning 140-156 amino acid residues was genetically conjugated with B-subunit of heat labile enterotoxin (LTB) of Escherichia coli and expressed as a translational fusion in Vibrio cholerae secretory expression system. High level expression of the recombinant fusion protein rLTB-Btx140-156 was obtained and the protein was successfully purified. The recombinant protein retained the native LTB property to pentamerize and bind to GM1 ganglioside receptor of LTB. The antigenicity of both the epitope and the carrier protein was maintained in fusion protein as indicated by immunoblotting against anti-LTB and anti-btx antibody. The rLTB-Btx140-156 fusion protein therefore can be evaluated as a potential vaccine candidate against C. perfringens. PMID:24996028

Bhatia, Bharti; Solanki, Amit Kumar; Kaushik, Himani; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

2014-10-01

163

Botulinum toxin, Quo Vadis?  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin (BTX), derived from the exotoxin of Clostridium botulinum, cleaves Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-Attachment protein REceptor (SNARE) proteins, causing chemodenervation of cholinergic neurons. BTX also inhibits exocytosis of vesicles containing norepinephrine, glutamate, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and inhibits expression of the vanilloid receptor. Clinical applications of BTX, which include the treatment of overactive skeletal and smooth muscles, hypersecretory and painful disorders, have increased exponentially since it was first used clinically to treat strabismus more than two decades ago. In this editorial, we discuss reports of new therapeutic indications of BTX, and propose new areas for research. PMID:17499937

Lim, Erle C H; Seet, Raymond C S

2007-01-01

164

Multivariate resolution of NMR labile signals by means of hard- and soft-modelling methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the difficulties frequently encountered when studying acid–base equilibria with NMR spectroscopy is the labile behaviour of the measured signal, which hinders the application of bilinear multivariate data analysis methods. In this work, a mathematical transformation is proposed for the conversion of NMR labile signals to inert signals, which make possible the application of multivariate data analysis methods, based

Joaquim Jaumot; Montserrat Vives; Raimundo Gargallo; Romà Tauler

2003-01-01

165

Harnessing Labile Bonds between Nanogels Particles to Create Self-Healing Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using computational modeling, we demonstrate the self-healing behavior of novel materials composed of nanoscopic gel particles that are interconnected into a macroscopic network by both stable and labile bonds. Under mechanical stress, the labile bonds between the nanogels can break and readily reform with reactive groups on neighboring units. This breaking and reforming allows the units in the network to

German V. Kolmakov; Krzysztof Matyjaszewski; Anna C. Balazs

2009-01-01

166

The Effects of Moisture and Organic Matter Lability on Carbon Dioxide and Methane Production in an  

E-print Network

The Effects of Moisture and Organic Matter Lability on Carbon Dioxide and Methane Production as organic matter lability, on the production of both carbon dioxide and methane gas. Gas flux was measured and the production of carbon dioxide and methane gases. An increase in water table yielded a decrease in the net

Vallino, Joseph J.

167

Labile carbon and nitrogen from rhizoplane and surface soils of two perennial grasslands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In semiarid perennial grasslands biogeochemical processes that drive nutrient dynamics may be more closely related to the quantity of labile SOM than to total SOM. A small ephemeral pool of labile soluble organic matter becomes active after pulse precipitation events. Rhizoplane soil associated with...

168

Toxins from the box-jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.  

PubMed

Two myotoxins (T1 and T2) with mol. wts of approximately 600,000 and 150,000, respectively, and a haemolysin (T3) with a mol. wt of approximately 70,000 were isolated from the crude nematocyst venom of C. fleckeri by the use of Sephadex G-200 chromatography. A neurotoxic fraction (T4) and a haemolytic fraction (T5) containing proteins with apparent mol. wts of approximately 150,000 and 70,000, respectively, were also isolated by Sephadex chromatography from crude extracts of tentacular material from which nematocysts had been removed. The three nematocyst toxins and the two toxic fractions from tentacle extracts were lethal to mice on i.v. injection. After SDS-PAGE the myotoxins T1 and T2 yielded similar major bands corresponding with mol. wts different from those yielded by T3 and the toxic tentacle fractions. T1 and T2 appeared to be comprised of aggregations of subunits with mol. wts of approximately 18,000. On HPLC, crude nematocyst venom and the nematocyst toxins T1 and T2 lost their myotoxic properties. The need for thorough removal of extraneous tentacular material from isolated nematocysts, the need for effective rupture of nematocysts, the need to counter the lability of the nematocyst venom and the need to use myotoxicity as a criterion of venom activity if the active components of the venom are to be purified and characterized are emphasized. PMID:8099238

Endean, R; Monks, S A; Cameron, A M

1993-04-01

169

Dog paw preference shows lability and sex differences.  

PubMed

Paw preferences in domestic dogs were studied using three different behavioural tests, recording frequency, duration and latency of paw use. No overall population tendency to right- or left-paw preference was seen on any of the tests, nor could a sub-population of handed dogs be detected. This failure to replicate previous reports that male dogs tend to use their left paws while females use their right was counterbalanced by a significant tendency for male dogs to use their left paw when initially presented with one test, and for the latency of left paw use to be significantly shorter than that for right paw use on these initial presentations. This significant effect disappeared with repeated presentation of the test, and was not present in females. We conclude that behavioural lateralisation appears to be a labile category in dogs, and may be related to brain hemispheric effects in responding to novel stimuli. PMID:16815644

Poyser, Fay; Caldwell, Christine; Cobb, Matthew

2006-09-01

170

Chemical leaching methods and measurements of marine labile particulate Fe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for life. Yet its low solubility and concentration in the ocean limits marine phytoplankton productivity in many regions of the world. Dissolved phase Fe (<0.4?m) has traditionally been considered the most biologically accessible form, however, the particulate phase (>0.4?m) may contain an important, labile reservoir of Fe that may also be available to phytoplankton. However, concentration data alone cannot elucidate the sources of particulate Fe to the ocean and to what extent particulate iron may support phytoplankton growth. Isotopic analysis of natural particles may help to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of Fe, though it is important to find a leaching method which accesses bioavailable Fe. Thirty-three different chemical leaches were performed on a marine sediment reference material, MESS-3. The combinations included four different acids (25% acetic acid, 0.01M HCl, 0.5M HCl, 0.1M H2SO4 at pH2), various redox conditions (0.02M hydroxylamine hydrochloride or 0.02M H2O2), three temperatures (25°C, 60°C, 90°C), and three time points (10 minutes, 2 hours, 24 hours). Leached Fe concentrations varied from 1mg/g to 35mg/g, with longer treatment times, stronger acids, and hotter temperatures generally associated with an increase in leached Fe. ?56Fe in these leaches varied from -1.0‰ to +0.2‰. Interestingly, regardless of leaching method used, there was a very similar relationship between the amount of Fe leached from the particles and the ?56Fe of this iron. Isotopically lighter ?56Fe values were associated with smaller amounts of leached Fe whereas isotopically heavier ?56Fe values were associated with larger amounts of leached Fe. Two alternate hypotheses could explain these data. Either, the particles may contain pools of isotopically light Fe that are easily accessed early in dissolution, or isotopically light Fe may be preferentially leached from the particle due to a kinetic isotope effect during dissolution. To explore the first hypothesis, we modeled dissolution of Fe from particles assuming two separate pools, labile and refractory. The model produces a good fit to the data assuming 3mg/g of a labile Fe pool with ?56Fe = -0.9‰ and a refractory Fe pool with ?56Fe = +0.1‰. If the second hypothesis is true, and there is a kinetic isotope effect during dissolution, the similar relationship between amount of Fe leached and ?56Fe for both organic and mineral acids suggests that Fe is leached from particles via proton-promoted dissolution. Several of these leaching techniques will be employed on sediment trap material from the Cariaco Basin to further investigate the relationship between ?56Fe and the labile, bioavailable fraction of iron particles. A leach or series of leaches will be chosen to provide the most useful information about the bioavailability of iron from particles, and they will be applied to filtered particle samples from portions of the US GEOTRACES A10 (North Atlantic) transect. ?56Fe values from particulate material in these regions will provide a better understanding of the sources of particulate iron to the ocean, and may help to trace how particulate iron is involved in global biogeochemical cycles.

Revels, B. N.; John, S.

2012-12-01

171

Lability of renal papillary tissue composition in the rat.  

PubMed Central

1. The acute effects of (a) a minor operative procedure using ether as the anaesthetic, and (b) the administration of 0.9% saline as a single I.V. injection in the conscious rat, on renal tissue composition were studied in hydropenic and normally hydrated rats. 2. The operative procedure and anaesthesia induced a rapid and transient decrease in papillary osmolality in both hydropenic and normally hydrated animals, the important contributing factor being a significant decrease in urea content. 3. Administration of a small volume of saline caused a rapid decrease in urea content, and an increase in water content. 4. It is concluded that papillary composition is extremely labile, large changes being produced by relatively minor experimental procedures. PMID:624997

Atherton, J C

1978-01-01

172

TOXINS FROM CYANOBACTERIA IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is part of a larger U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) effort, which includes the Office of Water, to investigate algal toxins in surface water supplies and drinking water. Toxins produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are among the most potent known ...

173

Botulinum toxin: Bioweapon & magic drug  

PubMed Central

Botulinum neurotoxins, causative agents of botulism in humans, are produced by Clostridium botulinum, an anaerobic spore-former Gram positive bacillus. Botulinum neurotoxin poses a major bioweapon threat because of its extreme potency and lethality; its ease of production, transport, and misuse; and the need for prolonged intensive care among affected persons. A single gram of crystalline toxin, evenly dispersed and inhaled, can kill more than one million people. The basis of the phenomenal potency of botulinum toxin is enzymatic; the toxin is a zinc proteinase that cleaves neuronal vesicle associated proteins responsible for acetylcholine release into the neuromuscular junction. As a military or terrorist weapon, botulinum toxin could be disseminated via aerosol or by contamination of water or food supplies, causing widespread casualties. A fascinating aspect of botulinum toxin research in recent years has been development of the most potent toxin into a molecule of significant therapeutic utility. It is the first biological toxin which is licensed for treatment of human diseases. In the late 1980s, Canada approved use of the toxin to treat strabismus, in 2001 in the removal of facial wrinkles and in 2002, the FDA in the United States followed suit. The present review focuses on both warfare potential and medical uses of botulinum neurotoxin. PMID:21149997

Dhaked, Ram Kumar; Singh, Manglesh Kumar; Singh, Padma; Gupta, Pallavi

2010-01-01

174

Toxin-Based Therapeutic Approaches  

PubMed Central

Protein toxins confer a defense against predation/grazing or a superior pathogenic competence upon the producing organism. Such toxins have been perfected through evolution in poisonous animals/plants and pathogenic bacteria. Over the past five decades, a lot of effort has been invested in studying their mechanism of action, the way they contribute to pathogenicity and in the development of antidotes that neutralize their action. In parallel, many research groups turned to explore the pharmaceutical potential of such toxins when they are used to efficiently impair essential cellular processes and/or damage the integrity of their target cells. The following review summarizes major advances in the field of toxin based therapeutics and offers a comprehensive description of the mode of action of each applied toxin. PMID:22069564

Shapira, Assaf; Benhar, Itai

2010-01-01

175

Botulinum toxin: dosing and dilution.  

PubMed

In the United States, the popularity of botulinum toxins as agents to treat muscle hypertonia has grown significantly over the last decade, despite lack of approval from the Food and Drug Administration for the indication of spasticity. Botox (botulinum toxin type A) and Myobloc (botulinum toxin type B) are Food and Drug Administration-approved for other indications, such as cervical dystonia. Another commercial preparation of type A, Dysport, has yet to reach the United States market as of this writing. Although botulinum toxin's efficacy in influencing spastic hypertonia is well accepted, the impact of certain clinical issues, such as dosing and dilution, on treatment outcome is not well established by published studies. This article will review important articles and selected abstracts on the use of botulinum toxin, specifically for spastic hypertonia in adults, with emphasis on current clinical practices as they relate to dosing and dilution. PMID:15448575

Francisco, Gerard E

2004-10-01

176

Toxin production by Campylobacter spp.  

PubMed Central

Of all the virulence factors that were proposed for Campylobacter jejuni and related species to cause disease in humans, the discovery of toxin production was the most promising but led to a rather confusing and even disappointing stream of data. The discussion of whether proteinaceous exotoxins are relevant in disease remains open. One important reason for this lack of consensus is the anecdotal nature of the literature reports. To provide a basis for an unbiased opinion, this review compiles all described exotoxins, compares their reported properties, and provides a summary of animal model studies and clinical data. The toxins are divided into enterotoxins and cytotoxins and are sorted according to their biochemical properties. Since many Campylobacter toxins have been compared with toxins of other species, some key examples of the latter are also discussed. Future directions of toxin research that appear promising are defined. PMID:9227862

Wassenaar, T M

1997-01-01

177

Yeast killer plasmid mutations affecting toxin secretion and activity and toxin immunity function  

SciTech Connect

M double-stranded RNA (MdsRNA) plasmid mutants were obtained by mutagenesis and screening of a diploid killer culture partially heat cured of the plasmid, so that a high proportion of the cells could be expected to have only one M plasmid. Mutants with neutral (K/sup -/), immune (R/sup +/) or suicide (killer (K/sup +/), sensitive (R/sup -/)) phenotypes were examined. All mutants became K/sup -/ R/sup -/ sensitives on heat curing of the MdsRNA plasmid, and showed cytoplasmic inheritance by random spore analysis. In some cases, M plasmid mutations were indicated by altered mobility of the MdsRNA by agarose gel electrophoresis or by altered size of in vitro translation products from denatured dsRNA. Neutral mutants were of two types: nonsecretors of the toxin protein or secretors of an inactive toxin. Of three neutral nonsecretors examined, one (NLP-1), probably a nonsense mutation, made a smaller protoxin precursor in vitro and in vivo, and two made full-size protoxin molecules. The in vivo protoxin of 43,000 molecular weight was unstable in the wild type and kinetically showed a precursor product relationship to the processed, secreted 11,000-molecular-weight toxin. In one nonsecretor (N1), the protoxin appeared more stable in a pulse-chase experiment, and could be altered in a recognition site required for protein processing.

Bussey, H.; Sacks, W.; Galley, D.; Saville, D.

1982-04-01

178

In situ, high-resolution imaging of labile phosphorus in sediments of a large eutrophic lake.  

PubMed

Understanding the labile status of phosphorus (P) in sediments is crucial for managing a eutrophic lake, but it is hindered by lacking in situ data particularly on a catchment scale. In this study, we for the first time characterized in situ labile P in sediments with the Zr-oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) technique at a two-dimensional (2D), submillimeter resolution in a large eutrophic lake (Lake Taihu, China, with an area of 2338 km(2)). The concentration of DGT-labile P in the sediment profiles showed strong variation mostly ranging from 0.01 to 0.35 mg L(-1) with a considerable number of hotspots. The horizontal heterogeneity index of labile P varied from 0.04 to 4.5. High values appeared at the depths of 0-30 mm, likely reflecting an active layer of labile P under the sediment-water interface (SWI). Concentration gradients of labile P were observed from the high-resolution 1D DGT profiles in both the sediment and overlying water layers close to the SWI. The apparent diffusion flux of P across the SWI was calculated between -21 and 65 ng cm(-2) d(-1), which showed that the sediments tended to be a source and sink of overlying water P in the algal- and macrophyte-dominated regions, respectively. The DGT-labile P in the 0-30 mm active layer showed a better correlation with overlying water P than the labile P measured by ex situ chemical extraction methods. It implies that in situ, high-resolution profiling of labile P with DGT is a more reliable approach and will significantly extend our ability in in situ monitoring of the labile status of P in sediments in the field. PMID:25720671

Ding, Shiming; Han, Chao; Wang, Yanping; Yao, Lei; Wang, Yan; Xu, Di; Sun, Qin; Williams, Paul N; Zhang, Chaosheng

2015-05-01

179

Alternaria brassicae produces a host-specific protein toxin from germinating spores on host leaves.  

PubMed

Spore suspensions of Alternaria brassicae, the causal agent of gray leaf spot in Brassica plants, were incubated on the leaves of cabbage (B. oleracea) and spore germination fluid (SGF) was collected after 48 h. A high molecular weight (HMW) fraction (>10 kDa) was separated from the SGF by ultrafiltration. In a detached leaf assay, the HMW fraction induced visible symptoms only on host leaves and the toxicity was lost by treatment with proteinase K or heat at 60 degrees C for 15 min, indicating the presence of host-specific protein toxin(s). A protein toxin in the HMW fraction was purified by several chromatography steps. The toxin induced water-soaked symptoms followed by chlorosis at concentrations of 0.5 to 1 microg/ml on host leaves, but not on nonhost leaves even at 50 microg/ml. The toxin also had infection-inducing activity when added to spore suspension of a nonpathogenic isolate of A. alternata, causing symptoms similar to the infection of A. brassicae only on host leaves. These results indicate that a new host-specific protein toxin named ABR-toxin is released from germinating spores of A. brassicae on host leaves. ABR-toxin migrated as a protein of 27.5 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of ABR-toxin was estimated to be approximately 7.0 and 21 N-terminal amino acid residues were sequenced. PMID:18944195

Parada, R Y; Sakuno, E; Mori, N; Oka, K; Egusa, M; Kodama, M; Otani, H

2008-04-01

180

Food toxin detection with atomic force microscope  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Externally introduced toxins or internal spoilage correlated pathogens and their metabolites are all potential sources of food toxins. To prevent and protect unsafe food, many food toxin detection techniques have been developed to detect various toxins for quality control. Although several routine m...

181

Effectiveness of botulinum toxin A in treatment of refractory erythromelalgia.  

PubMed

Erythromelalgia is characterized by intense burning pain, erythema, and heat in affected areas after precipitating factors such as warm temperature or stress. It is refractory to treatment in some situations. We describe a woman with adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the lung and medically refractory erythromelalgia. The symptoms of erythromelalgia presented as refractory to any medical treatment. Due to the unresponsive nature of her condition, botulinum toxin type A (onabotulinumtoxin A) was injected over both of her cheeks, periodically for six cycles. Her symptoms responded dramatically to subcutaneous and intradermal injection of botulinum toxin type A. Repetitive injection demonstrated consistent and reproducible responses, and the efficacy was maintained for approximately 1 month. No adverse effects or complications were noted. Botulinum toxin type A might be safe and effective as an alternative treatment for refractory erythromelalgia, but further large-scale studies are required. PMID:23683264

Lin, Kuan-Hsiang; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Chen, Shih-Pin

2013-05-01

182

Lability of trace metals in submerged soils: a column study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of Fe (III) and Mn (IV) and the decomposition of organic matter exert a great influence on the biogeochemical cycles of many trace metals and nutrients in the environment. In the particular case of intermittently submerged soils, metals associated with Fe and Mn oxides become readily available due to the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxides. The effects of oxido-reductive conditions on the release of Cu and Zn from heavy metal contaminated soils and the changes in their chemical speciation were studied. Column experiments were performed, using Rhizon soil moisture samplers inserted at different heights to monitor the mobility and transport of metals in the submerged soil samples. Cu was released in solution immediately, in the first red-ox cycle, either due to the solubilization of Fe and Mn oxides, or to the oxidation of organic matter with which Cu is commonly complexed, or both. During the following reductive half-cycles, the amount of Cu extracted from the soil solution decreased. However, the concentration of Cu in the solution leached from the column, which was percolated in aerobic conditions, increased. Since in the successive red-ox cycles the Eh decreases faster and to lower values, it is possible that Cu might have been removed from pore water by sulfide precipitation during the anaerobic half-cycle and released during the aerobic half-cycle, due to the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates. The release of Zn was similar to the dissolution of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxydes, and the amount extracted by Rhizon and by leaching increased during the four red-ox cycles. The chemical fractionation of the soils was also studied and the results showed that the alternate oxidative-reductive conditions cause, in general, an increase in the lability of trace metals. While Zn speciation suffers little change, Cu showed a much higher exchangeable fraction in the submerged soils, as compared to the initial, not submerged ones. The results of this study indicate that intermittent submergence of contaminated soils not only causes the release of trace metals previously bound to Fe and Mn oxides and to organic matter, but also leads to an increase in their lability, rending them more readily available to be released into the environment.

Nimirciag, Ramona; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

2013-04-01

183

The three-dimensional crystal structure of cholera toxin  

SciTech Connect

The clinical manifestations of cholera are largely attributable to the actions of a secreted hexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin (choleragen). We have solved the three-dimensional structure of choleragen at 2.5 {Angstrom} resolution and compared the refined coordinates with those of choleragenoid (isolated B pentamer) and the heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (LT). The crystalline coordinates provide a detailed view of the stereochemistry implicated in binding to GM1 gangliosides and in carrying out ADP-ribosylation. The A2 chain of choleragen, in contrast to that of LT, is a nearly continuous {alpha}-helix with an interpretable carboxyl tail.

Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L.; Nance, S.; Spangler, B.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Scott, D.L. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry; Westbrook, E.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1996-02-01

184

Epsilon toxin: a fascinating pore-forming toxin.  

PubMed

Epsilon toxin (ETX) is produced by strains of Clostridium perfringens classified as type B or type D. ETX belongs to the heptameric ?-pore-forming toxins including aerolysin and Clostridium septicum alpha toxin, which are characterized by the formation of a pore through the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells consisting in a ?-barrel of 14 amphipatic ? strands. By contrast to aerolysin and C. septicum alpha toxin, ETX is a much more potent toxin and is responsible for enterotoxemia in animals, mainly sheep. ETX induces perivascular edema in various tissues and accumulates in particular in the kidneys and brain, where it causes edema and necrotic lesions. ETX is able to pass through the blood-brain barrier and stimulate the release of glutamate, which accounts for the symptoms of nervous excitation observed in animal enterotoxemia. At the cellular level, ETX causes rapid swelling followed by cell death involving necrosis. The precise mode of action of ETX remains to be determined. ETX is a powerful toxin, however, it also represents a unique tool with which to vehicle drugs into the central nervous system or target glutamatergic neurons. PMID:21535407

Popoff, Michel R

2011-12-01

185

Analyzing a bioterror attack on the food supply: the case of botulinum toxin in milk.  

PubMed

We developed a mathematical model of a cows-to-consumers supply chain associated with a single milk-processing facility that is the victim of a deliberate release of botulinum toxin. Because centralized storage and processing lead to substantial dilution of the toxin, a minimum amount of toxin is required for the release to do damage. Irreducible uncertainties regarding the dose-response curve prevent us from quantifying the minimum effective release. However, if terrorists can obtain enough toxin, and this may well be possible, then rapid distribution and consumption result in several hundred thousand poisoned individuals if detection from early symptomatics is not timely. Timely and specific in-process testing has the potential to eliminate the threat of this scenario at a cost of <1 cent per gallon and should be pursued aggressively. Investigation of improving the toxin inactivation rate of heat pasteurization without sacrificing taste or nutrition is warranted. PMID:15985558

Wein, Lawrence M; Liu, Yifan

2005-07-12

186

High Sensitivity Combined with Extended Structural Coverage of Labile Compounds via Nanoelectrospray Ionization at Subambient Pressures  

SciTech Connect

Subambient pressure ionization with nanoelectrospray (SPIN) has proven to be effective in producing ions with high efficiency and transmitting them to low pressures for high sensitivity mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Here we present evidence that not only does the SPIN source improve MS sensitivity but also allows for gentler ionization conditions. The gentleness of a conventional heated capillary electrospray ionization (ESI) source and the SPIN source was compared by the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of colominic acid. Colominic acid is a mixture of sialic acid polymers of different lengths containing labile glycosidic linkages between monomer units necessitating a gentle ion source. By coupling the SPIN source with high resolution mass spectrometry and using advanced data processing tools, we demonstrate much extended coverage of sialic acid polymer chains as compared to using the conventional ESI source. Additionally we show that SPIN-LC-MS is effective in elucidating polymer features with high efficiency and high sensitivity previously unattainable by the conventional ESI-LC-MS methods. ?

Cox, Jonathan T.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Shukla, Anil K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi

2014-10-07

187

Probing interactions within anthrax toxin by electron paramagnetic resonance  

E-print Network

Probing interactions within anthrax toxin by electron paramagnetic resonance Laura D. Jennings of anthrax toxin forms oligomeric pores that translocate the enzymatic moieties of the toxin -- lethal factor

188

Evolutionarily labile responses to a signal of aggressive intent.  

PubMed Central

Males of many swordtail species possess vertical bar pigment patterns that are used both in courtship and agonistic interactions. Expression of the bars may function as a conventional threat signal during conflicts with rival males; bars intensify at the onset of aggression and fade in the subordinate male at contest's end. We used mirror image stimulation and bar manipulations to compare the aggressive responses of the males of four swordtail species to their barred and barless images. We found that having a response to the bars is tightly linked to having genes for bars, while the nature of the response the bars evoked varied across species. Specifically, we report the first known instance where closely related species exhibited differing and contradictory responses to a signal of aggressive motivation. Demonstrating that a signal conveys the same information across species (aggressive intent) while the response to that information has changed among species suggests that the nature of the responses are more evolutionarily labile than the signal. PMID:14613614

Moretz, Jason A; Morris, Molly R

2003-01-01

189

Anticariogenic and phytochemical evaluation of Eucalyptus globules Labill.  

PubMed Central

In the present study, in vitro anticariogenic potential of ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol and aqueous extracts of plant leaves of Eucalyptus globules Labill. were evaluated by using four cariogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used for this purpose. The ethyl acetate extracted fraction of plant leaves showed good inhibitory effects against all selected bacteria. In Eucalyptus globules, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts found highly effective against, Lactobacillus acidophilus with MIC value of 0.031 and 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. Qualitative phytochemical investigation of above extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, steroids, cardiac glycosides and terpenes. Based on the MIC value and bioautography, ethyl acetate of plant leaf was selected for further study. Further investigation on the structure elucidation of the bioactive compound using IR, GC-MS and NMR techniques revealed the presence of alpha-farnesene, a sesquiterpene. Eucalyptus globules plant leaf extracts have great potential as anticariogenic agents that may be useful in the treatment of oral disease. PMID:23961222

Ishnava, Kalpesh B.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.; Barad, Mahesh B.

2012-01-01

190

Evolutionarily labile responses to a signal of aggressive intent.  

PubMed

Males of many swordtail species possess vertical bar pigment patterns that are used both in courtship and agonistic interactions. Expression of the bars may function as a conventional threat signal during conflicts with rival males; bars intensify at the onset of aggression and fade in the subordinate male at contest's end. We used mirror image stimulation and bar manipulations to compare the aggressive responses of the males of four swordtail species to their barred and barless images. We found that having a response to the bars is tightly linked to having genes for bars, while the nature of the response the bars evoked varied across species. Specifically, we report the first known instance where closely related species exhibited differing and contradictory responses to a signal of aggressive motivation. Demonstrating that a signal conveys the same information across species (aggressive intent) while the response to that information has changed among species suggests that the nature of the responses are more evolutionarily labile than the signal. PMID:14613614

Moretz, Jason A; Morris, Molly R

2003-11-01

191

Enzymatic Detoxification of HC-toxin, the Host-Selective Cyclic Peptide from Cochliobolus carbonum 1  

PubMed Central

Resistance to the fungal plant pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum race 1 and to its host-selective toxin, HC-toxin, is determined by Hm, a single dominant gene in the host plant maize, (Zea mays L). Radiolabeled HC-toxin of specific activity 70 milliCuries per millimole, prepared by feeding tritiated d,l-alanine to the fungus, was used to study its fate in maize leaf tissues. HC-toxin was converted by resistant leaf segments to a single compound, identified by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance as the 8-hydroxy derivative of HC-toxin formed by reduction of the 8-keto group of 2-amino-9, 10-epoxy-8-oxo-decanoic acid, one of the amino acids in HC-toxin. Reduction of HC-toxin occurred in cell-free preparations from etiolated (Hm/hm) maize shoots, and the activity was sensitive to heat and proteolytic digestion, dependent on NADPH, and inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and disulfiram. The enzyme (from the Hm/hm genotype) was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and diethylaminoethyl-ion exchange chromatography. By gel filtration chromatography, the enzyme had a molecular weight of 42,000. NADH was approximately 30% as effective as NADPH as a hydride donor, and flavin-containing cofactors had no effect on activity. When HC-toxin was introduced to maize leaf segments through the transpiration stream, leaf segments from both resistant and susceptible maize inactivated toxin equally well over a time-course of 9 hours. Although these data suggest no relationship between toxin metabolism and host selectivity, we discuss findings in apparent conflict with the current data and describe why the relationship between enzymatic reduction of HC-toxin and Hm remains unresolved. ImagesFigure 2Figure 4 PMID:16668492

Meeley, Robert B.; Walton, Jonathan D.

1991-01-01

192

DETERMINATION OF APPARENT QUANTUM YIELD SPECTRA FOR THE FORMATION OF BIOLOGICALLY LABILE PHOTOPRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantum yield spectra for the photochemical formation of biologically labile photoproducts from dissolved organic matter (DOM) have not been available previously, although they would greatly facilitate attempts to model photoproduct formation rates across latitudinal, seasonal, a...

193

Interferon alpha associated with systemic lupus erythematosus is not intrinsically acid labile  

PubMed Central

The physicochemical properties of apparently acid-labile IFN-alpha from patients with SLE have been studied. The antigenicity, apparent molecular size, and isoelectric point of SLE IFN-alpha are indistinguishable from those of conventional, previously characterized, acid-stable subspecies of IFN-alpha. However, after partial purification by anion-exchange chromatography, SLE IFN-alpha no longer exhibits acid lability, suggesting that other plasma factor(s) are responsible for the acid lability of SLE IFN-alpha. Addition of SLE plasma, but not normal plasma, to conventional acid-stable IFN-alpha renders the exogenous IFN-alpha acid labile. Preliminary results demonstrate that an acid-dependent IFN-inactivating activity can be partially purified from SLE plasma by anion-exchange chromatography. PMID:2926326

1989-01-01

194

Antibody-based biological toxin detection  

SciTech Connect

Fiber optic evanescent fluorosensors are under investigation in our laboratory for the study of drug-receptor interactions for detection of threat agents and antibody-antigen interactions for detection of biological toxins. In a direct competition assay, antibodies against Cholera toxin, Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B or ricin were noncovalently immobilized on quartz fibers and probed with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) - labeled toxins. In the indirect competition assay, Cholera toxin or Botulinum toxoid A was immobilized onto the fiber, followed by incubation in an antiserum or partially purified anti-toxin IgG. These were then probed with FITC-anti-IgG antibodies. Unlabeled toxins competed with labeled toxins or anti-toxin IgG in a dose dependent manner and the detection of the toxins was in the nanomolar range.

Menking, D.E.; Goode, M.T. [Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-12-01

195

Investigations of Heat Shock Protein Expression in the Swordtail Fishes Xiphophorus birchmanni and X. malinche  

E-print Network

environmental stressors such as exposure to heat, toxins, and ultraviolet radiation. To protect cells against such stressors, animals employ an evolutionarily ancient mechanism: the heat shock response. During a heat shock response, heat shock proteins (Hsps...

Meaders, Ashley M.

2011-08-04

196

Effects of forest conversion on soil labile organic carbon fractions and aggregate stability in subtropical China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil labile fractions play an important role in improving soil quality due to its ability of maintaining soil fertility and\\u000a minimizing negative environmental impacts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forest transition (conversion\\u000a of natural broadleaf forests into monoculture tree plantations) on soil labile fractions (light fraction organic carbon, particulate\\u000a organic carbon, and microbial biomass

Yusheng Yang; Jianfen Guo; Guangshui Chen; Yunfeng Yin; Ren Gao; Chengfang Lin

2009-01-01

197

Stool Test: C. Difficile Toxin (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Stool Test: C. Difficile Toxin KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Stool Test: C. Difficile Toxin Print A A A Text Size ...

198

Sodium Channel Inhibiting Marine Toxins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their many chemical relatives are part of our daily lives. From killing people who eat seafood containing these toxins, to being valuable research tools unveiling the invisible structures of their pharmacological receptor, their global impact is beyond measure. The pharmacological receptor for these toxins is the voltage-gated sodium channel which transports Na ions between the exterior to the interior of cells. The two structurally divergent families of STX and TTX analogues bind at the same location on these Na channels to stop the flow of ions. This can affect nerves, muscles and biological senses of most animals. It is through these and other toxins that we have developed much of our fundamental understanding of the Na channel and its part in generating action potentials in excitable cells.

Llewellyn, Lyndon E.

199

Purification of tritium-labeled cholera toxin.  

PubMed Central

Cholera toxin was labeled with tritium by the Wilzbach technique, and highly purified radiolabeled toxin was obtained by Sephadex column chromatography and disc gel electrophoresis. 3H-labeled cholera toxin retained its biological activity and chemical stability and had a specific activity of 405.9 muCi/mumol. The methods utilized in extraction and purification of 3H-labeled toxin may be advantageous for preparation of other biologically active radiolabeled proteins. Images PMID:689738

Banwell, J G; Hanke, D W; Diedrich, D

1978-01-01

200

Yeast killer toxins and dimorphism.  

PubMed

The differential action of four selected yeast killer toxins on the mycelial and yeast forms of four isolates of the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii was comparatively evaluated. The results confirmed that the yeast killer phenomenon is present among hyphomycetes and yeasts and that both morphological forms of S. schenckii are susceptible to the action of the same yeast killer toxin. Quantitative differences in the response to the killer action of the mycelial and yeast forms in individual strains were also observed. To avoid retroconversion of the dimorphic forms, we used a modification of the conventional killer system. PMID:2754015

Polonelli, L; Conti, S; Campani, L; Morace, G; Fanti, F

1989-06-01

201

Shiga toxins induce autophagy leading to differential signaling pathways in toxin-sensitive and toxin-resistant human cells  

PubMed Central

Summary The bacterial virulence factors Shiga toxins (Stxs) are expressed by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and certain Escherichia coli strains. Stxs are protein synthesis inhibitors and induce apoptosis in many cell types. Stxs induce apoptosis via prolonged ER stress signaling to activate both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in human myeloid cells. Studies have shown that autophagy, a lysosome-dependent catabolic process, may be associated with activation of pro-survival or death processes. It is currently unknown if autophagy contributes to apoptosis or protects cells from Stxs. To study cellular responses to Stxs, we intoxicated toxin-sensitive cells (THP-1 and HK-2 cells), and toxin-resistant cells (primary human monocyte-derived macrophages) and examined toxin intracellular trafficking and autophagosome formation. Stxs translocated to different cell compartments in toxin-resistant versus toxin-sensitive cells. Confocal microscopy revealed autophagosome formation in both toxin-resistant and toxin-sensitive cells. Proteolytic cleavage of Atg5 and Beclin-1 play pivotal roles in switching non-cytotoxic autophagy to cell death signaling. We detected cleaved forms of Atg5 and Beclin-1 in Stx-treated toxin-sensitive cells, while cleaved caspases, calpains, Atg5 and Beclin-1 were not detected in toxin-resistant primary human monocytes and macrophages. These findings suggest that toxin sensitivity correlates with caspase and calpain activation, leading to Atg5 and Beclin-1 cleavage. PMID:21722286

Lee, Moo-Seung; Cherla, Rama P.; Jenson, Matthew H.; Leyva-Illades, Dinorah; Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita; Tesh, Vernon L.

2011-01-01

202

Ackee Toxin : a Riboflavin Antimetabolite?  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE has occurred in Jamaica an illness known as `vomiting sickness', characterized by vomiting, coma and death, which has been attributed to a toxin present in the ackee (Blighia sapida)1-3. In the course of routine assay for the protein values of human diets, a Jamaican meal containing this fruit was prepared, fed to rats, and the animals lost 26 per

H. C. Fox; D. S. Miller

1960-01-01

203

MCEARD - CYANOBACTERIA AND THEIR TOXINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful algal blooms (HAB) of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, have recently become more spatially and temporally prevalent in the US and worldwide. Waterborne cyanobacteria and their highly potent toxins are a significant hazard for human health and the ecosystem....

204

Recombinant Toxins for Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant toxins target cell surface receptors and antigens on tumor cells. They kill by mechanisms different from conventional chemotherapy, so that cross resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents should not be a problem. Furthermore, they are not mutagens and should not induce secondary malignancies or accelerate progression of benign malignancies. They can be mass-produced cheaply in bacteria as homogeneous proteins. Either

Ira Pastan; David Fitzgerald

1991-01-01

205

Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins  

PubMed Central

Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved. PMID:24226039

Munday, Rex; Reeve, John

2013-01-01

206

Nemertean toxin genes revealed through transcriptome sequencing.  

PubMed

Nemerteans are one of few animal groups that have evolved the ability to utilize toxins for both defense and subduing prey, but little is known about specific nemertean toxins. In particular, no study has identified specific toxin genes even though peptide toxins are known from some nemertean species. Information about toxin genes is needed to better understand evolution of toxins across animals and possibly provide novel targets for pharmaceutical and industrial applications. We sequenced and annotated transcriptomes of two free-living and one commensal nemertean and annotated an additional six publicly available nemertean transcriptomes to identify putative toxin genes. Approximately 63-74% of predicted open reading frames in each transcriptome were annotated with gene names, and all species had similar percentages of transcripts annotated with each higher-level GO term. Every nemertean analyzed possessed genes with high sequence similarities to known animal toxins including those from stonefish, cephalopods, and sea anemones. One toxin-like gene found in all nemerteans analyzed had high sequence similarity to Plancitoxin-1, a DNase II hepatotoxin that may function well at low pH, which suggests that the acidic body walls of some nemerteans could work to enhance the efficacy of protein toxins. The highest number of toxin-like genes found in any one species was seven and the lowest was three. The diversity of toxin-like nemertean genes found here is greater than previously documented, and these animals are likely an ideal system for exploring toxin evolution and industrial applications of toxins. PMID:25432940

Whelan, Nathan V; Kocot, Kevin M; Santos, Scott R; Halanych, Kenneth M

2014-12-01

207

Labile iron in cells and body fluids: physiology, pathology, and pharmacology  

PubMed Central

In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI) composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the medium redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower ?M range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS) formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (Tf; that renders iron essentially non-labile), in systemic iron overload (IO), the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma Tf approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI) emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of IO, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in intravenous iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI) following parenteral iron administration. PMID:24659969

Cabantchik, Zvi Ioav

2014-01-01

208

Labile carbon concentrations are strongly linked to plant production in Arctic tussock tundra soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exchange of carbon and nutrients between plants and microbes is a key determinant of carbon balance in Arctic soils. Microbes rely on labile plant carbon for the energy they need to produce enzymes that can release nutrients and less energetically favorable carbon from soil organic matter. One of the main mechanisms of carbon transfer is rhizodeposition, the exudation of labile plant carbon such as sugars from roots into the rhizosphere. Despite the importance of this flow of energy and materials from plants to microbes, there have been few attempts to quantify labile carbon pools or fluxes in Arctic soils. To improve our knowledge of labile carbon dynamics in Arctic soils, we address two basic questions: (1) What are the seasonal patterns of labile carbon concentrations? and (2) How do seasonal patterns in labile carbon correlate with plant production, microbial biomass, and soil nutrients? We measured concentrations of total reducing sugars (TRS) in the soil solution of moist acidic tussock tundra on 28 dates during the 2012 growing season in 20 plots of an early snowmelt × warming experiment. We evaluated these total reducing sugar concentrations in the context of eddy flux carbon exchange data, plant NDVI, total dissolved carbon in soils, microbial biomass, and soil nutrients. Though we did not see treatment effects of the snowmelt × warming experiment, we did observe a clear seasonal pattern in TRS concentrations in which they started low at the time of thaw, then built to a maximum value around the time of peak plant physiology in July, followed by a decline as plants senesced. We observed a clear correlation between TRS and gross primary production (GPP). NDVI values also increased with TRS concentrations during the first half of the season and then leveled off as TRS began its decline. These relationships were in contrast to labile N concentrations, which remained at low concentrations all season. Our data suggest that rhizodeposition of labile carbon compounds in Arctic tundra ecosystems has a strong seasonal pattern that closely tracks plant production. This connection suggests that if plant production increases in a warmer Arctic, plants may ease carbon limitation to summer microbial activity.

Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Weintraub, M. N.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Steltzer, H.; Sullivan, P.

2013-12-01

209

Seasonal changes and biochemical composition of the labile organic matter flux in the Cretan Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Downward fluxes of labile organic matter (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) at 200 (trap A) and 1515 m depth (trap B), measured during a 12 months sediment trap experiment, are presented, together with estimates of the bacterial and cyanobacterial biomasses associated to the particles. The biochemical composition of the settling particles was determined in order to provide qualitative and quantitative information on the flux of readily available organic carbon supplying the deep-sea benthic communities of the Cretan Sea. Total mass flux and labile carbon fluxes were characterised by a clear seasonality. Higher labile organic fluxes were reported in trap B, indicating the presence of resuspended particles coming from lateral inputs. Particulate carbohydrates were the major component of the flux of labile compounds (on annual average about 66% of the total labile organic flux) followed by lipids (20%) and proteins (13%). The biopolymeric carbon flux was very low (on annual average 0.9 and 1.2 gC m -2 y -1, at trap A and B). Labile carbon accounted for most of the OC flux (on annual average 84% and 74% in trap A and B respectively). In trap A, highest carbohydrate and protein fluxes in April and September, corresponded to high faecal pellet fluxes. The qualitative composition of the organic fluxes indicated a strong protein depletion in trap B and a decrease of the bioavailability of the settling particles as a result of a higher degree of dilution with inorganic material. Quantity and quality of the food supply to the benthos displayed different temporal patterns. Bacterial biomass in the sediment traps (on average 122 and 229 ?gC m -2 d -1 in trap A and B, respectively) was significantly correlated to the flux of labile organic carbon, and particularly to the protein and carbohydrate fluxes. Cyanobacterial flux (on average, 1.1 and 0.4 ?gC m -2 d -1, in trap A and B, respectively) was significantly correlated with total mass and protein fluxes only in trap A. Bacterial carbon flux, equivalent to 84.2 and 156 mgC m -2 y -1, accounted for 5-6.5% of the labile carbon flux (in trap A and B respectively) and for 22-41% protein pool of the settling particles. These results suggest that in the Cretan Sea, bacteria attached to the settling particles represent a potential food source of primary importance for deep-sea benthic communities.

Danovaro, Roberto; Della Croce, Norberto; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Mauro Fabiano; Marrale, Daniela; Martorano, Daniela

2000-08-01

210

Peculiarities of the associative function of the brain in children with high and low lability of the nervous processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.According to the psychological data, the level of general development of the children with high and low lability of the nervous processes does not differ appreciably, but the tempo of assignments in the kindergarten group poses difficulties for the inert children and they cannot cope with the tasks in the time allotted.2.Among the children with a low lability the

M. M. Koltsova; É. B. Ayurova; T. A. Borisova

1986-01-01

211

Long-term effects of soil warming on labile carbon availability and microbial community respiration and composition  

E-print Network

, chloroform-fumigation, extracellular enzyme assay, labile carbon, lignin microbial biomass, soil respiration biomass, soil respiration rates, the presence of extracellular enzymes, and the nature of the soil organic the control plots. I looked at what happened to carbon composition in mineral soil, both labile and lignin

Vallino, Joseph J.

212

Peau, rides et toxine botulique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. – To present an up-to-date analysis about the use of botulinum toxin for treating facial lines and wrinkles.Method. – A systematic search of the literature was conducted to select the most recent or relevant publications on this topic, through Medline.Results. – Out of the 583 articles retrieved, 90 were finally selected for the study.Discussion. – Validity of using botulinum

P. J Nicolau; M Chaouat; M Mimoun

2003-01-01

213

Novel Class of Spider Toxin  

PubMed Central

Venom of the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium (Miturgidae) was found unique in terms of molecular composition. Its principal toxic component CpTx 1 (15.1 kDa) was purified, and its full amino acid sequence (134 residues) was established by protein chemistry and mass spectrometry techniques. CpTx 1 represents a novel class of spider toxin with modular architecture. It consists of two different yet homologous domains (modules) each containing a putative inhibitor cystine knot motif, characteristic of the widespread single domain spider neurotoxins. Venom gland cDNA sequencing provided precursor protein (prepropeptide) structures of three CpTx 1 isoforms (a–c) that differ by single residue substitutions. The toxin possesses potent insecticidal (paralytic and lethal), cytotoxic, and membrane-damaging activities. In both fly and frog neuromuscular preparations, it causes stable and irreversible depolarization of muscle fibers leading to contracture. This effect appears to be receptor-independent and is inhibited by high concentrations of divalent cations. CpTx 1 lyses cell membranes, as visualized by confocal microscopy, and destabilizes artificial membranes in a manner reminiscent of other membrane-active peptides by causing numerous defects of variable conductance and leading to bilayer rupture. The newly discovered class of modular polypeptides enhances our knowledge of the toxin universe. PMID:20657014

Vassilevski, Alexander A.; Fedorova, Irina M.; Maleeva, Ekaterina E.; Korolkova, Yuliya V.; Efimova, Svetlana S.; Samsonova, Olga V.; Schagina, Ludmila V.; Feofanov, Alexei V.; Magazanik, Lev G.; Grishin, Eugene V.

2010-01-01

214

Temperature effects on decomposition rates of soil organic matter with differing proportions of labile and  

E-print Network

soil carbon cycle models predict that climate warming will stimulate microbial decomposition of labile carbon cycle. Soil is this natural carbon sink because carbon is sequestered as biomass, such as plant disagreement regarding the effects of climate change on global soil carbon stocks. Soil carbon stocks

Vallino, Joseph J.

215

Epchrosine - a new indole alkaloid isolated from plant cell cultures of Ochrosia elliptica Labill.  

PubMed

From plant cell suspension cultures of Ochrosia elliptica Labill. an indole alkaloid of the apparicine type has been isolated, which is not known to occur in differentiated plants. The structure of the new compound, named epchrosine, was established by UV, MS and high resolution two-dimensional (1)H NMR (COSY and NOESY) as (19R,20R)-epoxyapparicine. PMID:24248056

Pawelka, K H; Stöckigt, J; Danieli, B

1986-04-01

216

How labile are the egg-laying preferences of seed beetles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have produced conflicting results with respect to the genetic lability of host preference in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. 2. In this study, replicate lines of an Asian population were kept on an ancestral host (mung bean) or switched to a novel host (cowpea). After 40þ generations, lines were assayed for host preference (in choice tests) and host

FRANK J. M ESSINA

2004-01-01

217

Enzymatically- and Ultraviolet-labile Phosphorus in Humic Acid Fractions From Rice Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Humic acid is an important soil component which can improve nutrient availability and impact other important chemical, biological, and physical properties of soils. We investigated the lability of phosphorus (P) in the mobile humic acid (MHA) and calcium humate (CaHA) fractions of four rice soils as...

218

Mayolenes: Labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar (Pieris rapae)  

E-print Network

larvae of a laboratory population of P. rapae maintained on cabbage plants (Brassica oleraceaeMayolenes: Labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar (Pieris rapae) Scott R, Pieris rapae (Pieridae), are beset with glandular hairs, bearing droplets of a clear oily secretion

Rutowski, Ronald L.

219

In situ measurements of labile Cu, Cd and Mn in river waters using DGT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) has been trialed in two river systems for in situ trace metal speciation measurements. This paper presents results for cadmium, copper and manganese concentrations in fresh and estuarine waters and demonstrates for the first time the effectiveness of using DGT to measure labile metal concentrations in such waters. This work has shown

Susan Denney; John Sherwood; James Leyden

1999-01-01

220

Forms and Lability of Phosphorus in Humic Acid Fractions of Hord Silt Loam Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) has long been known to be present in soil humic fractions, but little is known about specific P forms in humic fractions, or their lability. We extracted the mobile humic acid (MHA) and recalcitrant calcium humate (CaHA) fractions from a Nebraska Hord silt loam soil under continuous c...

221

Bt Toxin Modification for Enhanced Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Insect-specific toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide a valuable resource for pest suppression. Here we review the different strategies that have been employed to enhance toxicity against specific target species including those that have evolved resistance to Bt, or to modify the host range of Bt crystal (Cry) and cytolytic (Cyt) toxins. These strategies include toxin truncation, modification of protease cleavage sites, domain swapping, site-directed mutagenesis, peptide addition, and phage display screens for mutated toxins with enhanced activity. Toxin optimization provides a useful approach to extend the utility of these proteins for suppression of pests that exhibit low susceptibility to native Bt toxins, and to overcome field resistance. PMID:25340556

Deist, Benjamin R.; Rausch, Michael A.; Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Adang, Michael J.; Bonning, Bryony C.

2014-01-01

222

The pyrogenic effect of scarlet fever toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scarlet fever toxin was found to liberate leukocytic pyrogen from granulocytesin vitro. In comparative experiments withSalmonella paratyphi B endotoxin and scarlet fever toxin it was tested whether leukocytes from rabbits tolerant to one of these toxins are able\\u000a to synthetize and liberate endogenous pyrogen. Leukocytes from rabbits tolerant to endotoxin liberated leukoeytic pyrogen\\u000a following challenge with endotoxin or with scarlet

V. SCHUI-I; V?ra H?íbalová

1966-01-01

223

Prokaryotic toxin–antitoxin stress response loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although toxin–antitoxin gene cassettes were first found in plasmids, recent database mining has shown that these loci are abundant in free-living prokaryotes, including many pathogenic bacteria. For example, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has 38 chromosomal toxin–antitoxin loci, including 3 relBE and 9 mazEF loci. RelE and MazF are toxins that cleave mRNA in response to nutritional stress. RelE cleaves mRNAs that are

Susanne K. Christensen; Anders Løbner-Olesen; Kenn Gerdes

2005-01-01

224

Inputs of total and labile trace metals from wastewater treatment plants effluents to the Seine River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seine river basin has long been impacted by metal inputs from the Paris area, but the water quality has been gradually improving for the last 20 years. Among all metal pollution sources (surface runoff, industries), urban wastewater discharge has been shown to significantly contribute, during low-flow periods, to metal fluxes of the River Seine. This paper assesses the current wastewater contribution to metal inputs in the Seine river basin, based on sampling of nine wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Seven metals were targeted (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb) during dry weather periods. Since total and dissolved concentrations alone are not relevant enough for an ecological risk assessment, labile metals (free + weekly complexed) were also measured by means of DGT (diffusive gradient in thin film technique). Results show that WWTPs greatly reduce total metal concentrations but reduce labile metal concentrations only slightly. Estimations made for direct total metal inputs in the River Seine via treated effluent discharge confirm the decrease observed for the 1994-1995 period. Labile metals released by WWTP were also considered by comparing fluxes in the effluent discharge of two different WWTPs to those flowing in the receiving river. Fluxes discharged by the largest plant were similar to those measured in the river during low-flow periods whereas they were negligible for the smaller one. Nevertheless, labile metal concentrations in both discharges were similar and the wastewater discharge’s contribution to labile fluxes in receiving waters seems to depend mostly on the relative significance of the discharge flow compared to the receiving water flow.

Buzier, Rémy; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Keirsbulck, Marion; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

225

TOXINS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY / 1 Animal Toxins in the World of Modern  

E-print Network

TOXINS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY / 1 Animal Toxins in the World of Modern Biotechnology JEAN-MARC SABATIER1 Biotechnologies, Bâtiment Biopolis, 5, avenue du Grand Sablon, 38700 La Tronche, France. Tel.: +33-4-56520563; Fax: +33-4-56520637; E-mail address: michel.dewaard@ujf-grenoble.fr Running title: Toxins in Biotechnology

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

Toxins 2011, 3, 1502-1517; doi:10.3390/toxins3121502 ISSN 2072-6651  

E-print Network

Toxins 2011, 3, 1502-1517; doi:10.3390/toxins3121502 toxins ISSN 2072-6651 www.mdpi.com/journal common cause of refusal of grain deliveries to the food industry due to non-compliance with health regulations. Hence, it is imperative to find new molecules with less impact on the environment. One

Boyer, Edmond

227

Natural toxins and their therapeutic potential.  

PubMed

Plants have been extensively investigated for exploring their therapeutic potentials, but there are comparatively scanty reports on drugs derived from animal kingdom, except for hormones. During last decade, the toxins that are used for defense by the animals, have been isolated and found useful tools for physiological and pharmacological studies, besides giving valuable leads to drug development. Toxins with interesting results have been isolated from the venoms of snakes, scorpions, spiders, snails, lizards, frogs and fish. The present review describe about some toxins as drugs and their biological activities. Some fungal, bacterial and marine toxins have also been covered in this article. PMID:21046975

Kapoor, V K

2010-03-01

228

Toxin Detection by Surface Plasmon Resonance  

PubMed Central

Significant efforts have been invested in the past years for the development of analytical methods for fast toxin detection in food and water. Immunochemical methods like ELISA, spectroscopy and chromatography are the most used in toxin detection. Different methods have been linked, e.g. liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS), in order to detect as low concentrations as possible. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is one of the new biophysical methods which enables rapid toxin detection. Moreover, this method was already included in portable sensors for on-site determinations. In this paper we describe some of the most common methods for toxin detection, with an emphasis on SPR. PMID:22573957

Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor

2009-01-01

229

Application of Botulinum Toxin in Pain Management  

PubMed Central

Botulinum toxin has been used for the treatment of many clinical disorders by producing temporary skeletal muscle relaxation. In pain management, botulinum toxin has demonstrated an analgesic effect by reducing muscular hyperactivity, but recent studies suggest this neurotoxin could have direct analgesic mechanisms different from its neuromuscular actions. At the moment, botulinum toxin is widely investigated and used in many painful diseases such as myofascial syndrome, headaches, arthritis, and neuropathic pain. Further studies are needed to understand the exact analgesic mechanisms, efficacy and complications of botulinum toxin in chronic pain disorders. PMID:21390172

2011-01-01

230

Microwave heating inactivates Shiga Toxin (Stx2) in pH 7.4 buffer and in reconstituted fat-free Milk and adversely affects the nutritional value of cell culture medium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microwave exposure is a convenient and widely used method for defrosting, heating, and cooking numerous foods. Microwave cooking is also reported to kill pathogenic microorganisms that often contaminate food. Microwaves act by causing polar molecules in food, such as water, to rapidly rotate, thus...

231

The tool of microbial genomics research for interpreting the lability of permafrost carbon and potential greenhouse gas feedbacks at different scales of resolution.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One quarter of the earth's terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost, or perennially frozen soils. Permafrost soils contain approximately 25% to 50% of the total global soil carbon pool nearly double the atmospheric carbon (C) reservoir. Decomposition of this C by microorganisms may produce globally significant quantities of both carbon dioxide and methane. These processes provide a positive feedback between climate change and the altered biogeochemistry of northern ecosystems. The fate of carbon residing in thawing permafrost soils depends on a number of physical factors including the thermal properties of soils (which affect heat flow rates), its disturbance regime (controlling changes in physical properties), and hydrologic regime (where soil-water interactions can rapidly thaw permafrost). Yet the mechanism of soil organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas production operates primarily through the microbial loop: growth, carbon and nutrient mineralization, electron transfer, and enzyme production. We tested whether molecular analysis of microbial communities can be utilized as an indicator of permafrost C lability and potential greenhouse gas production from permafrost soils across multiple temporal and spatial scales. For short term studies of lability we compared rates of C turnover in soil incubations to chemical indices of soil lability, soil enzymes, and the abundance of soil microbial populations. Permafrost soils for the incubation ranged from frozen peatlands to dry uplands and Pleistocene Yedoma. For analysis at the annual to decadal scale, we utilized a permafrost thaw gradient at the Bonanza Creek LTER near Fairbanks Alaska. At this gradient, a Black Spruce forest underlain by permafrost thawed to form a thermokarst bog <50 years ago. Over the short term (months), the lability of permafrost C is reflected in the chemistry of dissolved constituents of permafrost, and it is also reflected in the change in abundance of total soil bacteria, which use DOC for growth and energy. At the decadal scale, permafrost thaw will result in wholesale change in plant community composition and ecosystem function, thus relying on an entirely different interpretation of shifts in microbial community composition to gain insight into greenhouse gas production. At Bonanza Creek, there are large differences in microbial community composition between intact permafrost and thermokarst bog soils. Metagenomic and metatransciptome analysis of microbial communities reveal that changes in community composition and representative functional genes reflect the dominant greenhouse gas producing processes occurring in those environments. Results indicated that the relative abundance of microbial functional groups based upon functional genes (e.g. methanogens, nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers) mirror the geochemistry of the system and pathways of potential greenhouse gas production. These data help to understand linkages between the level of detail undertaken within -omics research and the temporal scale of biogeochemical processes under examination.

Waldrop, M. P.; Machelprang, R.; Hultman, J.; Wickland, K. P.

2012-12-01

232

DNA probes for Shiga-like toxins I and II and for toxin-converting bacteriophages.  

PubMed Central

A set of DNA probes has been developed to study the genes for Shiga-like toxins (SLT) and the bacteriophage from which these toxin genes were isolated. Under stringent conditions of hybridization (80 to 90% homology), these probes detect strains containing (i) SLT I-related genes, (ii) SLT II-related genes, (iii) phage sequences from the SLT I-converting phage H19A/933J, and (iv) phage sequences from the SLT II-converting phage 933W. Strain characterization by hybridization with the toxin gene probes was as accurate as methods that used toxin-specific antibody to determine toxin synthesis. Screening of different gram-negative bacteria with the toxin probes revealed that only two species carry sequences related to the SLT genes, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae 1. These results indicated that the lower levels of toxin activity observed in shigellae other than S. dysenteriae 1 are due to a gene(s) that is genetically distinct from that which encodes Shiga toxin. Analysis of enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, enteropathogenic, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli indicated that SLT genes are found primarily in the enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain group. Use of both the toxin and the phage probes has identified a variety of genotypic combinations of phage and toxin sequences which differ from those observed for the original toxin-converting phage isolates, for E. coli O157:H7 strain 933, and for E. coli O26:H11 strain H19. Images PMID:2842369

Newland, J W; Neill, R J

1988-01-01

233

Designing Inhibitors of Anthrax Toxin  

PubMed Central

Introduction Present-day rational drug design approaches are based on exploiting unique features of the target biomolecules, small- or macromolecule drug candidates, and physical forces that govern their interactions. The 2013 Nobel Prize in chemistry awarded “for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems” once again demonstrated the importance of the tailored drug discovery that reduces the role of the trial and error approach to a minimum. The “rational drug design” term is rather comprehensive as it includes all contemporary methods of drug discovery where serendipity and screening are substituted by the information-guided search for new and existing compounds. Successful implementation of these innovative drug discovery approaches is inevitably preceded by learning the physics, chemistry, and physiology of functioning of biological structures under normal and pathological conditions. Areas covered This article provides an overview of the recent rational drug design approaches to discover inhibitors of anthrax toxin. Some of the examples include small-molecule and peptide-based post-exposure therapeutic agents as well as several polyvalent compounds. The review also directs the reader to the vast literature on the recognized advances and future possibilities in the field. Expert opinion Existing options to combat anthrax toxin lethality are limited. With the only anthrax toxin inhibiting therapy (PA-targeting with a monoclonal antibody, raxibacumab) approved to treat inhalational anthrax, in our view, the situation is still insecure. The FDA’s animal rule for drug approval, which clears compounds without validated efficacy studies on humans, creates a high level of uncertainty, especially when a well-characterized animal model does not exist. Besides, unlike PA, which is known to be unstable, LF remains active in cells and in animal tissues for days. Therefore, the effectiveness of the post-exposure treatment of the individuals with anti-PA therapeutics can be time-dependent, requiring coordinated use of membrane permeable small-molecule inhibitors, which block the LF and EF enzymatic activity intracellularly. The desperate search for an ideal anthrax antitoxin allowed researchers to gain important knowledge of the basic principles of small-molecule interactions with their protein targets that could be easily transferred to other systems. At the same time, better identification and validation of anthrax toxin therapeutic targets at the molecular level, which include understanding of the physical forces underlying the target/drug interaction, as well as elucidation of the parameters determining the corresponding therapeutic windows, require further examination. PMID:24447197

Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

2014-01-01

234

Botulinum toxin: The Midas touch  

PubMed Central

Botulinum Toxin (BT) is a natural molecule produced during growth and autolysis of bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. Use of BT for cosmetic purposes has gained popularity over past two decades, and recently, other therapeutic uses of BT has been extensively studied. BT is considered as a minimally invasive agent that can be used in the treatment of various orofacial disorders and improving the quality of life in such patients. The objective of this article is to review the nature, mechanism of action of BT, and its application in various head and neck diseases. PMID:24678189

Shilpa, P. S.; Kaul, Rachna; Sultana, Nishat; Bhat, Suraksha

2014-01-01

235

Recent insights into Pasteurella multocida toxin and other G-protein-modulating bacterial toxins  

PubMed Central

Over the past few decades, our understanding of the bacterial protein toxins that modulate G proteins has advanced tremendously through extensive biochemical and structural analyses. This article provides an updated survey of the various toxins that target G proteins, ending with a focus on recent mechanistic insights in our understanding of the deamidating toxin family. The dermonecrotic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT) was recently added to the list of toxins that disrupt G-protein signal transduction through selective deamidation of their targets. The C3 deamidase domain of PMT has no sequence similarity to the deamidase domains of the dermonecrotic toxins from Escherichia coli (cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF)1-3), Yersinia (CNFY) and Bordetella (dermonecrotic toxin). The structure of PMT-C3 belongs to a family of transglutaminase-like proteins, with active site Cys–His–Asp catalytic triads distinct from E. coli CNF1. PMID:20722598

Wilson, Brenda A; Ho, Mengfei

2015-01-01

236

The roles of anthrax toxin in pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthrax lethal toxin is a multi-functional virulence factor that has evolved to target multiple host functions to allow for optimal establishment of Bacillus anthracis infection. The toxin appears to play a role in all stages of infection, from germination to the induction of vascular collapse leading to host death. Early in infection, at sublethal doses, it acts to suppress immune

Mahtab Moayeri; Stephen H Leppla

2004-01-01

237

Human genetic variation altering anthrax toxin sensitivity  

E-print Network

Human genetic variation altering anthrax toxin sensitivity Mikhail Martchenkoa , Sophie I affecting capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2), which encodes a host membrane protein exploited by anthrax in sensitivity me- diated by the protective antigen (PA) moiety of anthrax toxin by more than four orders

Tang, Hua

238

Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over

Geoffrey A. Codd; Louise F. Morrison; James S. Metcalf

2005-01-01

239

Plant Insecticidal Toxins in Ecological Networks  

PubMed Central

Plant secondary metabolites play a key role in plant-insect interactions, whether constitutive or induced, C- or N-based. Anti-herbivore defences against insects can act as repellents, deterrents, growth inhibitors or cause direct mortality. In turn, insects have evolved a variety of strategies to act against plant toxins, e.g., avoidance, excretion, sequestration and degradation of the toxin, eventually leading to a co-evolutionary arms race between insects and plants and to co-diversification. Anti-herbivore defences also negatively impact mutualistic partners, possibly leading to an ecological cost of toxin production. However, in other cases toxins can also be used by plants involved in mutualistic interactions to exclude inadequate partners and to modify the cost/benefit ratio of mutualism to their advantage. When considering the whole community, toxins have an effect at many trophic levels. Aposematic insects sequester toxins to defend themselves against predators. Depending on the ecological context, toxins can either increase insects’ vulnerability to parasitoids and entomopathogens or protect them, eventually leading to self-medication. We conclude that studying the community-level impacts of plant toxins can provide new insights into the synthesis between community and evolutionary ecology. PMID:22606374

Ibanez, Sébastien; Gallet, Christiane; Després, Laurence

2012-01-01

240

DETECTION OF BACTERIAL TOXINS WITH MONOSACCHARIDE ARRAYS  

PubMed Central

A large number of bacterial toxins, viruses and bacteria target carbohydrate derivatives on the cell surface to attach to and gain entry into the cell. We report here the use of a monosaccharide-based array to detect protein toxins. The array-based technique provides the capability to perform simultaneous multianalyte analyses. Arrays of N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) derivatives were immobilized on the surface of a planar waveguide and were used as receptors for protein toxins. These arrays were probed with fluorescently labeled bacterial cells and protein toxins. While Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) did not bind to either of the monosaccharides, both cholera toxin and tetanus toxin bound to GalNAc and Neu5Ac. The results show that the binding of the toxins to the carbohydrates is density dependent and semi-selective. Both toxins were detectable at 100 ng/ml. PMID:15946840

Ngundi, Miriam M.; Taitt, Chris R.; McMurry, Scott A.; Kahne, Daniel; Ligler, Frances S.

2006-01-01

241

Initial studies of the structural signal for extracellular transport of cholera toxin and other proteins recognized by Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed Central

The specificity of the pathway used by Vibrio cholerae for extracellular transport of cholera toxin (CT) and other proteins was examined in several different ways. First, V. cholerae was tested for the ability to secrete the B polypeptides of the type II heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli. Genes encoding the B polypeptide of LT-IIb in pBluescriptKS- phagemids were introduced into V. cholerae by electroporation. Culture supernatants and periplasmic extracts were collected from cultures of the V. cholerae transformants, and the enterotoxin B subunits were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results confirmed that the B polypeptides of both LT-IIa and LT-IIb were secreted by V. cholerae with efficiencies comparable to that measured for secretion of CT. Second, the plasmid clones were introduced into strain M14, an epsE mutant of V. cholerae. M14 failed to transport the B polypeptides of LT-IIa and LT-IIb to the extracellular medium, demonstrating that secretion of type II enterotoxins by V. cholerae proceeds by the same pathway used for extracellular transport of CT. These data suggest that an extracellular transport signal recognized by the secretory machinery of V. cholerae is present in LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Furthermore, since the B polypeptide of CT has little, if any, primary amino acid sequence homology with the B polypeptide of LT-IIa or LT-IIb, the transport signal is likely to be a conformation-dependent motif. Third, a mutant of the B subunit of CT (CT-B) with lysine substituted for glutamate at amino acid position 11 was shown to be secreted poorly by V. cholerae, although it exhibited immunoreactivity and ganglioside GM1-binding activity comparable to that of wild-type CT-B. These findings suggest that Glu-11 may be within or near the extracellular transport motif of CT-B. Finally, the genetic lesion in the epsE allele of V. cholerae M14 was determined by nucleotide sequence analysis. PMID:7558324

Connell, T D; Metzger, D J; Wang, M; Jobling, M G; Holmes, R K

1995-01-01

242

The toxin component of targeted anti-tumor toxins determines their efficacy increase by saponins.  

PubMed

Tumor-targeting protein toxins are composed of a toxic enzyme coupled to a specific cell binding domain that targets cancer-associated antigens. The anti-tumor treatment by targeted toxins is accompanied by dose-limiting side effects. The future prospects of targeted toxins for therapeutic use in humans will be determined by reduce side effects. Certain plant secondary metabolites (saponins) were shown to increase the efficacy of a particular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted toxin, paralleled by a tremendous decrease of side effects. This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of substituting different toxin moieties fused to an EGF ligand binding domain on the augmentative ability of saponins for each against therapeutic potential of the saponin-mediated efficacy increase for different anti-tumor toxins targeting the EGFR. We designed several EGFR-targeted toxins varying in the toxic moiety. Each targeted toxin was used in combination with a purified saponin (SA1641), isolated from the ornamental plant Gypsophila paniculata L. SA1641 was characterized and the SA1641-mediated efficacy increase was investigated on EGFR-transfected NIH-3T3 cells. We observed a high dependency of the SA1641-mediated efficacy increase on the nature of toxin used for the construction of the targeted toxin, indicating high specificity. Structural alignments revealed a high homology between saporin and dianthin-30, the two toxic moieties that benefit most from the combination with SA1641. We further demonstrate that SA1641 did not influence the plasma membrane permeability, indicating an intracellular interaction of SA1641 and the toxin components of targeted toxins. Surface plasmon resonance measurements point to a transient binding of SA1641 to the toxin components of targeted toxins. PMID:22309811

Weng, Alexander; Thakur, Mayank; Beceren-Braun, Figen; Bachran, Diana; Bachran, Christopher; Riese, Sebastian B; Jenett-Siems, Kristina; Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik

2012-06-01

243

Brown spider dermonecrotic toxin directly induces nephrotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom can induce dermonecrotic lesions at the bite site and systemic manifestations including fever, vomiting, convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. The venom is composed of a mixture of proteins with several molecules biochemically and biologically well characterized. The mechanism by which the venom induces renal damage is unknown. By using mice exposed to Loxosceles intermedia recombinant dermonecrotic toxin (LiRecDT), we showed direct induction of renal injuries. Microscopic analysis of renal biopsies from dermonecrotic toxin-treated mice showed histological alterations including glomerular edema and tubular necrosis. Hyalinization of tubules with deposition of proteinaceous material in the tubule lumen, tubule epithelial cell vacuoles, tubular edema and epithelial cell lysis was also observed. Leukocytic infiltration was neither observed in the glomerulus nor the tubules. Renal vessels showed no sign of inflammatory response. Additionally, biochemical analyses showed such toxin-induced changes in renal function as urine alkalinization, hematuria and azotemia with elevation of blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunofluorescence with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies and confocal microscopy analysis showed deposition and direct binding of this toxin to renal intrinsic structures. By immunoblotting with a hyperimmune dermonecrotic toxin antiserum on renal lysates from toxin-treated mice, we detected a positive signal at the region of 33-35 kDa, which strengthens the idea that renal failure is directly induced by dermonecrotic toxin. Immunofluorescence reaction with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies revealed deposition and binding of this toxin directly in MDCK epithelial cells in culture. Similarly, dermonecrotic toxin treatment caused morphological alterations of MDCK cells including cytoplasmic vacuoles, blebs, evoked impaired spreading and detached cells from each other and from culture substratum. In addition, dermonecrotic toxin treatment of MDCK cells changed their viability evaluated by XTT and Neutral-Red Uptake methodologies. The present results point to brown spider dermonecrotic toxin cytotoxicity upon renal structures in vivo and renal cells in vitro and provide experimental evidence that this brown spider toxin is directly involved in nephrotoxicity evoked during Loxosceles spider venom accidents.

Chaim, Olga Meiri [Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Parana, Jardim das Americas, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Sade, Youssef Bacila [Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Parana, Jardim das Americas, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Bertoni da Silveira, Rafael [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Toma, Leny [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kalapothakis, Evanguedes [Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Mangili, Oldemir Carlos [Department of Physiology, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Gremski, Waldemiro [Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Parana, Jardim das Americas, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Catholic University of Parana, Health and Biological Sciences Institute, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Dietrich, Carl Peter von [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nader, Helena B. [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sanches Veiga, Silvio [Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Parana, Jardim das Americas, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)]. E-mail: veigass@ufpr.br

2006-02-15

244

Toxin Kid uncouples DNA replication and cell division to enforce retention of plasmid R1 in Escherichia coli cells  

PubMed Central

Worldwide dissemination of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is facilitated by plasmids that encode postsegregational killing (PSK) systems. These produce a stable toxin (T) and a labile antitoxin (A) conditioning cell survival to plasmid maintenance, because only this ensures neutralization of toxicity. Shortage of antibiotic alternatives and the link of TA pairs to PSK have stimulated the opinion that premature toxin activation could be used to kill these recalcitrant organisms in the clinic. However, validation of TA pairs as therapeutic targets requires unambiguous understanding of their mode of action, consequences for cell viability, and function in plasmids. Conflicting with widespread notions concerning these issues, we had proposed that the TA pair kis-kid (killing suppressor-killing determinant) might function as a plasmid rescue system and not as a PSK system, but this remained to be validated. Here, we aimed to clarify unsettled mechanistic aspects of Kid activation, and of the effects of this for kis-kid–bearing plasmids and their host cells. We confirm that activation of Kid occurs in cells that are about to lose the toxin-encoding plasmid, and we show that this provokes highly selective restriction of protein outputs that inhibits cell division temporarily, avoiding plasmid loss, and stimulates DNA replication, promoting plasmid rescue. Kis and Kid are conserved in plasmids encoding multiple antibiotic resistance genes, including extended spectrum ?-lactamases, for which therapeutic options are scarce, and our findings advise against the activation of this TA pair to fight pathogens carrying these extrachromosomal DNAs. PMID:24449860

Pimentel, Belén; Nair, Radhika; Bermejo-Rodríguez, Camino; Preston, Mark A.; Agu, Chukwuma A.; Wang, Xindan; Bernal, Juan A.; Sherratt, David J.; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

2014-01-01

245

Role of Heat-Stable Enterotoxins in the Induction of Early Immune Responses in Piglets after Infection with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce heat-stable (ST) and/or heat - labile (LT) enterotoxins are cause of post – weaning diarrhea in piglets. However, the relative importance of the different enterotoxins in host immune responses against ETEC infection has been poorly defined. In the present study, several isogenic mutant strains of an O149:F4ac+, LT+ STa+ STb+ ETEC strain were constructed that lack the expression of LT in combination with one or both types of ST enterotoxins (STa and/or STb). The small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique and microarray analysis were used to study host early immune responses induced by these mutant strains 4 h after infection in comparison to the wild type strain and a PBS control. Simultaneously, net fluid absorption of pig small intestinal mucosa was measured 4 h after infection, allowing us to correlate enterotoxin secretion with gene regulation. Microarray analysis showed on the one hand a non-toxin related general antibacterial response comprising genes such as PAP, MMP1 and IL8. On the other hand, results suggest a dominant role for STb in small intestinal secretion early after post-weaning infection, as well as in the induced innate immune response through differential regulation of immune mediators like interleukin 1 and interleukin 17. PMID:22815904

Schauvliege, Stijn; Gasthuys, Frank; van der Meulen, Jan; Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Goddeeris, Bruno M.; Niewold, Theo; Cox, Eric

2012-01-01

246

Mechanism of CO displacement from an unusually labile rhenium complex: an experimental and theoretical investigation.  

PubMed

The displacement of a CO ligand from an unusually labile rhenium carbonyl complex containing a bidentate carboxyaldehyde pyrrolyl ligand by PPh(3) and pyridine has been investigated. The reaction is found to proceed by an associative, preequilibrium mechanism. Theoretical calculations support the experimental data and provide a complete energetic profile for the reaction. While the Re-CO bond is found to be intrinsically weak in these complexes, it is postulated that the unusual lability of this species is due to the presence of a weak aldehyde Re-O link that can easily dissociate to open a coordination site on the metal center and accommodate an incoming ligand prior to CO loss. The resulting intermediate complex has been identified by IR spectroscopy. The presence of the hemilabile pyrrolyl ligand provides a lower-energy reaction channel for the release of CO and may be of relevance in the design of CO-releasing molecules. PMID:23153281

Muhammad, Sohail; Yempally, Veeranna; Anas, Muhammad; Moncho, Salvador; Kyran, Samuel J; Brothers, Edward N; Darensbourg, Donald J; Bengali, Ashfaq A

2012-12-01

247

A solvent-free thermosponge nanoparticle platform for efficient delivery of labile proteins.  

PubMed

Protein therapeutics have gained attention recently for treatment of a myriad of human diseases due to their high potency and unique mechanisms of action. We present the development of a novel polymeric thermosponge nanoparticle for efficient delivery of labile proteins using a solvent-free polymer thermo-expansion mechanism with clinical potential, capable of effectively delivering a range of therapeutic proteins in a sustained manner with no loss of bioactivity, with improved biological half-lives and efficacy in vivo. PMID:25333768

Choi, Won Il; Kamaly, Nazila; Riol-Blanco, Lorena; Lee, In-Hyun; Wu, Jun; Swami, Archana; Vilos, Cristian; Yameen, Basit; Yu, Mikyung; Shi, Jinjun; Tabas, Ira; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Jon, Sangyong; Farokhzad, Omid C

2014-11-12

248

Glycosylation efficiencies on different solid supports using a hydrogenolysis-labile linker  

PubMed Central

Summary Automated oligosaccharide assembly requires suitable linkers to connect the first monosaccharide to a solid support. A new hydrogenolysis-labile linker that is stable under both acidic and basic conditions was designed, synthesized and coupled to different resins. Glycosylation and cleavage efficiencies on these functionalized solid supports were investigated, and restrictions for the choice of solid support for oligosaccharide synthesis were found. PMID:23400514

Collot, Mayeul; Eller, Steffen; Weishaupt, Markus

2013-01-01

249

Calcium oscillations and T-wave lability precede ventricular arrhythmias in acquired long QT type 2  

PubMed Central

Background Alternans of intracellular Ca2+ (Cai) underlies T-wave alternans, a predictor of cardiac arrhythmias. A related phenomenon, T-Wave Lability (TWL), precedes Torsade de Pointes (TdP) in patients and animal models with impaired repolarization. However, the role of Cai in TWL remains unexplored. Methods Action potentials (APs) and Cai transients, (CaTs) were mapped optically from paced Langendorff female rabbit hearts (n=8) at 1.2s cycle length, after AV node ablation. Hearts were perfused with normal Tyrode's solution then with dofetilide (0.5 ?M) and reduced [K+] (2 mM) and [Mg2+] (0.5 mM) to elicit long QT type 2 (LQT2). Lability of EKG, voltage and Cai signals were evaluated during regular paced rhythm, before and after dofetilide perfusion. Results In LQT2, lability of Cai, voltage and EKG signals increased during paced rhythm, before the appearance of early afterdepolarizations (EADs). LQT2 resulted in AP prolongation and multiple (1-3) additional Cai upstrokes, while APs remained monophasic. When EADs appeared, Cai rose before voltage upstrokes at the origins of propagating EADs. Interventions (i.e. ryanodine and thapsigargin, n=3 or low [Ca]o and nifedipine, n=4) that suppressed Cai oscillations also abolished EADs. Conclusions In LQT2, Cai oscillations (CaiO) precede EADs by minutes, indicating that they result from spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release rather than spontaneous ICaL reactivation. CaiO likely produce oscillations of Na/Ca exchange current, INCX. Depolarizing INCX during the AP plateau contributes to the generation of EADs by re-activating Ca2+-channels that have recovered from inactivation. TWL reflects CaTs and APs lability that occur before EADs and TdP. PMID:20599524

N?mec, Jan; Kim, Jong J.; Gabris, Beth; Salama, Guy

2010-01-01

250

Ethological assessment of stable and labile social behaviors during acute psychiatric disorders: clinical applications.  

PubMed

Results are presented which illustrate the use of naturalistic observation techniques to study ongoing patterns of postural, gestural, and spacing behaviors among psychiatric patients hospitalized for acute psychiatric disorders. Behavioral frequencies are analyzed in terms of stable and labile characteristics by week of hospitalization, clinical diagnosis, and clinical outcome. Findings are interpreted from both clinical psychiatric and ethological perspectives. The discussion emphasizes the potential value of observational data gathering techniques for disorder assessment and theory development. PMID:6936724

McGuire, M T; Polsky, R H

1980-12-01

251

Protection of Pyruvate,Pi Dikinase from Maize against Cold Lability by Compatible Solutes 1  

PubMed Central

Most C4 species are chilling sensitive and certain enzymes like pyruvate,Pi dikinase of the C4 pathway are also cold labile. The ability of cations and compatible solutes to protect maize (Zea mays) dikinase against cold lability was examined. The enzyme in desalted extracts at pH 8 from preilluminated leaves could be protected against cold lability (at 0°C) by the divalent cations Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+. There was substantial protection by sulfate based salts but little protection by chloride based salts of potassium or ammonium (concentration 250 millimolar). The degree of protection against cold lability under limiting MgCl2 (5 millimolar) was pH sensitive (maximum protection at pH 8), but independent of ionic strength (up to 250 millimolar by addition of KCl). In catalysis Mg2+ is required and Mn2+ could not substitute as a cofactor. Several compatible solutes reduced or prevented the cold inactivation of dikinase (in desalted extracts and the partially purified enzyme), including glycerol, proline, glycinebetaine and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). TMAO and Mg2+ had an additive effect in protecting dikinase against cold inactivation. TMAO could largely substitute for the divalent cation and addition of TMAO during cold treatment prevented further inactivation. Cold inactivation was partially reversed by incubation at room temperature; with addition of TMAO reversal was complete. The temperature dependence of inactivation at pH 8 and 3 millimolar MgCl2 was evaluated by incubation at 2 to 17°C for 45 minutes, followed by assay at room temperature. At preincubation temperatures below 11°C there was a progressive inactivation which could be prevented by TMAO (450 millimolar). The results are discussed relative to possible effects of the solutes on the quaternary structure of this enzyme, which is known to dissociate at low temperatures. PMID:16666527

Krall, John P.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Andreo, Carlos S.

1989-01-01

252

The short-term cover crops increase soil labile organic carbon in southeastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available about the effects of cover crops on soil labile organic carbon (C), especially in Australia.\\u000a In this study, two cover crop species, i.e., wheat and Saia oat, were broadcast-seeded in May 2009 and then crop biomass was\\u000a crimp-rolled onto the soil surface at anthesis in October 2009 in southeastern Australia. Soil and crop residue samples were

Xiaoqi Zhou; Chengrong Chen; Shunbao Lu; Yichao Rui; Hanwen Wu; Zhihong Xu

253

Protein degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome system in formation and labilization of contextual conditioning memory.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this case, the inhibition of the UPS during consolidation impairs memory. Similar results were reported for memory reconsolidation. However, in other cases, the inhibition of UPS had no effect on memory consolidation and reconsolidation but impedes the amnesic action of protein synthesis inhibition after retrieval. The last finding suggests a specific action of the UPS inhibitor on memory labilization. However, another interpretation is possible in terms of the synthesis/degradation balance of positive and negative elements in neural plasticity, as was found in the case of long-term potentiation. To evaluate these alternative interpretations, other reconsolidation-interfering drugs than translation inhibitors should be tested. Here we analyzed initially the UPS inhibitor effect in contextual conditioning in crabs. We found that UPS inhibition during consolidation impaired long-term memory. In contrast, UPS inhibition did not affect memory reconsolidation after contextual retrieval but, in fact, impeded memory labilization, blocking the action of drugs that does not affect directly the protein synthesis. To extend these finding to vertebrates, we performed similar experiments in contextual fear memory in mice. We found that the UPS inhibitor in hippocampus affected memory consolidation and blocked memory labilization after retrieval. These findings exclude alternative interpretations to the requirement of UPS in memory labilization and give evidence of this mechanism in both vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:25135196

Sol Fustiñana, María; de la Fuente, Verónica; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

2014-09-01

254

Profiling of structurally labile oxylipins in plants by in situ derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GC–MS-based method for the simultaneous quantification of common oxylipins along with labile and highly reactive compounds based on in situ derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine to the corresponding O-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl oximes (PFB oximes) is presented. The approach covers oxo derivatives such as jasmonic acid (JA), 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), certain phytoprostanes, unsaturated oxo-acids, oxo-hydroxy acids, and aldehyde fragments from the polar head

Birgit Schulze; Ryan Lauchli; Mesmin Mekem Sonwa; Annika Schmidt; Wilhelm Boland

2006-01-01

255

Identification of nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria from living Sassafras ( Atherosperma moschatum Labill.) trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria (Enterobacter agglomerans and Citrobacter freundii) were commonly found associated with the microflora of stained Sassafras (Atherosperma moschatum Labill.) in forests of SE Tasmania. However, their populations never exceeded 3× 104 cells g?1 dry wood and comprised at most 3% of the total bacterial flora. Bacterial colonization of the wood appeared to coincide with\\u000a that by non-hymenocetous fungi: bacteria

M. A. Line

1990-01-01

256

Labile and stabilised fractions of soil organic carbon in some intensively cultivated alluvial soils.  

PubMed

The present investigation was undertaken in view of the limited information on the relative proportion of labile and stabilized fractions of soil organic carbon (SOC) in intensively cultivated lands, particularly under tropics. The specific objectives were i) to study the comparative recovery of SOC by different methods of labile carbon estimation under intensively cultivated lands and ii) to evaluate the impact of agricultural practices on carbon management index. For this purpose, in all, 105 surface soil samples were collected from intensively cultivated tube well and sewage irrigated agricultural lands. These samples were analysed for total as well as labile pools of SOC. Results indicated that Walkley and Black, KMnO4-oxidizable and microbial biomass carbon constituted the total SOC to the extent of 10.2 to 47.4, 1.66 to 23.2 and 0.30 to 5.49%, respectively with the corresponding mean values of 26.2, 9.16 and 2.15%. Lability of SOC was considerably higher in sewage irrigated soils than tube well irrigated soils under intensive cropping. Under soybean-wheat, the higher values of carbon management index (CMI) (279 and 286) were associated with the treatments where entire amount of nitrogen was supplied through FYM. Similar results were obtained under rice-wheat, whereas in case of maize-wheat the highest value of CMI was recorded under treatment receiving NPK through chemical fertilizer along with green manure. There was also a significant improvement in CMI under integrated (chemical fertilizer + organics) and chemical fertilizer-treated plots. The values of CMI ranged from 220 to 272 under cultivated lands receiving irrigation through sewage and industrial effluents. PMID:24555339

Verma, B C; Datta, S P; Rattan, R K; Singh, A K

2013-11-01

257

Labile soil carbon inputs mediate the soil microbial community composition and plant residue decomposition rates  

SciTech Connect

Root carbon (C) inputs may regulate decomposition rates in soil, and in this study we ask: how do labile C inputs regulate decomposition of plant residues, and soil microbial communities? In a 14 d laboratory incubation, we added C compounds often found in root exudates in seven different concentrations (0, 0.7, 1.4, 3.6, 7.2, 14.4 and 21.7 mg C g{sup -1} soil) to soils amended with and without {sup 13}C-labeled plant residue. We measured CO{sub 2} respiration and shifts in relative fungal and bacterial rRNA gene copy numbers using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Increased labile C input enhanced total C respiration, but only addition of C at low concentrations (0.7 mg C g{sup -1}) stimulated plant residue decomposition (+2%). Intermediate concentrations (1.4, 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) had no impact on plant residue decomposition, while greater concentrations of C (> 7.2 mg C g{sup -1}) reduced decomposition (-50%). Concurrently, high exudate concentrations (> 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) increased fungal and bacterial gene copy numbers, whereas low exudate concentrations (< 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) increased metabolic activity rather than gene copy numbers. These results underscore that labile soil C inputs can regulate decomposition of more recalcitrant soil C by controlling the activity and relative abundance of fungi and bacteria.

De Graaff, Marie-Anne [ORNL; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Castro Gonzalez, Hector F [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

2010-01-01

258

Substrate lability and plant activity controls greenhouse gas release from Neotropical peatland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost one third of global CO2 emissions resulting from land use change and substantial CH4 emissions originate from tropical peatlands. However, our understanding of the controls of CO2 and CH4 release from tropical peatlands are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peat lability and the activity of the vegetation on gas release using a combination of field and laboratory experiments. We demonstrated that peat lability constrained CH4 production to the surface peat under anaerobic conditions. The presence of plants shifted the C balance from a C source to a C sink with respect to CO2 while the activity of the root system strongly influenced CH4 emissions through its impact on soil O2 inputs. Both field and laboratory data suggest a coupling between the photosynthetic activity of the vegetation and the release of both CO2 and CH4 following the circadian rhythm of the dominant plant functional types. Forest clearance for agriculture resulted in elevated CH4 release, which we attribute in part to the cessation of root O2 inputs to the peat. We conclude that high emissions of CO2 and CH4 from forested tropical peatlands are likely driven by labile C inputs from the vegetation but that root O2 release may limit CH4 emissions.

Sjogersten, Sofie; Hoyos, Jorge; Lomax, Barry; Turner, Ben; Wright, Emma

2014-05-01

259

Toxins  

MedlinePLUS

Ford MD. Acute poisoning. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders ... trace metals and others. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders ...

260

Micropropagation of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill M. Wiecheteck M.E. Cortezzi Graga2 A.J. de Arajo3  

E-print Network

Micropropagation of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill M. Wiecheteck M.E. Cortezzi Graga2 A.J. de Araújo3 rhizogenesis (Mehra Palta, 1982). This paper describes a more successful system for micropropagation of E

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

Assessing the Selectivity of Extractant Solutions for Recovering Labile Arsenic Associated with Iron (Hydr)oxides and Sulfides in Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

Sequential extractions can provide analytical constraints on the identification of mineral phases that control arsenic speciation in sediments. Model solids were used in this study to evaluate different solutions designed to extract arsenic from relatively labile solid phases. ...

262

Lability of metal ion-fulvic acid complexes as probed by FIA and DGT: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinetic-based analytical techniques with very different time constants (flow injection analysis, FIA and diffusive gradients in thin films, DGT) have been compared in a study of metal ion lability in the systems Al3+–FA and Cu2+–FA (fulvic acid, FA). Flow injection analysis used an in-line micro-column of chelating ion exchanger to capture the labile metal fraction during the short contact

Alison J Downard; Jared Panther; Young-Chool Kim; Kipton J Powell

2003-01-01

263

Receptor-specific requirements for anthrax toxin delivery into cells  

E-print Network

Receptor-specific requirements for anthrax toxin delivery into cells G. Jonah A. Rainey*, Darran J Contributed by R. John Collier, July 12, 2005 The three proteins that constitute anthrax toxin self marker 8 toxin entry Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes a toxin

Sejnowski, Terrence J.

264

Surveillance of algal toxins in shellfish from Scottish waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shellfish samples were collected from coastal and offshore aquaculture sites and harvesting areas in Scottish waters between March 2003 and September 2004. Samples were analysed for the presence of algal toxins using traditional mouse bioassays for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins; immuno-lateral flow chromatography for the detection of PSP toxins in

L. A. Stobo; J.-P. C. L. Lacaze; A. C. Scott; J. Petrie; E. A. Turrell

2008-01-01

265

MATERIALS FOR BINDING MYCOTOXINS AND THEIR USE IN TOXIN DETECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Materials capable of binding mycotoxins find numerous uses. These include components of test kits for toxin detection, as agents for isolation of toxins from foods or toxin purification, and as binding agents to prevent toxin uptake and thereby protect domestic animals. There is no shortage of mat...

266

Molecular insights into the microbial formation of marine dissolved organic matter: recalcitrant or labile?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important control variable in the global carbon cycle. For our understanding of the kinetics of organic matter cycling in the ocean, it is crucial to achieve a mechanistic and molecular understanding of its transformation processes. A long-term microbial experiment was performed to follow the production of non-labile DOM by marine bacteria. Two different glucose concentrations and dissolved algal exudates were used as substrates. We monitored the bacterial abundance, concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), nutrients, amino acids and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) for 2 years. The molecular characterization of extracted DOM was performed by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) after 70 days and after ∼2 years of incubation. Although glucose quickly degraded, a non-labile DOC background (5-9% of the initial DOC) was generated in the glucose incubations. Only 20% of the organic carbon from the algal exudate degraded within the 2 years of incubation. The degradation rates for the non-labile DOC background in the different treatments varied between 1 and 11 ?mol DOC L-1 year-1. Transparent exopolymer particles, which are released by microorganisms, were produced during glucose degradation but decreased back to half of the maximum concentration within less than 3 weeks (degradation rate: 25 ?g xanthan gum equivalents L-1 d-1) and were below detection in all treatments after 2 years. Additional glucose was added after 2 years to test whether labile substrate can promote the degradation of background DOC (co-metabolism; priming effect). A priming effect was not observed but the glucose addition led to a slight increase of background DOC. The molecular analysis demonstrated that DOM generated during glucose degradation differed appreciably from DOM transformed during the degradation of the algal exudates. Our results led to several conclusions: (i) based on our experimental setup, higher substrate concentration resulted in a higher concentration of non-labile DOC; (ii) TEP, generated by bacteria, degrade rapidly, thus limiting their potential contribution to carbon sequestration; (iii) the molecular signatures of DOM derived from algal exudates and glucose after 70 days of incubation differed strongly from refractory DOM. After 2 years, however, the molecular patterns of DOM in glucose incubations were more similar to deep ocean DOM whereas the degraded exudate was still different.

Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.; Witt, M.; Passow, U.

2014-08-01

267

A food-poisoning incident caused by Clostridium botulinum toxin A in Japan.  

PubMed Central

Food poisoning caused by Clostridium botulinum toxin A occurred in Japan. Eleven (31%) of 36 patients from 14 different areas died of botulism. Most of the patients had eaten commercial fried lotus-rhizome solid mustard without heating. The food, which implicated one of the special local products used for gifts in Kumamoto, was found to have been produced by a manufacturer in Kumamoto prefecture. In Fukuoka prefecture, two of three patients died on days 4 and 8 after eating the food; they had typical symptoms of botulism. A total of 42 packages of the food bought as gifts was collected from different districts in Fukuoka prefecture for examination for both organism and toxin. Thirteen of these (31%) were contaminated with the organism, and in 11 (26%) a small amount of toxin A had been produced. PMID:3301378

Otofuji, T.; Tokiwa, H.; Takahashi, K.

1987-01-01

268

Clostridium perfringens type A-E toxin plasmids.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens relies upon plasmid-encoded toxin genes to cause intestinal infections. These toxin genes are associated with insertion sequences that may facilitate their mobilization and transfer, giving rise to new toxin plasmids with common backbones. Most toxin plasmids carry a transfer of clostridial plasmids locus mediating conjugation, which likely explains the presence of similar toxin plasmids in otherwise unrelated C. perfringens strains. The association of many toxin genes with insertion sequences and conjugative plasmids provides virulence flexibility when causing intestinal infections. However, incompatibility issues apparently limit the number of toxin plasmids maintained by a single cell. PMID:25283728

Freedman, John C; Theoret, James R; Wisniewski, Jessica A; Uzal, Francisco A; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

2014-10-01

269

Paradichlorobenzene (toxin)-induced leucoencephalopathy  

PubMed Central

A 40-year-old woman with a history of polysubstance abuse, hypertension, depression and anxiety with panic attacks admitted to the emergency room at the request of her primary physician owing to progressive decline in her mental status associated with anorexia and generalised pruritic skin rashes. Initial outpatient workup and that during two previous hospital admissions including thyroid function and syphilis tests, urine toxicology screen and brain imaging studies were unremarkable. Repeat MRI of the brain during her third hospital admission showed diffuse periventricular and white matter disease. This prompted further questioning of family members which revealed chronic ingestion of mothballs and toilet cakes containing paradichlorobenzene in the patient leading to toxin-induced leucoencephalopathy consistent with her neurological symptoms of altered mental status, ataxic gait, cogwheel rigidity in the arms and characteristic skin rashes. Subsequently, a feeding tube was placed to address her worsening nutritional status and she was discharged home in a stable state. PMID:23608871

Buckman, Francis

2013-01-01

270

T-2 toxin degradation by micromycetes.  

PubMed

The biodegradation of T-2 toxin was studied by strains of micromycetes which were isolated from the environment. The 26 tested strains were divided into three groups. Group contains strains which degraded T-2 toxin very fast. This toxin could not be chromatographically determined in the medium even after 48 hours of incubation and the antifungal activity of residua against Kluyveromyces fragilis CCY-51-1-2 was low or zero. There were strains of Alternaria sp., Ulocladium sp., Aspergillus candidus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Rhodotorula sp., Aspergillus flavus and Cladosporium macrocarpum. Group II contains with a low activity and in group III the results were variable and non stable. PMID:1880407

Jesenská, Z; Sajbidorová, I

1991-01-01

271

Frey's syndrome: treatment with botulinum toxin.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections for the management of Frey's syndrome was studied. Botulinum toxin A (approximately 0.5 Units/cm2) was injected intracutaneously into the affected skin area as determined by Minor's starch iodine test. Gustatory sweating in the treated skin area ceased completely within 1 week and has not reappeared (12 months follow up until now in the first treated case). There have been no side effects. It is concluded that local botulinum toxin injections are a highly effective and safe treatment for Frey's syndrome. Additional study is required to evaluate the duration of the therapeutic effect. PMID:7653272

Drobik, C; Laskawi, R

1995-05-01

272

Botulism Due to Clostridium baratii Type F Toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botulism results from consumption of preformed toxin or in vivo toxin elaboration in wounds or intestine. Of U.S. food-borne botulism cases since 1950, the majority were due to toxin A, but a significant number of suspect cases were never confirmed by culture or toxin detection. We report here a possible case of food-borne botulism attributed to toxin F production by

Sydney M. Harvey; Joan Sturgeon; David E. Dassey

2002-01-01

273

Structure and other chemical characterizations of gila toxin, a lethal toxin from lizard venom.  

PubMed

The complete primary structure of a lethal toxin, horridum toxin, from the venom of the lizard, Heloderma horridum horridum, was determined by Edman degradation. The amino acid sequence was deduced by overlapping peptide fragments generated by chemical and enzymatic digestions. Horridum toxin causes hemorrhage in internal organs and particularly in the eye, leading to exophthalmia, an effect that has not been observed for other toxins. It is a glycoprotein with a total of 210 residues. Examination of the primary sequence revealed that horridum toxin has considerable homology to tissue-type kallikrein and trypsin. Furthermore, synthetic substrates for trypsin, such as tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester, benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester and other p-nitroanilide substrates, were hydrolyzed. The toxin released bradykinin upon hydrolysis of kininogen. This enzymatic behavior is similar to that of plasma kallikrein: however, the presence of a characteristic "kallikrein-like" loop at 91-100 (GTIYNCNYVN) in the primary structure and other features similar to tissue kallikrein suggest that horridum toxin is more like tissue kallikrein. This toxin degraded all three chains of fibrinogen but did not form a clot, which suggests that it is different from thrombin. Moreover, it differs from another lethal factor from H. horridum horridum, gila toxin, which has 245 amino acid residues and does not cause exophthalmia. PMID:9440045

Datta, G; Tu, A T

1997-12-01

274

The Interactions of Human Neutrophils with Shiga Toxins and Related Plant Toxins: Danger or Safety?  

PubMed Central

Shiga toxins and ricin are well characterized similar toxins belonging to quite different biological kingdoms. Plant and bacteria have evolved the ability to produce these powerful toxins in parallel, while humans have evolved a defense system that recognizes molecular patterns common to foreign molecules through specific receptors expressed on the surface of the main actors of innate immunity, namely monocytes and neutrophils. The interactions between these toxins and neutrophils have been widely described and have stimulated intense debate. This paper is aimed at reviewing the topic, focusing particularly on implications for the pathogenesis and diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome. PMID:22741061

Brigotti, Maurizio

2012-01-01

275

INVESTIGATOIN OF CYANOBACTERIA TOXINS IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: Approximately 80 alkaloid and cyclic peptide toxins produced by various freshwater and marine cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) have been identified and their structures determined. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency has identified two neurotoxin alkalo...

276

Nanoanalysis of the arthropod neuro-toxins  

PubMed Central

Many kinds of venomous principles modulate physiological responses of mammalian signal transduction systems, on which they act selectively as enhancers, inhibitors or some other kind of effectors. These toxins become useful tools for physiological research. We have employed and characterized paralyzing toxins from the venom of spiders, insects and scorpions with a limited supply. We have developed rapid and sensitive mass spectrometric technology and applied for the identification of these toxins. Venom profiles are screened by MALDI-TOF fingerprinting analysis prior to purification of venomous components, then marked target toxins of small molecular mass (1000–5000) are characterized directly by means of mass spectrometric techniques such as Frit-FAB MS/MS, CID/PSD-TOF MS, Capil.-HPLC/Q-TOF MS/MS etc.

Nakajima, Terumi

2006-01-01

277

[Botulinum toxin in disabling dermatological diseases].  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin could represent nowadays a new treatment modality especially for cutaneous conditions in course of which conventional treatments remain unsuccessful. Besides palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis, botulinum toxin has demonstrated efficacy in different conditions associated with hyperhidrosis, such as dyshidrosis, multiple eccrine hidrocystomas, hidradenitis suppurativa, Frey syndrome, but also in different conditions worsened by hyperhidrosis such as Hailey-Hailey disease, Darier disease, inversed psoriasis, aquagenic palmoplantar keratoderma, pachyonychia congenital. Moreover, different cutaneous conditions associated with sensitive disorders and/or neurological involvements could benefit from botulinum toxin, for example anal fissures, leg ulcers, lichen simplex, notalgia paresthetica, vestibulitis. Endly, a case of cutis laxa was described where the patient was improved by cutaneous injections of botulinum toxin. PMID:19576479

Messikh, R; Atallah, L; Aubin, F; Humbert, P

2009-05-01

278

How Parkinsonian Toxins Dysregulate the Autophagy Machinery  

PubMed Central

Since their discovery, Parkinsonian toxins (6-hydroxydopamine, MPP+, paraquat, and rotenone) have been widely employed as in vivo and in vitro chemical models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alterations in mitochondrial homeostasis, protein quality control pathways, and more recently, autophagy/mitophagy have been implicated in neurotoxin models of PD. Here, we highlight the molecular mechanisms by which different PD toxins dysregulate autophagy/mitophagy and how alterations of these pathways play beneficial or detrimental roles in dopamine neurons. The convergent and divergent effects of PD toxins on mitochondrial function and autophagy/mitophagy are also discussed in this review. Furthermore, we propose new diagnostic tools and discuss how pharmacological modulators of autophagy/mitophagy can be developed as disease-modifying treatments for PD. Finally, we discuss the critical need to identify endogenous and synthetic forms of PD toxins and develop efficient health preventive programs to mitigate the risk of developing PD. PMID:24217228

Dagda, Ruben K.; Das Banerjee, Tania; Janda, Elzbieta

2013-01-01

279

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and\\/or oxy acids: [d-O-Leu-d-Ala-l-O-Val-l-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the

Per Einar Granum; Terje Lund

1997-01-01

280

The pyrogenic effect of scarlet fever toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scarlet fever toxin is pyrogenically active. The pyretic reaction can be inhibited with antiserum bothin vitro andin vivo. From the quantitative aspect the pyrogenicity neutralization point corresponds approximately to the equivalence point of\\u000a the flocculation reaction. The transmission of tolerance with the serum of tolerant animals failed. Tolerance was of short\\u000a duration; interruption of the series of toxin injections

V. Schuh

1965-01-01

281

Sea Anemone Toxins Affecting Potassium Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great diversity of K+ channels and their wide distribution in many tissues are associated with important functions in cardiac and neuronal excitability that are now better understood thanks to the discovery of animal toxins. During the past few decades, sea anemones have provided a variety of toxins acting on voltage-sensitive sodium and, more recently, potassium channels. Currently there are three major structural groups of sea anemone K+ channel (SAK) toxins that have been characterized. Radioligand binding and electrophysiological experiments revealed that each group contains peptides displaying selective activities for different subfamilies of K+ channels. Short (35-37 amino acids) peptides in the group I display pore blocking effects on Kv1 channels. Molecular interactions of SAK-I toxins, important for activity and binding on Kv1 channels, implicate a spot of three conserved amino acid residues (Ser, Lys, Tyr) surrounded by other less conserved residues. Long (58-59 amino acids) SAK-II peptides display both enzymatic and K+ channel inhibitory activities. Medium size (42-43 amino acid) SAK-III peptides are gating modifiers which interact either with cardiac HERG or Kv3 channels by altering their voltage-dependent properties. SAK-III toxins bind to the S3C region in the outer vestibule of Kv channels. Sea anemones have proven to be a rich source of pharmacological tools, and some of the SAK toxins are now useful drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

Diochot, Sylvie; Lazdunski, Michel

282

Inhibition of maize histone deacetylases by HC toxin, the host-selective toxin of Cochliobolus carbonum.  

PubMed

HC toxin, the host-selective toxin of the maize pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum, inhibited maize histone deacetylase (HD) at 2 microM. Chlamydocin, a related cyclic tetrapeptide, also inhibited HD activity. The toxins did not affect histone acetyltransferases. After partial purification of histone deacetylases HD1-A, HD1-B, and HD2 from germinating maize embryos, we demonstrated that the different enzymes were similarly inhibited by the toxins. Inhibitory activities were reversibly eliminated by treating toxins with 2-mercaptoethanol, presumably by modifying the carbonyl group of the epoxide-containing amino acid Aeo (2-amino-9,10-epoxy-8-oxodecanoic acid). Kinetic studies revealed that inhibition of HD was of the uncompetitive type and reversible. HC toxin, in which the epoxide group had been hydrolyzed, completely lost its inhibitory activity; when the carbonyl group of Aeo had been reduced to the corresponding alcohol, the modified toxin was less active than native toxin. In vivo treatment of embryos with HC toxin caused the accumulation of highly acetylated histone H4 subspecies and elevated acetate incorporation into H4 in susceptible-genotype embryos but not in the resistant genotype. HDs from chicken and the myxomycete Physarum polycephalum were also inhibited, indicating that the host selectivity of HC toxin is not determined by its inhibitory effect on HD. Consistent with these results, we propose a model in which HC toxin promotes the establishment of pathogenic compatibility between C. carbonum and maize by interfering with reversible histone acetylation, which is implicated in the control of fundamental cellular processes, such as chromatin structure, cell cycle progression, and gene expression. PMID:8535144

Brosch, G; Ransom, R; Lechner, T; Walton, J D; Loidl, P

1995-11-01

283

Inhibition of maize histone deacetylases by HC toxin, the host-selective toxin of Cochliobolus carbonum.  

PubMed Central

HC toxin, the host-selective toxin of the maize pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum, inhibited maize histone deacetylase (HD) at 2 microM. Chlamydocin, a related cyclic tetrapeptide, also inhibited HD activity. The toxins did not affect histone acetyltransferases. After partial purification of histone deacetylases HD1-A, HD1-B, and HD2 from germinating maize embryos, we demonstrated that the different enzymes were similarly inhibited by the toxins. Inhibitory activities were reversibly eliminated by treating toxins with 2-mercaptoethanol, presumably by modifying the carbonyl group of the epoxide-containing amino acid Aeo (2-amino-9,10-epoxy-8-oxodecanoic acid). Kinetic studies revealed that inhibition of HD was of the uncompetitive type and reversible. HC toxin, in which the epoxide group had been hydrolyzed, completely lost its inhibitory activity; when the carbonyl group of Aeo had been reduced to the corresponding alcohol, the modified toxin was less active than native toxin. In vivo treatment of embryos with HC toxin caused the accumulation of highly acetylated histone H4 subspecies and elevated acetate incorporation into H4 in susceptible-genotype embryos but not in the resistant genotype. HDs from chicken and the myxomycete Physarum polycephalum were also inhibited, indicating that the host selectivity of HC toxin is not determined by its inhibitory effect on HD. Consistent with these results, we propose a model in which HC toxin promotes the establishment of pathogenic compatibility between C. carbonum and maize by interfering with reversible histone acetylation, which is implicated in the control of fundamental cellular processes, such as chromatin structure, cell cycle progression, and gene expression. PMID:8535144

Brosch, G; Ransom, R; Lechner, T; Walton, J D; Loidl, P

1995-01-01

284

Conformational changes and loose packing promote E. coli Tryptophanase cold lability  

PubMed Central

Background Oligomeric enzymes can undergo a reversible loss of activity at low temperatures. One such enzyme is tryptophanase (Trpase) from Escherichia coli. Trpase is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent tetrameric enzyme with a Mw of 210 kD. PLP is covalently bound through an enamine bond to Lys270 at the active site. The incubation of holo E. coli Trpases at 2°C for 20 h results in breaking this enamine bond and PLP release, as well as a reversible loss of activity and dissociation into dimers. This sequence of events is termed cold lability and its understanding bears relevance to protein stability and shelf life. Results We studied the reversible cold lability of E. coli Trpase and its Y74F, C298S and W330F mutants. In contrast to the holo E. coli Trpase all apo forms of Trpase dissociated into dimers already at 25°C and even further upon cooling to 2°C. The crystal structures of the two mutants, Y74F and C298S in their apo form were determined at 1.9Å resolution. These apo mutants were found in an open conformation compared to the closed conformation found for P. vulgaris in its holo form. This conformational change is further supported by a high pressure study. Conclusion We suggest that cold lability of E. coli Trpases is primarily affected by PLP release. The enhanced loss of activity of the three mutants is presumably due to the reduced size of the side chain of the amino acids. This prevents the tight assembly of the active tetramer, making it more susceptible to the cold driven changes in hydrophobic interactions which facilitate PLP release. The hydrophobic interactions along the non catalytic interface overshadow the effect of point mutations and may account for the differences in the dissociation of E. coli Trpase to dimers and P. vulgaris Trpase to monomers. PMID:19814824

Kogan, Anna; Gdalevsky, Garik Y; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Goldgur, Yehuda; Phillips, Robert S; Parola, Abraham H; Almog, Orna

2009-01-01

285

Core-Shell Hydrogel Particles Harvest, Concentrate and Preserve Labile Low Abundance Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Background The blood proteome is thought to represent a rich source of biomarkers for early stage disease detection. Nevertheless, three major challenges have hindered biomarker discovery: a) candidate biomarkers exist at extremely low concentrations in blood; b) high abundance resident proteins such as albumin mask the rare biomarkers; c) biomarkers are rapidly degraded by endogenous and exogenous proteinases. Methodology and Principal Findings Hydrogel nanoparticles created with a N-isopropylacrylamide based core (365 nm)-shell (167 nm) and functionalized with a charged based bait (acrylic acid) were studied as a technology for addressing all these biomarker discovery problems, in one step, in solution. These harvesting core-shell nanoparticles are designed to simultaneously conduct size exclusion and affinity chromatography in solution. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), a clinically relevant, highly labile, and very low abundance biomarker, was chosen as a model. PDGF, spiked in human serum, was completely sequestered from its carrier protein albumin, concentrated, and fully preserved, within minutes by the particles. Particle sequestered PDGF was fully protected from exogenously added tryptic degradation. When the nanoparticles were added to a 1 mL dilute solution of PDGF at non detectable levels (less than 20 picograms per mL) the concentration of the PDGF released from the polymeric matrix of the particles increased within the detection range of ELISA and mass spectrometry. Beyond PDGF, the sequestration and protection from degradation for a series of additional very low abundance and very labile cytokines were verified. Conclusions and Significance We envision the application of harvesting core-shell nanoparticles to whole blood for concentration and immediate preservation of low abundance and labile analytes at the time of venipuncture. PMID:19274087

Longo, Caterina; Patanarut, Alexis; George, Tony; Bishop, Barney; Zhou, Weidong; Fredolini, Claudia; Ross, Mark M.; Espina, Virginia; Pellacani, Giovanni; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Luchini, Alessandra

2009-01-01

286

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition-the roles of cell morphology, labile adhesion and junctional coupling.  

PubMed

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process during development and disease, including development of the heart valves and tumour metastases. An extended cellular Potts model was implemented to represent the behaviour emerging from autonomous cell morphology, labile adhesion, junctional coupling and cell motility. Computer simulations normally focus on these functional changes independently whereas this model facilitates exploration of the interplay between cell shape changes, adhesion and migration. The simulation model is fitted to an in vitro model of endocardial EMT, and agrees with the finding that Notch signalling increases cell-matrix adhesion in addition to modulating cell-cell adhesion. PMID:23787029

Abdulla, Tariq; Luna-Zurita, Luis; de la Pompa, José Luis; Schleich, Jean-Marc; Summers, Ron

2013-08-01

287

Coordination assemblies of polyoxomolybdate cluster framework: from labile building blocks to stable functional materials.  

PubMed

Polyoxomolybdates, an important branch in polyoxometalates chemistry, present complicated solution chemistry and unmatched physicochemical properties, which endows us with both great opportunities and considerable challenges in creating new functional materials. This perspective highlights the recent development on the coordination assembly of transition-metal-substituted heteropolymolybdates by using labile lacunary heteropolymolybdates as inorganic multidentate ligands. A series of strategies have been used to stabilize the lacunary heteropolymolybdate building blocks. Finally, we introduce some researches on the modification of polymolybdates by organic groups in aqueous media, which may shed light on the green chemistry of the functionalization of polyoxomolybdates. PMID:21321727

Li, Fengyan; Xu, Lin

2011-04-28

288

Enantiomeric Excesses of Acid Labile Amino Acid Precursors of the Murchison Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids present in carbonaceous chondrite are extracted in water in part as free compounds and in approximately equal part as acid labile precursors. On the assumption that they would be free of contamination, the precursors of two Murchison amino acids that have terrestrial occurrence, alanine and glutamic acid, have been targeted for analysis of their enantiomeric ratios. Pyroglutamic acid, the precursor of glutamic acid, was found with an L-enantiomeric excess comparable to that of the free acid, while alanine's precursor, N-acetyl alanine, appears approximately racemic. Also alpha-imino propioacetic acid, a proposed end product of alanine synthesis in the meteorite, was analyzed and found racemic.

Pizzarello, Sandra

1998-01-01

289

Changes in water content of two agricultural soils does not alter labile P and C pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims  An incubation study was conducted to investigate how changes in soil water content affect labile phosphorus and carbon pools,\\u000a mineralisation patterns and microbial community composition.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Two soils from different climatic histories were subjected to four long-term (15 weeks) soil water regimes (constant field\\u000a capacity (m); 3 dry-rewet (DRW) cycles evenly spaced (intermittent, int); 3 DRW cycles with a shorter interval after

Clayton R. Butterly; Ann M. McNeill; Jeff A. Baldock; Petra Marschner

290

Organic chemistry of basal ice - presence of labile, low molecular weight compounds available for microbial metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies show that subglacial environments previously thought to be devoid of life contain a host of active microbial organisms. Presence of liquid water due to overburden pressure, the release of nutrients from chemical erosion of bedrock, and the potential carbon sources in overridden sediments facilitate life in this extreme environment. However, little is still known of concentrations and diversity of labile organic compounds essential for sustaining microbial metabolism in subglacial environments. Three subglacial ecosystems that considerably differ in range and amount of available organic compounds were selected for this study 1-Engabreen, northern Norway, overlying high-grade metamorphic rocks with low organic carbon content; 2-Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, overriding ancient black shales with a relatively high carbon content yet recalcitrant to microbiological consumption; and 3-Russell Glacier in western Greenland with recently overridden quaternary organic rich paleosols. Basal and pressure ridge ice samples were collected and subsequently analysed for low molecular weight organic compounds, with the emphasis on volatile fatty acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. The highest concentration of labile organic compounds in Greenland basal ice suggest that recently overridden paleosols have the greatest potential for sustaining microbial populations present within and underneath basal ice. The high concentration of "ancient" organic carbon in basal ice from Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, doesn't correlate with the presence of labile organic compounds. This indicates the inability of microbes to digest recalcitrant kerogen carbon in cold temperatures. In all three investigated environments, concentrations of labile organic compounds are elevated in basal ice with a high debris content. Until recently, most models of the global carbon cycle tend to neglect the pool of subglacial organic carbon as little is known about the range and concentrations of organic compounds as well as the composition of microbial communities and their ability to degrade and metabolize organic carbon at low temperatures. Recently overridden paleosols in western Greenland may serve as a biogeochemical model for vast pool of organic carbon from areas of boreal forest and tundra overridden during the Quaternary glacial cycles.

Lis, Grzegorz P.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Lawson, Emily; Stibal, Marek; Telling, Jon

2010-05-01

291

A biomimetic nanosponge that absorbs pore-forming toxins.  

PubMed

Detoxification treatments such as toxin-targeted anti-virulence therapy offer ways to cleanse the body of virulence factors that are caused by bacterial infections, venomous injuries and biological weaponry. Because existing detoxification platforms such as antisera, monoclonal antibodies, small-molecule inhibitors and molecularly imprinted polymers act by targeting the molecular structures of toxins, customized treatments are required for different diseases. Here, we show a biomimetic toxin nanosponge that functions as a toxin decoy in vivo. The nanosponge, which consists of a polymeric nanoparticle core surrounded by red blood cell membranes, absorbs membrane-damaging toxins and diverts them away from their cellular targets. In a mouse model, the nanosponges markedly reduce the toxicity of staphylococcal alpha-haemolysin (?-toxin) and thus improve the survival rate of toxin-challenged mice. This biologically inspired toxin nanosponge presents a detoxification treatment that can potentially treat a variety of injuries and diseases caused by pore-forming toxins. PMID:23584215

Hu, Che-Ming J; Fang, Ronnie H; Copp, Jonathan; Luk, Brian T; Zhang, Liangfang

2013-05-01

292

A biomimetic nanosponge that absorbs pore-forming toxins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detoxification treatments such as toxin-targeted anti-virulence therapy offer ways to cleanse the body of virulence factors that are caused by bacterial infections, venomous injuries and biological weaponry. Because existing detoxification platforms such as antisera, monoclonal antibodies, small-molecule inhibitors and molecularly imprinted polymers act by targeting the molecular structures of toxins, customized treatments are required for different diseases. Here, we show a biomimetic toxin nanosponge that functions as a toxin decoy in vivo. The nanosponge, which consists of a polymeric nanoparticle core surrounded by red blood cell membranes, absorbs membrane-damaging toxins and diverts them away from their cellular targets. In a mouse model, the nanosponges markedly reduce the toxicity of staphylococcal alpha-haemolysin (?-toxin) and thus improve the survival rate of toxin-challenged mice. This biologically inspired toxin nanosponge presents a detoxification treatment that can potentially treat a variety of injuries and diseases caused by pore-forming toxins.

Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Copp, Jonathan; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang

2013-05-01

293

Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor acid-labile subunit as a potential biomarker of effect for deoxynivalenol-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression.  

PubMed

Consumption of the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) suppresses growth in experimental animals - an adverse effect that was used to establish the tolerable daily intake for this toxin. DON ingestion has been recently found to suppress plasma insulin-like growth factor acid-labile subunit (IGFALS), a protein essential for growth. Studies were conducted to explore the feasibility of using plasma IGFALS as a biomarker of effect for DON. In the first study, weanling mice were fed 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 ppm DON and weight and plasma IGFALS determined at intervals over 9 wk. Reduced body weight gains were detectable beginning at wk 5 in the 10 ppm dose and wk 7 at the 5 ppm dose. Plasma IGFALS was significantly depressed at wk 5 in the 5 and 10 ppm groups at wk 9 in the 10 ppm group. Depressed IGFALS significantly correlated with reduced body weight at wk 5 and 9. Benchmark dose modeling revealed the BMDL and BMD for plasma IGFALS reduction were 1.1 and 3.0 ppm DON and for weight reduction were 2.1 and 4.5 ppm DON. In the second study, it was demonstrated that mice fed 15 ppm DON diet had significantly less plasma IGFALS than mice fed identical amounts of control diet. Thus DON's influence on IGFALS likely reflects the combined effects of reduced food intake as well as its physiological action involving suppressors of cytokine signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that plasma IGFALS might be a useful biomarker for DON's adverse effects on growth. PMID:23298694

Flannery, Brenna M; Amuzie, Chidozie J; Pestka, James J

2013-02-01

294

Evaluation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Acid-Labile Subunit as a Potential Biomarker of Effect for Deoxynivalenol-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression  

PubMed Central

Consumption of the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) suppresses growth in experimental animals - an adverse effect that was used to establish the tolerable daily intake for this toxin. DON ingestion has been recently found to suppress plasma insulin-like growth factor acid-labile subunit (IGFALS), a protein essential for growth. Studies were conducted to explore the feasibility of using plasma IGFALS as a biomarker of effect for DON. In the first study, weanling mice were fed 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 ppm DON and weight and plasma IGFALS determined at intervals over 9 wk. Reduced body weight gains were detectable beginning at wk 5 in the 10 ppm dose and wk 7 at the 5 ppm dose. Plasma IGFALS was significantly depressed at wk 5 in the 5 and 10 ppm groups at wk 9 in the 10 ppm group. Depressed IGFALS significantly correlated with reduced body weight at wk 5 and 9. Benchmark dose modeling revealed the BMDL and BMD for plasma IGFALS reduction were 1.1 and 3.0 ppm DON and for weight reduction were 2.1 and 4.5 ppm DON. In the second study, it was demonstrated that mice fed 15 ppm DON diet had significantly less plasma IGFALS than mice fed identical amounts of control diet. Thus DON’s influence on IGFALS likely reflects the combined effects of reduced food intake as well as its physiological action involving suppressors of cytokine signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that plasma IGFALS might be a useful biomarker for DON’s adverse effects on growth. PMID:23298694

Flannery, Brenna M.; Amuzie, Chidozie J.; Pestka, James J.

2013-01-01

295

Exposure to anthrax toxin alters human leucocyte expression of anthrax toxin receptor 1  

PubMed Central

Anthrax is a toxin-mediated disease, the lethal effects of which are initiated by the binding of protective antigen (PA) with one of three reported cell surface toxin receptors (ANTXR). Receptor binding has been shown to influence host susceptibility to the toxins. Despite this crucial role for ANTXR in the outcome of disease, and the reported immunomodulatory consequence of the anthrax toxins during infection, little is known about ANTXR expression on human leucocytes. We characterized the expression levels of ANTXR1 (TEM8) on human leucocytes using flow cytometry. In order to assess the effect of prior toxin exposure on ANTXR1 expression levels, leucocytes from individuals with no known exposure, those exposed to toxin through vaccination and convalescent individuals were analysed. Donors could be defined as either ‘low’ or ‘high’ expressers based on the percentage of ANTXR1-positive monocytes detected. Previous exposure to toxins appears to modulate ANTXR1 expression, exposure through active infection being associated with lower receptor expression. A significant correlation between low receptor expression and high anthrax toxin-specific interferon (IFN)-? responses was observed in previously infected individuals. We propose that there is an attenuation of ANTXR1 expression post-infection which may be a protective mechanism that has evolved to prevent reinfection. PMID:23607659

Ingram, R J; Harris, A; Ascough, S; Metan, G; Doganay, M; Ballie, L; Williamson, E D; Dyson, H; Robinson, J H; Sriskandan, S; Altmann, D M

2013-01-01

296

[Botulinum toxin therapy for spasticity].  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin (BTX) administered as an adjunct to other interventions for spasticity can act as a useful and effective therapeutic tool for treating patients disabled by spasticity. Presence of other non-reflex motor disorders (muscle stiffness, shortness, and contracture) can complicate the clinical course and disturb rehabilitative process of patients with spasticity. Treatment of spasticity using BTX can improve paralysis by correcting muscular imbalance that follows these diseases. In patients with chronic severe spasticity, we also have to address unique and difficult-to-treat clinical conditions such as abnormal posture and movement disorders. The effectiveness of BTX in treating some of these conditions is discussed. Because patients with neurological disabilities can show complex dysfunctions, specific functional limitations, goals, and expected outcomes of treatment should be evaluated and discussed with the patient, family members, and caregivers, prior to initiating BTX therapy. BTX therapy might improve not only care, passive function, but also motor functions in these patients by supplementing intensive rehabilitation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct-current stimulation, peripheral electrical stimulation, muscle stretching, and other rehabilitation strategies. PMID:25200575

Masakado, Yoshihisa

2014-09-01

297

Relationship between the lability of sediment-bound metals (Cd, Cu, Zn) and their bioaccumulation in benthic invertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study has investigated metal contamination at nine sites (10 sampling stations) from the English Channel to the Mediterranean Sea, including low level and highly contaminated sediments. Both total and labile concentrations of metals were determined in superficial sediments. The influence of different pHs was tested and metal lability at pHs encountered in the gut of invertebrates (the ragworm Nereis diversicolor, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas) was compared with the distribution of metals in various operationally defined geochemical fractions. Cd showed the highest lability and Cu the lowest, whereas Zn lability was intermediate. Metal concentrations were determined in bivalves at six sites and in worms at three sites. Cd in living organisms and labile Cd in sediments increased in proportion over the gradient of contamination. This relationship did not always hold for Cu and Zn and these exceptions are discussed. Even if sediments are not the only source of metal contamination in marine invertebrates, the procedure proposed here to assess metal bioavailability by remobilising sediment-bound metals at physiological pHs, seems a significant improvement of the existing methodologies of risk assessment.

Amiard, J.-C.; Geffard, A.; Amiard-Triquet, C.; Crouzet, C.

2007-04-01

298

Labile capping bonds in lanthanide(III) complexes: shorter and weaker.  

PubMed

For a wide range of trivalent lanthanide ion coordination complexes of tricapped trigonal prism or monocapped square antiprism configurations, the bonds between the central lanthanide ions and the capping ligands are found to violate Badger's rule: they can get weaker as they get shorter. We demonstrate that this observation originates from the screening and repulsion effect of the prism ligands. Both effects enhance as the electric field of the central ion or the softness of the prism ligands increases. Thus, for heavier lanthanides, despite the fact that the capping bond could be shorter, it is more efficient to be weakened by the prism ligands, being inherently labile. This concept of "labile capping bonds phenomenon" is then successfully used to interpret many problems in lanthanide(III) hydration, e.g., why the water exchange rate of a lanthanide(III) complex is much higher in a twisted square antiprism than in square antiprism configuration. Thus, the theory proposed in this paper offers new insights in understanding chemical problems. PMID:25547783

Zhang, Jun; Dolg, Michael

2015-01-29

299

Determination of the Labile Iron Pool of Human Lymphocytes using the Fluorescent Probe, CP655  

PubMed Central

The present study introduces a method for determining the labile iron pool (LIP) in human lymphocytes. It is measured using the probe CP655, the fluorescence of which is stoichiometrically quenched by the addition of iron. The intracellular CP655 fluorescence in lymphocytes was quenched by increasing intracellular iron concentrations using the highly lipophilic 8-hydroxyquinoline iron complex. Intracellular fluorescence quenching, mediated by the physiological intracellular labile iron, can be recovered on the addition of excess membrane-permeable iron chelator, CP94. The intracellular probe concentration was measured using laser scanning microscopy. An ex situ calibration was performed in a “cytosolic” medium based on the determined intracellular CP655 concentration and probe fluorescence quenching in the presence of iron. The concentration of the LIP of healthy human lymphocytes was determined to be 0.57 ± 0.27 ?M. The use of the fluorescent probe CP655 renders it possible to record the time course of iron uptake and iron chelation by CP94 in single intact lymphocytes. PMID:19662178

Ma, Yongmin; Liu, Zudong; Hider, Robert C; Petrat, Frank

2007-01-01

300

Constraints on Transport and Emplacement Mechanisms of Labile Fractions in Lunar Cold Traps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sustaining the scientific exploration of the Solar System will require a significant proportion of the necessary fuels and propellants, as well as other bulk commodities, to be produced from local raw materials [1]. The viability of mineral production depends on the ability to locate and characterize mineable deposits of the necessary feedstocks. This requires, among other things, a workable understanding of the mechanisms by which such deposits form, which is the subject of Economic Geology. Multiple deposition scenarios are possible for labile materials on the Moon. This paper suggests labile fractions moved diffusely through space; deposits may grow richer with depth until low porosity rock; lateral transport is likely to have occurred with the regolith, at least for short distances; crystalline ice may not exist; the constituent phases could be extremely complex. At present we can constrain the sources only mildly; once on the Moon, the transport mechanisms inherently mix and therefore obscure the origins. However, the importance of expanding our understanding of ore-forming processes on the Moon behooves us to make the attempt. Thus begins a time of new inquiry for Economic Geology.

Rickman, D.; Gertsch, L.

2014-01-01

301

Psychometric properties of a short form of the Affective Lability Scale (ALS-18)  

PubMed Central

Psychometric properties of a short form of the Affective Lability Scale (ALS) that was developed in a nonclinical sample (i.e., undergraduate students) were examined in a sample of people diagnosed with Cluster B DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders (n=236), other personality disorders (n=180), and healthy comparison participants (n=164). The total score of the ALS-18 score correlated strongly with the original 54-item scale (r = .97) and aspects of convergent and discriminant validity of the ALS-18 subscales (Anxiety/Depression, Depression/Elation, and Anger) were evaluated using self-report measures of affective and psychosocial functioning in the domains of affect intensity, anxiety, anger, and minimization/denial. Clinical utility of the scale was also demonstrated; participants diagnosed with Cluster B personality disorders reported higher affective lability scores, and healthy control participants reported lower scores, relative to individuals with Cluster A or Cluster C personality disorders (p’s < .001). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted and demonstrated reasonably good fit to the data but future research is needed to test the three factor substructure of the ALS-18 against alternative factor models in samples that include clinical and non-clinical participants. PMID:20606710

Look, Amy E.; Flory, Janine D.; Harvey, Philip D.; Siever, Larry J.

2010-01-01

302

[Effects of stand structure regulation on soil labile organic carbon in Pinus elliottii plantation].  

PubMed

Taking 21-year-old Pinus elliottii pure plantation as the control, effects of enrichment planting with broadleaf trees (Liquidambar fornosana) after thinning the conifer trees (P. elliottii) on soil labile organic carbon of different plantations, including 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old P. elliottii and 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantations, were investigated. The results showed that the contents of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) significantly increased in the 6-year-old and 9-year-old plantations compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. Soil labile organic carbon contents in the 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantation increased significantly than those in 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old stands, and the DOC, ROC and MBC contents increased by 113.1%, 53.3% and 54.6%, respectively, compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. The results suggested that replanting with broadleaf trees are an effective measure to improve the soil ecological function in pure P. elliottii plantation. PMID:25129929

Tan, Gui-Xia; Liu, Yuan-Qiu; Li, Lian-Lian; Liu, Wu; Zan, Yu-Ting; Huo, Bing-Nan; He, Mu-Jiao

2014-05-01

303

Lack of correlation between non-labile iron parameters, total carbonyl and malondialdehyde in major thalassemia  

PubMed Central

Thalassemia patients are at high risk of iron-induced toxicity and oxidative stress consequences. The present cross-sectional study is conducted to determine whether or not lipid peroxidation or protein oxidation is correlated with iron parameters in patients with thalassemia major. To prove this hypothesis, malondialdehyde and total carbonyl were correlated with the degree of excess iron concentration in the patients. A total of 118 Arabic Iraqi patients and 30 healthy children were participated in the present study. Results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum total carbonyls, malondialdehyde and the iron indices of patients as compared with the control group. Total iron binding capacity and transferrin concentrations decreased significantly (p<0.05) in patients with thalassemia compared with the control group. The results also showed a lack of a significant correlation between each serum malondialdehyde and total carbonyl with each component of iron status. In conclusion, total carbonyls and malondialdehyde were increased in thalassemia patients indicating the vulnerability of these patients to tissue injury caused by oxidative stress. The formation of total carbonyl and malondialdehyde are independent of excess non-labile iron concentration, indicating that different mechanisms are involved in injury caused by the labile iron and in the formation of oxidation end products. PMID:25411527

Al-Hakeim, Hussein Kadhem; Auda, Furqan Muein; Ali, Basim Muhammed

2014-01-01

304

Lack of correlation between non-labile iron parameters, total carbonyl and malondialdehyde in major thalassemia.  

PubMed

Thalassemia patients are at high risk of iron-induced toxicity and oxidative stress consequences. The present cross-sectional study is conducted to determine whether or not lipid peroxidation or protein oxidation is correlated with iron parameters in patients with thalassemia major. To prove this hypothesis, malondialdehyde and total carbonyl were correlated with the degree of excess iron concentration in the patients. A total of 118 Arabic Iraqi patients and 30 healthy children were participated in the present study. Results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum total carbonyls, malondialdehyde and the iron indices of patients as compared with the control group. Total iron binding capacity and transferrin concentrations decreased significantly (p<0.05) in patients with thalassemia compared with the control group. The results also showed a lack of a significant correlation between each serum malondialdehyde and total carbonyl with each component of iron status. In conclusion, total carbonyls and malondialdehyde were increased in thalassemia patients indicating the vulnerability of these patients to tissue injury caused by oxidative stress. The formation of total carbonyl and malondialdehyde are independent of excess non-labile iron concentration, indicating that different mechanisms are involved in injury caused by the labile iron and in the formation of oxidation end products. PMID:25411527

Al-Hakeim, Hussein Kadhem; Auda, Furqan Muein; Ali, Basim Muhammed

2014-11-01

305

Cu lability and bioavailability in an urban stream during baseflow versus stormflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban streams are dynamic systems with many anthropogenic inputs and stressors. Existing contaminant inputs are regulated through total maximum daily loads. Techniques for assessing that load are based on a combination of acute and chronic water quality criteria, biotic ligand models, and physical, chemical and biological assessments. In addition, the apportionment of reduction in load to different sources is based on total mass and not, for example, on bioavailable fraction. Our understanding of the impact of different metal inputs to stream impairment is limited. Free metal ions are understood to play a role in direct cellular uptake, but metal speciation (e.g. free metal, labile metals, or size fractionated) is relevant to more complex stream food webs. As part of an ongoing study, this work examines dissolved and particulate Cu concentrations in the Hockanum River, Vernon, CT situated in a developed watershed. Stream samples were taken during baseflow as well as stormflow upstream and downstream of wastewater treatment plant and stormwater runoff inputs. In addition, diffusive gradient in thin-film (DGT) devices which measure labile metal concentrations and cultured periphyton were used to examine bioavailable fractions. Total and filtered Cu concentrations ranged from about 1.3 to 10.7 ?g/L, and 0.9 to 5.1 ?g/L, respectively. Cu concentrations always increased downstream of the wastewater treatment plant by about 1.1-2 times, and effluent accounted for about 30% of baseflow. Generally, small increases (<10%) in concentration were observed in metals directly downstream of stormwater inlets, likely due to low volumes of runoff contributed from stormwater outfalls during these sampling periods. However, Cu concentrations were elevated (about 2-5 times higher) at all sites downstream from the wastewater treatment plant downstream sampling point, suggesting contributions from sediment resuspension. DGT measured concentrations represented 30 to 70% of dissolved Cu concentrations, and that percentage increased in the days following a storm, suggesting more labile Cu compounds remained in the water column longer. Whereas solution metal concentrations in stormwater influenced reaches did not largely change upstream versus downstream, concentrations of Cu in periphyton cultures increased 2-fold downstream of a stormwater input. This is likely due to differences in discrete sampling locations, but indicates the potential importance of resuspended sediment on enhancing metal bioavailability. These results suggest that legacy sediment contamination is contributing to water column Cu concentrations. Downstream Cu concentrations are elevated compared to near the wastewater treatment plant effluent but are mostly unchanged before and after stormwater inputs. In addition, DGT concentrations indicate a shift in percentage of labile metals, in part distinguished based on size exclusion by the DGT device, following a storm event. As total dissolved Cu concentration decreases, labile Cu increases likely due to settling or size dependent partitioning to the solid phases such as periphyton. Understanding the transport and bioavailability of size dependent Cu compounds in stream water is important to allocating resources to mitigate metal contamination.

Vadas, T.; Luan, H.

2012-12-01

306

Analysis of remineralisation, lability, temperature sensitivity and structural composition of organic matter from the upper ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic carbon (OC) synthesised by plankton is exported out of the surface layer as particulate (POC) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon. This 'biological pump' constitutes a major pathway in the global marine carbon cycle, each year exporting about 10 Pg C into the ocean interior, where it is subsequently remineralised via biological decomposition. Remineralised inorganic nutrients and carbon are, ultimately, again brought to the surface by advection and turbulent mixing which closes the OC-cycle in the upper ocean. Thus, remineralisation rates of OC are a critical component of the biological pump. These rates are regulated by the lability of the material and the environmental conditions in the ambient water. Temperature is particularly important in regulating the rate of microbial respiration and, thus, remineralisation rates. A significant temperature dependence of the microbial metabolic activity in the ocean interior is expected, as this is a feature observed elsewhere in the biosphere. Such temperature dependence of microbial remineralisation of POC and DOC will alter the amount of material available for transport by the biological pump to the deep ocean. Very few studies on the lability of OC and temperature sensitivity of microbial degradation processes in the mesopelagic zone (?100-1000 m) have, to date, been carried out. Here, we present a comprehensive new experimental data set from all major ocean basins and quantify remineralisation rates of OC and their temperature sensitivity in long-term incubations of water from the upper 350 m. Microbial respiration was measured by non-invasive oxygen optodes and oxygen consumption was used as a constraint for determining the remineralisation rates and temperature sensitivity by two complementary methods. First, we analysed the oxygen consumption from a multi-component OC-model where the concentration, remineralisation rates and temperature sensitivity of two bio-available (labile) pools of organic carbon were fitted to the data via a non-linear fitting procedure. Thereafter, a continuous OC-model was fitted to the data through an inverse method and information about lability, temperature sensitivity and structural composition of the OC-pool was analysed together with the results from the two-pool solutions. Median values of remineralisation rates from all experiments on material characterising sinking POC were found to be 0.6 and 0.05 days-1 for the two decomposable pools corresponding to turnover times of 2 and 21 days, respectively. Accordingly, solutions from the continuous model resulted in median turnover times between 6 and 11 days. Similar analyses were carried out for the OC-pool characterising DOC. A significant bio-available OC-pool was found to be present in the surface layer with a median value from all experiments of 30 ?M TOC. The median values of all remineralisation rates from the two bio-available OC-pools were found to be 0.2 and 0.02 days-1, corresponding to turnover times of 5 and 56 days, respectively, in good agreement with previous studies. The corresponding temperature sensitivities, characterised by a Q10-value, were found to be about 1.9 for the POC-fraction whereas the DOC fraction was characterised with values above 2.8 for the continuous OC-models. The analysis of the structural composition indicated that the TOC distribution in the surface layer was characterised by more heterogeneous material in terms of lability compared with the POC material sampled from the upper 350 m. Finally, we analyse the potential impact of the calculated temperature sensitivity on the general OC-cycling in the upper ocean and show that the implied reduction in OC-flux in a warmer ocean may have significant impact on nutrient cycling in general and also tends to reduce future ocean carbon uptake significantly.

Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.; Richardson, Katherine

2015-01-01

307

Genetic characteristics of toxigenic Clostridia and toxin gene evolution.  

PubMed

Clostridia comprise a heterogenous group of environmental bacteria containing 15 pathogenic species, which produce the most potent toxins. The origin of toxins is still enigmatic. It is hypothesized that toxins exhibiting an enzymatic activity have derived from hydrolytic enzymes, which are abundantly secreted by these bacteria, and that pore-forming toxins have evolved from an ancestor transmembrane protein. The presence of related toxin genes in distinct Clostridium species and the variability of some toxin genes support horizontal toxin gene transfer and subsequent independent evolution from strain to strain. Clostridium perfringens toxin genes involved in myonecrosis, mainly alpha toxin and perfringolysin genes, are chromosomally located, whereas toxin genes responsible for intestinal and food borne diseases are localized on plasmids except the enterotoxin gene which can be located either on the chromosome or plasmids. The distribution of these plasmids containing one or several toxin genes accounts for the diverse C. perfringens toxinotypes. Clostridium difficile strains show a high genetic variability. But in contrast to C. perfringens, toxin genes are clustered in pathogenicity locus located on chromosome. The presence of related toxin genes in distinct clostridial species like Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium novyi, and C. perfringens supports interspecies mobilization of this locus. The multiple C. difficile toxinotypes based on toxin gene variants possibly reflect strain adaptation to the intestinal environment. Botulinum toxin genes also show a high level of genetic variation. They have a diverse genetic localization including chromosome, plasmid or phage, and are spread in various Clostridium species (Clostridium botulinum groups, Clostridium argentinense, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium baratii). Exchange of toxin genes not only include transfers between Clostridium species but also between Clostridium and other bacterial species as well as eukaryotic cells as supported by the wide distribution of related pore-forming toxins of the aerolysin family in various clostridial and non-clostridial species, animal, mushroom and plant. PMID:23707611

Popoff, Michel R; Bouvet, Philippe

2013-12-01

308

Array biosensor for detection of toxins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The array biosensor is capable of detecting multiple targets rapidly and simultaneously on the surface of a single waveguide. Sandwich and competitive fluoroimmunoassays have been developed to detect high and low molecular weight toxins, respectively, in complex samples. Recognition molecules (usually antibodies) were first immobilized in specific locations on the waveguide and the resultant patterned array was used to interrogate up to 12 different samples for the presence of multiple different analytes. Upon binding of a fluorescent analyte or fluorescent immunocomplex, the pattern of fluorescent spots was detected using a CCD camera. Automated image analysis was used to determine a mean fluorescence value for each assay spot and to subtract the local background signal. The location of the spot and its mean fluorescence value were used to determine the toxin identity and concentration. Toxins were measured in clinical fluids, environmental samples and foods, with minimal sample preparation. Results are shown for rapid analyses of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, ricin, cholera toxin, botulinum toxoids, trinitrotoluene, and the mycotoxin fumonisin. Toxins were detected at levels as low as 0.5 ng mL(-1).

Ligler, Frances S.; Taitt, Chris Rowe; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Shubin, Yura; Golden, Joel P.

2003-01-01

309

[Botulinum toxin in focal hyperhidrosis. An update].  

PubMed

Eight years after its approval, intralesional injections of botulinum toxin type A have become established as an easily performed, highly effective and almost complication-free therapeutic option in primary axillary hyperhidrosis. Sweat production is decreased to about a sixth of previous amounts, and the effect persists for 7 months on average. Restoration of the often significantly impaired quality of life has been convincingly documented in large studies. The effect of botulinum toxin is based on the inhibition of the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft. In addition to this approved use, botulinum toxin is also successfully employed in other forms of focal hyperhidrosis, particularly in gustatory sweating. However, its use in palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, the second most common form of primary hyperhidrosis, is limited because of the pain from numerous injections, need for increased doses of the expensive toxin and the relatively short effective period of about 4 months. Botulinum toxin type B appears to be comparably effective as type A products but is more often associated with systemic adverse events. PMID:22638981

Hosp, C; Naumann, M K; Hamm, H

2012-06-01

310

Labile trace elements in basaltic achondrites: Can they distinguish between meteorites from the Moon, Mars, and V-type asteroids?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report data for 14 mainly labile trace elements (Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn) in eight whole-rock lunar meteorites (Asuka [A-] 881757, Dar al Gani [DaG] 262, Elephant Moraine [EET] 87521, Queen Alexandra Range [QUE] 93069, QUE 94269, QUE 94281, Yamato [Y-] 793169, and Y-981031), and Martian meteorite (DaG 476) and incorporate these into a comparative study of basaltic meteorites from the Moon, Mars, and V-type asteroids. Multivariate cluster analysis of data for these elements in 14 lunar, 13 Martian, and 34 howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites demonstrate that materials from these three parents are distinguishable using these markers of late, low-temperature episodes. This distinguishability is essentially as complete as that based on markers of high-temperature igneous processes. Concentrations of these elements in 14 lunar meteorites are essentially lognormally distributed and generally more homogeneous than in Martian and HED meteorites. Mean siderophile and labile element concentrations in the 14 lunar meteorites indicate the presence of a CI-equivalent micrometeorite admixture of 2.6% When only feldspathic samples are considered, our data show a slightly higher value of 3.4% consistent with an increasing micrometeorite content in regolith samples of higher maturity. Concentrations of labile elements in the 8 feldspathic samples hint at the presence of a fractionated highly labile element component, possibly volcanic in origin, at a level comparable to the micrometeorite component. Apparently, the process(es) that contributed to establishing lunar meteorite siderophile and labile trace element contents occurred in a system open to highly labile element transport.

Wolf, Stephen F.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

2009-06-01

311

Thermal degradation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in scallop digestive glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestive glands containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were isolated from toxic scallops. Citrate\\/phosphate buffers with the pH values ranging from 3 to 7 were added to achieve predetermined pH levels. The samples were heated at 90, 100, 110, 120 and 130°C using a computer controlled oil bath, and three tubes at each pH level were transferred into an ice

W. M Indrasena; T. A Gill

1999-01-01

312

Enterotoxigenicity of diarrhoeal isolates of Salmonella bareilly.  

PubMed

Whole cell cultures, cell-free supernatants, and cell sonicates from ten strains of Salmonella bareilly induced fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit and rat ileal loops. All strains had an intracellular vascular permeability factor, half were suckling mouse positive indicating the presence of a heat-stable type of activity. The toxin(s), however, were Immunologically distinct from the heat-labile toxin of Escherichia coll LT and cholera toxin. Besides enterotoxigenicity, all strains exhibited potential Invasive character. PMID:24425137

Vashisht, N; Sharma, K D; Saxena, M

1991-07-01

313

Antibodies against recombinant shiga toxin subunit B neutralize shiga toxin toxicity in HeLa cells.  

PubMed

Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 produce Shiga toxin 1 (Stx) and Shiga toxin1 (Stx1), respectively and these two toxins are almost identical. E. coli O157:H7 is the major cause of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Stx and Stx1 are AB5 type of toxin with a molecular weight of 70 kDa, comprising an enzymaticaly-active A subunit (32 kDa) and five receptor-binding B subunits (7.7 kDa). In this study DNA fragment (289 bp, Gene Bank Accn No. EF685161) coding for B chain of Stx was amplified from S. dysenteriae type1 and cloned. Shiga toxin-binding subunit was expressed and purified in native conditions by affinity and gel permeation chromatography with the yield of 5.1 mg/L in shake flask culture. For the purpose of immunization, the polypeptide was polymerized with glutaraldehyde. Hyper immune serum produced in mice reacted with the purified polypeptide and intact Shiga toxin. The anti-StxB antiserum effectively neutralized the cytotoxicity of Shiga toxin towards HeLa cells. PMID:20044923

Gupta, Pallavi; Singh, Manglesh Kumar; Singh, Padma; Tiwari, Mugdha; Dhaked, Ram Kumar

2010-06-01

314

Surveillance of algal toxins in shellfish from Scottish waters.  

PubMed

Shellfish samples were collected from coastal and offshore aquaculture sites and harvesting areas in Scottish waters between March 2003 and September 2004. Samples were analysed for the presence of algal toxins using traditional mouse bioassays for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins; immuno-lateral flow chromatography for the detection of PSP toxins in the form of the Jellett Rapid Test; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV diode-array for the detection of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins; and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the detection of multiple lipophilic shellfish toxins (LSTs) including pectenotoxins (PTXs), yessotoxins (YTXs), azaspiracids (AZAs) and toxins from the 'traditional' DSP toxin group, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs). In order to investigate the presence of OA esters, alkaline hydrolysis was performed. All toxin groups were detected with a geographically widespread distribution. ASP toxins were the most prevalent occurring in 69% of samples. Using the PSP mouse bioassay, PSP toxins were detected in 5% of shellfish samples from coastal waters around the islands and the east coast. The Jellett Rapid Test for PSP toxins revealed a wider distribution (24% of samples) including the west coast of Scotland. Toxins from the 'traditional' DSP toxin group (OA/DTXs) and/or other LST groups (PTXs, YTXs and AZAs) were detected by LC-MS in 63% of the shellfish analysed. PSP, ASP toxins and LSTs occurred concurrently in a limited sample set, highlighting the importance of using methods capable of detecting multiple algal toxin groups in Scottish shellfish monitoring programmes. PMID:18207483

Stobo, L A; Lacaze, J-P C L; Scott, A C; Petrie, J; Turrell, E A

2008-03-15

315

ANALYSES OF WOUND EXUDATES FOR CLOSTRIDIAL TOXINS  

PubMed Central

Noyes, Howard E. (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.), William L. Pritchard, Floyd B. Brinkley, and Janice A. Mendelson. Analyses of wound exudates for clostridial toxins. J. Bacteriol. 87:623–629. 1964.—Earlier studies indicated that death of goats with traumatic wounds of the hindquarter could be related to the number of clostridia in the wounds, and that toxicity of wound exudates for mice and guinea pigs could be partially neutralized by commercial trivalent gas gangrene antitoxin. This report describes in vitro and in vivo analyses of wound exudates for known clostridial toxins. Wounds were produced by detonation of high-explosive pellets. Wound exudates were obtained by cold saline extraction of both necrotic tissues and gauze sponges used to cover the wounds. Exudates were sterilized by Seitz filtration in the cold. In vitro tests were used to measure alpha-, theta-, and mu-toxins of Clostridium perfringens and the epsilon-toxin of C. novyi. Mouse protection tests, employing commercial typing antisera, were used to analyze exudates for other clostridial toxins. Lethality of wound exudates for mice could be related to (i) the numbers of clostridia present in the wound, (ii) survival time of the goats, and (iii) positive lecithovitellin (LV) tests of the exudates. However, the LV tests could not be neutralized by antitoxin specific for C. perfringens alpha-toxin. Mice were not protected by typing antisera specific for types A, C, or D C. perfringens or C. septicum but were protected by antisera specific for type B C. perfringens and types A and B C. novyi. PMID:14127581

Noyes, Howard E.; Pritchard, William L.; Brinkley, Floyd B.; Mendelson, Janice A.

1964-01-01

316

Bacterial Toxins and the Nervous System: Neurotoxins and Multipotential Toxins Interacting with Neuronal Cells  

PubMed Central

Toxins are potent molecules used by various bacteria to interact with a host organism. Some of them specifically act on neuronal cells (clostridial neurotoxins) leading to characteristics neurological affections. But many other toxins are multifunctional and recognize a wider range of cell types including neuronal cells. Various enterotoxins interact with the enteric nervous system, for example by stimulating afferent neurons or inducing neurotransmitter release from enterochromaffin cells which result either in vomiting, in amplification of the diarrhea, or in intestinal inflammation process. Other toxins can pass the blood brain barrier and directly act on specific neurons. PMID:22069606

Popoff, Michel R.; Poulain, Bernard

2010-01-01

317

The evolution of dioecy, heterodichogamy, and labile sex expression in Acer.  

PubMed

The northern hemisphere tree genus Acer comprises 124 species, most of them monoecious, but 13 dioecious. The monoecious species flower dichogamously, duodichogamously (male, female, male), or in some species heterodichogamously (two morphs that each produce male and female flowers but at reciprocal times). Dioecious species cannot engage in these temporal strategies. Using a phylogeny for 66 species and subspecies obtained from 6600 nucleotides of chloroplast introns, spacers, and a protein-coding gene, we address the hypothesis (Pannell and Verdú, Evolution 60: 660-673. 2006) that dioecy evolved from heterodichogamy. This hypothesis was based on phylogenetic analyses (Gleiser and Verdú, New Phytol. 165: 633-640. 2005) that included 29-39 species of Acer coded for five sexual strategies (duodichogamous monoecy, heterodichogamous androdioecy, heterodichogamous trioecy, dichogamous subdioecy, and dioecy) treated as ordered states or as a single continuous variable. When reviewing the basis for these scorings, we found errors that together with the small taxon sample, cast doubt on the earlier inferences. Based on published studies, we coded 56 species of Acer for four sexual strategies, dioecy, monoecy with dichogamous or duodichogamous flowering, monoecy with heterodichogamous flowering, or labile sex expression, in which individuals reverse their sex allocation depending on environment-phenotype interactions. Using Bayesian character mapping, we infer an average of 15 transformations, a third of them involving changes from monoecy-cum-duodichogamy to dioecy; less frequent were changes from this strategy to heterodichogamy; dioecy rarely reverts to other sexual systems. Contra the earlier inferences, we found no switches between heterodichogamy and dioecy. Unexpectedly, most of the species with labile sex expression are grouped together, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity in Acer may be a heritable sexual strategy. Because of the complex flowering phenologies, however, a concern remains that monoecy in Acer might not always be distinguishable from labile sex expression, which needs to be addressed by long-term monitoring of monoecious trees. The 13 dioecious species occur in phylogenetically disparate clades that date back to the Late Eocene and Oligocene, judging from a fossil-calibrated relaxed molecular clock. PMID:17894810

Renner, S S; Beenken, L; Grimm, G W; Kocyan, A; Ricklefs, R E

2007-11-01

318

Evolutionary lability of a complex life cycle in the aphid genus Brachycaudus  

PubMed Central

Background Most aphid species complete their life cycle on the same set of host-plant species, but some (heteroecious species) alternate between different hosts, migrating from primary (woody) to secondary (herbaceous) host plants. The evolutionary processes behind the evolution of this complex life cycle have often been debated. One widely accepted scenario is that heteroecy evolved from monoecy on woody host plants. Several shifts towards monoecy on herbaceous plants have subsequently occurred and resulted in the radiation of aphids. Host alternation would have persisted in some cases due to developmental constraints preventing aphids from shifting their entire life cycle to herbaceous hosts (which are thought to be more favourable). According to this scenario, if aphids lose their primary host during evolution they should not regain it. The genus Brachycaudus includes species with all the types of life cycle (monoecy on woody plants, heteroecy, monoecy on herbs). We used this genus to test hypotheses concerning the evolution of life cycles in aphids. Results Phylogenetic investigation and character reconstruction suggest that life cycle is evolutionary labile in the genus. Though ancestral character states can be ambiguous depending on optimization methods, all analyses suggest that transitions from monoecy on herbs towards heteroecy have occurred several times. Transitions from heteroecy towards monoecy, are also likely. There have been many shifts in feeding behaviour but we found no significant correlation between life cycle changes and changes in diet. Conclusions The transitions from monoecy on herbs towards heteroecy observed in this study go against a widely accepted evolutionary scenario: aphids in the genus Brachycaudus seem to be able to recapture their supposedly ancestral woody host. This suggests that the determinants of host alternation are probably not as complicated as previously thought. Definitive proofs of the lability of life cycle in Brachycaudus will necessitate investigation of these determinants. Life cycle changes, whether corresponding to the loss or acquisition of a primary host, necessarily promote speciation, by inducing shifts of the reproductive phase on different plants. We suggest that the evolutionary lability of life cycle may have driven speciation events in the Brachycaudus genus. PMID:20920188

2010-01-01

319

Aquatic Toxins: Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Florida Department of Health web site is part of the Aquatic Toxins Program to protect Florida's citizens and visitors from exposure and illness from Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). The site summarizes health concerns associated with Cyanobacteria blooms, as well as their threat to water quality, ecosystem stability, and surface drinking water supplies. Links are provided to the PDF monograph "Health Effects of Exposure to Cyanobacteria Toxins: State of the Science" which consists of three panels: Harmful Algal Blooms in Florida, National and International Perspective, and Agency Activities.

320

Isolation of the toxin in Daubentonia longifolia  

E-print Network

THE ISOLATION OF THE TOXIN IN DAUBENTONIA LONGIFOLIA A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE BY ASHLEY ROBEY&B. S... ) per one hundred pounds oi' animal end the mi~i~um fatal dose to be 0. 11 lb. ( 1 and 3/4 oz. ) per hundred pounds of animal. They also said that th toxin seemed to be excreted slowly since repeated doses be- low the toxic dose produce death. Dr...

Robey, Ashley

1925-01-01

321

MICROBIOLOGY: Arresting Features of Bacterial Toxins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: Bacteria produce an arsenal of sophisticated toxins that disrupt the normal processes of the host cell, usually by modifying or inactivating host cell proteins. Now, as Coburn and Leong discuss in their Perspective, members of the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) family have been identified as enzymes that attack DNA (and not protein) within the host cell (Lara-Tejero and Galán). By attacking DNA, perhaps during chromosomal replication, CDTs cause the host cell to halt in G2 phase of the cell cycle.

Jenifer Coburn (Tufts-New England Medical Center; Division of Rheumatology and Immunology)

2000-10-13

322

Natural Toxins for Use in Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Natural toxins are a source of new chemical classes of pesticides, as well as environmentally and toxicologically safer molecules than many of the currently used pesticides. Furthermore, they often have molecular target sites that are not exploited by currently marketed pesticides. There are highly successful products based on natural compounds in the major pesticide classes. These include the herbicide glufosinate (synthetic phosphinothricin), the spinosad insecticides, and the strobilurin fungicides. These and other examples of currently marketed natural product-based pesticides, as well as natural toxins that show promise as pesticides from our own research are discussed. PMID:22069667

Duke, Stephen O.; Cantrell, Charles L.; Meepagala, Kumudini M.; Wedge, David E.; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Schrader, Kevin K.

2010-01-01

323

Mutants of Pertussis Toxin Suitable for Vaccine Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunization with chemically detoxified pertussis toxin can prevent severe whooping cough with an efficacy similar to that of the cellular pertussis vaccine, which normally gives unwanted side effects. To avoid the reversion to toxicity and the loss of immunogenicity that may follow chemical treatment of pertussis toxin, inactive toxins were constructed by genetic manipulation. A number of genetically engineered alleles

Mariagrazia Pizza; Antonio Covacci; Antonella Bartoloni; Maria Perugini; Luciano Nencioni; Maria Teresa de Magistris; Luigi Villa; Daniele Nucci; Roberto Manetti; Massimo Bugnoli; Franco Giovannoni; Roberto Olivieri; Joseph T. Barbieri; Hiroko Sato; Rino Rappuoli

1989-01-01

324

de novo Synthesis of a Bacterial Toxin/ Antitoxin System  

E-print Network

revealed that the nucleoid in ArT-producing cells is concentrated and appears hollow. Whole inhibi- tion. Without stress, antitoxins mask the toxins and growth is rapid. However, during environmental stress, antitoxins are degraded more rapidly4,5 , and toxins are activated. This toxin

Wood, Thomas K.

325

Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

2013-08-01

326

Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes.  

PubMed

We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm. PMID:23947891

Nablo, Brian J; Panchal, Rekha G; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E; Robertson, Joseph W F; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M; Kasianowicz, John J

2013-08-14

327

EFFECTS OF MARINE ALGAL TOXINS ON THERMOREGULATION IN MICE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Hypothermia is often seen in mice and rats exposed acutely to marine algal toxins, but the mechanism of action of these toxins on thermoregulation is not well understood. Our laboratory has assessed the thermoregulatory mechanisms of two marine algal toxins, maitotoxin and brevet...

328

TOXIN AND ANTITOXIN OF AND PROTECTIVE INOCULATION AGAINST BACILLUS WELCHII  

PubMed Central

Five cultures of Bacillus welchii have been studied and compared Four came from infected wounds in the western theatre of war, and one was obtained from a personal article of clothing. Each culture possesses the essential characteristics ascribed to that group of bacteria. The infectious processes caused by the five cultures in rabbits, guinea pigs, and pigeons, are local in character; and very few or no bacilli enter or are found in the general blood stream during life or immediately after death. Glucose broth cultures, injected intravenously, are fatal to rabbits. Death occurs, almost immediately or after a few hours. Agglutinative bacterial emboli have been ruled out as the cause of death, as has been an acid intoxication. The fluid part of the culture acts in the same manner as the full culture and irrespective of neutralization with sodium hydroxide. The full cultures and supernatant fluid are hemolytic when injected directly into the circulation of rabbits and pigeons, and the acute death produced may be ascribed to a massive destruction of red corpuscles. The passage of the fluid portion of glucose broth cultures through Berkefeld filters reduces materially the hemolytic and poisonous effects. Cultures of the Welch bacilli in plain broth to which sterile pigeon or rabbit muscle is added are highly toxic, and the toxicity is not noticeably diminished by Berkefeld filtration. The filtrates are hemolytic when injected intravenously and inflaming and necrotizing when injected subcutaneously and intramuscularly. The local lesions produced in the breast muscles of the pigeon closely resemble those caused by infection with the bacilli. The toxicity of these filtrates is not affected by neutralization with sodium hydroxide, but is materially reduced by heating to 62°C. and entirely removed by heating to 70°C. for 30 minutes. Successive injections of carefully graded doses of this toxic filtrate in pigeons and rabbits give rise to active immunity. The blood taken from the immunized rabbits is capable of neutralizing the toxic filtrate in vivo and in vitro. The filtrate has therefore been designated as toxin and the immune serum as antitoxin. The antitoxin neutralizes the toxin in multiple proportions. Hence the latter would seem to possess the properties of an exotoxin. Moreover, it neutralizes the hemolytic as well as the locally .injurious toxic constituent. Antitoxic serum prepared from a given culture of Bacillus welchii is neutralizing for the toxins yielded by the other four cultures of that microorganism. The antitoxin is protective and curative against infection with the spore and the vegetative stages of Bacillus welchii in pigeons. The limits of the protective and curative action are now under investigation. PMID:19868130

Bull, Carroll G.; Pritchett, Ida W.

1917-01-01

329

A comparison of retrospective self-report versus ecological momentary assessment measures of affective lability in the examination of its relationship with bulimic symptomatology  

PubMed Central

Affective lability has been linked to several maladaptive behaviors (Anestis et al., 2009; Coccaro, 1991). Methodology for measuring affective lability varies and includes retrospective self-report and ecological momentary assessment (EMA). In this study, we sought to test these methodologies by examining which better predicted binge eating episodes and general eating disorder symptoms in a sample (n = 131) of women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa (BN). We hypothesized that, while the two forms of measurement would be correlated with one another and predict binge eating episodes, EMA affective lability would be the stronger predictor. Results supported several hypotheses. Specifically, both EMA affective lability and retrospective self-report affective lability significantly predicted global eating disorder symptoms, even when controlling for depression, age, body mass index, and level of education, EMA affective lability exhibited a significantly stronger correlation with binge eating episodes than did retrospective self-report affective lability, and EMA affective lability predicted number of binge eating episodes on any given day controlling for the same list of covariates. Limitations include the use of a clinical sample that may limit the generalizability of our findings. Findings highlight the importance of affect in such behavior. PMID:20392437

Anestis, Michael D.; Selby, Edward A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G.; Joiner, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

330

Significance of Isotopically Labile Organic Hydrogen in Thermal Maturation of Organic Matter  

SciTech Connect

Isotopically labile organic hydrogen in fossil fuels occupies chemical positions that participate in isotopic exchange and in chemical reactions during thermal maturation from kerogen to bitumen, oil and gas. Carbon-bound organic hydrogen is isotopically far less exchangeable than hydrogen bound to nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. We explore why organic hydrogen isotope ratios express a relationship with organic nitrogen isotope ratios in kerogen at low to moderate maturity. We develop and apply new techniques to utilize organic D/H ratios in organic matter fractions and on a molecular level as tools for exploration for fossil fuels and for paleoenvironmental research. The scope of our samples includes naturally and artificially matured substrates, such as coal, shale, oil and gas.

Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz

2010-03-30

331

The effects of childhood trauma on daily mood lability and comorbid psychopathology in bulimia nervosa.  

PubMed

A study of bulimic women examined the relationship between histories of childhood trauma and psychiatric disorders, as well as daily measures of mood and behavior. One hundred twenty-three women with bulimia nervosa were assessed with interviews and completed an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) protocol in which they carried a palmtop computer for 2 weeks. Sexual abuse was associated with a history of mood and anxiety disorders, and emotional abuse with eating disorder psychopathology. In the EMA assessment, sexual abuse was associated with daily purging frequency and self-destructive behavior. Emotional abuse was associated with average daily mood and mood lability. These findings support the idea that child maltreatment may be associated with various aspects of bulimia-related psychopathology. PMID:17345648

Wonderlich, Stephen A; Rosenfeldt, Steven; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G; Smyth, Joshua; Miltenberger, Raymond

2007-02-01

332

Molecular insights into the microbial formation of marine dissolved organic matter: recalcitrant or labile?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important control variable in the global carbon cycle and dependent on the DOM composition. For our understanding of the kinetics of organic matter cycling in the ocean, it is therefore crucial to achieve a mechanistic and molecular understanding of its transformation processes. A long-term microbial experiment was performed to follow the production of non-labile DOM by marine bacteria. Two different glucose concentrations and dissolved algal exudates were used as substrates. We monitored the bacterial abundance, concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), nutrients, amino acids, and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) for two years. Ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) allowed the molecular characterization of extracted DOM after 70 days and after ∼2 years of incubation. Although glucose was quickly degraded, a DOC background was generated in glucose incubations. Only 20% of the organic carbon from algal exudate was degraded within the 2 years of incubation. TEP, which are released by micro-organisms, were produced during glucose degradation but decreased within less than three weeks back to half of the maximum concentration and were below detection in all treatments after 2 years. The molecular analysis demonstrated that DOM generated during glucose degradation differed appreciably from DOM produced during the degradation of the algal exudates. Our results led to several conclusions: (i) Higher substrate levels result in a higher level of non-labile DOC which is an important prerequisite for carbon sequestration in the ocean; (ii) TEP are generated by bacteria but are also degraded rapidly, thus limiting their potential contribution to carbon sequestration; (iii) The molecular signatures of DOM derived from algal exudates or glucose after 70 days of incubation differed strongly from refractory DOM. After 2 years, however, the molecular patterns of DOM in glucose incubations were more similar to deep ocean DOM whereas the degraded exudate was still different.

Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.; Witt, M.; Passow, U.

2014-02-01

333

Chemical studies of differentiated meteorites: I. Labile trace elements in Antarctic and non-Antarctic eucrites  

SciTech Connect

The authors report data for Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn determined by RNAA in 25 Antarctic and 9 non-Antarctic eucrites. Highly incompatible, refractory elements like U are well known to exceed Cl levels in eucrites because of their igneous origin. Surprisingly, contents of highly labile elements can also be quite high, sometimes at 0.1 {times} Cl, i.e., levels more like chondritic. However, a carbonaceous chondrite pattern is not apparent since Cl-normalized trace element data for a given eucrite sample do not match the flat trends known for carbonaceous chondrites. The U-normalized contents of most elements indicate a thermal process accompanied in the case of lithophiles Rb and Cs by a geochemical fractionation. For these, or Ag, Bi, Cd, or Tl Antarctic and non-Antarctic noncumulate eucrites lie on the same trend line, indicating that all derive from the same parent. The thermal process responsible for the U-normalized trend could involve devolatilization of eucrite parent material or, as the authors prefer because of other data, condensation of volcanic emanations to differing degrees on pre-existing eucrite parent rocks. Antarctic eucrites have different - usually higher - contents of labile elements, particularly Tl, than do non-Antarctic eucrites. The difference seems not to be due to the terrestrial history of the samples but, rather, is preterrestrial in origin. By their preferred scenario, Antarctic eucrites received a greater average complement of mobile elements, hence, were presumably cooler than were non-Antarctic eucrites.

Paul, R.L.; Lipschutz, M.E. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA))

1990-11-01

334

Effect of temperature on the decomposition rate of labile and stable organic matter in an agrochernozem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An hypothesis about the different temperature dependences of the decomposition of the labile and stable organic carbon pools has been tested using an agrochernozem sampled from an experimental plot of 42-year-old continuous corn in Voronezh oblast. The partitioning of the CO2 loss during the decomposition of the labile and stable soil organic matter (SOM) at 2, 12, and 22°C in a long-term incubation experiment was performed using the method of 13C natural abundance by C3-C4 transition. On the basis of the determined decomposition constants, the SOM pools have been arranged in an order according to their increasing stability: plant residues < new (C4) SOM < old (C3) SOM. The tested hypothesis has been found valid only for a limited temperature interval. The temperature coefficient Q 10 increases in the stability order from 1.2 to 4.3 in the interval of 12-22°C. At low temperatures (2-12°C), the values of Q 10 insignificantly vary among the SOM pools and lie in the range of 2.2-2.8. Along with the decomposition constants of the SOM, the new-to-old carbon ratio in the CO2 efflux from the soil and the magnitude of the negative priming effect for the old SOM caused by the input of new organic matter depend on the temperature. In the soil under continuous corn fertilized with NPK, the increased decomposition of C3 SOM is observed compared to the unfertilized control; the temperature dependences of the SOM decomposition are similar in both agrochernozem treatments.

Larionova, A. A.; Kvitkina, A. K.; Yevdokimov, I. V.; Bykhovets, S. S.; Stulin, A. F.

2014-05-01

335

Effects of phosphate buffer capacity on critical levels and relationships between soil tests and labile phosphate in wheat growing soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-nine soils from northern New South Wales were used to examine the effects of phosphate buffer capacity on (i) the extraction of labile phosphate by four soil tests, (ii) the relationships between the four soil tests, and (iii) the critical level of each soil test required for near-maximum yield of wheat under field conditions. The results confirmed the principle, recently

I. C. R. Holford

1980-01-01

336

A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability-Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability-negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion regulation was a…

Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

2013-01-01

337

Thermal Analysis of Labile Trace Elements in CM and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We developed a technique to measure the thermal release profiles of a suite of labile elements (Zn, As, Se, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Pt, Hg, Au, Tl, Pb, Bi). Conclusions are reached about the behavior of each element during parent-body alteration. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Lauretta, D. S.; Klaue, B.; Blum, J. D.; Buseck, P. R.

2001-01-01

338

Emotional Lability in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Clinical Correlates and Familial Prevalence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence, severity and clinical correlates of emotional lability (EL) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to examine factors contributing to EL and familiality of EL in youth with ADHD. Methods: One thousand, one hundred and eighty-six children with ADHD…

Sobanski, Esther; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Chen, Wai; Franke, Barbara; Holtmann, Martin; Krumm, Bertram; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Stringaris, Argyris; Taylor, Eric; Anney, Richard; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.

2010-01-01

339

)Pieris rapaeMayolenes: Labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar ( Renwick, Ronald Rutowski, and Thomas Eisner  

E-print Network

of P. rapae maintained on cabbage plants (Brassica oleraceae). The larvae used in the ant bioassays)Pieris rapaeMayolenes: Labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar ( Renwick defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar (Pieris rapae) Scott R. Smedley*, Frank C

Weibel, Douglas B.

340

Plant-Soil Relationships of Bromus tectorum L.: Interactions among Labile Carbon Additions, Soil Invasion Status, and Fertilizer.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Invasion of western North America by the annual exotic grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) has been an ecological disaster. High soil bioavailability of nitrogen is a contributing factor in the invasive potential of B. tectorum. Application of labile carbon sources to the soil can immobilize soil ...

341

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 22502263 Dynamics of labile and recalcitrant soil carbon pools in a sorghum  

E-print Network

pools in a sorghum free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) agroecosystem L. Chenga,d,Ã, S.W. Leavitta , B labile and recalcitrant soil carbon pools and the translocation among these pools of sorghum residues that increased new sorghum residue input to the recalcitrant pool mainly accounts for this change, especially

Williams, David G.

2007-01-01

342

Dynamics of labile and recalcitrant soil carbon pools in a sorghum Free-Air Co2 Enrichment (FACE) agroecosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experimentation with dynamics of soil carbon pools as affected by elevated CO2 can better define the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to sequester global carbon. In the present study, 6 N HCl hydrolysis and stable-carbon isotopic analysis ('13C) were used to investigate the labile and recalcitrant ...

343

Cloning of Shiga-Like Toxin Structural Genes from a Toxin Converting Phage of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes controlling high-level production of Shiga-like toxin (SLT) in Escherichia coli were cloned from the SLT converting phage 933J. This phage was isolated from a strain of E. coli that caused a foodborne outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis. The genes that convert normal E. coli to organisms producing high levels of toxin were cloned into the plasmid pBR328 and expressed

John W. Newland; Nancy A. Strockbine; Steven F. Miller; Alison D. O'Brien; Randall K. Holmes

1985-01-01

344

Therapy of anal fissure using botulin toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: With chronic anal fissure, sphincterotomy to relieve sphincter spasm is the recommended therapy. This breaks the vicious circle of inflammation-pain-spasm. This obvious success is weighed against the possible risk of the operation and the risk of subsequent fecal incontinence. The following report describes a therapy for anal fissure involving injection of the external anal sphincter with botulin toxin. METHODS:

Wolfgang H. Jost; Klaus Schimrigk

1994-01-01

345

Targeted diphtheria toxin to treat BPDCN.  

PubMed

In this issue of Blood, Frankel et al describe a novel treatment of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) using an engineered version of diphtheria toxin that is targeted to malignant cells via a fusion with interleukin (IL)3 (see panel A). PMID:25035145

FitzGerald, David J

2014-07-17

346

THE TRICHOTHECENE TRIANGLE: TOXINS, GENES AND POPULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium trichothecenes have been classified based on structural properties. Type A and Type B trichothecenes differ in their A ring oxygenation pattern. Type A trichothecenes have a C-8 hydroxyl (neosolaniol), C-8 ester (T-2 toxin) or no C-8 substitution (diacetoxyscirpenol) and Type B trichothec...

347

Cyanobacterial toxins: biosynthetic routes and evolutionary roots.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria produce an unparalleled variety of toxins that can cause severe health problems or even death in humans, and wild or domestic animals. In the last decade, biosynthetic pathways have been assigned to the majority of the known toxin families. This review summarizes current knowledge about the enzymatic basis for the production of the hepatotoxins microcystin and nodularin, the cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin, the neurotoxins anatoxin and saxitoxin, and the dermatotoxin lyngbyatoxin. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways of the toxins has paved the way for the development of molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of the producing cyanobacteria in different environments. Phylogenetic analyses of related clusters from a large number of strains has also allowed for the reconstruction of the evolutionary scenarios that have led to the emergence, diversification, and loss of such gene clusters in different strains and genera of cyanobacteria. Advances in the understanding of toxin biosynthesis and evolution have provided new methods for drinking-water quality control and may inspire the development of techniques for the management of bloom formation in the future. PMID:23051004

Dittmann, Elke; Fewer, David P; Neilan, Brett A

2013-01-01

348

Paralytic strabismus: the role of botulinum toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five adults with acute extraocular muscle palsies followed by limited recovery of muscle function were treated with injections of botulinum toxin A to the ipsilateral antagonist of the affected muscle. Three were cases of unilateral sixth nerve palsy, one of bilateral sixth nerve palsy, and one of third nerve palsy. After a period of paralysis, during which the strabismus was

J S Elston; J P Lee

1985-01-01

349

Okadaic Acid: More than a Diarrheic Toxin  

PubMed Central

Okadaic acid (OA) is one of the most frequent and worldwide distributed marine toxins. It is easily accumulated by shellfish, mainly bivalve mollusks and fish, and, subsequently, can be consumed by humans causing alimentary intoxications. OA is the main representative diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin and its ingestion induces gastrointestinal symptoms, although it is not considered lethal. At the molecular level, OA is a specific inhibitor of several types of serine/threonine protein phosphatases and a tumor promoter in animal carcinogenesis experiments. In the last few decades, the potential toxic effects of OA, beyond its role as a DSP toxin, have been investigated in a number of studies. Alterations in DNA and cellular components, as well as effects on immune and nervous system, and even on embryonic development, have been increasingly reported. In this manuscript, results from all these studies are compiled and reviewed to clarify the role of this toxin not only as a DSP inductor but also as cause of alterations at the cellular and molecular levels, and to highlight the relevance of biomonitoring its effects on human health. Despite further investigations are required to elucidate OA mechanisms of action, toxicokinetics, and harmful effects, there are enough evidences illustrating its toxicity, not related to DSP induction, and, consequently, supporting a revision of the current regulation on OA levels in food. PMID:24184795

Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Prego-Faraldo, María Verónica; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina; Laffon, Blanca

2013-01-01

350

Toxins of molds from decaying tomato fruit.  

PubMed Central

Among 27 mold isolates from decaying tomatoes, culture filtrates or ethyl acetate extracts of 8 isolates grown in yeast extract-sucrose medium were markedly toxic (mortality, greater than 50%) to brine shrimp larvae. The toxicity of six of these isolates could be attributed to the presence of citrinin, tenuazonic acid, or T-2 toxin. Ethyl acetate extracts of five Alternaria isolates and one Fusarium isolate were mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium strains. In ripe tomatoes inoculated with toxin-producing isolates and incubated at 25 degrees C, one Alternaria alternata isolate produced tenuazonic acid in seven of seven tomatoes at levels of up to 106 micrograms/g and alternariol methyl ether in one of the seven tomatoes at 0.8 microgram/g. Another A. alternata isolate produced tenuazonic acid or alternariol methyl ether at much lower levels in only three of seven tomatoes. Patulin and citrinin were produced by a Penicillium expansum isolate at levels of up to 8.4 and 0.76 microgram/g, respectively. In tomatoes incubated at 15 degrees C, a Fusarium sulphureum isolate produced T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and neosolaniol at levels of up to 37.5, 37.8 and 5.6 micrograms/g, respectively. If these mycotoxins are thermostable, they may occur at detectable levels in tomato products whenever partially moldy tomatoes are used as raw material. PMID:391152

Harwig, J; Scott, P M; Stoltz, D R; Blanchfield, B J

1979-01-01

351

Natural toxins for use in pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Natural toxins are a source of new chemical classes of pesticides, as well as environmentally and toxicologically safer molecules than many of the currently used pesticides. Furthermore, they often have molecular target sites that are not exploited by currently marketed pesticides. There are highly ...

352

Insecticidal toxins from black widow spider venom  

PubMed Central

The biological effects of Latrodectus spider venom are similar in animals from different phyla, but these symptoms are caused by distinct phylum-specific neurotoxins (collectively called latrotoxins) with molecular masses ranging from 110 to 140 kDa. To date, the venom has been found to contain five insecticidal toxins, termed ?, ?, ?, ? and ?-latroinsectotoxins (LITs). There is also a vertebrate-specific neurotoxin, ?-latrotoxin (?-LTX), and one toxin affecting crustaceans, ?-latrocrustatoxin (?-LCT). These toxins stimulate massive release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals and act (1) by binding to specific receptors, some of which mediate an exocytotic signal, and (2) by inserting themselves into the membrane and forming ion-permeable pores. Specific receptors for LITs have yet to be identified, but all three classes of vertebrate receptors known to bind ?-LTX are also present in insects. All LTXs whose structures have been elucidated (?-LIT, ?-LIT, ?-LTX and ?-LCT) are highly homologous and have a similar domain architecture, which consists of a unique N-terminal sequence and a large domain composed of 13–22 ankyrin repeats. Three-dimensional (3D) structure analysis, so far done for ?-LTX only, has revealed its dimeric nature and an ability to form symmetrical tetramers, a feature probably common to all LTXs. Only tetramers have been observed to insert into membranes and form pores. A preliminary 3D reconstruction of a ?-LIT monomer demonstrates the spatial similarity of this toxin to the monomer of ?-LTX. PMID:17210168

Rohou, A.; Nield, J.; Ushkaryov, Y.A.

2007-01-01

353

Toxins and antimicrobial peptides: Interactions with membranes  

PubMed Central

The innate immunity to pathogenic invasion of organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms relies upon cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as the first line of defense. In addition to these natural peptide antibiotics, similar cationic peptides, such as the bee venom toxin melittin, act as nonspecific toxins. Molecular details of AMP and peptide toxin action are not known, but the universal function of these peptides to disrupt cell membranes of pathogenic bacteria (AMPs) or a diverse set of eukaryotes and prokaryotes (melittin) is widely accepted. Here, we have utilized spectroscopic techniques to elucidate peptide-membrane interactions of alpha-helical human and mouse AMPs of the cathelicidin family as well as the peptide toxin melittin. The activity of these natural peptides and their engineered analogs was studied on eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane mimics consisting of <200-nm bilayer vesicles composed of anionic and neutral lipids as well as cholesterol. Vesicle disruption, or peptide potency, was monitored with a sensitive fluorescence leakage assay. Detailed molecular information on peptide-membrane interactions and peptide structure was further gained through vibrational spectroscopy combined with circular dichroism. Finally, steady-state fluorescence experiments yielded insight into the local environment of native or engineered tryptophan residues in melittin and human cathelicidin embedded in bilayer vesicles. Collectively, our results provide clues to the functional structures of the engineered and toxic peptides and may impact the design of synthetic antibiotic peptides that can be used against the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. PMID:25593677

Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

2014-01-01

354

Noncosmetic Periocular Therapeutic Applications of Botulinum Toxin  

PubMed Central

Botulinum toxin blocks acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. The drug which was initially found to be useful in the treatment of strabismus has been extremely effective in the treatment of variety of conditions, both cosmetic and noncosmetic. Some of the noncosmetic uses of botulinum toxin applications include treatment of spastic facial dystonias, temporary treatment of idiopathic or thyroid dysfunction-induced upper eyelid retraction, suppression of undesired hyperlacrimation, induction of temporary ptosis by chemodenervation in facial paralysis, and correction of lower eyelid spastic entropion. Additional periocular uses include control of synchronic eyelid and extraocular muscle movements after aberrant regeneration of cranial nerve palsies. Cosmetic effects of botulinum toxin were discovered accidentally during treatments of facial dystonias. Some of the emerging nonperiocular application for the drug includes treatment of hyperhidrosis, migraine, tension-type headaches, and paralytic spasticity. Some of the undesired side effects of periocular applications of botulinum toxin inlcude ecchymosis, rash, hematoma, headache, flu-like symptoms, nausea, dizziness, loss of facial expression, lower eyelid laxity, dermatochalasis, ectropion, epiphora, eyebrow and eyelid ptosis, lagophthalmos, keratitis sicca, and diplopia. PMID:20616916

Kaynak-Hekimhan, Pelin

2010-01-01

355

(-)-Botryodiplodin, A Unique Ribose Analog Toxin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many toxins owe their mechanisms of action to being structural analogs of essential metabolites, messengers or structural components. Examples range from tubo-curare to penicillin. Ribose plays a unique role in the metabolism of living organisms, whether prokaryotes or eukaryotes. It and its deri...

356

Toxins and antimicrobial peptides: interactions with membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The innate immunity to pathogenic invasion of organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms relies upon cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as the first line of defense. In addition to these natural peptide antibiotics, similar cationic peptides, such as the bee venom toxin melittin, act as nonspecific toxins. Molecular details of AMP and peptide toxin action are not known, but the universal function of these peptides to disrupt cell membranes of pathogenic bacteria (AMPs) or a diverse set of eukaryotes and prokaryotes (melittin) is widely accepted. Here, we have utilized spectroscopic techniques to elucidate peptide-membrane interactions of alpha-helical human and mouse AMPs of the cathelicidin family as well as the peptide toxin melittin. The activity of these natural peptides and their engineered analogs was studied on eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane mimics consisting of <200-nm bilayer vesicles composed of anionic and neutral lipids as well as cholesterol. Vesicle disruption, or peptide potency, was monitored with a sensitive fluorescence leakage assay. Detailed molecular information on peptidemembrane interactions and peptide structure was further gained through vibrational spectroscopy combined with circular dichroism. Finally, steady-state fluorescence experiments yielded insight into the local environment of native or engineered tryptophan residues in melittin and human cathelicidin embedded in bilayer vesicles. Collectively, our results provide clues to the functional structures of the engineered and toxic peptides and may impact the design of synthetic antibiotic peptides that can be used against the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

2009-08-01

357

Toxin Instability and Its Role in Toxin Translocation from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Cytosol  

PubMed Central

AB toxins enter a host cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The catalytic A chain then crosses the endosome or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to reach its cytosolic target. Dissociation of the A chain from the cell-binding B chain occurs before or during translocation to the cytosol, and only the A chain enters the cytosol. In some cases, AB subunit dissociation is facilitated by the unique physiology and function of the ER. The A chains of these ER-translocating toxins are stable within the architecture of the AB holotoxin, but toxin disassembly results in spontaneous or assisted unfolding of the isolated A chain. This unfolding event places the A chain in a translocation-competent conformation that promotes its export to the cytosol through the quality control mechanism of ER-associated degradation. A lack of lysine residues for ubiquitin conjugation protects the exported A chain from degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and an interaction with host factors allows the cytosolic toxin to regain a folded, active state. The intrinsic instability of the toxin A chain thus influences multiple steps of the intoxication process. This review will focus on the host–toxin interactions involved with A chain unfolding in the ER and A chain refolding in the cytosol. PMID:24970201

Teter, Ken

2013-01-01

358

Rab12 localizes to Shiga toxin-induced plasma membrane invaginations and controls toxin transport.  

PubMed

Several exogenous and endogenous cargo proteins are internalized independently of clathrin, including the bacterial Shiga toxin. The mechanisms underlying early steps of clathrin-independent uptake remain largely unknown. In this study, we have designed a protocol to obtain gradient fractions containing Shiga toxin internalization intermediates. Using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and quantitative mass spectrometry, Rab12 was found in association with these very early uptake carriers. The localization of the GTPase on Shiga toxin-induced plasma membrane invaginations was shown by fluorescence microscopy in cells transfected with GFP-Rab12. Furthermore, using a quantitative biochemical assay, it was found that the amount of receptor-binding B-subunit of Shiga toxin reaching the trans-Golgi/TGN membranes was decreased in Rab12-depleted cells, and that cells were partially protected against intoxication by Shiga-like toxin 1 under these conditions. These findings demonstrate the functional importance of Rab12 for retrograde toxin trafficking. Among several other intracellular transport pathways, only the steady-state localizations of TGN46 and cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor were affected. These data thus strongly suggest that Rab12 functions in the retrograde transport route. PMID:24703428

Rydell, Gustaf E; Renard, Henri-François; Garcia-Castillo, Maria-Daniela; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Lamaze, Christophe; Römer, Winfried; Johannes, Ludger

2014-07-01

359

Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Activity of Yersinia pestis Murine Toxin  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis plague murine toxin has been found to inhibit the mobilization of free fatty acids in mice in a manner similar to that of beta-adrenergic blocking agents. The blockage is detectable 75 min after injection of the toxin (1 to 2 mean lethal doses). The degree of inhibition was directly correlated with the toxicity of a given toxin preparation. Agents such as cholera toxin or glucagon, with apparently distinct receptors from beta-adrenergic receptors, stimulated adenylate cyclase and lipolysis and effectively modified toxicity. Likewise, cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate bypassed the toxin block and antagonized toxicity. Energy-rich compounds such as fatty acids, organic acids, and glucose effectively modified the intoxication process. The biological activity of plague toxin showed profound temperature sensitivity. Mice placed at 5°C were highly susceptible to the effects of the toxin, whereas mice placed at 37°C were totally resistant to intoxication. Results showed that plague toxin cannot block epinephrine-induced mobilization of free fatty acids in mice placed at 37°C. These studies suggested that plague toxin acts at the receptor level in a manner similar to that of beta-adrenergic blocking agents. A complete, analogous activity was shown between toxin and known beta-adrenergic antagonists in their effect on beta-adrenergic agonist action in stimulating lipolysis. It is hypothesized that, since toxin shows no in vitro activity, it is in some way modified in animals. PMID:198377

Brown, S. D.; Montie, T. C.

1977-01-01

360

Development and fabrication of heat-sterilizable inhalation therapy equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a completely heat sterilizable intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) ventilator in an effort to reduce the number of hospital acquired infections is reported. After appropriate changes in materials and design were made, six prototype units were fabricated and were successfully field tested in local hospitals. Most components of the modified ventilators are compatible with existing machines. In all but a few instances, such as installation of bacteria-retentive filters and a modified venturi, the change over from non-heat-sterilizable to sterilizable units was accomplished by replacement of heat labile materials with heat stable materials.

Irons, A. S.

1974-01-01

361

Relationship between levels of Clostridium difficile toxin A and toxin B and cecal lesions in gnotobiotic mice.  

PubMed Central

Various Clostridium difficile strains were studied with respect to their pathogenicity in monoassociated mice in relation to levels of toxin A and toxin B in vivo and in vitro. Two strains which were the most potent toxin producers in vitro induced mortality (100%); mice monoassociated with these strains were found to have high levels of both toxins in their ceca and an intense cecal epithelial ulceration together with a severe inflammatory process. No mortality was observed with the other strains. Strains which were moderately toxinogenic in vitro induced inflammation of the cecum but no ulceration, and no toxin A was found. Inflammation intensity was not related to toxin B levels. After 3 weeks, ceca returned to normal in spite of a chronic cytotoxin production. When compared with in vitro results, which showed a good correlation between the levels of the two toxins, toxin A amounts in vivo were found to be lowered relative to toxin B levels. The lack of detectable toxin A levels in animals infected with all but the two most highly toxinogenic strains prevented death. This work points out the importance of investigation of toxin A for the understanding of C. difficile pathogenicity. Images PMID:2499546

Vernet, A; Corthier, G; Dubos-Ramaré, F; Parodi, A L

1989-01-01

362

Biochemical and genetic factors in the heat inactivation of murine ?-glucuronidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymes coded for by two alleles at the glucuronidase structural locus (Gus) were compared in their response to pH, buffering anion, buffer molarity, ionic strength, and temperature. The heat-labile Gush gene product responded in a qualitatively similar but quantitatively reduced manner compared to the relatively heat-stable Gusb gene product. In all buffers tested, the enzyme was most heat stable

Karl Herrup; Richard J. Mullen

1977-01-01

363

Pre-selecting resistance against individual Bti Cry toxins facilitates the development of resistance to the Bti toxins cocktail.  

PubMed

The bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a larvicide used worldwide for mosquito control, which contains three Cry toxins and one Cyt toxin. We investigated for the first time in Aedes aegypti (1) the evolution of resistance and cross-resistance of strains selected with each Cry toxin, and (2) the effect of pre-selection with Cry toxin on the evolution of resistance to a mix of Bti toxins. Cross resistance was higher between Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa than between Cry4Aa and either Cry4Ba or Cry11Aa, suggesting both common and specific mechanisms of resistance. Pre-selecting resistance to each Cry toxins facilitated the development of resistance to the full Bti toxins cocktail. PMID:24768915

Stalinski, Renaud; Tetreau, Guillaume; Gaude, Thierry; Després, Laurence

2014-06-01

364

Preservation of labile organic matter in soils of drained thaw lakes in Northern Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of studies predict changing organic matter (OM) dynamics in arctic soils due to global warming. In contrast to rather slowly altering bulk soil properties, single soil organic matter (SOM) fractions can provide a more detailed picture of the dynamics of differently preserved SOM pools in climate sensitive arctic regions. By the study of the chemical composition of such distinctive SOM fractions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) together with radiocarbon analyses it is possible to evaluate the stability of the major OM pools. Approximately 50-75% of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain is covered with thaw lakes and drained thaw lakes that follow a 5,000 yr cycle of development (between creation and final drainage), thus forming a natural soil chronosequence. The drained thaw lakes offer the possibility to study SOM dynamics affected by permafrost processes over millennial timescales. In April 2010 we sampled 16 soil cores (including the active and permanent layer) reaching from young drained lakes (0-50 years since drainage) to ancient drained lakes (3000-5500 years since drainage). Air dried soil samples from soil horizons of the active and permanent layer were subjected to density fractionation in order to differentiate particulate OM and mineral associated OM. The chemical composition of the SOM fractions was analyzed by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. For a soil core of a young and an ancient drained thaw lake basin we also analyzed the 14C content. For the studied soils we can show that up to over 25 kg OC per square meter are stored mostly as labile, easily degradable organic matter rich in carbohydrates. In contrast only 10 kg OC per square meter were sequestered as presumably more stable mineral associated OC dominated by aliphatic compounds. Comparable to soils of temperate regions, we found small POM (< 20 µm) occluded in aggregated soil structures which differed in the chemical composition from larger organic particles. This was clearly shown by increased amounts of aliphatic C in these small POM fractions. As revealed by 13C CPMAS NMR, with advancing soil age increasing aliphaticity was also detected in occluded small POM fractions. By 14C dating we could show the stabilization of younger more labile OM at greater depth in buried O horizons. Additionally the study of the microscale elemental distributions, using nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) showed the initial formation of aggregates and organo-mineral interfaces in the studied permafrost soils.

Mueller, Carsten W.; Rethemeyer, Janet; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny; Löppmann, Sebastian; Hinkel, Kenneth; Bockheim, James

2014-05-01

365

Sea Anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) Toxins: An Overview  

PubMed Central

The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most venomous animals. The Anthozoa class includes sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals and sea pens. The composition of cnidarian venoms is not known in detail, but they appear to contain a variety of compounds. Currently around 250 of those compounds have been identified (peptides, proteins, enzymes and proteinase inhibitors) and non-proteinaceous substances (purines, quaternary ammonium compounds, biogenic amines and betaines), but very few genes encoding toxins were described and only a few related protein three-dimensional structures are available. Toxins are used for prey acquisition, but also to deter potential predators (with neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects) and even to fight territorial disputes. Cnidaria toxins have been identified on the nematocysts located on the tentacles, acrorhagi and acontia, and in the mucous coat that covers the animal body. Sea anemone toxins comprise mainly proteins and peptides that are cytolytic or neurotoxic with its potency varying with the structure and site of action and are efficient in targeting different animals, such as insects, crustaceans and vertebrates. Sea anemones toxins include voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels toxins, acid-sensing ion channel toxins, Cytolysins, toxins with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors activity and toxins with Phospholipase A2 activity. In this review we assessed the phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins. PMID:23015776

Frazão, Bárbara; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

2012-01-01

366

Predicting the activity of Cd 2+ and Zn 2+ in soil pore water from the radio-labile metal fraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium and zinc were added at 3 and 300 mg kg -1, respectively, to 23 soils and incubated at 16°C and 80% field capacity for 818 d. Following addition of metal, changes in the radio-labile concentrations of both elements were examined on seven separate sampling occasions over 818 d. At each sample time, soil pore water was extracted using Rhizon soil solution samplers, and concentrations of Cd, Zn, dissolved organic carbon, and major cations and anions were determined. The chemical speciation program WHAM 6 was used to determine free metal ion activity, (M 2+). Similar measurements were made on a set of historically contaminated soils from old mining areas, sewage sludge disposal facilities, and industrial sources. The two data sets were combined to give a range of values for p(Cd 2+) and p(Zn 2+) that covered 5 and 4 log 10 units, respectively. A pH-dependent Freundlich model was used to predict Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ ion activity in soil pore water. Total and radio-labile metal ion concentration in the solid phase was assumed to be adsorbed on the "whole soil," humus, or free iron oxides to provide alternative model formats. The most successful models assumed that solubility was controlled by adsorption on soil humus. Inclusion of ionic strength as a model variable provided small improvements in model fit. Considering competition with Ca 2+ and between Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ produced no apparent improvement in model fit. Surprisingly, there was little difference between the use of total and labile adsorbed metal as a model determinant. However, this may have been due to a strong correlation between metal lability and pH in the data set used. Values of residual standard deviation for the parameterized models using labile metal adsorbed on humus were 0.26 and 0.28 for prediction of p(Cd 2+) and p(Zn 2+), respectively. Solubility control by pure Zn and Cd minerals was not indicated from saturation indices. However there may have been fixation of metals to non-radio-labile forms in CaCO 3 and Ca-phosphate compounds in the soils in the higher pH range. Independent validation of the Cd model was carried out using an unpublished data set that included measurements of isotopically exchangeable Cd. There was good agreement with the parameterized model.

Tye, A. M.; Young, S. D.; Crout, N. M. J.; Zhang, H.; Preston, S.; Barbosa-Jefferson, V. L.; Davison, W.; McGrath, S. P.; Paton, G. I.; Kilham, K.; Resende, L.

2003-02-01

367

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin: the third most potent bacterial toxin known.  

PubMed

Epsilon toxin (ETX) is produced by Clostridium perfringens type B and D strains and causes enterotoxemia, a highly lethal disease with major impacts on the farming of domestic ruminants, particularly sheep. ETX belongs to the aerolysin-like pore-forming toxin family. Although ETX has striking similarities to other toxins in this family, ETX is often more potent, with an LD50 of 100 ng/kg in mice. Due to this high potency, ETX is considered as a potential bioterrorism agent and has been classified as a category B biological agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the United States. The protoxin is converted to an active toxin through proteolytic cleavage performed by specific proteases. ETX is absorbed and acts locally in the intestines then subsequently binds to and causes lesions in other organs, including the kidneys, lungs and brain. The importance of this toxin for veterinary medicine and its possible use as a biological weapon have drawn the attention of researchers and have led to a large number of studies investigating ETX. The aim of the present work is to review the existing knowledge on ETX from C. perfringens type B and D. PMID:25234332

Alves, Guilherme Guerra; Machado de Ávila, Ricardo Andrez; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos Delfin; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

2014-12-01

368

Effect of toxin A and B of Clostridium difficile on rabbit ileum and colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of purified toxin A and partially purified toxin B on rabbit ileum and colon was investigated. Toxin A caused tissue damage which was followed by permeability changes and fluid accumulation in both tissues. Toxin A did not increase the permeability of the colon to the extent observed for ileum; secreted fluid contained less protein of plasma origin. Toxin

T J Mitchell; J M Ketley; S C Haslam; J Stephen; D W Burdon; D C Candy; R Daniel

1986-01-01

369

New insights into the biological effects of anthrax toxins: linking cellular to organismal responses  

E-print Network

Review New insights into the biological effects of anthrax toxins: linking cellular to organismal The anthrax toxins lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) are essential virulence factors produced by Bacillus anthracis. These toxins act during two distinct phases of anthrax infection. During the first, prodromal

Nizet, Victor

370

Autopsy findings in botulinum toxin poisoning.  

PubMed

In the United States, foodborne botulism is most commonly associated with home-canned food products. Between 1950 and 2005, 405 separate outbreaks of botulism were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Approximately 8% of these outbreaks were attributed to commercially produced canned food products. Overall, 5-10% of persons ingesting botulinum toxin die. Few reports exist pertaining to autopsy findings in cases of foodborne botulism. Here, we report the autopsy findings of a man who died after a prolonged illness caused by botulinum toxin exposure likely attributable to a commercially prepared food source. Despite extensive testing, our histopathologic findings were nonspecific. We therefore conclude that the forensic pathologist must become familiar with the neurotoxicity syndrome associated with this illness. Maintaining vigilance for botulism by carefully reviewing the decedent's clinical history will aid in the early identification and control of outbreaks, either foodborne or terrorism-related. PMID:20533981

Devers, Kelly G; Nine, Jeffrey S

2010-11-01

371

Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests  

PubMed Central

The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

2012-01-01

372

The pyrogenic effect of scarlet fever toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoids—hydrocortisone rather more effectively than cortisone—markedly inhibited the pyrogenic and lethal activity\\u000a of scarlet fever toxin after only two days’ preadministration. Prolongation of preadministration of the steroid to seven days\\u000a enhanced its protective effect, but the difference was not statistically significant. The systemic administration of glucocorticoids\\u000a weakened or completely inhibited the development of a positive Dick test, only two days’

V. H?íbalová; V. Schuh

1967-01-01

373

Saxitoxins (PSP toxins) in Danish lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of neurotoxic cyanobacteria and saxitoxins in Danish lakes was investigated from 104 phytoplankton samples representing 96 localities. Mouse bioassays demonstrated neurotoxicity in 11 localities (13 samples) of which eight (10 samples) contained saxitoxins and the remaining three anatoxin-a(s). The common cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a was not detected. The toxin profiles of the samples containing saxitoxins were characterised using standards

Hanne Kaas; Peter Henriksen

2000-01-01

374

Shiga Toxin Binding to Glycolipids and Glycans  

PubMed Central

Background Immunologically distinct forms of Shiga toxin (Stx1 and Stx2) display different potencies and disease outcomes, likely due to differences in host cell binding. The glycolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) has been reported to be the receptor for both toxins. While there is considerable data to suggest that Gb3 can bind Stx1, binding of Stx2 to Gb3 is variable. Methodology We used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to examine binding of Stx1 and Stx2 to various glycans, glycosphingolipids, and glycosphingolipid mixtures in the presence or absence of membrane components, phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol. We have also assessed the ability of glycolipids mixtures to neutralize Stx-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis in Vero kidney cells. Results By ITC, Stx1 bound both Pk (the trisaccharide on Gb3) and P (the tetrasaccharide on globotetraosylceramide, Gb4), while Stx2 did not bind to either glycan. Binding to neutral glycolipids individually and in combination was assessed by ELISA. Stx1 bound to glycolipids Gb3 and Gb4, and Gb3 mixed with other neural glycolipids, while Stx2 only bound to Gb3 mixtures. In the presence of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, both Stx1 and Stx2 bound well to Gb3 or Gb4 alone or mixed with other neutral glycolipids. Pre-incubation with Gb3 in the presence of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol neutralized Stx1, but not Stx2 toxicity to Vero cells. Conclusions Stx1 binds primarily to the glycan, but Stx2 binding is influenced by residues in the ceramide portion of Gb3 and the lipid environment. Nanomolar affinities were obtained for both toxins to immobilized glycolipids mixtures, while the effective dose for 50% inhibition (ED50) of protein synthesis was about 10?11 M. The failure of preincubation with Gb3 to protect cells from Stx2 suggests that in addition to glycolipid expression, other cellular components contribute to toxin potency. PMID:22348006

Gallegos, Karen M.; Conrady, Deborah G.; Karve, Sayali S.; Gunasekera, Thusitha S.; Herr, Andrew B.; Weiss, Alison A.

2012-01-01

375

Vitamin losses: Retention during heat treatment and continual changes expressed by mathematical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing and cooking conditions cause variable losses of vitamins. Losses vary widely according to cooking method and type of food. Degradation of vitamins depends on specific conditions during the culinary process, e.g., temperature, presence of oxygen, light, moisture, pH, and, of course, duration of heat treatment. The most labile vitamins during culinary processes are retinol (vegetable boiling, 33% retention), vitamin

Emília Lešková; Jana Kubíková; Eva Ková?iková; Martina Košická; Janka Porubská; Kristína Hol?íková

2006-01-01

376

Labile organic carbon regulates phosphorus release from eroded soil transported into anaerobic coastal systems.  

PubMed

Coastal eutrophication is expected to increase due to expanding and intensifying agriculture which causes a large amount of soil-associated P to be transported into aquatic systems. We performed anaerobic long-term incubations on field soil to mimic the conditions that eroded soil encounters in brackish sediments. The release of P from soil increased with the amount of labile organic C (acetate) addition and decreased with the soil/solution ratio. We deduce that in less-productive brackish systems, microbial Fe reduction allows for the maintenance of the coupled cycling of Fe and P and restricts the amount of P entering the oxic water. In more eutrophic systems, the formation of Fe sulfides as a result of SO4 reduction inactivates Fe, and leads to a higher release of P, thus generating an adverse feedback effect. The dependence of the fate of soil-bound Fe and P on the trophic status of the receiving water should be recognized in eutrophication management. PMID:25681983

Lehtoranta, Jouni; Ekholm, Petri; Wahlström, Stella; Tallberg, Petra; Uusitalo, Risto

2015-03-01

377

Determination of labile copper, cobalt, and chromium in textile mill wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Copper, chromium, and cobalt species present in filtered wastewater effluent were separated by cation exchange and reverse phase chromatography. Three sample fractions were obtained: one containing metal cations (i.e., trivalent Cr, divalent Cu, and divalent Co), one containing organic species (including metallized dyes), and one containing other unretained species. The metal content of each fraction was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The sum of the corrected data was compared to the metal content of a filtered effluent aliquot digested totally with fuming sulfuric acid. Other aliquots of the filtered effluent were spiked with the metals of interest and digested to confirm chemical yield and accuracy. Method detection limits were consistently below 20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu, 30 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Co, and 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cr. Spike recoveries for undifferentiated Cu and Cr were statistically indistinguishable from unity; although Co spike recoveries were slightly low ({approximately}95%), its chemical yield was 98%. Copper retention on the sodium sulfonate cation exchange resin was closely correlated with the [EDTA]/[Cu] ratio, suggesting that metals retained upon the cation exchange column were assignable to labile metal species; however, mass balances for all three elements, though reasonable ({approximately}90%), were significantly different from unity. Mechanical factors may have contributed to the material loss, but other data suggest that some metal species reacted irreversibly with the reverse phase column. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Crain, J.S.; Essling, A.M.; Kiely, J.T. [and others

1997-01-01

378

Nitric oxide is necessary for labilization of a consolidated context memory during reconsolidation in terrestrial snails.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be involved in associative memory formation. We investigated the influence of blocking NO function on the reconsolidation of context memory in terrestrial snails (Helix lucorum L.). After a 10 day session of electric shocks in one context only, context memory in snails was observed in test sessions as the significant difference of amplitudes of withdrawal responses to tactile stimuli in two different contexts. After a 1 day rest, a session of 'reminding' was performed, preceded by injection in different groups of the snails with either vehicle or combination of the protein synthesis blocker anisomycin (ANI) with one of the following drugs: the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO, the NO-synthase inhibitors N-omega-nitro-L-arginin, nitroindazole and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, or the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine. Testing the context memory at different time intervals after the reminder under ANI injection showed that the context memory was impaired at 24 h and later, whereas the reminder under combined injection of ANI and each of the NO-synthase inhibitors used or the NO scavenger showed no impairment of long-term context memory. Injection of the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine with or without reminder had no effect on context memory. The results obtained demonstrated that NO is necessary for labilization of a consolidated context memory. PMID:24910164

Balaban, Pavel M; Roshchin, Matvey; Timoshenko, Alia K; Gainutdinov, Khalil L; Bogodvid, Tatiana K; Muranova, Lyudmila N; Zuzina, Alena B; Korshunova, Tatiana A

2014-09-01

379

Labile Zn ions on octacalcium phosphate-derived Zn-containing hydroxyapatite surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously synthesized and characterized zinc-containing octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and its hydrolyzed Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (HA). In the present report, we attempted to define the state of Zn in the OCP-derived Zn-calcium phosphates (CaPs) in relation to the presence of specific amino acids. Zn-containing OCPs were prepared in solutions that included Zn ions up to a concentration of 3.5 mM, and their hydrolyzates [hydrolyzed (hy)-Zn-CaP] were obtained in hot water. The materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The concentration of Ca and Zn ions at room temperature was determined by analyzing the supernatant after incubating the materials in ?-minimal essential medium (?-MEM) and HEPES buffer including cysteine, histidine, lysine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. Zn ions were more dissolved in ?-MEM than HEPES buffer in the absence of amino acids. The inclusion of the amino acids enhanced Zn dissolution by several hundred fold, even in HEPES buffer. Among the amino acids, both cysteine and histidine enhanced the release of Zn. The effect was particularly remarkable with cysteine even in the presence of the other amino acids tested. These results indicate that Zn ions are present as a surface labile pool, which tends to be preferentially desorbed by cysteine, a ubiquitous molecule present in serum.

Honda, Yoshitomo; Anada, Takahisa; Morimoto, Shinji; Suzuki, Osamu

2013-05-01

380

Stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) for the passive, integrative sampling of labile metals in water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is described for potential use as an in situ, passive, integrative sampler for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in natural waters. The SLMD (patent pending) consists of a 2.5-cm-wide by 15-cm-long strip of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tubing containing 1 mL of an equal mixture (v/v) of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and EMO-8Q (7-[4-ethyl-1-methyloctyl]-8-quinolinol). The reagent mixture continuously diffuses to the exterior surface of the LDPE membrane, and provides for sequestration of several divalent metals for up to several weeks. Depending on sampler configuration, concentration factors of several thousand can be realized for these metal ions after just a few days. In addition to in situ deployment, the SLMD may be useful for laboratory determination of labile metal species in grab samples. Methods for minimizing the effects of water flow on the sampling rate are currently under investigation.

Brumbaugh, W.G.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Manahan, S.E.

2002-01-01

381

An Intermetallic Au24Ag20 Superatom Nanocluster Stabilized by Labile Ligands.  

PubMed

An intermetallic nanocluster containing 44 metal atoms, Au24Ag20(2-SPy)4(PhC?C)20Cl2, was successfully synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal analysis and density funtional theory computations. The 44 metal atoms in the cluster are arranged as a concentric three-shell Au12@Ag20@Au12 Keplerate structure having a high symmetry. For the first time, the co-presence of three different types of anionic ligands (i.e., phenylalkynyl, 2-pyridylthiolate, and chloride) was revealed on the surface of metal nanoclusters. Similar to thiolates, alkynyls bind linearly to surface Au atoms using their ?-bonds, leading to the formation of two types of surface staple units (PhC?C-Au-L, L = PhC?C(-) or 2-pyridylthiolate) on the cluster. The co-presence of three different surface ligands allows the site-specific surface and functional modification of the cluster. The lability of PhC?C(-) ligands on the cluster was demonstrated, making it possible to keep the metal core intact while removing partial surface capping. Moreover, it was found that ligand exchange on the cluster occurs easily to offer various derivatives with the same metal core but different surface functionality and thus different solubility. PMID:25803406

Wang, Yu; Su, Haifeng; Xu, Chaofa; Li, Gang; Gell, Lars; Lin, Shuichao; Tang, Zichao; Häkkinen, Hannu; Zheng, Nanfeng

2015-04-01

382

Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex. Roem. & Schult.) DC. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. interactions when administered with diazepam.  

PubMed

The safety of natural drugs is defined by their side effects and toxicity as well as any interactions that may occur if taken together with other drugs. In particular, it is essential to identify synergies, antagonisms and other types of interference with other drugs so that the correct choice can be made from the range of phytomedicines available. The aim of this work was to investigate changes in the pharmacological effect of diazepam (2?mg/kg) on the CNS when administered together with a medicinal plant: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (eucalyptus 6?mg/kg and 3.25?mg/kg) or Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult). DC. (cat's claw, 7.14?mg/kg and 3.54?mg/kg). Various different psychopharmacological effects were evaluated through assessing exploratory behavior, muscle relaxation and spontaneous motor activity. Both phytodrugs interacted with the benzodiazepine. Eucalyptus had an inhibitory effect at both doses and could be useful at the highest dose in cases where the desired effect of the depressant is moderate anxiolytic activity without marked muscle relaxation. Cat's claw, at both doses, enhanced the action of diazepam on spontaneous motor activity and, at the lowest dose, exploratory ability. These herbal drugs could be useful for their antiinflammatory activity in musculoskeletal pathologies treated with benzodiazepines. PMID:21928376

Quílez, A M; Saenz, M T; García, M D

2012-03-01

383

Sex-specific regulation of body size and bone slenderness by the acid labile subunit.  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a crucial mediator of body size and bone mass during growth and development. In serum, IGF-1 is stabilized by several IGF-1-binding proteins (IGFBPs) and the acid labile subunit (ALS). Previous research using ALS knockout (ALSKO) mice indicated a growth retardation phenotype, and clinical reports of humans have indicated short stature and low bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with ALS deficiency. To determine the temporal and sex-specific effects of ALS deficiency on body size and skeletal development during growth, we characterized control and ALSKO mice from 4 to 16 weeks of age. We found that female ALSKO mice had an earlier-onset reduction in body size (4 weeks) but that both female and male ALSKO mice were consistently smaller than control mice. Interestingly, skeletal analyses at multiple ages showed increased slenderness of ALSKO femurs that was more severe in females than in males. Both male and female ALSKO mice appeared to compensate for their more slender bones through increased bone formation on their endosteal surfaces during growth, but ALSKO females had increased endosteal bone formation compared with ALSKO males. This study revealed age- and sex-specific dependencies of body size and bone size on the ALS. These findings may explain the heterogeneity in growth and BMD measurements reported in human ALS-deficient patients. PMID:20499371

Courtland, Hayden-William; DeMambro, Victoria; Maynard, Jane; Sun, Hui; Elis, Sebastien; Rosen, Clifford; Yakar, Shoshana

2010-09-01

384

The Dual Filter Model: Labile Plant Inputs Form Stable Soil Organic Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decomposition of above and below-ground plant detritus (litter) is the main process by which soil organic matter (SOM) is formed. Yet, research on litter decay and SOM formation has been uncoupled, failing to provide an effective nexus between these two fundamental processes for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and storage. However, a unified framework for integrating litter decomposition and SOM formation is emerging, whereby microbial resource use efficiency and allocation of C and N, in interaction with the soil matrix, controls the proportion of plant derived-C and -N that is retained in long-term SOM pools. We synthesize this emerging understanding and call it the Dual Filter Model, with the two filters being microbial resource use efficiency and soil matrix interactions. This model suggests that, since labile plant constituents are degraded more efficiently by microbes, they are the dominant source of microbial products, relative to input rates. Via promoting aggregation and through strong chemical bonding to clay particles, these microbial products of decomposition become the main precursors of stable SOM.

Cotrufo, M.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Boot, C. M.; Denef, K.; Paul, E.

2012-12-01

385

Development and bioorthogonal activation of palladium-labile prodrugs of gemcitabine.  

PubMed

Bioorthogonal chemistry has become one of the main driving forces in current chemical biology, inspiring the search for novel biocompatible chemospecific reactions for the past decade. Alongside the well-established labeling strategies that originated the bioorthogonal paradigm, we have recently proposed the use of heterogeneous palladium chemistry and bioorthogonal Pd(0)-labile prodrugs to develop spatially targeted therapies. Herein, we report the generation of biologically inert precursors of cytotoxic gemcitabine by introducing Pd(0)-cleavable groups in positions that are mechanistically relevant for gemcitabine's pharmacological activity. Cell viability studies in pancreatic cancer cells showed that carbamate functionalization of the 4-amino group of gemcitabine significantly reduced (>23-fold) the prodrugs' cytotoxicity. The N-propargyloxycarbonyl (N-Poc) promoiety displayed the highest sensitivity to heterogeneous palladium catalysis under biocompatible conditions, with a reaction half-life of less than 6 h. Zebrafish studies with allyl, propargyl, and benzyl carbamate-protected rhodamines confirmed N-Poc as the most suitable masking group for implementing in vivo bioorthogonal organometallic chemistry. PMID:24867590

Weiss, Jason T; Dawson, John C; Fraser, Craig; Rybski, Witold; Torres-Sánchez, Carmen; Bradley, Mark; Patton, E Elizabeth; Carragher, Neil O; Unciti-Broceta, Asier

2014-06-26

386

Bacteriophage PRD1 contains a labile receptor-binding structure at each vertex.  

PubMed

Bacteriophage PRD1 is a membrane-containing virus with an unexpected similarity to adenovirus. We mutagenized unassigned PRD1 genes to identify minor capsid proteins that could be structural or functional analogs to adenovirus proteins. We report here the identification of an amber mutant, sus525, in an essential PRD1 gene XXXI. The gene was cloned and the gene product was overexpressed and purified to near homogeneity. Analytical ultracentrifugation and gel filtration showed that P31 is a homopentamer of about 70 kDa. The protein was shown to be accessible on the virion surface and its absence in the sus525 particles led to the deficiency of two other viral coat proteins, protein P5 and the adsorption protein P2. Cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of the sus525 particles indicate that these proteins are located on the capsid vertices, because in these particles the entire vertex structure was missing along with the peripentonal major capsid protein P3 trimers. Sus525 particles package DNA effectively but loose it upon purification. All of the PRD1 vertex structures are labile and potentially capable of mediating DNA delivery; this is in contrast to other dsDNA phages which employ a single vertex for packaging and delivery. We propose that this arises from a symmetry mismatch between protein P2 and the pentameric P31 in analogy to that between the adenovirus penton base and the receptor-binding spike. PMID:10448038

Rydman, P S; Caldentey, J; Butcher, S J; Fuller, S D; Rutten, T; Bamford, D H

1999-08-20

387

Membrane Transport Behavior and the Lability of Chloride on Polyphosphazenes Bearing Bulky Substituents  

SciTech Connect

Polyphosphazenes are an intriguing class of inorganic polymers where much of their functionality is derived from pendant groups attached to phosphorus. The backbone of the polymer consists of alternating phosphorus and nitrogen atoms where the bonding is conventionally drawn as alternating double and single bonds. Orbital nodes are located at each phosphorus atom resulting in electron delocalization between phosphorus atoms, but not through them. Thus, the polymer backbone has a high degree of flexibility where halogens or other leaving groups can be effectively displaced with nucleophiles. In this paper, the first known example of a polyphosphazene with large quantities of non-labile chloride substituents induced by neighboring group steric effects will be discussed. This example is the result of the substitution of poly[bis-chlorophosphazene] with the sodium salt of 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol where only 60% of the chlorines were displaced. This contrasts with the 100% substitution observed with other phenols (phenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, 3-methylphenol, etc.).

Frederick F. Stewart; John R. Klaehn; Christopher J. Orme

2007-08-01

388

Labile sex differences in long calling in cotton-top tamarins.  

PubMed

Sex differences in behavior are quite common among nonhuman primates. In sexually monomorphic species, sex differences might be expected to be less evident than in polygynous and highly dimorphic species. Callitrichid primates (marmosets and tamarins) are cooperative breeders that exhibit little sexual size dimorphism. However, several sex differences in the structure and usage of vocalizations have been reported. In one such study, McConnell and Snowdon [Behaviour 97:273-296, 1986] reported that female cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) emitted significantly more normal long calls than males during simulated intergroup encounters. In the course of collecting a library of normal long calls, we replicated a portion of that study 20 years later with the same colony and similar methods. To our surprise we found a reversal of sex differences. In the same experimental situation, males gave significantly more normal long calls than females. In a further replication 2 years later, males still called more but the effect was less pronounced. The dramatic change in sex differences within the same species and colony over a 22-year period suggests that behavioral sex differences in callitrichids may be quite labile, and that repeated sampling over several years may be necessary to establish true sex differences. PMID:16429418

Scott, Jillian J; Carlson, Kirsten L; Snowdon, Charles T

2006-02-01

389

Recent Insights into Clostridium perfringens Beta-Toxin  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin is a key mediator of necrotizing enterocolitis and enterotoxemia. It is a pore-forming toxin (PFT) that exerts cytotoxic effect. Experimental investigation using piglet and rabbit intestinal loop models and a mouse infection model apparently showed that beta-toxin is the important pathogenic factor of the organisms. The toxin caused the swelling and disruption of HL-60 cells and formed a functional pore in the lipid raft microdomains of sensitive cells. These findings represent significant progress in the characterization of the toxin with knowledge on its biological features, mechanism of action and structure-function having been accumulated. Our aims here are to review the current progresses in our comprehension of the virulence of C. perfringens type C and the character, biological feature and structure-function of beta-toxin. PMID:25654787

Nagahama, Masahiro; Ochi, Sadayuki; Oda, Masataka; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Takehara, Masaya; Kobayashi, Keiko

2015-01-01

390

Overview of Scorpion Species from China and Their Toxins  

PubMed Central

Scorpions are one of the most ancient groups of terrestrial animals. They have maintained a steady morphology over more than 400 million years of evolution. Their venom arsenals for capturing prey and defending against predators may play a critical role in their ancient and conservative appearance. In the current review, we present the scorpion fauna of China: 53 species covering five families and 12 genera. We also systematically list toxins or genes from Chinese scorpion species, involving eight species covering four families. Furthermore, we review the diverse functions of typical toxins from Chinese scorpion species, involving Na+ channel modulators, K+ channel blockers, antimicrobial peptides and protease inhibitors. Using scorpion species and their toxins from China as an example, we build the bridge between scorpion species and their toxins, which helps us to understand the molecular and functional diversity of scorpion venom arsenal, the dynamic and functional evolution of scorpion toxins, and the potential relationships of scorpion species and their toxins. PMID:24577583

Cao, Zhijian; Di, Zhiyong; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin

2014-01-01

391

Fold modulating function: bacterial toxins to functional amyloids  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria produce cytolytic toxins that target host cells or other competing microbes. It is well known that environmental factors control toxin expression, however, recent work suggests that some bacteria manipulate the fold of these protein toxins to control their function. The ?-sheet rich amyloid fold is a highly stable ordered aggregate that many toxins form in response to specific environmental conditions. When in the amyloid state, toxins become inert, losing the cytolytic activity they display in the soluble form. Emerging evidence suggest that some amyloids function as toxin storage systems until they are again needed, while other bacteria utilize amyloids as a structural matrix component of biofilms. This amyloid matrix component facilitates resistance to biofilm disruptive challenges. The bacterial amyloids discussed in this review reveal an elegant system where changes in protein fold and solubility dictate the function of proteins in response to the environment. PMID:25136340

Syed, Adnan K.; Boles, Blaise R.

2014-01-01

392

The impact of toxins on the developing brain.  

PubMed

The impact of toxins on the developing brain is usually subtle for an individual child, but the damage can be substantial at the population level. Numerous challenges must be addressed to definitively test the impact of toxins on brain development in children: We must quantify exposure using a biologic marker or pollutant; account for an ever-expanding set of potential confounders; identify critical windows of vulnerability; and repeatedly examine the association of biologic markers of toxins with intellectual abilities, behaviors, and brain function in distinct cohorts. Despite these challenges, numerous toxins have been implicated in the development of intellectual deficits and mental disorders in children. Yet, too little has been done to protect children from these ubiquitous but insidious toxins. The objective of this review is to provide an overview on the population impact of toxins on the developing brain and describe implications for public health. PMID:25581143

Lanphear, Bruce P

2015-03-18

393

DGT-labile As, Cd, Cu and Ni monitoring in freshwater: toward a framework for interpretation of in situ deployment.  

PubMed

The use of the Diffusive Gradient in Thin Film sampler (DGT) as a monitoring tool for regulatory programs is currently evaluated. In this context, the impact of commonly followed procedures on the accuracy of DGT-labile As, Cd, Cu, and Ni quantification was studied. Initial sampler contamination yields to define quantification limits instead of using blank subtraction, thus avoiding artifact concentrations. Not considering the alteration of element diffusion by the filter membrane leads to significant underestimation. However, diffusion coefficients determined on a non-fouled membrane were found to be suitable for the studied site, making it possible to use data from the literature. When diffusive boundary layer formation is neglected, no loss of accuracy is recorded provided the layer is thinner than 0.5 mm. Finally, exploration of potential biases allowed initiating a framework that might help limit inaccuracies in DGT-labile concentration estimation and interpretation, especially in a low contamination context. PMID:24886969

Buzier, Rémy; Charriau, Adeline; Corona, David; Lenain, Jean-François; Fondanèche, Patrice; Joussein, Emmanuel; Poulier, Gaëlle; Lissalde, Sophie; Mazzella, Nicolas; Guibaud, Gilles

2014-09-01

394

Expression and activity of a probable toxin from Photorhabdus luminescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an insect pathogen, Photorhabdus luminescens possesses an arsenal of toxins. Here we cloned and expressed a probable toxin from P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii YNd185, designated as Photorhabdus insecticidal toxin (Pit). The pit gene shares 94% nucleotide and 98% predicted amino acid sequence identity with plu1537, a predicted ORF from P. luminescens subsp. laumondii TT01 and 30% predicted amino acid sequence

Mei Li; Guofeng Wu; Changkun Liu; Yongqiang Chen; Lihong Qiu; Yi Pang

2009-01-01

395

Use of botulinum toxin in pediatric otolaryngology and laryngology.  

PubMed

The use of botulinum toxin in adult otolaryngology has been commonly used in conditions such as spasmodic dysphonia, cricopharyngeal spasm, palatal myoclonus, sialorrhea, and for cosmetic reasons. The current use of botulinum toxin in pediatric otolaryngology and laryngology has primarily been off label and in children older than 2 years of age. This review discusses the different applications of botulinum toxin in pediatric patients and its effectiveness in treating different pediatric conditions. PMID:25048857

Shogan, Andrea Nath; Rogers, Derek J; Hartnick, Christopher J; Kerschner, Joseph E

2014-09-01

396

Monitoring of (bio)available labile metal fraction in a drinking water treatment plant by diffusive gradients in thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A performance study of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry\\u000a (ICP-OES) was applied for the monitoring of the labile fraction of metals Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, in Sant\\u000a Joan Despí Drinking Water Treatment Plant located in the South of Barcelona’s Metropolitan Area (Spain). The DWTP monitoring

Alfredo Díaz; Rebeca Arnedo; Raquel Céspedes-Sánchez; Ricard Devesa; Jordi Martin-Alonso

397

Impact of labile and recalcitrant carbon treatments on available nitrogen and plant communities in a semiarid ecosystem.  

PubMed

In a 10-year study, we assessed the influence of five carbon (C) treatments on the labile C and nitrogen (N) pools of historically N-enriched plots on the Shortgrass Steppe Long Term Ecological Research site located in northeastern Colorado. For eight years, we applied sawdust, sugar, industrial lignin, sawdust + sugar, and lignin + sugar to plots that had received N and water additions in the early 1970s. Previous work showed that past water and N additions altered plant species composition and enhanced rates of nutrient cycling; these effects were still apparent 25 years later. We hypothesized that labile C amendments would stimulate microbial activity and suppress rates of N mineralization, whereas complex forms of carbon (sawdust and lignin) could enhance humification and lead to longer-term reductions in N availability. Results indicated that, of the five carbon treatments, sugar, sawdust, and sawdust + sugar suppressed N availability, with sawdust + sugar being the most effective treatment to reduce N availability. The year after treatments stopped, N availability remained less in the sawdust + sugar treatment plots than in the high-N control plots. Three years after treatments ended, reductions in N availability were smaller (40-60%). Our results suggest that highly labile forms of carbon generate strong short-term N sinks, but these effects dissipate within one year of application, and that more recalcitrant forms reduce N longer. Sawdust + sugar was the most effective treatment to decrease exotic species canopy cover and increase native species density over the long term. Labile carbon had neither short- nor long-term effects on exotic species. Even though the organic amendments did not contribute to recovery of the dominant native species Bouteloua gracilis, they were effective in increasing another native species, Carex eleocharis. These results indicate that organic amendments may be a useful tool for restoring some native species in the shortgrass steppe, though not all. PMID:23734484

Burke, I C; Bontti, E E; Barrett, J E; Lowe, P N; Lauenroth, W K; Riggle, R

2013-04-01

398

Microwave-assisted extraction performed in low temperature and in vacuo for the extraction of labile compounds in food samples.  

PubMed

In this study, low temperature vacuum microwave-assisted extraction, which simultaneous performed microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) in low temperature and in vacuo environment, was proposed. The influencing parameters including solid/liquid ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time, degree of vacuum and microwave power were discussed. The predominance of low temperature vacuum microwave-assisted extraction was investigated by comparing the extraction yields of vitamin C, ?-carotene, aloin A and astaxanthin in different foods with that in MAE and solvent extraction, and 5.2-243% increments were obtained. On the other hand, the chemical kinetics of vitamin C and aloin A, which composed two different steps including the extraction step of analyte transferred from matrix into solvent and the decomposition step of analyte degraded in the extraction solvent, were proposed. All of the decomposition rates (K(2)) for the selected analyte in low temperature, in vacuo and in nitrogen atmosphere decreased significantly comparing with that in conventional MAE, which are in agreement with that obtained from experiments. Consequently, the present method was successfully applied to extract labile compound from different food samples. These results showed that low temperature and/or in vacuo environment in microwave-assisted extraction system was especially important to prevent the degradation of labile components and have good potential on the extraction of labile compound in foods, pharmaceutical and natural products. PMID:22177069

Xiao, Xiaohua; Song, Wei; Wang, Jiayue; Li, Gongke

2012-01-27

399

Visualization of Peroxynitrite-Induced Changes of Labile Zn2+ in the Endoplasmic Reticulum with Benzoresorufin-based Fluorescent Probes  

PubMed Central

Zn2+ plays essential roles in biology, and the homeostasis of Zn2+ is tightly regulated in all cells. Subcellular distribution and trafficking of labile Zn2+, and its interrelation with reactive nitrogen species, are poorly understood due to the scarcity of appropriate imaging tools. We report a new family of red-emitting fluorescent sensors for labile Zn2+, ZBR1-3, based on a benzoresorufin platform functionalized with dipicolylamine or picolylamine-derived metal binding groups. In combination, the pendant amines and fluorophore afford an [N3O] binding motif that resembles that of previously reported fluorescein-based sensors of the Zinpyr family, reproducing well their binding capabilities and yielding comparable Kd values in the subnanomolar and picomolar range. The ZBR sensors display up to 8.4-fold emission fluorescence enhancement upon Zn2+ binding in the cuvette, with similar responses obtained in live cells using standard wide-field fluorescence microscopy imaging. The new sensors localize spontaneously in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of various tested cell lines, allowing for organelle-specific monitoring of zinc levels in live cells. Study of ER zinc levels in neural stem cells (NSC) treated with a peroxynitrite generator, Sin-1, revealed an immediate decrease in labile Zn2+ thus providing evidence for a direct connection between ER stress and ER Zn2+ homeostasis. PMID:23902285

Lin, Wei; Buccella, Daniela; Lippard, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

400

Fusarial toxins: secondary metabolites of Fusarium fungi.  

PubMed

Exposure to mycotoxins occurs worldwide, even though there are geographic and climatic differences in the amounts produced and occurrence of these substances.Mycotoxins are secondary chemical metabolites of different fungi. They are natural contaminants of cereals, so their presence is often inevitable. Among many genera that produce mycotoxins, Fusarium fungi are the most widespread in cereal-growing areas of the planet. Fusarium fungi produce a diversity of mycotoxin types, whose distributions are also diverse. What is produced and where it is produced is influenced primarily by environmental conditions, and crop production and storage methods. The amount of toxin produced depends on physical (viz., moisture, relative humidity, temperature, and mechanical damage), chemical (viz., carbon dioxide,oxygen, composition of substrate, insecticides and fungicides), and biological factors (viz., plant variety, stress, insects, spore load, etc.). Moisture and temperature have a major influence on mold growth rate and mycotoxin production.Among the most toxic and prevalent fusaria) toxins are the following: zearalenone,fumonisins, moniliformin and trichothecenes (T-2/HT-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol,diacetoxyscirpenol, nivalenol). Zearalenone (ZEA; ZON, F-2 toxin) isaphy to estrogenic compound, primarily a field contaminant, which exhibits estrogenic activity and has been implicated in numerous mycotoxicoses of farm animals,especially pigs. Recently, evidence suggests that ZEA has potential to stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells. Fumonisins are also cancer-promoting metabolites,of which Fumonisin 8 I (FBI) is the most important. Moniliformin (MON) isalso highly toxic to both animals and humans. Trichothecenes are classified as gastrointestinal toxins, dermatotoxins, immunotoxins, hematotoxins, and gene toxins.T-2 and HT-2 toxin, and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, anguidine) are the most toxic mycotoxins among the trichothecene group. Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) and nivalenol although less toxic are important because they frequently occur at levels high enough to cause adverse effects.The presence of mycotoxins in the animal diet can produce significant production losses. Any considerable presence of mycotoxins, in major dietary components,confirms the need to adopt a continuous prevention and control program. Such programs are usually based on several common approaches to minimize mycotoxin contamination in the food chain. Major strategies include preventing fungal growth and therefore mycotoxin formation, reducing or eliminating mycotoxins from contaminated feedstuffs, or diverting contaminated products to low risk uses. Because of the complexity of their chemical structures, mycotoxins also present a major analytical challenge. They are also found in a vast array of feed matrices. Analysis is essential for determining the extent of mycotoxin contamination, for risk analysis, confirming the diagnosis of a mycotoxicosis and for monitoring mycotoxin mitigation strategies.For the future, adequately controlling the mycotoxin problem in the livestock economy will depend on implementing appropriate agricultural management policies,as well as augmenting production and storage systems and analysis methods.Only such policies offer the opportunity to bring solid and long-lasting economical results to the livestock industry that is afflicted with the mycotoxin problem. PMID:24162094

Nesic, Ksenija; Ivanovic, Snezana; Nesic, Vladimir

2014-01-01

401

9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS...Burkholderia mallei; *Burkholderia pseudomallei; Hendra virus; Nipah virus; Rift Valley fever virus; Venezuelan equine...

2013-01-01

402

9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS...Burkholderia mallei; *Burkholderia pseudomallei; Hendra virus; Nipah virus; Rift Valley fever virus; Venezuelan equine...

2014-01-01

403

9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS...Burkholderia mallei; Burkholderia pseudomallei; Hendra virus; Nipah virus; Rift Valley fever virus; Venezuelan...

2012-01-01

404

Lipid requirements for entry of protein toxins into cells.  

PubMed

The plant toxin ricin and the bacterial toxin Shiga toxin both belong to a group of protein toxins having one moiety that binds to the cell surface, and another, enzymatically active moiety, that enters the cytosol and inhibits protein synthesis by inactivating ribosomes. Both toxins travel all the way from the cell surface to endosomes, the Golgi apparatus and the ER before the ribosome-inactivating moiety enters the cytosol. Shiga toxin binds to the neutral glycosphingolipid Gb3 at the cell surface and is therefore dependent on this lipid for transport into the cells, whereas ricin binds both glycoproteins and glycolipids with terminal galactose. The different steps of transport used by these toxins have specific requirements for lipid species, and with the recent developments in mass spectrometry analysis of lipids and microscopical and biochemical dissection of transport in cells, we are starting to see the complexity of endocytosis and intracellular transport. In this article we describe lipid requirements and the consequences of lipid changes for the entry and intoxication with ricin and Shiga toxin. These toxins can be a threat to human health, but can also be exploited for diagnosis and therapy, and have proven valuable as tools to study intracellular transport. PMID:24462587

Sandvig, Kirsten; Bergan, Jonas; Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Skotland, Tore

2014-04-01

405

Role of Receptors in Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Toxin Activity  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis produces crystalline protein inclusions with insecticidal or nematocidal properties. These crystal (Cry) proteins determine a particular strain's toxicity profile. Transgenic crops expressing one or more recombinant Cry toxins have become agriculturally important. Individual Cry toxins are usually toxic to only a few species within an order, and receptors on midgut epithelial cells have been shown to be critical determinants of Cry specificity. The best characterized of these receptors have been identified for lepidopterans, and two major receptor classes have emerged: the aminopeptidase N (APN) receptors and the cadherin-like receptors. Currently, 38 different APNs have been reported for 12 different lepidopterans. Each APN belongs to one of five groups that have unique structural features and Cry-binding properties. While 17 different APNs have been reported to bind to Cry toxins, only 2 have been shown to mediate toxin susceptibly in vivo. In contrast, several cadherin-like proteins bind to Cry toxins and confer toxin susceptibility in vitro, and disruption of the cadherin gene has been associated with toxin resistance. Nonetheless, only a small subset of the lepidopteran-specific Cry toxins has been shown to interact with cadherin-like proteins. This review analyzes the interactions between Cry toxins and their receptors, focusing on the identification and validation of receptors, the molecular basis for receptor recognition, the role of the receptor in resistant insects, and proposed models to explain the sequence of events at the cell surface by which receptor binding leads to cell death. PMID:17554045

Pigott, Craig R.; Ellar, David J.

2007-01-01

406

7 CFR 331.3 - PPQ select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...toxins: Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Peronosclerospora sacchari ); Phoma glycinicola (formerly Pyrenochaeta glycines ); Ralstonia solanacearum, race 3, biovar 2; Rathayibacter toxicus; Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae;...

2010-01-01

407

The family of Serratia type pore forming toxins.  

PubMed

The Serratia marcescens hemolysin represents the prototype of a growing family of pore forming toxins. The available bacterial genome sequences reveal Serratia hemolysin homologues in additional species. However, only S. marcescens hemolysin has been studied in great molecular detail. This family of toxins has nothing in common with the pore forming toxins of E. coli type (RTX toxins), the Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin or the thiol activated toxin of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (Streptolysin O). Studies on erythrocytes, eukaryotic cells and artificial black lipid membranes, have shown that the mechanism of pore formation of ShlA is different form other pore forming toxins. The S. marcescens hemolysin proteins ShlB and ShlA, exhibit protein sequence homologues in Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus ducreyi, Yersinia pestis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Edwardsiella tarda, Photorhabdus luminescens and Xylella fastidiosa . The family of Serratia type pore forming toxins show a unique secretory mechanism which has been described as a two partner secretion system (TPSS) or type V-secretion system. Not only Serratia type pore forming toxins are secreted via TPSS but also adhesins from Bordetella pertussis, Erwinia chrysanthemi and Haemophilus influenzae. The uniqueness of the Serratia family is underlined by the fact that activation of ShlA by ShlB strictly requires phosphatidylethanolamine as a cofactor. And, quite unusual, ShlA undergoes a conformational change during activation. PMID:16101433

Hertle, Ralf

2005-08-01

408

Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus enhance mosquitocidal cry-toxin activity and suppress cry-resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus  

PubMed Central

The interaction of Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus (formerly Bacillus sphaericus) with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins and the influence of such interactions on Cry-resistance were evaluated in susceptible and Cry-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 were observed to be active against both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes; however varying levels of cross-resistance toward Mtx toxins were observed in the resistant mosquitoes. A 1:1 mixture of either Mtx-1 or Mtx-2 with different Cry toxins generally showed moderate synergism, but some combinations were highly toxic to resistant larvae and suppressed resistance. Toxin synergy has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for enhancing activity and managing Cry-resistance in mosquitoes, thus Mtx toxins may be useful as components of engineered bacterial larvicides. PMID:24144574

Wirth, Margaret C.; Berry, Colin; Walton, William E.; Federici, Brian A.

2014-01-01

409

Enumeration of labile hydrogens in natural organic matter by use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method to enumerate labile hydrogens in all constituents of molecular ensemble of natural organic matter (NOM) based on our previously developed simple hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange (electrospray ionization (ESI) ion source (Kostyukevich et al. Anal. Chem. 2013, 85, 5330) and ultra-high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is presented. The method was applied for analysis of Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), which is an International Humic Substances Society standard, as well as Siberian crude oil; and lignosulfonate. We found that SRFA and lignosulfonate molecules contain 2-5 labile hydrogens, and their number increases with the number of oxygens in the molecule. Also, we observed that compounds of Siberian crude oil ionizing in positive-ESI mode do not have labile hydrogens, while compounds ionizing in negative-ESI mode have one labile hydrogen that detaches during ESI ionization. PMID:24098913

Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Kharybin, Oleg; Perminova, Irina; Konstantinov, Andrey; Nikolaev, Eugene

2013-11-19

410

Visualization of Peroxynitrite-Induced Changes of Labile Zn[superscript 2+] in the Endoplasmic Reticulum with Benzoresorufin-based Fluorescent Probes  

E-print Network

Zn[superscript 2+] plays essential roles in biology, and the homeostasis of Zn[superscript 2+] is tightly regulated in all cells. Subcellular distribution and trafficking of labile Zn[superscript 2+], and its inter-relation ...

Lin, Wei

411

9 CFR 121.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS...TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 121.10 Restricting...

2010-01-01

412

75 FR 39437 - Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States...Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States...scientific enterprise that utilizes biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) is...

2010-07-08

413

76 FR 61205 - Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...73 Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review...0920-AA34 Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review AGENCY...Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United...

2011-10-03

414

Polypharmacology profiles and phylogenetic analysis of three-finger toxins from mamba venom: case of aminergic toxins.  

PubMed

Composition of mamba's venom is quite atypical and characterized by the presence of a large diversity of three-finger fold toxins (3FTx) interacting with various enzymes, receptors and ion channels. In particular, 3FTx from mambas display the unique property to interact with class A GPCRs, sometimes with a high affinity and selectivity. A screening of five of these toxins (MT1, MT3, MT7, ?-Da1a and ?-Da1b) on 29 different subtypes of bioaminergic receptors, using competition binding experiments, highlights the diversity of their pharmacological profiles. These toxins may display either absolute selectivity for one receptor subtype or a polypharmacological property for various bioaminergic receptors. Nevertheless, adrenoceptor is the main receptor family targeted by these toxins. Furthermore, a new receptor target was identified for 3FTx and toxins in general, the ?-Da1b interacting competitively with the human dopamine D3 receptor in the micromolar range. This result expands the diversity of GPCRs targeted by toxins and more generally highlights the multipotent interacting property of 3FTx. Phylogenic analyzes of these toxins show that muscarinic, adrenergic and dopaminergic toxins may be pooled in one family called aminergic toxins, this family coming probably from a specific radiation of ligands present in mamba venoms. PMID:24793485

Blanchet, Guillaume; Collet, Guillaume; Mourier, Gilles; Gilles, Nicolas; Fruchart-Gaillard, Carole; Marcon, Elodie; Servent, Denis

2014-08-01

415

A Common Origin for the Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems parD and ccd, Suggested by Analyses of Toxin/Target and Toxin/Antitoxin Interactions  

PubMed Central

Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems encode two proteins, a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation (toxin) and its specific antidote (antitoxin). Structural data has revealed striking similarities between the two model TA toxins CcdB, a DNA gyrase inhibitor encoded by the ccd system of plasmid F, and Kid, a site-specific endoribonuclease encoded by the parD system of plasmid R1. While a common structural fold seemed at odds with the two clearly different modes of action of these toxins, the possibility of functional crosstalk between the parD and ccd systems, which would further point to their common evolutionary origin, has not been documented. Here, we show that the cleavage of RNA and the inhibition of protein synthesis by the Kid toxin, two activities that are specifically counteracted by its cognate Kis antitoxin, are altered, but not inhibited, by the CcdA antitoxin. In addition, Kis was able to inhibit the stimulation of DNA gyrase-mediated cleavage of DNA by CcdB, albeit less efficiently than CcdA. We further show that physical interactions between the toxins and antitoxins of the different systems do occur and define the stoichiometry of the complexes formed. We found that CcdB did not degrade RNA nor did Kid have any reproducible effect on the tested DNA gyrase activities, suggesting that these toxins evolved to reach different, rather than common, cellular targets. PMID:23029540

Mitchenall, Lesley A.; Barendregt, Arjan; Heck, Albert J.; Lemonnier, Marc; Maxwell, Anthony; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón

2012-01-01

416

Antibody-mediated inhibition of ricin toxin retrograde transport.  

PubMed

Ricin is a member of the ubiquitous family of plant and bacterial AB toxins that gain entry into the cytosol of host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and retrograde traffic through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While a few ricin toxin-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been identified, the mechanisms by which these antibodies prevent toxin-induced cell death are largely unknown. Using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and a TGN-specific sulfation assay, we demonstrate that 24B11, a MAb against ricin's binding subunit (RTB), associates with ricin in solution or when prebound to cell surfaces and then markedly enhances toxin uptake into host cells. Following endocytosis, however, toxin-antibody complexes failed to reach the TGN; instead, they were shunted to Rab7-positive late endosomes and LAMP-1-positive lysosomes. Monovalent 24B11 Fab fragments also interfered with toxin retrograde transport, indicating that neither cross-linking of membrane glycoproteins/glycolipids nor the recently identified intracellular Fc receptor is required to derail ricin en route to the TGN. Identification of the mechanism(s) by which antibodies like 24B11 neutralize ricin will advance our fundamental understanding of protein trafficking in mammalian cells and may lead to the discovery of new classes of toxin inhibitors and therapeutics for biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. IMPORTANCE Ricin is the prototypic member of the AB family of medically important plant and bacterial toxins that includes cholera and Shiga toxins. Ricin is also a category B biothreat agent. Despite ongoing efforts to develop vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics against ricin, very little is known about the mechanisms by which antibodies neutralize this toxin. In general, it is thought that antibodies simply prevent toxins from attaching to cell surface receptors or promote their clearance through Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated uptake. In this report, however, we describe a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) against ricin's binding subunit (RTB) that not only associates with ricin after the toxin has bound to the cell's surface but actually enhances toxin uptake into host cells. Following endocytosis, the antibody-toxin complexes are then routed for degradation. The results of this study are important because they reveal a previously unappreciated role for B-subunit-specific antibodies in intracellular neutralization of ricin toxin. PMID:24713323

Yermakova, Anastasiya; Klokk, Tove Irene; Cole, Richard; Sandvig, Kirsten; Mantis, Nicholas J

2014-01-01