Science.gov

Sample records for heat processed foods

  1. Modeling of Heating During Food Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleva, Ivanka; Kamburova, Veselka

    Heat transfer processes are important for almost all aspects of food preparation and play a key role in determining food safety. Whether it is cooking, baking, boiling, frying, grilling, blanching, drying, sterilizing, or freezing, heat transfer is part of the processing of almost every food. Heat transfer is a dynamic process in which thermal energy is transferred from one body with higher temperature to another body with lower temperature. Temperature difference between the source of heat and the receiver of heat is the driving force in heat transfer.

  2. Latest Development of Infrared Radiation Heating for Food Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared (IR) heating could be an alternative technology for thermal and dehydration processing of food and agricultural products with many advantages, including high process and energy efficiencies, high product quality, improved food safety and reduced environmental pollution. This paper reviews ...

  3. Heat transfer and temperature of foods during processing.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Z A; Woodburn, M

    1981-01-01

    Safety and economics concerns have accentuated an interest in energy input and consumption in the foods industry. This review article focuses on reported temperatures and temperature histories in food preparation and processing. To assist in interpreting reported data, a basic understanding of heat transfer parameters used is given. The relationships between temperature and time histories and quality effects of physical and chemical changes in foods, the production of new compounds with possible health effects, and microbiological safety are summarized. Several areas of needed research are identified. PMID:7018836

  4. Innovative food processing technology using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging for meat.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ruri; Fukuoka, Mika; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2014-02-01

    Since the Tohoku earthquake, there is much interest in processed foods, which can be stored for long periods at room temperature. Retort heating is one of the main technologies employed for producing it. We developed the innovative food processing technology, which supersede retort, using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging. Electrical heating involves the application of alternating voltage to food. Compared with retort heating, which uses a heat transfer medium, ohmic heating allows for high heating efficiency and rapid heating. In this paper we ohmically heated chicken breast samples and conducted various tests on the heated samples. The measurement results of water content, IMP, and glutamic acid suggest that the quality of the ohmically heated samples was similar or superior to that of the retort-heated samples. Furthermore, based on the monitoring of these samples, it was observed that sample quality did not deteriorate during storage. PMID:24200557

  5. Impact of land use on solar industrial process heat for the food processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Casamajor, A.B.

    1980-10-02

    A solar land use study of 1330 food processing plants located in the far-western United States (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington) has been conducted. Based upon estimates of each plant's annual energy consumption of process heat, derived from: annual sales figures, employment, and total energy consumption for that plant's Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) group; and the available surface area at each plant, determined by a site inspection, an assessment of each plant's potential for solar energy was made. Those industries having the highest potential for applying solar energy to their process heat loads include: fruit and vegetable packing, sugar refining, meat packing, wine and brandy, bread, and dairy products. It has been further determined that about 25% of the energy used for food processing in the study area can be supplied by solar if all of the available surface area at and adjacent to these plants is devoted to solar collectors.

  6. Heat recovery/thermal energy storage for energy conservation in food processing

    SciTech Connect

    Combes, R.S.; Boykin, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Based on energy consumption data compiled for 1974, 59% of the total energy consumed in the US food processing industry was thermal energy. The energy-consuming processes which utilize this thermal energy reject significant quantities of waste heat, usually to the atmosphere or to the wastewater discharged from the plant. Design considerations for waste heat recovery systems in the food processing industry are discussed. A systematic analysis of the waste heat source, in terms of quantity and quality is explored. Other aspects of the waste heat source, such as contamination, are addressed as potential impediments to practical heat recovery. The characteristics of the recipient process which will utilize the recovered waste heat are discussed. Thermal energy storage, which can be used as a means of allowing the waste eat recovery process to operate independent of the subsequent utilization of the recovered energy, is discussed. The project included the design, installation and monitoring of two heat recovery systems in a Gold Kist broiler processing plant. These systems recover waste heat from a poultry scalder overflow (heated wastewater) and from a refrigeration condenser utilizing ammonia as the refrigerant. The performance and economic viability of the heat recovery systems are presented.

  7. A New Automated Microwave Heating Process for Cooking and Pasteurization of Microwaveable Foods Containing Raw Meats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new microwave heating process was developed for cooking microwaveable foods containing raw meats. A commercially available inverter-based microwave oven was modified for pasteurization of mechanically tenderized beef, inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (~ 5 log cfu/g) and packaged in a 12 o...

  8. Modeling optimal process conditions for UV-heat inactivation of foodborne pathogens in liquid foods.

    PubMed

    Gayán, Elisa; Serrano, María Jesús; Álvarez, Ignacio; Condón, Santiago

    2016-12-01

    The combination of ultraviolet radiation and heat (UV-H treatment) has been demonstrated as a promising strategy to overcome the limited UV germicidal effect in fruit juices. Nonetheless, there are so far no data regarding the efficacy of the combined process for the inactivation of bacterial foodborne pathogens in other liquid foods with different pH and composition. In this investigation, the optimum UV-H processing conditions for the inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and S. aureus in chicken and vegetable broth, in addition to juices, were determined. From these data models that accurately predict the most advantageous UV-H treatment temperature and the expected synergistic lethal effect from UV and heat resistance data separately were constructed. Equations demonstrated that the optimum UV-H treatment temperature mostly depended on heat resistance, whereas the maximum synergistic lethal effect also was affected by the UV resistance of the microorganism of concern in a particular food. PMID:27554141

  9. Food processing in action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  10. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  11. Bioaccessibility of selenium, selenomethionine and selenocysteine from foods and influence of heat processing on the same.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Anjum; Platel, Kalpana

    2016-03-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient with diverse physiological functions. The selenium content of commonly consumed cereals, pulses and green leafy vegetables (GLV) was determined. Bioaccessibility of Se, and its organic forms selenomethionine (SeMet), and selenocysteine (SeCys2) was also examined, and the effect of heat processing on the same was studied. The bioaccessibility of Se in cereals ranged from 10% to 24%, that of pulses was between 12% and 29%, and of GLV, 10-31%. The concentration of SeMet in the dialysates of the cereals, pulses and GLV ranged from 5.15 to 28.7, 2.7 to 36.2, and 0.03 to 5ngg(-1), respectively. The concentration of SeCys2 in the dialysates of the foods examined was negligible. Heat processing significantly decreased the bioaccessibility of Se, SeMet and SeCys2. This is the first report on the bioaccessibility of Se and its major organic forms from commonly consumed staples, and the effect of heat processing on the same. PMID:26471684

  12. Analysis of heat-processed corn foods for fumonisins and bound fumonisins.

    PubMed

    Park, J W; Scott, P M; Lau, B P Y; Lewis, D A

    2004-12-01

    Thirty retail samples of heat-processed corn foods, i.e. corn flakes, corn-based breakfast cereals, tortilla chips and corn chips, were analysed for fumonisins--fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and hydrolysed FB1 (HFB1)--as well as for protein- and total-bound FB1. Bound (hidden) fumonisins cannot be detected by conventional analysis. Improved methods for the determination of bound FB1 were developed. The protein-bound FB1 was extracted with 1% sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) solution. The SDS, which interfered with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, was then separated from protein-bound FB1 by complexing with methylene blue followed by solvent extraction and hydrolysis with 2 N KOH. To measure total-bound FB1, the sample itself was hydrolysed with KOH. In both cases, clean-up was accomplished on an OASIS polymeric solid-phase extraction column and the bound fumonisins were determined by HPLC measurement of HFB1. Fourteen of 15 samples of corn flakes and other corn-based breakfast cereals analysed contained detectable levels of FB1 with a mean in positive samples of 67ng g(-1) (13-237 ng g(-1)). Two samples also had detectable levels of FB2 (21-23ng g(-1)). Bound FB1 was found in all samples; the mean protein-bound FB1 measured was 58 ng g(-1) (22-176 ng g(-1)) and the mean total-bound FB1 measured was 106 ng g(-1) (28-418 ng g(-1)), reported as FB1 equivalents after correction for recoveries of HFB1. There was an average of about 1.3 times more FB1 in the bound form compared with extractable FB1, and this was about twice as much as protein-bound FB1. Seven of the 15 samples of alkali-processed corn-based foods, such as tortilla chips and corn chips, contained FB1 and three contained HFB1 with means in measurable positive samples of 78 (48-134) and 29 (13-47) ng g(-1), respectively. Five of these alkali-processed corn foods contained bound FB1; the mean measurable protein-bound FB1 was 42 ng g(-1) (39-46 ng g(-1)) and the mean measurable

  13. Food processing and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. PMID:25778347

  14. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  15. [Acceleration of osmotic dehydration process through ohmic heating of foods: raspberries (Rubus idaeus)].

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ricardo R; Jiménez, Maite P; Carevic, Erica G; Grancelli, Romina M

    2007-06-01

    Raspberries (Rubus idaeus) were osmotically dehydrated by applying a conventional method under the supposition of a homogeneous solution, all in a 62% glucose solution at 50 degrees C. Raspberries (Rubus idaeus) were also osmotically dehydrated by using ohmic heating in a 57% glucose solution at a variable voltage (to maintain temperature between 40 and 50 degrees C) and an electric field intensity <100 V/cm. When comparing the results from both experiments it was evident that processing time is reduced when ohmic heating technique was used. In some cases this reduction reached even 50%. This is explained by the additional effect to the thermal damage that is generated in an ohmic process, denominated electroporation. PMID:17992985

  16. Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

  17. Distortion of genetically modified organism quantification in processed foods: influence of particle size compositions and heat-induced DNA degradation.

    PubMed

    Moreano, Francisco; Busch, Ulrich; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2005-12-28

    Milling fractions from conventional and transgenic corn were prepared at laboratory scale and used to study the influence of sample composition and heat-induced DNA degradation on the relative quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food products. Particle size distributions of the obtained fractions (coarse grits, regular grits, meal, and flour) were characterized using a laser diffraction system. The application of two DNA isolation protocols revealed a strong correlation between the degree of comminution of the milling fractions and the DNA yield in the extracts. Mixtures of milling fractions from conventional and transgenic material (1%) were prepared and analyzed via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Accurate quantification of the adjusted GMO content was only possible in mixtures containing conventional and transgenic material in the form of analogous milling fractions, whereas mixtures of fractions exhibiting different particle size distributions delivered significantly over- and underestimated GMO contents depending on their compositions. The process of heat-induced nucleic acid degradation was followed by applying two established quantitative assays showing differences between the lengths of the recombinant and reference target sequences (A, deltal(A) = -25 bp; B, deltal(B) = +16 bp; values related to the amplicon length of the reference gene). Data obtained by the application of method A resulted in underestimated recoveries of GMO contents in the samples of heat-treated products, reflecting the favored degradation of the longer target sequence used for the detection of the transgene. In contrast, data yielded by the application of method B resulted in increasingly overestimated recoveries of GMO contents. The results show how commonly used food technological processes may lead to distortions in the results of quantitative GMO analyses. PMID:16366682

  18. Screening foods for processing-resistant bacterial spores and characterization of a pressure- and heat-resistant Bacillus licheniformis isolate.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Juhee; Balasubramaniam, V M

    2014-06-01

    This study was carried out to isolate pressure- and heat-resistant indicator spores from selected food matrices (black pepper, red pepper, garlic, and potato peel). Food samples were processed under various thermal (90 to 105°C) and pressure (700 MPa) combination conditions, and surviving microorganisms were isolated. An isolate from red pepper powder, Bacillus licheniformis, was highly resistant to pressure-thermal treatments. Spores of the isolate in deionized water were subjected to the combination treatments of pressure (0.1 to 700 MPa) and heat (90 to 121°C). Compared with the thermal treatment, the combined pressure-thermal treatments considerably reduced the numbers of B. licheniformis spores to less than 1.0 log CFU/g at 700 MPa plus 105°C and at 300 to 700 MPa plus 121°C. The inactivation kinetic parameters of the isolated B. licheniformis spores were estimated using linear and nonlinear models. Within the range of the experimental conditions tested, the pressure sensitivity (zP) of the spores decreased with increasing temperature (up to 121°C), and the temperature sensitivity (zT) was maximum at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa). These results will be useful for developing a combined pressure-thermal inactivation kinetics database for various bacterial spores. PMID:24853517

  19. Food-Processing Wastes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2016-10-01

    Literature published in 2015 and early 2016 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes. PMID:27620095

  20. Industrial food processing and space heating with geothermal heat. Final report, February 16, 1979-August 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, J.F.; Marlor, J.K.

    1982-08-01

    A competitive aware for a cost sharing program was made to Madison County, Idaho to share in a program to develop moderate-to-low temperature geothermal energy for the heating of a large junior college, business building, public shcools and other large buildings in Rexburg, Idaho. A 3943 ft deep well was drilled at the edge of Rexburg in a region that had been probed by some shallower test holes. Temperatures measured near the 4000 ft depth were far below what was expected or needed, and drilling was abandoned at that depth. In 1981 attempts were made to restrict downward circulation into the well, but the results of this effort yielded no higher temperatures. The well is a prolific producer of 70/sup 0/F water, and could be used as a domestic water well.

  1. Genetic characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from food processing facilities before and after postcook chiller heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Dykes, Gary A; Huang, Bixing; Turner, Mark S; Seale, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Possible selection for and establishment of stress-resistant Listeria monocytogenes variants as a consequence of heating interventions is of concern to the food industry. Lineage analysis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was performed on 20 L. monocytogenes isolates, of which 15 were obtained before and 5 were obtained after heat treatment of a postcook meat chiller. The ctsR gene (a class III heat shock gene regulator) from 14 isolates was amplified and sequenced because previous work has indicated that spontaneous mutations can occur in this gene during heat treatment. Heat treatment of the meat chiller did not significantly change the relative abundance of the various L. monocytogenes lineages; lineage II strains (less-heat-resistant isolates) dominated both before and after heat treatment. MLVA typing confirmed that some isolates of L. monocytogenes occur both before and after heat treatment of the chiller. No isolate of L. monocytogenes indicated any likely functionally significant mutations in ctsR. This study indicates the absence of any obvious difference in the profiles of L. monocytogenes strains obtained before and after heat treatment of a meat chiller, based on the characteristics examined. Although this finding supports the effectiveness of heat treatment, the limited number of strains used and characteristics examined mean that further study on a larger scale is required before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:23905808

  2. Infrared processing of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  3. Processing of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy. PMID:19878858

  4. Food Processing Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    When NASA started plarning for manned space travel in 1959, the myriad challenges of sustaining life in space included a seemingly mundane but vitally important problem: How and what do you feed an astronaut? There were two main concerns: preventing food crumbs from contaminating the spacecraft's atmosphere or floating into sensitive instruments, and ensuring complete freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria, viruses, and toxins. To solve these concerns, NASA enlisted the help of the Pillsbury Company. Pillsbury quickly solved the first problem by coating bite-size foods to prevent crumbling. They developed the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concept to ensure against bacterial contamination. Hazard analysis is a systematic study of product, its ingredients, processing conditions, handling, storage, packing, distribution, and directions for consumer use to identify sensitive areas that might prove hazardous. Hazard analysis provides a basis for blueprinting the Critical Control Points (CCPs) to be monitored. CCPs are points in the chain from raw materials to the finished product where loss of control could result in unacceptable food safety risks. In early 1970, Pillsbury plants were following HACCP in production of food for Earthbound consumers. Pillsbury's subsequent training courses for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) personnel led to the incorporation of HACCP in the FDA's Low Acid Canned Foods Regulations, set down in the mid-1970s to ensure the safety of all canned food products in the U.S.

  5. A Study on Uniform Heating of Solid Foods and High Viscosity Foods by Microwave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Osamu; Ijuin, Taichi; Takatomi, Tetsuya

    In this paper, an microwave oven for disinfectant one application has been modeled by FDTD-HTE Method and reserched uniform heating of solution model simulated solid food and high viscosity food. We suggest two technique for uniform heating. First one is that water film is arranged around the food for reducing local heating of edge heating. Second one is that food is heated by using both steam and microwave. As a result, 2mm water film lower temperature of high temperature part in the food efficiently, by using uniform heating technique using water film. And we confirmed that 33% of uneven heating is improved. Moreover, we confirmed that steam heated edge of food and microwave heated center of food, and food is gone to about 60 degrees centigrade through uniform technique using both Steam and microwave.

  6. Skylab Food Heating and Serving Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Shown here is the Skylab food heating and serving tray with food, drink, and utensils. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen in the Orbital Workshop wardroom was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  7. Cognitive processing of food rewards.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    Cues associated with tasty foods, such as their smell or taste, are strong motivators of eating, but the power of food cues on behaviour varies from moment to moment and from person to person. Variation in the rewarding value of a food with metabolic state explains why food cues are more attractive when hungry. However, cognitive processes are also important determinants of our responses to food cues. An urge to consume a tempting food may be resisted if, for example, a person has a longer term goal of weight loss. There is also evidence that responses to food cues can be facilitated or inhibited by memory processes. The aim of this review is to add to the literature on cognitive control of eating by reviewing recent evidence on the influence of working memory and episodic memory processes on responses to food cues. It is argued that processing of food information in working memory affects how much attention is paid to food cues in the environment and promotes the motivation to seek out food in the absence of direct contact with food cues. It is further argued that memories of specific recent eating episodes play an important role in directing food choices and influencing when and how much we eat. However, these memory processes are prone to disruption. When this happens, eating behaviour may become more cue-driven and less flexible. In the modern food environment, disruption of cognitive processing of food reward cues may lead to overconsumption and obesity. PMID:26458961

  8. Heating of food in modified atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweat, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    Food heating tests were conducted with two model foods; a Carnation turkey salad sandwich spread and frankfurter chunks in a sauce of water and agar. For the first series of tests comparing heating in five different atmospheres, the atmospheres were: (1) air at atmospheric pressure, (2) air at 5 psia, (3) helium at 5 psia, (4) oxygen-nitrogen mixture at 5 psia, and (5) oxygen-helium mixture at 5 psia. No significant differences in heating rates were caused by varying the atmosphere. Initial food temperatures were varied in the next series of tests. Heating times were found to increase with decreasing initial temperatures. There were also differences in heating times between the two foods used.

  9. Development of three stable isotope dilution assays for the quantitation of (E)-2-butenal (crotonaldehyde) in heat-processed edible fats and oils as well as in food.

    PubMed

    Granvogl, Michael

    2014-02-12

    Three stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) were developed for the quantitation of (E)-2-butenal (crotonaldehyde) in heat-processed edible fats and oils as well as in food using synthesized [¹³C₄]-crotonaldehyde as internal standard. First, a direct headspace GC-MS method, followed by two indirect methods on the basis of derivatization with either pentafluorophenylhydrazine (GC-MS) or 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (LC-MS/MS), was developed. All methods are also suitable for the quantitation of acrolein using the standard [¹³C₃]-acrolein. Applying these three methods on five different types of fats and oils varying in their fatty acid compositions revealed significantly varying crotonaldehyde concentrations for the different samples, but nearly identical quantitative data for all methods. Formed amounts of crotonaldehyde were dependent not only on the type of oil, e.g., 0.29-0.32 mg/kg of coconut oil or 33.9-34.4 mg/kg of linseed oil after heat-processing for 24 h at 180 °C, but also on the applied temperature and time. The results indicated that the concentration of formed crotonaldehyde seemed to be correlated with the amount of linolenic acid in the oils. Furthermore, the formation of crotonaldehyde was compared to that of its homologue acrolein, demonstrating that acrolein was always present in higher amounts in heat-processed oils, e.g., 12.3 mg of crotonaldehyde/kg of rapeseed oil in comparison to 23.4 mg of acrolein/kg after 24 h at 180 °C. Finally, crotonaldehyde was also quantitated in fried food, revealing concentrations from 12 to 25 μg/kg for potato chips and from 8 to 19 μg/kg for donuts, depending on the oil used. PMID:24428123

  10. Allergenicity of processed food.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...

  11. Radio frequency processing of food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The IFT 2016 food expo, which was home to 2,695 booths, was both exciting and educational for those who wished to learn more about food processing. From pumps to small-scale unit operations to commercial equipment, exhibitors highlighted both traditional and innovative food processing solutions for ...

  12. Precision Heating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A heat sealing process was developed by SEBRA based on technology that originated in work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The project involved connecting and transferring blood and fluids between sterile plastic containers while maintaining a closed system. SEBRA markets the PIRF Process to manufacturers of medical catheters. It is a precisely controlled method of heating thermoplastic materials in a mold to form or weld catheters and other products. The process offers advantages in fast, precise welding or shape forming of catheters as well as applications in a variety of other industries.

  13. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  14. 21 CFR 179.30 - Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food... PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.30 Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies. Radiofrequency radiation,...

  15. 21 CFR 179.30 - Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food... PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.30 Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies. Radiofrequency radiation,...

  16. Solving Microbial Spoilage Problems in Processed Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavero, Rocelle

    This chapter surveys common microbial food spoilage processes. The chapter is organized by food products and includes sections addressing spoilage in meat, poultry, fish; dairy products (milk, butter, cheese); beverage products; bakery products; canned foods; fruit and confectionery products; and emulsions. It addresses the isolation and identification of spoilage organisms and provides several case studies as examples. It introduces various organisms responsible for spoilage including Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria, Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and fungal contaminants. Throughout the chapter, attention is given to when, where, and how spoilage organisms enter the food processing chain. Troubleshooting techniques are suggested. The effect (or lack of effect) of heating, dehydration, pH change, cooling, and sealing on various organisms is explained throughout. The chapter contains four tables that connect specific organisms to various spoilage manifestations in a variety of food products.

  17. Application of the standard addition method for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed starchy foods by gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yonghong; Li, Genrong; Duan, Yunpeng; Chen, Shiqi; Zhang, Chun; Li, Yanfei

    2008-08-15

    A gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) using the standard addition method was developed for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed foods. The method entails extraction of acrylamide with water, filtration, defatting with n-hexane, derivatization with hydrobromic acid and saturated bromine-water, and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The sample pretreatment required no SPE clean-up and concentration steps prior to injection. The final extract was analyzed by GC-ECD. The chromatographic analysis was performed on polar columns, e.g. Supelcowax-10 capillary column, and good retention and peak response of the analyte were achieved under the optimal conditions. The qualification of the analyte was by identifying the peak with same retention time as standard compound 2,3-DBPA and confirmed by GC-MS. GC-MS analysis confirmed that 2,3-DBPA was converted to 2-BPA nearly completely on the polar capillary column, whether or not treated with triethylamine. A four-point standard addition protocol was used to quantify acrylamide in food samples. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.6μg/kg on the basis of ECD technique. Validation and quantification results demonstrated that the method should be regarded as a low-cost, convenient, and reliable alternative for conventional investigation of acrylamide. PMID:26050006

  18. Living and learning food processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This year’s annual event promises to be both exciting and educational for those who wish to learn more about food processing. This column will provide a brief overview of the multitude of scientific sessions that reveal new research related to food processing. In addition to the symposia previewed h...

  19. Effect of heat processing and storage time on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) to aqueous food simulant from Mexican can coatings.

    PubMed

    Munguia-Lopez, E M; Soto-Valdez, H

    2001-08-01

    Effects of heat processing and storage time (up to 70 days) on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from can coatings into an aqueous food simulant were determined. Distilled water was canned in two types of Mexican cans: for tuna and for jalapeño peppers. Results showed that there is an effect of heat treatment on migration of both compounds. Storage time did not show any effect in BPA migration from tuna cans. There was an effect of storage time on BPA migration from jalapeño pepper cans. Results for BADGE migration were affected by its susceptibility to hydrolyze in aqueous simulants. BADGE concentration decreased, or was not detected, during storage in both types of cans. Migration levels for BPA and BADGE were within 0.6-83.4 and <0.25-4.3 microg/kg, respectively. Both were below European and Mercosur legislation limits. Other migrating compounds were detected, although no identification was performed. PMID:11513645

  20. Biofuels from food processing wastes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanying; O'Hara, Ian M; Mundree, Sagadevan; Gao, Baoyu; Ball, Andrew S; Zhu, Nanwen; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed. PMID:26874262

  1. Nonthermal processing technologies for food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Looking forward into the future of food science/technology/engineering, in the emerging area of nonthermal processing of foods, is definitely an adventure. It is open-ended and full of uncertainties. Lessons learned from the past should always serve as a good basis for envisioning the future of this...

  2. Boost Process Heating Efficiency - PHAST

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-01

    Use the Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) to survey all process heating equipment within a facility, select the equipment that uses the most energy, and identify ways to increase efficiency.

  3. Optical fiber temperature sensors: applications in heat treatments for foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Morales, María Elena; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2010-10-01

    Heat treatments are important methods to provide safe foods. Conventional heat treatments involve the application of steam and recently microwave treatments have been studied and applied as they are considered as fast, clean and efficient. Optical fiber sensing is an excellent tool to measure the temperature during microwave treatments. This paper shows the application of optical fiber temperature sensing during the heat treatment of different foods such as vegetables (jalapeño pepper and cilantro), cheese and ostrich meat. Reaching the target temperature, important bacteria were inactivated: Salmonella, Listeria and Escherichia coli. Thus, the use of optical fiber sensors has resulted be a useful way to develop protocols to inactivate microorganisms and to propose new methods for food processing.

  4. Heat distribution ceramic processing method

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    2001-01-01

    A multi-layered heat distributor system is provided for use in a microwave process. The multi-layered heat distributors includes a first inner layer of a high thermal conductivity heat distributor material, a middle insulating layer and an optional third insulating outer layer. The multi-layered heat distributor system is placed around the ceramic composition or article to be processed and located in a microwave heating system. Sufficient microwave energy is applied to provide a high density, unflawed ceramic product.

  5. Freezing cleans food processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-01-01

    Snowfluent is a technology which atomizes wastewater effluent and sprays it into the air as ice crystals at cold temperatures. It has been found effective in treating municipal sewage and food processing wastes. This bulletin reviews pilot- and production-scale studies conducted at an Alberta malt producer to test whether the Snowfluent process has further applications for the treatment of food processing wastes. The study was designed to determine the percentage of nutrients removed by the technology, the point at which contaminants are reduced, the effect of the process on the shallow water table, and the health risk to operators involved.

  6. Freezing cleans food processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Snowfluent is a technology which atomizes wastewater effluent and sprays it into the air as ice crystals at cold temperatures. It has been found effective in treating municipal sewage and food processing wastes. This bulletin reviews pilot- and production-scale studies conducted at an Alberta malt producer to test whether the Snowfluent process has further applications for the treatment of food processing wastes. The study was designed to determine the percentage of nutrients removed by the technology, the point at which contaminants are reduced, the effect of the process on the shallow water table, and the health risk to operators involved.

  7. Effect of processing technologies on the allergenicity of food products.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Benedé, Sara; Molina, Elena; López-Expósito, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatment has been used since ancient times for food processing, first to ensure the safety of food and its storage, but also to transform its characteristics (in its raw form) and obtain new textures, flavors, or novel foods. However, the transformation experienced by food components when heated, or processed, can dramatically affect the allergenicity of food, either reducing or increasing it. To date, most of the articles published dealing with the changes in the potential allergenicity of food are focused on heat treatment and the Maillard reaction. However, it is also important to give prominence to other group of new technologies developed nowadays, such as high-pressure processing, microwaves and food irradiation. These techniques are not likely to replace traditional processing methods, but they are becoming attractive for the food industry due to different reasons, and it is expected in the near future to have different products on the market processed with these new technologies at an affordable cost. Moreover, other biochemical modifications, particularly enzymatic cross-linking of proteins, have attracted wide-spread attention and will be considered as well in this review, because of its great opportunities to induce protein modification and thus affect food allergenicity. Together with the effect of processing of food allergens, this review will place special attention on gastroduodenal digestion of processed allergens, which directly affects their allergenicity. PMID:24734775

  8. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix A: Active heating system-screening analysis. Appendix B: Reconstituted food heating techniques analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technical data are presented which were used to evaluate active heating methods to be incorporated into the space shuttle food system design, and also to evaluate the relative merits and penalties associated with various approaches to the heating of rehydrated food during space flight. Equipment heating candidates were subject to a preliminary screening performed by a selection rationale process which considered the following parameters; (1) gravitational effect; (2) safety; (3) operability; (4) system compatibility; (5) serviceability; (6) crew acceptability; (7) crew time; (8) development risk; and (9) operating cost. A hot air oven, electrically heated food tray, and microwave oven were selected for further consideration and analysis. Passive, semi-active, and active food preparation approaches were also studied in an effort to determine the optimum method for heating rehydrated food. Potential complexity, cost, vehicle impact penalties, and palatability were considered in the analysis. A summary of the study results is provided along with cost estimates for each of the potential sytems

  9. Acrylamide reduction in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Hanley, A B; Offen, C; Clarke, M; Ing, B; Roberts, M; Burch, R

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of the formation of acrylamide in fried and baked foods containing high levels of starch and the amino acid asparagine, prompted widespread concern. Both processed and home cooked foods are affected and this has led to the increased study of variations in cooking and processing conditions to minimize formation. While changes in cooking protocols have been in part successful, particularly when lower frying and baking temperatures are used, pretreatments to reduce levels of acrylamide by prevention of formation or acceleration of destruction have been investigated. In this study, a range of pretreatments of grilled potato were investigated and compared with surface washing to remove asparagine and reducing sugars. Synergies were observed between different treatments, and reductions of up to 40% were achieved in a non-optimized system. PMID:16438313

  10. Pallet irradiators for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, R. G.; Chu, R. D. H.

    This paper looks at the various design concepts for the irradiation processing of food products, with particular emphasis on handling the products on pallets. Pallets appear to offer the most attractive method for handling foods from many considerations. Products are transported on pallets. Warehouse space is commonly designed for pallet storage and, if products are already palletized before and after irradiation, then labour could be saved by irradiating on pallets. This is also an advantage for equipment operation since a larger carrier volume means lower operation speeds. Different pallet irradiator design concepts are examined and their suitability for several applications are discussed. For example, low product holdup for fast turn around will be a consideration for those operating an irradiation "service" business; others may require a very large source where efficiency is the primary requirement and this will not be consistent with low holdup. The radiation performance characteristics and processing costs of these machines are discussed.

  11. Novel food processing innovations to improve food safety and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative food processing can be used to improve safety of specialty crops and their co-products, while improving sustainability of agricultural and food processing operations and enhancing overall nutritional quality of foods for both domestic and international consumers. The potential of various...

  12. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  13. Aspects of food processing and its effect on allergen structure.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Angelika

    2009-08-01

    The article summarizes current physical and chemical methods in food processing as storage, preparation, separation, isolation or purification and thermal application on the one hand as well as enzymatic treatment on the other and their impact on the properties of food proteins. Novel methods of food processing like high pressure, electric field application or irradiation and their impact on food allergens are presented. The EU project REDALL (Reduced Allergenicity of Processed Foods, Containing Animal Allergens: QLK1-CT-2002-02687) showed that by a combination of enzyme and heat treatment the allergic potential of hen's egg decreased about 100 fold. Clinical reactions do not appear anymore. An AiF-FV 12024 N project worked with fruits like mango, lychee and apple. Processed mango and lychee had no change in allergenic potential during heating while e. g. canning. Apple almost lost its allergenic potential after pasteurization in juice production. PMID:19557818

  14. Ultrasound Applications in Food Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Mobbs, Tamara; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

    Food scientists today are focused on the development of not only microbiologically safe products with a long storage life, but, at the same time, products that have fresh-like characteristics and a high quality in taste, flavor, and texture. This focus is based on the needs of the consumer, which is one of the main reasons for constant research in the so-called area of emerging technologies. Traditionally, thermal treatments have been used to produce safe food products. Pasteurization of juice, milk, beer, and wine is a common process in which the final product has a storage life of some weeks (generally under refrigeration). However, vitamins, taste, color, and other sensorial characteristics are decreased with this treatment. High temperature is responsible for these effects and can be observed in the loss of nutritional components and changes in flavor, taste, and texture, often creating the need for additives to improve the product.

  15. Heating of foods in space-vehicle environments. [by conductive heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, R. B.; Cox, J. E.; Chen, C. K.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1973-01-01

    In extended space missions, foods will be heated to enhance the psychological as well as the physiological well-being of the crew. In the low-gravity space environment natural convection is essentially absent so that the heat transfer within the food is by conduction alone. To prevent boiling in reduced pressure environments the maximum temperature of the heating system is severely limited. The Skylab food-heating system utilizes a tray with receptables for the food containers. The walls of the receptacles are lined with thermally controlled, electrical-resistance, blanket-type heating elements. A finite difference model is employed to perform parametric studies on the food-heating system. The effects on heating time of the (1) thermophysical properties of the food, (2) heater power level, (3) initial food temperatures, (4) container geometry, and (5) heater control temperature are presented graphically. The optimal heater power level and container geometry are determined.

  16. Radio frequency heating of foods: principles, applications and related properties--a review.

    PubMed

    Piyasena, Punidadas; Dussault, Chantal; Koutchma, Tatiana; Ramaswamy, H S; Awuah, G B

    2003-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a promising technology for food applications because of the associated rapid and uniform heat distribution, large penetration depth and lower energy consumption. Radio frequency heating has been successfully applied for drying, baking and thawing of frozen meat and in meat processing. However, its use in continuous pasteurization and sterilization of foods is rather limited. During RF heating, heat is generated within the product due to molecular friction resulting from oscillating molecules and ions caused by the applied alternating electric field. RF heating is influenced principally by the dielectric properties of the product when other conditions are kept constant. This review deals with the current status of RF heating applications in food processing, as well as product and system specific factors that influence the RF heating. It is evident that frequency level, temperature and properties of food, such as viscosity, water content and chemical composition affect the dielectric properties and thus the RF heating of foods. Therefore, these parameters should be taken into account when designing a radio frequency heating system for foods. PMID:14669879

  17. Computer aided microbial safety design of food processes.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, M; Martens, T; Roberts, T A; Mackey, B M; Nicolaï, B M; Van Impe, J F; De Baerdemaeker, J

    1994-12-01

    To reduce the time required for product development, to avoid expensive experimental tests, and to quantify safety risks for fresh products and the consequence of processing there is a growing interest in computer aided food process design. This paper discusses the application of hybrid object-oriented and rule-based expert system technology to represent the data and knowledge of microbial experts and food engineers. Finite element models for heat transfer calculation routines, microbial growth and inactivation models and texture kinetics are combined with food composition data, thermophysical properties, process steps and expert knowledge on type and quantity of microbial contamination. A prototype system has been developed to evaluate changes in food composition, process steps and process parameters on microbiological safety and textual quality of foods. PMID:7703003

  18. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties. PMID:26393643

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed. PMID:26776034

  20. Agricultural and industrial process heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollard, J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of solar energy to agricultural and industrial process heat requirements is discussed. This energy end use sector has been the largest and it appears that solar energy can, when fully developed and commercialized, displace from three to eight or more quads of oil and natural gas in U.S. industry. This potential for fossil fuel displacement in the agricultural and industrial process heat area sector represents a possible savings of 1.4 to 3.8 million barrels of oil daily.

  1. Thermal Inactivation of Feline Calicivirus in Pet Food Processing.

    PubMed

    Haines, J; Patel, M; Knight, A I; Corley, D; Gibson, G; Schaaf, J; Moulin, J; Zuber, S

    2015-12-01

    Extrusion is the most common manufacturing process used to produce heat-treated dry dog and cat food (pet food) for domestic use and international trade. Due to reoccurring outbreaks of notifiable terrestrial animal diseases and their impact on international trade, experiments were undertaken to demonstrate the effectiveness of heat-treated extruded pet food on virus inactivation. The impact of extrusion processing in a pet food matrix on virus inactivation has not been previously reported and very few inactivation studies have examined the thermal inactivation of viruses in complex food matrices. The feline calicivirus vaccine strain FCV F-9 was used as a surrogate model RNA virus pathogen. Small-scale heat inactivation experiments using animal-derived pet food raw materials showed that a > 4 log10 reduction (log10 R) in infectivity occurred at 70 °C prior to reaching the minimum extrusion manufacturing operating temperature of 100 °C. As anticipated, small-scale pressure studies at extrusion pressure (1.6 MPa) showed no apparent effect on FCV F-9 inactivation. Additionally, FCV F-9 was shown not to survive the acidic conditions used to produce pet food palatants of animal origin that are typically used as a coating after the extrusion process. PMID:26208948

  2. Consumers' conceptualization of ultra-processed foods.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Vidal, Leticia; Allegue, Gimena; Giménez, Ana; Bandeira, Elisa; Moratorio, Ximena; Molina, Verónika; Curutchet, María Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Consumption of ultra-processed foods has been associated with low diet quality, obesity and other non-communicable diseases. This situation makes it necessary to develop educational campaigns to discourage consumers from substituting meals based on unprocessed or minimally processed foods by ultra-processed foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to investigate how consumers conceptualize the term ultra-processed foods and to evaluate if the foods they perceive as ultra-processed are in concordance with the products included in the NOVA classification system. An online study was carried out with 2381 participants. They were asked to explain what they understood by ultra-processed foods and to list foods that can be considered ultra-processed. Responses were analysed using inductive coding. The great majority of the participants was able to provide an explanation of what ultra-processed foods are, which was similar to the definition described in the literature. Most of the participants described ultra-processed foods as highly processed products that usually contain additives and other artificial ingredients, stressing that they have low nutritional quality and are unhealthful. The most relevant products for consumers' conceptualization of the term were in agreement with the NOVA classification system and included processed meats, soft drinks, snacks, burgers, powdered and packaged soups and noodles. However, some of the participants perceived processed foods, culinary ingredients and even some minimally processed foods as ultra-processed. This suggests that in order to accurately convey their message, educational campaigns aimed at discouraging consumers from consuming ultra-processed foods should include a clear definition of the term and describe some of their specific characteristics, such as the type of ingredients included in their formulation and their nutritional composition. PMID:27349706

  3. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. PMID:26799793

  4. Food Processing: Technology and Nutritive Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbouin-Rerolle, Pascale

    1993-01-01

    This booklet examines the principles of food preservation, food preservation techniques, and nutrition-related consequences of food processing. All foodstuffs in their natural state will deteriorate and become unfit for human consumption due to internal factors, such as enzyme activity, or external factors, such as insects, rodents, and…

  5. Food processors requirements met by radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Raymond W.

    2002-03-01

    Processing food using irradiation provides significant advantages to food producers by destroying harmful pathogens and extending shelf life without any detectable physical or chemical changes. It is expected that through increased public education, food irradiation will emerge as a viable commercial industry. Food production in most countries involves state of the art manufacturing, packaging, labeling, and shipping techniques that provides maximum efficiency and profit. In the United States, food sales are extremely competitive and profit margins small. Most food producers have heavily invested in equipment and are hesitant to modify their equipment. Meat and poultry producers in particular utilize sophisticated production machinery that processes enormous volumes of product on a continuous basis. It is incumbent on the food irradiation equipment suppliers to develop equipment that can easily merge with existing processes without requiring major changes to either the final food product or the process utilized to produce that product. Before a food producer can include irradiation as part of their food production process, they must be certain the available equipment meets their needs. This paper will examine several major requirements of food processors that will most likely have to be provided by the supplier of the irradiation equipment.

  6. Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Methods Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Setting: Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Subjects: Processed foods in stores. Results The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. Conclusions The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging. PMID:24160249

  7. Volatile halocarbon compounds in process water and processed foods

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.; Diachenko, G.W.

    1987-10-01

    Volatile halocarbon compounds (VHCs) of low molecular weight are among the most abundant man-made industrial chemicals in the United States. Because of the physical properties of these compounds, in particular their high volatility, they are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has detected numerous VHCs in ground water and finished drinking water. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Division of Contaminants Chemistry, as well as other laboratories, have detected VHCs in foods. These findings of VHCs in foods, coupled with their frequent detection in ground waters, suggested that food contamination by VHCs could be occurring via polluted process waters. The objectives of this investigation were to determine if VHC contamination of food through contact with contaminated process water was widespread, and to ascertain the levels of contamination. The problem was addressed by collecting and analyzing process water and foods from processing plants situated in areas where contamination of the process water was most probable. Recent data from EPA were used to select food processing plants most likely to use VHC-contaminated process water. Processing plants were chosen for study only if they produced a high-fat content food that came in contact with water during processing, or produced a product that contained a high percentage of added water. Findings are reported here in process water and food product analysis from 15 food processing plants located in 9 different states (CA, FL, IL, MA, MI, NY, OH, PA, WI), representing a total of 39 food products.

  8. Energy management and membrane technology in food and dairy processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a special food engineering symposium held in conjunction with the Food and Dairy Expo '83 held in Chicago. Topics considered at the symposium included techniques for food plant energy analysis, process modifications to reduce energy usage, cutting energy costs in boiler room operations, selecting motors and lights for energy efficiency, refrigeration heat recovery, integrated energy systems, reverse osmosis and mechanical vapor recompression, evaporation for liquid food concentration, cottage cheese from ultrafiltered skim milk, process cheese production via direct acidification, the outlook for protein concentrate and lactose, permeate from whey ultrafiltration, a consultant's view of cheese and whey processing trends, whey processing research, and on-farm use of membrane systems.

  9. Quasi-adiabatic compression heating of selected foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landfeld, Ales; Strohalm, Jan; Halama, Radek; Houska, Milan

    2011-03-01

    The quasi-adiabatic temperature increase due to compression heating, during high-pressure (HP) processing (HPP), was studied using specially designed equipment. The temperature increase was evaluated as the difference in temperature, during compression, between atmospheric pressure and nominal pressure. The temperature was measured using a thermocouple in the center of a polyoxymethylene cup, which contained the sample. Fresh meat balls, pork meat pate, and tomato purée temperature increases were measured at three initial temperature levels between 40 and 80 °C. Nominal pressure was either 400 or 500 MPa. Results showed that the fat content had a positive effect on temperature increases. Empirical equations were developed to calculate the temperature increase during HPP at different initial temperatures for pressures of 400 and 500 MPa. This thermal effect data can be used for numerical modeling of temperature histories of foods during HP-assisted pasteurization or sterilization processes.

  10. Food processing with electrically generated photon irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a portable electric food irradiation processing machine is presented and analyzed for cost assuming the required accelerators are available for $1.5 million each. It is shown that food can be processed to 1 kGy for a price of $5.98/ton.

  11. Microbial processes in frozen food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiges, O.

    Deep freezing of food and storage at -19 degC is a standard conservation procedure in food technology. The lower limit of growth of bacteria in food is from about -5 degC to about -8 degC, whereas the reproduction limit of yeasts is 2 to 3 degC lower. Storage temperatures above -10 degC should therefore not be used. At -18 degC, a commonly used storage temperature, no growth of microorganisms will occur. The microorganisms mainly found at the lower growth limit are Pseudomonas sp. and basidiomycete yeasts. The reduction in the number of microorganisms due to freezing, storage, and thawing is not of practical importance. Microbial enzymes, in particular lipases and proteases, are still active at -18 degC. Therefore, the quality of raw products and good hygiene at the production site are most important.

  12. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change

  13. Electromagnetic and thermal studies of microwave processing of foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua

    2000-05-01

    Understanding of the interactions between microwaves and dielectric materials is of great importance in food applications. Such interactions lead to complex variations in heating patterns that are of critical importance in food product and process development. The focus of this research is to study these interactions between food and oven parameters and develop useful relationships between the parameters for practical applications. The approach combines comprehensive numerical modeling with experimentation. Maxwell's equations are solved numerically using a finite element method for a microwave oven system (such as the domestic oven) that includes excitation, waveguide, and cavity and food materials of various size, shape and properties. Temperature effects are included by developing detailed methodology for coupled solution of the Maxwell's equation with energy equation for a solid. Experimental measurements include the use of infrared camera for surface temperature measurements, marker chemicals for time-temperature history effects, and power absorptions obtained indirectly from rate of temperature rise. Heating pattern changes significantly with shape, size and dielectric properties of the food and its placement in the oven. Even more importantly, the heating pattern changes qualitatively with time, due to changes in properties with temperature. Thus, temperatures monitored at a few locations often may not be representative of the overall heating patterns in microwave oven heating. Only comprehensive modeling and/or appropriate experimentation can provide a complete picture. This is critical in applications involving food safety, such as sterilization. Coupled solutions of electromagnetics and heat transfer are found necessary when dielectric properties increase significantly with temperature, as in meats. In applications such as sterilization, where large changes in temperature are needed, coupled models are necessary. Heating non-uniformities due to the effect

  14. Application of Glass Transition in Food Processing.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Devi, Apramita; Singh, K K; Bosco, S J D; Mohite, Ashish M

    2016-04-25

    The phenomenon of glass transition has been employed to food products to study their stability. It can be applied as an integrated approach along with water activity and physical and chemical changes in food in processing and storage to determine the food stability. Also associated with the changes during agglomeration crystallization, caking, sticking, collapse, oxidation reactions, nonenzymatic browning, and microbial stability of food system. Various techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, etc. have been developed to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg) of food system. Also, various theories have been applied to explain the concept of Tg and its relation to changes in food system. This review summarizes the understanding of concept of glass transition, its measurement, and application in food technology. PMID:25118113

  15. Sonic Temperature Sensor for Food Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D. W.; Porter, A. M.; Tow, D. M.

    1997-09-01

    The lack of adequate temperature measurement is the major barrier to the development of more efficient and better quality food processing methods. The objective of the sonic temperature sensor for food processing project is to develop a prototype sensor system to noninvasively measure the interior temperature of particulate foods during processing. The development of the prototype sensor is a collaborative project with the National Food Processors Association. The project is based on the property of materials that involves a change in the temperature of a material having a corresponding change in the speed of sound. The approach for the sonic sensor system is to determine the speed of sound through particulate foods using a tomographic reconstruction process.

  16. Sonic temperature sensor for food processing

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Porter, A.M.; Tow, D.M.

    1997-09-01

    The lack of adequate temperature measurement is the major barrier to the development of more efficient and better quality food processing methods. The objective of the sonic temperature sensor for food processing project is to develop a prototype sensor to noninvasively measure the interior temperature of particulate foods during processing. This, a joint project with the National Food Processors Association, utilizes the property of materials that when the temperature of a material changes, there is a corresponding change in the speed of sound. The approach taken for the sonic sensor system is to determine the speed of sound inside particulate foods using a tomographic reconstruction process. This work has shown that the speed of sound can be accurately determined to an accuracy of {+-}0.4%, corresponding to a temperature uncertainty of {+-}2{degree}C using tomographic reconstruction methods.

  17. Closing data gaps for LCA of food products: estimating the energy demand of food processing.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Neus; Stoessel, Franziska; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-21

    Food is one of the most energy and CO2-intensive consumer goods. While environmental data on primary agricultural products are increasingly becoming available, there are large data gaps concerning food processing. Bridging these gaps is important; for example, the food industry can use such data to optimize processes from an environmental perspective, and retailers may use this information for purchasing decisions. Producers and retailers can then market sustainable products and deliver the information demanded by governments and consumers. Finally, consumers are increasingly interested in the environmental information of foods in order to lower their consumption impacts. This study provides estimation tools for the energy demand of a representative set of food process unit operations such as dehydration, evaporation, or pasteurization. These operations are used to manufacture a variety of foods and can be combined, according to the product recipe, to quantify the heat and electricity demand during processing. In combination with inventory data on the production of the primary ingredients, this toolbox will be a basis to perform life cycle assessment studies of a large number of processed food products and to provide decision support to the stakeholders. Furthermore, a case study is performed to illustrate the application of the tools. PMID:24344613

  18. Industrial process heat market assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve.

  19. Heat recovery reduces process energy losses

    SciTech Connect

    Anon

    1981-09-01

    After evaluation of process and plant operation losses, a pharmaceutical plant found heat recovery a viable means of reducing energy losses. One of the first applications of air-to-air heat recovery was in a recirculation/dehumidification process. Heat exchangers were used to recover heat from the air used to generate or dry the dehumidification material.

  20. Opportunities and challenges in application of ultrasound in food processing.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Navin K

    2011-09-01

    The demand for convenience foods of the highest quality in terms of natural flavor and taste, and which are free from additives and preservatives, has spurred the need for the development of a number of non-thermal approaches to food processing, of which ultrasound technology has proven to be very valuable. Increasing number of recent publications have demonstrated the potential of this technology in food processing. A combination of ultrasound with pressure and/or heat is a promising alternative for the rapid inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes. Therefore, novel techniques like thermosonication, manosonication, and manothermosonication may be a more relevant energy-efficient processing alternative for the food industry in times to come. This review aims at identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. In addition to discussing the effects of ultrasound on foods, this review covers various areas that have been identified as having great potential for future development. It has been realized that ultrasound has much to offer to the food industry such as inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes, crystallization, drying, degassing, extraction, filtration, homogenization, meat tenderization, oxidation, sterilization, etc., including efficiency enhancement of various operations and online detection of contaminants in foods. Selected practical examples in the food industry have been presented and discussed. A brief account of the challenges in adopting this technology for industrial development has also been included. PMID:21838554

  1. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications. PMID:25629307

  2. Food Processing Contracts: Savings for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Egmond-Pannell, Dorothy

    1983-01-01

    Food processing contracts between schools and food manufacturers can result in huge cost savings. Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of 30 "letter of credit" sites in a three-year study of alternatives. After one year it appears that schools can purchase more for the dollar in their local areas. (MD)

  3. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  4. Conditions and constraints of food processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, B.; Nelson, P. E.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Requirements and constraints of food processing in space include a balanced diet, food variety, stability for storage, hardware weight and volume, plant performance, build-up of microorganisms, and waste processing. Lunar, Martian, and space station environmental conditions include variations in atmosphere, day length, temperature, gravity, magnetic field, and radiation environment. Weightlessness affects fluid behavior, heat transfer, and mass transfer. Concerns about microbial behavior include survival on Martian and lunar surfaces and in enclosed environments. Many present technologies can be adapted to meet space conditions.

  5. Functional genomics for food fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Smid, E J; Hugenholtz, J

    2010-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific and technological drivers of food fermentation research. In addition, a number of practical implications of the results of this development will be highlighted. The first part of the manuscript elaborates on the message that genome sequence information gives us an unprecedented view on the biodiversity of microbes in food fermentation. This information can be made applicable for tailoring relevant characteristics of food products through fermentation. The second part deals with the integration of genome sequence data into metabolic models and the use of these models for a number of topics that are relevant for food fermentation processes. The final part will be about metagenomics approaches to reveal the complexity and understand the functionality of undefined complex microbial consortia used in a diverse range of food fermentation processes. PMID:22129346

  6. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  7. Nonthermal processing technologies as food safety intervention processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods should provide sensorial satisfaction and nutrition to people. Yet, foodborne pathogens cause significant illness and lose of life to human kind every year. A processing intervention step may be necessary prior to the consumption to ensure the safety of foods. Nonthermal processing technologi...

  8. Heat Transfer in a Thermoacoustic Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instability is defined as the excitation of acoustic modes in chambers with heat sources due to the coupling between acoustic perturbations and unsteady heat addition. The major objective of this paper is to achieve accurate theoretical results in a thermoacoustic heat transfer process. We carry out a detailed heat transfer analysis…

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction and processing of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers are aware of the processing techniques used to manufacture food and health supplements and are concerned about the impact of those processes on their health and the environment. Processes that use supercritical fluids as an alternative to solvents that are used to extract nutrients and bio...

  10. Integration of heat pumps into industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, R.N. ); Priebe, S.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Energy and others have funded studies to assess the potential for energy savings using industrial heat pumps. The studies included classifications of heat pumps, economic evaluations, and placement of heat pumps in industrial processes. Pinch technology was used in the placement studies to determine the placement, size, and type of heat pumps for a given applications. There appears to be considerable scope for heat pumping in several industries, but, where maximum process energy savings are desired, it is important to consider heat pumping in the context of overall process integration. 19 refs., 15 figs.

  11. Phase Change Heat Transfer Device for Process Heat Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2010-10-01

    The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to approx.1300 K) and industrial scale power transport (=50MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a thermal device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via ‘pumping a fluid’, a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization/condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e., without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) of vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  12. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods. PMID:26396305

  13. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances.

  14. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Xiao-xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-jin

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances. PMID:27465120

  15. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances. PMID:27465120

  16. The Maillard reaction and its control during food processing. The potential of emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, H; Janositz, A; Knorr, D

    2010-06-01

    The Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids is a common reaction in foods which undergo thermal processing. Desired consequences like the formation of flavor and brown color of some cooked foods but also the destruction of essential amino acids and the production of anti-nutritive compounds require the consideration of the Maillard reaction and relevant mechanisms for its control. This paper aims to exemplify the recent advances in food processing with regard to the controllability of heat-induced changes in the food quality. Firstly, improved thermal technologies, such as ohmic heating, which allows direct heating of the product and overcoming the heat transfer limitations of conventional thermal processing are presented in terms of their applicability to reduce the thermal exposure during food preservation. Secondly, non-thermal technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields and their ability to extend the shelf life of food products without the application of heat, thus also preserving the quality attributes of the food, will be discussed. Finally, an innovative method for the removal of Maillard reaction substrates in food raw materials by the application of pulsed electric field cell disintegration and extraction as well as enzymatic conversion is presented in order to demonstrate the potential of the combination of processes to control the occurrence of the Maillard reaction in food processing. PMID:19896291

  17. PREDICTIVE MODELS FOR USE IN THERMALLY PROCESSED FOODS AND THE USDA PATHOGEN MODELING PROGRAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of heat to inactivate foodborne pathogens is a critical control point and the most common means of assuring the microbiological safety of processed foods. A key to optimization of the heating step is defining the heat resistance of target pathogens. Sufficient evidence exists to document t...

  18. 9 CFR 355.25 - Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat processing; incubation. 355.25 Section 355.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT...

  19. 9 CFR 355.25 - Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat processing; incubation. 355.25 Section 355.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. Effect of food processing and preparation on mineral utilization.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P E

    1991-01-01

    While effects of various nutrients and certain non-nutrient components of food on mineral utilization have been intensively studied, less is known about the effects of food processing and preparation procedures. Fermentation during the production of beer, wine, yogurt, and African tribal foods affects bioavailability of Zn and Fe. Baking affects the chemical form of Fe in fortified bread products and these changes can affect its bioavailability. Availability of Fe in milk-based infant formula depends on whether Fe is added before or after heat processing. Food packaging (e.g., tin cans) can alter food composition and thus potentially affects mineral bioavailability. Maillard browning has been reported to cause slight decreases in Zn availability both in vitro and in humans. However, we found that feeding of highly browned casein-glucose products to rats as 5% of diet produced no effect on Zn absorption (59.5 +/- 8.2% vs 54.1 +/- 7.3%) or Fe absorption (45.6 +/- 7.7% vs 46.9 +/- 12.6%) for browned vs control, respectively; nor did we find any of the adverse health effects reported by others. We found no effect on stable Zn or Cu absorption in seven men when browned foods were fed, compared to the same diets without browning. Zinc absorption was 34 +/- 13% (browned) vs 24 +/- 15% (unbrowned), and Cu absorption was 55 +/- 5% vs 55 +/- 8% (p greater than 0.05). PMID:1897405

  1. Electrostatic coating technologies for food processing.

    PubMed

    Barringer, Sheryl A; Sumonsiri, Nutsuda

    2015-01-01

    The application of electrostatics in both powder and liquid coating can improve the quality of food, such as its appearance, aroma, taste, and shelf life. Coatings can be found most commonly in the snack food industry, as well as in confectionery, bakery, meat and cheese processing. In electrostatic powder coating, the most important factors influencing coating quality are powder particle size, density, flowability, charge, and resistivity, as well as the surface properties and characteristics of the target. The most important factors during electrostatic liquid coating, also known as electrohydrodynamic coating, include applied voltage and electrical resistivity and viscosity of the liquid. A good understanding of these factors is needed for the design of optimal coating systems for food processing. PMID:25648420

  2. Waste heat utilization in industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

  3. Food Processing Curriculum Material and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…

  4. Ozone processing of foods and beverages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone has a long history of use as a disinfectant in food and beverage processing. In the United States, the application of ozone to disinfect bottled water was approved as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) in 1982. Later it was approved as a sanitizing agent for bottled water treatment lines. Ozo...

  5. High Stability of Stx2 Phage in Food and under Food-Processing Conditions ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rode, Tone Mari; Axelsson, Lars; Granum, Per Einar; Heir, Even; Holck, Askild; L'Abée-Lund, Trine M.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) carrying Shiga toxin genes constitute a major virulence attribute in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Several EHEC outbreaks have been linked to food. The survival of such strains in different foods has received much attention, while the fate of the mobile Shiga toxin-converting phages (Stx phages) has been less studied. We have investigated the stability of an Stx phage in several food products and examined how storage, food processing, and disinfection influence the infectivity of phage particles. The study involved a recombinant Stx phage (Δstx::cat) of an E. coli O103:H25 strain from a Norwegian outbreak in 2006. Temperature, matrix, and time were factors of major importance for the stability of phage particles. Phages stored at cooling temperatures (4°C) showed a dramatic reduction in stability compared to those stored at room temperature. The importance of the matrix was evident at higher temperatures (60°C). Phages in ground beef were below the detection level when heated to 60°C for more than 10 min, while phages in broth exposed to the same heating conditions showed a 5-log-higher stability. The phages tolerated desiccation poorly but were infective for a substantial period of time in solutions. Under moist conditions, they also had a high ability to tolerate exposure to several disinfectants. In a dry-fermented sausage model, phages were shown to infect E. coli in situ. The results show that Stx phage particles can maintain their infectivity in foods and under food-processing conditions. PMID:21685156

  6. Multiobjective optimization approach: thermal food processing.

    PubMed

    Abakarov, A; Sushkov, Y; Almonacid, S; Simpson, R

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize a multiobjective optimization technique for the thermal sterilization of packaged foods. The multiobjective optimization approach used in this study is based on the optimization of well-known aggregating functions by an adaptive random search algorithm. The applicability of the proposed approach was illustrated by solving widely used multiobjective test problems taken from the literature. The numerical results obtained for the multiobjective test problems and for the thermal processing problem show that the proposed approach can be effectively used for solving multiobjective optimization problems arising in the food engineering field. PMID:20492109

  7. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  8. Stability of mycotoxins during food processing.

    PubMed

    Bullerman, Lloyd B; Bianchini, Andreia

    2007-10-20

    The mycotoxins that commonly occur in cereal grains and other products are not completely destroyed during food processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most commonly associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. The various food processes that may have effects on mycotoxins include sorting, trimming, cleaning, milling, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, canning, flaking, alkaline cooking, nixtamalization, and extrusion. Most of the food processes have variable effects on mycotoxins, with those that utilize the highest temperatures having greatest effects. In general the processes reduce mycotoxin concentrations significantly, but do not eliminate them completely. However, roasting and extrusion processing show promise for lowering mycotoxin concentrations, though very high temperatures are needed to bring about much of a reduction in mycotoxin concentrations. Extrusion processing at temperatures greater than 150 degrees C are needed to give good reduction of zearalenone, moderate reduction of alfatoxins, variable to low reduction of deoxynivalenol and good reduction of fumonisins. The greatest reductions of fumonisins occur at extrusion temperatures of 160 degrees C or higher and in the presence of glucose. Extrusion of fumonisin contaminated corn grits with 10% added glucose resulted in 75-85% reduction in Fumonisin B(1) levels. Some fumonisin degredation products are formed during extrusion, including small amounts of hydrolyzed Fumonisin B(1) and N-(Carboxymethyl) - Fumonisin B(1) and somewhat higher amounts of N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) Fumonisin B(1) in extruded grits containing added glucose. Feeding trial toxicity tests in rats with extruded fumonisin contaminated corn grits show some reduction in toxicity of grits extruded with glucose. PMID:17804104

  9. Applications of power ultrasound in food processing.

    PubMed

    Kentish, Sandra; Feng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic energy as a form of physical energy has drawn the interests of both industry and scientific communities for its potential use as a food processing and preservation tool. Currently, most such applications deal with ultrasonic waves with relatively high intensities and acoustic power densities and are performed mostly in liquids. In this review, we briefly discuss the fundamentals of power ultrasound. We then summarize the physical and chemical effects of power ultrasound treatments based on the actions of acoustic cavitation and by looking into several ultrasound-assisted unit operations. Finally, we examine the biological effects of ultrasonication by focusing on its interactions with the miniature biological systems present in foods, i.e., microorganisms and food enzymes, as well as with selected macrobiological components. PMID:24422590

  10. 21 CFR 179.30 - Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food... FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.30 Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies. Radiofrequency radiation, including microwave frequencies, may be...

  11. 21 CFR 179.30 - Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., including microwave frequencies. 179.30 Section 179.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies. Radiofrequency radiation, including microwave frequencies, may be safely used for heating food under the following conditions: (a) The...

  12. 21 CFR 179.30 - Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., including microwave frequencies. 179.30 Section 179.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies. Radiofrequency radiation, including microwave frequencies, may be safely used for heating food under the following conditions: (a) The...

  13. Pathogenic psychrotolerant sporeformers: an emerging challenge for low-temperature storage of minimally processed foods.

    PubMed

    Markland, Sarah M; Farkas, Daniel F; Kniel, Kalmia E; Hoover, Dallas G

    2013-05-01

    Sporeforming bacteria are a significant problem in the food industry as they are ubiquitous in nature and capable of resisting inactivation by heat and chemical treatments designed to inactivate them. Beyond spoilage issues, psychrotolerant sporeformers are becoming increasingly recognized as a potential hazard given the ever-expanding demand for refrigerated processed foods with extended shelf-life. In these products, the sporeforming pathogens of concern are Bacillus cereus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Clostridium botulinum type E. This review article examines the foods, conditions, and organisms responsible for the food safety issue caused by the germination and outgrowth of psychrotolerant sporeforming pathogens in minimally processed refrigerated foods. PMID:23536982

  14. Heat and mass transfer in materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasawa, Ichiro; Lior, Noam

    Various papers on heat and mass transfer in materials processing are presented. The topics addressed include: heat transfer in plasma spraying, structure of ultrashort pulse plasma for CVD processing, heat flow and thermal contraction during plasma spray deposition, metal melting process by laser heating, improved electron beam weld design and control with beam current profile measurements, transport phenomena in laser materials processing, perspectives on integrated modeling of transport processes in semiconductor crystal growth, numerical simulation of natural convection in crystal growth in space and on the earth, conjugate heat transfer in crystal growth, effects of convection on the solidification of binary mixtures. Also discussed are: heat transfer in in-rotating-liquid-spinning process, thermal oscillations in materials processing, modeling and simulation of manufacturing processes of advanced composite materials, reaction engineering principles of combustion synthesis of advanced materials, numerical evaluation of the physical properties of magnetic fluids suitable for heat transfer control, and measurement techniques of thermophysical properties of high temperature melts. (For individual items see A93-10827 to A93-10843)

  15. Electroporation in food processing and biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Mahnič-Kalamiza, Samo; Vorobiev, Eugène; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2014-12-01

    Electroporation is a method of treatment of plant tissue that due to its nonthermal nature enables preservation of the natural quality, colour and vitamin composition of food products. The range of processes where electroporation was shown to preserve quality, increase extract yield or optimize energy input into the process is overwhelming, though not exhausted; e.g. extraction of valuable compounds and juices, dehydration, cryopreservation, etc. Electroporation is--due to its antimicrobial action--a subject of research as one stage of the pasteurization or sterilization process, as well as a method of plant metabolism stimulation. This paper provides an overview of electroporation as applied to plant materials and electroporation applications in food processing, a quick summary of the basic technical aspects on the topic, and a brief discussion on perspectives for future research and development in the field. The paper is a review in the very broadest sense of the word, written with the purpose of orienting the interested newcomer to the field of electroporation applications in food technology towards the pertinent, highly relevant and more in-depth literature from the respective subdomains of electroporation research. PMID:25287023

  16. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  17. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  18. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  19. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  20. FDA Calls for Less Salt in Processed Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... html FDA Calls for Less Salt in Processed Foods Agency sets short- and long-term goals in ... WEDNESDAY, June 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration wants the food industry to ...

  1. Heat resistant process gas line

    SciTech Connect

    Venable, C.R. Jr.

    1987-05-12

    A method is described of forming a heat resistant gas transfer line comprising a tubular metal outer shell, a tubular inner liner formed of prefired refractory rings joined together by shiplap joints having expansion gaps, and an intermediate liner comprising bubble alumina concrete filing the annular space between the inner liner and the outer shell. The method comprises placing on the inside lower surface of the outershell bubble alumina concrete forms capable of supporting the refractory rings in the desired location within the outer shell, securing decomposable rings to the refractory rings in the area where the shiplap joints are to be so that a suitable expansion gap will be provided in the shiplap joints when the combustible rings are destroyed.

  2. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The food industry, its energy consumption, and its energy conservation targets are discussed. Activities of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch are described. Summaries of research, development, and demonstration programs of the Branch are given. The programs are categorized into the following: energy integrated farm systems; irrigation systems; crop drying systems; fertilizer; dairy and milk processing; meat processing; sugar processing; citrus processing; ethanol production; food processing efficiency systems; and food sterilization. Summaries are presented of 26 completed projects. (MCW)

  3. SOUS-VIDE PROCESSED FOODS: SAFETY HAZARDS AND CONTROL OF MICROBIAL RISKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been expressed about the public-health risks associated with sous-vide processed foods because the mild heat treatment applied to such foods to retain the organoleptic attributes may not be adequate to ensure proper destruction of pathogenic and spoilage organisms. The safety of sous-v...

  4. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of heated foods

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Johansson, M.; Jones, A.L.; Blakley, M.; Felton, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    Cooked foods were extracted and analyzed for mutagenic activity and assayed for known heterocyclic amines (HAs) by the Ames/Salmonella test and HPLC, respectively. Fried meats contain HAs (predominantly PhIP, MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and A{alpha}C) that are potent promutagens in bacteria, mutagenic in cultured mammalian cells, and carcinogenic in rodents and in nonhuman primates. Meats contain levels ranging from undetectable (< 0.1 ppb) to 50 ppb of known HAs when fried at temperatures from 190 to 250{degrees}C. These identified compounds are responsible for ca 75% of the measured mutagenic activity in Salmonella strain TA98. Barbecued beef and chicken have up to several thousand TA98 revertants per gram (rev/g) of cooked meat, with only ca 30% of the mutagenic activity accounted for by known heterocyclic amines. Some heated nonmeat foods also contain potent mutagenic activity. Toasted breads, cereals and snack foods have 0 to 10 TA98 rev/g, but overtoasting yields up to 40 rev/g, wheat and gluten-containing products are associated with higher activity. Grain-based coffee-substitute powders and instant coffees have 190 to 380 rev/g in TA98, and 1100 to 4000 rev/g in strain YG1024. The identify of the compounds responsible for the mutagenic activity are unknown in these non-meat foods. Toasted grain-based foods probably contribute less than 10% of the total mutagenic activity of the diet, with meat products responsible for the reminder. The finding of varying amounts of known and unknown mutagens in some cooked foods may be responsible for the poorly understood variation in human cancer incidence worldwide.

  5. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat.

    PubMed

    Battisti, David S; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2009-01-01

    Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation. PMID:19131626

  6. Analysis of the heat setting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besler, N.; Gloy, Y. S.; Gries, T.

    2016-07-01

    Heat setting is an expensive and energy elaborative textile process. Heat setting is necessary to guarantee size accuracy and dimensional stability for textile materials. Depending on the material different heat setting methods such as saturated steam or hot air are used for the fixation. The research aim is to define the influence of heat setting on mechanical characteristics and to analyse the correlation of heat setting parameters for polyester. With the help of a “one factor at a time” experimental design heat setting parameters are varied. Mechanical characteristics and the material quality of heat set and not heat set material are evaluated to analyse the heat setting influence. In the described experimental design up to a temperature of 195 °C and a dwell time of 30 seconds the material shrinkage of polyester is increasing with increasing temperature and dwell time. Shrinkage in wales direction is higher than in course direction. The tensile strength in course direction stays constant whereas the tensile strength in wales direction can be increased by heat setting.

  7. Escherichia coli in retail processed food.

    PubMed Central

    Pinegar, J. A.; Cooke, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    Four thousand two hundred and forty six samples of retail processed food were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli. Overall 12% of samples contained this organism, cakes and confectionery being more frequently contaminated (28%) than meat and meat based products (9%). Contamination was more frequent in the summer months than in the colder weather and 27% of the contaminated foods contained greater than 10(3) E. coli/g. E. coli from meat and meat based products were more commonly resistant to one or more antibiotics (14%) than were confectionery strains (1%). The significance of these findings in relation to the E. coli population of the human bowel is discussed. PMID:3894508

  8. Escherichia coli in retail processed food.

    PubMed

    Pinegar, J A; Cooke, E M

    1985-08-01

    Four thousand two hundred and forty six samples of retail processed food were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli. Overall 12% of samples contained this organism, cakes and confectionery being more frequently contaminated (28%) than meat and meat based products (9%). Contamination was more frequent in the summer months than in the colder weather and 27% of the contaminated foods contained greater than 10(3) E. coli/g. E. coli from meat and meat based products were more commonly resistant to one or more antibiotics (14%) than were confectionery strains (1%). The significance of these findings in relation to the E. coli population of the human bowel is discussed. PMID:3894508

  9. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of heat pumps for energy recovery in industrial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urdaneta-B, A. H.; Schmidt, P. S.

    1980-09-01

    A computer code has been developed for analyzing the thermodynamic performance, cost and economic return for heat pump applications in industrial heat recovery. Starting with basic defining characteristics of the waste heat stream and the desired heat sink, the algorithm first evaluates the potential for conventional heat recovery with heat exchangers, and if applicable, sizes the exchanger. A heat pump system is then designed to process the residual heating and cooling requirements of the streams. In configuring the heat pump, the program searches a number of parameters, including condenser temperature, evaporator temperature, and condenser and evaporator approaches. All system components are sized for each set of parameters, and economic return is estimated and compared with system economics for conventional processing of the heated and cooled streams (i.e., with process heaters and coolers). Two case studies are evaluated, one in a food processing application and the other in an oil refinery unit.

  10. Is the degree of food processing and convenience linked with the nutritional quality of foods purchased by US households?1234

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Background: “Processed foods” are defined as any foods other than raw agricultural commodities and can be categorized by the extent of changes occurring in foods as a result of processing. Conclusions about the association between the degree of food processing and nutritional quality are discrepant. Objective: We aimed to determine 2000–2012 trends in the contribution of processed and convenience food categories to purchases by US households and to compare saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content of purchases across levels of processing and convenience. Design: We analyzed purchases of consumer packaged goods for 157,142 households from the 2000–2012 Homescan Panel. We explicitly defined categories for classifying products by degree of industrial processing and separately by convenience of preparation. We classified >1.2 million products through use of barcode-specific descriptions and ingredient lists. Median saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content and the likelihood that purchases exceeded maximum daily intake recommendations for these components were compared across levels of processing or convenience by using quantile and logistic regression. Results: More than three-fourths of energy in purchases by US households came from moderately (15.9%) and highly processed (61.0%) foods and beverages in 2012 (939 kcal/d per capita). Trends between 2000 and 2012 were stable. When classifying foods by convenience, ready-to-eat (68.1%) and ready-to-heat (15.2%) products supplied the majority of energy in purchases. The adjusted proportion of household-level food purchases exceeding 10% kcal from saturated fat, 15% kcal from sugar, and 2400 mg sodium/2000 kcal simultaneously was significantly higher for highly processed (60.4%) and ready-to-eat (27.1%) food purchases than for purchases of less-processed foods (5.6%) or foods requiring cooking/preparation (4.9%). Conclusions: Highly processed food purchases are a dominant, unshifting part of US purchasing patterns

  11. Furan in Thermally Processed Foods - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Yun-Jeong; Her, Jae-Young; Kim, Yong-Gun; Kim, Min Yeop; Jeong, Soo Young; Kim, Mina K.; Lee, Jee-yeon; Kim, Cho-il; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Furan (C4H4O) is a volatile compound formed mostly during the thermal processing of foods. The toxicity of furan has been well documented previously, and it was classified as “possible human carcinogen (Group 2B)” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Various pathways have been reported for the formation of furan, that is, thermal degradation and/or thermal rearrangement of carbohydrates in the presence of amino acids, thermal degradation of certain amino acids, including aspartic acid, threonine, α-alanine, serine, and cysteine, oxidation of ascorbic acid at higher temperatures, and oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids. Owing to the complexity of the formation mechanism, a vast number of studies have been published on monitoring furan in commercial food products and on the potential strategies for reducing furan. Thus, we present a comprehensive review on the current status of commercial food monitoring databases and the possible furan reduction methods. Additionally, we review analytical methods for furan detection and the toxicity of furan. PMID:26483883

  12. Thermal treatments of foods: a predictive general-purpose code for heat and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, Anna Angela

    2005-05-01

    Thermal treatments of foods required accurate processing protocols. In this context, mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer can play an important role in the control and definition of the process parameters as well as to design processing systems. In this work a code able to simulate heat and mass transfer phenomena within solid bodies has been developed. The code has been written with the ability of describing different geometries and it can account for any kind of different initial/boundary conditions. Transport phenomena within multi-layer bodies can be described, and time/position dependent material parameters can be implemented. Finally, the code has been validated by comparison with a problem for which the analytical solution is known, and by comparison with a differential scanning calorimetry signal that described the heating treatment of a raw potato (Solanum tuberosum).

  13. Coupled simulation of an electromagnetic heating process using the finite difference time domain method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Tang, Juming; Liu, Fang

    2007-01-01

    Due to the complexity of interactions between microwaves and food products, a reliable and efficient simulation model can be a very useful tool to guide the design of microwave heating systems and processes. This research developed a model to simulate coupled phenomena of electromagnetic heating and conventional heat transfer by combining commercial electromagnetic software with a customer built heat transfer model. Simulation results were presented and compared with experimental results for hot water and microwave heating in a single mode microwave system at 915 MHz. Good agreement was achieved, showing that this model was able to provide insight into industrial electromagnetic heating processes. PMID:18351003

  14. 7 CFR 1000.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1000.19... FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.19 Commercial food processing establishment. Commercial food processing establishment means any facility, other than a milk plant, to which fluid milk...

  15. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  16. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  17. 7 CFR 1000.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1000.19... FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.19 Commercial food processing establishment. Commercial food processing establishment means any facility, other than a milk plant, to which fluid milk...

  18. 7 CFR 1000.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1000.19... FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.19 Commercial food processing establishment. Commercial food processing establishment means any facility, other than a milk plant, to which fluid milk...

  19. 7 CFR 1000.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1000.19... FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.19 Commercial food processing establishment. Commercial food processing establishment means any facility, other than a milk plant, to which fluid milk...

  20. 7 CFR 1000.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1000.19... FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.19 Commercial food processing establishment. Commercial food processing establishment means any facility, other than a milk plant, to which fluid milk...

  1. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  2. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  3. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  4. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  5. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  6. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  7. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  8. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  9. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  10. 75 FR 13766 - Food and Drug Administration and Process Analytical Technology for Pharma Manufacturing: Food and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration and Process Analytical Technology for Pharma Manufacturing: Food and Drug Administration--Partnering With Industry; Public Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  11. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State processing of donated foods. 250.30 Section 250.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED STATES, ITS TERRITORIES...

  12. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State processing of donated foods. 250.30 Section 250.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED STATES, ITS TERRITORIES...

  13. Bacterial Stressors in Minimally Processed Food

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Fiocco, Daniela; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Gallone, Anna; Spano, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Stress responses are of particular importance to microorganisms, because their habitats are subjected to continual changes in temperature, osmotic pressure, and nutrients availability. Stressors (and stress factors), may be of chemical, physical, or biological nature. While stress to microorganisms is frequently caused by the surrounding environment, the growth of microbial cells on its own may also result in induction of some kinds of stress such as starvation and acidity. During production of fresh-cut produce, cumulative mild processing steps are employed, to control the growth of microorganisms. Pathogens on plant surfaces are already stressed and stress may be increased during the multiple mild processing steps, potentially leading to very hardy bacteria geared towards enhanced survival. Cross-protection can occur because the overlapping stress responses enable bacteria exposed to one stress to become resistant to another stress. A number of stresses have been shown to induce cross protection, including heat, cold, acid and osmotic stress. Among other factors, adaptation to heat stress appears to provide bacterial cells with more pronounced cross protection against several other stresses. Understanding how pathogens sense and respond to mild stresses is essential in order to design safe and effective minimal processing regimes. PMID:19742126

  14. Value of solar thermal industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Fassbender, L.L.; Chockie, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    This study estimated the value of solar thermal-generated industrial process heat (IPH) as a function of process heat temperature. The value of solar thermal energy is equal to the cost of producing energy from conventional fuels and equipment if the energy produced from either source provides an equal level of service. This requirement put the focus of this study on defining and characterizing conventional process heat equipment and fuels. Costs (values) were estimated for 17 different design points representing different combinations of conventional technologies, temperatures, and fuels. Costs were first estimated for median or representative conditions at each design point. The cost impact of capacity factor, efficiency, fuel escalation rate, and regional fuel price differences were then evaluated by varying each of these factors within credible ranges.

  15. Influence of food matrix on outgrowth heterogeneity of heat damaged Bacillus cereus spores.

    PubMed

    Warda, Alicja K; den Besten, Heidy M W; Sha, Na; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja N

    2015-05-18

    Spoilage of heat treated foods can be caused by the presence of surviving spore-formers. It is virtually impossible to prevent contamination at the primary production level as spores are ubiquitous present in the environment and can contaminate raw products. As a result spore inactivation treatments are widely used by food producing industries to reduce the microbial spore loads. However consumers prefer mildly processed products that have less impact on its quality and this trend steers industry towards milder preservation treatments. Such treatments may result in damaged instead of inactivated spores, and these spores may germinate, repair, and grow out, possibly leading to quality and safety issues. The ability to repair and grow out is influenced by the properties of the food matrix. In the current communication we studied the outgrowth from heat damaged Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 spores on Anopore membrane, which allowed following outgrowth heterogeneity of individual spores on broccoli and rice-based media as well as standard and mildly acidified (pH 5.5) meat-based BHI. Rice, broccoli and BHI pH 5.5 media resulted in delayed outgrowth from untreated spores, and increased heterogeneity compared to BHI pH 7.4, with the most pronounced effect in rice media. Exposure to wet heat for 1 min at 95 °C caused 2 log inactivation and approximately 95% of the spores in the surviving fraction were damaged resulting in substantial delay in outgrowth based on the time required to reach a maximum microcolony size of 256 cells. The delay was most pronounced for heat-treated spores on broccoli medium followed by spores on rice media (both untreated and treated). Interestingly, the increase in outgrowth heterogeneity of heat treated spores on BHI pH 7.4 was more pronounced than on rice, broccoli and BHI pH 5.5 conceivably reflecting that conditions in BHI pH 7.4 better support spore damage repair. This study compares the effects of three main factors, namely heat treatment, p

  16. Renewable-energy-resource options for the food-processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.

    1981-09-01

    The food processing industry generates significant quantities of organic process wastes which often require treatment prior to disposal or result in additional expenses for disposal. The food processing industry also requires fuel and electricity to provide the process energy to convert raw materials into finished food products. Depending on the particular process, organic wastes can represent a potential resource for conversion to energy products that can be used for providing process energy or other energy products. This document reports the results of an evaluation of renewable energy resource options for the food processing industry. The options evaluated were direct combustion for providing process heat, fermentation for ethanol production and anaerobic digestion for generation of methane.

  17. NONTHERMAL PLASMA (NTP) AS A NOVEL FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern food processing requires tools to ensure the safety of foods by effectively sanitizing without compromising food quality. This has led to an increased interest in nonthermal processing for meat, poultry and dairy products, produce and beverages. Plasma (an energetic ionized gas) is widely use...

  18. FDA Calls for Less Salt in Processed Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159136.html FDA Calls for Less Salt in Processed Foods Agency sets short- and long- ... the food industry to cut back on the salt. In draft voluntary guidelines issued Wednesday, the agency ...

  19. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  20. Heat for film processing from solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes solar water heating system for laboratory in Mill Valley, California. System furnishes 59 percent of hot water requirements for photographic film processing. Text of report discusses system problems and modifications, analyzes performance and economics, and supplies drawings and operation/maintenance manual.

  1. Solar/gas industrial process heat assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, D. W.

    1982-12-01

    An assessment was conducted of solar/gas industrial process heat systems, including consideration of market applications, the status and cost of applicable solar technologies, potential technical barriers to the efficient interfacing of solar with conventional gas fired equipment, and a detailed evaluation comparing solar/gas systems to competing options.

  2. Minimally processed foods are more satiating and less hyperglycemic than ultra-processed foods: a preliminary study with 98 ready-to-eat foods.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony

    2016-05-18

    Beyond nutritional composition, food structure is increasingly recognized to play a role in food health potential, notably in satiety and glycemic responses. Food structure is also highly dependent on processing conditions. The hypothesis for this study is, based on a data set of 98 ready-to-eat foods, that the degree of food processing would correlate with the satiety index (SI) and glycemic response. Glycemic response was evaluated according to two indices: the glycemic index (GI) and a newly designed index, the glycemic glucose equivalent (GGE). The GGE indicates how a quantity of a certain food affects blood glucose levels by identifying the amount of food glucose that would have an effect equivalent to that of the food. Then, foods were clustered within three processing groups based on the international NOVA classification: (1) raw and minimally processed foods; (2) processed foods; and (3) ultra-processed foods. Ultra-processed foods are industrial formulations of substances extracted or derived from food and additives, typically with five or more and usually many (cheap) ingredients. The data were correlated by nonparametric Spearman's rank correlation coefficient on quantitative data. The main results show strong correlations between GGE, SI and the degree of food processing, while GI is not correlated with the degree of processing. Thus, the more food is processed, the higher the glycemic response and the lower its satiety potential. The study suggests that complex, natural, minimally and/or processed foods should be encouraged for consumption rather than highly unstructured and ultra-processed foods when choosing weakly hyperglycemic and satiating foods. PMID:27125637

  3. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived. PMID:24921828

  4. Heat and mass transfer in materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tanasawa, I. . Inst. of Industrial Science); Lior, N. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics)

    1992-01-01

    This book contains forty papers presented at the seminar. The papers are representative of the seminar's scope, and include plasma spraying, laser and electron beam processing, crystal growth, solidification, steel processing, casting and molding, and papermaking, as well as fundamental heat transfer issues and physical properties underlying all of the above. The seminar emphasized thorough discussion of the presentations and of the subfields. Brief summaries of the discussions are presented in the rapporteurs' reports.

  5. Waste heat to save plant $126,000/year. [Monarch Fine Foods Co. , Rexdale, Ont

    SciTech Connect

    Alejandro, C.

    1982-09-20

    A $400,000 conservation program featuring a waste-heat-recovery system should save the Monarch Fine Foods Co., Rexdale, Ontario $126,000 a year in avoided fuel costs. Using an Alpha-Laval plate heat exchanger and a Templifier TPE-063 heat pump made by Westinghouse, the system will recover waste heat from the plant to preheat boiler feedwater. (DCK)

  6. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed. PMID:24121591

  7. Coronal loops - Current-based heating processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaufume, P.; Coppi, B.; Golub, L.

    1992-01-01

    Based on new observations, a theoretical model of magnetic-field related heating processes in the solar corona is given. In this model, field-aligned currents are induced along coronal loops in thin current sheaths. Excitation of instabilities involving magnetic reconnection converts the energy associated with the current-related magnetic field directly into particle energy, where the heating process proceeds via short bursts corresponding to an intermittent disruption of the current sheath configuration. Because of the relatively low transverse thermal conduction, only a small fraction of the loop volume is heated to a much higher temperature than the average value. This is consistent with experimental observations of low filling factors of hot plasmas in coronal loops. Thus the model involves a repeated sequence of dynamic events taking into account the observed loop topology, the differential emission measure distribution in the 10 exp 6 - 10 exp 7 K range, the energy balance requirements in the loop, and the probable duty cycles involved in the heating processes.

  8. Organic food processing: a framework for concept, starting definitions and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander; Bügel, Susanne; Busscher, Nicolaas; Geier, Uwe; Matt, Darja; Meischner, Tabea; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Ploeger, Angelika; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schmid, Otto; Strassner, Carola; Taupier-Letage, Bruno; Załęcka, Aneta

    2014-10-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria. These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing to evaluate processing methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the topic of organic food processing to make it operational. A conceptual background for organic food processing is given by verifying the underlying paradigms and principles of organic farming and organic food as well as on organic processing. The proposed definition connects organic processing to related systems such as minimal, sustainable and careful, gentle processing, and describes clear principles and related criteria. Based on food examples, such as milk with different heat treatments, the concept and definitions were verified. Organic processing can be defined by clear paradigms and principles and evaluated according criteria from a multidimensional approach. Further work has to be done on developing indicators and parameters for assessment of organic food quality. PMID:24375441

  9. Plant-based Food and Feed Protein Structure Changes Induced by Gene-transformation heating and bio-ethanol processing: A Synchrotron-based Molecular Structure and Nutrition Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    P Yu

    2011-12-31

    Unlike traditional 'wet' analytical methods which during processing for analysis often result in destruction or alteration of the intrinsic protein structures, advanced synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy has been developed as a rapid and nondestructive and bioanalytical technique. This cutting-edge synchrotron-based bioanalytical technology, taking advantages of synchrotron light brightness (million times brighter than sun), is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry or structure of a biological tissue without destruction inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions. In this article, a novel approach is introduced to show the potential of the advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to study plant-based food or feed protein molecular structure in relation to nutrient utilization and availability. Recent progress was reported on using synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and diffused reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy to detect the effects of gene-transformation (Application 1), autoclaving (Application 2), and bio-ethanol processing (Application 3) on plant-based food and feed protein structure changes on a molecular basis. The synchrotron-based technology provides a new approach for plant-based protein structure research at ultra-spatial resolutions at cellular and molecular levels.

  10. Sodium monitoring in commercially processed and restaurant foods

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Jaspreet KC; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Haytowitz, David B; Wasswa-Kintu, Shirley; Nickle, Melissa; Showell, Bethany; Thomas, Robin; Roseland, Janet; Williams, Juhi; Khan, Mona; Nguyen, Quynhanh; Hoy, Kathy; Martin, Carrie; Rhodes, Donna; Moshfegh, Alanna; Gillespie, Cathleen; Gunn, Janelle; Merritt, Robert; Cogswell, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Most sodium in the US diet comes from commercially processed and restaurant foods. Sodium reduction in these foods is key to several recent public health efforts. Objective The objective was to provide an overview of a program led by the USDA, in partnership with other government agencies, to monitor sodium contents in commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States. We also present comparisons of nutrients generated under the program to older data. Design We track ∼125 commercially processed and restaurant food items (“sentinel foods”) annually using information from food manufacturers and periodically by nationwide sampling and laboratory analyses. In addition, we monitor >1100 other commercially processed and restaurant food items, termed “priority-2 foods” (P2Fs) biennially by using information from food manufacturers. These foods serve as indicators for assessing changes in the sodium content of commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States. We sampled all sentinel foods nationwide and reviewed all P2Fs in 2010–2013 to determine baseline sodium concentrations. Results We updated sodium values for 73 sentinel foods and 551 P2Fs in the USDA’s National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (releases 23–26). Sodium values changed by at least 10% for 43 of the sentinel foods, which, for 31 foods, including commonly consumed foods such as bread, tomato catsup, and potato chips, the newer sodium values were lower. Changes in the concentrations of related nutrients (total and saturated fat, total sugar, potassium, or dietary fiber) that were recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for reduced or increased consumption accompanied sodium reduction. The results of sodium reduction efforts, based on resampling of the sentinel foods or re-review of P2Fs, will become available beginning in 2015. Conclusion This monitoring program tracks sodium reduction efforts, improves food composition

  11. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  12. Applications of edible films and coatings to processed foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings have been successfully applied in processed foods such as meat, cereals, confectionaries, dried fruits, nuts and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. These coatings are used to improve the quality and shelf-life of foods. Furthermore, different food ingredients, derived from ...

  13. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  14. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  15. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  16. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  17. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  18. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  19. Food processing on a space station: feasibility and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zasypkin, D V; Lee, T C

    1999-01-01

    An alternative strategy for processing plants into food on a space or other isolated station including an Advanced Life Support (ALS) system is proposed. Regular gravity (1 G) or hypogravity (< 1 G) has been considered. A key feature of this strategy is to include not only kitchen-scale preparation and processing but small-scale advanced food processing such as thermoplastic extrusion, homogenization, centrifugation, fermentation, etc. These processes are flexible and multifunctional and could significantly increase the variety, palatability, nutritional value, and shelf stability of foods, and the number of menu items based on ALS crops. The processes would minimize the time to process the food items and provide psychological support for the crew. The periodic processing of various crop harvests into shelf-stable foods for long-term storage can be performed. Unit operations as illustrated by various processing flow sheets on the manufacturing of individual products will be discussed in association with the equipment. PMID:11541542

  20. Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1980-01-01

    A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.

  1. [Food prices in Brazil: prefer cooking to ultra-processed foods].

    PubMed

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Maia, Emanuella Gomes; Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Diniz, Danielle Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe the prices of food groups consumed in Brazil considering the nature, extent, and purpose of their processing. Data were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey for 2008-2009. The mean prices of the groups (natural, cooking ingredients, processed, and ultra-processed) and their respective food subgroups were estimated for Brazil according to income, region, and area. Natural products and cooking ingredients showed lower prices per calorie when compared to the other groups, suggesting an economic advantage to preparing meals at home when compared to replacing them with ultra-processed foods. Families with the highest income paid the highest prices for their food, while families in the Northeast and North regions and rural areas paid the lowest. While fresh foods (meat, milk, fruit, and vegetables) tend to cost more than ultra-processed foods, dry grains (like rice and beans) are a more economical alternative for adopting healthy eating practices. PMID:27580234

  2. Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing, preservation and extraction.

    PubMed

    Chemat, Farid; Zill-e-Huma; Khan, Muhammed Kamran

    2011-07-01

    Ultrasound is well known to have a significant effect on the rate of various processes in the food industry. Using ultrasound, full reproducible food processes can now be completed in seconds or minutes with high reproducibility, reducing the processing cost, simplifying manipulation and work-up, giving higher purity of the final product, eliminating post-treatment of waste water and consuming only a fraction of the time and energy normally needed for conventional processes. Several processes such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, and extraction have been applied efficiently in the food industry. The advantages of using ultrasound for food processing, includes: more effective mixing and micro-mixing, faster energy and mass transfer, reduced thermal and concentration gradients, reduced temperature, selective extraction, reduced equipment size, faster response to process extraction control, faster start-up, increased production, and elimination of process steps. Food processes performed under the action of ultrasound are believed to be affected in part by cavitation phenomena and mass transfer enhancement. This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on application of ultrasound in food technology including processing, preservation and extraction. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about ultrasound the technology, the technique, and safety precautions. We will also discuss some of the factors which make the combination of food processing and ultrasound one of the most promising research areas in the field of modern food engineering. PMID:21216174

  3. Engineering concepts for food processing in bioregenerative life support systems.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J B

    1999-01-01

    Long-duration manned missions, such as Mars exploration, will require development of new and cost-effective food production and delivery systems. Requirements for both carry-on preserved food and food processed from on-board crops exceed the capabilities of existing food processing and preservation technologies. For the transit phase, new food products, preservation methods, and processing technologies for ground-based food processing are required. The bioregenerative surface phase requires methods for processing of in situ-grown crops, treatment of food wastes, preparation of daily meals, and design of nutritious and appealing plant-based menus, all within severe cost and labor constraints. In design of the food supply for a long-term mission, the designers must select and apply both the packaged food and in situ processing technologies most appropriate for the specific mission requirements. This study aims to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different food system strategies in the context of different types of mission, and to point out the most important areas for future technology development. PMID:11541544

  4. Heating and cooling in adiabatic mixing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jing; Cai, Zi; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can

    2010-12-01

    We study the effect of interaction on the temperature change in the process of adiabatic mixing of two components of Fermi gases using the real-space Bogoliubov-de Gennes method. We find that in the process of adiabatic mixing, the competition between the adiabatic expansion and the attractive interaction makes it possible to cool or heat the system depending on the strength of the interaction and the initial temperature of the system. The changes of the temperature in a bulk system and in a trapped system are investigated.

  5. Detection of seal contamination in heat-sealed food packaging based on active infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'huys, Karlien; Saeys, Wouter; De Ketelaere, Bart

    2015-05-01

    In the food industry packaging is often applied to protect the product from the environment, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the material used and the closure (seal). The material is selected based on the specific needs of the food product to be wrapped. However, proper closure of the package is often harder to achieve. One problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of food particles between the seal. Seal contamination can cause a decreased seal strength and thus an increased packaging failure risk. It can also trigger the formation of microchannels through which air and microorganisms can enter and spoil the enclosed food. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal-contaminated packages from the production chain is essential. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heat of the sealing bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. The cooling profile of contaminated seals was recorded. The detection performance of four processing methods (based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profile, pulsed phase thermography and a matched filter) was compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify contamination. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter of 0.63 mm) and the lowest processing time (0.42 s per sample) were obtained for the method based on a single frame. Presumably, practical limitations in the recording stage prevented the added value of active thermography to be fully reflected in this application.

  6. Bacteriophages for detection and control of bacterial pathogens in food and food-processing environment.

    PubMed

    Brovko, Lubov Y; Anany, Hany; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents recent advances in bacteriophage research and their application in the area of food safety. Section 1 describes general facts on phage biology that are relevant to their application for control and detection of bacterial pathogens in food and environmental samples. Section 2 summarizes the recently acquired data on application of bacteriophages to control growth of bacterial pathogens and spoilage organisms in food and food-processing environment. Section 3 deals with application of bacteriophages for detection and identification of bacterial pathogens. Advantages of bacteriophage-based methods are presented and their shortcomings are discussed. The chapter is intended for food scientist and food product developers, and people in food inspection and health agencies with the ultimate goal to attract their attention to the new developing technology that has a tremendous potential in providing means for producing wholesome and safe food. PMID:23034118

  7. Sampling the food processing environment: taking up the cudgel for preventive quality management in food processing environments.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Stessl, Beatrix

    2014-01-01

    The Listeria monitoring program for Austrian cheese factories was established in 1988. The basic idea is to control the introduction of L. monocytogenes into the food processing environment, preventing the pathogen from contaminating the food under processing. The Austrian Listeria monitoring program comprises four levels of investigation, dealing with routine monitoring of samples and consequences of finding a positive sample. Preventive quality control concepts attempt to detect a foodborne hazard along the food processing chain, prior to food delivery, retailing, and consumption. The implementation of a preventive food safety concept provokes a deepened insight by the manufacturers into problems concerning food safety. The development of preventive quality assurance strategies contributes to the national food safety status and protects public health. PMID:24792566

  8. Quality-related enzymes in plant-based products: effects of novel food-processing technologies part 3: ultrasonic processing.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    High-power ultrasound is a versatile technology which can potentially be used in many food processing applications including food preservation. This is part 2 of a series of review articles dealing with the effectiveness of nonthermal food processing technologies in food preservation focusing on their effect on enzymes. Typically, ultrasound treatment alone does not efficiently cause microbial or enzyme inactivation sufficient for food preservation. However, combined with mild heat with or without elevated pressure (P ≤ 500 kPa), ultrasound can effectively inactivate enzymes and microorganisms. Synergistic effects between ultrasound and mild heat have been reported for the inactivation of both enzymes and microorganisms. The application of ultrasound has been shown to enhance the rate of inactivation of quality degrading enzymes including pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and lipoxygenase (LOX) at mild temperature by up to 400 times. Moreover, ultrasound enables the inactivation of relatively heat-resistant enzymes such as tomato PG1 and thermostable orange PME at mild temperature conditions. The extent to which ultrasound enhances the inactivation rate depends on the type of enzyme, the medium in which the enzyme is suspended, and the processing condition including frequency, ultrasonic intensity, temperature, and pressure. The physical and chemical effects of cavitation are considered to be responsible for the ultrasound-induced inactivation of enzymes, although the dominant mechanism depends on the structure of the enzyme. PMID:24915308

  9. The Chemistry of Self-Heating Food Products: An Activity for Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel; Llorens-Molina, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Two commercial self-heating food products have been used to apply chemical concepts such as stoichiometry, enthalpies of reactions and solutions, and heat transfer in a classroom activity. These products are the self-heating beverages sold in Europe and the Meals, Ready to Eat or MREs used primarily by the military in the United States. The main…

  10. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities. (a) The following regulations are disapproved because they conflict with the requirements of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food processing facilities....

  11. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  12. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  13. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  14. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  15. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  16. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  17. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  18. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  19. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  20. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  1. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  2. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  3. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  4. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  5. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  6. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  7. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  8. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  9. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  10. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  11. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  12. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  13. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  14. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  15. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  16. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  17. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  18. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  19. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  20. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities. (a) The following regulations are disapproved because they conflict with the requirements of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Food processing facilities....

  1. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  2. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  3. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities. (a) The following regulations are disapproved because they conflict with the requirements of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Food processing facilities....

  4. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  5. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  6. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities. (a) The following regulations are disapproved because they conflict with the requirements of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Food processing facilities....

  7. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  8. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  9. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  10. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  11. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  12. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities. (a) The following regulations are disapproved because they conflict with the requirements of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Food processing facilities....

  13. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  14. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  15. Stable Isotope Tracers of Process in Great Lakes Food Webs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope analyses of biota are now commonly used to discern trophic pathways between consumers and their foods. However, those same isotope data also hold information about processes that influence the physicochemical setting of food webs as well as biological processes ope...

  16. Automatic process control for the food industry: an introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to ensure food security in food manufacturing operations automatic process control is desired. With the operation of the automatic process control systems the deviation of the controlled variables from the standards can be consistently perceived, adjusted, and minimized to improve the proce...

  17. Simplification of simulation processes at gravity heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabovský, Peter; Papučík, Štefan; Lenhard, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Water heating by heat pipe is currently the object examined on the use in sphere of recovering heat from technological processes. The heat pipe is the device for water heating that provides us a very effective way of transferring heat from the heat source (combustion) to the place of consumption (water). For the draft proposal of such equipment is produced under the required conditions mathematical model of ANSYS that verifies the actual measurements the experiments. The paper deals with the possibility of simulations of heat pipes in the process of heat transport and apposite simplification of the simulation process by defining apposite the substitutes of the solid materials with its own thermal properties that ensure a similar heat transport as a heat transfer medium in the heat pipe.

  18. Energetic consequences of thermal and nonthermal food processing.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Weintraub, Gil S; Wrangham, Richard W

    2011-11-29

    Processing food extensively by thermal and nonthermal techniques is a unique and universal human practice. Food processing increases palatability and edibility and has been argued to increase energy gain. Although energy gain is a well-known effect from cooking starch-rich foods, the idea that cooking meat increases energy gain has never been tested. Moreover, the relative energetic advantages of cooking and nonthermal processing have not been assessed, whether for meat or starch-rich foods. Here, we describe a system for characterizing the energetic effects of cooking and nonthermal food processing. Using mice as a model, we show that cooking substantially increases the energy gained from meat, leading to elevations in body mass that are not attributable to differences in food intake or activity levels. The positive energetic effects of cooking were found to be superior to the effects of pounding in both meat and starch-rich tubers, a conclusion further supported by food preferences in fasted animals. Our results indicate significant contributions from cooking to both modern and ancestral human energy budgets. They also illuminate a weakness in current food labeling practices, which systematically overestimate the caloric potential of poorly processed foods. PMID:22065771

  19. Energetic consequences of thermal and nonthermal food processing

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, Rachel N.; Weintraub, Gil S.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Processing food extensively by thermal and nonthermal techniques is a unique and universal human practice. Food processing increases palatability and edibility and has been argued to increase energy gain. Although energy gain is a well-known effect from cooking starch-rich foods, the idea that cooking meat increases energy gain has never been tested. Moreover, the relative energetic advantages of cooking and nonthermal processing have not been assessed, whether for meat or starch-rich foods. Here, we describe a system for characterizing the energetic effects of cooking and nonthermal food processing. Using mice as a model, we show that cooking substantially increases the energy gained from meat, leading to elevations in body mass that are not attributable to differences in food intake or activity levels. The positive energetic effects of cooking were found to be superior to the effects of pounding in both meat and starch-rich tubers, a conclusion further supported by food preferences in fasted animals. Our results indicate significant contributions from cooking to both modern and ancestral human energy budgets. They also illuminate a weakness in current food labeling practices, which systematically overestimate the caloric potential of poorly processed foods. PMID:22065771

  20. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  1. Cold plasma as a food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on a variety of foods, such as meats, poultry and fruits and vegetables. The primary modes of action are reactive chemical species and ultraviolet light. Various cold plasma systems are under development, operating at am...

  2. Study of heat dissipation process from heat sink using lensless Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Shakher, Chandra

    2015-02-20

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations about the heat dissipation process of plate fin heat sink using digital holographic interferometry. Visual inspection of reconstructed phase difference maps of the air field around the heat sink with and without electric power in the load resistor provides qualitative information about the variation of temperature and the heat dissipation process. Quantitative information about the temperature distribution is obtained from the relationship between the digitally reconstructed phase difference map of ambient air and heated air. Experimental results are presented for different current and voltage in the load resistor to investigate the heat dissipation process. The effect of fin spacing on the heat dissipation performance of the heat sink is also investigated in the case of natural heat convection. From experimental data, heat transfer parameters, such as local heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficients, are also calculated. PMID:25968185

  3. Sonic temperature sensor for food processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The lack of adequate temperature measurement is the major barrier to the development of more efficient and better quality food processing methods. The objective of the sonic temperature sensor for food processing project is to develop a prototype sensor system to noninvasively measure the interior temperature of particulate foods during processing. The development of the prototype sensor is a collaborative project with the National Food Processors Association. The project is based on the property of materials that involves a change in the temperature of a material having a corresponding change in the speed of sound. The approach for the sonic sensor system is to determine the speed of sound through particulate foods using a tomographic reconstruction process. This work has shown that the speed of sound accurately can be determined using tomographic reconstruction methods to an accuracy of {+-} 0.4%, which corresponds to a temperature uncertainty of {+-}2{degrees}C.

  4. No Major Differences Found between the Effects of Microwave-Based and Conventional Heat Treatment Methods on Two Different Liquid Foods

    PubMed Central

    Géczi, Gábor; Horváth, Márk; Kaszab, Tímea; Alemany, Gonzalo Garnacho

    2013-01-01

    Extension of shelf life and preservation of products are both very important for the food industry. However, just as with other processes, speed and higher manufacturing performance are also beneficial. Although microwave heating is utilized in a number of industrial processes, there are many unanswered questions about its effects on foods. Here we analyze whether the effects of microwave heating with continuous flow are equivalent to those of traditional heat transfer methods. In our study, the effects of heating of liquid foods by conventional and continuous flow microwave heating were studied. Among other properties, we compared the stability of the liquid foods between the two heat treatments. Our goal was to determine whether the continuous flow microwave heating and the conventional heating methods have the same effects on the liquid foods, and, therefore, whether microwave heat treatment can effectively replace conventional heat treatments. We have compared the colour, separation phenomena of the samples treated by different methods. For milk, we also monitored the total viable cell count, for orange juice, vitamin C contents in addition to the taste of the product by sensory analysis. The majority of the results indicate that the circulating coil microwave method used here is equivalent to the conventional heating method based on thermal conduction and convection. However, some results in the analysis of the milk samples show clear differences between heat transfer methods. According to our results, the colour parameters (lightness, red-green and blue-yellow values) of the microwave treated samples differed not only from the untreated control, but also from the traditional heat treated samples. The differences are visually undetectable, however, they become evident through analytical measurement with spectrophotometer. This finding suggests that besides thermal effects, microwave-based food treatment can alter product properties in other ways as well. PMID

  5. Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste heat recovery, and food industry wastes from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and processing of fruits and vegetables. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer, and uses in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste is also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Acrylamide: inhibition of formation in processed food and mitigation of toxicity in cells, animals, and humans.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-06-01

    Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from the heat-inducing reactions between the amino group of the amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in plant-derived foods including cereals, coffees, almonds, olives, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. This review surveys and consolidates the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food, exposure and consumption by diverse populations, reduction of the content in different food categories, and mitigation of adverse in vivo effects. Methods to reduce acrylamide levels include selecting commercial food with a low acrylamide content, selecting cereal and potato varieties with low levels of asparagine and reducing sugars, selecting processing conditions that minimize acrylamide formation, adding food-compatible compounds and plant extracts to food formulations before processing that inhibit acrylamide formation during processing of cereal products, coffees, teas, olives, almonds, and potato products, and reducing multiorgan toxicity (antifertility, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenicity). The herein described observations and recommendations are of scientific interest for food chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology, but also have the potential to benefit nutrition, food safety, and human health. PMID:25989363

  7. A finite element method based microwave heat transfer modeling of frozen multi-component foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy

    Microwave heating is fast and convenient, but is highly non-uniform. Non-uniform heating in microwave cooking affects not only food quality but also food safety. Most food industries develop microwavable food products based on "cook-and-look" approach. This approach is time-consuming, labor intensive and expensive and may not result in optimal food product design that assures food safety and quality. Design of microwavable food can be realized through a simulation model which describes the physical mechanisms of microwave heating in mathematical expressions. The objective of this study was to develop a microwave heat transfer model to predict spatial and temporal profiles of various heterogeneous foods such as multi-component meal (chicken nuggets and mashed potato), multi-component and multi-layered meal (lasagna), and multi-layered food with active packages (pizza) during microwave heating. A microwave heat transfer model was developed by solving electromagnetic and heat transfer equations using finite element method in commercially available COMSOL Multiphysics v4.4 software. The microwave heat transfer model included detailed geometry of the cavity, phase change, and rotation of the food on the turntable. The predicted spatial surface temperature patterns and temporal profiles were validated against the experimental temperature profiles obtained using a thermal imaging camera and fiber-optic sensors. The predicted spatial surface temperature profile of different multi-component foods was in good agreement with the corresponding experimental profiles in terms of hot and cold spot patterns. The root mean square error values of temporal profiles ranged from 5.8 °C to 26.2 °C in chicken nuggets as compared 4.3 °C to 4.7 °C in mashed potatoes. In frozen lasagna, root mean square error values at six locations ranged from 6.6 °C to 20.0 °C for 6 min of heating. A microwave heat transfer model was developed to include susceptor assisted microwave heating of a

  8. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    PubMed

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models) and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples. PMID:26466349

  9. Recent Developments in Superheated Steam Processing of Foods-A Review.

    PubMed

    Alfy, Anto; Kiran, B V; Jeevitha, G C; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2016-10-01

    Although the use of superheated steam has been known for quite a long time, only in the recent past has it emerged as a viable technology for food processing. Superheated steam, having higher enthalpy, can quickly transfer heat to the material being processed, resulting in its rapid heating. The major advantages of using superheated steam for food processing are better product quality (color, shrinkage, and rehydration characteristics), reduced oxidation losses, and higher energy efficiency. This review provides a comprehensive overview of recent studies on the application of superheated steam for food-processing operations such as drying, decontamination and microbial load reduction, parboiling, and enzyme inactivation. The review encompasses aspects such as the effect of superheated steam processing on product quality, mathematical models reported for superheated steam drying, and the future scope of application in food processing. Recent studies on process improvisation, wherein superheated steam is used at low pressure, in fluidized bed mode, sequential processing with hot air/infrared, and in combination with micro droplets of water have also been discussed. PMID:25162315

  10. 7 CFR 1124.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1124.19 Section 1124.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.19 Commercial food...