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1

Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices

H. D. Chapin; P. R. Armstrong; F. A. W. Chapin

1983-01-01

2

Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

1983-11-21

3

Radiation and natural convection heat transfer from wire-and-tube heat exchangers in refrigeration appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air-side heat transfer from wire-and-tube heat exchangers of the kind widely used in small refrigeration appliances has been studied. Radiation and free-convection components have been separately investigated. The radiation component was theoretically computed using a diffuse, gray-body network with interactions between each part of the heat exchanger and the surroundings. For the free-convection heat transfer component, a semiempirical correlation

L Tagliafico; G Tanda

1997-01-01

4

Heat-producing flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flowers of some plants produce enough heat to raise their temperatures as much as 35°C above air temperature. Three species have been shown to regulate flower temperature within a narrow range by an unknown physiological mechanism that increases the rate of heat production as air temperature decreases. Thermogenic plants occur only in ancient families of seed plants, and have

Roger S. Seymour; Paul Schultze-Motel

1997-01-01

5

Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

2009-12-01

6

Treatment effects produced by the Twin-block appliance and the FR2 appliance of Fränkel compared with an untreated Class II sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective cephalometric study compares the treatment effects produced in 40 patients treated with the Twin-block appliance to those seen in a matched sample of 40 children treated with the FR-2 appliance of Fränkel and to changes undergone in 40 untreated Class II controls from The University of Michigan Elementary and Secondary School Growth Study. The average starting ages for

Linda Ratner Toth; James A. McNamara

1999-01-01

7

Effect of excess air on the optimization of heating appliances for biomass combustion  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a domestic appliance for wood logs combustion is a function of several variables, such as the geometric design of the appliance and its operating parameters. Among them, air feeding conditions are really decisive if the objective function is the maximization of the heat recovered from flue gases. Therefore, even if pollutant emissions have to be ever considered, the amount of excess air can be seen as a fundamental parameter in the definition of thermal efficiency of the appliance. In this paper the role of this parameter is analysed. The analysis is conducted by linking the results obtained from experimental data, detailed CFD simulations and a simplified mathematical model based on a network of CSTR. The derivation of an idealized schematization of the appliance was essential to realize the role of excess air variations, with more generality than with respect to a specific appliance configuration. Conversely, while the experimental data and CFD results were necessary to derive the simplified model, the indications given by this simplified model were useful to analyze results coming from both experiments and detailed numerical simulations. It has been evidenced the need to distinguish between the role of excess air in the chemical combustion and in the heat recovery in the appliance as well as to quantify the feedback between these two processes. (author)

Menghini, D. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Marra, F.S.; Allouis, C.; Beretta, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Napoli (Italy)

2008-07-15

8

77 FR 25747 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-562] Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of...importation of certain incremental dental positioning adjustment appliances by reason of infringement...the United States incremental dental positioning adjustment appliances and any...

2012-05-01

9

78 FR 2282 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-562] Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of...importation of certain incremental dental positioning adjustment appliances by reason of infringement...after importation of incremental dental positioning adjustment appliances referenced...

2013-01-10

10

A run-around heat exchanger system to improve the energy efficiency of a home appliance using hot water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant portion of the energy consumed by many home appliances using hot water is used to heat cold supply water. Such home appliances generally are supplied water at a temperature lower than the ambient temperature, and the supply water is normally heated to its maximum operating temperature, often using natural gas or an electrical heater. In some cases, it

Jae Sung Park; Anthony M. Jacobi

2009-01-01

11

Effect of fuels and domestic heating appliance types on emission factors of selected organic pollutants.  

PubMed

This study reports on the first complex data set of emission factors (EFs) of selected pollutants from combustion of five fuel types (lignite, bituminous coal, spruce, beech, and maize) in six different domestic heating appliances of various combustion designs. The effect of fuel as well as the effect of boiler type was studied. In total, 46 combustion runs were performed, during which numerous EFs were measured, including the EFs of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), etc. The highest EFs of nonchlorinated pollutants were measured for old-type boilers with over-fire and under-fire designs and with manual stoking and natural draft. Emissions of the above-mentioned pollutants from modern-type boilers (automatic, downdraft) were 10 times lower or more. The decisive factor for emission rate of nonchlorinated pollutants was the type of appliance; the type of fuel plays only a minor role. Emissions of chlorinated pollutants were proportional mainly to the chlorine content in fuel, but the type of appliance also influenced the rate of emissions significantly. Surprisingly, higher EFs of PCDD/F from combustion of chlorinated bituminous coal were observed for modern-type boilers (downdraft, automatic) than for old-type ones. On the other hand, when bituminous coal was burned, higher emissions of HxCBz were found for old-type boilers than for modern-type ones. PMID:21932830

Šyc, Michal; Horák, Ji?í; Hopan, František; Krpec, Kamil; Tomšej, Tomáš; Ocelka, Tomáš; Pekárek, Vladimír

2011-11-01

12

Indoor air quality and ventilation strategies in the use of combustion space heating appliances in housing.  

PubMed

Indoor air quality (IAQ) in the use of combustion appliances is important for adequate evaluation of air pollution health risks. Since people spend most of their time inside buildings, especially the elderly and children, their exposure to indoor air contaminants can increase health problems in the community. Combustion materials emitted from combustion space heating appliances in housing during the winter may become a serious problem to health, since sources of ventilation are usually left closed to obtain a comfortable temperature level. To evaluate the IAQ and factors that may decrease combustion materials emitted from heaters, a study was done by using a house exposure model. The study found that IAQ in an unventilated house during combustion heater use was poor due to lack of fresh air. When using a heater, natural ventilation should be used to dilute air contaminants emitted from the heater. A concentration of carbon dioxide at about 1000 ppm and a comfortable temperature of 20 degrees C could be maintained by applying natural ventilation of about 0.12 m2 during the use of an unvented kerosene space heater. However, ventilation also depends on the number of the occupants and the wind velocity. The use of a steamer is also important to provide optimum humidity levels without elevating the respirable dust concentration above the acceptable limit. PMID:7883582

Setiani, O

1994-12-01

13

Power producing system employing geothermally heated fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A power producing system includes a source of geothermally heated fluid having inorganic salts dissolved therein. The fluid is directed through a first direct contact heat exchanger in heat transfer relation with a working fluid of a type insoluble in a liquid including inorganic salts. The vaporous working fluid thus produced is expanded through a prime mover and then directed

Shields

1977-01-01

14

New induction heated fluid energy conversion processing appliance incorporating auto-tuning PID control-based PWM resonant IGBT inverter with sensorless power factor correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a newly-developed prototype of an electromagnetic induction flow-through metallic package-in-nonmetallic pipeline type fluid heating appliance, which is composed of series-resonant phase-shift PWM inverter using IGBT modules in addition to an auto-tuning PID controller based on feedback implementation. This inverter-fed fluid heating appliance is to be more acceptable for high-quality heat transfer and delivery processing under a precise

Y. Uchihori; Y. Kawamura; M. Tokiwa; Y. J. Kim; M. Nakaoka

1995-01-01

15

A Multi-Output Series Resonant Inverter with Asymmetrical Voltage-Cancellation Control for Induction-Heating Cooking Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and analyzes the asymmetrical voltage-cancellation (AVC) control, for a multi-output series resonant inverter. It is applied to the multiple-burner induction-heating cooking appliances. Some common approaches use several single-output inverters or a single-output inverter multiplexing the loads along the time periodically. By specifying a multi-output series-resonant high frequency inverter, a new inverter is obtained fulfilling the requirements. The

S. H. Hosseini; A. Y. Goharrizi; E. Karimi

2006-01-01

16

REACH. Major Appliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

English, Charles; And Others

17

Global residential appliance standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In most countries, residential electricity consumption typically ranges from 20% to 40% of total electricity consumption. This energy is used for heating, cooling, refrigeration and other end-uses. Significant energy savings are possible if new appliance ...

I. Turiel J. E. McMahon B. Lebot

1993-01-01

18

The state-of-the art electromagnetic induction flow-through pipeline package type fluid heating appliance using series resonant PWM inverter with self-tuning PID controller-based feedback implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a newly-developed prototype of an electromagnetic induction flow-through metallic package-in-nonmetallic pipeline type fluid heating appliance, which is composed of a series loaded resonant phase-shift PWM invertor using IGBT modules and their intelligent driver modules, in addition to an auto-tuning PID controller incorporated into the feedback loop. This inverter-fed fluid heating appliance is more acceptable for high-quality heat

Y. Uchihori; Y. Kawamura; S. Morita; H. Yasutune; M. Nakaoka

1995-01-01

19

Appliance Analysis : Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle 2.  

SciTech Connect

The appliance use of RCDP-2 homes was analyzed to determine whether significant differences existed in houses that had efficient appliances (domestic hot water (DHW) and refrigerators) compared to those with appliances not considered efficient. Specific analyses addressed: (1) DHW and refrigerator appliance end uses; (2) whole house and space heat energy use; and, (3) interaction effects between appliance use and space heating energy use.

Quaid, Maureen; Kunkle, Rick; Lagerberg, Brian

1991-08-01

20

Appliance Analysis :Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle 2.  

SciTech Connect

The appliance use of RCDP-2 homes was analyzed to determine whether significant differences existed in houses that had efficient appliances (domestic hot water (DHW) and refrigerators) compared to those with appliances not considered efficient. Specific analyses addressed: (1) DHW and refrigerator appliance end uses; (2) whole house and space heat energy use; and, (3) interaction effects between appliance use and space heating energy use.

Quaid, Maureen; Kunkle, Rick; Lagerberg, Brian

1991-08-01

21

Method for producing micro heat panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flat or curved micro heat pipe panels are fabricated by arranging essentially parallel filaments in the shape of the desired panel. The configuration of the filaments corresponds to the desired configuration of the tubes that will constitute the heat pipes. A thermally conductive material is then deposited on and around the filaments to fill in the desired shape of the panel. The filaments are then removed, leaving tubular passageways of the desired configuration and surface texture in the material. The tubes are then filled with a working fluid and sealed. Composite micro heat pipe laminates are formed by layering individual micro heat pipe panels and bonding them to each other to form a single structure. The layering sequence of the micro heat pipe panels can be tailored to transport heat preferentially in specific directions as desired for a particular application.

Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Peterson, George P. (Inventor); Rummler, Donald R. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

22

Hair Styling Appliances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

1984-01-01

23

Method for producing heat-resistant semi-inorganic compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method for producing a heat resistant, semi-inorganic compound is discussed. Five examples in which various alcohols, phenols, and aromatic carbonic acids are used to test heat resistance and solubility are provided.

Yajima, S.; Okamura, K.; Shishido, T.; Hasegawa, Y.

1983-01-01

24

Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid  

DOEpatents

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

2011-01-11

25

Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

2013-05-28

26

Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process  

DOEpatents

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Munsterman, Erwin Henh (Amsterdam, NL); Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus (Amsterdam, NL); Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius (Amsterdam, NL)

2009-10-20

27

ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMAN, SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO AID IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING A COURSE FOR TRAINING ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMEN. OUTLINES (ONE PAGE EACH) COVER -- (1) RELATED INSTRUCTION, (2) FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY, (3) BASIC CONTROLS AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, (4) RESISTANCE HEATING APPLIANCES, (5) MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC APPLIANCES, (6) MOTOR DRIVEN…

LOVE, L. CARL; RONEY, MAURICE W.

28

Heat-stable measles vaccine produced by spray drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of unique stabilizers and mild spray drying process conditions was employed to produce heat-stable measles vaccine powder. Live attenuated measles vaccine from Serum Institute of India was formulated with pharmaceutically approved stabilizers, including sugars, proteins, amino acids, polymers, surfactants, and plasticizers, as well as charged ions. In addition, the effects of buffer salt and pH on the storage

Satoshi Ohtake; Russell A. Martin; Luisa Yee; Dexiang Chen; Debra D. Kristensen; David Lechuga-Ballesteros; Vu Truong-Le

2010-01-01

29

Effects of heating appliances with different energy efficiencies on associations among work environments, physiological responses, and subjective evaluation of workload.  

PubMed

To clarify the association between heat stress, physiological responses and subjective workload evaluations in kitchens using an induction heating stove (IH stove) or gas stove. The study design was an experimental trial involving 12 young men. The trial measured ambient dry-bulb temperature, globe temperature, wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and relative humidity; the subjects' weight, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen uptake, amount of activity, body temperature, subjective awareness of heat and workload before and after mock cooking for 30 min. The IH stove insignificantly increased heat indicators in the work environment and workers showed lower oxygen uptake, skin temperature, subjective awareness of heat and workload after heat exposure. Both physiological load and subjective awareness of heat and workload were slight in kitchens using the IH stove, which provided a better work environment. PMID:18716384

Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ayabe, Makoto; Haruyama, Yasuo; Seo, Akihiko; Katamoto, Shizuo; Ito, Akiyoshi; Muto, Takashi

2008-08-01

30

Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source  

SciTech Connect

Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe{sup 13+} are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555, Japan and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama (Japan); Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., Tateyama Kagaku Group, 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama (Japan); Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., Tateyama Kagaku Group, 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2008-02-15

31

Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source.  

PubMed

Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe(13+) are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods. PMID:18315102

Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

2008-02-01

32

The Herbst appliance updated  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution that the Herbst appliance has experienced in the last 30 years. In particular the different designs proposed for the Herbst appliance are examined and the related differences in clinical management, indications, and treatment effects are also illustrated. The two major challenges in the clinical management of the Herbst appliance are

Raffaele Schiavoni

2011-01-01

33

Design options for energy efficiency improvement of residential appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents information needed for the Department of Energy (DOE) appliance standards evaluation effort. The appliances discussed are refrigerator\\/freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, television sets, kitchen ranges and ovens, clothes washers, humidifiers and dehumidifiers, central air conditioners (including heat pmps), and furnaces. In the original standards analysis, completed in the early

Turiel

1986-01-01

34

Self-reported electrical appliance use and risk of adult brain tumors.  

PubMed

Electrical appliances produce the highest intensity exposures to residential extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. The authors investigated whether appliances may be associated with adult brain tumors in a hospital-based case-control study at three centers in the United States from 1994 to 1998. A total of 410 glioma, 178 meningioma, and 90 acoustic neuroma cases and 686 controls responded to a self-administered questionnaire about 14 electrical appliances. There was little evidence of association between brain tumors and curling iron, heating pad, vibrating massager, electric blanket, heated water bed, sound system, computer, television, humidifier, microwave oven, and electric stove. Ever use of hair dryers was associated with glioma (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.5), but there was no evidence of increasing risk with increasing amount of use. In men, meningioma was associated with electric shaver use (odds ratio = 10.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.3, 50), and odds ratios increased with cumulative minutes of use, although they were based on only two nonexposed cases. Recall bias for appliances used regularly near the head or chance may provide an alternative explanation for the observed associations. Overall, results indicate that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields from commonly used household appliances are unlikely to increase the risk of brain tumors. PMID:15632263

Kleinerman, Ruth A; Linet, Martha S; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Tarone, Robert E; Black, Peter M; Selker, Robert G; Shapiro, William R; Fine, Howard A; Inskip, Peter D

2005-01-15

35

Fundamentals of Refrigeration; Air Conditioning and Heating Mechanics 1--Appliance Repair 2: 9013.01 and 9025.05.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing the student with an understanding of the basic refrigeration fundamentals, the course introduces the various types of tools and equipment used in this trade. The course consists of 90 clock hours and is organized into six instructional blocks. The student will gain an understanding of trade terminology, heat and temperature, transfer of…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

36

Katei bumon ni okeru kucho kiki riyo jittai to denryoku shohi. (Electric appliance holdings and consumption for residential heating and cooling: evidence from survey data in Japan).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis was made on electric appliance holdings and their utilization status based on questionnaire surveys carried out in 1991 and 1992 on households in independent housings in Sapporo City, Tokyo Metropolis and Kagoshima City. The analysis was focus...

I. Matsukawa

1993-01-01

37

Preformed beading and boxing appliance.  

PubMed

Conventional beading and boxing procedure is time consuming and involves application of heat that might distort green stick compound used for border molding. Earlier studies regarding beading and boxing methods have shown usage of various materials that were disposable and that cannot be recycled. To reduce the time consumed for beading and boxing procedure and to make this procedure cost-effective by using recyclable beading material, "Preformed boxing appliance" with moldable clay meant for beading the secondary impression was used. Secondary impression was supported by 3 studs provided on the floor of the boxing appliance. The cast was poured. The duration for the entire procedure was much less than the conventional procedure. PMID:24431707

Reddy, J Sashi Deepth; Padmanabhan, T V; Veerareddy, Chandrika; Chandrasekhar, M; Narendra, R

2013-03-01

38

Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

1994-01-01

39

Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

1994-03-01

40

Market Study of Commercial Appliances: Volume 2, Replacement Market for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning and Water Heating Equipment: Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the slowing of new construction and with buildings built in the 1960s and 1970s now undergoing renovation and upgrading, the replacement of HVAC and water heating equipment is becoming an increasingly larger proportion of the market for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. This growing market also offers an opportunity for improving the efficiency with which energy is

Donald R. Dohrmann; G. A. Wikler

1989-01-01

41

Home appliances get smart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe how novel sensors and control algorithms embedded in today's domestic appliances make them smart enough to estimate the size and dirtiness of a load of clothes tossed in a washer or to determine whether water in a pot on the stove is boiling. They argue that, as semiconductor costs come down, such appliances will get even smarter

V. V. Badami; N. W. Chbat

1998-01-01

42

Controller Design of Power Quality-Improving Appliances  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an innovative solution to power quality problems using power quality-improving (PQI) appliances. PQI appliances conduct currents that supplement and correct the sum of the other load currents within a premise. From the utility side, the premise housing a PQI appliance thus becomes an improved, if not ideal, utility customer. The PQI appliance improves both harmonic power quality and power factor while performing its normal function, such as heating water. In this paper, the water heater PQI appliance is used as an example to demonstrate the control circuit design and function. Both computer simulation results and laboratory experiment results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. The estimated costs of the PQI controller and of harmonic compensating filters are compared to show that the PQI appliance may be an economic way to provide power quality improvement at the building level.

Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Zhou, Ning; Lu, Ning

2007-05-01

43

Residential-appliance load characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of residential photovoltaic systems in combination with energy efficient appliances is examined. The load characteristics are presented for several types of major residential appliances. Load characteristics consist of the average energy use of each appliance, the power demand while the appliance is operating, and a typical use schedule. Potential energy conserving features are investigated for each appliance and used to identify a best available model and maximum feasible energy efficient appliance. Load characteristics of these energy conserving designs are then compared with the load characteristics of a standard model. The feasibility of converting appliances to dc power for use with photovoltaic systems is also discussed.

Kohler, J.

1982-04-01

44

Terminologie des appareils electromenagers (Vocabulary for Electric Appliances).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This glossary of common French words and expressions used in reference to major electric appliances is designed for consumers, producers, and advertisers. Emphasis is placed on current rather than technical French-Canadian vocabulary. The terms are classified into five sections according to type of appliance: (1) electric range, (2) refrigerator,…

Dupuis, Henriette, Comp.; Lalut, Jeanne, Comp.

45

78 FR 51100 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Teleconference/Webinar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...residential appliances and commercial equipment, certification and...asrac.html: Update on Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Certification...recommendations. Discussion regarding commercial/industrial pumps...

2013-08-20

46

78 FR 37995 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Teleconference/Webinar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...residential appliances and commercial equipment, certification and...energy.gov): Update on Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Certification...explore negotiated rulemaking for commercial/industrial pumps....

2013-06-25

47

Crew appliance study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viable crew appliance concepts were identified by means of a thorough literature search. Studies were made of the food management, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and off-duty habitability functions to determine which concepts best satisfy the Space Shuttle Orbiter and Modular Space Station mission requirements. Models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the generalized environmental-thermal control and life support systems computer program were developed and validated. Development plans of selected concepts were generated for future reference. A shuttle freezer conceptual design was developed and a test support activity was provided for regenerative environmental control life support subsystems.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

48

Tectonic feedback and the ordering of heat producing elements within the continental lithosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the heat producing elements within the lithosphere provides an important control on continental thermal regimes and the mechanical strength of the lithosphere. Moreover, the strong temperature dependence of lithospheric rheology suggests the possibility of an important feedback between deformation and the distribution of heat producing elements. Simple models for lithospheric rheology are used to illustrate how such

Mike Sandiford; Sandra McLaren

2002-01-01

49

Method of producing a plug-type heat flux gauge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of making a plug-type heat flux gauge in a material specimen in which a thermoplug is integrally formed in the specimen is disclosed. The thermoplug and concentric annulus are formed in the material specimen by electrical discharge machining and trepanning procedures. The thermoplug is surrounded by a concentric annulus through which thermocouple wires are routed. The end of each thermocouple wire is welded to the thermoplug, with each thermocouple wire welded at a different location along the length of the thermoplug.

Liebert, Curt H. (inventor); Koch, John, Jr. (inventor)

1992-01-01

50

Portable appliance security apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for securing a small computer, or other portable appliance, against theft is described. It is comprised of a case having an open back through which the computer is installed or removed. Guide members in the form of slots are formed in a rear portion of opposite walls of the case for receiving a back plate to cover the

J. J. Kerley

1981-01-01

51

Appliance Servicing Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide presents the standard appliance servicing technician curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

52

Wireless appliance control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs of centralized control system has been long identified in office and industry application. Nevertheless, the same concept can be extended to home application in which a residence can control certain object through a centralized control system. Thus, a wireless appliance control system for home is proposed in this paper. It makes use of the computer as digital control

Rahmat Sanudin; Yoo Tuck Mun; W. S. W. Zaki; M. H. A. Wahab

2009-01-01

53

Pressure Loss and Heat Transfer Through Heat Sinks Produced by Selective Laser Melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat removal from electronic packages is often assisted with the use of heat sinks whose heat transfer surfaces come in a variety of forms such as cylindrical pins, flat fins, and corrugated sheet. These conventional designs are manufactured by traditional methods such as forging, machining, casting, stamping and bending, or a combination of processes. This article introduces a novel manufacturing

Matthew Wong; Ieuan Owen; Chris J. Sutcliffe

2009-01-01

54

Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

2011-06-30

55

Epoxy Resin Laminates with High Heat Resistance Based on a Curing System Producing the Oxazolidone Ring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New epoxy resin laminates were developed, which showed high heat resistance and which contained oxazolidone rings produced by reaction of epoxy and isocyanate groups. These laminates were prepared by using a prepolymer stable at room temperature which was...

S. Yamaoka M. Mizuno

1986-01-01

56

Etruscan Gold Dental Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By 630 BCE Etruscan metallurgists in central Italy had begun to apply their impressive goldworking skills in the production\\u000a of dental bridges (pontics). The achievement of this technological development began with the fabrication of a hollow gold\\u000a tooth mounted on a thin band of gold. The band served to anchor this dental appliance to the healthy teeth adjacent to the

Marshall Joseph Becker

57

New Insights Into the Heat Sources of Mantle Plumes, or: Where Does all the Heat Come From, Heat Producing Elements, Advective or Conductive Heat Flow?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melting anomalies in the Earth's upper mantle have often been attributed to the presence of mantle plumes that may originate in the lower mantle, possibly from the core-mantle boundary. Globally, mantle plumes exhibit a large range in buoyancy flux that which is proportional to their temperature and volume. Plumes with higher buoyancy fluxes should have higher temperatures and experience higher degrees of partial melting. Excess heat in mantle plumes could reflect either a) an enrichment of the heat producing elements (HPE: U, Th, K) in their mantle source leading to an increase of heat production by radioactive decay or b) advective or conductive heat transport across the core-mantle boundary. The advective transport of heat may result in a physical contribution of material from the core to the lower mantle. If core material is incorporated into the lower mantle, mantle plumes with a higher buoyancy flux should have higher core tracers, e.g. increased 186Os and Fe concentrations. Geophysical and dynamic modelling indicate that at least Afar, Easter, Hawaii, Louisville and Samoa may all originate at the core-mantle boundary. These plumes encompass the whole range of known buoyancy fluxes from 1.2 Mgs -1(Afar) to 6.5 Mgs -1 (Hawaii) providing evidence that the buoyancy flux is largely independent of other geophysical parameters. In an effort to explore whether the heat producing elements are the cause of excess heat we looked for correlations between fractionation corrected concentrations of the HPE and buoyancy flux. Our results suggest that there is no correlation between HPE concentrations and buoyancy flux (with and without an additional correction for variable degrees of partial melting). As anticipated, K, Th and U are positively correlated with each other (e.g. Hawaii, Iceland and Galapagos have significantly lower concentrations than e.g. Tristan da Cunha, the Canary Islands and the Azores). We also find no correlation between currently available Fe concentration data and buoyancy flux. The apparent lack of correlation suggests that excess heat may be a result of conductive heat contribution from the core. Additional precise 186Os and Fe data are needed to further assess these conclusions.

Rushmer, T.; Beier, C.; Turner, S.

2007-12-01

58

Process for producing an activated carbon adsorbent with integral heat transfer apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for producing an integral adsorbent-heat exchanger apparatus useful in ammonia refrigerant heat pump systems. In one embodiment, the process wets an activated carbon particles-solvent mixture with a binder-solvent mixture, presses the binder wetted activated carbon mixture on a metal tube surface and thereafter pyrolyzes the mixture to form a bonded activated carbon matrix adjoined to the tube surface. The integral apparatus can be easily and inexpensively produced by the process in large quantities.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

59

Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

1983-08-01

60

Primary afferent depolarization and flexion reflexes produced by radiant heat stimulation of the skin  

PubMed Central

1. The reflex effects of pulses of intense radiant heat applied to the skin of the central plantar pad have been studied in unanaesthetized (decerebrate) spinal cats. 2. Pad heat pulses produced flexion of the ipsilateral hind limb and increased ipsilateral flexor monosynaptic reflexes, due to post-synaptic excitation of flexor alpha motoneurones. These effects were accompanied by reduction of extensor monosynaptic reflexes and post-synaptic inhibition of extensor motoneurones. 3. Ipsilateral (and contralateral) pad heat pulses consistently evoked negative dorsal root potentials (DRPs) as well as increased excitability of both cutaneous and group Ib muscle afferent terminals. The excitability of group Ia afferents was sometimes also increased during pad heat pulses, but to a lesser extent. 4. Pad heat pulses produced negative DRPs in preparations in which positive DRP components could be demonstrated following electrical stimulation of both skin and muscle nerves. 5. The motor and primary afferent effects of heat pulses always accompanied one another, beginning after the pad surface temperature had reached rather high levels (usually 48-55° C). 6. Negative DRPs increased excitability of cutaneous and group Ib afferents, and motoneurone activation produced by pad heat pulses was essentially unmodified when conduction in large myelinated afferents from the central plantar pad was blocked by cooling the posterior tibial nerve trunk. 7. It is concluded that adequate noxious activation of cutaneous afferents of small diameter produces primary afferent depolarization in a variety of large diameter afferent fibres, as well as post-synaptic effects in alpha motoneurones.

Burke, R. E.; Rudomin, P.; Vyklicky, L.; Zajac, F. E.

1971-01-01

61

Heat Treatment Devices and Method of Operation Thereof to Produce Dual Microstructure Superalloys Disks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heat treatment assembly and heat treatment methods are disclosed for producing different microstructures in the bore and rim portions of nickel-based superalloy disks, particu- larly suited for gas turbine applications. The heat treatment assembly is capable of being removed from the furnace and disassembled to allow rapid fan or oil quenching of the disk. For solutioning heat treatments of the disk, temperatures higher than that of this solvus temperature of the disk are used to produce coarse grains in the rim of each disk so as to give maximum creep and dwell crack resistance at the rim service temperature. At the same time, solution temperature lower than the solvus temperature of the disk are provided to produce fine grain in the bore of the disk so as to give maximum strength and low cycle fatigue resistance.

Gayda, John (Inventor); Gabb, Timothy P. (Inventor); Kantzos, Peter T. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

62

Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and

J. M. Fang; S. Balistocky; A. M. Schaefler

1982-01-01

63

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19

Nan Zhou; David Fridley; Michael McNeill; Nina Zheng; Virginie Letschert; Jing Ke; Yamina Saheb

2010-01-01

64

Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

1989-12-12

65

Appliance energy efficiency in new home construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of 224 builders was conducted to which 160 builders responded. Each respondent completed between one and seven separate questionnaires. Each of the seven questionnaires were designed to collect information about one type of equipment or major appliance. These are: heat pump; heating system; air conditioner; domestic water heater; dishwasher; range; and refrigerator. Analyses of the resulting 406 questionnaires indicated that builders were primarily responsible for brand selection. These choices were made primarily without regard for the secondary efficiency of the product. A similar apparent lack of consideration of energy efficiency during brand and model selection was found among home buyers and specialized subcontractors.

1980-11-01

66

Metrics for Small Appliance Repair, Major Appliance Repair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students in small appliance repair and major appliance repair, this instructional package is one of eight for the manufacturing occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

67

Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid  

DOEpatents

A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX) [Sugar Land, TX; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Mandema, Remco Hugo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX) [Katy, TX

2009-09-01

68

Type II heat-labile enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from animals and humans.  

PubMed Central

Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)-producing Escherichia coli strains, as identified by the Y1 adrenal cell assay, were examined with a DNA probe coding for type I and type II LTs. Of 236 LT-producing E. coli isolates, 60% hybridized with LT-I, 17% hybridized with LT-II, and 23% did not hybridize with either probe and no longer produced LT as determined by the Y1 adrenal cell assay. These isolates presumably lost plasmids coding for LT-I during storage. A total of 75% of LT-producing E. coli isolates (27 of 36) from cows, 64% of LT-producing E. coli isolates (7 of 11) from buffalo, 31% of LT-producing E. coli isolates (4 of 13) from beef obtained in markets, and 2% of LT-producing E. coli isolates (3 of 168) from humans contained genes coding for LT-II. Genes coding for LT-II were not found in 50 LT-I-producing and heat-stable enterotoxin-producing E. coli isolates from 11 children with diarrhea and 44 LT-nonproducing and heat-stable enterotoxin-producing E. coli isolates from 12 other children with diarrhea. A total of 9% of LT-II-producing E. coli isolates (3 of 34) from cows and buffalo hybridized with DNA probes for genes coding for verocytotoxin 2 (VT2), and 18% (6 of 34) hybridized with a DNA probe coding for enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) adhesin fimbriae. E. coli SA-53, the original isolate in which LT-II was found, contained genes coding for VT2 and EHEC adhesin fimbriae. Five VT-producing, LT-II-producing E. coli isolates that hybridized with the EHEC probe did not contain DNA sequences coding for VT1 or VT2. LT-II-producing E. coli strains were frequently isolated from cattle and buffalo but were rarely isolated from humans.

Seriwatana, J; Echeverria, P; Taylor, D N; Rasrinaul, L; Brown, J E; Peiris, J S; Clayton, C L

1988-01-01

69

Remote repair appliance  

DOEpatents

A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a worksite on a substantially circular bore of a workpiece and for providing video signals of the worksite to a remote monitor comprising: a baseplate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the baseplate and positioned to roll against the bore of the workpiece when the baseplate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the baseplate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the baseplate; a camera for providing video signals of the worksite to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the baseplate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris.

Heumann, Frederick K. (Ballston Spa, NY); Wilkinson, Jay C. (Ballston Spa, NY); Wooding, David R. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

1997-01-01

70

Personal Fuel Appliance  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress made in Phase I of Stuart's Personal Fueling Appliance Program. Phase I concluded in March 2002 with the demonstration and deployment of several working models. As proposed in the original project plan, working models of the PFA were built to prove feasibility and technically market the concept. Future follow up phases of the project, Phase II and III, will take the concept through prototyping development to pre-production of commercially viable product. The Phase I program successfully demonstrate a home fueling system capable of running on a household circuit, 220V/40 Amp/single phase or equivalent. Connected to a source of ''drinking water'' the system has all the functions necessary to convert water and electricity to high-pressure hydrogen fuel. Pressures of up to 3600 psig were achieved on demonstration systems and higher pressures up to 5000 psig were achieved in the lab. The development program spanned building 3 series of prototypes: White Box (1 unit built 1998), PFA Series 100 (4 units built 1999-2000), and Series 200 (6 units built 2000-02). Advanced in controls and process learned in the PFA program have been embodied in Stuart's larger fuel appliances.

Stuart Energy

2003-12-30

71

Remote repair appliance  

DOEpatents

A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs.

Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

1997-12-16

72

Measurements of radial heat wave propagation in laser-produced exploding-foil plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-resolved, 2D images of x-ray emission from thin, laser-irradiated titanium foils are presented. The foils are irradiated with 0.35 mum light at intensities of 1×1015 W\\/cm2 which produces a plasma with electron densities <=1022 cm-3 and electron temperature of 3-4 keV. X-ray emission that is characteristic of the thermal heat front is observed to propagate radially outward from the heated

D. S. Montgomery; O. L. Landen; R. P. Drake; K. G. Estabrook; H. A. Baldis; S. H. Batha; K. S. Bradley; R. J. Procassini

1994-01-01

73

Strong reduction of nonlocal electron heat transport in magnetized laser produced plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a direct measurement of the reduction of nonlocal heat transport in laser-produced plasma by applying large external magnetic fields (> 10 T). Imaging Thomson scattering measurements of the electron temperature profile show confinement of the heat wave transverse to a high-power laser beam resulting in strong local heating. The electron temperature increases from 200 eV to 800 eV when a 12 Tesla magnetic field is applied. We find agreement with hydrodynamic modeling (using LASNEX) when including a magnetic field model that self-consistently evolves the fields in the plasma.

Divol, Laurent; Froula, D. H.; Ross, J. S.; Davis, P.; Pollock, B. B.; Edwards, M. J.; Town, R. P. J.; Price, D.; Glenzer, S. H.; Offenberger, A. A.; James, A. N.; Tynan, G. R.

2006-10-01

74

Association of respiratory symptoms and lung function in young adults with use of domestic gas appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground There is evidence from some studies that people living in homes with gas stoves and other unvented gas appliances experience more respiratory symptoms than those who use other fuels for cooking and heating, but other studies have found no such association. We have investigated whether the use of gas appliances is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms

D. Jarvis; S. Chinn; C. Luczynska; P. Burney

1996-01-01

75

Appliances: Designs and Standards for Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buildings consume 40% of US energy and produce 39% of US carbon dioxide. These numbers can be dramatically reduced with improved appliance efficiency. For example, energy use by the average new refrigerator dropped about 70% from 1974-2002, thanks to improved materials, technologies and designs. In this chapter, I review progress in gas furnaces, air conditioning and lighting, as well as the trends in refrigerators and freezers. The goal of zero net-energy buildings appears possible. In the future, buildings might consume perhaps 70% less energy than today due to efficient building components, appliances, equipment and lighting; systems integration; better controls; and behavioral changes. The remaining 30% energy needs could be supplied by low-or no-carbon energy sources.

McMahon, James E.

2008-09-01

76

Convective mechanism for inhibition of heat conduction in laser produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

In laser-produced plasmas, the laser energy is absorbed only below and up to the critical density. For laser fusion applications, this energy must be transported beyond the corona via electron thermal conduction towards colder, higher density regions of the target to heat up material and cause ablation, which in turn generates an inward pressure to compress the fusion fuel. If the heat conduction is inhibited, the consequences will be a weaker ablation and therefore a weaker implosion. For many years now, the inhibition of heat conduction, i.e., the reduction of heat conduction relative to classical conduction, in laser-produced plasmas at relevant irradiances has been apparent from the large body of experimental evidence. Many mechanisms, such as dc magnetic fields, ion acoustic turbulence, and Weibel instabilities, have been proposed to be the cause of inhibition of heat conduction. Even improved calculations of the classical heat flux have been carried out to solve this problem. Nevertheless, no single one of the above mentioned mechanisms can explain the large inhibition observed in the experiments.

Lee, P.H.Y.; Willi, O.; Trainor, R.J.

1984-06-27

77

Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Producing 'Escherichia coli' Isolated from Animals and Humans,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin and a group of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins (LTs) are closely related in structure and mechanisms of action (8). LTs produced by strains of E. coli from humans (LT-H) and pigs (LT-P) have common and unique antigeni...

J. Seriwatana P. Echeverria D. N. Taylor L. Rasrinaul J. E. Brown

1988-01-01

78

The Distribution and Redistribution of Heat-Producing Elements in the Continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many geological data indicate that most sialic crust is of Archaean (>= 2.5 Ga) age. Evidence also seems to agree for an early formation of a 'protocrust' concentrating the heat-producing elements. On the other hand if present day production of oceanic tholeiites can be assumed to have been constant through geologic time, and if their radioactive element content is gradually

K. S. Heier

1978-01-01

79

Heat-Stable, Salt-Tolerant Microbial Xanthanase and Method of Producing Same.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel mixed bacterial culture isolated from soil by enrichment culture techniques produces a xanthanase enzyme complex which is stable to 65 degrees C in the presence of salt. These properties render the heat-stable, salt-tolerant xanthanase useful for ...

M. C. Cadmus M. E. Slodki

1988-01-01

80

Rapid test for identification of heat-labile enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli colonies.  

PubMed Central

A latex particle agglutination test is described which is suitable for the recognition of heat-labile enterotoxin-producing colonies of Escherichia coli immediately after primary culture on a variety of commonly used enteric diagnostic media. The test is simple and economical to perform, and the results are available in minutes.

Finkelstein, R A; Yang, Z

1983-01-01

81

Measurements of radial heat wave propagation in laser-produced exploding-foil plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Time-resolved, 2D images of x-ray emission from thin, laser-irradiated titanium foils are presented. The foils are irradiated with 0.35 [mu]m light at intensities of 1[times]10[sup 15] W/cm[sup 2] which produces a plasma with electron densities [le]10[sup 22] cm[sup [minus]3] and electron temperature of 3--4 keV. X-ray emission that is characteristic of the thermal heat front is observed to propagate radially outward from the heated region. Comparison of these measurements with 2D hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment suggests the radial heat flux to be about 3% of the free-streaming heat flux.

Montgomery, D.S.; Landen, O.L.; Drake, R.P.; Estabrook, K.G.; Baldis, H.A.; Batha, S.H.; Bradley, K.S.; Procassini, R.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States) Plasma Physics Research Institute, University of California Davis, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States) Department of Applied Science, University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States))

1994-10-10

82

Heat resistance of histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated tuna loins.  

PubMed

Consumption of foods high in biogenic amines leads to an illness known as histamine, or scombrotoxin, poisoning. The illness is commonly associated with consumption of fish with high levels of histamine ( $ 500 ppm). The objective of this study was to determine and compare the heat resistance of five histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated albacore tuna loins. Heat-resistance parameters (D- and z-values) were determined for Morganella morganii, Raoultella planticola, Hafnia alvei, and Enterobacter aerogenes. D- or z-values were not determined for Photobacterium damselae, which was the most heat-sensitive organism in this study. P. damselae declined > 5.9 log CFU/g after a heat treatment of 50°C for 10 min, 54°C for 3 min, and 56°C for 0.5 min. M. morganii was the most heat-resistant histamine-producing bacteria in albacore tuna loins, followed by E. aerogenes, H. alvei, and R. planticola. M. morganii and E. aerogenes had the highest D(50°C), 49.7 ± 17.57 and 51.8 ± 17.38 min, respectively. In addition, M. morganii had the highest D-values for all other temperatures (54, 56, and 58°C) tested. D- and zvalues were also determined for M. morganii in skipjack tuna. While no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed between D(54°C) and D(56°C) of M. morganii in either albacore or skipjack tuna, the D(58°C) (0.4 ± 0.17 min) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in skipjack than in albacore (0.9 ± 0.24 min). The z-values for all organisms tested were in the range of 3.2 to 3.8°C. This study suggests that heat treatment designed to control M. morganii in tuna loins is sufficient for controlling histamine-producing bacteria in canned-tuna processing environments. PMID:23992506

Enache, Elena; Kataoka, Ai; Black, D Glenn; Weddig, Lisa; Hayman, Melinda; Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin

2013-09-01

83

Heating dynamics and extreme ultraviolet radiation emission of laser-produced Sn plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The impact of 1.064 mum laser absorption depth on the heating and in-band (2% bandwidth) 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emissions in Sn plasmas is investigated experimentally and numerically. In-band emission lasting longer than the laser pulse and separation between the laser absorption and in-band emission region are observed. Maximum efficiency is achieved by additional heating of the core of the plasma to allow the optimal temperature to expand to a lower and more optically thin density. This leads to higher temperature plasma that emits less in-band light as compared to CO{sub 2} produced plasma sources for the same application.

Yuspeh, S.; Sequoia, K. L.; Tao, Y.; Tillack, M. S.; Burdt, R. A.; Najmabadi, F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

2010-06-28

84

SiC/C nanocable structure produced in silicon carbide by arc plasma heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defect-free and long SiC/C nanocables have been produced by heating SiC powder at 3000°C by employing dc arc plasma (Ar) in a specially designed configuration of graphite arc. Microstructural characterizations of the heat-treated powder carried out by TEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, and micro Raman spectroscopy showed the nanocables to consist of a SiC shell/sheath stuffed with wire type solid C core. A possible mechanism is discussed to explain the cable-type growth.

Nayak, B. B.

2012-01-01

85

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a)...

2010-10-01

86

Design, Development, and Demonstration of a Promising Integrated Appliance. Phase I: Design. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The combination or integration of appliances for the economical recovery of energy which is normally wasted during the operation of heating systems, air conditioners, water heaters, stoves, clothes washers and driers, and refrigerators in homes and commer...

W. D. Lee W. T. Lawrence R. P. Wilson

1977-01-01

87

Ferrimagnetic resonance signal produced by frictional heating: A new indicator of paleoseismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed fault slips during earthquakes may generate sufficient frictional heat to produce fused fault rocks such as pseudotachylyte. We have carried out high-speed slip tests using natural fault gouge to judge whether or not frictional heating universally occurs during seismic fault slips. In our shearing tests, natural fault gouge is put between two cylindrical silica glasses and sheared under a fixed axial stress of 0.61 MPa. Despite such a low stress near the Earth's surface, a darkened cohesive material resembling pseudotachylyte is made from the fault gouge along the edge of a circular shear plane when shearing at a high speed of 1500 rpm (the maximum slip rate reaches ˜1.96 m/s at the edge). Electron spin resonance measurements reveal that the darkened cohesive material has a strong ferrimagnetic resonance (FMR) signal, which is derived from bulky trivalent iron ions in ferrimagnetic iron oxides (?-Fe2O3). The FMR signal is produced by the thermal dehydration of antiferromagnetic iron oxides (?-FeOOH) in the fault gouge. This may be applicable to the detection of past heating during seismic fault slip. We thus attempt to reconstruct the temperature of frictional heat generated on the Nojima fault plane in the 1995 Kobe earthquake (M = 7.3) by inversion using the FMR signal. The computer simulation indicates that the frictional heat generated on the Nojima fault plane at ˜390 m depth may have attained ˜390°C during the 1995 Kobe earthquake. The temperature in the fault plane may have returned to its initial state after ˜1 year. This result suggests that a heat flow anomaly generated by faulting may be difficult to detect.

Fukuchi, Tatsuro; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Shimamoto, Toshihiko

2005-12-01

88

Novel Stacked Wire Mesh Compact Heat Exchangers Produced Using Cold Spray  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the feasibility of using the pulsed gas dynamic spraying (PGDS) process to deposit metal powder on the\\u000a outer surfaces of metal wire mesh wafers for use as high-performance compact heat exchangers. Plain-square weave woven mesh\\u000a produced from stainless steel wires were stacked and sintered to form wire mesh bricks, which were then cut into wafers. The\\u000a outer

Jamil Assaad; Antoine Corbeil; Patrick F. Richer; Bertrand Jodoin

89

Gas Appliance Technology Center: assessment of the state-of-the-art of gas-fired integrated appliances. Final report, December 1982December 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the report is to provide an up-to-date technical and marketing assessment of gas-fired integrated appliances. The assessment was conducted by the Gas Appliance Technology Center. The oldest integrated system is the combination boiler-water heater. Several new versions of the system and a few integrated furnace-water heaters are currently marketed. While these integrated space and water heating systems

K. Hallinan; S. C. Jepson; D. W. DeWerth

1984-01-01

90

Equation of state studies of warm dense matter samples heated by laser produced proton beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heating of matter by proton beams produced by short pulse, laser-solid target interaction has been demonstrated over the last ten years by a number of workers. In the work described in this paper heating by a pulse of laser produced protons has been combined with high-resolution soft x-ray radiography to record the expansion of thin wire targets. Analysis of the radiographs yields material properties in the warm dense matter regime. These measurements imply initial temperatures in the experimental samples over a range from 14 eV up to 40 eV; the sample densities varied from solid to a tenth solid density. Assuming an adiabatic expansion after the initial proton heating phase isentropes of the aluminium sample material were inferred and compared to tabulated data from the SESAME equation of state library. The proton spectrum was also measured using calibrated magnetic spectrometers and radiochromic film. The accuracy of the technique used to infer material data is discussed along with possible future development.

Hoarty, D. J.; Guymer, T.; James, S. F.; Gumbrell, E.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M.; Morton, J.; Doyle, H.

2012-03-01

91

Electric emissions from electrical appliances.  

PubMed

Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intracorporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. PMID:18083998

Leitgeb, N; Cech, R; Schröttner, J

2008-01-01

92

Herbst Appliance: The Timing of Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years one of the more challenging and investigated areas of orthodontia is the 'phenomena' of growth stimulation. This 'area' has received increased attention in the last 15 years with regards to the Herbst appliance. The Herbst appliance which ...

K. C. Boyle

2001-01-01

93

Appliance Use in Photovoltaic-Powered Residences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The selection of appliances and photovoltaic systems for a photovoltaic-powered residence is discussed. New appliances and systems spurred specifically by the growth of sales of photovoltaic modules include a variety of refrigerators for photovoltaic-powe...

R. L. Watts

1984-01-01

94

Novel Stacked Wire Mesh Compact Heat Exchangers Produced Using Cold Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the feasibility of using the pulsed gas dynamic spraying (PGDS) process to deposit metal powder on the outer surfaces of metal wire mesh wafers for use as high-performance compact heat exchangers. Plain-square weave woven mesh produced from stainless steel wires were stacked and sintered to form wire mesh bricks, which were then cut into wafers. The outer surfaces of the wafers were sealed using the PGDS deposition technique as opposed to the more traditional brazing sheet solution. This approach provides more intimate contact between the mesh wire tips and sealed surface, thereby promoting conduction through the outer walls and improving the heat exchanger efficiency. In addition, PGDS is an attractive alternative to brazing sheets for this application because of its potential for reduced manufacturing costs. Burst and tensile tests of the PGDS coated wafers were carried out.

Assaad, Jamil; Corbeil, Antoine; Richer, Patrick F.; Jodoin, Bertrand

2011-12-01

95

Phase and amplitude perturbations on subionospheric signals produced by a moving patch of artifically heated ionosphere  

SciTech Connect

The Ionospheric Heating Facility (1-MW HF transmitter and steerable array) at Ramfjordmoen, Norway, was used to generate a localized and steerable discontinuity in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide for scattering Omega signals. The phase of the scattered signal (echo) relative to the direct signal varied with position of the heated patch of ionosphere (the discontinuity) in proportion to the change in echo path length. Previous results by Barr et al. (1985), using the same technique, Omega signals and path, show very similar behavior when looked at in this way. In this respect, both experiments simulated the phase and amplitude perturbations (trimpis) produced by lightning-induced (via electron precipitation) changes in the waveguide and show that measurements of the varying echo phase of trimpis can be used to track lightning-induced perturbations. The steerable discontinuity can also be used as a waveguide probe to measure the phase velocity of the strongest waveguide mode received on the ground by such scattering.

Dowden, R.L.; Adams, C.D.D. (Univ. of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)); Rietveld, M.T. (EISCAT, Ramfjordbotn (Norway)); Stubbe, P.; Kopka, H. (Max-Panck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany))

1991-01-01

96

Dentulous Appliance for Upper Anterior Edentulous Span  

PubMed Central

This article discusses about a fixed dentulous appliance that was constructed to replace the primary upper anterior edentulous span in a four year old girl. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. The appliance was functionally and aesthetically compliant.

Chalakkal, Paul; Devi, Ramisetty Sabitha; Srinivas, G. Vijay; Venkataramana, Pammi

2013-01-01

97

Molar distalization with the Herbst appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the dental effects of the Herbst appliance as well as itslong-term effects on the dentition. The Herbst appliance exhibits a pronounced high-pull headgear effect on the maxillary molars. Without retention, the molars tend to return to their former anteroposterior positions after the removal of the appliance. These distal movements of the maxillary molars are favorable in Class

Meson Lai

2000-01-01

98

Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate. 2 figs.

Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1987-09-22

99

Measurements of radial heat wave propagation in laser-produced exploding-foil plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-resolved, 2D images of x-ray emission from thin, laser-irradiated titanium foils are presented. The foils are irradiated with 0.35 [mu]m light at intensities of 1[times]10[sup 15] W\\/cm[sup 2] which produces a plasma with electron densities [le]10[sup 22] cm[sup [minus]3] and electron temperature of 3--4 keV. X-ray emission that is characteristic of the thermal heat front is observed to propagate radially

D. S. Montgomery; O. L. Landen; R. P. Drake; K. G. Estabrook; H. A. Baldis; S. H. Batha; K. S. Bradley; R. J. Procassini

1994-01-01

100

Beam heated linear theta-pinch device for producing hot plasmas  

DOEpatents

A device for producing hot plasmas comprising a single turn theta-pinch coil, a fast discharge capacitor bank connected to the coil, a fuel element disposed along the center axis of the coil, a predetermined gas disposed within the theta-pinch coil, and a high power photon, electron or ion beam generator concentrically aligned to the theta-pinch coil. Discharge of the capacitor bank generates a cylindrical plasma sheath within the theta-pinch coil which heats the outer layer of the fuel element to form a fuel element plasma layer. The beam deposits energy in either the cylindrical plasma sheath or the fuel element plasma layer to assist the implosion of the fuel element to produce a hot plasma.

Bohachevsky, Ihor O. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

1981-01-01

101

Power-Aware Information Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, there has been tremendous growth in the popularity of personal electronics, including cellular phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), MP3 players, and digital cameras. In the future these devices will connect a variety of appliances and other devices to themselves and to the Internet through wireless ad hoc networks. Some of these devices will be relatively

Bruce R. Childers; Pat Bohrer

102

[National survey on stoma appliances].  

PubMed

A stoma constitutes a surgical solution for diseases, most commonly cancerous, of the digestive or urinary systems or for inflammatory bowel diseases. In order to gain a better understanding of how people choose and use their stoma appliances, the French federation of stoma patients (FSF) carried out a survey of its members in 2004. PMID:22003787

Grivel, Thierry

2011-09-01

103

Heat treatment effects on mechanical behavior of copper-nickel-tin produced via powder metallurgy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain spring applications require a material with a combination of high strength, stiffness, and electrical conductivity. An alloy, Cu-15wt%Ni-8wt%Sn, formed via a powder metallurgy process, is one of several copper-based alloys which can be heat treated/processed to form a metallic nano-structured alloy with good combinations of yield strength and electrical conductivity. For certain heat treatment conditions, this alloy decomposes spinodally from a face centered cubic disordered phase to form tin-rich and tin-lean composition fluctuations that are 10-100nm thick. Additional time at temperature produces ordering of the tin-rich regions. Uniaxial tensile tests have been used to identify the aging conditions with the highest yield strength. The uniaxial tensile and fully-reversed, flexural fatigue properties of the various heat-treated conditions were compared with observed fracture surfaces to characterize the failure mechanisms of the various time and temperature evolved microstructures. The mechanical properties have been correlated with structural information obtained from a variety of different techniques. Optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy, resistivity.

Caris, Joshua Benjamin

104

[Environmental and health impacts of wood combustion to produce heat and power].  

PubMed

Toxic chemicals such as benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and ultra fine particles were found in the smoke produced by wood combustion. Emission factors confirm that, to produce the same energy amount, many more pollutants are emitted by wood than by natural gas. Biomass burning produces a relevant deterioration of air quality inside and outside houses, notably due to emissions of fine and ultra fine dust (PM10, PM2.5) according to reviewed studies. Important improvements in emission quality are obtained with the use of more efficient household heating systems, both in developed and in developing countries. Numerous studies have assessed the possible health effects produced by wood smoke, providing sufficient evidence that the indoor exposure to wood smoke, even in developed countries, can have adverse effects on human health. In 2010 IARC classified wood smoke as a possible human carcinogen. In Europe, electricity generation from biomass combustion is increasing (12% each year) thanks to incentives provided to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and use of fossil fuels.Today adequate studies to assess the environmental and health effects of emissions from power plants fuelled by solid biomasses are still needed. PMID:22418798

Valerio, Federico

2012-01-01

105

Invisible orthodontics part 2: lingual appliance treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of this second article of the three part series is to sum up the current developments in lingual orthodontics. This article attempts to review the development, advantages and disadvantages, bonding techniques, bracket mechanics, patient factors and types of lingual appliance systems available. In addition, the article shows examples of treated cases with lingual appliances. Clinical Relevance: Lingual appliances are a useful addition to the armamentarium of invisible orthodontic appliances, with significant developments over the last few years. Clinicians need to be aware of the advances and predictable results achievable with lingual appliances. PMID:23909233

McMullin, Ailbhe; Waring, David; Malik, Ovais

2013-06-01

106

Waermepumpen fuer Waermeruckgewinnung aus Papiertrocknungsmaschinen, Dampf aus der Trockenabluft Erzeugend (Heat Pumps for Heat Recovery from Paper Dryers, Producing Process Stem from the Dryer Exhaust Air).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different possibilities have been studied to produce heat at 125 - 145 degrees for a paper dryer from its waste heat at 80 - 90 C. A comparison of the possible systems was made regarding technical feasibility, energy saving potential and costs. The two-st...

W. Friedel W. Gramatte H. J. Hampel R. Schneider J. Wittekind

1986-01-01

107

Microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances from laboratories and impact of clinical storage.  

PubMed

Decontamination of dental instruments has recently been the subject of considerable debate. However, little information is available on the potential bacterial colonisation of dental appliances returning from dental laboratories and their need for decontamination. This study investigated the extent and nature of microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances produced at different dental laboratories and stored in two clinical teaching units (CTU 1 and CTU 2) of a dental hospital and school. Forty consecutive dental prosthodontic appliances that were being stored under varying conditions in the two clinical teaching units were selected for study; the appliances having been produced 'in-house' (hospital laboratory) or 'out-of-house' (external commercial laboratory). Two appliances, that were known to have undergone decontamination before storage, were used as controls. Swabs were taken according to a standard protocol and transferred to the microbiological laboratory with bacterial growth expressed as colony forming units (cfu) per cm(2). Microbial sampling yielded growth from 23 (58%) of the 40 appliances studied (CTU 1, n = 22; CTU 2, n = 18), with 38% of these having a high level of contamination (>42,000 cfu/cm(2)). The predominant bacteria isolated were Bacillus spp. (57%), pseudomonads (22%) and staphylococci (13%). Fungi of the genus Candida were detected in 38% of the samples. There was no significant difference in contamination of the appliances in relation to either their place of production or the CTU (p >0.05). However, the level of contamination was significantly higher (p = 0.035) for those appliances stored in plastic bag with fluid (n = 16) compared to those stored on models (n = 19). No growth was recovered from the two appliances that had undergone decontamination before storage. The research showed that appliances received from laboratories are often contaminated and therefore there is a need for routine disinfection of such items before use and a review of storage conditions required. PMID:21869790

Williams, D W; Chamary, N; Lewis, M A O; Milward, P J; McAndrew, R

2011-08-01

108

Integration of Thermoelectric Generators and Wood Stove to Produce Heat, Hot Water, and Electrical Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional fire stoves are characterized by low efficiency. In this experimental study, the combustion chamber of the stove is augmented by two devices. An electric fan can increase the air-to-fuel ratio in order to increase the system's efficiency and decrease air pollution by providing complete combustion of wood. In addition, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) produce power that can be used to satisfy all basic needs. In this study, a water-based cooling system is designed to increase the efficiency of the TEGs and also produce hot water for residential use. Through a range of tests, an average of 7.9 W was achieved by a commercial TEG with substrate area of 56 mm × 56 mm, which can produce 14.7 W output power at the maximum matched load. The total power generated by the stove is 166 W. Also, in this study a reasonable ratio of fuel to time is described for residential use. The presented prototype is designed to fulfill the basic needs of domestic electricity, hot water, and essential heat for warming the room and cooking.

Goudarzi, A. M.; Mazandarani, P.; Panahi, R.; Behsaz, H.; Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

2013-07-01

109

Heating of domestic water by waste heat recovery from household refrigerating equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat from a 370 l deep freeze was used to heat water in a 250 l boiler. Both units were made from mass produced components. Tests show that the functions of cooling and deep freezing units can be effectively combined with one warm water boiler. The necessary expenditure for the appliance is, however, only economical with deep freezing units because with normal domestic refrigerators the amount of waste heat is too small. The economy of the unit could be considerably increased by the development of a mass produced motor compressor with a sufficiently large oil cooler to accomplish an optimum thermal insulation of the motor compressor surface area.

Reil, J.; Kaster, B.; Wegner, M.

1982-09-01

110

Leaking electricity in domestic appliances  

SciTech Connect

Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost.

Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

1999-05-01

111

Status of European appliance standards  

SciTech Connect

The European Community (EC) recently commissioned a study of the impact of potential appliance standards on electricity consumption in the twelve EC nations. This study looks at refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The impact of minimum efficiency standards on electricity use over the time period from 1995--2010 is estimated. The results of this study were presented to the EC in September of 1991. Revisions were made to the draft report and final copies sent to all interested parties. The member nations of the EC will soon consider whether they wish to implement uniform energy efficiency standards that would take effect in 1995. The results of the study described above will be presented and the political considerations will be discussed. In addition, data describing the appliance market in Europe will be presented.

Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lebot, B. [Agence de L`Environnement et de la Maitrise de L`Energie, Valbonne (France)

1992-05-01

112

Cytotoxic effect of orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

The use of orthodontic appliances may contribute to local gingivitis, often attributed to increased plaque retention. Gingivitis of bacterial origin cannot clinically be distinguished from local tissue irritation caused by corrosion products. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the cytotoxic effect of various metallic components used in orthodontics. Multicomponent devices such as facebows, molar bands, and brackets along with single-component brackets and archwires were tested by the agar overlay cytotoxicity test with mouse fibroblast cells. None of the archwires caused any cytotoxic effect, even though some contained 54 per cent nickel. However, the multi-component devices, which were joined with silver- and copper-based brazing alloys were more cytotoxic than the single-component devices. Copper is more cytotoxic than nickel, which could explain the greater cytotoxic effect of the samples with brazing materials. It is speculated that cytotoxic corrosion products from orthodontic appliances might contribute to localized gingivitis. PMID:1563474

Grimsdottir, M R; Hensten-Pettersen, A; Kullmann, A

1992-02-01

113

Tests for Krook model for nonlocal heat transport in laser produced plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Krook model has recently been proposed [1] for solving the problem of electron energy transport in laser produced plasmas. In this work, we report on comparisons of this model with 1) a more complete Fokker-Planck model and 2) an experiment performed at NRL [2]. A simple test problem solved with a Fokker-Planck code was first considered by Matte and Virmont [3]. It consists of a pure heat transport problem in a uniform plasma slab between two thermostatic walls at different temperatures. The normalized slab length (L/? where ? is the average electron mean free path) varies from order 1 to a few hundreds. The comparison with experiment involves the back side temperature measurement behind a 58 ?m plastic foil after the passage of a laser-produced shock wave. Results from these two comparisons will be presented and outline for further work will be discussed. [1] W.Manheimer, D.Colombant and V.Goncharov, submitted to Phys. of Plasmas [2] E.McLean et al., Optics Comm. 166, 141 (1999) [3] J.P.Matte and J. Virmont, Phys. Rev. Letters 49, 1936 (1982)

Colombant, D.; Manheimer, W.; Keskinen, M.; Goncharov, V.

2007-11-01

114

Spotlight on the microbes that produce heat shock protein 90-targeting antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a promising cancer drug target as a molecular chaperone critical for stabilization and activation of several of the oncoproteins that drive cancer progression. Its actions depend upon its essential ATPase, an activity fortuitously inhibited with a very high degree of selectivity by natural antibiotics: notably the actinomycete-derived benzoquinone ansamycins (e.g. geldanamycin) and certain fungal-derived resorcyclic acid lactones (e.g. radicicol). The molecular interactions made by these antibiotics when bound within the ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90 have served as templates for the development of several synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor drugs. Much attention now focuses on the clinical trials of these drugs. However, because microbes have evolved antibiotics to target Hsp90, it is probable that they often exploit Hsp90 inhibition when interacting with each other and with plants. Fungi known to produce Hsp90 inhibitors include mycoparasitic, as well as plant-pathogenic, endophytic and mycorrhizal species. The Hsp90 chaperone may, therefore, be a prominent target in establishing a number of mycoparasitic (interfungal), fungal pathogen–plant and symbiotic fungus–plant relationships. Furthermore the Hsp90 family proteins of the microbes that produce Hsp90 inhibitor antibiotics are able to reveal how drug resistance can arise by amino acid changes in the highly conserved ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90.

Piper, Peter W.; Millson, Stefan H.

2012-01-01

115

Aiming at a 60% reduction in CO2: implications for residential lights and appliances and micro-generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of European Governments, including the UK, have a target for a reduction in CO2 emissions of 60% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. This paper explores the implications for residential lights and appliances and for microgeneration which are both mass produced and have the potential for significant cost reduction and market transformation. Projected consumption for lights and appliances

Mark Hinnells

116

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 5, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Housekeeping, off-duty, and medical data concerning the appliances considered for the space station are presented. Appliance functions analyzed include: cleanup, collection, processing and storage of refuse; crew entertainment and physical exercise, and the autoclaves and ergometers.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

117

Metal release from simulated fixed orthodontic appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most orthodontic appliances and archwires are stainless steel or nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys that can release metal ions, with saliva as the medium. To measure metal released from the fixed orthodontic appliances currently in use, we fabricated simulated fixed orthodontic appliances that corresponded to half of the maxillary arch and soaked them in 50 mL of artificial saliva (pH 6.75 ±

Chung-Ju Hwang; Ji-Soo Shin; Jung-Yul Cha

2001-01-01

118

Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections  

PubMed Central

Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA), designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites.

Abraham, Reji; Kamath, Geetha; Sodhi, Jasmeet Singh; Sodhi, Sonia; Rita, Chandki; Sai Kalyan, S.

2013-01-01

119

21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872...Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a...

2009-04-01

120

21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872...Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a...

2010-04-01

121

National Energy Plan: Energy Conservation in Appliances. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The energy savings to the U.S. that could result from compliance with minimum efficiency standards for household appliances, as set forth in the National Energy Plan, selected current appliance technologies, and federal programs related to appliance energ...

1977-01-01

122

Top-down process based on electrospinning, twisting, and heating for producing one-dimensional carbon nanotube assembly.  

PubMed

Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, successive twisting and heat treatment. The MWNTs were highly oriented in an electrified thin jet during electrospinning. The heat treatment of the twisted electrospun nanofiber yarns produced the characteristics of the CNT in the composite nanofiber yarns and enhanced their electrical properties, mechanical properties, and thermal properties. The electrical conductivity of the heated yarn was significantly enhanced and showed the maximum value of 154 S cm(-1) for the yarn heated at 400 °C. It is an order of magnitude higher than other electrospun CNT composite materials. These results demonstrated that the novel top-down process based on electrospinning, twisting, and heat treatment provide a promising option for simple and large-scale manufacture of CNT assemblies. PMID:21268647

Imaizumi, Shinji; Matsumoto, Hidetoshi; Konosu, Yuichi; Tsuboi, Kazuma; Minagawa, Mie; Tanioka, Akihiko; Koziol, Krzysztof; Windle, Alan

2011-02-01

123

Estimating concentrations of heat producing elements in the crust near the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the concentrations of uranium and thorium in the crust must be determined precisely for the future geoneutrino observations planned at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, we investigate whether airborne radiometric surveys can be used to constrain crustal radioactivity. The regional airborne surveys cover a wide area with high spatial resolution (< 250 m), but are only sensitive to a very thin (25 cm) surficial layer. We calculate crustal heat production in the Sudbury region from airborne radiometric surveys and compare with measurements on outcrop and core samples, and with heat flow data. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium from radiometric surveys are correlated with geology, but heat production estimates are lower than values from rock samples. The radiometric surveys give a mean heat production of 0.8 ± 0.6 (?) ?W m- 3 for more than 176,000 values. The outcrop samples collected along a transect in the Superior Province yield an average heat production of 2.9 ± 2.4 (?) ?W m- 3 and core samples from drill holes yield an average of 2.5 ± 0.8 (?) ?W m- 3. The high heat production in the rock samples is consistent with surface heat flux measurements near Sudbury with a mean value that is 12 mW m- 2 higher than the average Canadian Shield. The study shows that airborne aeromagnetic surveys give useful information on lateral variations in surface heat production but are unlikely to provide the reliable values of heat production needed to calculate the crustal geoneutrino flux. Crustal heat production will be best calculated from heat flux data complemented by heat production measurements on rock samples. The high mean heat production in Sudbury Igneous Complex samples (? 1.5 ?W m- 3) suggests that the main source of the melt sheet was the very radioactive upper crust of the Superior Province or that the melt sheet was extremely enriched relative to a lower crustal source.

Phaneuf, Catherine; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

2014-05-01

124

Heat Capacity Identification Method Using MT System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a heat capacity identification method for cooking household appliances. Cooking household appliances select a cooking flow according to a cooking object capacity, hence the heat capacity identification is a very important function. However, a conventional heat capacity identification method has been based on one variable using ``if-then rules'', hence it gives a low accuracy. This paper proposes

Arata Suzuki; Kenji Sugimoto

2007-01-01

125

Heat capacity identification via Mahalanobis Taguchi System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a heat capacity identification method for cooking household appliances. In such appliances, a cooking flow is selected according to its cooking object capacity, hence identification of the heat capacity is a very important function. However, a conventional heat capacity identification method has been based on one variable using ldquoif-then rulesrdquo, thereby giving inaccurate results. This paper proposes

Arata Suzuki; Kenji Sugimoto

2008-01-01

126

Mathematical Modeling Procedures for Airflow, Heat and Mass Transfer During Forced Convection Cooling of Produce: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review paper is to give comprehensive and detailed mathematical modeling procedures for the airflow, heat\\u000a and mass transfer occurred during forced convection cooling of produce in order to optimize the cooling process. First, a\\u000a brief explanation of forced-air precooling process and its importance in improving produce market quality will be given. Then,\\u000a two main modeling procedures

Jalal Dehghannya; Michael Ngadi; Clement Vigneault

2010-01-01

127

An outbreak of gastroenteritis due to a heat-labile enterotoxin-producing strain of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

In April 1981, an outbreak of gastroenteritis, characterized by diarrhea and abdominal cramps, occurred in 282 of approximately 3,000 personnel at a large metropolitan hospital in San Antonio, Tex. There was a significant association between illness and eating at the hospital cafeteria (P = 0.0008), but no specific food could be incriminated. Stools or rectal swabs from 54 ill individuals produced almost pure cultures of Escherichia coli. Cultures from 51 of these subjects had identical antibiotic sensitivity patterns, and 38 had the same biotype. Isolates from 45 persons were tested for production of heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins, using the suckling mouse and Y-1 adrenal cell assays, respectively. Of 45 isolates, 41 produced heat-labile enterotoxins, while 0 of 45 produced heat-stabile enterotoxins. Two isolates were rough, and 34 of the remaining 43 were serotype O25:H-. Two strains were O25:H+. None of the 45 strains possessed hemagglutination patterns typical of colonization factor antigens I or II. Six of seven O25:H- heat-labile enterotoxin-positive strains selected at random were piliated as seen by electron microscopy but did not agglutinate with anti-colonization factor antigens I or II antisera.

Wood, L V; Wolfe, W H; Ruiz-Palacios, G; Foshee, W S; Corman, L I; McCleskey, F; Wright, J A; DuPont, H L

1983-01-01

128

Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price

Margaret K. Mann

1995-01-01

129

Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting  

SciTech Connect

Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

1995-01-01

130

Controller Design of Power Quality-Improving Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an innovative solution to power quality problems using power quality-improving (PQI) appliances. PQI appliances conduct currents that supplement and correct the sum of the other load currents within a premise. From the utility side, the premise housing a PQI appliance thus becomes an improved, if not ideal, utility customer. The PQI appliance improves both harmonic power quality

Donald J. Hammerstrom; Ning Zhou; Ning Lu

2007-01-01

131

AHP-Based Home Appliance Chain Logistics Distribution Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve logistics efficiency and reduction of internal operating costs, home appliance retail chain enterprises need to choose the right logistics and distribution patterns. Through analysis of China's home appliance retail chain of distribution characteristics and the status quo, showing the current China's home appliance chain logistics problems. And then in comparison of the current China's home appliance

Xue ShuHua; Yunnan Province

2011-01-01

132

Safety investigation of gas appliance energy saving devices and automatic vent dampers for oil furnaces. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical and experimental investigations were conducted of the safety of various energy saving devices for use with gas-fired appliances and automatic vent dampers for oil-fired furnaces. The devices for gas-fired appliances consisted of automatic vent dampers, flue gas heat extractors, an extended draft hood, a commercial dryer exhaust recirculator, residential dryer exhaust diverters, a water heater insulation kit, and alternative

D. E. Adams; W. A. Bullerdiek

1977-01-01

133

A segmented appliance for space closure followed by Invisalign and fixed appliances.  

PubMed

This case report describes the use of a segmented appliance for space closure prior to using Invisalign. The maxillary right canine was retracted into the extracted first premolar space with a sectional wire from the first molar to the canine with no visible brackets in the incisor region. The advantage of this technique is the ability to achieve better root and rotational control during space closure with a fixed appliance that also has limited visibility. A maxillary fixed appliance was used to refine the esthetics in the maxillary arch due to the limitations of the Invisalign appliance in achieving rotational and vertical movements. PMID:22299111

Uribe, Flavio; Cutrera, Alice; Nanda, Ravinda

2011-01-01

134

Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-Lee (Spring Valley, NY)

1986-01-01

135

Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

1982-01-01

136

76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...constructed railroad cars, locomotives, tenders, or other rail vehicles in lieu of the...future for railroad cars, locomotives, tenders, or other rail vehicles. DATES: Effective...appliances on railroad cars, locomotives, tenders, and other rail vehicles. New...

2011-04-28

137

State Appliance Standards (released in AEO2009)  

EIA Publications

State appliance standards have existed for decades, starting with Californias enforcement of minimum efficiency requirements for refrigerators and several other products in 1979. In 1987, recognizing that different efficiency standards for the same products in different states could create problems for manufacturers, Congress enacted the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA), which initially covered 12 products. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT92), EPACT2005, and EISA2007 added additional residential and commercial products to the 12 products originally specified under NAECA.

Information Center

2009-03-31

138

Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each. 9 figs.

Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.; Schweppe, F.C.

1989-08-15

139

Increasing heat stress relief produced by coupled coat wetting and forced ventilation.  

PubMed

Coupling repeated wetting of the coat and forced ventilation is most efficient in removing heat stress in more humid climates. The procedure was initiated approximately 24 yr ago and is widely used, but the impact of air velocity on the efficiency of heat stress relief has not been examined. This study examined the feasibility of using surface temperature for real-time estimation of heat stress relief. It was carried out in midsummer in Israel on 6 mature lactating Holsteins. A 15 x 15 cm area on the right side of the body was thoroughly wetted. Hair surface and skin temperature on the wetted area and adjacent dry area were measured at 1-min intervals for 15 min while air movement was less than 0.1 m/s, and the sequence was repeated with air velocities of 0.5 to 3 m/s perpendicular to the body surface. Because the cooled surface was small, the response to cooling was local. In 3 animals, the whole left side of the body also was wetted and exposed to forced ventilation (1.5 m/s) to combine local cooling with larger body surface cooling. The air temperature was 29.5 +/- 0.05 degrees C, and the relative humidity was 56.7 +/- 0.2%. Rectal temperature and respiratory frequency indicated minor heat stress. Mean wet hair surface temperature (Thw) and wet skin temperature were 2.1 and 1.5 degrees C lower than the respective dry hair surface temperature (Thd) and dry skin temperature. At an air velocity of 0.5 m/s, Thw was practically identical to that in still air and to Thd. At greater air velocities, Thw decreased immediately after wetting, and minimal values were reached within 1 min, were maintained for 6 to 7 min after wetting, and reached 95% of the mean Thd value by 8 and 11 min after wetting at 1 and 2 m/s, respectively. Wetting the coat had the potential to reduce Thd temperature by 10 to 11 degrees C. The relatively small difference between Thd and Thw probably is due to heat flow from the body. The latter was estimated by comparing enthalpies at Thd, at Thw, and in the wet bulb temperature predicted for Thd. Predicted heat loss rates were 736 and 1,012 W/m(2) at air velocities of 1 and 2 m/s, respectively, compared with 164 W/m(2) predicted for the dry surface from the thermal balance model. Increasing heat loss from the left side reduced wet surface temperatures on right side, indicating that larger body surface cooling reduced heat flow to the skin on the right body surface. Heat extraction from the wet body surface is thus reduced by large body surface cooling and depends on the thermal state. The efficiency of heat stress relief may be detected by surface temperature monitoring and may be improved by adjusting the interval between wettings to the changes in surface temperature. PMID:19038932

Berman, A

2008-12-01

140

Measurement of the radial temperature distribution of the heated spot produced by a focused laser beam using an optical pyrometer.  

PubMed

A method is described for the evaluation of the Gaussian curve parameters needed for the description of the temperature distribution of the heated spot produced on a target substrate by a well-focused laser beam, using an optical pyrometer to read the weighted average temperatures from two distinct distances. The parameter so found gave a calculated distribution curve in excellent agreement with experimental determinations of that distribution. PMID:20332849

Hendricks, L J; Zobrist, S P

1981-05-15

141

Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings.  

PubMed

Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3'-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, "Yongcheon" showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas "Somok" had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the "Cheongil" mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

2013-12-01

142

Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electron heating (up to â¼5eV average energy), ionization of neutrals, and excitation of optical emissions in the mesosphere\\/lower ionosphere. Model calculations predict the possibility of significant (several orders of magnitude) modification of the

V. P. Pasko; T. F. Bell; Y. N. Taranenko

1997-01-01

143

Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electron heating (up to ~5eV average energy), ionization of neutrals, and excitation of optical emissions in the mesosphere\\/lower ionosphere. Model calculations predict the possibility of significant (several orders of magnitude) modification of the

V. P. Pasko; T. F. Bell; Y. N. Taranenko

1997-01-01

144

X-Ray Spectroscopy of Dense Plasmas Produced by Isochoric Heating with Ultrashort Laser Pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot plasma with temperatures up to 500 eV and densities close to solid state have been generated by focusing intense ultrashort laser pulses on flat solid targets. The heating process is attributed to the energetic electrons, which are created during the laser plasma interaction. They propagate deeply into the target and heat it isochorically. The laser was a frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire laser with an energy of 60 mJ and a pulse duration of 150 fs. It was focused on layered plane solid targets with an incidence angle of 45° and p-polarized. The K-shell spectra emitted from thin Al sample layers embedded in solid carbon show features such as line broadening, line shift and strong satellite emission, which are characteristic of dense plasmas. The typical duration of the x-ray emission is a few ps. Al targets covered by a diamond layer show that the depth (expressed through areal density) up to which the target is heated is close to 1 mg/cm2, which corresponds to the range of 20 keV electrons. This means that a considerable fraction of 20 to 25% of the incident laser energy is deposited by the hot electrons in the target.

Eidmann, K.; Andiel, U.; Pisani, F.; Hakel, P.; Mancini, R. C.; Abdallah, J.; Junkel-Vives, G. C.; Witte, K.

2004-10-01

145

Networked home appliance system using Bluetooth technology integrating appliance control\\/monitoring with Internet service  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a novel home network system for creating new network and service architecture by connecting home appliances networked using Bluetooth technology with the Internet. In the system, we mainly propose a new method of home network formation using Bluetooth devices and a method to control\\/monitor networked home appliances with commands that are implicitly integrated within service

Yosuke Tajika; Takeshi Saito; Keiichi Teramoto; Naohisa Oosaka; Masao Isshiki

2003-01-01

146

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Heater-Type Appliances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum (see CE 027 767), this course covers minor and major heater-type appliances. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Irons, (2) Roasters, (3) Space Heaters, (4) Water Heaters, (5) Electric Ranges, and (6) Gas Ranges. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience…

Ziller, T.

147

Measurement of soil bacterial colony temperatures and isolation of a high heat-producing bacterium  

PubMed Central

Background The cellular temperatures of microorganisms are considered to be the same as those of their surroundings because the cellular volume is too small to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. However, by forming a colony or a biofilm, microorganisms may be able to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. In this study, we measured the temperatures of bacterial colonies isolated from soils using an infrared imager and investigated the thermogenesis by a bacterium that increases its colony temperature. Results The temperatures of some colonies were higher or lower than that of the surrounding medium. A bacterial isolate with the highest colony temperature was identified as Pseudomonas putida. This bacterial isolate had an increased colony temperature when it grew at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Measurements of heat production using a microcalorimeter showed that the temperature of this extraordinary, microcalorimetrically determined thermogenesis corresponded with the thermographically observed increase in bacterial colony temperature. When investigating the effects of the energy source on this thermal behavior, we found that heat production by this bacterium increased without additional biomass production at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Conclusions We found that heat production by bacteria affected the bacterial colony temperature and that a bacterium identified as Pseudomonas putida could maintain a cellular temperature different from the ambient temperature, particularly at a sub-optimal growth temperature. The bacterial isolate P. putida KT1401 increased its colony temperature by an energy-spilling reaction when the incubation temperature limited its growth.

2013-01-01

148

Producing regenerated gratings in hydrogen-loaded single mode fiber by heat treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is a passive optical fiber component with the refractive index modulated along the fiber length and has been widely applied in fiber sensing systems. High-temperature stable fiber gratings are promising for uses at high temperature and receive extensive attentions. In this paper, FBGs were inscribed in hydrogen loaded standard single mode fibers with 248 nm excimer laser, and regenerated gratings were obtained through heat treatment. The center wavelength of the regenerated FBG has a good linearity with temperature, and the reflectivity of the regenerated FBG can almost keep unchanged at 800 °C.

Yu, Haihu; Li, Gengmin; Li, Xiaofu; Guo, Huiyong

2013-09-01

149

Producing regenerated gratings in hydrogen-loaded single mode fiber by heat treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is a passive optical fiber component with the refractive index modulated along the fiber length and has been widely applied in fiber sensing systems. High-temperature stable fiber gratings are promising for uses at high temperatures and attract extensive attention. In this paper, FBGs were inscribed in hydrogen loaded standard single mode fibers with the 248-nm excimer laser, and regenerated gratings were obtained through heat treatment. The shift of the central wavelength of the regenerated FBG had a good linearity with temperature, and the reflectivity of the regenerated FBG could almost keep unchanged at 800 °C.

Yu, Haihu; Li, Gengmin; Li, Xiaofu; Guo, Huiyong

2014-06-01

150

Angular distributions of atomic vapor stream produced by electron beam heating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The angular distributions were measured as a function of deposition rate for aluminium, copper, gadolinium and cerium vapor stream produced by an electron beam gun with water-cooled copper crucible. The distributions were recorded on the mounted on a semi...

H. Ohba K. Amekawa T. Shibata

1997-01-01

151

Effect of heating rate on properties of Pb(Fe 1\\/2Nb 1\\/2)O 3 ceramics produced by simplified wolframite route  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of heating rate on properties of Pb(Fe1\\/2Nb1\\/2)O3 (PFN) perovskite ceramics produced by a simplified wolframite route are investigated. Without calcining, the mixture of FeNbO4 and PbO was pressed and heated to 1050°C directly at various rates. PFN ceramics of 100% perovskite phase were obtained at 5, 10, 15, and 20°C\\/min heating rates. Density increases as heating rate increased from

Yi-Cheng Liou

2004-01-01

152

GE Appliance Park Louisville, KY Plant Wide Assessment Final Report October 25th, 2007  

SciTech Connect

Used a team of experts to analyze and model major systems at a large industrial appliance manufacturer. During the data gathering stage, the team specifically looked for baselining the efficiency of the systems as well as developing short term and longer term efficiency projects. Electrical distribution, Compressed air generation and thermal heat recovery for the production facility and front office heating and cooling optimization were all baselined during the study.

Chandon Rao; Richard Urschel

2007-10-25

153

Method for producing a secondary lithium cell comprising a heat-sensitive protective mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for producing a secondary lithium cell which has at least one lithium-cycling negative electrode, at least one lithium-intercalating positive electrode, at least one separator disposed between the positive and the negative electrode, and a nonaqueous lithium ion-conducting electrolyte. The method is carried out by the electrodes and\\/or the separator being coated, by means of electrostatic powder coating, with

Matthias Ullrich; Dieter Bechtold; Heinrich Rabenstein; Thomas Brohm

2003-01-01

154

Heated giemsa solution for producing more consistent bands on mammalian chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly consistent results were obtained in banding of chromosomes with the 2xSSC method of Sumner et al. modified by the use of preheated Giemsa staining solution at 40–45°C. A 4xSSC method modified in the same way turned out to give the same consistent banding on flame-dried chromosomal specimens. Temperature seems to be a decisive factor in the band-producing capacity of

L. Vass; M. Sellyei

1973-01-01

155

Feasibility of meltcasing strontium fluoride to produce high-density heat sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melt casting as a process for compacting SrF2 to near theoretical density was investigated. A nonradioactive SrF2 mixture, similar in chemical composition and method of preparation to SrF2 encapsulated at the Hanford waste encapsulation and storage facility (WESF) was used for the test evaluations. Hard, dimensionally stable, monolithic ingots that are 98% of theoretical density were produced. Significant chemical purification

E. J. Wheelwright; D. R. Montgomery

1985-01-01

156

Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances  

PubMed Central

The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

Lloret, Jaime; Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

2012-01-01

157

Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations  

SciTech Connect

The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

1982-12-01

158

Thermocapillary flows and interface deformations produced by localized laser heating in confined environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deformation of a fluid-fluid interface due to the thermocapillary stress induced by a continuous Gaussian laser wave is investigated analytically. We show that the direction of deformation of the liquid interface strongly depends on the viscosities and the thicknesses of the involved liquid layers. We first investigate the case of an interface separating two different liquid layers while a second part is dedicated to a thin film squeezed by two external layers of same liquid. These results are predictive for applications fields where localized thermocapillary stresses are used to produce flows or to deform interfaces in presence of confinement, such as optofluidics.

Chraïbi, Hamza; Delville, Jean-Pierre

2012-03-01

159

Feasibility of meltcasing strontium fluoride to produce high-density heat sources  

SciTech Connect

A modest proof-of-principle effort has been conducted to investigate melt casting as a process for compacting SrF/sub 2/ to near theoretical density. A nonradioactive SrF/sub 2/ mixture, similar in chemical composition and method of prepartion to SrF/sub 2/ encapsulated at the Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was used for the test evaluations. Hard, dimensionally stable, monolithic ingots that are >98% of theoretical density have been produced. Significant chemical purification from Al, Fe, Cr, Ni, Na and Zr has been demonstrated.

Wheelwright, E.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

1985-02-01

160

Prosequence switching: An effective strategy to produce biologically active E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin STh.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections account for the majority of cases of acute secretory diarrhea. The causative agents are enterotoxins secreted by ETEC, among them is the heat-stable enterotoxin, STh. STh is a 19-amino acid peptide containing three disulfide bonds that stimulates fluid secretion in the bowel by binding to the receptor domain of intestinal guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C). Since GC-C agonists have pharmacologic potential for diagnosis and treatment of disorders such as constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C), chronic constipation, and colorectal carcinoma, it is crucial to develop methods for the large-scale production of STh and related peptides. Here, we present a strategy for recombinant expression of STh that relies on the use of the prosequence of human uroguanylin to support proper folding and disulfide bond formation. The chimeric protein CysCys-STh consisting of the propeptide of uroguanylin as N-terminus and the STh peptide as C-terminus was expressed in E. coli, and an efficient purification protocol was developed. Trypsin digestion of this protein released the enterotoxin which could be obtained in high purity. NMR and mass spectrometry confirmed the identity and homogeneity of the toxin, and its biological activity was confirmed by a cell-based in vivo assay. The expression scheme introduced here represents a cost-efficient and scalable way of STh production. PMID:23968404

Weiglmeier, Philipp R; Berkner, Hanna; Seebahn, Angela; Vogel, Nico; Schreiber, Rainer; Wöhrl, Birgitta M; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Rösch, Paul

2014-10-01

161

Producibility of fibrous refractory composite insulation, FRCI 40-20. [for reusable heat shielding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (FRCI) is a NASA-developed, second generation, reusable heat-shield material that comprises a mixture of aluminoborosilicate fibers, silica fibers, and silicon carbide. Under NASA contract, a program was conducted to demonstrate the capability for manufacturing FRCI 40-20 billets. A detailed fabrication procedure was written and validated by testing specimens from the first two billets. The material conformed to NASA requirements for density, tensile strength, modulus of rupture, thermal expansion, cristobalite content, and uniformity. Twenty-four billets were prepared to provide 20 deliverable articles. Production billets were checked for density, modulus of rupture, cristobalite content, and uniformity. Billet density ranged from 309.48 to 332.22 kg/cu m (19.32 to 20.74 lb/cu ft) and modulus of rupture from 4690 to 10,140 kPa (680 to 1470 psi). Cristobalite content was less than 1 percent. A Weibull analysis of modulus-of-rupture data indicated a 1.5 percent probability for failure below the specified strength of 4480 kPa (650 psi).

Strauss, E. L.; Johnson, C. W.; Graese, R. W.; Campbell, R. L.

1983-01-01

162

Facilitating Children's Adjustment to Orthotic and Prosthetic Appliances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines are offered to help teachers understand the nature and use of orthotic and prosthetic appliances for disabled students. Classroom behavior observations are noted so that teachers can help monitor the child's adjustment to the appliance. (CL)

Fredrick, Jeff; Fletcher, Donna

1985-01-01

163

Method for producing a secondary lithium cell comprising a heat-sensitive protective mechanism  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a secondary lithium cell which has at least one lithium-cycling negative electrode, at least one lithium-intercalating positive electrode, at least one separator disposed between the positive and the negative electrode, and a nonaqueous lithium ion-conducting electrolyte. The method is carried out by the electrodes and/or the separator being coated, by means of electrostatic powder coating, with wax particles which are insoluble in the electrolyte and have a melting temperature of from about 50 to about 150 .degree. C. and a mean particle size of from about 6 to about 20 .mu.m, the amount of wax being between about 0.5 and about 2.5 mg/cm.sup.2 of electrode area.

Ullrich, Matthias (Kelkheim, DE); Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Rabenstein, Heinrich (Frankfurt, DE); Brohm, Thomas (Kelkheim, DE)

2003-01-01

164

Correction of complete maxillary crossbite with severe crowding using Hyrax expansion and fixed appliance.  

PubMed

An 18-year-old Thai man who presented with a secondary cleft palate, maxillary hypoplasia and severe crowding was treated by rapid maxillary expansion and fixed orthodontic appliances. Initial assessment found skeletal Class III malrelationship and dental Class II malocclusion with anterior and bilateral posterior crossbites. Camouflage orthodontic treatment was planned using a rapid maxillary expansion appliance and correcting crowding with extraction all four premolar teeth. A Hyrax appliance and vertical loop arch wire were placed for maxillary arch expansion of 9.5 mms at first molars and canines, and 5.5 mms at the premolars and obtained positive overjet. Both acceptable skeletal and soft tissue relationships and satisfactory occlusion were produced. After 14 months of postoperative follow-up, the occlusal result was stable and no skeletal reversals could be detected. PMID:24386755

Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee; Manosudprasit, Montian; Pisek, Poonsak; Leelasinjaroen, Pornnapha

2013-09-01

165

Personal universal controllers: controlling complex appliances with GUIs and speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

We envision a future where each person will carry with them a personal universal controller (PUC), a portable computerized device that allows the user to control any ap-pliance within their environment. The PUC has a two-way communication channel with each appliance. It downloads a specification of the appliance's features and then automati-cally generates an interface for controlling that appliance (graphical,

Jeffrey Nichols; Brad A. Myers; Michael Higgins; Joseph Hughes; Thomas K. Harris; Roni Rosenfeld; Kevin Litwack

2003-01-01

166

Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) produces heat-labile DNA damage but no detectable in vivo DNA double-strand breaks  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination (HR) deficient cells are sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). HR is usually involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae implying that MMS somehow induces DSBs in vivo. Indeed there is evidence, based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), that MMS causes DNA fragmentation. However, the mechanism through which MMS induces DSBs has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that DNA fragmentation following MMS treatment, and detected by PFGE is not the consequence of production of cellular DSBs. Instead, DSBs seen following MMS treatment are produced during sample preparation where heat-labile methylated DNA is converted into DSBs. Furthermore, we show that the repair of MMS-induced heat-labile damage requires the base excision repair protein XRCC1, and is independent of HR in both S.cerevisiae and mammalian cells. We speculate that the reason for recombination-deficient cells being sensitive to MMS is due to the role of HR in repair of MMS-induced stalled replication forks, rather than for repair of cellular DSBs or heat-labile damage.

Lundin, Cecilia; North, Matthew; Erixon, Klaus; Walters, Kevin; Jenssen, Dag; Goldman, Alastair S. H.; Helleday, Thomas

2005-01-01

167

Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere  

SciTech Connect

Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electron heating (up to {approximately}5eV average energy), ionization of neutrals, and excitation of optical emissions in the mesosphere/lower ionosphere. Model calculations predict the possibility of significant (several orders of magnitude) modification of the lower ionospheric conductivity in the form of depletions of electron density due to dissociative attachment to O{sub 2} molecules and/or in the form of enhancements of electron density due to breakdown ionization. Results indicate that the optical emission intensities of the 1st positive band of N{sub 2} corresponding to fast ({approximately}1ms) removal of 100{endash}300 C of thundercloud charge from 10 km altitude are in good agreement with observations of the upper part ({open_quotes}head{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}hair{close_quotes} [{ital Sentman} {ital et al.}, 1995]) of the sprites. The typical region of brightest optical emission has horizontal and vertical dimensions {approximately}10km, centered at altitudes 70 km and is interpreted as the head of the sprite. The model also shows the formation of low intensity glow ({open_quotes}hair{close_quotes}) above this region due to the excitation of optical emissions at altitudes {approximately}85km during {approximately}500{mu}s at the initial stage of the lightning discharge. Comparison of the optical emission intensities of the 1st and 2nd positive bands of N{sub 2}, Meinel and 1st negative bands of N{sub 2}{sup +}, and 1st negative band of O{sub 2}{sup +} demonstrates that the 1st positive band of N{sub 2} is the dominating optical emission in the altitude range around {approximately}70km, which accounts for the observed red color of sprites, in excellent agreement with recent spectroscopic observations of sprites. (Abstract Truncated)

Pasko, V.P.; Inan, U.S.; Bell, T.F. [STAR Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [STAR Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Taranenko, Y.N. [XCM, Computational Science Methods, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)] [XCM, Computational Science Methods, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

1997-03-01

168

Magnetic fields from domestic appliances in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey of 50 UK homes the 50 Hz fundamental and harmonic magnetic fields generated by 806 domestic appliances found in the homes, and used regularly by mothers, were measured. Measurements were made in the direction of most likely access, and from the surface of the appliances. Mothers completed a questionnaire on the use of appliances and were monitored

A. W. Preece; W. Kaune; P. Grainger; S. Preece; J. Golding

1997-01-01

169

Studying the Use of Handhelds to Control Smart Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's complex appliances are plagued by difficult- to-use interfaces. In many cases, consumers use only a few of the many features on their appliances because the more complex features are hidden by confusing interfaces. This problem can only get worse as appliances get smarter, become more complex, and are subject to more demands by their users. This paper presents two

Jeffrey Nichols; Brad A. Myers

2003-01-01

170

Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electron heating (up to ~5eV average energy), ionization of neutrals, and excitation of optical emissions in the mesosphere/lower ionosphere. Model calculations predict the possibility of significant (several orders of magnitude) modification of the lower ionospheric conductivity in the form of depletions of electron density due to dissociative attachment to O2 molecules and/or in the form of enhancements of electron density due to breakdown ionization. Results indicate that the optical emission intensities of the 1st positive band of N2 corresponding to fast (~1ms) removal of 100-300 C of thundercloud charge from 10 km altitude are in good agreement with observations of the upper part (``head'' and ``hair'' [Sentman et al., 1995]) of the sprites. The typical region of brightest optical emission has horizontal and vertical dimensions ~10km, centered at altitudes 70 km and is interpreted as the head of the sprite. The model also shows the formation of low intensity glow (``hair'') above this region due to the excitation of optical emissions at altitudes ~85km during ~500?s at the initial stage of the lightning discharge. Comparison of the optical emission intensities of the 1st and 2nd positive bands of N2, Meinel and 1st negative bands of N2+, and 1st negative band of O2+ demonstrates that the 1st positive band of N2 is the dominating optical emission in the altitude range around ~70km, which accounts for the observed red color of sprites, in excellent agreement with recent spectroscopic observations of sprites. Results indicate that the optical emission levels are predominantly defined by the lightning discharge duration and the conductivity properties of the atmosphere/lower ionosphere (i.e., relaxation time of electric field in the conducting medium). The model demonstrates that for low ambient conductivities the lightning discharge duration can be significantly extended with no loss in production of optical emissions. The peak intensity of optical emissions is determined primarily by the value of the removed thundercloud charge and its altitude. The preexisting inhomogeneities in the mesospheric conductivity and the neutral density may contribute to the formation of a vertically striated fine structure of sprites and explain why sprites often repeatedly occur in the same place in the sky as well as their clustering. Comparison of the model results for different types of lightning discharges indicates that positive cloud to ground discharges lead to the largest electric fields and optical emissions at ionospheric altitudes since they are associated with the removal of larger amounts of charge from higher altitudes.

Pasko, V. P.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.; Taranenko, Y. N.

1997-03-01

171

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 3, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical data collected for housekeeping, off-duty activities, and medical appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented. Equipment cleaning, refuse management, garment/linen maintenance, entertainment, physical conditioning, sterilization, and physical monitoring were analyzed.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

172

Mobile based Appliances switching using Bluetooth  

Microsoft Academic Search

How many times do you have to get up from your desk to switch on your Air conditioner or fan when you are completely into your table work? How many times do you feel lazy to get off your comfort to switch on\\/off your home appliances in different rooms? How much energy do you lose in a day for operating

Sureshchandra J. Gupta; Kalp Desai; Deepak Gaikawad; Vijay N. Pawar; Devendranath R. Gangal

2008-01-01

173

The palatal shape of upper removable appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a clinical-experimental study the influence of variations in the palatal shape of upper removable appliances upon tongue position during swallowing was investigated. During a clinical examination of 35 dental students displaying a physiological swallowing pattern, the tongue position during swallowing was recorded by palatography on an individually adapted upper plate. During swallowing with a roughened plate with an individual

Christine Reinicke; Nicole Obijou; Joachim Tränkmann

1998-01-01

174

Early treatment with the ALF functional appliance.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to report five cases of children treated with an interceptive technique utilizing ALF (Advanced Light Force) functional orthodontic appliances in anterior and/or posterior cross bites in primary and early mixed dentition. PMID:24812735

Bronson, James M; Bronson, James Alexander

2014-01-01

175

Dynamic service composition in home appliance networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of networked appliances and the complex functions they provide make it ever harder for a specialist, let alone an ordinary home user, to configure them to provide a given service. The use of flexible middleware ar- chitectures, combined with application level services will allow for better exploitation of these features both for the benefit of performance and simplicity.

Anirach Mingkhwan; Paul Fergus; O. Abuelma’atti; Madjid Merabti; Bob Askwith; M. B. Hanneghan

2006-01-01

176

Microwave Cooking Appliance Placement in Residential Kitchens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to determine recommendations for placement of a microwave cooking appliance in residential kitchens. In the first study, 30 sub jects completed tasks using microwave ovens located at heights typically used in kitchens and evaluated the safety and convenience of the tasks on a five-point rating scale. The ratings at the varied microwave oven heights differed signifi

Becky Love Yust; Wanda W. Olson

1987-01-01

177

Carbon Black in Appliance Foam Insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts are continually being made to improve the insulation efficiency of appliance foam to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and to meet federally mandated product energy use requirements. These efforts have become even more important due to impending elimination of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as the blowing agent for polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. Conversion to hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) or hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) generally leads

J. S. Pisipati; E. E. Ball; P. L. Galligan; D. G. Gluck

1996-01-01

178

Appliance Services. Basic Course. Career Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 25 terminal objectives for a basic appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (2 hours daily) designed to enable the student to be well-grounded in the fundamentals of electricity as well as applied electricity.…

Killough, Joseph

179

Appliance for production of direct electric current  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to an apparatus and method for the direct generation of electricity from the energy released by the electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels at elevated temperatures, say, 500°C. and higher. More particularly, it relates to an appliance comprising a battery of fuel cells and efficient means for supplying the fuel, oxidizing gas, carbon dioxide, steam, and the necessary

H. R. Linden; E. B. Jr. Shultz

1964-01-01

180

Remote control of smart appliances using MPEI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home automation systems have been utilized for smart homes. In this work, a home automation system based on multi-port power electronic interface is proposed. This system is potentially capable of power management as well as home automation. Remote power management of smart appliances is performed using ZigBee network. A case study is presented to show effectiveness of this system. I.

Pourya Shamsi; Babak Fahimi

2011-01-01

181

Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of oral appliances compared to ‘no treatment’, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or surgery for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population OSA is characterized by repeated occurrences of upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. The condition leads to excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished quality of life, and increased risks of accidents, cardiovascular disease and death. In the general population, the prevalence of OSA is estimated to be 4% in men and 2% in women. Risk factors for OSA include obesity, male gender, increasing age, alcohol use, sedative use, and a family history of OSA. Description of Oral Appliances Oral appliances for OSA fall into two broad categories: mandibular advancement splints (MAS), also known as mandibular repositioning devices, and tongue repositioning or retaining devices. The aim of MAS devices is to advance the mandible forward slightly to enlarge the upper airway and prevent it from collapsing. Similarly, tongue repositioning devices suction the tongue forward to prevent it from falling back and obstructing the airway during sleep. The alternatives to oral appliances include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, surgery, drug therapy, positional devices, and lifestyle modification. CPAP is the gold standard of treatment, but despite its effectiveness, compliance rates for CPAP have declined because required systems are noisy and because wearing the mask can be uncomfortable, causing claustrophobia in some users. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions Are oral appliances effective in improving sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA compared to alternative treatments? Are there safety concerns with oral appliances? What is the evidence regarding patient preference, quality of life, and compliance for oral appliances? If effective, are oral appliances cost effective? Literature Search A literature search was conducted up to February 2009. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with more than 20 adults with OSA were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcomes of interest were the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), measures of daytime sleepiness, patient preference, compliance, and adverse events. Summary of Findings Five systematic reviews and 16 RCTs that met the inclusion criteria were identified. The systematic reviews consistently concluded that CPAP was more effective than oral appliances at improving sleep disordered breathing, although there may be a niche area for the latter, especially among those with mild OSA as CPAP is difficult to tolerate by some users. Based on the results of the RCTs analyzed for this review, MAS devices are less effective than CPAP when AHI is used as the outcome of interest. MAS devices were shown to decrease AHI levels, but whether this reduction is clinically meaningful is uncertain. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was not able to achieve statistical significance in comparisons of MAS versus CPAP and MAS versus placebo. Nonetheless, after treatment with either MAS or CPAP, patients seem to be able to achieve normal ESS levels. The ESS has substantial limitations including its subjective nature and low construct validity (i.e. it is unclear if the scale is an accurate measure of sleepiness). Adverse events among patients with MAS devices in the RCTs were common, but mostly mild and transient. Jaw discomfort was the most commonly reported adverse event. Based on the results of the RCTs, compliance does not seem to be better or worse with MAS or CPAP. Similarly, there is no clear patient preference for MAS or CPAP among the studies reporting preference and satisfaction. Keywords Obstructive sleep apnea, oral appliances, mandibular advancement splints, tongue repositioning devices

2009-01-01

182

Quenching of the Nonlocal Electron Heat Transport by Large External Magnetic Fields in a Laser-Produced Plasma Measured with Imaging Thomson Scattering  

SciTech Connect

We present a direct measurement of the quenching of nonlocal heat transport in a laser-produced plasma by applying large external magnetic fields (>10 T). The temporally resolved Thomson-scattering measurements of the electron temperature profile show that the heat front propagation transverse to a high-power laser beam is slowed resulting in extremely strong local heating. We find agreement with hydrodynamic modeling when including a magnetic field model that self-consistently evolves the fields in the plasma.

Froula, D. H.; Ross, J. S.; Pollock, B. B.; Davis, P.; James, A. N.; Divol, L.; Edwards, M. J.; Offenberger, A. A.; Price, D.; Town, R. P. J.; Tynan, G. R.; Glenzer, S. H. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2007-03-30

183

Non-extraction treatment of severe crowding with pendulum appliance.  

PubMed

An extraction case was planned for non-extraction treatment using pendulum appliance and the effect of appliance was evaluated in a 14-year-old girl with a severe maxillary and mandibular crowding followed by non-extraction fixed appliance preadjusted edgewise appliance mechanotherapy. Total treatment time was for 22 months. The obtuse nasolabial angle was maintained intact. Correction of crowding, co-ordinated arch forms was achieved with molar distalization. The impetus on soft-tissue paradigm is stressed in this case report and pendulum appliance can indeed boost our clinical acumen and swing our priorities toward non-extraction treatment. PMID:23956605

Gandikota, Chandrasekhar; Venkata, Yudhister Palla; Challa, Padmalatha; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao

2013-07-01

184

Non-extraction treatment of severe crowding with pendulum appliance  

PubMed Central

An extraction case was planned for non-extraction treatment using pendulum appliance and the effect of appliance was evaluated in a 14-year-old girl with a severe maxillary and mandibular crowding followed by non-extraction fixed appliance preadjusted edgewise appliance mechanotherapy. Total treatment time was for 22 months. The obtuse nasolabial angle was maintained intact. Correction of crowding, co-ordinated arch forms was achieved with molar distalization. The impetus on soft-tissue paradigm is stressed in this case report and pendulum appliance can indeed boost our clinical acumen and swing our priorities toward non-extraction treatment.

Gandikota, Chandrasekhar; Venkata, Yudhister Palla; Challa, Padmalatha; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao

2013-01-01

185

Mobile based Appliances switching using Bluetooth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How many times do you have to get up from your desk to switch on your Air conditioner or fan when you are completely into your table work? How many times do you feel lazy to get off your comfort to switch on/off your home appliances in different rooms? How much energy do you lose in a day for operating your appliances? The solution is either a large amount of manual work-or the idea that is presented over here: APP-CON (APP-CON stands for appliances control). Here the ordinary cell phone with bluetooth capability acts as remote designed in such a manner that it acts as a helping hand to human by reducing its manual work and therefore saving human energy. The cell phone control of APP-CON units lets you access many of your home appliances situated in different rooms by using just a single remote from distance. Electronics hobbyists would love to make such a remote control themselves. But they find it difficult due to complex circuitry rather than the high cost because of using a number of frequency counting techniques and decade counters. The APP-CON system given here overcomes the aforesaid problems by using a single microcontroller and moreover a simple program or software for bluetooth enabled cell phone and employing simple coding and decoding of remote signals. Here the mobile based remote control is used to operate a number of home appliances basically consists of Bluetooth technology. The unit consists of a transmitter and a receiver consisting of a microcontroller. The importance of bluetooth technology is that the signal to be transmitted from transmitter to the receiver is done without requiring line of sight.

Gupta, Sureshchandra J., Dr; Desai, Kalp; Gaikawad, Deepak; Pawar, Vijay N.; Gangal, Devendranath R.

2008-04-01

186

Managing discarded major appliances: Current practice, regulation, and training  

SciTech Connect

The public service report reviews the following aspects of managing used major household appliances, also known as white goods: generation rates in Illinois; available disposal/recycling capacity; regulatory impact; legislation outside of Illinois; background and regulation of CFCs, PCBs and mercury; and training programs in component removal. Appliance disposal varies greatly with geographic location. Near Chicago, ample markets exist for scrap metal as well as businesses and 'entrepeneurs' who transport appliances to markets. There is also a large demand for used appliances that work. This economic activity is very efficient, although unregulated. Outside of northeastern Illinois, there is very little demand for used appliances. An Illinois landfill ban and new Clean Air Act regulations will affect the way used appliances are managed. Any chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant gases, PCB containing capacitors or ballasts, or mercury containing switches must be removed before a discarded appliance can be shredded (the usual recycling method). Additional processing adds cost to appliance disposal and will tend to erode current economic incentive to collect used appliances. Little training is available for appliance processing.

Cosper, S.D.; Brenniman, G.R.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

1993-01-01

187

Pacific Northwest Residential Consumer: Perceptions and Preferences of Home Heating Fuels, Major Appliances, and Appliance Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two f...

S. A. Harkreader M. P. Hattrup

1988-01-01

188

Evolution of the structure upon heating of submicrocrystalline and nanocrystalline copper produced by high-rate deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of electron microscopy, dilatometry, and microhardness and resistivity measurements have been used to study the effect of annealing on the process of recrystallization of a mixed submicrocrys-talline+nanocrystalline (SMC+NC) structure of 99.8% copper produced by high-rate (˜105 s-1) deformation using dynamic channel angular pressing (DCAP). It has been shown that the SMC+NC structure of copper is thermally stable upon heating to a temperature of 150°C. It has been found that the ?/?0 ratio of copper with an SMC+NC structure at a temperature of 4.2 K is considerably (by 5 times) higher than ?/?0 of copper in the annealed coarse-grained state. This effect is due to a high concentration of defects and a high degree of dispersity of the copper structure after DCAP. Changes in the microhardness and in the resistivity (at a temperature of 4.2 K) of the SMC+NC copper after annealing characterize the level of relaxation processes.

Khomskaya, I. V.; Zel'Dovich, V. I.; Kheifets, A. E.; Frolova, N. Yu.; Dyakina, V. P.; Kazantsev, V. A.

2011-04-01

189

Spectroscopic observation of 0-300 keV {sup 3}He ions produced by ICRF heating in the TFTR tokamak  

SciTech Connect

{sup 3}He ions with energies from thermal values up to 300 keV produced by ICRF heating have been spectroscopically observed by the {alpha}-CHERS diagnostic on TFTR. The shape of the spectrum and the temporal and spatial behavior of the energetic {sup 3}He ion emission are consistent with expectations for this ICRF heating case. Because the {sup 3}He ion density was similar to the alpha particle density predicted for D-T super shots on TFTR, these observations give confidence that confined alphas produced by D-T fusion reaction can be observed by {alpha}-CHERS during D-T operation of TFTR.

Stratton, B.C.; Hammett, G.; Phillips, C.K.; Synakowski, E.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Fonck, R.J.; McKee, G.; Thorson, T. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

1993-11-01

190

Electrical Appliance Energy Consumption Control Methods and Electrical Energy Consumption Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distr...

D. P. Chassin D. W. Winiarski J. E. Dagle M. Kinter-Meyer M. K. Donnelly

2005-01-01

191

46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance. 160...EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance....

2010-10-01

192

46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance. 160...EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance....

2009-10-01

193

46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance. 160...EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance....

2013-10-01

194

76 FR 56126 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...request for information on ``smart'' appliances published August...request for information on ``smart'' appliances and provide docket...information on the treatment of ``smart'' appliances in the development...treated as confidential within the industry, (3) whether the...

2011-09-12

195

Therapeutic effects of functional orthodontic appliances on cervical spine posture: a retrospective cephalometric study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Interactions between the cervical spine and the stomatognathic system have been discussed in literature. The present study was conducted to investigate whether, and to what extent, orthodontically induced mandibular advancement produces changes in cervical spine posture. Furthermore, possible appliance-specific effects should be distinguished. Material and methods The cephalograms of 64 patients with skeletal class II were analysed before and after mandibular advancement. Linear and angular cephalometric parameters were identified to define the position of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. The total example was divided into two subgroups (comprising 32 individuals each) according to the employed appliance: activator versus bite-jump appliance (BJA). Student's t-test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis. Results Overall, a significant straightening of the cervical spine was observed during the treatment. This conclusion is based on changes of Chamberlain (p?=?0.0055), CVT (p?=?0.0003), OPT (p?Appliance-specific changes were found in the activator subgroup for a number of linear parameters (Chamberlain, McGregor, CVT, OPT, Redlund-Johnell/Petersson). In contrast, only two linear parameters (OPT and Powers ratio) revealed statistically significant changes in the BJA subgroup. Conclusions During skeletal class II treatment the position of upper cervical spine changes. In the activator subgroup the observed effects were more pronounced than those in the BJA subgroup. Further studies including a control group comprised with non-treated class II patients are needed to assess whether these effects may be caused directly by the appliances irrespective of growth.

2014-01-01

196

Greens, suits, and bureaucrats: A sociological study of dynamic organizational relationships in energy efficient appliance policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation I develop an approach to understanding dynamic organizational relations and the processes of environmental degradation and reform. To do this, I draw on environmental and organizational sociology to inform an empirical study of interorganizational relationships in defining and promoting energy efficient appliances in the United States (US). The dissertation follows a three paper approach which involves (a) an overall introduction to the substantive issue of appliance energy efficiency in the US; (b) producing three separate and stand alone articles of publishable quality to be submitted to professional journals; and (c) an overall conclusion. The three articles are as follows: (1) a synthetic literature review identifying five lessons that organizational sociology and environmental sociology can learn from each other to advance our sociological understanding of organizations, energy issues, and climate change (2) a qualitative case study of the changing relationships between business, government and environmental and energy advocacy organizations around mandatory appliance efficiency standards supporting the development of a context-dependent theory of ecological modernization and treadmill of production theories in environmental sociology and (3) a network analysis of public government, business and energy efficiency advocate's interorganizational relationships and its influence on subsequent organizational behaviors in the appliance energy efficiency field. The second and third articles are based on extensive archival research on organizational negotiations of public record over defining energy efficient appliances in both regulatory and voluntary settings. Finally I will provide an overall conclusion that brings together the most significant findings of each individual article in anticipation of a synthetic approach to the study of organizations in environmental reform.

Shwom-Evelich, Rachael Leah

197

The 2D lingual appliance system.  

PubMed

The two-dimensional (2D) lingual bracket system represents a valuable treatment option for adult patients seeking a completely invisible orthodontic appliance. The ease of direct or simplified indirect bonding of 2D lingual brackets in combination with low friction mechanics makes it possible to achieve a good functional and aesthetic occlusion, even in the presence of a severe malocclusion. The use of a self-ligating bracket significantly reduces chair-side time for the orthodontist, and the low-profile bracket design greatly improves patient comfort. PMID:24005953

Cacciafesta, Vittorio

2013-09-01

198

Comparison of GaAs and Si hybrid solar power systems. [Hybrid system for producing electric power and thermal power for heating or air conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various silicon hybrid systems are modeled and compared with a gallium arsenide hybrid system. The hybrid systems modeled produce electric power and also thermal power which can be used for heating or air conditioning. Various performance indices are defined and are used to compare the system performance. The performance indices are: capital cost per unit electric power out; capital cost

J. H. Heinbockel; A. S. Jr. Roberts

1977-01-01

199

Trends in energy: Round two of appliance standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January, 1990, appliance manufacturers throughout the US stopped making their least energy-efficient models of refrigerators; freezers; room air conditioners; pool heater; gas floor, wall and room heaters; and water heaters. The discontinuance marks the enactment of the second round of standards from the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987. A compromise between environmentalists and manufacturers, the standards are

2009-01-01

200

Economic impact study of the appliance efficiency program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic impact is analyzed of technical improvements that would have to be incorporated into major household appliances to make 1980 models provide the same level of performance as 1972 models, but require twenty per cent less energy to operate. The appliances covered by the efficiency program and their specific energy efficiency goal objectives for 1980 are; room air conditioners;

A. Woroniak; J. J. Murphy

1975-01-01

201

Towards Security Auto-Configuration for Smart Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now that smart home appliances are easily plugged into smart home networks, the question of how to simplify security management, especially of access rights, for such appliances arises. The problem is aggravated by the fact that home users cannot be considered as \\

Jean-Marc Seigneur; Christian Damsgaard Jensen; Stephen Farrell; Elizabeth Gray; Yong Chen

2003-01-01

202

Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances  

DOEpatents

A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The devise comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a cover plate hingedly attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate and the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position.

Cliff, Jr., Paul L. (Bloomingdale, IL)

1996-01-01

203

Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances  

DOEpatents

A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The device comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a hinged cover plate attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate, the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position. 15 figs.

Cliff, P.L. Jr.

1996-07-09

204

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

205

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

206

Design and Construction of Deep Tubesheet Crevice Devices for Producing Intergranular Attack of Heat-Transfer Tubing. Final Report (PWR).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This topical report describes the design and construction of two Tubesheet Crevice Simulation Apparatus (TCSA's) which were built to reproduce intergranular attack of steam-generator heat-transfer tubing. The units include several design features renderin...

J. J. Krupowicz B. W. Kinyon L. M. Russell

1983-01-01

207

High-Strength and Toughness Forging Steels for Automobile Underbody Parts to be Produced without Subsequent Heat Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High strength and toughness forging steels that can be used in the as-forged state are finding wide application in the production of mechanical parts of automobiles, industrial machinery, etc. without subsequent heat treatment (quenching and tempering). T...

Y. Koyasu H. Takada T. Takahashi H. Takeda N. Ishii

1990-01-01

208

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel 316L Coatings Produced by Cold Spray for Biomedical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cold sprayed stainless steel 316L coatings using N2 and He as propellant gases were investigated. Powder and coating characterizations, including coating microhardness, coating porosity, and XRD phase analysis were performed. It was found that heat treatment reduced porosity, improved inter-particle bonding, and increased ductility. XRD results confirmed that no phase transformation occurred during deposition. Significant increase in UTS and ductility was observed for the annealed specimens obtained with nitrogen propellant, whereas little changes were observed for the helium propellant produced specimen.

AL-Mangour, Bandar; Vo, Phuong; Mongrain, Rosaire; Irissou, Eric; Yue, Stephen

2014-04-01

209

Cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

The cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of orthodontic appliances were assessed. Metallic devices used in orthodontics, such as molar bands, brackets, and archwires were tested by the agar overlay cytotoxicity test with mouse fibroblast cells. The same devices were tested for antibacterial effect with Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguis. The multicomponent devices, which are bonded with silver- and copper-based brazing alloys, were more cytotoxic than the single-component devices, probably because copper is more cytotoxic than nickel. The devices had a definite, but low, antibacterial effect, as compared with the 0.05% chlorhexidine positive control. A cytotoxic effect of the devices per se might contribute to a localized gingivitis. It is uncertain whether orthodontic devices have any significant inhibitory effect on dental plaque viability. PMID:8362202

Grimsdottir, M R; Hensten-Pettersen, A

1993-08-01

210

Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics.  

PubMed

Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health.The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance.There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application and the scientific investigation of this effectiveness of fixed appliances or orthodontic treatment in general. There is much research in the area of diagnostics or further development of appliances or techniques done, however extremely few in the area of need for intervention, analysis of the sustainability; influence factors on the success, like caries or quantification of side effects e. g. root resorption. This research to evaluate the indications is completely lacking, also the required evaluation parameters (e. g. means long-term dental maintenance). This gap is in this respect dubious since a link of determining the demand (inducing demand) and supply in Central European health systems is economically given. This enables to create a possibility for a so-called supply induced demand. To get rid of discussions that the professional work of orthodontics can be near to induced demand or unnecessary indications, research of this topic is quite essential. This requires much stronger information for indications. This can improve confidence for patients and insurance companies. Existing indices like the Index of Treatment Need (IOTN) seem to be of academic interest without practice importance for daily work. The question which indications can be regarded as scientifically proven for the intervention must be given big attention immediately. The individual and subjective assessment of the orthodontist (whose experience is not doubted) has to be considered as not sufficient. The scientific background is absolutely necessary due to ethic reasons for the patient, economic reasons for the social insurance system or financiers and also for the orthodontists to evaluative and legitimates the treatment. Well coordinated research with the goal of collecting specific data is urgently required for individual therapeutic processes with appropriate design. The study quality is also an essential topic. It is unacceptable at the beginning of the 21st century with the background of the evidence based medicine, that studies are published with enormous methodological errors. Orthodontics deserves a well

Frank, Wilhelm; Pfaller, Karin; Konta, Brigitte

2008-01-01

211

Large deformation analysis of orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

The deformations of orthodontic appliances used for space closure are large so that any mathematical analysis will require a nonlinear approach. Existing incremental finite element and finite difference numerical methods suffer from excessive computational effort when analyzing these problems. An accurate segmental technique is proposed to handle these difficulties in an extremely efficient fashion. The segmental technique starts by assuming that an orthodontic appliance is composed of a number of smaller segments, the ends of which undergo small relative rotation. With an appropriate choice of local coordinate system the equilibrium equations for each segment are linearized and solved in a straightforward manner. The segments are then assembled using geometric and force compatibility relations similar to the transfer matrix method. Consequently, the original nonlinear boundary value problem is solved as a sequence of linear initial value problems which converge to the required boundary conditions. As only one segment need be considered at a time, the computations can be performed accurately and efficiently on a PC type computer. Although an iterative solution is used to match the boundary conditions, the time required to solve a given problem ranges from a few seconds to a couple of minutes depending on the initial geometric complexity. The accuracy of the segmental technique is verified by comparison with an exact solution for an initially curved cantilever beam with an end load. In addition, comparisons are made with existing experimental and numerical results as well as with a new set of experimental data. In all cases the segmental technique is in excellent agreement with the results of these other studies. PMID:2308301

Lipsett, A W; Faulkner, M G; el-Rayes, K

1990-02-01

212

Quenching of the nonlocal electron heat transport by large external magnetic fields in a laser produced plasma measured with imaging Thomson scattering  

SciTech Connect

We present a direct measurement of the quenching of nonlocal heat transport in a laser produced plasma by high external magnetic fields. Temporally resolved measurements of the electron temperature profile transverse to a high power laser beam were obtained using imaging Thomson scattering. The results are simulated with the 2D hydrodynamic code LASNEX with a recently included magnetic field model that self-consistently evolves the fields in the plasma.

Froula, D H; Davis, P; Pollock, B B; Divol, L; Ross, J S; Edwards, J; Town, R; Price, D; Glenzer, S H; Offenberger, A A; Tynan, G R; James, A N

2006-04-14

213

A Functional Antigen in a Practical Crop: LT-B Producing Maize Protects Mice against Escherichia coli Heat Labile Enterotoxin (LT) and Cholera Toxin (CT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason; Kan Wang

2002-01-01

214

A functional antigen in a practical crop: LT-B producing maize protects mice against Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason

2002-01-01

215

Model-Based Temperature Control of Cooking Appliance Using Soft Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a model-based temperature control method for cooking appliances is proposed. Due to structural and sanitary limitations, no sensor for the temperature of the cooking object is equipped in general. After constructing a state space model for the heating process and identifying the model parameters for each distinct volume of the cooking object, a state observer is designed. By using this observer as a softsensor, feedback temperature control is implemented instead of the conventional model-less on-off pattern control. Its high tracking performance is demonstrated via numerical examples and experiments.

Kawamura, Yu; Hirata, Kentaro; Suzuki, Arata; Sugimoto, Kenji

216

Evaluation of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of less polar ginsenosides produced from polar ginsenosides by heat-transformation.  

PubMed

Ginsenosides are the major active constituents in both white and red American ginseng (AG), and their pharmacological effects on central nervous, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems have been well elucidated. However, the anti-Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) activity of them is still unknown. In this study, 5 ginsenosides enriched fractions were obtained from the total ginsenosides extract of AG roots (TAG) by resin adsorption and heat-transformation. Resin purification decreased the total polyphenol (TP) content in the fractions. However, heat treatment increased the TP content and induced extensive conversion of the polar ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, and Gyp XVII) to less polar compounds (Rg2, Rg3, Rg6/F4, Rs3, and Rg5/Rk1). Only the heat-treated fraction from 65% methanol elution of the HP-20 column (HPHF) showed antibacterial activity against P. acnes (ATCC11827, MIC, 128 ?g/mL; ATCC6919 MIC, 64 ?g/mL), S. epidermidis (MIC, 4100 ?g/mL) and S. aureus (MIC, 15000 ?g/mL). In the anti-inflammatory activity assay, 10 ?g/mL of HPHF significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that less polar ginsenosides enriched fraction HPHF obtained from AG might be useful to develop new types of antibacterial substances and new skin care cosmetics for acne prevention and therapy. PMID:24289140

Wang, Lijun; Yang, Xiushi; Yu, Xiaona; Yao, Yang; Ren, Guixing

2013-12-18

217

24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ovens, illuminating appliances, clothes dryers, solid fuel-burning fireplaces and solid fuel-burning fireplace stoves, shall be installed...than 24 inches. (See § 3280.204). (g) Solid fuel-burning factory-built fireplaces...

2014-04-01

218

Reducing white spot lesion incidence during fixed appliance therapy.  

PubMed

Fixed orthodontic appliances are commonly used in contemporary orthodontic treatment and can be associated with the development of white spot lesions on the teeth. These lesions can be detrimental to both the aesthetics and health of the teeth so prevention is better than cure and patient selection is critical. This paper discusses predictors of development in addition to methods to help prevent white spot lesions during fixed appliance therapy. Recommendations for oral hygiene regimes during fixed orthodontic appliance treatment are given, the development of white spot lesions (WSLs) described and ways to predict their occurrence identified. Clinical Relevance: Most general dental practitioners will have patients who are considering orthodontic treatment or are wearing fixed orthodontic appliances and so are at increased risk of developing WSLs. It is therefore important they are aware of predictors and ways to prevent WSLs. PMID:23971348

Greene, Louise E; Bearn, D R

2013-01-01

219

75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...constructed railroad cars, locomotives, tenders, or similar vehicles in lieu of the specific...future for railroad cars, locomotives, tenders, or similar vehicles. DATES: (1...appliances on railroad cars, locomotives, tenders, and other vehicles. New...

2010-07-02

220

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

221

46 CFR 199.70 - Personal lifesaving appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS ...(iv) Lifebuoys must be so distributed as to be readily available...Rescue boat and marine evacuation system immersion suits or...

2013-10-01

222

Energy efficiency and household electric appliances in developing and newly industrialized countries  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data and analysis concerning household electric appliances in developing countries. Electricity demand for household appliances is an important source of growth in peak electricity demand in many countries. The authors illustrate how diffusion of appliances is growing rapidly in many countries, and describe basic characteristics of appliances, including their energy efficiency. They present evidence that energy efficiency of new appliances is typically very low relative to average technology levels in the industrialized countries. They discuss technical options for improving appliance efficiency, and show that improving appliance efficiency is likely to be very beneficial for developing countries. They discuss how the appliance market and the appliance industry affect the level of efficiency that is incorporated in new appliances, and conclude that significant improvement in appliance efficiency is unlikely to occur in most countries without government involvement. They discuss strategies for improving appliance efficiency, and conclude that working with appliance manufacturers is likely to yield faster and larger results than providing incentives for consumers. Establishment of testing programs for key appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners is an important first step for assessing the energy efficiency of new appliances and measuring progress in increasing efficiency. 31 refs., 3 figs., 16 tabs.

Meyers, S.; Tyler, S.; Sathaye, J.; Schipper, L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Geller, H. (American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-12-01

223

An All-Solid-State Digital Control System for Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A completely solid-state control system for domestic appliances has recently been developed at the D&M Research Laboratories. While this system was developed specifically for dish-washers, it is readily applicable to all appliances that exhibit complex control problems. The heart of the system is a large-scale custom metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuit measuring approximately 0.1 inch on a side. This digital circuit,

Steven B. Sample; Paul R. Scheuer; William H. Yake; Victor H. Zane

1970-01-01

224

Occlus-o-Guide® versus Andresen activator appliance: neuromuscular evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the present study was to assess the muscular variations at the electromyography (EMG) level for the anterior temporalis muscles and masseter muscles during treatment with Occlus-o-Guide® and Andresen activator appliances. Methods Eighty-two patients (35 males and 47 females) aged between 8 and 12 years (mean age, 10.5?±?0.8 years) participated in the study. Fifty patients underwent treatment with an Occlus-o-Guide® and 32 patients with an Andresen activator. All patients underwent EMG examination using a Freely EMG (De Gotzen, Legnano, Italy) and surface bipolar electrodes when the appliances were worn for the first time (T0), and after 6 months (T1) and after 12 months (T2) of appliance use. Results Statistical analysis showed that both at T0 and T2, the percent overlapping coefficient (POC) of the anterior temporalis muscles was not statistically different between the appliance groups. At T0, the POC of the masseter muscles was significantly lower for the Andresen appliance as compared to the Occlus-o-Guide® (p?=?0.02), while at T2 this significance was lost. Conclusions At insertion of an appliance, all patients show neuromuscular balance that does not correspond to orthognathic occlusion. Both appliances work by creating muscular imbalance. With the appliances in situ, EMG responses were generally analogous for the Occlus-o-Guide® and the Andresen activator; however, the imbalance was greater and the recovery of the orthological muscular balance was slower in patients under treatment with the Andresen activator as compared to those with the Occlus-o-Guide®.

2013-01-01

225

Design Considerations for Frequency Responsive Grid FriendlyTM Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses design considerations for frequency responsive grid friendlytrade appliances (FR-GFAs), which can turn on\\/off based on frequency signals and make selective low-frequency load shedding possible at appliance level. FR-GFAs can also be treated as spinning reserve to maintain a load-to-generation balance under power system normal operation states. The paper first presents a statistical analysis on the frequency data

Ning Lu; Donald J. Hammerstrom

2006-01-01

226

A two-year survey of the incidence of heat-labile enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and other enteric pathogens in travellers returning to the Sheffield area.  

PubMed Central

A case-controlled study of the incidence of heat-labile enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (LT+ETEC) and other enteric pathogens in travellers returning to the Sheffield area was conducted from May 1984 to April 1986. LT+ETEC were found in 35 (5.8%) of 600 travellers to developed countries (mainly popular Mediterranean holiday resorts), 36 (11.3%) of 320 travellers to less-developed countries, and 11 (0.9%) of 1282 control patients whose illness was not associated with recent travel abroad. A seasonal peak of LT+ETEC infection was observed only in travellers to developed countries, with infections being significantly commoner in August to October. There was no significant deviation from expected age/sex distribution of LT+ETEC infection. Strains of LT+ETEC from travellers produced more toxin than strains from control patients, strains from travellers to less-developed countries producing most of all.

Chapman, P. A.; Mitchelmore, D. L.

1988-01-01

227

Stimulated Raman scattering in a laser-produced plasma heated by laser at wavelength of 0.53 ?m  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) has been studied in a plasma produced by a second harmonic Nd-glass laser irradiating a limited mass target, which does not burn through during the interaction time. It is assumed that flat density regions form and move through an expanding plasma, and the SRS results have been analyzed on that basis. The SRS spectrum cut-offs are

E. A. Bolkhovitinov; V. Yu. Bychenkov; M. O. Koshevoi; M. V. Osipov; A. A. Rupasov; A. S. Shikanov; V. T. Tikhonchuk; A. V. Kilpio; N. G. Kiselev; D. G. Kochiev; P. P. Pashinin; E. V. Shashkov; Y. A. Suchkov

1995-01-01

228

Reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol by integrating biomass to produce heat and power at ethanol plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of corn ethanol was conducted to determine the reduction in the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol compared to gasoline by integrating biomass fuels to replace fossil fuels (natural gas and grid electricity) in a U.S. Midwest dry-grind corn ethanol plant producing 0.19 hm3 y?1 of denatured ethanol. The biomass fuels studied are corn stover and

Nalladurai Kaliyan; R. Vance Morey; Douglas G. Tiffany

2011-01-01

229

Formation and catalytic activity of high molecular weight soluble polymers produced by heating amino acids in a modified sea medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eighteen protein amino acids with milk casein composition were heated in a modified sea medium. Marigranules were formed in the precipitates and soluble polymers were formed in the supernatant. Time course of the reaction (ultraviolet spectra, the concentration of metal ions, and the concentration of amino acids in the supernatant) were measured. The time course of the formation of the soluble polymers was also studied by Bio-Gel P-2 column. High molecular weight soluble polymers (HMWSP) were separated from low molecular weight ones by dialysis. It was shown that these polymers catalyzed the dehydrogenation of NADH. These polymers also catalyzed the coupled reaction between dehydrogenation of NADH and reduction of resazurin. This coupled reaction was accelerated by the light.

Okihana, Hiroyuki

1982-06-01

230

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOEpatents

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2012-04-10

231

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOEpatents

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

2013-04-02

232

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOEpatents

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2011-01-18

233

Effect of drought and combined drought and heat stress on polyamine metabolism in proline-over-producing tobacco plants.  

PubMed

The roles of proline and polyamines (PAs) in the drought stress responses of tobacco plants were investigated by comparing the responses to drought alone and drought in combination with heat in the upper and lower leaves and roots of wild-type tobacco plants and transformants that constitutively over-express a modified gene for the proline biosynthetic enzyme ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CSF129A; EC 2.7.2.11/1.2.1.41). In both genotypes, drought stress coincided with a decrease in relative water content (RWC) that was much less severe in the upper leaves than elsewhere in the plant. The drought also increased proline levels in both genotypes. A brief period of heat stress (2 h at 40 °C) at the end of the drought period did not significantly influence the proline levels in the upper leaves and roots but caused a further increase in the lower leaves of both genotypes. The rate at which these elevated proline levels returned to normal during the post-stress recovery period was slower in the transformants and plants that had been subjected to the combined stress. In both genotypes, drought stress significantly reduced the levels of spermidine (Spd) and putrescine (Put) in the leaves and roots relative to those for controls, and increased the levels of spermine (Spm) and diaminopropane (Dap, formed by the oxidative deamination of Spd and Spm). Spd levels may have declined due to its consumption in Spm biosynthesis and/or oxidation by polyamine oxidase (PAO; EC 1.5.3.11) to form Dap, which became more abundant during drought stress. During the rewatering period, the plants' Put and Spd levels recovered quickly and the activity of the PA biosynthesis enzymes in their leaves and roots increased substantially; this increase was more pronounced in transformants than WT plants. The high levels of Spm observed in drought stressed plants persisted even after the 24 h recovery and rewatering phase. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the lower leaves of WTs increased substantially during the drought stress period; a less pronounced increase occurred in the transformants and after the application of the combined stress. After the post-stress recovery period, the MDA contents in the leaves of both genotypes were higher than those in the corresponding controls. The MDA contents of the upper leaves in plants of both genotypes remained relatively constant throughout, indicating that these leaves are preferentially protected against the adverse effects of oxidative stress and demonstrating the efficiency of the plants' induced antioxidative defense mechanisms. PMID:24029075

Cvikrová, Milena; Gemperlová, Lenka; Martincová, Olga; Vanková, Radomira

2013-12-01

234

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems  

DOEpatents

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

2008-09-02

235

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems  

DOEpatents

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

2006-03-07

236

Lifetime of household appliances: empirical evidence of users behaviour.  

PubMed

The household appliance industry is one of the most important sectors from both the economic and environmental point of view. A greater understanding of the way in which consumers of these items behave would help to better plan the recycling needs as a function of previous purchase figures. This paper presents the findings of a field survey of Spanish consumer habits with respect to different common household appliances as regards replacement time and the reasons for replacing these appliances. The methodology used is based on survival analysis; specifically, a competing risks model. A Cox proportional hazards model is also used for the sake of comparison. Our results show that as the number of people and/or persons under 18 years in the household increases, the lifetimes of some types of appliance decrease significantly. Competing risk model shows that the probability of replacing the refrigerator due to malfunction and technological obsolescence increases with the increase of family members with a higher education. We also provide the cumulative incidence function for different appliances, which can be used to forecast future demands and electrical and electronic waste generation. PMID:20630942

Gutiérrez, Ester; Adenso-Díaz, Belarmino; Lozano, Sebastián; González-Torre, Pilar

2011-06-01

237

A test procedure for energetic and performance analysis of cold appliances for the food industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we present a novel approach for the characterization of cold appliances and in particular of refrigerators based on the standard vapour compression cycle with a reciprocating on/off compressor. The test procedure is based on a virtual instrument that perform both the stimulus and the data acquisition on the device under test. Acquired data is elaborated to fit a semi-empirical model based on the energetic balances between thermal and electrical sub systems and the heat exchanged with the environment. This approach results in a simple method to calculate useful parameters of the refrigerator, such as energetic performance, cooling effect and limit values of thermal loads. The test procedure requires only a few temperatures and the electric power consumption to be monitored, resulting in a low impact on the refrigerator. Preliminary tests showed a good estimation of parameters and prediction of energy consumption and heat extraction capacity of the refrigerator under test.

Armani, F.; Boscolo, A.

2013-09-01

238

Electrically heated liquid tank employing heat pipe heat transfer means  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heating apparatus for applying heat to the interior of a chamber includes a modular, removable, electrical, heat-producing unit and a heat pipe mountable in a wall of the chamber with one end of the pipe arranged to receive heat from the electrical heat producing unit exterior of the housing and with another end of the pipe constructed and arranged

Shutt

1978-01-01

239

76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the ENERGY STAR program regarding smart grid enabled appliances. These stakeholders...ENERGY STAR performance level for smart grid enabled appliances that can provide...product specifications to address smart grid functionality. EPA recently...

2011-08-05

240

49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312...Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with...

2013-10-01

241

46 CFR 108.114 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...appliance and in a normally manned control station. (2) Each closing appliance must remain watertight under the design water pressure of the watertight boundary of which it is a part. (d) Each external opening fitted with an...

2013-10-01

242

Developing a New Appliance to Dissipate Mechanical Load on Teeth and Improve Limitation of Vertical Mouth  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives The principle of leverage to superpose the convex surfaces of two shells was applied to develop a device for treating limitation of mouth opening and called it the "shell-shaped mouth opener" and analyzed pressure on the teeth with the TheraBite® appliance and the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance. Material and Methods To compare the TheraBite® appliance and the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance, pressure on the teeth in the dentition model with both devices was analyzed using the Inastomer® flexible conductive sensor. Results The load was better dispersed to each tooth in the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance in the all quadrants compared to the TheraBite® appliance. Conclusions The present study revealed that the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance which was originally invented in our lab, dissipated the mechanical load on teeth more evenly than the TheraBite® appliance.

Satomi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takehito; Iino, Mituyoshi

2013-01-01

243

78 FR 7394 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters), Louisville, KY GE Appliances...involves the production of electric water heaters. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14...procedures that applies to electric hot water heaters (free) for the foreign...

2013-02-01

244

Kodin Verkotettujen Laitteiden Palveluiden Hyodyntaminen. (The Utilization of Services Provided by Networked Home Appliances.)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This diploma thesis deals with the utilization of services provided by networked home appliances from outside of the home environment. Services are considered to be any information provided by a home appliance which the outside user can utilize. The proce...

P. Paakkonen

2002-01-01

245

Drawing on international experience to reform the Belgian market for ostomy appliances.  

PubMed

This article aims to review the regulatory framework governing the Belgian ostomy appliance market in the light of the experience of Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Ontario (Canada) with regulation of ostomy appliances. Information about the regulatory framework was derived from the international literature, analysis of legal texts and a survey completed by national experts. The comparative analysis revealed that these countries have adopted varying approaches towards regulating their domestic ostomy appliance market. Strategies to keep down prices include public procurement in Denmark, maximum prices in France and exclusion of expensive appliances from reimbursement in the Netherlands. To contain public expenditure on ostomy appliances, consumption patterns are monitored in the Netherlands, the quantity of reimbursed appliances is limited in Belgium and public reimbursement is restricted in Ontario. Ostomy appliances are generally distributed by community pharmacies and medical equipment shops. In countries that emphasise home care delivery such as Denmark, domiciliary distributors dominate the market to the detriment of community pharmacies which do not seem to be able to offer this service at a competitive price. An avenue for reforming the Belgian ostomy appliance market is proposed which valorizes the role of ostomy care nurses in guiding the choice of ostomy appliances. Furthermore, it is recommended that a competitive tendering process determines the price of ostomy appliances, that reimbursement for service provision by distributors is separated from reimbursement of appliances, and that patients receive a fixed grant from the third-party payer to buy ostomy appliances. PMID:16647155

Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Ramaekers, Dirk

2007-02-01

246

Multiple Method Switching System for Electrical Appliances using Programmable Logic Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart switching system is designed for smart home control applications. The system uses real time programmable logic controller (PLC) for switching the electrical appliances. Electrical appliance is a part of our daily needs for mankind. When such needs are in a very high demand, the user's requirement is also increasing to access their electrical appliances in a more flexible way

S. K. SUBRAMANIAM; S. H. HUSIN; S. A. ANAS; A. H. HAMIDON

247

Control of mandibular incisors with the combined Herbst and completely customized lingual appliance - a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The traditional Herbst appliance induces mandibular incisor proclination independent of the anchorage system used. The dental effects of the Herbst appliance as an element of a completely customized lingual orthodontic (LO) appliance (Incognito, 3 M) has not been analyzed yet and the aim of this paper was to measure the effect of mandibular incisor proclination using this Herbst-LO device.

Dirk Wiechmann; Rainer Schwestka-Polly; Hans Pancherz; Ariane Hohoff

2010-01-01

248

Treatment effects of the edgewise Herbst appliance: A cephalometric and tomographic investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The crown Herbst appliance was introduced in the late 1980s because of shortcomings of the banded Herbst. In edgewise Herbst treatment, a fixed appliance is used with the crown Herbst to maximize the skeletal effects of treatment. Treatment response to the edgewise Herbst appliance has not been reported in the literature. Our objective was to investigate skeletal and dental

Ryan VanLaecken; Chris A. Martin; Terry Dischinger; Thomas Razmus; Peter Ngane

249

A solution for parallel network architectures applied to network defense appliances and sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network defense has more technologies available for purchase today than ever before. As the number of threats increase, organizations are deploying multiple defense technologies to defend their networks. For instance, an enterprise network boundary often implements multiple network defense appliances, some with overlapping capabilities (e.g., firewalls, IDS/IPS, DNS Defense). These appliances are applied in a serial fashion to create a chain of network processing specifically designed to drop bad traffic from the network. In these architectures, once a packet is dropped by an appliance subsequent appliances do not process it. This introduces significant limitations; (1) Stateful appliances will maintain an internal state which differs from network reality; (2) The network manager cannot determine, or unit test, how each appliance would have treated each packet; (3) The appliance "votes" cannot be combined to achieve higherlevel functionality. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel, backwards-compatible Parallel Architecture for Network Defense Appliances (PANDA). Our approach allows every appliance to process all network traffic and cast a vote to drop or allow each packet. This "crowd-sourcing" approach allows the network designer to take full advantage of each appliance, understand how each appliance is behaving, and achieve new collaborative appliance behavior.

Naber, Eric C.; Velez, Paul G.; Johal, Amanpreet S.

2012-05-01

250

Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals  

PubMed Central

Background Prions, infectious agents associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, are primarily composed of the misfolded and pathogenic form (PrPSc) of the host-encoded prion protein. Because PrPSc retains infectivity after undergoing routine sterilizing processes, the cause of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) outbreaks are suspected to be feeding cattle meat and bone meals (MBMs) contaminated with the prion. To assess the validity of prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease, which is produced in the industrial manufacturing process of MBMs, we pooled, homogenized, and heat treated the spinal cords of BSE-infected cows under various experimental conditions. Results Prion inactivation was analyzed quantitatively in terms of the infectivity and PrPSc of the treated samples. Following treatment at 140°C for 1 h, infectivity was reduced to 1/35 of that of the untreated samples. Treatment at 180°C for 3 h was required to reduce infectivity. However, PrPSc was detected in all heat-treated samples by using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique, which amplifies PrPScin vitro. Quantitative analysis of the inactivation efficiency of BSE PrPSc was possible with the introduction of the PMCA50, which is the dilution ratio of 10% homogenate needed to yield 50% positivity for PrPSc in amplified samples. Conclusions Log PMCA50 exhibited a strong linear correlation with the transmission rate in the bioassay; infectivity was no longer detected when the log PMCA50 of the inoculated sample was reduced to 1.75. The quantitative PMCA assay may be useful for safety evaluation for recycling and effective utilization of MBMs as an organic resource.

2013-01-01

251

Remote mobile control of home appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an approach for interconnecting home and mobile networks to enable the control of consumer electronics devices (TV, VCR, camera, CD speller, radio, etc.), connected in a home network, from a remote mobile device like a mobile phone or a Web pad. Typical applications are: remote mobile programming of VCR (video cassette recorder), remote mobile control of heating

M. Nikolova; F. Meijs; P. Voorwinden

2003-01-01

252

Remote mobile control of home appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach for interconnecting home and mobile networks to enable the control of consumer electronics devices (TV, VCR, camera, CD speller, radio, etc.), connected in a home network, from a remote mobile device like a mobile telephone or a Web pad. Typical applications are: remote mobile programming of VCR, remote mobile control of heating thermostats, remote mobile

F. Meijs; M. Nikolova; P. Voorwinden

2002-01-01

253

Thermal plumes of kitchen appliances: Cooking mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main method in the design practice of kitchen ventilation has been the calculation of the airflow rate, which is sufficient to extract the convective heat and contaminants. Undersized airflow rates could lead into indoor air problems and oversized ventilation system increases unnecessary energy consumption and the life-cycle costs of the system. In the most accurate design method, the design

Risto Kosonen; Hannu Koskela; Pekka Saarinen

2006-01-01

254

Securing Mobile Appliances: New Challenges for the System Designer  

Microsoft Academic Search

As intelligent electronic systems pervade all aspects of our lives, capturing, storing, and communicating a wide range of sensitive and personal data, security is emerging as a critical concern that must be addressed in order to enable several current and future applications. Mobile appliances, which will play a critical role in enabling the visions of ubiquitous computing and communications, and

Anand Raghunathan; Srivaths Ravi; Sunil Hattangady; Jean-Jacques Quisquater

2003-01-01

255

Appliance efficiency programs in Australia: labelling and standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Household appliance penetration and ownership in Australia is higher than in western Europe, and close to North American levels. Most products are manufactured locally, by firms with international links and with access to both European and North American designs and technology. A significant share of the market is imported, mainly from New Zealand, Asia and Europe. Because of the relative

Lloyd Harrington; George Wilkenfeld

1997-01-01

256

Using the Google Search Appliance for Federated Searching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the University of Nevada, Reno's experiment of federated searching with version 4.1 of the Google Search Appliance. The project's testbed included locally held CONTENTdm and geospatial data collections and a sample of records from EBSCO's Academic Search Premiere database. The latter set of records revealed the GSA's limitations in being able to index and retrieve content that

Mary Taylor

2005-01-01

257

Domestic Refrigerators; Appliance Repair--Advanced: 9027.03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course outline is presented to provide the major appliance service student with a fundamental knowledge of the procedures necessary to repair a refrigerator using information on electrical circuitry and mechanical functioning components. The course may be taught in 90 or 135 clock hours, depending on the amount of detail presented and the…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

258

Privacy for Smart Meters: Towards Undetectable Appliance Load Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart grid privacy encompasses the privacy of information extracted by analysing smart metering data. In this paper, we suggest that home electrical power routing can be used to moderate the home's load signature in order to hide appliance usage information. In particular, (1) we introduce a power management model using a rechargeable battery, (2) we propose a power mixing algorithm,

Georgios Kalogridis; Costas Efthymiou; Stojan Z. Denic; Tim A. Lewis; Rafael Cepeda

2010-01-01

259

A state-queueing model of thermostatically controlled appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a state-queueing model to analyze the price response of aggregated loads consisting of thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs). Assuming a perfectly diversified load before the price response, we show that TCA setpoint changes in response to the market price will result in a redistribution of TCAs in on\\/off states and therefore change the probabilities for a unit to

Ning Lu; David P. Chassin

2004-01-01

260

Implicit functionality: dynamic services composition for home networked appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of networked appliances and the increased complexity associated with their configuration requires considerable effort from specialists and home users alike. Many of the common applications they offer and the sophisticated functions they support could be better utilised to increase performance and ensure simplicity. For example a TV, DVD player and radio have all got output speakers and they

A. Mingkhwan; P. Fergus; O. Abuelmaatti; M. Merabti

2004-01-01

261

Waterheaters and Dishwashers; Appliance Repair--Beginning: 9023.04.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course outline provides major appliance repair students with a fundamental knowledge of waterheaters and dishwashers, and is intended to guide their performance of duties as technicians. Covering the complete electrical and mechanical functions of heaters and dishwashers, the course outline includes goals, specific block objectives,…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

262

49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...considered part of the car body; (ii) The weld...a description of the specific safety appliance bracket...least 4 hours of training specific to the identification...glasses, or other location specific inspection aids. Remote...Standard for Passenger Rail Vehicle Structural Repair...

2013-10-01

263

49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equipment's body that is at a...description of the specific safety appliance...design of the vehicle or placement...welded to the car body unless the design...part of the car body under paragraph...Passenger Rail Vehicle Structural Repair... (5) Provide specific analysis...

2013-10-01

264

Refrigeration Controls: Electrical & Mechanical; Appliance Repair 3: 9027.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet outlines a course designed to equip major appliance service students with the fundamental knowledge and understanding of procedures, basic electrical circuitry, and nomenclatures of components necessary in successfully tracing a circuit and repairing or replacing a malfunctioning component. Course content includes goals, specific…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

265

Carrying out biological qualification, the control operation of moist-heat (steam sterilization) processes for producing sterile pharmaceuticals and medical devices.  

PubMed

In this report we will first discuss the principles behind the practices that are used today in the design and qualification of moist-heat (steam sterilization) microbial-control processes used to produce sterile pharmaceutical products and medical devices. Secondly, we will work through example applications of how to design and qualify processes of three levels of complexity which we call Empirical Overkill, Empirical, and Product Specific. Empirical Overkill is specifically for the microbial-control processes for indirect items, such as tanks, pipes, pumps and other hardware. Empirical is for pharmaceutical and medical-device products that are produced under good manufacturing conditions and, therefore, there is control of the level of the microbial bioburden. Product Specific is for microbial-control processes designed and qualified for a specific product on the basis of the numbers and resistance of the bioburden of that product. We will treat design in this report; however, the major thrust is in setting up and carrying out the biological qualification of the process, which is the mode of control used to assure the adequacy of these microbial-control processes. PMID:10822983

Pflug, I J; Evans, K D

2000-01-01

266

Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

2012-12-31

267

Development of advanced thermal insulation for appliances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of the radial heat flow apparatus used to measure the apparent thermal conductivity (k sub a) of powders with high thermal resistance (R) showed that heat losses from the ends of the cylindrical specimen and core heater cause the k sub a of the specimen to be greater than the true value. This effect is large when high-R powders are tested. A radial apparatus 91 cm in length, ORNL-5, was constructed and used to reduce uncertainties introduced by end losses. ORNL-5 was used to test mixtures of low-cost coarse fumed-silica particles and relatively uniform, but expensive, fine fumed-silica particles. R-values per inch (2.54 cm) in air near 7 have been measured for pure fumed-silica powders. The thermal resistances of mixtures of coarse and fine powders were determined in the range 290 to 340K at atmospheric pressure. Results show that R per inch depends on density and that R-values per inch greater than 5 can be achieved with such mixtures. R-values for a mixture of nominal 7-nm fine silica and coarse silica have been measured as a function of pressure near 300K , and R per inch greater than 40 has been achieved in vacuum (<10 Pa). Linear heat flow measurements on evacuated rectangular panels showed that R per inch for the panels dropped from 16.8 to 15.9 in two years.

Yarbrough, D. W.; Weaver, F. J.; Graves, R. S.; McElroy, D. L.

1986-05-01

268

Treatment of severe rotations of maxillary central incisors with whip appliance: Report of three cases  

PubMed Central

The routine treatment for rotated maxillary incisor is a fixed appliance, but in some instance the use of this method is impossible. In addition, in only limited cases of rotation, removable appliance is applicable. In this study, the use of a semi-removable appliance is presented, which has some benefits over the other methods. In this study, the corrections of about 70-90° rotation of the maxillary central incisors in different phases of mixed dentition were performed in three patients using whip appliance. This method was performed using a simple removable appliance such as Hawley appliance and whip spring that forced the couple to derotate the tooth. In all cases, treatment was successfully completed in relative short duration. Whip appliance can be recommended as an effective method to correct rotation of maxillary incisor in mixed dentition with several advantages like rapid correction.

Parisay, Iman; Boskabady, Marzie; Abdollahi, Mojtaba; Sufiani, Mostafa

2014-01-01

269

The wet-heat resistance of Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 spores produced in a two-step sporulation process depends on sporulation temperature but not on previous cell history.  

PubMed

While bacterial spores are mostly produced in a continuous process, this study reports a two-step sporulation methodology. Even though spore heat resistance of numerous spore-forming bacteria is known to be dependent on sporulation conditions, this approach enables the distinction between the vegetative cell growth phase in nutrient broth and the sporulation phase in specific buffer. This study aims at investigating whether the conditions of growth of the vegetative cells, prior to sporulation, could affect spore heat resistance. For that purpose, wet-heat resistance of Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 spores, produced via a two-step sporulation process, was determined from vegetative cells harvested at four different stages of the growth kinetics, i.e. early exponential phase, late exponential phase, transition phase or early stationary phase. To assess the impact of the temperature on spore heat resistance, sporulation was performed at 10 °C, 20 °C and 30 °C from cells grown during a continuous or a discontinuous temperature process, differentiating or not the growth and sporulation temperatures. Induction of sporulation seems possible for a large range of growth stages. Final spore concentration was not significantly affected by the vegetative cell growth stage while it was by the temperature during growing and sporulation steps. The sporulation temperature influences the heat resistance of B. weihenstephanensis KBAB4 spores much more than growth temperature prior to sporulation. Spores produced at 10 °C were up to 3 times less heat resistant than spores produced at 30 °C. PMID:21354646

Baril, E; Coroller, L; Postollec, F; Leguerinel, I; Boulais, C; Carlin, F; Mafart, P

2011-03-15

270

A cephalometric comparative study of class II correction with Sabbagh Universal Spring (SUS2) and Forsus FRD appliances  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this clinical prospective study was to compare the dentofacial changes produced by the Sabbagh Universal Spring (SUS2) and Forsus FRD appliances in late adolescent patients with Class II malocclusion, and quantify them in comparison with an untreated group. Method: The study was carried out on 59 patients with skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion due to retrognatic mandible. Among these, 20 were treated with SUS2, 20 were treated with FRD, and no treatment was done to 19 subjects as the control group. 36 cephalometric landmarks were identified on each lateral cephalometric radiograph. Results: The effects of both appliances were dentoalveolar and no significant vertical and sagittal skeletal effect on maxilla and mandible was achieved. The retrusion and extrusion of the maxillary incisors as well as the protrusion and intrusion of mandibular incisors were found to be statistically significant in both treatment groups. Soft tissue profile improvement was limited in both treatment groups. Conclusions: Both appliances corrected Class II discrepancies through dentoalveolar changes; however lower incisor proclination was more prominent with the Forsus FRD.

Oztoprak, Mehmet Oguz; Nalbantgil, Didem; Uyanlar, Ayhan; Arun, Tulin

2012-01-01

271

Design Considerations for Frequency Responsive Grid Friendly Appliances  

SciTech Connect

The paper addresses design considerations for frequency responsive Grid FriendlyTM appliances (FR-GFAs). Case studies have been done based on the frequency data collected in 2003 in Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) systems. An FR-GFA can turn on/off based on frequency signals and make selective low-frequency load shedding possible at appliance level. FR-GFAs can also be treated as an spinning reserve to maintain a load-to-generation balance under power system normal operation states. The triggering frequency and duration of the FR-GFA device with different frequency setting schemes are simulated. Design considerations of the FR-GFA are then discussed based on simulation results.

Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

2006-05-24

272

Heights integrated model as instrument for simulation of hydrodynamic, radiation transport, and heat conduction phenomena of laser-produced plasma in EUV applications.  

SciTech Connect

The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.

Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

2007-01-16

273

A semantic framework for self-adaptive networked appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

User demands and technological advances are moving us closer to the pervasive computing vision. The home of the future includes networked appliances that publish the functions they offer as intelligent middleware services providing flexible, intuitive and zero-maintenance mechanisms for dynamic service composition, deployment, extensibility, management and usage. Whilst much work exists relating to service-oriented frameworks, this typically relies on attribute-based

P. Fergus; M. Merabti; M. B. Hanneghan; A. Taleb-Bendiab; A. Mingkhwan

2005-01-01

274

Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

2013-10-01

275

Maxillary molar distalization with a bone-anchored pendulum appliance.  

PubMed

To obtain an effective and compliance-free molar distalization without an anchorage loss, we designed the bone-anchored pendulum appliance (BAPA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of the anchoring screw, distalization of the maxillary molars, and the movement of teeth anterior to maxillary first molars. The study group comprised 10 patients (mean age 13.5 +/- 1.8 years) with Class II molar relationship. A conventional pendulum appliance was modified to obtain anchorage from an intraosseous screw instead of the premolars. The screw was placed in the anterior paramedian region of the median palatal suture. Skeletal and dental changes were measured on cephalograms, and dental casts were obtained before and after distalization. A super Class I molar relationship was achieved in a mean period of 7.0 +/- 1.8 months. The maxillary first molars distalized an average of 6.4 +/- 1.3 mm in the region of the dental crown by tipping distally an average of 10.9 degrees +/- 2.8 degrees . Also, the maxillary second premolar and first premolar moved distally an average of 5.4 +/- 1.3 mm and 3.8 +/- 1.1 mm, respectively. The premolars tipped significantly distally. No anterior incisor movement was detected. The BAPA was found to be an effective, minimally invasive, and compliance-free intraoral distalization appliance for achieving both molar and premolar distalization without any anchorage loss. PMID:16808573

Kircelli, Beyza Hancio?lu; Pekta?, Zafer Ozgür; Kircelli, Cem

2006-07-01

276

Cast Haas-type RME appliance: A case report.  

PubMed

Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in the initial stages of occlusal development has become a routine procedure in orthodontic practice. The increase of the transverse dimensions of the maxilla in the mixed dentition can be carried out by a rapid palatal expander that exploits primary teeth as anchorage to minimize any negative effects on permanent teeth. This case report demonstrates the use of a modified Haas-type RME appliance in a Caucasian girl 7 years 6 months of age with a maxillary transverse deficiency, unilateral crossbite, dental midline deviation, and maxillary anterior dental crowding. The patient was treated with a modified Haas-type RME appliance composed of a six-band metal-cast structure with a partial occlusal covering that was bonded to the primary teeth using glass-ionomer cement. Clinicians see advantages in terms of speed of application and patient compliance by taking a single impression. Stability and retention of the appliance improve thanks to custom-made metal casting and the risks of decementation minimize via the use of glass-ionomer cement. Moreover, the fabrication in inert titanium, hypoallergenic resin, and laser soldering means patients with allergies can use it. The results demonstrate that the expansion carried out on primary teeth is followed by permanent molars and remains stable. PMID:22022696

Cozzani, Mauro; Fontana, Mattia; Cozzani, Paolo; Bertelli, Andrea

2011-01-01

277

Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping.  

PubMed

The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model. PMID:24899895

Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Yong; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim Sunny, Seong-Hun

2014-01-01

278

Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping  

PubMed Central

The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model.

Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim (Sunny), Seong-Hun

2014-01-01

279

Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project  

SciTech Connect

Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances were installed and monitored for more than a year at residential sites at three locations in Washington and Oregon. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow underfrequency event—an average of one event per day—and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Appliance owners reported that the appliance responses were unnoticed and caused little or no inconvenience for the homes’ occupants.

Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Michie, Preston; Oliver, Terry V.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Eustis, Conrad; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Marek, W.; Munson, Ryan L.; Pratt, Robert G.

2007-10-01

280

An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

2008-01-25

281

Expression and characterization of constitutive heat shock protein 70.1 (HSPA-1A) gene in in vitro produced and in vivo-derived buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos.  

PubMed

Cells are blessed with a group of stress protector molecules known as heat shock proteins (HSPs), amongst them HSP70, encoded by HSPA-1A gene, is most abundant and highly conserved protein. Variety of stresses hampers the developmental competence of embryos under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Present work was designed to study the quantitative expression of HSPA-1A mRNA in immature oocytes (IMO), matured oocytes (MO), in vitro produced (IVP) and in vivo-derived (IVD) buffalo embryos to assess the level of stress to which embryos are exposed under in vivo and in vitro culture conditions. Further, HSPA-1A gene sequence was analysed to determine its homology with other mammalian sequences. The mRNA expression analysis was carried out on 72 oocytes (40 IMO; 32 MO), 76 IVP and 55 IVD buffalo embryos. Expression of HSPA-1A was found in oocytes and throughout the developmental stages of embryos examined irrespective of the embryo source; however, higher (p < 0.05) expression was observed in 8-16 cell, morula and blastocyst stages of IVP embryos as compared to IVD embryos. Phylogenetic analysis of bubaline HSPA-1A revealed that it shares 91-98% identity with other mammalian sequences. It can be concluded that higher level of HSPA-1A mRNA in IVP embryos in comparison with in vivo-derived embryos is an indicator of cellular stress in IVP system. This study suggests need for further optimization of in vitro culture system in which HSPA-1A gene could be used as a stress biomarker during pre-implantation development. PMID:22463675

Sharma, G T; Nath, A; Prasad, S; Singhal, S; Singh, N; Gade, N E; Dubey, P K; Saikumar, G

2012-12-01

282

14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE,...

2014-01-01

283

Heating with Solid Fuels. A Unit of Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in industrial education programs at the secondary school level, this unit focuses on residential space heating although applications can be made to commercial settings. Wood heat is emphasized but coal-fired appliances and other energy sources are considered. Educational objectives with instructional strategies are provided for…

Rockel, Edward

284

Magnetic field exposure from electric appliances and childhood cancer  

SciTech Connect

The effect on childhood cancer of prolonged exposure to 60-H magnetic fields from electric appliances was examined using interview data from a recently completed case-control study. Exposures of children aged 0-14 years whose incident cancers were diagnosed between 1976 and 1983 and who resided in the Denver, Colorado, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared with those of controls selected by random digit dialing, matched on age, sex, and telephone exchange area. Parents of 252 cases and 222 controls were interviewed at home about the use of electric appliances by the mother during pregnancy (prenatal exposure) and by the child (postnatal exposure). After adjustment for income, prenatal electric blanket exposure was associated with a small increase in the incidence of childhood cancers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.2) that was more pronounced for leukemia (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.6) and brain cancer (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5). Postnatal exposure to electric blankets was also weakly associated with childhood cancer (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.6-3.4), with a larger but imprecise association with acute lymphocytic leukemia (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.6-6.5). Water beds and bedside electric clocks were unrelated to childhood cancer incidence. Results are limited by nonresponse and imprecision resulting from the rarity of appliance use, especially for subgroups of cases. Nonetheless, electric blankets, one of the principal sources of prolonged magnetic field exposure, were weakly associated with childhood cancer and warrant a more thorough evaluation.

Savitz, D.A.; John, E.M.; Kleckner, R.C. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

1990-05-01

285

Patients' adherence to hard acrylic interocclusal appliance treatment in general dental practice in Sweden.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to investigate patient adherence to treatment with hard acrylic interocclusal appliance in general dentistry in Sweden and to see if some general factors could predict patient adherence or non-adherence. During the period January - May 2009 a postal questionnaire was sent to all adult patients (> or = 20 years of age) that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance from the public dental health service in the County of Uppsala during 2007 (n=388). The same questionnaire was also sent to all adult patients that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance at a specialist clinic during the same year (n=69). The response rate in general dental practice was 71% and at the specialist clinic the response rate was 91%. In general dental practice, 97% of the hard acrylic interocclusal appliances were stabilisation appliances. At the specialist clinic other types of interocclusal appliances was used to a greater extent. A vast majority of patients in both general dental practice and at the specialist clinic experienced that the interocclusal appliance had a positive treatment effect. In general dental practice, 73% of the patients still used their interocclusal appliances 1 1/2-2 years after they had received them. The corresponding figure at the specialist clinic was 54%. The main reasons for not using the interocclusal appliance, besides disappearance/reduction of TMD symptoms, were different kinds of comfort problems. From the results of this study it is concluded that the patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances made in general dental practice in Sweden is good. It can also be concluded that a perceived good treatment effect, as well as treatment of more long-term conditions, predicted a better patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances. More studies concerning factors affecting patient adherence in TMD therapy are warranted. PMID:22135944

Lindfors, Erik; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

2011-01-01

286

New energy test procedures for refrigerators and other appliances  

SciTech Connect

Many innovations in refrigerator design rely on microprocessors, sensors, and algorithms to control automatic defrost, variable speed,and other features. Even though these features strongly influence energy consumption, the major energy test procedures presently test only a refrigerator's mechanical efficiency and ignore the ''software'' aspects. We describe a new test procedure where both ''hardware'' and ''software'' tests are fed into a dynamic simulation model. A wide range of conditions can be tested and simulated. This approach promotes international harmonization because the simulation model can also be programmed to estimate energy use for the ISO, DOE, or JIS test. The approach outlined for refrigerators can also be applied to other appliances.

Meier, Alan; Ernebrant, Stefan; Kawamoto, Kaoru; Wihlborg, Mats

1999-04-01

287

Eddy current dual packs heater based continuous pipeline fluid heating using soft switching PWM high frequency inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an innovative prototype of a new conceptual electromagnetic induction eddy-current based fluid heating appliance using voltage-fed quasi resonant zero voltage soft switching PWM high-frequency inverter using IGBTs, which can operate at a constant frequency variable power regulation scheme. The promising simple high-efficient low noise inverter type electromagnetic induction eddy-current based pipeline fluid heating appliance is proposed for

H. Tanaka; M. Kaneda; S. Chandhaket; M. Aubdallah; M. Nakaoka; N. Uchida; T. Ueno

2000-01-01

288

Solar assisted heat pump heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar assisted heat pump fluid heating system capable of reliable operation at higher than normal ambient temperatures is disclosed. The system includes a collection of solar panels and primary fluid storage tanks having integral coiled heat exchangers interconnected and charged with heat transfer fluid to produce heat. Temperature sensors positioned at the panels and storage tanks transmit temperature signals

Pendergrass

1984-01-01

289

40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart F of... - Method for Testing Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appliances requires entry into the sealed refrigeration system or when those appliances are...removed and captured from a test stand refrigeration system. Captured refrigerant is...recovery operations. The test stand refrigeration system required for this...

2010-07-01

290

40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart F of... - Method for Testing Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...appliances requires entry into the sealed refrigeration system or when those appliances are...removed and captured from a test stand refrigeration system. Captured refrigerant is...recovery operations. The test stand refrigeration system required for this...

2011-07-01

291

46 CFR 160.040-4 - Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Appliance, Impulse-Projected Rocket Type (and Equipment) ...Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance. (a) Four rocket projectiles, each complete...been coiled. Containers of new lines shall bear the...

2013-10-01

292

46 CFR 160.040-4 - Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Appliance, Impulse-Projected Rocket Type (and Equipment) ...Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance. (a) Four rocket projectiles, each complete...been coiled. Containers of new lines shall bear the...

2009-10-01

293

46 CFR 160.040-4 - Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Appliance, Impulse-Projected Rocket Type (and Equipment) ...Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance. (a) Four rocket projectiles, each complete...been coiled. Containers of new lines shall bear the...

2010-10-01

294

78 FR 28190 - Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Board [B-7-2013] Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water Heaters); Louisville, Kentucky On January 7, 2013, GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C in Louisville,...

2013-05-14

295

Long-Term Dentoskeletal Changes with the Bionator, Herbst, Twin Block, and MARA Functional Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if the long-term dentoskeletal changes in patients treated with tooth-borne functional appliances were comparable to each other and to matched controls. Materials and Methods: The experimental sample consisted of 80 consecutively treated patients who were equally divided into Bionator, Herbst, Twin Block, and mandibular anterior repositioning appliance (MARA) groups. The control group comprised 21 children with untreated

Nicole J. Siara-Olds; Valmy Pangrazio-Kulbersh; Jeff Berger; Burcu Bayirli

2010-01-01

296

The study on Haier's marketing strategy of household appliance going to the countryside  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the context of the global financial turmoil, the implementation of the policy of household appliance going to the countryside not only expands domestic demand but also offers new market opportunities to appliance manufacturers. By analyzing Haier's targeted market of refrigerators to countryside and the argumentation on its capacity in market promoting strategy in rural areas, this paper elaborates how

Jing Jin-an

2010-01-01

297

Preschool Children's Conceptions about the Electric Current and the Functioning of Electric Appliances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined 5- and 6-year-olds' ideas about the functioning of common electrical appliances and properties of electric current. Found that children represented current in a static way, thinking it was included in the appliance, and confounded electric current and water flow, believing external electricity was different from internal. They were…

Solomonidou, Christina; Kakana, Domna-Mika

2000-01-01

298

Study and design of logistic distribution information system of urban household appliance based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on analyzing the household appliance delivery and the requirement of the customers, combining GIS technique and heuristic algorithm, the urban household appliance delivery logistic information system is studied and developed. It has realized collection of t he geographic data and optimization of the delivery route, and by map and report form it provides the plan to the user, shortening

Xiangli Huang

2011-01-01

299

Damage Identification of Ball Bearings for Transmission Systems in Household Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's consumers expect quieter operating machines for most household appliances, from vacuum cleaners to lawn mowers. The main objective of this paper is to determine the relationships between bearing vibration\\/noise and the amount of flaws in ball bearing assemblies for transmissions systems used in general household appliances. In this study, 30 “good” and 30 “bad” ball bearings, selected during factory

Fred K. Choy; Ruiwei Wu; Doug Konrad; Eric Labus

2007-01-01

300

Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System Based on a Modern kWh-Meter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a farily new method to estimate load profiles of individual electric appliances in a small building, like a household, by monitoring the whole load at a single point with one recording device without sub-...

H. Pihala

1998-01-01

301

Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due

Jason C. Fuller; Bharat GNVSR Vyakaranam; Nirupama Prakash Kumar; Sean M. Leistritz; Graham B. Parker

2012-01-01

302

Frequency waves, Grid Friendly Appliances and geographic limits in a smart grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid Friendly Appliances (GFAs) are water heaters, refrigerators, and other domestic electrical appliances that sense and respond to frequency problems in the electric power grid. The controller in a GFA monitors the power signal at its plug and turns the device off when the frequency drops below 59.95 Hz. When the frequency recovers its nominal value of 60 Hz, the

Yanyan Li; Mohammed M. Olama; James J. Nutaro

2010-01-01

303

Treatment effects of the mandibular anterior repositioning appliance on patients with Class II malocclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mandibular anterior repositioning appliance (MARA) is a tooth-borne functional appliance for use in patients with Class II malocclusions; it positions the mandible forward into a Class I occlusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the MARA's dental and skeletal effects on anterior, posterior, and vertical changes in 30 Class II patients. The treatment group consisted of 12

Valmy Pangrazio-Kulbersh; Jeffrey L. Berger; David S. Chermak; Richard Kaczynski; Eugene S. Simon; Andre Haerian

2003-01-01

304

Oil Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP) users manual and engineering report  

SciTech Connect

Oil-fired heating appliances have traditionally used conventional chimney venting systems. In more recent times, masonry chimneys have given way to fabricated metal chimneys which have had the advantage of lower installed cost. Even more recently, there has been an effort by the industry to apply power venting technology to oil-fired appliances. These changes in venting technology have been accompanied by ever improving appliance efficiencies. The successful application of these modern, high efficiency oil-fired appliances depends upon the safe and cost effective integration of the heating appliance and the vent system. Unfortunately, due to the complexity inherent in such issues as heat loss, condensation and corrosion the available manual calculations provide only a steady state rather than transient analysis. In addition, these methods are exceedingly cumbersome. While computerized methods have been developed, for the most part they are usually these same steady state calculations placed into a spreadsheet or BASIC program. This report describes the oil heat vent analysis program (OHVAP) for the analysis of ventilation of oil-fired appliances.

Krajewski, R.F.

1996-11-01

305

Study on Logistic-Distributed Standards Based on AHP for Electrical Household Appliances Chain Enterprises--Taking Zhejiang Xinlianxin Electric Appliances Chain Supermarket as an Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses the main logistic-distributed standards and their effect factors for electrical household appliances chain enterprises, forming the judging framework for it with AHP. The framework gets great application in Zhejiang Xinlianxin Electric Appliances Chain Supermarket. It then concludes that Xinlianxin should choose the self -distributed standard, but it can also take the third-party logistic-distributed standard, which conforms to

Jin Gui-sheng; Ge Feng

2010-01-01

306

CernVM - a virtual software appliance for LHC applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CernVM is a Virtual Software Appliance capable of running physics applications from the LHC experiments at CERN. It aims to provide a complete and portable environment for developing and running LHC data analysis on any end-user computer (laptop, desktop) as well as on the Grid, independently of Operating System platforms (Linux, Windows, MacOS). The experiment application software and its specific dependencies are built independently from CernVM and delivered to the appliance just in time by means of a CernVM File System (CVMFS) specifically designed for efficient software distribution. The procedures for building, installing and validating software releases remains under the control and responsibility of each user community. We provide a mechanism to publish pre-built and configured experiment software releases to a central distribution point from where it finds its way to the running CernVM instances via the hierarchy of proxy servers or content delivery networks. In this paper, we present current state of CernVM project and compare performance of CVMFS to performance of traditional network file system like AFS and discuss possible scenarios that could further improve its performance and scalability.

Buncic, P.; Aguado Sanchez, C.; Blomer, J.; Franco, L.; Harutyunian, A.; Mato, P.; Yao, Y.

2010-04-01

307

Periodontal effects with self ligating appliances and laser biostimulation  

PubMed Central

Background: Recently, various biostimulation's effects of low energy laser irradiation have been reported. The present study was designed to examine the effects of low-energy laser irradiation on alveolar bone remodelling during orthodontic tooth movement and finally on formation of new keratinized gingiva. Materials and Methods: 22 patients and 27 teeth in vestibular mucosal without keratinized gingiva were selected. Every patient was treated with self ligating appliances. In every orthodontic session the patient was treated with Diode laser biostimulation. At the moment of debonding, 27 teeth involved in the research were evaluated in terms of quality and quantity of attached gingiva. BOP and CAL loss were investigated. Results: Every tooth considered at the end of orthodontic treatment showed an attached gingiva around the crown: The average of keratinized gingiva at the end of the study was 3.10 mm and the mean increasing at each month was 0,49 mm. Conclusions: The combination between self ligating appliances and laser's biostimulation could improve the differentiation of periodontal ligaments stem cells in fibroblasts, able to promote attached gingiva around the crown of the teeth erupted in oral vestibular mucosa.

Caccianiga, Gianluigi; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Leonida, Alessandro; Zorzella, Paolo; Squarzoni, Nadia; Carinci, Francesco; Crestale, Claudia

2012-01-01

308

Comparison between Herbst appliances with or without miniscrew anchorage  

PubMed Central

Background: Herbst appliance is largely used in orthodontics for the correction of Class II. The aim of this paper was to analyze dental and skeletal effects of a splints Herbst-miniscrews combined device in comparison to a mandibular splints Herbst appliance. Materials and Methods: Fifty Class II division 1 patients (27 males and 23 females with a mean age of 11.8 ± 1.7 years) were included in the study. Lateral headfilms of 25 patients with a mandibular resin splint and a miniscrew anchorage (test group) and of 25 patients with mandibular acrylic resin splints (control group) were analyzed before (T0) and after (T1) the Herbst treatment. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of each variable were calculated; paired t-test was used to evaluate statistical changes before and after the treatment, in each group and Student t-test was used to compare the two groups. Results: Significant differences were observed for P < 0.05. At the end of the Herbst treatment, mandibular incisor proclination was significantly lower in the test group (2.8°) in comparison to the control group (7.4°). Conclusions: The miniscrew-Herbst system, described in the present study, allows correction of Class II malocclusion, with a lower anchorage loss, in form of mandibular incisor proclination, during the treatment, in comparison to mandibular acrylic splints Herbst.

Manni, Antonio; Pasini, Marco; Mauro, Cozzani

2012-01-01

309

Mandibular asymmetry treated with a modified activator appliance.  

PubMed

Aplasia of the mandibular condyle alone without any other facial malformation and medical history is a very rare condition. This clinical report describes treatment with a functional appliance in a young patient with aplasia of the mandibular condyle alone without any other facial malformation, which is a very rare condition. The patient, a 6(1/2)-year-old girl, was referred for treatment of mandibular asymmetry. There was no relevant family history. The patient showed early mixed dentition with a II molar relationship on the right and II on the left side, 5 mm of overbite and 5 mm of overjet, and a lower midline discrepancy of 3 mm. According to the Pruzansky-Kaban classification of mandibular deformity, the patient was a type IIA; according to Vento and his classification, the mandible of the patient was M2B. The patient was given a Haupl-Andresen activator, which had been modified to reposition the right mandible downward and forward. The functional appliance therapy lasted for approximately 4 years. The affected side showed remarkable condylar growth compared with the normal side. Seven years later, the correction of the mandibular asymmetry was stable and no relapse had occurred. PMID:17667690

Leonardi, Rosalia; Barbato, Ersilia

2007-07-01

310

Appliances and surgery for poliomyelitis in developing countries.  

PubMed

Death before maturity is the usual fate of the untreated crawling crippled child in developing countries. Most children with poliomyelitis, however, when upright and walking with supports or following surgery, are accepted by the community, educated by parents and relatives, and employable when they reach maturity. It is more economical to prevent 100 polio cases than to treat one hopelessly crippled child. It is often quicker to straighten 100 deformed limbs by simple subcutaneous surgeries than to treat a single patient with complicated procedures. It costs less for 100 crawling paralyzed children to walk in simple, locally made braces and clogs, than for 1 patient to be mobile in expensive imported appliances and boots. It is essential to educate or rehabilitate patients in addition to making them mobile. The final aim should be patients returned to their own village or town, accepted and integrated into their own communities, and earning their own living among their own friends. This chapter is discussed in further detail in both English and French in my Website, . This site also includes comprehensive information on both the manufacture of the simple appliances described and various surgical details. This information is also available on CD-ROM. PMID:10829215

Huckstep, R L

2000-01-01

311

The release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances Animal tests.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the release of metal ions from an orthodontic appliance in tests on animals (pigs). Materials and Methods: An animal test was conducted on 24 pigs divided equally into an experimental and a control group. In total, 12 sets of experimental orthodontic plates were surgically inserted into pig snouts in the experimental group for 6 months. Noninvasive matrices (hair [0, 3, and 6 months]) and invasive matrices (kidneys, liver, lungs, aorta, and oral mucosa) were collected for multi-elemental analysis (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) from the experimental and control groups. Results: The greatest differences in the content of toxic metals were found in the aorta (Ni level was 4.8 times higher in experimental than in the control group), in the cheek (Ni 3.5 times higher), and in the hair sampled after 3 months (Cr 3.4 times higher). Conclusions: The obtained data indicate that the products of corrosion have passed into selected tissues of pigs; however, the doses of toxic metal ions released from the appliance did not reach toxic levels. PMID:24417497

Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wo?owiec, Paulina; Janeczek, Maciej; Gedrange, Thomas; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

2014-07-01

312

Effects of maxillary expansion and placebo effect of appliances on nocturnal enuresis - preliminary results  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nocturnal enuresis has been found a common symptom among children with breathing problems and sleep apnea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and placebo effects of slow maxillary expansion on nocturnal enuresis. Material and methods Four children with enuresis aged 7–12 years were selected. Rigid acrylic expansion appliances were fabricated and delivered to them. Frequency of enuresis was recorded by the parents during three stages: 1) before appliance delivery; 2) after appliance insertion without expansion; and 3) during expansion and retention. Results The frequency of wetting decreased significantly during the period of appliance use without expansion. During the expansion and retention phase, two patients became completely dry, and two patients improved significantly. Conclusions Maxillary expansion can have a positive effect on the treatment of nocturnal enuresis. Also, the placebo effect of the expansion appliance has significant effects on enuresis.

Oshagh, Morteza; Aminsharifi, Ali Reza; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Ghodrati, Parisa

2014-01-01

313

A Field Study of Lightning Surges Propagating through Low-voltage Electric Appliances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In today's highly information-based society, lightning damage has a significant impact on an increasing number of electric appliances such as personal computers and facsimile machines. Lightning surge protection devices for electric appliances are on the market and concern for lightning protection has been increasing, but there are still many unknown aspects of lightning surges that propagate into residences. To provide effective lightning protection measures, clarification of surge propagation patterns is needed. The Tokyo Electric Power Company has observed the patterns of lightning surge propagation into houses using lightning surge waveform detectors installed at ordinary residences and obtained data on 30 lightning surge current waveforms between 2008 and 2009. This paper discusses various aspects of lightning surge currents propagating into low-voltage appliances, including home electric appliances, based on the lightning surge current waveform data obtained from lightning observations. The result revealed the patterns of lightning surge currents propagating into the ground and lines of low-voltage appliances.

Ishii, Tsunayoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshiki; Oguchi, Shuichi; Okabe, Shigemitsu

314

Routines for interocclusal appliance therapy among general dental practitioners in a Swedish county.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to investigate what kind of interocclusal appliances that were chosen among Swedish dentists when treating temporomandibular disorders (TMD), the clinical rationale for the treatment, the diagnoses that warranted the appliance treatment, the use of adjunct TMD treatments and prognostic considerations, and possible differences in these respects between children/adolescents and adults with TMD, and, finally, possible differences between private practitioners and general practitioners in the public dental service. During the 12-months-period April 2009-March 2010 all general dental practitioners in the county of Jönköping, Sweden, were asked to fill in a questionnaire when performing a TMD treatment with an interocclusal appliance. A total of 394 questionnaires were filled in and returned, 216 (55%) from dentists in public dental service and 178 (45%) from private practitioners. It was found that in 40% of the cases, no pre-treatment recording of the functional status in the masticatory system had been made. The commonest reasons for the treatment were bruxism, headache, and replacement of a previous appliance. Less than half of the appliances made were hard acrylic appliances. Some kind of adjunct therapy had been made in 22% of the cases treated in public dental service. The corresponding figure for those treated by private practitioners was 25%. Therapeutic jaw exercises was the commonest adjunct therapy followed by selective occlusal adjustment. In the vast majority of cases, the dentists judged the prognosis of the treatment to be good. It is concluded that a large number of appliances made to treat TMD were soft appliances, especially in public dental service. This reflects a possible overuse of soft appliances at the expense of hard acrylic appliances. Furthermore, in a large number of cases, the treatment was performed without any pre-treatment registrations, and adjunct therapies were rarely used. In all these respects,there is an improvement potential for the treatment of TMD in general dental practice. PMID:23230806

Gnauck, Maja; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

2012-01-01

315

Enhanced hot electron confinement and isochoric heating in high contrast ultra-intense laser produced plasmas via novel conical micro-target design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creation of extreme states of matter employing ultra-intense short-pulse lasers can be a valuable tool for exploring high energy density phenomena in addition to optimizing intense radiation and particle sources. In particular, hot dense matter heated isochorically would be advantageous for resolving the equation of state, opacity, and radiation transport in matter, relevant to both astrophysics and inertial fusion. However, efficient isochoric heating with lasers requires a high degree of coupling to energetic electrons, which can rapidly diffuse laterally from the laser absorption region. To improve efficiencies, Sentoku et al. (2004) proposed using sharp-tip, shallow-angle conical targets to enhance laser absorption, hot electron generation and surface guiding toward the tip. However, Baton et al. (2005) established the detrimental effects of the amplified spontaneous emission prior to the main laser pulse, which generates a large pre-formed plasma filling the cone, degrading the coupling efficiency. This provided the premise for the current work, where new isochoric heating experiments utilizing nominal and very high contrast laser irradiation of nano-fabricated micro-cone targets are explored. At high contrast, a novel method is discovered for self-consistently confining the energetic electrons and localizing the energy deposition to uniformly heat a reduced volume at the cone tip. Here, peak bulk temperatures of ˜400 eV are observed with a modest input laser energy (10 J), revealing a similar performance in terms of material heating and hot electron localization to the smallest of reduced mass targets. This enhancement is supported by new collisional PICLS simulations, which identify the presence of strong self-generated magnetic field structures (˜10 MG), which form within the resistive cone walls near the laser absorption region. These quasistatic fields (lasting >6-fold longer than the laser pulse) effectively confine the energetic (˜100 keV) electrons within the cone tip; where the bulk material is heated both ohmically via the resistive heating triggered by the fast (˜MeV) electrons and by the less energetic collisional electrons. Hence, this newly observed self-generated confinement mechanism with micro-cone targets may enable improved isochoric heating experiments employing small well-controlled lasers, while potentially facilitating the creation of more extreme conditions with larger lasers.

Rassuchine, Jennifer M.

316

Study of heat and radiation response of a malignant, melanin-producing cell line derived from C3H 10T1/2 cells transformed in culture by radiation  

SciTech Connect

The mouse C3H 10T1/2 cell line was transformed to the malignant state using ionizing radiation. One of the transformed lines (R25) that was isolated, displayed some properties similar to malignant melanoma cells. The cells became dark and pigmented after prolonged time in culture and this cell line produced tumors in C3H mice. The radiation survival curve of R25 had a large shoulder which was also observed for human melanoma cell lines. R25 was more resistant to heating at 45.0 degrees C than the normal cell line. Heating at 45.0 degrees C before irradiation resulted in a reduction of the survival curve shoulder. The heat and radiation sensitivity of R25 did not appear to be related to the melanin content of these cells.

Raaphorst, G.P.; Vadasz, J.; Azzam, E.I.

1986-12-01

317

Surface modification produced by a nitrogen operated plasma focus device: the role of the ion beam in the heating of a substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the nitrogen ion beam generated with a small energy plasma focus (PF) device in the thermal processing of an austenitic stainless steel substrate is discussed. A numerical solution of the heat equation which takes into account the temperature variations of the thermal coefficients of the material is presented. By using several characteristics of the beam determined in

A. Lepone; H Kelly; D Lamas; A Márquez

1999-01-01

318

Mathematical model and calculation of heating regime of a tunnel furnace to produce a given temperature distribution in the firing zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of combustion and heat and mass transfer occurring in the firing zone have a decisiw~ influence on the quality indices of the products and the technicoeconomic efficiency of operation of a tunnel furnace as a whole. The consumption of fuel at the stations, their distribution along the firing zone, the fuel combustion conditions, and the characteristics of the

V. G. Abbakumov; E. F. Mosin

1981-01-01

319

Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. Special technical report: technical feasibility of combustion heated process for producing aluminum-silicon alloys  

SciTech Connect

As part of a contract to develop a process for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum-silicon alloys, the technical feasibility of an atmospheric combustion-heated reactor was investigated. Potentially, such a reactor could have lower energy and capital requirements than current processes for producing aluminum and silicon. Reduction reactions were modelled using two chemical equilibrium computer programs which predicted the aluminum recovery in the reduction zone and the carbon rate needed to meet the energy requirements of the process.

Troup, R.L.

1980-09-01

320

[Development of a prevention of body movement fixation appliance in leg digital subtraction angiography].  

PubMed

In the peripheral angiography to evaluate blood flow below the knee levels in patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans, a motion artifact occurs as a result of body movements of a patient in normal fixation. This sometimes makes a correct evaluation difficult. Therefore, we developed a fixed appliance which can restrain body movement without affecting image quality and blood flow in digital subtraction angiography of a leg. The appliance is filled with the styrofoam of 1 mm diameter in a sealed bag, after air is aspirated from inside the bag. The appliance is stiffened to fit the shape of the crus. We measured signal to noise ratio / contrast to noise ratio / a resolution limit by visual evaluation to examine the influence of the image before and after usage of this appliance. In addition, the blood velocity of the dorsalis artery in ultrasound was measured to examine the effect on the blood flow. As a result, the fixed appliance did not affect blood flow in peripheral angiography to evaluate the clinical significance, the usual 5-point evaluate scale was used. The scale was significantly improved (p <0.01) after usage of this appliance. The newly developed fixed appliance for digital subtraction angiography of a leg is useful to avoid motion artifacts in clinical settings. PMID:20145364

Yasuda, Mitsuyoshi; Kato, Kyouichi; Sakiyama, Koushi; Uchiyama, Yushi; Asanuma, Shinichi; Fujimura, Kazumasa; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Yasuo

2010-01-20

321

Structural conformation and leaching from in vitro aged and retrieved Invisalign appliances.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the structure of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif) after intraoral exposure, and to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the substances leached from the aligners after accelerated in vitro aging. Samples of Invisalign appliances were randomly selected from 10 patients before intraoral placement and after retrieval, and the prepared specimens were subjected to (1) bright-field optical reflection microscopy to study the surface morphology; (2) Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy to characterize the in vivo changes in molecular composition induced on appliance surfaces, (3) scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to identify the elemental composition of integuments formed on the surface, and (4) Vickers hardness (HV 200) testing. Another set of reference and retrieved appliances was subjected to artificial aging for 2 weeks, and the extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The retrieved appliances demonstrated substantial morphological variation relative to the as-received specimens involving abrasion at the cusp tips, adsorption of integuments, and localized calcification of the precipitated biofilm at stagnation sites. Buccal segments of retrieved appliances showed an increase in hardness, which might be attributed to mastication-induced cold work; however, the clinical implication of this effect on mechanotherapy is unknown. In vitro aged and retrieved appliances were found to leach no traceable amount of substances in an ethanol aging solution. PMID:15592222

Schuster, Susan; Eliades, George; Zinelis, Spiros; Eliades, Theodore; Bradley, T Gerard

2004-12-01

322

[Measurement of orthodontic appliance force using prototype sensors].  

PubMed

In introductory remarks the most important biomechanical principles, which are relevant for the research, and conditions which must be satisfied presented in intraoral measuring of orthodontic forces were pointed out. First the aim of the research was defined, and then the investigation of mechanical properties of acrylics as a material for orthodontic appliances were carried out. The type of strain gauges, bonds and measuring system configurations, as well as measuring amplifiers and recording instruments were discussed. Some of measuring sensors, their principles and applicability were discussed. The calibration apparatus was modified for the sensor developed, and the calibration results were analysed by means of statistical methods (linear regression). The behaviour of all used sensors were found to be linear, which enables their application and reduces the measuring results interpretation. PMID:2635572

Slaj, M; Goja, Z; Lapter, V

1989-01-01

323

Efficacy of Timed Embryo Transfer with Fresh and Frozen In Vitro Produced Embryos to Increase Pregnancy Rates in Heat-Stressed Dairy Cattle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine whether pregnancy rates in heat-stressed dairy cattle could be enhanced by timed embryo transfer of fresh (nonfrozen) or frozen- thawed in vitro-derived embryos compared to timed insemination. Ovulation in Holstein cows was synchro- nized by a GnRH injection followed 7 d later by PGF2? and a second treatment with GnRH 48 h later. Control cows

J. D. Ambrose; M. Drost; R. L. Monson; J. J. Rutledge; M. L. Leibfried-Rutledge; M.-J. Thatcher; T. Kassa; M. Binelli; P. J. Hansen; P. J. Chenoweth

1999-01-01

324

TF-XRD examination of surface-reactive TiO 2 coatings produced by heat treatment and CO 2 laser treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

When surface-reactive (bioactive) coatings are applied to medical implants by means of CO2 laser processing, the bioactivity of the surface of the implant can be locally modified to match the properties of the surrounding tissues to provide a firm fixation of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the heat treated TiO2 coatings with the laser-treated TiO2

Niko Moritz; Sami Areva; Joop Wolke; Timo Peltola

2005-01-01

325

High magnetic susceptibility produced in high velocity frictional tests and heating tests on core samples from the Chelungpu fault in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out high-velocity frictional tests and simple heating tests on crushed fault gouge from core samples from Hole B of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project to investigate the cause of high magnetic susceptibilities in the fault core. Black ultracataclasite resembling that observed in Hole B formed during the experiments, even under low axial stress of 0.5 to 1.5 MPa.

W. Tanikawa; T. Mishima; T. Shimamoto; W. Lin; W. Soh

2007-01-01

326

In vitro surface corrosion of stainless steel and NiTi orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

Simulated fixed orthodontic appliances were constructed, immersed and incubated in artificial saliva for periods up to three months. Two types of stainless steel archwires and two types of NiTi wires were used. The surface corrosion of the archwires was determined macroscopically, with scanning electron microscopy, and with spectrophotometry. The deposits on the wires were identified with X-ray diffraction. Uniform corrosion was observed on stainless steel wires, and a slight colour change was detected on the NiTi wires beneath stainless steel ligatures. The corrosion product on the stainless steel wires increased with immersion time, and the surface oxide films were easily detached from the underlying matrix. Crevice corrosion was observed under deposits of oxide, and at the interface between bracket and band. Such corrosion may weaken a wire or weld leading to fracture. In contrast, the NiTi archwires did not corrode, and there was no significant difference in surface morphology. The stainless steel archwires showed a significant loss of reflectance after heat treatment and immersion in artificial saliva. The NiTi archwires had the same reflectance before and after the immersion test. NiTi archwires are significantly more stable and resistant to corrosion than stainless steel archwires. PMID:12790351

Shin, Ji-Soo; Oh, Keun-Taek; Hwang, Chung-Ju

2003-04-01

327

Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore heat transfer and energy efficiency using the context of energy efficient houses. They gain a solid understanding of the three types of heat transfer: radiation, convection and conduction, which are explained in detail and related to the real world. They learn about the many ways solar energy is used as a renewable energy source to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses and operating costs. Students also explore ways in which a device can capitalize on the methods of heat transfer to produce a beneficial result. They are given the tools to calculate the heat transferred between a system and its surroundings.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

328

The use of solar simulation systems for producing artificial global radiation for the purpose of determining the heat load of rooms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certain climatic tests which require solar and sky radiation were carried out in the laboratory by using simulated global radiation. The advantages of such a method of measurement and the possibilities and limitations resulting from the simulation of global radiation are described. Experiments concerning the thermal load in rooms were conducted in order to test the procedure. In particular, the heat gain through a window with sunshade is discussed, a venetian blind between the panes of a double-glazed window being used in most cases.

Kalt, A. C.

1975-01-01

329

Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

Siegel, D. C.; Congleton, J. L.

1997-01-01

330

Magnetic configurations related to the coronal heating and solar wind generation. I. Twist and expansion profiles of magnetic loops produced by flux emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of outflows from the Sun known as solar winds is coupled with the heating of the solar corona, and both processes are operated in magnetic structures formed on the Sun. To study the magnetic configuration responsible for these processes, we use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to reproduce magnetic structures via flux emergence and investigate their configurations. We focus on two key quantities characterizing a magnetic configuration: the force-free parameter ? and the flux expansion rate fex, the former of which represents how much a magnetic field is twisted while the latter represents how sharply a magnetic field expands. We derive distributions of these quantities in an emerging flux region. Our result shows that an emerging flux region consists of an outer part where a magnetic loop takes a large flux expansion rate but a small value of ? at their photospheric footpoints, and an inner part occupied by those loops where a strong electric current flows. We also investigate the expansion profile of a magnetic loop comprising an emerging flux region. The profile is given by an exponential expansion type near the solar surface while it is given by a quadratic expansion type in an outer atmosphere. These detailed magnetic configurations obtained by this study contribute to developing a realistic model for the coronal heating and solar wind generation.

Lee, Hwanhee; Magara, Tetsuya

2014-05-01

331

7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...calibrated-box method shall be used, as set forth in ARI Standard 1110, Standard for Mechanical Refrigeration Units, of the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. (b) The appliance shall be rated according to the class, or...

2011-01-01

332

76 FR 14100 - Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division Including On-Site Leased...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Major Appliances Division Including On-Site Leased Workers From Per Mar Security and Nussbaum Transportation; Webster City, IA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of...

2011-03-15

333

Load Monitoring System of Electric Appliances Based on Hidden Markov Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new load monitoring system of electric appliances based on Hidden Markov Model. Monitoring of electric appliances under operation is expected to lead to understanding needs of power consumers and forecasting power demands in future. When a certain electric appliance runs, the current waveform flowing in it shows specific characteristics. Therefore, it is quite reasonable to pay attention to the pattern of current waveforms for recognition of used electric appliances. In this paper, Hidden Markov Model, which is widely used for the analysis of time series data, is introduced as the recognizer for the current waveforms. The usefulness of the proposed method is verified through some experiments using real measured data.

Nakamura, Hisahide; Ito, Koichi; Suzuki, Tatsuya

334

Development of a Multimodal Transportation Educational Virtual Appliance (MTEVA) to Study Congestion during Extreme Tropical Events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, a prototype Multimodal Transportation Educational Virtual Appliance (MTEVA) is developed to assist in transportation and cyberinfrastructure undergraduate education. This initial version of the MTEVA provides a graphical user interface (GUI...

J. R. Davis P. M. Pardalos R. J. Figueiredo Y. P. Sheng

2011-01-01

335

POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

336

42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only if— (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they are— (1)...

2012-10-01

337

42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only if— (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they are— (1)...

2011-10-01

338

42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only if— (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they are— (1)...

2010-10-01

339

EPA ENERGY STAR: Tackling Growth in Home Electronics and Small Appliances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over a decade ago, the electricity consumption associated with home electronics and other small appliances emerged onto the global energy policy landscape as one of the fastest growing residential end uses with the opportunity to deliver significant energ...

G. Homan, M. Sanchez, R. Brown

2008-01-01

340

77 FR 64763 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...in this proposed AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd., Maesbury...

2012-10-23

341

78 FR 9785 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...identified in this AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd, Maesbury Road,...

2013-02-12

342

42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only ifâ (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they areâ (1)...

2013-10-01

343

Correction of class III malocclusion using modified tandem appliance-two case reports.  

PubMed

Skeletal discrepancies in growing children can have great physical and psychological impact on their appearance. These deformities require orthopedic correction at an appropriate age to avoid future extensive management. Managing a midfacial deficiency or true mandibular prognathism is perhaps the most challenging situation for the clinician. Many orthopedic appliances like chin cup, facemask, and so on have been advocated to correct class III malocclusion. The major problems with these appliances are physical appearance, skin irritation from the anchorage pads and hence, less patient compliance. We present management of class III malocclusion in two children with modified tandem appliance (MTA), which is an intraoral appliance, with no extraoral anchorage, and has better patient compliance and cooperation. PMID:24262407

Jeevarathan, J; Koora, Kiran; Sudhakar, V; Muthu, M S; Prabhu, Rathna V

2013-01-01

344

Heated Goggles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrically heated ski goggles shown incorporate technology similar to that once used in Apollo astronauts' helmet visors, and for the same reason-providing fogfree sight in an activity that demands total vision. Defogging is accomplished by applying heat to prevent moisture condensation. Electric heat is supplied by a small battery built into the h goggles' headband. Heat is spread across the lenses by means of an invisible coating of electrically conductive metallic film. The goggles were introduced to the market last fall. They were designed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California, specialists in the field of heated transparent materials. The company produces heated windshields for military planes and for such civil aircraft as the Boeing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar.

1978-01-01

345

Share of Energy Used by Appliances and Consumer Electronics Increases in U.S. Homes  

EIA Publications

Over the past three decades, the share of residential electricity used by appliances and electronics in U.S. homes has nearly doubled from 17% to 3% , growing from 1.77 quadrillion Btu (quads) to 3.25 quads. This rise has occurred while federal energy efficiency standards were enacted on every major appliance, overall household energy consumption actually decreased from 10.58 quads to 10.55 quads, and energy use per household fell 31%.

2011-03-28

346

Use of Accelerated Testing Methods with Survey Data: How Water Quality Affects Appliance Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity (mineral content), which is present naturally in residential water, affects the service lives of water-using appliances. We surveyed, by mail, 681 households in the Arkansas River basin in southeastern Colorado, where tap water salinity varies from 100 to 3,500 mg\\/L. The survey collected information on ages of appliances in service and on ages atfailure. We developed a generalized method

Guy E. Ragan; Carole J. Makela; Robert A. Young

1996-01-01

347

Microstructures and mechanical properties after heating of reinforcing 500 MPa class weldable steels produced by various processes (Tempcore, microalloyed with vanadium and work-hardened)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures after fire can be assessed if the modified mechanical properties of the building materials, designated here as ‘residual’, are known. In this respect, the residual properties of reinforcing steels produced (a) by the Tempcore process; (b) microalloying with vanadium; and (c) work-hardening, all falling into grade FeB500S, were selected for investigation, aiming

J Nikolaou; G. D Papadimitriou

2004-01-01

348

The use of a deprogramming appliance to obtain centric relation records.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an anterior flat plane deprogramming appliance (Jig) in 40 subjects for whom centric relation (CR) records were obtained before and after the use of the appliance. Incisal overbite and overjet dimensions and three-dimensional instrument condylar representation using the Panadent condylar path indicator (CPI) were recorded from maximum intercuspation and centric relation. Subjects were assessed subjectively to determine the degree of difficulty manipulating the mandible to obtain the centric relation record. The mean overbite difference from maximum intercuspation (MI) to centric relation without (CR) and with (CRJ) the appliance were statistically significant and decreased 1.58 mm and 2.23 mm, respectively. The mean overjet values from MI to CR and CRJ were statistically significant and increased .44 mm and .57 mm, respectively. Significant differences were determined on the Panadent articulator for the absolute vertical (Z) and absolute horizontal (X) values for centric relation with and without the appliance. The number of subjects who exceeded the threshold values of 2 mm for CPI recordings in either the horizontal or vertical direction was 7 (18%,) from MI to CR and 16 (40%) from MI to CRJ. The Lucia-type jig deprogramming appliance provides a centric relation record with greater displacement from MI than a centric relation record alone. This appliance may be a useful adjunct in a patient where mandibular manipulation in taking a centric relation bite registration is deemed not easy. PMID:10227551

Karl, P J; Foley, T F

1999-04-01

349

Photochemically-induced ischemia of the rat sciatic nerve produces a dose-dependent and highly reproducible mechanical, heat and cold allodynia, and signs of spontaneous pain.  

PubMed

Sensory abnormalities and changes in spontaneous behavior were examined after a photochemically induced ischemic lesion of the rat sciatic nerve. Male adult rats were anesthetized and the sciatic nerve was exposed. After the intravenous injection of a photosensitizing dye, erythrosin B, the exposed nerve was irradiated just proximal to the nerve trifurcation with light from an argon laser. Three different irradiation times were used, 30 s, 1 and 2 min. In sham-operated rats, the exposed sciatic nerve was irradiated for 2 min without prior injection of the erythrosin B. Rats were tested for the presence of mechanical, cold and heat allodynia or hyperalgesia. All the animals in the 1- and 2-min irradiation groups developed mechanical, cold and heat allodynia after nerve irradiation. A significant dose-dependent effect of laser exposure time was observed for all modalities tested (2 min > 1 min > 30 s = sham). The maximum effects were observed at 3 and 7 days postirradiation and remained present for up to 10 weeks. No significant contralateral effects were observed in any of the groups. In three separate groups of rats (1, 2 and 4 min of laser exposure), the presence of possible signs of spontaneous pain (paw shaking, paw elevation and freezing behavior) was tested. A significant and exposure time-dependent increase in spontaneous paw elevation and paw shaking was observed which was maximal at week 1, but resolved at 4 weeks (4 min > 2 min > 1 min > sham). In addition, animals in all ischemic groups, but not in the sham group, showed a significant increase in freezing behavior up to 4 weeks after nerve irradiation. Light microscopic evaluation of nerves removed 7 days post-irradiation, i.e. when maximal allodynia was observed, showed clear evidence of demyelination of large myelinated fibers. These data indicate that photochemically-induced peripheral nerve ischemia is associated with abnormal pain-related behaviors, including mechanical, thermal and cold allodynia and signs of spontaneous pain. The incidence and severity of the behavioral changes are clearly dependent on the exposure time and are probably due to, at least in part, a demyelinaton. These results partly confirm previous data using a similar technique and suggest that this may represent a new animal model for peripheral neuropathy of ischemic origin. The advantages of the present model are its good reproducibility and the fact that the nerve injury can be easily quantified and graded. PMID:9696458

Kupers, R; Yu, W; Persson, J K; Xu, X J; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z

1998-05-01

350

The Effectiveness and Clinical Usability of a Handheld Information Appliance  

PubMed Central

Clinical environments are complex, stressful, and safety critical—heightening the demand for technological solutions that will help clinicians manage health information efficiently and safely. The industry has responded by creating numerous, increasingly compact and powerful health IT devices that fit in a pocket, hook to a belt, attach to eyeglasses, or wheel around on a cart. Untethering a provider from a physical “place” with compact, mobile technology while delivering the right information at the right time and at the right location are generally welcomed in clinical environments. These developments however, must be looked at ecumenically. The cognitive load of clinicians who are occupied with managing or operating several different devices during the process of a patient encounter is increased, and we know from decades of research that cognitive overload frequently leads to error. “Technology crowding,” enhanced by the plethora of mobile health IT, can actually become an additional millstone for busy clinicians. This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of clinicians' interactions with a mobile clinical computing appliance (Motion Computing C5) designed to consolidate numerous technological functions into an all-in-one device. Features of usability and comparisons to current methods of documentation and task performance were undertaken and results are described.

Abbott, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

351

Torque control during lingual anterior retraction without posterior appliances  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the factors that affect torque control during anterior retraction when utilizing the C-retractor with a palatal miniplate as an exclusive source of anchorage without posterior appliances. Methods The C-retractor was modeled using a 3-dimensional beam element (0.9-mm-diameter stainless-steel wire) attached to mesh bonding pads. Various vertical heights and 2 attachment positions for the lingual anterior retraction hooks (LARHs) were evaluated. A force of 200 g was applied from each side hook of the miniplate to the splinted segment of 6 or 8 anterior teeth. Results During anterior retraction, an increase in the LARH vertical height increased the amount of lingual root torque and intrusion of the incisors. In particular, with increasing vertical height, the tooth displacement pattern changed from controlled tipping to bodily displacement and then to lingual root displacement. The effects were enhanced when the LARH was located between the central and lateral incisors, as compared to when the LARH was located between the lateral incisors and canines. Conclusions Three-dimensional lingual anterior retraction of the 6 or 8 anterior teeth can be accomplished using the palatal miniplate as the only anchorage source. Using LARHs at different heights or positions affects the quality of torque and intrusion.

Mo, Sung-Seo; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Chun, Yun-Sic; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nelson, Gerald

2013-01-01

352

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 1, appendix A: Bibliography. [manned space shuttle orbiter environmental control and life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of crew appliance related literature was made to provide background engineering information for development of conceptual appliance systems for the shuttle orbiter and the modular space station. From this review, a file containing abstracts of 299 appliance-related documents coded according to subject was developed along with a computerized bibliography of 682 references. Trade studies were conducted using information from these references to determine the optimum concepts to satisfy the shuttle and space station mission requirements. An appliance system was devised for each vehicle which has minimum impact to the respective environmental control system with the smallest possible weight, volume, and electrical penalty. Engineering parameters for each appliance concept considered are presented along with the total thermal and electrical loads and weight and volume penalties for each of the optimized appliance systems.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

353

Effect of physiologically relevant heat shock on development, apoptosis and expression of some genes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos produced in vitro.  

PubMed

For investigating the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock, buffalo oocytes/embryos were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or were exposed to 39.5°C (Group II) or 40.5°C (Group III) for 2 h once every day throughout in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC). Percentage of oocytes that developed to 8-cell, 16-cell or blastocyst stage was lower (p < 0.05) and the number of apoptotic nuclei was higher (p < 0.05) for Group III > Group II > controls. At both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages, relative mRNA abundance of stress-related genes HSP 70.1 and HSP 70.2 and pro-apoptotic genes CASPASE-3, BID and BAX was higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls with the exception of stress-related gene HSF1. Expression level of anti-apoptotic genes BCL-XL and MCL-1 was also higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls at both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages. Among the genes related to embryonic development, at 8-16-cell stage, the expression level of GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group III than that in controls, whereas that of GLUT1, ZAR1 and BMP15 was not significantly different among the three groups. At the blastocyst stage, relative mRNA abundance of GLUT1 and GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group II than that in controls, whereas that of ZAR-1 and BMP15 was not affected. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure of buffalo oocytes and embryos to elevated temperatures for duration of time that is physiologically relevant severely compromises their developmental competence, increases apoptosis and affects stress-, apoptosis- and development-related genes. PMID:23581430

Yadav, A; Singh, K P; Singh, M K; Saini, N; Palta, P; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Chauhan, M S

2013-10-01

354

The epidemiology of travelers' diarrhea in Incirlik, Turkey: a region with a predominance of heat-stabile toxin producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

This study evaluated travelers' diarrhea among US military personnel on short-term deployment to Incirlik Air Base, Turkey, from June through September 2002. Upon reporting for care for travelers' diarrhea, subjects were enrolled into the study and completed a series of questionnaires and provided stool specimens for pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Fifty-three percent of the 202 participating subjects had a pathogen isolated from their stool. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was the predominant pathogen (41%), followed by Campylobacter spp. (12%). The most common ETEC phenotype recovered was stable toxin (ST) CS6 (47% of all ETEC). Most (91.1%) of the cases presented with water diarrhea regardless of isolated pathogen. However, there were some differences in nongastrointestinal symptoms among subjects with Campylobacter spp. All illnesses were well managed with antibiotics with or without loperamide with a median time to the last unformed stool of 9 h (interquartile range, 1-32 h). We found no food or environmental factors associated with a differential risk of infection with a specific pathogen. Travelers' diarrhea among a US military population in and around Incirlik, Turkey, can commonly be attributed to ETEC and Campylobacter spp. The high proportion of ST-only-producing CS6 ETEC in this region highlights the pathogen's worldwide diversity. Future studies of travelers' diarrhea in this population should adapt more novel microbiologic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction and enhanced culture methods to increase the likelihood of identifying pathogenic E. coli. PMID:19903582

Porter, Chad K; Riddle, Mark S; Tribble, David R; Putnam, Shannon D; Rockabrand, David M; Frenck, Robert W; Rozmajzl, Patrick; Kilbane, Edward; Fox, Ann; Ruck, Richard; Lim, Matthew; Johnston, James; Murphy, Emmett; Sanders, John W

2010-03-01

355

Nickel and chromium levels in the saliva of a Saudi sample treated with fixed orthodontic appliances  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to measure the amount of nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) released into the saliva of Saudi patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. Materials and methods Ninety salivary samples were collected in a cross-sectional manner. Forty samples were collected from patients (17 males, 23 females) with fixed orthodontic appliances after different periods of orthodontic treatment ranging from the first month and up to 32 months into treatment. The fixed orthodontic appliance consisted of 4 bands, 20 stainless steel brackets, and upper and lower nickel titanium or stainless-steel arch wires. The other 50 samples were collected from people without appliances (24 males, 26 females). Samples were analyzed using Inductive Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy to measure Ni and Cr levels, respectively. Student’s t-test was used to compare Ni and Cr levels in the treated and untreated control groups. Results The mean Ni level was 4.197 ?g/L in the experimental group and 2.3 ?g/L in the control group (p < 0.05). The mean Cr level was 2.9 ?g/L in the experimental group and 3.3 ?g/L in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Fixed orthodontic appliances resulted in a non-toxic increase in salivary levels of Ni, but no change in Cr levels. Duration of orthodontic treatment did not affect Ni and Cr levels in the saliva.

Talic, Nabeel F.; Alnahwi, Hasan H.; Al-Faraj, Ali S.

2013-01-01

356

DNA Damage in Oral Mucosa Cells of Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances  

PubMed Central

Objective: The release of toxic metal ions from orthodontic alloys has induced concerns regarding the biocompatibility of fixed appliances. This study investigated the genotoxic effect of metal appliances in a sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The study included twenty-five healthy individuals requiring orthodontic therapy in both jaws. The patients were treated by stainless steel orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium or stainless steel arch wires. The oral mucosa cells were gathered just before the appliance placement and 9 months later. The cells were centrifuged, fixed and dropped onto slides. After staining, the micronucleus (MN) assay was used to determine genome alteration. The data were analyzed by paired sample t-test. Results: The mean micronuclei frequency in the buccal mucosa was 10.6 ± 5.7 per 1000 cells before the appliance placement and 9.2 ± 6.37 per 1000 cells 9 months later. No significant difference was found in the MN count before and 9 months after therapy (p=0.336). Conclusion: Under the conditions used in this study, application of fixed orthodontic appliances did not expose healthy individuals to increased risk of DNA damage in oral mucosa cells.

Heravi, Farzin; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Merati, Mohsen; Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Dadkhah, Ezzat; Ahrari, Farzaneh

2013-01-01

357

Compendium of Environmental and Safety Regulations and Programs Affecting Residential Wood Heating Appliances.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides detailed information about existing and proposed regulatory efforts and programs aimed at minimizing undesirable environmental and safety impacts associated with residential wood combustion. It identifies existing regulations, codes and programs, and provides additional insight into the developing trends within the regulatory and industrial framework surrounding residential wood combustion within the United States.

OMNI Environmental Services, Inc.

1986-09-01

358

Rotary magnetic heat pump  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic heat pumps use the magneto-caloric effect to produce entropy changes necessary for heat pumping. A rotary magnetic heat pump has been analyzed and computer models have been developed. The contribution of viscous heat to the regenerator heat balance has been found to significantly restrict performance. The contribution of viscous heating is at least as important as the temperature differences required for regenerator heat transfer. Multiple magnet coils on a single rotor reduce the viscous work per field change cycle and result in greatly improved performance. Operation at 80% of Carnot efficiency with a heat pumping rate of 10 kW per kilogram of magnetic material is predicted.

Kirol, L.D.; Mills, J.I.

1984-01-01

359

Implicit discount rates in residential customer choices: Volume 2, Investments in efficient appliances: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Discount rates have been used in a number of energy forecasting models and demand-side analyses as key parameters to predict the adoption rates of energy technologies and their efficiency characteristics. In these applications, there has been considerable controversy both about the concept of discount rates and about what empirical values most accurately represent actual consumer behavior. Given the importance of implicit discount rates in some forecasting models and their widespread use in analysis of the market potential of energy-related durables, EPRI RP-2547 was designed to estimate the magnitude of discount rates for various equipment choices and to evaluate their usefulness as a forecasting parameter. This report summarizes the results of two studies of the discount rates implicit in household decisions to install conservation measures and purchase high efficiency appliances. The second study addressed appliance efficiency choices using data from a high efficiency appliance rebate program. This is summarized in this volume of the report.

Not Available

1988-02-01

360

Evaluation of the effectiveness of a semi-finished occlusal appliance - a randomized, controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are usually treated with physiotherapy, self-exercises, medication-based therapy and splint therapy. For splint therapy different types of splints are available. Therefore this randomized controlled study compared the effectiveness of a semi-finished occlusal appliance (SB) with a laboratory-made occlusal appliance (SS) in myofascial pain patients. Method The trial subjects allocated to the experimental groups with the (SB) occlusal appliance and those provided with a laboratory-made occlusal appliance (SS) did, in addition, receive conservative treatment (self-exercises, drug-based and manual therapy). The control group was given conservative therapy (CO) only. Overall, a total of 63 patients participated in the study with each group consisting of 21 subjects. Results When the first follow-up examination took place (14 days after splint insertion) mouth opening within the SB group was significantly enlarged. When the second examination was conducted (2.5 months after splint insertion) mouth opening was significantly enlarged in both splint groups when compared with the initial value. In the control group, no significant enlargement of mouth opening was detected. At no point there was a significant reduction in the number of pressure-sensitive areas of the TMJ. On palpation of the masticatory muscles however, a significant reduction in the number of pressure-sensitive areas could be observed within the CO group and the SS group after 2.5 months. When comparing pain reduction (muscle/joint pain) and mouth opening, no significant differences could be detected between the treatments. Conclusion The results suggest that TMD should be treated conservatively. In cases of restricted mouth opening, the additional use of occlusal appliances can eliminate the patient’s discomfort more quickly. In this context, the tested, semi-finished occlusal appliance appears to offer an immediately available, temporary alternative to laboratory-made splints.

2013-01-01

361

Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to reduce air pollutant emissions in some U.S. urban regions to meet federal and state air quality guidelines. Opportunities exist for reducing pollutant emissions from natural gas appliances in the residential sector. A cost-benefit analysis on various pollutant-reducing strategies is needed to evaluate these opportunities. The effectiveness of these pollutant-reducing strategies (e.g., low-emission burners, energy conservation) can then be ranked among themselves and compared with other pollutant-reducing strategies available for the region. A key step towards conducting a cost-benefit analysis is to collect information on pollutant emissions from existing residential natural gas appliances. An extensive literature search was conducted to collect data on residential natural-gas-appliance pollutant emission factors. The literature primarily describes laboratory tests and may not reflect actual emission factor distributions in the field. Pollutant emission factors for appliances operated at over 700 test conditions are summarized for nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter, formaldehyde, and methane. The appliances for which pollutant emissions are summarized include forced-air furnaces; stand-alone space heaters (vented and unvented); water heaters; cooking range burners, ovens, and broilers; and pilot lights. The arithmetic means of the nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter emission factor distributions agree well with the Environmental Protection Agency published emission factor values for domestic gas appliances (in report AP-42). However, the carbon monoxide and methane distribution means are much higher than the relevant AP-42 values. Formaldehyde emission factors are not addressed in AP-42, but the emission factor mean for formaldehyde is comparable to the AP-42 emission factor value for total hydrocarbon emissions.

Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Chang, G.-M.

1996-08-01

362

Ultrastructure and morphology of biofilms on thermoplastic orthodontic appliances in 'fast' and 'slow' plaque formers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological features and distribution of biofilms on Invisalign orthodontic appliances, in a sample of 'slow' and 'fast' plaque formers using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fifty-six Chinese male/female volunteers (aged 19-39 years) were screened for their plaque-forming rate using the plaque percentage index (PPI) coupled with digital photography and computer-based image analysis, after a period of 48 hours of abstinence from oral hygiene procedures. Eleven volunteers (seven males/four females) representing the lowest and highest ends of the plaque formation spectrum were chosen as slow and fast plaque formers, respectively. The subjects wore a full-coverage splint appliance, in which four tiles of Invisalign material were embedded. These tiles were collected at intervals of 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours, as well as 3, 7, and 14 days, immediately fixed in 10 per cent paraformaldehyde in 0.2 M cacodylate buffer solution and prepared for SEM. The surface configuration of the Invisalign appliance was visualized, as well as the chronological pattern of biofilm formation. Significance between fast and slow plaque formers was determined using a Student's t-test. Colonization appeared to centre initially on the raised edges or textured surfaces of the appliance, and initial adhesion was quicker and more abundant in the fast plaque-forming group. In the later stages of biofilm development, both groups showed no discernible differences in biofilm accrual on the surfaces, but the fast group displayed a more complex biofilm structure. More recessed and sheltered areas of the appliance, such as the cusp tips and attachment dimples, harboured more biofilm than the flat surfaces. Hence, it seems that the novel Invisialign orthodontic appliance is a useful tool to investigate the features of biofilm formation in time-course studies. PMID:21187528

Low, Bernard; Lee, Wilson; Seneviratne, C J; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Hägg, Urban

2011-10-01

363

Suggested Curriculum Guide for Developing a Program in Appliance Service and Repair. Bulletin No. 48-174.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outline curriculum guide has been developed to assist in planning, developing, and instructing a program in appliance service and repair. The material consists of a unit outline and suggested exercieses and assignments for 17 areas: shop mathematics, communication skills, safety, orientation to appliance service and repair, blueprint reading,…

Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

364

Effect of a prosthetic appliance for treatment of sleep apnea syndrome on masticatory and tongue muscle activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of problem. The efficiency of an appliance for treatment of sleep apnea shows inordinate interindividual difference. The mechanism of its therapeutic effects remains unresolved. Purpose. This study examined the effect of the device on sleep apnea, and masticatory and tongue muscles. Material and methods. Fifteen patients with sleep apnea syndrome were evaluated polysomno-graphically, with and without the appliance. Electromyograms

Kazuya Yoshida

1998-01-01

365

The recycling logistics problems and countermeasures in the “old for new” policy of home appliances in Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “old for new” policy of the household appliances has been put into effect in nine pilot provinces or cities in China. However, China has yet to set up a standardized system of waste household appliance recycling. In this paper, Field interview and panel discussion were used to explore the problems in recycling, disassembling, disposal and distribution of wasted house

Hongdan Zhang; Yacan Wang; Chang Su; Xiaoyan Huang; Wei Deng

2010-01-01

366

Open-Celled Polyurethane Foam Based Vacuum Panel Technology: A Fully Polyurethane Based Composite Technology for Vacuum Insulated Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum based insulation technology results, when introduced into appliances, in a substantial reduction in energy consumption of these appliances. This reduction depends on two factors: primarily on the vacuum panel technology used, but also, very importantly, on the quality of the polyurethane foam used to fill the confined space in the refrigerator walls after incorporation of the vacuum panels. ICI

R. De Vos; D. Rosbotham; J. Deschaght

1996-01-01

367

Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak-Load Shifting and Spinning Reserves Cost\\/Benefit Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost\\/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility\\/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production

Chellury Sastry; Robert G. Pratt; Viraj Srivastava; Shun Li

2010-01-01

368

Long-term development in the mandible and incisor crowding with and without an orthodontic stabilising appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In children with dentoalveolar Class Il malocclusion with proclined upper incisors treated with extraction of the maxillary first premolars and appliance in the upper jaw only has been reported to increase the lower arch crowding when compared with children with untreated normal occlusion. Stabilising orthodontic appliances might therefore be useful in the lower jaw. A comparison was made of

Ulrike Schütz-Fransson; Krister Bjerklin; Jüri Kurol

1998-01-01

369

Comparison of the effects of monoblock and twin-block appliances on the skeletal and dentoalveolar structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional appliances, which are used in the early treatment period of skeletal Class II malocclusions, induce the forward displacement of the mandible by altering the postural activity of the muscles and causing some changes in both skeletal and dentoalveolar structures. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the differences between monoblock and twin-block appliances. Two treatment groups composed of

Nazli Tümer; Ali S. Gültan

1999-01-01

370

A High-Sensitivity Hydraulic Load Cell for Small Kitchen Appliances  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present a hydraulic load cell made from hydroformed metallic bellows. The load cell was designed for a small kitchen appliance with the weighing function integrated into the composite control and protection of the appliance. It is a simple, low-cost solution with small dimensions and represents an alternative to the existing hydraulic load cells in industrial use. A good non-linearity and a small hysteresis were achieved. The influence of temperature leads to an error of 7.5%, which can be compensated for by software to meet the requirements of the target application.

Pacnik, Roman; Novak, Franc

2010-01-01

371

Modified quad helix appliance for thumb sucking and cross bite correction.  

PubMed

Digit sucking habit is a learned pattern of behavior commonly seen in children of preschool age. Prolonged digit sucking beyond the preschool age, lead to the development of malocclusion such as anterior open bite, maxillary constriction and posterior crossbite. Treatment strategies include interception of habit and correction of the malocclusion. The present case report describes a modified quad helix appliance used successfully in a 9-year-old child to intercept thumb sucking habit and simultaneous correction of posterior crossbite. The appliance has the advantage of easy fabrication, being versatile and more patients compliant. PMID:24403802

Vinay, C; Sandeep, V; Hanumanth Rao, C H; Uloopi, K S; Kumar, A Siva

2013-10-01

372

Modified quad helix appliance for thumb sucking and cross bite correction  

PubMed Central

Digit sucking habit is a learned pattern of behavior commonly seen in children of preschool age. Prolonged digit sucking beyond the preschool age, lead to the development of malocclusion such as anterior open bite, maxillary constriction and posterior crossbite. Treatment strategies include interception of habit and correction of the malocclusion. The present case report describes a modified quad helix appliance used successfully in a 9-year-old child to intercept thumb sucking habit and simultaneous correction of posterior crossbite. The appliance has the advantage of easy fabrication, being versatile and more patients compliant.

Vinay, C; Sandeep, V; Hanumanth Rao, C H; Uloopi, K S; Kumar, A Siva

2013-01-01

373

Upper molar distalization on palatal miniscrews: an easy to manage palatal appliance.  

PubMed

Upper molar distalization supported by miniscrews has become increasingly popular in the last years. A detailed clinical and lab procedure for the realization of a distalization appliance (fast back or distal jet) connected to miniscrews inserted in the anterior region of the palate is presented. A case report illustrates the use of a fast back appliance supported by miniscrews to correct the mesial shift of the molars and of the premolars as a consequence of an early loss of the maxillary deciduous canines. PMID:22583590

Huanca Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas; Piepoli, Claudio

2012-05-01

374

Operations manual for the patient assist device. [to handle electrical appliances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quadriplegic patients and multiple amputee patients are almost totally dependent on nursing personnel for any activities or interests in which they participate. A patient assist device is reported which provides patient control over electrical devices in his environment. The patient operates three switches to acquire control over a desired electrical appliance. The type switches employed are chosen to conform to patient capabilities, even when such capabilities are as limited as eye or head movements. The switch operations are sensed and converted into command signals by the patient assist device to control ten electrical appliances simulataneously and independently.

Schrader, M. A.

1973-01-01

375

In vitro release of nickel and chromium from simulated orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

The purpose of this experiment was to measure the amounts of nickel and chromium released from a simulated orthodontic appliance incubated in 0.05 percent sodium chloride solution. The average release of metals was 40 micrograms nickel and 36 micrograms chromium per day for a full-mouth appliance. This was well below the average dietary intake of nickel and chromium consumed by Americans. However, the clinician should be aware that release of nickel and chromium from orthodontic bands might sensitize patients to nickel and chromium and may cause hypersensitivity reactions in patients with a prior history of hypersensitivity of these metals. PMID:6576640

Park, H Y; Shearer, T R

1983-08-01

376

Correction of a dental arch-width asymmetric discrepancy with a slow maxillary contraction appliance.  

PubMed

A boy, aged 12 years 3 months, sought treatment for a complete unilateral Brodie bite. His maxillary dental arch was asymmetric, and his dentition was 10 mm wider than normal values for his age. The transverse discrepancy was his chief complaint because it caused a chewing dysfunction. We used a special slow maxillary contraction appliance, which contains a screw, connectors, and retainers, to contract the maxillary transverse asymmetric dental arch. This was followed by preadjusted fixed appliances to level the teeth and adjust the occlusion. A symmetric and functional Class I occlusion was achieved. PMID:23195370

Hua, Xianming; Xiong, Hui; Han, Guangli; Cheng, Xiangrong

2012-12-01

377

Sludge, fuel degradation and reducing fouling on heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract to the US Department of Energy, operates an oil heat research primarily to lower energy consumption in the 12 million oil heated homes in the US. The program objectives include: Improve steady state efficiency of oil heating equipment, Improve seasonal efficiencies, Eliminate or minimize factors which tend to degrade system performance. This paper provides an overview of the status of three specific projects which fall under the above objectives. This includes our fuel quality project, oil appliance venting and a project addressing efficiency degradation due to soot fouling of heat exchangers.

Butcher, T.; Litzke, Wai Lin; Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.

1992-02-01

378

Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests  

SciTech Connect

Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

2012-10-01

379

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

1990-01-01

380

Project Produce  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this science- and social studies-integrated lesson, students researched the produce found at their local grocery store. The class learned the difference between fruits and vegetables and learned the origins of various "exotic" food items. Students also interviewed local gardeners and prepared ethnic foods in the classroom.

Wolfinger, Donna M.

2005-01-01

381

Producer Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An article written for children, this reading explains the role of plants as producers. It is written at a grade 4-5 reading level, and it is a good supplement to the evidence that students can observe and record through experimentation with photosynthesis.

Program, The W.

382

Project Produce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

Wolfinger, Donna M.

2005-01-01

383

Recent Developments in the Open Cell Foam-Filled Vacuum Insulated Panels for Appliances Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyurethane foam is the preferred insulator material in a wide range of appliances such as refrigerators and freezers. The recent phase out of CFC-11 has however decreased its insulation performance due to the need to adopt environmentally more benign blowing agents, such as HCFCs and hydrocarbons, all having higher gas thermal conductivity. This represents a serious drawback since specific regulations

Paolo Manini

1999-01-01

384

A Combination Appliance for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Effectiveness of Mandibular Advancement and Tongue Retention  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea would experience increasing treatment effect when a tongue retention component was added to a mandibular repositioning appliance. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Sleep clinic. Patients: Forty-four sequentially recruited patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. Interventions: Subjects were sleep tested at 4 treatment stages of oral appliance therapy. The 4 stages were: 6-mm mandibular protrusion, 8-mm protrusion, 6-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb, and 8-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb. Measurements and Results: Forty-one of 44 subjects completed the protocol. There was a decrease in mean respiratory disturbance index from 33.5 events/h at baseline to 18.1 events/h at stage 4 (p = 0.001). Mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) decreased from 12.3 at baseline to 9.0 at stage 4 (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: A combined approach utilizing both mandibular protrusion and tongue retention can provide effective treatment for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. The addition of a tongue bulb may provide further treatment effect when mandibular protrusion is limited. Appliance designs that allow for convenient combination therapy need to be developed for this purpose. Citation: Dort L; Remmers J. A combination appliance for obstructive sleep apnea: the effectiveness of mandibular advancement and tongue retention. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):265-269.

Dort, Leslie; Remmers, John

2012-01-01

385

A Survey of Common Elements in Appliance Repair, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project was designed to collect information on the types of skills common to the appliance repair, refrigeration, and air conditioning service areas. A single task inventory was constructed from available course materials, revised by consultants, and administered to a random sample of 30 incumbent workers in each of the two service areas in…

Hill, Clair S.

386

Business Process Analysis and Implementation Strategies of Greening Logistics in Appliances Retail Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The whole world ecological environment worsens, and low-carbon economical and sustainable development becomes the general trend. The retail trade as the middle link of the whole economic cycle plays an important role on the relations of each essential factor in the entire economic environment. The concepts of low-carbon economy, and green logistics, and electrical appliances retail trade are discussed and

Chen Xuezhong; Jiang Linlin; Wang Chengbo

2011-01-01

387

Mapping chemical elements on the surface of orthodontic appliance by SEM-EDX  

PubMed Central

Background During orthodontic treatment, the various elements that constitute the fixed appliance undergo different processes. As a result of a change of the surface, elution/coverage of metals on the surface can be observed in the process of corrosion/passivation. Material/Methods Scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive X-ray analytical system (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the composition of stainless steel elements of orthodontic fixed appliances (before and after orthodontic treatment), to obtain the composition of the surface of the elements. The analyzed elements were: brackets (Victory Series APC PLUS 022, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); wires (0.017×0.025, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); and bands (37+, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA). Results The results showed a decrease of chromium and iron contribution to the surface, with increase of oxygen content in used vs. new elements of the appliance. Conclusions Our results confirm the formation of oxides (passivation layer) on the surface of stainless steel as a result of the presence of the orthodontic appliance in patients’ oral cavities.

Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wolowiec, Paulina; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Czopor, Wojciech; Berniczei-Royko, Adam; Vegh, Andras; Gedrange, Thomas

2014-01-01

388

Activation time and material stiffness of sequential removable orthodontic appliances. Part 1: Ability to complete treatment.  

PubMed

Recent advances in technology have led to the availability of sequential removable orthodontic appliances (aligners) to move teeth in a stepwise fashion (Invisalign, Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif). This study was undertaken to compare 2 distinctly different materials (hard and soft) and 2 activation frequencies (1 week and 2 weeks) for this technique. Fifty-one subjects, stratified by peer assessment rating (PAR) and need for extractions, were randomly assigned to a hard or a soft plastic appliance, and a 1-week or 2-week activation time. The primary endpoint was the completion of the initially prescribed series of aligners. Changing aligners every other week was more likely to lead to completion of the initial series of aligners than changing aligners weekly (37% vs 21%). No substantial difference in the completion rate was observed for the soft versus the hard appliance (27% vs. 32%). The completion rate was highest (46%) among patients with PAR scores less than 15 and no planned extractions, and lowest (0%) among subjects who had 2 or more premolars extracted. All who completed their initial series of aligners required an additional series of aligners or fixed appliances to achieve the original treatment goals. This exploratory study suggests that subjects with a 2-week activation regimen, no extractions, and a low PAR score are more likely to complete their initial series of aligners. PMID:14614415

Bollen, Anne-Marie; Huang, Greg; King, Greg; Hujoel, Philippe; Ma, Tsun

2003-11-01

389

Adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances. Part I: a comparison between Labial, Lingual, and Invisalign™.  

PubMed

This prospective study examined the adult patient's perception of recovery after insertion of three types of orthodontic appliances: Buccal, Lingual and Invisalign. The sample consisted of sixty-eight adult patients (45 females and 23 males) who comprised three groups: 28 Buccal, 19 Lingual, and 21 Invisalign patients. After appliance insertion, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire daily for the first week and again on day 14, in order to assess patients' perception of pain and analgesic consumption. In addition, four areas of dysfunction were assessed: oral dysfunction, eating disturbances, general activity parameters, and oral symptoms. Lingual appliance was associated with more severe pain and analgesic consumption, the greatest oral and general dysfunction, and the most difficult and longest recovery. The Invisalign patients complained of relatively high levels of pain in the first days after insertion; however this group was characterized by the lowest level of oral symptoms and by a similar level of general activity disturbances and oral dysfunction compared to the Buccal appliance. Many Lingual and some Buccal patients did not reach a full recovery from their eating difficulties by the end of the study period. The present study provides information to adult patients and clinicians assisting them in choosing the most appropriate treatment modality in relation to Health-Related Quality of Life parameters. PMID:21750242

Shalish, Miri; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Tsur, Boaz; Bachar, Eytan; Chaushu, Stella

2012-12-01

390

Efficiency of molar distalization with the XBow appliance related to second molar eruption stage.  

PubMed

To quantitatively evaluate on lateral cephalograms horizontal, vertical, and angular changes in the position of the maxillary first molar based on the presence and absence of erupted maxillary second molars when it is distalized with the XBow appliance. In this retrospective study, a total of 102 consecutively treated cases were assessed. Lateral cephalograms were obtained at the start and after completion of active treatment with the XBow appliance. In one group of patients, distal movement of the maxillary first molars was performed before the eruption of maxillary second molars; in the other group of patients, both first and second maxillary molars were simultaneously moved distally. All cephalograms were superimposed on palatal plane using the method of best-fit. In order to compare the mean horizontal, vertical, and angular changes in molar position between the treatment groups and gender, a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed with the pre-treatment class II severity used as a covariate. Regression analysis was also performed to further explore any possible relationships between the predictor variables and the quantity and quality of distalization. A MANCOVA revealed that the eruption stage of the maxillary second molar did not have a significant effect on the change in position of the maxillary first molar after treatment with a XBow appliance. When distalizing maxillary first molars with a XBow appliance, there is no difference in the amount of distalization in patients with erupted and unerupted maxillary second molars. PMID:23172578

Flores-Mir, Carlos; McGrath, L M; Heo, G; Major, P W

2013-12-01

391

Fabrication and Evaluation of a Noncompliant Molar Distalizing Appliance: Bonded Molar Distalizer  

PubMed Central

Objective Attempts to treat class II malocclusions without extraction in non-compliant patients have led to utilization of intraoral molar distalizing appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate dental and skeletal effects of Bonded Molar Distalizer (BMD) which is a simple molar distalizing appliance. Materials and Methods Sixteen patients (12 girls, four boys) with bilateral half-cusp class II molar relationship, erupted permanent second molars and normal or vertical growth pattern were selected for bilateral distalization of maxillary molars via BMD. The screws were activated every other day, alternately. Lateral cephalograms and study models were obtained before treatment and after 11 weeks activation of the appliance. Results Significant amounts of molar distalization, molar distal tipping and anchorage loss were observed. The mean maxillary first molar distal movement was 1.22±0.936 mm with a distal tipping of 2.97±3.74 degrees in 11 weeks. The rate of distal movement was 0.48 mm per month. Reciprocal mesial movement of the first premolars was 2.26±1.12 mm with a mesial tipping of 4.25±3.12 degrees. Maxillary incisors moved 3.55±1.46 mm and tipped 9.87±5.03 degrees mesially. Lower anterior face height (LAFH) decreased 1.28±1.36 mm. Conclusion BMD is appropriate for distalizing maxillary molars, especially in patients with critical LAFH, although significant amounts of anchorage loss occur using this appliance.

Sodagar, A.; Ahmad Akhoundi, M. S.; Rafighii, A.; Arab, S.

2011-01-01

392

Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

2000-04-01

393

Environmental Benefit of Waste Home Appliance Recycling II - A Trial to Reduce Environmental Loads -  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recycling plant is constructed for waste home appliances and operated from April 2000. A life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare recycling scenarios was conducted using the data from the operation. The results of the assessment show that it was effective from not only the reduction in the amount of the final disposal but also the point of the reduction

Y. Kawamura; H. Suzuki

2005-01-01

394

Context Menu for the Real World: Controlling Physical Appliances through Head-Worn Infrared Targeting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We introduce a novel method for selecting and controlling smart appliances in physical spaces through a head-worn computing device with near-eye display and wireless communication. We augment a commercial wearable computing device, Google Glass, with a na...

B. Zhang C. Tuna E. A. Lee Y. Chen Y. Li

2013-01-01

395

Mapping chemical elements on the surface of orthodontic appliance by SEM-EDX.  

PubMed

Background During orthodontic treatment, the various elements that constitute the fixed appliance undergo different processes. As a result of a change of the surface, elution/coverage of metals on the surface can be observed in the process of corrosion/passivation. Material and Methods Scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive X-ray analytical system (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the composition of stainless steel elements of orthodontic fixed appliances (before and after orthodontic treatment), to obtain the composition of the surface of the elements. The analyzed elements were: brackets (Victory Series APC PLUS 022, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); wires (0.017×0.025, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); and bands (37+, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA). Results The results showed a decrease of chromium and iron contribution to the surface, with increase of oxygen content in used vs. new elements of the appliance. Conclusions Our results confirm the formation of oxides (passivation layer) on the surface of stainless steel as a result of the presence of the orthodontic appliance in patients' oral cavities. PMID:24857929

Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wo?owiec, Paulina; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Czopor, Wojciech; Berniczei-Royko, Adam; Vegh, Andras; Gedrange, Thomas

2014-01-01

396

Ad Hoc Gateway Service for Automatic Package Delivery using Networked Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current networked appliance technologies enable devices to communicate seamlessly with one another; for example, the refrigerator at your home might communicate with your mobile phone when you are visiting the supermarket to prompt you about a shortage of food. The devices can communicate with each other irrespective of their location. A great deal of work has been done in networked

A. Muhammad; M. Merabti; B. Askwith; P. Fergus

2007-01-01

397

Appliance-Based Autonomic Provisioning Framework for Virtualized Outsourcing Data Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

As outsourcing data centers emerge to host applications or services from many different organizations and companies, it is critical for data center owners to isolate different applications while dynamically and optimally allocate resources among them. To address this problem, we propose a virtual-appliance-based autonomic resource provisioning framework for large virtualized data centers. Firstly, we present the architecture of the data

Xiaoying Wang; Dongjun Lan; Gang Wang; Xing Fang; Meng Ye; Ying Chen; Qingbo Wang

2007-01-01

398

Improved Low Thermal Conductivity Fine Cell HCFC141b Appliance Foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of global warming is receiving more attention on the world stage. Carbon dioxide emission from the burning of fossil fuels is suspected of being a major contributor in the phenomena of global warming. In the U.S.A., the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) was passed into law, in part to reduce the demand for electrical power,

Mauricio H. Venegas; Herman P. Doerge

1998-01-01

399

78 FR 18533 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...That AD applies to certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...Applicability This AD applies to Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded...

2013-03-27

400

Carotid cavernous fistula after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with a bone anchored appliance.  

PubMed

Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) is an effective and stable method for treating severe maxillary transverse discrepancies in skeletally mature individuals, but it has potential complications. The authors report the case of a 34-year-old woman who developed carotid cavernous fistula after undergoing SARME with a bone anchored appliance and discuss the possible etiological basis of this condition. PMID:23153788

Carneiro, J T; Paschoal, E H A; Carreira, A S D; Real, R P V

2013-03-01

401

Reverse Logistics System Planning for Recycling Waste Household Electrical Appliances in Liaoning Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the disposal of waste household electrical appliances has caused tremendous concentration in recent years, a relative reverse logistics system planning has become into a matter of great urgency in Liaoning province. This study utilizes a new recycling system pattern as well as a mixed integer programming model under the analysis of prospect, total amount, supplying and demanding conditions and

Zhao Tong; Liu Yan; Fan Houming; Ci Jili

2007-01-01

402

EFFECTS OF APPLIANCE TYPE AND OPERATING VARIABLES ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS: VOLUME II. APPENDICIES D-F.  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a project, in support of the intergared Air Cancer Project (IACP), to provide data on the specific effects of appliance type and operating variables on woodstove emissions. samples of particulate material and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were coll...

403

The value of a mandibular repositioning appliance for the treatment of nonapneic snoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this evidence-based case report, the authors addressed the following clinical question: What is the effect of a mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) in patients with nonapneic snoring on the snoring loudness, partners' sleep disturbance, and quality of life? The authors retrieved relevant publications from Embase, PubMed, Cinahl, CENTRAL, and Web of Science. They used title and abstract field searches with

M. C. Aarts; M. M. Rovers; G. J. van der Heijden; W. Grolman

2011-01-01

404

Using the HERBST appliance with atypical extractions in the lower dental arch.  

PubMed

This article reports the case of a patient with severe mandibular deficiency and crowding in the mandibular arch treated with atypical extractions of two premolars followed by mandibular advancement with the Herbst appliance. It became clear that this therapy corrected the malocclusion while improving facial. PMID:24640071

Filho, Leopoldino Capelozza; Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; de Castro, Renata Cristina Faria Ribeiro; Comparim, Rodrigo; Blanco, Mikaela Reginee Basso; de Almeida Cardoso, Mauricio

2013-01-01

405

Enabling applicability of energy saving applications on the appliances of the home environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the energy waste problem in contemporary households and the consequent need for optimal energy use, this article presents a novel network architecture that is generically applicable on domestic appliances, such as white goods, and audiovisual and communication equipment, and is capable of performing real-time management of their energy consumption. Deploying the latest information and communication technology, the proposed architecture

Spyridon L. Tompros; Nikolaos P. Mouratidis; Maurice Draaijer; Andreas Foglar; Halid Hrasnica

2009-01-01

406

Planning energy consumption of home appliances in real home network environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a virtual energy planning(VEP) system that monitors energy usage of home appliances and simulates it when one or more virtual devices are removed or newly added. With the system users could minimize energy waste and manage usage pattern efficiently. 1

Jihyun Lee; Jiyeon Son; JeuYoung Kim; JunHee Park

2012-01-01

407

Orthodontic and orthopedic effects of Activator, Activator-HG combination, and Bass appliances: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orthodontic and orthopedic effects of the Activator, Activator-Headgear Combination (ACHG) and the Bass appliance systems were compared by analyzing the cephalometric records of 64 subjects, who were treated for skeletal Class II malocclusion, with both conventional and Pancherz's methods. Differences between observations on the different occasions (starting and ending values) were tested with Wilcoxon's matched pairs rank test. Kruskal-Wallis

Nil Cura; Müyesser Saraç; Yildiz Öztürk; Nazan Sürmeli

1996-01-01

408

Dentoskeletal effects induced by rapid molar distalization with the first class appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment effects of the first class appliance (FCA; Leone, Firenze, Italy), a new intraoral device for unilateral or bilateral rapid molar distalizaton. A retrospective study was conducted to compare the predistalization and postdistalization cephalograms of 17 patients (10 male, 7 female) with Class II malocclusions treated with the FCA. Mean age

Arturo Fortini; Massimo Lupoli; Fabio Giuntoli; Lorenzo Franchi

2004-01-01

409

Treatment effects of simple fixed appliance and reverse headgear in correction of anterior crossbites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the skeletal and dental changes contributing to the correction of Class III malocclusion using a 2 × 4 appliance and reverse headgear in the mixed dentition. Seventeen consecutive patients (mean age, 9.7 years) with pseudo-Class III malocclusions and an anterior functional shift and straight or concave facial profile were treated with a

Yan Gu; A. Bakr M. Rabie; Urban Hägg

2000-01-01

410

Method for producing a borohydride  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a borohydride is described and which includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material which chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature which substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2008-09-02

411

Initial forces generated by three types of thermoplastic appliances on an upper central incisor during tipping.  

PubMed

The force properties of thermoformed appliances have not been systematically investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to quantify the forces delivered by thermoplastic appliances manufactured from three different materials, with the same thickness, on a central upper incisor, during tipping. Five identical appliances were manufactured from three different materials all with a thickness of 1.0 mm (Ideal Clear, Erkodur, and Biolon). For measuring the forces, an isolated measuring tooth, as part of a standardized resin model incorporated in a newly developed measuring device, was tipped in nine 2.7 arc minute (0.04629 degree) steps, from 0 to 0.416 degrees in the vestibular and palatal directions around a rotational axis through the virtual apex, after positioning an appliance on the model. For statistical analysis, the force components Fx/tipping and Fz/intrusion at a displacement of +/-0.151 mm from the incisor edge were determined. Means and standard deviations (SDs) were calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test for overall effects and the Wilcoxon two-sample test for individual group pairings were used (P < 0.05 significance level). The mean Fx forces ranged from -2.82 N (SD 0.62) to 5.42 N (SD 0.56). The mean Fz forces were between -0.14 N (SD 0.52) and -2.3 N (SD 0.43). The highest intrusive forces were measured during vestibular displacement of the measuring tooth. The forces delivered by the Biolon appliance were found to be much greater (P < 0.01) than those of the other materials. The forces delivered by the materials investigated were mostly higher than those stated in the literature. PMID:19525441

Hahn, Wolfram; Fialka-Fricke, Julia; Dathe, Henning; Fricke-Zech, Susanne; Zapf, Antonia; Gruber, Rudolf; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Sadat-Khonsari, Reza

2009-12-01

412

Class II malocclusion with complex problems treated with a novel combination of lingual orthodontic appliances and lingual arches.  

PubMed

This case report describes a novel method of combining lingual appliances and lingual arches to control horizontal problems. The patient, who was 25 years of age at her first visit to our hospital with a chief complaint of crooked anterior teeth, was diagnosed with skeletal Class II and Angle Class II malocclusion with anterior deep bite, lateral open bite, premolar crossbite, and severe crowding in both arches. She was treated with premolar extractions and temporary anchorage devices. Conventionally, it is ideal to use labial brackets simultaneously with appliances, such as a lingual arch, a quad-helix, or a rapid expansion appliance, in patients with complex problems requiring horizontal, anteroposterior, and vertical control; however, this patient strongly requested orthodontic treatment with lingual appliances. A limitation of lingual appliances is that they cannot be used with other conventional appliances. In this report, we present the successful orthodontic treatment of a complex problem using modified lingual appliances that enabled combined use of a conventional lingual arch. PMID:24975004

Yanagita, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masahiro; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Yamashiro, Takashi

2014-07-01

413

Effect of the Mandibular Orthopedic Repositioning Appliance on Trunk and Upper Limb Muscle Activation during Maximum Isometric Contraction  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to measure the muscle activities of the trunk muscles and upper limb muscles during maximum isometric contraction when temporomandibular joint alignment was achieved with a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance in order provide basic data on the effects of mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance on the entire body. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with healthy Korean adults in their 20s (males=10, females=10). [Methods] An 8 channel surface electromyography system was used to measure the muscle activities of the upper limb muscles and neck muscles of the subjects during maximum isometric contraction with and without use of a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance. [Results] The maximum isometric contractions of the trunk and upper limb muscles when mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance were used were compared with those when no mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance was used. The results showed that the sternocleidomastoid muscle, cervical and lumbar erector spinae, upper trapezius, biceps, triceps, rectus abdominis and internal oblique and external oblique muscles all showed significant increases in maximum isometric contractions with a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance. [Conclusion] The use of a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance is considered to be a method for normal adults to improve the stability of the entire body with the improvement of the stability of the TMJ. The proximal improvement in stability improves of the proximal thereby improving not only muscle strength with increased muscle activation but also stability during exercises.

Lee, Sang-Yeol; Hong, Min-Ho; Park, Min-Chull; Choi, Sung-Min

2013-01-01

414

Assembly of an electrical contact terminal in an electrical appliance  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An electric iron having electrical terminals connected to an electrical power cord. At least one of the terminals extends through a slot in a heat insulating skirt at the rear of the soleplate. The terminal substantially blocks the slot. The terminal also has a narrow neck section above the slot The terminal is twisted or bent at the narrow neck section to prevent the terminal from being pushed back through the slot.

1999-03-23

415

Polyclonal activation of na?ve T cells by urease deficient-recombinant BCG that produced protein complex composed of heat shock protein 70, CysO and major membrane protein-II  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is known to be only partially effective in inhibiting M. tuberculosis (MTB) multiplication in human. A new recombinant (r) urease-deficient BCG (BCG-dHCM) that secretes protein composed of heat shock protein (HSP)70, MTB-derived CysO and major membrane protein (MMP)-II was produced for the efficient production of interferon gamma (IFN-?) which is an essential element for mycobacteriocidal action and inhibition of neutrophil accumulation in lungs. Methods Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages were differentiated from human monocytes, infected with BCG and autologous T cells-stimulating activity of different constructs of BCG was assessed. C57BL/6 mice were used to test the effectiveness of BCG for the production of T cells responsive to MTB-derived antigens (Ags). Results BCG-dHCM intracellularly secreted HSP70-CysO-MMP-II fusion protein, and activated DC by up-regulating Major Histcompatibility Complex (MHC), CD86 and CD83 molecules and enhanced various cytokines production from DC and macrophages. BCG-dHCM activated naïve T cells of both CD4 and CD8 subsets through DC, and memory type CD4+ T cells through macrophages in a manner dependent on MHC and CD86 molecules. These T cell activations were inhibited by the pre-treatment of Ag-presenting cells (APCs) with chloroquine. The single and primary BCG-dHCM-inoculation produced long lasting T cells responsive to in vitro secondarily stimulation with HSP70, CysO, MMP-II and H37Rv-derived cytosolic protein, and partially inhibited the replication of aerosol-challenged MTB. Conclusions The results indicate that introduction of different type of immunogenic molecules into a urease-deficient rBCG is useful for providing polyclonal T cell activating ability to BCG and for production of T cells responsive to secondary stimulation.

2014-01-01

416

The use of Twin Force functional fixed orthopedic appliance in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion.  

PubMed

Fixed protruding appliances are interesting tools for correction of Class II dental malocclusion in adult and growing patients. The appliances most commonly used for this purpose are: Herbst, Forsus and Jasper Jumper. The present clinical case report shows an alternative called Twin Force Bite Corrector which was used for 3 months by a patient aged 10 years and 6 months associated with the Andrews prescription fixed appliance (Abzil 3M). After treatment, malocclusion was found to be adjusted to Class I dental occlusion in a single stage. PMID:24812744

Yamazaki, Marcos Shinao; Rosário, Henrique Damian; El-Haje, Ossam; Alvim-Pereira, Fabiano; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

2014-01-01

417

Simple solar water heating systems: The SWAP program in Florida  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the development of a solar water heating system appropriate for low-income Florida residents and the appliances developed in conjunction with it that may appeal to a wider market. Among the topics discussed are size and design of the system including passive preheaters and affordable active systems. Electric water heaters with 40 and 50 gallon capacity were found to be the most cost effective. The feed-back from customers is also discussed. 3 figs.

Harrison, J. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

1997-11-01

418

What`s new in codes and standards - Office of Building Technologies (OBT): Appliance and lighting standards  

SciTech Connect

US homeowners spend $110 billion each year to power such home appliances as refrigerators, freezers, water heaters, furnaces, air conditioners, and lights. These uses account for about 70% of all the primary energy consumed in homes. During its typical 10-15-year lifetime, the appliance`s operating costs may exceed its initial purchase price several times over. Nevertheless, many consumers do not consider energy efficiency when making purchases. And manufacturers are reluctant to invest in more efficient technology that may not be accepted in the highly competitive marketplace. Recognizing the great potential for energy savings, many states began prescribing minimum energy efficiencies for appliances. Anticipating the burden of complying with differing state standards, manufacturers supported developing federal standards that would preempt state standards.

NONE

1995-09-01

419

78 FR 41387 - Petition for Waiver and Notice of Granting the Application for Interim Waiver of ASKO Appliances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...manufactures of domestically marketed units known to ASKO of this petition and application by mail. Sincerely, Michael Wasson, CTO michaelwasson@askousa.com Phone (972) 941-1948 ASKO Appliances, Inc. Street Address: 4001 E. Plano Pkwy Ste....

2013-07-10

420

Voluntary Labeling Program for Household Appliances and Equipment to Effect Energy Conservation: Annual Report for Calendar Year 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Voluntary Labeling Program for Household Appliances and Equipment to Effect Energy Conservation was established in response to an April 18, 1973 Presidential directive. Final procedures for the program became effective October 26, 1973. Only major ene...

B. J. McGuire E. A. Vadelund

1975-01-01

421

Heating with waste heat  

SciTech Connect

Most of the power consumed in the gaseous diffusion process is converted into heat of compression, which is removed from the process gas and rejected into the atmosphere by recirculating cooling water over cooling towers. The water being handled through the X-333 and X-330 Process Buildings can be heated to 140 to 150/sup 0/F for heating use. The Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant is provided with a recirculating heating water (RHW) system which uses X-330 water and wasted heat. The RHW flow is diagrammed. (DLC)

Beabout, R.W.

1986-09-02

422

In vivo assessment of DNA damage induced in oral mucosa cells by fixed and removable metal prosthodontic appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given long-term effect on oral tissues due to contact with dental appliances, the biocompatibility studies of casting alloys\\u000a are of great importance. It has been previously documented that metal dental appliances, due to corrosion, might induce genotoxic\\u000a and mutagenic effects in cells. Therefore, the aim of presented study was to examine the genotoxicity of two dental casting\\u000a alloys (Co-Cr-Mo and

Marinka Bari?evi?; Ivana Ratkaj; Marin Mladini?; Davor Želježi?; Sandra Paveli? Kraljevi?; Božana Lon?ar; Marinka Mravak Stipeti?

423

Research on the electronic commerce logistics of large and medium-sized household appliances and fuzzy control mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the present situation of the large and medium-sized household electrical appliance's e-commerce in China, constructs an e-commerce logistics system platform and a distribution logical structure mode of the large and medium-sized household appliances as well as the logistics distribution fuzzy control mode of the cooperation units in China. For the logistics system platform, studies and analyzes the current

Yang Xiao-ping; Yi Jia-bin

2010-01-01

424

The influence of different types of fixed orthodontic appliance on the growth and adherence of microorganisms (in vitro study).  

PubMed

Orthodontic appliances serve as different impact zones and modify microbial adherence and colonization, acting as foreign reserves and possible sources of infection. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different types of fixed orthodontic appliances on the growth and adherence of microorganisms in oral flora which are Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Candida albicans. Sixty-four of four different fixed orthodontic appliance-samples were used, divided into four groups of sixteen. Type I: Sapphire brackets- Coated wires, type II: Sapphire brackets- Stainless steel wires, type III: Stainless steel brackets- Coated wires and type IV: Stainless steel brackets- Stainless steel wires. Oral strains of S. mutans and Candida albicans were studied in the present study using biochemical test then microbial suspensions were prepared to do the tests of each microorganism including the antimicrobial effects of different appliance-samples on the growth of microorganisms and their adhesion tests. The results showed significant differences between the different appliances in terms of inhibition zone formation (P<0.001). The adhesion test, which is classified into low, medium and high, showed the adhesion of S. mutans, is low with type I and II, medium with type III and high with type IV, whereas the adhesion of Candida albicans is medium with both type I and II and high with both type III and IV with high significant differences (P<0.001). Appliance with high esthetic appearance, sapphire brackets and coated arch wire, showed the least adherence of S. mutans and Candida albicans in comparison to other appliances with less esthetic and more metal components. Key words:Orthodontic appliance, Adherence, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans. PMID:24455049

Saloom, Hayder F; Mohammed-Salih, Harraa S; Rasheed, Shaymaa F

2013-02-01

425

The influence of different types of fixed orthodontic appliance on the growth and adherence of microorganisms (in vitro study)  

PubMed Central

Orthodontic appliances serve as different impact zones and modify microbial adherence and colonization, acting as foreign reserves and possible sources of infection. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different types of fixed orthodontic appliances on the growth and adherence of microorganisms in oral flora which are Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Candida albicans. Sixty-four of four different fixed orthodontic appliance-samples were used, divided into four groups of sixteen. Type I: Sapphire brackets- Coated wires, type II: Sapphire brackets- Stainless steel wires, type III: Stainless steel brackets- Coated wires and type IV: Stainless steel brackets- Stainless steel wires. Oral strains of S. mutans and Candida albicans were studied in the present study using biochemical test then microbial suspensions were prepared to do the tests of each microorganism including the antimicrobial effects of different appliance-samples on the growth of microorganisms and their adhesion tests. The results showed significant differences between the different appliances in terms of inhibition zone formation (P<0.001). The adhesion test, which is classified into low, medium and high, showed the adhesion of S. mutans, is low with type I and II, medium with type III and high with type IV, whereas the adhesion of Candida albicans is medium with both type I and II and high with both type III and IV with high significant differences (P<0.001). Appliance with high esthetic appearance, sapphire brackets and coated arch wire, showed the least adherence of S. mutans and Candida albicans in comparison to other appliances with less esthetic and more metal components. Key words:Orthodontic appliance, Adherence, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans.

Saloom, Hayder F.; Mohammed-Salih, Harraa S.; Rasheed, Shaymaa F.

2013-01-01

426

Energy-Efficient Water Heating Program for the Residential Sector.  

SciTech Connect

During the power surplus period of the late 1980's, Bonneville sponsored market research which provided an understanding of the market environment in the water heating end-use. The major areas of investigation included market trends, consumer purchasing practices, unit price, and availability of energy-efficient models. In 1988, Bonneville conducted a series of meetings with utilities operating water heater programs. Discussions focused on utility program concerns and the appropriate role for Bonneville as the region seeks efficiency in residential water heating. The design of the Program is based to a large degree on the experiences gained by regional utilities operating water heater incentive programs. In addition, an analysis of incentive programs operated outside the region has been helpful in the development of a regional program. Bonneville is a member of the Appliance Efficiency Group (AEG), formerly the Northwest Appliance Efficiency Group, and participates in discussions on water heating issues as they relate to the Pacific Northwest. The work done with the Appliance Efficiency Group has provided additional input in the development of the Program. This Program has been developed using a Public Involvement Process. A draft program strategy was made available to the public for comment during April 1990. The comments received were considered in the development of this document.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1990-09-01

427

Database Are Not Toasters: A Framework for Comparing Data Warehouse Appliances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of Business Intelligence (BI) applications depends on two factors, the ability to analyze data ever more quickly and the ability to handle ever increasing volumes of data. Data Warehouse (DW) and Data Mart (DM) installations that support BI applications have historically been built using traditional architectures either designed from the ground up or based on customized reference system designs. The advent of Data Warehouse Appliances (DA) brings packaged software and hardware solutions that address performance and scalability requirements for certain market segments. The differences between DAs and custom installations make direct comparisons between them impractical and suggest the need for a targeted DA benchmark. In this paper we review data warehouse appliances by surveying thirteen products offered today. We assess the common characteristics among them and propose a classification for DA offerings. We hope our results will help define a useful benchmark for DAs.

Trajman, Omer; Crolotte, Alain; Steinhoff, David; Nambiar, Raghunath Othayoth; Poess, Meikel

428

Application of engineering plastic materials to office automation and audio-visual appliances in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state-of-the-art review of the applications of engineering plastic materials for office automation and audio-vision appliances in Japan is presented, with particular attention to the recent development of engineering and super-engineering plastics in Japan. Material surveys are given for the following engineering plastics: polyamide, polyacetal, polycarbonate, modified polyphenylene oxide, polybutylene terephthalate, polyethylene terephthalate, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, polyethersulfone, polyetheterketone, polyetherketone, polyarylate,

Sachio Yasufuku

1992-01-01

429

Comparative evaluation of a new removable Jasper Jumper functional appliance vs an activator-headgear combination.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the effects of an activator-headgear (HG) combination to a Jasper Jumper (JJ) plus occipital HG, which was incorporated into removable upper and lower plates. The study group consisted of 60 subjects with mandibular deficiency and a vertical growth pattern. Of these, 20 were treated with JJ appliance-HG incorporated to removable upper and lower plates, 20 were treated with an activator-HG combination. Another 20 subjects who refused orthodontic treatment served as controls. Pre- and postreatment lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist films were gathered for all 60 subjects. Lateral cephalograms were manually traced before being transferred to RMO JOE software by a digitizer. Measurements that are not included in the software were measured manually. Thirty-five dental and skeletal parameters were used in the study. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS packet software. Wilcoxon paired t-test was used for intragroup comparisons. Differences between groups were evaluated by analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests. Results suggest that ANB angle was decreased significantly in both treatment groups compared with the controls. Increase in total facial height was greater in the activator group than in the JJ group. Vertical growth inhibition of lower incisors was greater in the JJ group. The activator-HG appliance was more effective on the mandible, whereas the JJ appliance was mainly active on the maxilla. Thus, ideal cases for JJ-splinted appliance should be high-angle cases, particularly with maxillary excess and some mandibular deficiency. PMID:12828437

Sari, Zafer; Goyenc, Yasar; Doruk, Cenk; Usumez, Serdar

2003-06-01

430

Evaluating alternative life-cycle strategies for electrical appliances by the waste input-output model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  In 2001, a new law on the recycling of end-of-life electric home appliances (EL-EHA) was put into effect in Japan; it was\\u000a the first legislation of its sort in the world, and deserves to be called the ‘Japan model.’ This article is concerned with\\u000a the LCA of alternative life-cycle strategies for EL-EHA, which consist of recycling as

Yasushi Kondo; Shinichiro Nakamura

2004-01-01

431

Fully-customized lingual appliances: how lingual orthodontics became a viable treatment option.  

PubMed

Despite being available for over 30 years, it is perhaps only over the past decade or so that lingual therapy has entered into the mainstream and become a viable treatment option. This paper outlines the problems encountered with traditional lingual techniques and describes how fully-customized lingual appliances have been designed to overcome many of the issues that had risked confining lingual orthodontics to the margins of clinical practice. PMID:24005954

George, Richard D; Hirani, Sunil

2013-09-01

432

Outcome of a Dentigerous Cyst following Decompression using a Removable Appliance: A Case Report.  

PubMed

A dentigerous cyst is a benign odontogenic cyst that is associated with the crown of an unerupted permanent tooth. This report describes a conservative approach to treatment using a customised removable appliance for managing a large dentigerous cyst in a 7-year-old female. At the 2-year follow-up, healing of the lesion and ossification of the bony defect was observed. PMID:24603922

Durmus, Basak; Pekel, Barhan; Ugurlu, Faysal; Tanboga, Ilknur

2014-03-01

433

Measuring Intraoral Pressure: Adaptation of a Dental Appliance Allows Measurement During Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new way of recording intraoral pressures from a range of locations within the oral cavity. To measure\\u000a pressure flow dynamics during swallowing, we fitted eight miniature pressure transducers capable of measuring absolute pressures\\u000a to a chrome-cobalt palatal appliance with a labial bow. Unlike previous devices, our design provides a rigid, custom-fitted\\u000a platform for the simultaneous recording

Jules Kieser; Bhavia Singh; Michael Swain; Ionut Ichim; J. Neil Waddell; Daniel Kennedy; Kylie Foster; Victoria Livingstone

2008-01-01

434

Exposure of Workers to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields and Electric Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Exposure of Workers to Extremely Low Frequency,Magnetic ,Fields and ,Electric Appliances: Yoon Shin KIM, et al. Institute of Environmental and Industrial Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Korea—The purpose of this study was to investigate personal exposure to extremely low frequency,magnetic fields. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. Thirty-seven subjects in occupational ,and 65 subjects in non- occupational

Yoon Shin KIM; Yong Sung CHO

2001-01-01

435

Treating Class II Patients with Removable Plates and Functional Orthopedic Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:  To determine the influence of physiological growth pattern and anterior tooth inclination on the outcome in Class II patients treated with removable orthodontic plates and functional orthodontic appliances.Patients and Methods:  After recruiting 50 patients with an upper anterior proclination of 1-SN ? 107 for this retrospective study, another 50 patients with a retroclination of 1-SN ? 95 were also included. All

Mirjam Hönn; Colette Schneider; Klaus Dietz; Arnim Godt; Gernot Göz

2006-01-01

436

Cephalometric changes after long-termearly treatment with face mask and maxillary intraoral appliance therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a retrospective study of 25 children (mean age, 4 years 2 months) exhibiting Class III malocclusions and anterior cross-bites who were treated with a face mask and a maxillary intraoral appliance. Cephalometric radiographs were taken for all treated patients at three intervals: before treatment (TO), after treatment (T1), and at posttreatment follow-up (T2). A control group

Prinda Lertpitayakun; Kuniaki Miyujima; Ryuzo Kanomi; Pramod K. Sinha

2001-01-01

437

Three-dimensional evaluation of changes in lip position from before to after orthodontic appliance removal  

PubMed Central

Introduction Our objectives were to develop a reproducible method of superimposing 3-dimensional images for measuring soft-tissue changes over time and to use this method to document changes in lip position after the removal of orthodontic appliances. Methods Three-dimensional photographs of 50 subjects were made in repose and maximum intercuspation before and after orthodontic appliance removal with a stereo camera. For reliability assessment, 2 photographs were repeated for 15 patients. The images were registered on stable areas, and surface-to-surface measurements were made for defined landmarks. Results Mean changes were below the level of clinical significance (set at 1.5 mm). However, 51% and 18% of the subjects experienced changes greater than 1.5 mm at the commissures and lower lips, respectively. Conclusions The use of serial 3-dimensional photographs is a reliable method of documenting soft-tissue changes. Soft-tissue changes after appliance removal are not clinically significant; however, there is great individual variability.

Eidson, Lindsey; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; de Paula, Leonardo Koerich; Hershey, H. Garland; Welch, Gregory; Rossouw, P. Emile

2014-01-01

438

Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in infants with trisomy 21 using oral appliances.  

PubMed

Objective : To perform a retrospective study to evaluate the effect of oral appliances, aimed at increasing the pharyngeal space, on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in infants with trisomy 21 (TS21). Design and Setting : Retrospective study in a tertiary referral center. Intervention : We analyzed data from 51 consecutive infants (mean age, 2.7 months) who underwent polysomnography (PSG) and were offered our treatment concept. Primary study variable was the mixed-obstructive apnea index (MOAI); OSA was defined as a MOAI ? 1. Results : Twenty-seven infants (53%) had OSA. Their median MOAI improved from 2.3 (1 to 13) to 0 (0 to 0.2; P < .05). Seven of these infants were treated with an appliance that included some type of velar extension to move the tongue base forward. Of the 24 infants without OSA at admission, follow-up PSG results were available for 13. Three infants from this group had developed OSA by the time of a repeat PSG. Conclusion : In patients with TS21, OSA may already develop in infancy. Early treatment may improve OSA. Oral appliances with some type of velar extension may be considered as an alternative to other treatment procedures. PMID:23092363

Linz, Annette; Urschitz, Michael S; Bacher, Margit; Brockmann, Pablo E; Buchenau, Wolfgang; Poets, Christian F

2013-11-01

439

High-Resolution Gas Metering and Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis deals with design and implementation of a high-resolution metering system for residential natural gas meters. Detailed experimental measurements are performed on the meter to characterize and understand its measurement properties. Results from these experiments are used to develop a simple, fast and accurate technique to non-intrusively monitor the gas consumption of individual appliances in homes by resolving small amounts of gas usage. The technique is applied on an existing meter retrofitted with a module that includes a high-resolution encoder to collect gas flow data and a microprocessor to analyze and identify appliance load profiles. This approach provides a number of appealing features including low cost, easy installation and integration with automated meter reading (AMR) systems. The application of this method to residential gas meters currently deployed is also given. This is done by performing a load simulation on realistic gas loads with the aim of identifying the necessary parameters that minimize the cost and complexity of the mechanical encoder module. The primary benefits of the system are efficiency analysis, appliance health monitoring and real-time customer feedback of gas usage. Additional benefits of include the ability to detect very small leaks and theft. This system has the potential for wide scale market adoption.

Tewolde, Mahder

440

Air supply and venting to improve performance of residential combustion appliances  

SciTech Connect

With homes being made tighter, combustion appliances are having an increasingly difficult time receiving adequate air to operate safely and properly. Spillage of incomplete combustion products or even chimney flow reversals (backdrafting) can result in significant amounts of carbon monoxide and other toxic combustion products being exhausted into the house. Some of these pollutants may cause immediate acute, even life threatening problems; others may cause longer term chronic health problems. Concern about the quality of indoor air has increased commensurately, with international technical organizations (eg. ASHRAE, APCA) identifying it as a major problem. The causes of spillage and backdrafting cannot be attributed to a single component of the combustion system. Conventional appliances, lacking in forced draft generators, must rely on natural draft created by the temperature difference between the flue gas and the outdoor air. Unfortunately, large quantities of dilution air and/or poorly designed systems result in large quantities of lukewarm stack gas which translate into poor draft. In other cases, the chimney itself may be at fault either through being oversized, physical deterioration or poor location. Again the result is poor draft and possible combustion product spillage or backdrafting. The elimination of these problems must therefore address not only the combustion appliances but also the chimney and associated venting system. This book discusses gas-or oil-fired combustion systems, which eliminate the dilution device and forcibly exhaust the combustion products.

Hayden, A.C.S.; Preto, F. (Canadian Combustion Research Lab., Ottawa, Ontario (CA))

1988-01-01

441

Bite force and its association with stability following Class II/1 functional appliance treatment.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to investigate the value of pre-treatment maximal molar bite force as a predictive variable in determining post-treatment changes and stability following functional appliance treatment in Class II malocclusion children. Twenty-eight Class II malocclusion children having undergone functional appliance treatment were followed for at least 1 year post-treatment. Maximal molar bite force measurements, lateral cephalograms, and study casts were taken before treatment, after treatment, and after post-treatment follow-up. Relationships between pre-treatment maximal molar bite force and dental or cephalometric changes post-treatment were examined. Patients were divided into stable and unstable groups, based on dental sagittal changes (overjet and molar relationship), and differences between the two groups of patients determined. Post-treatment changes varied widely. Thirteen children showed dentoalveolar sagittal relapse, namely a shift in molars towards a Class II relationship and an increase in overjet, while 15 did not. The unstable group demonstrated a lower pre-treatment maximal molar bite force, as well as a more obtuse gonial angle, than the stable group. The gonial angle was found to be negatively correlated to maximal molar bite force and may thus be a cephalometric indicator partly reflecting the functional condition of the masticatory muscles. Children with a lower pre-treatment maximal molar bite force were more prone to dentoalveolar sagittal relapse following functional appliance treatment. PMID:22828079

Antonarakis, Gregory S; Kjellberg, Heidrun; Kiliaridis, Stavros

2013-08-01

442

Frankel appliance type III: correct fabrication and case report of skeletal Class III malocclusion.  

PubMed

The functional Regulator was developed by Rolf Frankel of Zwickau, Germany in 1966. The Frankel appliance is used to effect changes in sagittal, transverse, and vertical jaw relationships and remove the abnormal muscle forces in the labial and buccal areas that restrict skeletal growth, thereby, providing an environment which maximizes skeletal growth. Four main types of functional regulators have been described by Frankel. They are the FR I, II, III and IV. One of these appliances, the FR-III, is used in the treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion. This appliance is used during early mixed dentition stage to correct skeletal Class III malocclusion, characterized by maxillary skeletal retrusion and no mandibular prognathism. The correct fabrication of FR-III is required. In order to do it, one must pay attention to the following: mixing the alginate impression material in a thick consistency, optimum vestibular depth, oblique mounting of casts in the vertiiculator, minimum incisal vertical height of construction bite, sufficient working model trimming, rectangular wax relief of the occlusal margin area in the working cast and a palatal bow of 1.2 mm heavy wire. Finally one case is reported. PMID:9151620

Yang, K H

1996-01-01

443

Making solar water heating cost-effective in the colder climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present high capital costs, unreliability, and lack of financial incentives are obstacles to the commercialization of domestic solar-water-heating systems. Simple, well-designed, well-merchandized solar-water-heating systems can become common home appliances, however, if the government, engineers, and utilities will help. Legislators can help by equalizing tax incentives, while utilities can integrate solar systems into the power system and reward customers for

Cosel

1979-01-01

444

Heat Loss Imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared scanning devices are being used to produce images that show, by color or black-and-white shading differences, which buildings and homes are losing heat to the outdoors, and how much. Heat loss surveys done by Texas Instruments, Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. and other companies have growing acceptance of their services among industrial firms, utilities, local governments, and state and federal agencies interested in promoting heat loss awareness and inspiring corrective actions.

1981-01-01

445

Nanofluid heat capacities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

2011-12-01

446

Analysis of the torque capacity of a completely customized lingual appliance of the next generation  

PubMed Central

Introduction In lingual orthodontic therapy, effective torque control of the incisors is crucial due to the biomechanical particularities associated with the point of force application and the tight link between third order deviations and vertical tooth position. Aim The aim of the present in vitro investigation was to analyze the torque capacity of a completely customized lingual appliance of the next generation (WIN) in combination with different finishing archwire dimensions. Methods Using a typodont of the upper arch carrying the WIN appliance, slot filling and undersized individualized ?-titanium archwires were engaged. Horizontal forces ranging from 0 to 100 cN were applied at the central incisor by means of spring gauges. The resulting angular deviations were recorded and the corresponding torque moments were calculated. Results For fullsize archwires (0.018”×0.018” ?-titanium and 0.018”×0.025” ?-titanium), an initial torque play of 0-2° had to be overcome prior to the development of an effective torque moment. Thereafter, a linear correlation between torque angle and torque moment developed for both archwire dimensions with steeper slopes calculated for the specimens with the larger dimension. A torque moment of 2 Nmm required for effective torque correction was noted after a minimum of 2-3° of twist for the 0.018”×0.018” ?-titanium wires as compared to 2-4° for the 0.018”×0.025” ?-titanium study sample. When undersized archwires were analyzed (0.0175”×0.0175” ?-titanium), the measured torque play ranged from 5-7°. After 8-12° of torque angle, the threshold of 2 Nmm was reached. A linear relationship between twist angle and torque moment in which the steepness of the slopes was generally flatter than the ones calculated for the slot filling archwires was noted. Conclusions Given the high precision of the bracket slot-archwire-combination provided with the WIN appliance, an effective torque control can be clinically realized.

2014-01-01

447

Cephalometric evaluation of hyoid bone position and pharyngeal spaces following treatment with Twin block appliance  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the position of hyoid bone in the subjects treated with Twin block appliance. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 40 Angle's Class II division 1 subjects treated with Twin block appliance. Lateral radiographs were taken before and after treatment. According to Schudy's facial divergence angle (SN-MP), the subjects were classified in to three groups: group I (hypodivergent, SN-MP: <31° (27°-30°), n=15), group II (normodivergent, SN-MP: 31°-34°, n=15), and group III (hyperdivergent, SN-MP: >34° (35°?38°), n=10). Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed manually. After measurements of variables, Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed. Results: Post treatment with Twin block therapy, hyoid bone shifted significantly (P<0.01) forward in horizontal dimension in all three groups, although it was highest in group III. However, there was no significant difference amongst the groups. In vertical dimension, hyoid bone shifted in upward direction in all three groups; however, the shift was significant (P<0.01) only in group I and there was a significant difference between group I and rest of the two groups. Width of upper airway significantly (P<0.01) increased and ANB angle significantly (P<0.001) decreased in all three groups with forward movement of mandible. Conclusions: After treatment with Twin block appliance, significant changes occurred in horizontal dimension (anterior displacement), which resulted in significant increase in width of upper pharynx in all three groups.

Verma, Geeta; Tandon, Pradeep; Nagar, Amit; Singh, Gyan P.; Singh, Alka

2012-01-01

448

Radiofrequency heating of metallic dental devices during 3.0 T MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To estimate the risk of injury from radiofrequency (RF) heating of metallic dental devices in use during 3.0?T MRI. Methods: The whole-body specific absorption rate (WB-SAR) was calculated on the basis of saline temperature elevation under the maximum RF irradiation for 15?min to determine the operation parameters for the heating test. The temperature changes of three types of three-unit bridges, a full-arch fixed dental prosthesis and an orthodontic appliance in use during MRI with a 3.0?T MR system (Magnetom® Verio; Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) were then tested in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials F2182-09 standardized procedure under the maximum RF heating during 15?min RF irradiation. Results: The system console-predicted WB-SAR was approximately 1.4?W?kg?1 and that measured with a saline phantom was 2.1?W?kg?1. In the assessment of RF heating, the highest temperature increase was +1.80?°C in the bridges, +1.59?°C in the full-arch fixed dental prosthesis and +2.61?°C in the orthodontic appliance. Conclusions: The relatively minor RF heating of dental casting material-based prostheses in Magnetom Verio systems in the normal operating mode should not pose a risk to patients. However, orthodontic appliances may exhibit RF heating above the industrial standard (CENELEC standard prEN45502-2-3); therefore, the wire should be removed from the bracket or a spacer should be used between the appliance and the oral mucosa during MRI.

Hasegawa, M; Miyata, K; Abe, Y; Ishigami, T

2013-01-01

449

Fixed versus Removable Appliance for Palatal Expansion; A 3D Analysis Using the Finite Element Method  

PubMed Central

Objective: Several appliances have been used for palatal expansion for treatment of posterior cross bite. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress induced in the apical and crestal alveolar bone and the pattern of tooth displacement following expansion via removable expansion plates or fixed-banded palatal expander using the finite element method (FEM) analysis. Materials and Methods: Two 3D FEM models were designed from a mesio-distal slice of the maxilla containing the upper first molars, their periodontium and alveolar bone. Two palatal expanders (removable and fixed) were modeled. The models were designed in SolidWorks 2006 and then transferred to ANSYS Workbench. The appliance halves were displaced 0.1 mm laterally. The von Mises stress in the apical, crestal, and PDL areas and also the vertical displacement of the cusps (palatal and buccal) was were evaluated. Results: The total PDL stress was 0.40003 MPa in the removable appliance (RA) model and 4.88e-2 MPa in the fixed appliance (FA) model and the apical stress was 9.9e-2 and 1.17e-2 MPa, respectively. The crestal stress was 2.99e-1 MPa in RA and 7.62e-2 MPa in the FA. The stress in the cortical bone crest was 0.30327 and 7.9244e-2 MPa for RA and FA, respectively and 3.7271 and 7.4373e-2 MPa in crestal area of spongy bone, respectively. The vertical displacement of the buccal cusp and palatal cusp was 1.64e-2 and 5.90e-2 mm in RA and 1.05e-4 and 1.7e-4 mm in FA, respectively. Conclusion: The overall stress as well as apical and crestal stress in periodontium of anchor teeth was higher in RA than FA; RA elicited higher stress in both cortical and spongy bone. The vertical displacement of molar cusps was more in removable than fixed palatal expander model.

Geramy, Allahyar; Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar

2014-01-01

450

Effect of heat treatment and heat-to-heat variations in the fatigue-crack growth response of Alloy 718  

SciTech Connect

The fatigue-crack growth behavior of seven heats of Alloy 718 was studied at five different test temperatures. These seven heats represented at least four different producers, four different product forms, two melt practices, and most of the heat were tested in two different heat-treated conditions. Heat-to-heat variations were noted; these were most obvious in material given the conventional heat-treatment. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

James, L.A.; Mills, W.J.

1980-04-01

451

Selective laser melting of heat transfer devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To fabricate and characterise novel heat sinks manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). The investigation explores features of SLM produced heat sinks that may be exploited to improve their heat transfer capability. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study was conducted on heat sinks manufactured from 316L stainless steel and aluminium 6061. The heat transfer devices' thermal and pressure drop performances

Matthew Wong; Sozon Tsopanos; Chris J. Sutcliffe; Ieuan Owen

2007-01-01

452

Heat regulation during exercise with controlled cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  During heavy sustained exercise, when sweating is usually needed to dissipate the extra metabolic heat, controlled cooling caused heat loss to match total heat production with little sweating. The total heat produced and metabolic rate were varied independently by having subjects walk uphill and down. Heat loss was measured directly with a suit calorimeter; other measurements included metabolic energy from

Paul Webb; Francis J. Nagle; Dan M. Wanta

1991-01-01

453

Solar heat utilized air-conditioning system  

SciTech Connect

A solar heat utilized air-conditioning system is described. A solar heat collecting unit produces warm water by heating a circulating heating medium water by solar heat obtained by collector plates disposed in parallel with each other. An absorption type refrigerating machine produces cold water by provoking a refrigerating cycle, using the warm water produced by said solar heat collecting unit as the heat source for a generator. A main heat exchanger indirectly heat-exchanges an intake fresh-air for a circulating cold or warm water in an air-conditioning unit disposed on the way of a fresh-air intake path to a space to be air-conditioned, thereby to produce cooling or heating air. An air-cooling and heating apparatus selectively supplies the circulating cold or warm water to said main heat exchanger. An auxiliary heat exchanger selectively flows either warm water produced by said solar heat collecting unit or cold water produced by said absorption type refrigerating machine, said main heat exchanger and said auxiliary heat exchanger being disposed in parallel with and adjacent to each other in said air-conditioning unit with said auxiliary heat exchanger disposed at the fresh-air intake side thereof.

Inoue, J.; Minamino, K.; Tanaka, S.; Yukimachi, K.

1981-06-16

454

Comparison of the effects of continuous positive airway pressure, oral appliance and exercise training in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: There are several treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, such as weight loss, use of an oral appliance and continuous positive airway pressure, that can be used to reduce the signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a physical training program compared with other treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of physical exercise on subjective and objective sleep parameters, quality of life and mood in obstructive sleep apnea patients and to compare these effects with the effects of continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliance treatments. METHODS: Male patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and body mass indices less than 30 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to three groups: continuous positive airway pressure (n?=?9), oral appliance (n?=?9) and physical exercise (n?=?7). Polysomnographic recordings, blood samples and daytime sleepiness measurements were obtained prior to and after two months of physical exercise or treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01289392 RESULTS: After treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance, the patients presented with a significant reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index. We did not observe changes in the sleep parameters studied in the physical exercise group. However, this group presented reductions in the following parameters: T leukocytes, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Two months of exercise training also had a positive impact on subjective daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that isolated physical exercise training was able to modify only subjective daytime sleepiness and some blood measures. Continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliances modified the apnea-hypopnea index.

Schutz, Teresa Cristina Barros; Cunha, Thays Crosara Abrahao; Moura-Guimaraes, Thais; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Ackel-D'Elia, Carolina; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Junior, Gilberto Pantiga; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

2013-01-01

455

High altitude installation of natural gas-fired appliances with fan-assisted combustion systems. Topical report, April 1993March 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study forms the basis for needed changes in both the ANSI gas appliance standards and the national Fuel Gas Code to appropriately address the proper installation of new technology as natural gas-fired appliances at high altitudes. Lack of appropriate guidelines or criteria has been a major barrier to consumers receiving the benefit of new technology equipment in the estimated

V. P. Kam; L. Ni; R. A. Borgeson; R. Sheridan; J. Partridge

1995-01-01

456

Use of nasoalveolar molding appliance to direct growth in newborn patient with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.  

PubMed

The alignment of the alveolar segments creates the foundation upon which excellent results of lip and primary nasal surgery are dependent in the repair of the cleft lip and palate patient. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the step-by-step fabrication process of the nasoalveolar molding appliance used to direct growth of the alveolar ridge, lips, and nose in the presurgical treatment of cleft lip and palate. As a result of this appliance, the primary surgical repair of the nose and lip heals under minimal tension, thereby reducing scar formation and improving the esthetic result. PMID:12889702

Yang, Sue; Stelnicki, Eric J; Lee, Misook N

2003-01-01

457

Heat Without Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logic of the Second Law of Thermodynamics demands acquisition of naked entropy. Accordingly, the leanest liaison between systems is not a diathermic membrane, it is a purely informational tickler, leaking no appreciable energy. The subsystem here is a thermodynamic universe, which gets `heated' entropically, yet without gaining calories. Quantum Mechanics graciously supports that(Lubkin, E. and Lubkin, T., International Journal of Theoretical Physics,32), 933-943 (1993) (at a cost of about 1 bit) through entanglement---across this least permeable of membranes---with what is beyond that universe. Heat without heat(Also v. forthcoming Proceedings of the 4th Drexel University Conference of September 1994) is the aspirin for Boltzmann's headache, conserving entropy in mechanical isolation, even while increasing entropy in thermodynamic isolation.

Lubkin, Elihu

1997-04-01

458

Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

Cawley, William E. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

459

Appliances, Lighting, Electronics, and Miscellaneous EquipmentElectricity Use in New Homes  

SciTech Connect

The "Other" end-uses (appliances, lighting, electronics, andmiscellaneous equipment) continue to grow. This is particularly true innew homes, where increasing floor area and amenities are leading tohigher saturation of these types of devices. This paper combines thefindings of several field studies to assess the current state ofknowledge about the "Other" end-uses in new homes. The field studiesinclude sub-metered measurements of occupied houses in Arizona, Florida,and Colorado, as well as device-level surveys and power measurements inunoccupied new homes. We find that appliances, lighting, electronics, andmiscellaneous equipment can consume from 46 percent to 88 percent ofwhole-house electricity use in current low-energy homes. Moreover, theannual consumption for the "Other" end-uses is not significantly lower innew homes (even those designed for low energy use) compared to existinghomes. The device-level surveys show that builder-installed equipment isa significant contributor to annual electricity consumption, and certaindevices that are becoming more common in new homes, such as structuredwiring systems, contribute significantly to this power consumption. Thesefindings suggest that energy consumption by these "Other" end uses isstill too large to allow cost-effective zero-energy homes.

Brown, Richard E.; Rittelman, William; Parker, Danny; Homan,Gregory

2007-02-28

460

Clinical effect of Tip-Edge plus appliance in children with angle II(1) malocclusion.  

PubMed

The effects of Tip-Edge plus appliance in the treatment of Angle II(1) malocclusion and the mechanism were investigated. Fifty-two Angle II(1) children, aged from 12.3-14.2 years, with mandibular retrusion in permanent dentition were selected and treated with Tip-Edge plus appliance. Lateral cephalometric films taken before and after treatment were analyzed. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation were calculated for each variable. Paired t-test was performed to evaluate the significant treatment change. Results showed that the average treatment time was 16 months. Normal overjet and overbite were established with retroclination of upper incisors and proclination of lower incisors. U1-NA was decreased by 15.4° (P<0.01). ANB and Y axial angle were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Soft tissue measurements showed that FCA and UL-E were decreased dramatically (P<0.05), and LL-E was increased significantly (P<0.05). Remarkable soft tissue change was noted after the treatment and convex facial profile changed to the straight profile. In conclusion, Tip-Edge plus technique can quickly and efficiently correct anterior bite and lateral outlook. PMID:24337853

Xu, Lu-lu; Chen, Li-li; Du, Xing-yan; Gao, Zhen-yang; Liu, Hong-chen

2013-12-01

461

Modified tandem traction bow appliance compared with facemask therapy in treating Class III malocclusions.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effects of the modified tandem traction bow appliance (MTTBA) and the facemask in treating patients with Class III malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of the pre-post treatment\\pre-post observation lateral cephalograms of 65 subjects with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion. In the first group 21 patients (mean age: 10 years, 6 months) were treated with a Delaire-type facemask (FM). In the second group 22 patients treated (mean age: 10 years) with MTTBA. The remaining 22 children (mean age: 9 years, 7 months) were observed without treatment for 11 months. Results: Increase in SNA, N-FH ? A, and ANB angles were significantly greater in the treatment groups compared to the control group. However, ANB angle showed a significantly greater increase in the FM group (2.8 ± 0.30°) than in the MTTBA group (2.0 ± 0.18°). The overjet and molar relation increased significantly in both treatment groups, but in the FM group (5.2 ± 0.40 mm) increase in overjet was significantly greater than in the MTTBA group (4.0 ± 0.27 mm). Mesial movement of upper molar and incisor were found to be greater in the FM group compared to the modified TTBA group. Conclusions: Both appliances were found to be effective in the treatment of Class III malocclusion. Their skeletal and dental effects showed differences due to their design. PMID:24274958

Tortop, Tuba; Kayg?s?z, Emine; Gencer, Deniz; Yuksel, Sema; Atalay, Zeynep

2014-07-01

462

Release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances by in vitro studies: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

In the present work, a systematic literature review on release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances under in vitro conditions is described. Detailed and schematic analysis of used materials and applied methods (immersion media, incubation time, temperature, and analytical techniques) is provided. The PubMed search identified 40 studies, among which eight met the selection criteria. One additional study was included in the review. All the authors agreed that the doses of released metal ions were far below the toxic level and the dietary intake. Although the concentrations of metal ions in immersion media greatly differed, the general conclusions were coherent. It must be underlined that the main disadvantage of in vitro tests was that the experimental setup did not reflect in vivo conditions, e.g., the presence of biofilm, which grows on the surface of the materials in oral cavity. The presence and activity of microflora to a large extent is responsible for the process of corrosion, in particular, biodeterioration. The further scheme of in vitro research should incorporate changeable conditions of oral cavity environment (pH, dynamic conditions-saliva flow) and the presence of microbiological flora (microbiological attack) in the experimental design and, first of all, the real proportions of appliance elements. PMID:20309648

Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

2011-03-01

463

Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the levels of interleukine-1 beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in saliva and IL-1?, TNF-?, and NO in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Method. The subject population consisted of 50 volunteers who were in need of orthodontic treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. GCF and saliva samples were obtained from all individuals before treatment, at 1st month of treatment and at 6th month of treatment. Periodontal clinical parameters were measured. Samples were investigated to detect IL-1?, TNF-?, and 8-OHdG levels using ELISA method and NO and MDA levels using spectrophotometric method. Results. Since IL-1? level detected in GCF at the 6th month of orthodontic treatment is statistically significant according to baseline (P < 0.05), all other biochemical parameters detected both in saliva and in GCF did not show any significant change at any measurement periods. Conclusion. Orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontic materials used in orthodontic treatment do not lead to a change above the physiological limits that is suggestive of oxidative damage in both GCF and saliva.

Atug Ozcan, Sevil Sema; Ceylan, Ismail; Kurt, Nezahat; Dagsuyu, Ilhan Metin; Canakci, Cenk Fatih

2014-01-01

464

Oral Appliances  

MedlinePLUS

... suited for your specific needs. A board certified sleep medicine physician must first provide a diagnosis and recommend the most effective treatment approach. A dental sleep medicine specialist may then provide treatment and follow-up. ...

465

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOEpatents

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18

466

Heat Pipes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the construction, function, and applications of heat pipes. Suggests using the heat pipe to teach principles related to heat transfer and gives sources for obtaining instructional kits for this purpose. (GS)

Lewis, J.

1975-01-01

467

Methods of producing transportation fuel  

DOEpatents

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

2011-12-27