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1

24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707 Section 3280...Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. (a) Heat-producing appliances and vents, roof...

2012-04-01

2

24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707 Section 3280...Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. (a) Heat-producing appliances and vents, roof...

2011-04-01

3

24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707 Section 3280...Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. (a) Heat-producing appliances and vents, roof...

2010-04-01

4

24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707 Section 3280...Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. (a) Heat-producing appliances and vents, roof...

2013-04-01

5

24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707 Section...and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. Link to an amendment...78 FR 73988, Dec. 9, 2013. (a) Heat-producing appliances and vents,...

2014-04-01

6

Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

1983-11-21

7

Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the dump valve on these two appliances would have eliminated uncertainty in knowing when waste water was flowing and the recovery system operated. The study also suggested that capture of dryer exhaust heat to heat incoming air to the dryer should be examined as an alternative to using drying exhaust energy for water heating. The study found that over a 6-week test period, the system in each house was able to recover on average approximately 3000 W-h of waste heat daily from these appliance and showers with slightly less on simulated weekdays and slightly more on simulated weekends which were heavy wash/dry days. Most of these energy savings were due to the shower/GFX operation, and the least savings were for the dishwasher/GFX operation. Overall, the value of the 3000 W-h of displaced energy would have been $0.27/day based on an electricity price of $.09/kWh. Although small for today s convention house, these savings are significant for a home designed to approach maximum affordable efficiency where daily operating costs for the whole house are less than a dollar per day. In 2010 the actual measured cost of energy in one of the simulated occupancy houses which waste heat recovery testing was undertaken was $0.77/day.

Tomlinson, John J [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

2012-09-01

8

In-field measurements of PCDD/F emissions from domestic heating appliances for solid fuels.  

PubMed

Within this project the emissions into the atmosphere of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) of 30 domestic heating appliances in Austrian households were tested. The appliances were single stoves (kitchen stove, continuous burning stove and tiled stove) and central heating boilers for solid fuels up to a nominal heat input of 50 kW. A main objective of this survey was to determine the PCDD/F emissions of domestic heating units under routine conditions. Therefore, the habitual combustion conditions used by the operators were not influenced. The original fuels and lightning supports were used and the operation of the units was carried out by the householders according to their usual practice. The data obtained were used to calculate in-field PCDD/F-emission factors. Most of the appliances have shown PCDD/F emissions within a concentration range of 0.01-0.3 ng TEQ/MJ. Modern fan-assisted wood heating boilers with afterburning and units for continuously burning of wood chips and wood pellets had the lowest emissions. High emissions were caused by unsuitable heating habits such as combustion of wastes and inappropriate operation of the appliances. There were only small differences between single stoves and central heating boilers or between wood and coal-fired appliances. The emission factors calculated are higher than those cited in literature, which are mainly derived from trials on test stands under laboratory conditions. PMID:15581939

Hübner, C; Boos, R; Prey, T

2005-01-01

9

A two-output series-resonant inverter for induction-heating cooking appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-burner induction-heating cooking appliances are suitable for using multiple-output inverters. Some common approaches use several single-output inverters or a single-output inverter multiplexing the loads along the time periodically. By specifying a two-output series-resonant high-frequency inverter, a new inverter is obtained fulfilling the requirements. The synthesized converter can be considered as a two-output extension of a full-bridge topology. It allows the

José M. Burdío; Fernando Monterde; José R. García; Luis A. Barragán; Abelardo Martínez

2005-01-01

10

Frequency-dependent resistance in Litzwire planar windings for domestic induction heating appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the frequency-dependent resistance in Litz-wire planar windings for domestic induction heating appliances is analyzed. For these inductors, in which the size is not an essential constraint, an analytical model is developed based on the superposition of different loss effects in the wire. Eddy current losses, including conduction losses and proximity-effect losses, both internal and external, were considered

Jesús Acero; Rafael Alonso; José M. Burdío; Luis A. Barragán; Diego Puyal

2006-01-01

11

Effect of fuels and domestic heating appliance types on emission factors of selected organic pollutants.  

PubMed

This study reports on the first complex data set of emission factors (EFs) of selected pollutants from combustion of five fuel types (lignite, bituminous coal, spruce, beech, and maize) in six different domestic heating appliances of various combustion designs. The effect of fuel as well as the effect of boiler type was studied. In total, 46 combustion runs were performed, during which numerous EFs were measured, including the EFs of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), etc. The highest EFs of nonchlorinated pollutants were measured for old-type boilers with over-fire and under-fire designs and with manual stoking and natural draft. Emissions of the above-mentioned pollutants from modern-type boilers (automatic, downdraft) were 10 times lower or more. The decisive factor for emission rate of nonchlorinated pollutants was the type of appliance; the type of fuel plays only a minor role. Emissions of chlorinated pollutants were proportional mainly to the chlorine content in fuel, but the type of appliance also influenced the rate of emissions significantly. Surprisingly, higher EFs of PCDD/F from combustion of chlorinated bituminous coal were observed for modern-type boilers (downdraft, automatic) than for old-type ones. On the other hand, when bituminous coal was burned, higher emissions of HxCBz were found for old-type boilers than for modern-type ones. PMID:21932830

Šyc, Michal; Horák, Ji?í; Hopan, František; Krpec, Kamil; Tomšej, Tomáš; Ocelka, Tomáš; Pekárek, Vladimír

2011-11-01

12

FPGA Implementation of a Switching Frequency Modulation Circuit for EMI Reduction in Resonant Inverters for Induction Heating Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the use of frequency modulation as a spread spectrum technique to reduce conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the A frequency band (9-150 kHz) caused by resonant inverters used in induction heating home appliances. For sinusoidal, triangular, and sawtooth modulation profiles, the influence of peak period deviation in EMI reduction and in the power delivered to the load

Luis A. Barragan; Denis Navarro; JesÚs Acero; Isidro Urriza; JosÉ M. Burdio

2008-01-01

13

FPGA-Based Power Measuring for Induction Heating Appliances Using Sigma–Delta A\\/D Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a digital circuit that measures in real time the output power of medium-frequency (25-50 kHz) induction-heated cooking appliances. The voltage and current are sensed using first-order sigma-delta (SigmaDelta) analog-to-digital converters. The power-measuring algorithm is very simple while maintaining good accuracy. The algorithm is developed using a hardware description language (VHDL).

Jesús Acero; Denis Navarro; L. A. Barraga; Ignacio Garde; José I. Artigas; José M. Burdío

2007-01-01

14

REACH. Major Appliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

English, Charles; And Others

15

Field performance of wood-burning and coal-burning appliances in Crested Butte during the 1989-90 heating season. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The field performance of woodburning and coalburning appliances in and around Crested Butte, CO, has been evaluated. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and weekly average burn rates. Woodburning appliances included conventional airtight stoves, EPA-certified catalytic stoves, and EPA-certified noncatalytic stoves. Compared to the emissions measured from conventional stoves, the certified stoves reduced PM emission factors (g/kg) by 53% and CO emission factors by 49%. Coalburning appliances included a commercial scale boiler, a residential stoker, and hand-fired coalstove. The coalburning appliances were compared to conventional woodstoves on a grams of pollutant per joule of heat output basis. The automatically stoked coal appliances reduced PM and CO emissions by roughly 84% and 85%, respectively. The hand-fired stove was cleaner than expected, reducing PM by 55% and CO by 27%.

Jaasma, D.R.; Champion, M.R.; Gundappa, M.

1991-10-01

16

Induction-heated cooking appliance using new quasi-resonant ZVS-PWM inverter with power factor correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new prototype of a voltage-fed quasi-load resonant inverter with a constant-frequency variable-power (CFVP) regulation scheme, which is developed for the next-generation high-frequency high-power induction-heated (IH) cooking appliances in household applications. This application-specific high-frequency single-ended push-pull inverter using new-generation specially designed insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) can efficiently operate under a principle of zero-voltage switching pulsewidth modulation

Shengpei Wang; Kiyoshi Izaki; Izuo Hirota; Hidekazu Yamashita; Hideki Omori; Mutsuo Nakaoka

1998-01-01

17

Comparison of the Initial Orthodontic Force Systems Produced by a New Lingual Bracket System and a Straight-Wire Appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aim: Over the last few years, lingual appliances have become an established orthodontic treatment technique. Many studies have concentrated on various esthetic aspects, on laboratory and clinical procedures, and on patient comfort and compliance. The orthodontic force systems of these appliances, however, have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was thus to determine the forces

Lars-Michael Fuck; Dirk Wiechmann; Dieter Drescher

2005-01-01

18

78 FR 2282 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Producing Same (Enforcement Proceeding); Commission...Presiding Administrative Law Judge; Termination of the Enforcement Proceeding AGENCY...presiding administrative law judge in the above-captioned enforcement proceeding. The...

2013-01-10

19

Oral Appliances  

MedlinePLUS

... weeks or months to complete. This includes examination, evaluation to determine the most appropriate oral appliance, fitting, maximizing adaptation of the appliance, and the function. Ongoing care, including short- and long-term follow-up is an essential step in the ...

20

24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Activated, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Appliances, and certified... (4) When a cooling or heat pump coil and air conditioner...agency. (5) Cooling or heat pump indoor coils and outdoor...movement from vibration and road shock. (2) Operating...

2010-04-01

21

Method for producing micro heat panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flat or curved micro heat pipe panels are fabricated by arranging essentially parallel filaments in the shape of the desired panel. The configuration of the filaments corresponds to the desired configuration of the tubes that will constitute the heat pipes. A thermally conductive material is then deposited on and around the filaments to fill in the desired shape of the panel. The filaments are then removed, leaving tubular passageways of the desired configuration and surface texture in the material. The tubes are then filled with a working fluid and sealed. Composite micro heat pipe laminates are formed by layering individual micro heat pipe panels and bonding them to each other to form a single structure. The layering sequence of the micro heat pipe panels can be tailored to transport heat preferentially in specific directions as desired for a particular application.

Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Peterson, George P. (Inventor); Rummler, Donald R. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

22

Geothermal Heat Pumps Produce Dramatic Savings  

E-print Network

The widespread use of geothermal energy to reduce heating costs has been limited in part by the high initial cost of digging deep wells to obtain moderate temperature water (under 220 F) for direct-use industrial process and space heating...

Niess, R. C.

1983-01-01

23

Lightweight messaging for simulating service portability of networked appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of network technology has introduced new ideas for interconnecting various types of appliances. For example, interconnecting home appliances such as the television, fridge, alarm, kettle and so forth. The main purpose of interconnecting appliances is to develop an environment where the appliances are able to share information that can help them to evaluate and produce a rational

H. Takruri-Rizk; H. B. Lenando; B. Bury

2002-01-01

24

Glycerol citrate polyesters produced through microwave heating  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of various heating methods without catalysis to prepare copolyesters from citric acid:glycerol blends were studied. In the presence of short term microwave treatments, i.e., 60 sec at 1200 W, blends of glycerol and citric acid invariably formed solid amorphous copolyesters. Fourier tra...

25

Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid  

DOEpatents

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX)

2011-01-11

26

Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

2013-05-28

27

Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process  

DOEpatents

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Munsterman, Erwin Henh (Amsterdam, NL); Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus (Amsterdam, NL); Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius (Amsterdam, NL)

2009-10-20

28

Effects of continental insulation and the partitioning of heat producing elements on the Earth's heat loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental lithosphere influences heat loss by acting as a local insulator to the convecting mantle and by sequestering heat-producing radioactive elements from the mantle. Continental heat production can have a two-part effect since it decreases the amount of internal heat driving convection, which lowers mantle temperature, while also increasing the local insulating effect of continental lithosphere, which raises mantle temperature.

C. M. Cooper; A. Lenardic; L. Moresi

2006-01-01

29

Heat Stress Creates Many Challenges for Milk Producers  

E-print Network

Heat Stress Creates Many Challenges for Milk Producers There are a variety of factors that can influence a cow's milk production. In Texas, two of these factors are heat stress and reproduction, causing a cow's body temperature to increase, which has an adverse effect on both reproduction and milk

30

Heat pump assisted drying of agricultural produce-an overview.  

PubMed

This review paper included the recent progress made in heat pump assisted drying, its principle, mechanism and efficiency, type and its application for drying of agricultural produce. Heat pump assisted drying provides a controllable drying environment (temperature and humidity) for better products quality at low energy consumption. It has remarkable future prospects and revolutionaries ability. The heat pump system consists of an expansion valve, two heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser), and a compressor, which are connected by using copper tubes. In this paper we also provided a review discussion on different type of heat pump assisted drying system ready for remarkable and commercial use in different type of food industries. Here we also have given some major advantage and disadvantage of heat pump assisted drying. PMID:23572837

Patel, Krishna Kumar; Kar, Abhijit

2012-04-01

31

Effects of continental insulation and the partitioning of heat producing elements on the Earth's heat loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental lithosphere influences heat loss by acting as a local insulator to the convecting mantle and by sequestering heat-producing radioactive elements from the mantle. Continental heat production can have a two-part effect since it decreases the amount of internal heat driving convection, which lowers mantle temperature, while also increasing the local insulating effect of continental lithosphere, which raises mantle temperature. We explored these competing effects using simulations that incorporated enriched continents within a mixed internal- and bottom-heated convecting mantle. Increasing continental surface area was found to enhance global heat loss for a range of heat production distributions and Rayleigh numbers. The effect of enriched continents was evident as a double peak in the continental surface area values that maximize global heat loss. That the presence of continental lithosphere could increase average mantle temperature despite the mantle being depleted suggests that continents can significantly influence mantle potential temperature.

Cooper, C. M.; Lenardic, A.; Moresi, L.

2006-07-01

32

Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source  

SciTech Connect

Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe{sup 13+} are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555, Japan and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama (Japan); Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., Tateyama Kagaku Group, 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama (Japan); Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., Tateyama Kagaku Group, 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2008-02-15

33

46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including,...

2012-10-01

34

46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including,...

2010-10-01

35

46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including,...

2013-10-01

36

46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including,...

2011-10-01

37

46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.  

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including,...

2014-10-01

38

Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends  

SciTech Connect

Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

2008-07-20

39

Magnetic fields from domestic appliances in the UK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a survey of 50 UK homes the 50 Hz fundamental and harmonic magnetic fields generated by 806 domestic appliances found in the homes, and used regularly by mothers, were measured. Measurements were made in the direction of most likely access, and from the surface of the appliances. Mothers completed a questionnaire on the use of appliances and were monitored for 24 h so that acquired exposure could be compared with the measured ambient fields in the home. Appliances were measured at standard distances and an algorithm was used to calculate fields at 100 and 50 cm to remove room background contributions. A few appliances generated fields in excess of at 1 m: microwave cookers ; washing machines ; dishwashers ; some electric showers and can openers . Of continuously operating devices, only central heating pumps (), central heating boilers () and fish-tank air pumps () produced significant fields at 0.5 m. There were no obvious ways to group different types of appliances as high- or low-strength sources. Mothers spent on average about 4.5 h per day in the kitchen, where the strongest sources of magnetic field were located.

Preece, A. W.; Kaune, W.; Grainger, P.; Preece, S.; Golding, J.

1997-01-01

40

Controller Design of Power Quality-Improving Appliances  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an innovative solution to power quality problems using power quality-improving (PQI) appliances. PQI appliances conduct currents that supplement and correct the sum of the other load currents within a premise. From the utility side, the premise housing a PQI appliance thus becomes an improved, if not ideal, utility customer. The PQI appliance improves both harmonic power quality and power factor while performing its normal function, such as heating water. In this paper, the water heater PQI appliance is used as an example to demonstrate the control circuit design and function. Both computer simulation results and laboratory experiment results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. The estimated costs of the PQI controller and of harmonic compensating filters are compared to show that the PQI appliance may be an economic way to provide power quality improvement at the building level.

Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Zhou, Ning; Lu, Ning

2007-05-01

41

Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

1994-01-01

42

Terminologie des appareils electromenagers (Vocabulary for Electric Appliances).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This glossary of common French words and expressions used in reference to major electric appliances is designed for consumers, producers, and advertisers. Emphasis is placed on current rather than technical French-Canadian vocabulary. The terms are classified into five sections according to type of appliance: (1) electric range, (2) refrigerator,…

Dupuis, Henriette, Comp.; Lalut, Jeanne, Comp.

43

Micro heat pipe panels and method for producing same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flat or curved micro heat pipe panels are fabricated by arranging essentially parallel filaments in the shape of the desired panel. The configuration of the filaments corresponds to the desired configuration of the tubes that will constitute the heat pipes. A thermally conductive material is then deposited on and around the filaments to fill in the desired shape of the panel. The filaments are then removed, leaving tubular passageways of the desired configuration and surface texture in the material. The tubes are then filled with a working fluid and sealed. Composite micro heat pipe laminates are formed by layering individual micro heat pipe panels and bonding them to each other to form a single structure. The layering sequence of the micro heat pipe panels can be tailored to transport heat preferentially in specific directions as desired for a particular application.

Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Peterson, George P. (Inventor); Rummler, Donald R. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

44

Use of solar energy to produce process heat for industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of solar energy in supplying heat and hot water to residential and commerical buildings is familiar. On the other hand, the role that solar energy may play in displacing imported energy supplies in the industrial and utility sectors often goes unrecognized. The versatility of solar technology lends itself well to applications in industry; particulary to the supplemental supply for process heat. The status of solar thermal technology for industrial process heat applications, including a description of current costs and operating histories is surveyed. The most important objectives to be met in improving system performance, reducing cost, and identifying markets for solar industrial process heat are outlined.

Brown, K.

1980-04-01

45

Crew appliance study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viable crew appliance concepts were identified by means of a thorough literature search. Studies were made of the food management, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and off-duty habitability functions to determine which concepts best satisfy the Space Shuttle Orbiter and Modular Space Station mission requirements. Models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the generalized environmental-thermal control and life support systems computer program were developed and validated. Development plans of selected concepts were generated for future reference. A shuttle freezer conceptual design was developed and a test support activity was provided for regenerative environmental control life support subsystems.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

46

Appliance Servicing Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide presents the standard appliance servicing technician curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

47

Heat-reflecting glass plate and method of producing same  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses a glass plate coated with a metal oxide film comprising aluminum oxide and at least one of commonly used metal oxides such as the respective oxides of Cr, Co, Ni, Fe, Zn, Sn, Cu, Mn and Ti, wherein aluminum oxide is used to suppress the lowering of the reflectivity by a heat treatment of the oxide-coated glass.

S. Okino; T. Mori; T. Yanai; T. Sawa

1979-01-01

48

Residential consumer's handbook for wood-fired appliances  

SciTech Connect

This manual describes the various types of wood burning appliances and accessories on the market. The characteristics of the various types of units are given to assess the best unit for a given application. Tips on selecting a unit are given. The most important overall considerations are shown to be the size (heat output) and safety features of the unit. Performance parameters, particularly heat output and efficiency, are defined. Test values for these parameters for several appliances of each type are given. This summary of results allows the various types of appliances and design features to be evaluated. This table also shows that the performance of units in a given category is very similar. Hence price, quality of construction, appearance, and type of appliance, rather than efficiency, become the most important parameters in selecting a stove in a given category.

Dyer, D.; Maxwell, T. T.; Nunnelly, R. M.

1981-11-01

49

Heating unsaturated fatty acids in air produces hemagglutinins.  

PubMed

When mono-unsaturated fatty acids are heated in air, they form hemagglutinins. When the double bond is delta-6,7 or delta-9,10, the titer is higher than for delta-11,12. Stearic acid does not become a hemagglutinin on heating. Hydroxy-monounsaturated fatty acids, ricinoleic (cis-12-OH-delta-9) and ricinelaidic (trans-12-OH-delta-9) are not hemagglutinins unless they are heated. Oleic acid (delta-9-octadecenoic acid, OA) has a very low agglutination titer but lyses red cells at higher concentrations. Rabbit and rat erythrocytes (RBC) give the highest titers but RBCs of other species are also agglutinated. OA was chosen for further study. Its specific titer against rat RBCs increases with time of heating in air. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectroscopy (MS) show that higher molecular weight compounds are formed and that activity is associated with these materials. Synthetic (oxidation of oleic acid with tert-butyl peroxide) and commercial preparations of oleic acid dimers (Emery and Unichema) and a commercial preparation of oleic trimer mixed with polymer (Emery) have high hemagglutination titers against rat erythrocytes. A cyclic, long-chain dicarboxylic acid, 5(6)-carboxy-4-hexyl-2-cyclohexene-1-octanoic acid (Westvaco) gives a very low titer unless heated and no lysis. Sialidase treatment of the red cells increases the titer. Removal of cations does not alter the titer but addition of Ca2+ or Mg2+ lowers the titer. Light microscopy was used to characterize and visualize the agglutination process with rat RBCs. Agglutination without lysis or fusion is observed for low concentrations of heated oleic acid and C-18 dimers and trimer-polymer preparations, and no large vesicles are seen. We conclude that the oligomeric fatty acids with two or more hydrophobic chains of seven or more carbons are agglutinins at physiological pH. Agglutination by dimer may be the result of the its two hydrophobic side chains inserting into adjacent RBC membranes or the result of dimer inserting completely into RBC membranes and altering their properties. The carboxyl groups may also play a role in the process by interacting with polar headgroups in the RBC membrane. PMID:8180248

Patrikios, I S; Britton, O; Bing, D K; Russell, C S

1994-05-13

50

GRI's Gas Appliance Technology Center annual report, January 1989January 1990 (Activity at A. G. A. laboratories)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes specific codes and standards support work involved in developing test procedures for (1) flame rollout safety switches, (2) combination space\\/water heating appliances, (3) gas logs, (4) appliance connectors, and (5) griddles. Technology development activities included (1) gas grill and gas logs compatible with the SMART House, (2) water purification, (3) eliminating or reducing gas appliance venting requirements.

Farnsworth

1990-01-01

51

Etruscan Gold Dental Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By 630 BCE Etruscan metallurgists in central Italy had begun to apply their impressive goldworking skills in the production\\u000a of dental bridges (pontics). The achievement of this technological development began with the fabrication of a hollow gold\\u000a tooth mounted on a thin band of gold. The band served to anchor this dental appliance to the healthy teeth adjacent to the

Marshall Joseph Becker

52

Wood-burning appliances and indoor air quality.  

PubMed

Wood heating represents an interesting economic alternative to electrical or heating oil and gas systems. However, many people are concerned about poor indoor air quality in homes equipped with wood-burning appliances. We conducted a study in the Quebec City region (Canada) to verify the extent of indoor air contamination, and to examine the frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses among occupants of wood-heated homes. One child attending primary school (median = 8 years old; range = 5-14 years old) and an adult (median = 37 years old; range = 23-52 years old) were recruited in each eligible house. Eligible houses were without known sources of combustion products (smokers, attached garage, oil or gas furnace, gas stove, etc.) except for wood-burning appliance. Out of the 89 houses included in the study, 59 had wood-burning appliances. Formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, respirable particles (PM10) and carbon monoxide were measured in a sub-set of 49 houses (41 with a wood-burning appliance and 8 without). The frequency of respiratory symptoms and diseases among participants were documented using a daily symptom diary. Concentrations of contaminants were low in most houses, both with or without a wood-burning appliance. Globally, there was no consistent relationship between the presence of a wood-burning appliance and respiratory morbidity in residents. Nevertheless, residents who mentioned being exposed to fumes emitted by such an appliance reported more respiratory illnesses and symptoms. The presence of animals or molds, and keeping windows closed most of the time in winter were other factors associated with respiratory problems. We conclude that wood burning appears to be a respiratory health risk for occupants if the appliance is not maintained and used properly. PMID:11778959

Lévesqu, B; Allaire, S; Gauvin, D; Koutrakis, P; Gingras, S; Rhainds, M; Prud'Homme, H; Duchesne, J F

2001-12-17

53

Emission factors from small scale appliances burning wood and pellets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four manually fed (6-11 kW) firewood burning and two automatic wood pellets (8.8-25 kW) residential heating appliances were tested under real-world operating conditions in order to determine emission factors (EFs) of macropollutants, i.e., carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter (PM) and trace pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins. The results were examined for the influence of different factors (i.e., type of wood, appliance and combustion cycle). The experimental EFs were also compared with the values proposed by the European emission inventory guidebook used in the local inventory in order to evaluate their representativeness of real world emissions. The composite macropollutant EFs for manually fed appliances were: for CO 5858 g GJ-1, for NOx 122 g GJ-1, NMHC 542 g GJ-1, PM 254 g GJ-1, whereas emissions were much lower for automatic pellets appliances: CO 219 g GJ-1, for NOx 66 g GJ-1, NMHC 5 g GJ-1, PM 85 g GJ-1. The highest emissions were generally observed for the open fireplace, however traditional and advanced stoves have the highest overall CO EFs. Especially for the advanced stove real-world emissions are far worse than those measured under cycles used for type testing of residential solid fuel appliances. No great difference is observed for different firewood types in batch working appliances, diversely the quality of the pellets is observed to influence directly the emission performance of the automatic appliances. Benzo(b)fluoranthene is the PAH with the highest contribution (110 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 2 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices) followed by benzo(a)pyrene (77 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 0.8 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices).

Ozgen, Senem; Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Giugliano, Michele; Angelino, Elisabetta; Marongiu, Alessandro; Hugony, Francesca; Migliavacca, Gabriele; Morreale, Carmen

2014-09-01

54

Wood-burning appliances and indoor air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood heating represents an interesting economic alternative to electrical or heating oil and gas systems. However, many people are concerned about poor indoor air quality in homes equipped with wood-burning appliances. We conducted a study in the Quebec City region (Canada) to verify the extent of indoor air contamination, and to examine the frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses among

Benoit Lévesque; Sylvain Allaire; Denis Gauvin; Petros Koutrakis; Suzanne Gingras; Marc Rhainds; Henri Prud'Homme; Jean-François Duchesne

2001-01-01

55

Simulations of nonequilibrium warm dense gold produced by ultrafast heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with metals produces nonequilibrium states consisting of hot electrons and cold ions. These can last for many picoseconds before relaxing to a thermodynamic equilibrium. Recent experiments using a chirped pulse probe technique provided AC conductivity data of gold at a sufficient time resolution to observe this relaxation process. We developed an ab-initio model that characterizes thermodynamic properties of warm dense matter states in nonequilibrium. Our theoretical scheme combines a standard two temperature model with temperature dependent material parameters and an energy transfer rate that are obtained by means of ab-initio simulations. This enables us to give a prediction for the temperature evolution during the relaxation process. Additionally, we derive the AC conductivity of the nonequilibrium states from our simulations using the Kubo-Greenwood formula. It is used to test our model against measurements. We observe agreement with experiment using an energy relaxation rate, that is smaller than predicted, giving us reason to revisit its determination. We can furthermore provide thermodynamical and structural data of nonequilibrium warm dense gold which are not accessible in experiment.

Holst, B.; Recoules, V.; Torrent, M.; Chen, Z.; Sametoglu, V.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Kirkwood, S. E.; Reid, M.; Mazevet, S.; Ng, A.

2013-03-01

56

New Insights Into the Heat Sources of Mantle Plumes, or: Where Does all the Heat Come From, Heat Producing Elements, Advective or Conductive Heat Flow?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melting anomalies in the Earth's upper mantle have often been attributed to the presence of mantle plumes that may originate in the lower mantle, possibly from the core-mantle boundary. Globally, mantle plumes exhibit a large range in buoyancy flux that which is proportional to their temperature and volume. Plumes with higher buoyancy fluxes should have higher temperatures and experience higher degrees of partial melting. Excess heat in mantle plumes could reflect either a) an enrichment of the heat producing elements (HPE: U, Th, K) in their mantle source leading to an increase of heat production by radioactive decay or b) advective or conductive heat transport across the core-mantle boundary. The advective transport of heat may result in a physical contribution of material from the core to the lower mantle. If core material is incorporated into the lower mantle, mantle plumes with a higher buoyancy flux should have higher core tracers, e.g. increased 186Os and Fe concentrations. Geophysical and dynamic modelling indicate that at least Afar, Easter, Hawaii, Louisville and Samoa may all originate at the core-mantle boundary. These plumes encompass the whole range of known buoyancy fluxes from 1.2 Mgs -1(Afar) to 6.5 Mgs -1 (Hawaii) providing evidence that the buoyancy flux is largely independent of other geophysical parameters. In an effort to explore whether the heat producing elements are the cause of excess heat we looked for correlations between fractionation corrected concentrations of the HPE and buoyancy flux. Our results suggest that there is no correlation between HPE concentrations and buoyancy flux (with and without an additional correction for variable degrees of partial melting). As anticipated, K, Th and U are positively correlated with each other (e.g. Hawaii, Iceland and Galapagos have significantly lower concentrations than e.g. Tristan da Cunha, the Canary Islands and the Azores). We also find no correlation between currently available Fe concentration data and buoyancy flux. The apparent lack of correlation suggests that excess heat may be a result of conductive heat contribution from the core. Additional precise 186Os and Fe data are needed to further assess these conclusions.

Rushmer, T.; Beier, C.; Turner, S.

2007-12-01

57

Modeling-Based Synthesis of a Microwave Heating Process Producing Homogeneous Temperature Field  

E-print Network

Modeling-Based Synthesis of a Microwave Heating Process Producing Homogeneous Temperature Field of microwave thermal processing is the intrinsic non-uniformity of internal heating of a dielectric sample solution of the coupled (electro-magnetic and thermal) boundary value problem. The algorithm is implemented

Yakovlev, Vadim

58

Personal Fuel Appliance  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress made in Phase I of Stuart's Personal Fueling Appliance Program. Phase I concluded in March 2002 with the demonstration and deployment of several working models. As proposed in the original project plan, working models of the PFA were built to prove feasibility and technically market the concept. Future follow up phases of the project, Phase II and III, will take the concept through prototyping development to pre-production of commercially viable product. The Phase I program successfully demonstrate a home fueling system capable of running on a household circuit, 220V/40 Amp/single phase or equivalent. Connected to a source of ''drinking water'' the system has all the functions necessary to convert water and electricity to high-pressure hydrogen fuel. Pressures of up to 3600 psig were achieved on demonstration systems and higher pressures up to 5000 psig were achieved in the lab. The development program spanned building 3 series of prototypes: White Box (1 unit built 1998), PFA Series 100 (4 units built 1999-2000), and Series 200 (6 units built 2000-02). Advanced in controls and process learned in the PFA program have been embodied in Stuart's larger fuel appliances.

Stuart Energy

2003-12-30

59

Remote repair appliance  

DOEpatents

A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs.

Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

1997-12-16

60

Remote repair appliance  

DOEpatents

A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a worksite on a substantially circular bore of a workpiece and for providing video signals of the worksite to a remote monitor comprising: a baseplate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the baseplate and positioned to roll against the bore of the workpiece when the baseplate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the baseplate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the baseplate; a camera for providing video signals of the worksite to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the baseplate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris.

Heumann, Frederick K. (Ballston Spa, NY); Wilkinson, Jay C. (Ballston Spa, NY); Wooding, David R. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

1997-01-01

61

Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

62

Heat Treatment Devices and Method of Operation Thereof to Produce Dual Microstructure Superalloys Disks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heat treatment assembly and heat treatment methods are disclosed for producing different microstructures in the bore and rim portions of nickel-based superalloy disks, particu- larly suited for gas turbine applications. The heat treatment assembly is capable of being removed from the furnace and disassembled to allow rapid fan or oil quenching of the disk. For solutioning heat treatments of the disk, temperatures higher than that of this solvus temperature of the disk are used to produce coarse grains in the rim of each disk so as to give maximum creep and dwell crack resistance at the rim service temperature. At the same time, solution temperature lower than the solvus temperature of the disk are provided to produce fine grain in the bore of the disk so as to give maximum strength and low cycle fatigue resistance.

Gayda, John (Inventor); Gabb, Timothy P. (Inventor); Kantzos, Peter T. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

63

Appliances: Designs and Standards for Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buildings consume 40% of US energy and produce 39% of US carbon dioxide. These numbers can be dramatically reduced with improved appliance efficiency. For example, energy use by the average new refrigerator dropped about 70% from 1974-2002, thanks to improved materials, technologies and designs. In this chapter, I review progress in gas furnaces, air conditioning and lighting, as well as the trends in refrigerators and freezers. The goal of zero net-energy buildings appears possible. In the future, buildings might consume perhaps 70% less energy than today due to efficient building components, appliances, equipment and lighting; systems integration; better controls; and behavioral changes. The remaining 30% energy needs could be supplied by low-or no-carbon energy sources.

McMahon, James E.

2008-09-01

64

Venting gas appliances into exterior masonry chimneys: Analysis and recommendations. Topical report, February 1993-February 1994  

SciTech Connect

The higher residential appliance efficiency levels prescribed by the National Applicance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 increase the potential for condensation-related problems in gas appliance venting systems. National guidelines address the venting of modern gas appliances into interior chimneys and vents. The performance of exterior chimneys, however, depends largely on the local climate. The objective of the report is to provide a technical basis for developing guidelines for avoiding excessive condensation when venting gas appliances into exterior masonry chimneys. The VENT-II computer program was used to evaluate the performance of exterior chimneys under a wide range of conditions, including application type, appliance efficiency, appliance operating characteristics, and chimney size. To account for variations in local climatic conditions, the DOE heating regions for the U.S. were used in the analysis.

Philips, D.B.; Rutz, A.L.; Whitacre, G.R.; Talbert, S.G.

1994-06-01

65

Energy Star Appliances 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service ENERGY STAR Appliances  

E-print Network

Energy Star® Appliances 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service ENERGY STAR® Appliances ENERGY STAR®-labeled appliances save you money by using less electricity and water than other appliances. Better appliance energy efficiency comes from quality materials and technologically advanced materials. Although energy efficient

66

Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power  

E-print Network

Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power by Thomas Schmeister B.Sc., University

Victoria, University of

67

3 CFR - Appliance Efficiency Standards  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009 Appliance Efficiency Standards Memorandum for the Secretary of Energy Under the Energy...establish by certain dates energy efficiency standards for a...covered by the five energy efficiency rules with...

2010-01-01

68

Heat Resistant Proteases Produced in Milk by Psychrotorophic Bacteria of Dairy Origin1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of heat resistant proteases by psychrotrophs growing in milk, resist- ance of such proteases to ultrahigh tem- perature treatments and action of these enzymes on milk were studied. All of the psychrotrophs obtained from raw milk produced proteases that survived 149 C for 10 s. Seventy to ninety percent of the raw milk samples contained psychro- trophs capable of

D. M. Adams; J. T. Barach; M. L. Speck

1975-01-01

69

Emerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and  

E-print Network

established technologies of District Energy and Combined Heat and Power plants. Using wood to make present, to produce ethanol and chemicals. Torrefaction, fast pyrolysis, and gasification technologies, and transportation costs. Fast pyrolysis uses higher temperatures in an oxygen-deprived environment to render a bio

70

Simple heat treatments to produce ferrite and pearlite. Part 1: Full annealing and normalizing  

SciTech Connect

Casting, welding, forging, rolling and other manufacturing processes may produce parts having nonuniform microstructures and, thus, nonuniform properties. An important example of this relationship is solidification segregation of the alloying elements in steel castings, which often results in poor properties. However, the proper heat treatment may enhance the properties of such castings and virtually eliminate the detrimental effects of nonuniform microstructures. In addition, many heat treatments, such as annealing, also soften the material, making the part less difficult to manufacture. Full-furnace annealing or spheroidizing heat treatments, for example, are generally given tool steels in order to make them softer, and to facilitate the manufacture of components. Tool steels are typically machined or ground to nearly the final size and shape, then heat-treated to achieve the final (usually very high) hardness. After hardening, the tool steel component can be lapped to its final dimensions.

Ramsay, C. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1995-03-01

71

Domestic refrigeration appliances in Poland: Potential for improving energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This report is based on information collected from the main Polish manufacturer of refrigeration appliances. We describe their production facilities, and show that the energy consumption of their models for domestic sale is substantially higher than the average for similar models made in W. Europe. Lack of data and uncertainty about future production costs in Poland limits our evaluation of the cost-effective potential to increase energy efficiency, but it appears likely that considerable improvement would be economic from a societal perspective. Many design options are likely to have a simple payback of less than five years. We found that the production facilities are in need of substantial modernization in order to produce higher quality and more efficient appliances. We discuss policy options that could help to build a market for more efficient appliances in Poland and thereby encourage investment to produce such equipment.

Meyers, S.; Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lebot, B. [Agence de l`Environnement and de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 6 - Sophia Antipolis (France)

1993-08-01

72

Performance of domestic wood-fired appliances  

SciTech Connect

The test procedure for measuring wood stove performance is described, and the effects of design on performance, in terms of efficiency and emissions, are examined. The five types of wood-burning appliances tested were: freestanding conical fireplace, an airtight updraft (box) stove type, an airtight horizontal baffle type, an airtight downdraft type, and a sidedraft type. It is concluded that freestanding fireplaces are very inefficient. At the same time, they have high emission rates when expressed as a function of heat output. For airtight wood stoves, efficiency appears to be maximized within a relatively small range of firing rate for any particular stove model. For most stoves, emissions tend to decrease with increasing firing rate. Well-designed sidedraft stoves are likely to be more efficient than other stove types. Emissions levels of incomplete combustion products show a strong relationship to stove type, particularly when related to heat output of the appliance. Emission No. GE-1 well was drilled away from any potential petroleum-bearing feature, but near several tracts that were included in the sale area.

Hayden, A.C.S.; Braaten, R.W.

1980-01-01

73

SiC/C nanocable structure produced in silicon carbide by arc plasma heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defect-free and long SiC/C nanocables have been produced by heating SiC powder at 3000°C by employing dc arc plasma (Ar) in a specially designed configuration of graphite arc. Microstructural characterizations of the heat-treated powder carried out by TEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, and micro Raman spectroscopy showed the nanocables to consist of a SiC shell/sheath stuffed with wire type solid C core. A possible mechanism is discussed to explain the cable-type growth.

Nayak, B. B.

2012-01-01

74

Appliance Standards and Advanced Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy efficiency has long been considered one of the most effective and least costly means of reducing national energy demand. The U.S. Department of Energy runs the appliances and commercial equipment standards program, which sets federal mandatory minimum efficiency levels for many residential appliances, commercial equipment, and lighting products. The Department uses an engineering-economic analysis approach to determine appropriate standard levels that are technologically feasible and economically justified (i.e., a net positive economic benefit to consumers and the nation as a whole). The program has been very successful and has significantly reduced national energy consumption. Efficiency is also a renewable resource, with many new, even more efficient technologies continuously replacing older ones. There are many promising advanced technologies on the horizon today that could dramatically reduce appliance and commercial equipment energy use even further.

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2011-11-01

75

The sources of energy for crustal melting and the geochemistry of heat-producing elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crustal melting to produce granite magmas requires a tremendous amount of energy. In principle, there are three main mechanisms of heating that can extensively melt a fertile crust: radiogenic heat caused by the decay of 40K, 230Th, 235U and 238U; increased subcrustal heat flux caused by the upwelling of deeper, therefore hotter, mantle materials; advection of heat caused by the emplacement and crystallization of hot mantle magmas. Two-dimensional finite elements modeling reveals that a fertile crust thickened to 65-70 km would produce copious granite magmatism after 30-40 M.y. if its average heat-production is A > 1.2 ?W m- 3, but it would scarcely melt if A < 0.65 ?W m- 3. Increasing the subcrustal heat flow from the normal value of QM ? 0.025 W m- 2 to QM ? 0.04 W m- 2 may also lead to extensive crustal melting, especially if the crust does not thin to less than 30-35 km. Very high QM (? 0.06 W m- 2) affecting the continental crust is unlikely, but the combination of moderately high QM (? 0.04 W m- 2) and a thick fertile crust with A < 1.2 ?W m- 3, such as often happens in the volcanic and back-arc areas of subduction zones, is ideal to produce copious granite magmatism. Lastly, the emplacement of hot mantle magmas in a fertile crust can produce crustal melts in just a few thousand years, but the volume of these is equal to or less than the volume of the intruding magma. A clue for understanding the relative importance of each of these three mechanisms comes from the radiogenic heat production of granite rocks calculated from the concentration of 40K, 230Th, 235U and 238U at the time of their formation. This parameter estimated on more than 3400 granites samples of different ages and provenance reveals a strongly asymmetric distribution peaking around 2.4 ?W m- 3, a value much higher than the average continental crust (about 1-1.2 ?W m- 3) and certainly much higher than the average lower continental crust (about 0.4-0.8 ?W m- 3). Only those granite rock types that are clearly connected with mantle heat sources such as the Archean TTG, post-Archean subduction-related trondhjemites, and recent adakites have a heat production equal to or smaller than the lower continental crust. Since the bulk melt/solid partition coefficient of the heat-producing elements (HPE: K, Th and U) is k ? 1, the elevated HPE contents of granites indicates that most of them have been derived from HPE-rich sources. We conclude that radiogenic heating is often essential, and always advantageous, for generating large volumes of granite magmas, and that granite magmatism is the main cause of the accumulation of HPE in the upper crust.

Bea, Fernando

2012-11-01

76

Cost and Performance Comparison Of Stationary Hydrogen Fueling Appliances  

E-print Network

Cost and Performance Comparison Of Stationary Hydrogen Fueling Appliances Duane B. Myers, Gregory D vehicles (FCV's) and the cost of hydrogen produced by these HFA's. In previous studies we evaluated edition (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2002). The DFMA process has been formally adopted by the Ford Motor Company

77

Energy Corner: Heat Reclamation Rescues Wasted Heat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heat reclamation systems added to pre-existing central heating systems provide maximum savings at minimum cost. The benefits of a particular appliance marketed under the brand name "Energizer" are discussed. (Author/MLF)

Daugherty, Thomas

1982-01-01

78

Modeling of GE Appliances: Final Presentation  

SciTech Connect

This report is the final in a series of three reports funded by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) in collaboration with GE Appliances’ through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to describe the potential of GE Appliances’ DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid.

Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

2013-01-31

79

How can we constrain the amount of heat producing elements in the interior of Mars?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission to be launched in 2016 will study Mars' deep interior and help improving our knowledge about the interior structure and the thermal evolution of the planet - the latter is also directly linked to its volcanic history and atmospheric evolution. Measurements planned with the two main instruments, SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure) and HP3 (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package) aim to constrain the main structure of the planet, i.e. core, mantle and crust as well as the rate at which the planet loses the interior heat over its surface. Since the surface heat flow depends on the amount of radiogenic heat elements (HPE) present in the interior, it offers a measurable quantity which could constrain the heat budget. Being the principal agent regulating the heat budget which in turn influences partial melting in the interior, crustal and atmospheric evolution, the heat producing elements have a major impact on the entire the present temperature thermal history of the planet. To constrain the radiogenic heat elements of the planet from the surface heat flow is possible assuming that the urey number of the planet, which describes the contribution of internal heat production to the surface heat loss, is known. We have tested this assumption by calculating the thermal evolution of the planet with fully dynamical numerical simulations and by comparing the obtained present-day urey number for a set of different models/parameters (Fig. 1). For one-plate planets like Mars, numerical models show - in contrast to models for the Earth, where plate tectonics play a major role adding more complexity to the system - that the urey ratio is mainly sensitive to two effects: the efficiency of cooling due to the temperature-dependence of the viscosity and the mean half-life time of the long lived radiogenic isotopes. The temperature-dependence of the viscosity results in the so-called thermostat effect regulating the interior temperature such that the present-day temperatures are independent of the initial temperature distribution. If the thermostat effect is efficient as we show for the assumed Martian mantle rheology, and if the system is not dominated by radioactive isotopes like Thorium with a half-life much longer than the age of the planet as in the model of [3], all numerical simulations show similar today's values for the urey number (Fig. 1). Knowing the surface heat loss from the upcoming heat flow measurements planned for the InSight mission, one can distinguish then between different radiogenic heat source models [1, 2, 3, 4]. REFERENCES [1] Wänke et al., 94; [2] Lodders & Fegley, 97; [3] Morgan & Anders, 79; [4] Treiman et al., 86 Fig. 1: a) the influence of the reference viscosity and initial upper thermal boundary layer (TBL) on the urey ratio using HPE density from [1]; b) different models for HPE density; c) the urey ratio for different HPE models and 1e22 Pa s reference viscosity.

Grott, M.; Plesa, A.; Breuer, D.

2013-12-01

80

76 FR 14100 - Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division Including On-Site Leased...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Security and Nussbaum Transportation; Webster City, IA; Amended Certification Regarding...Electrolux Major Appliances Division, Webster City, Iowa. The workers produce laundry...Transportation were employed on-site at the Webster City, Iowa location of Electrolux...

2011-03-15

81

Life Cycle Analysis of High Quality Recycled Aggregate Produced byHeating and Rubbing Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of demolished concrete is recycled as road subbase, but its generation is expected to increase rapidly and exceed the demand of road subbase in a near future. To promote the recycling of concrete, the technology to produce high quality recycled aggregate by the heating and rubbing method has been developed. In this method, demolished concrete is heated up to about 300°C in a heater to make cement paste brittle with its dehydration. The heated concrete is then rubbed in two mills to recover the recycled aggregate, while the paste is removed from the surface of aggregate and collected as cement fine powder. In this method, much energy is consumed to heat and rub concrete; however, the cement fine powder is utilized for a soil stabilizer and cement raw materials, so that the environmental load is reduced in cement manufacturing. The life cycle analysis of the recycled aggregate is carried out to evaluate this technology. As a result, the life cycle CO2 is a negative value because the deduction of CO2 emission in cement manufacturing by the powder is much large. This technology is proved to be very effective to reduce CO2.

Shima, Hirokazu; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Tateyashiki, Hisashi

82

Novel Stacked Wire Mesh Compact Heat Exchangers Produced Using Cold Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the feasibility of using the pulsed gas dynamic spraying (PGDS) process to deposit metal powder on the outer surfaces of metal wire mesh wafers for use as high-performance compact heat exchangers. Plain-square weave woven mesh produced from stainless steel wires were stacked and sintered to form wire mesh bricks, which were then cut into wafers. The outer surfaces of the wafers were sealed using the PGDS deposition technique as opposed to the more traditional brazing sheet solution. This approach provides more intimate contact between the mesh wire tips and sealed surface, thereby promoting conduction through the outer walls and improving the heat exchanger efficiency. In addition, PGDS is an attractive alternative to brazing sheets for this application because of its potential for reduced manufacturing costs. Burst and tensile tests of the PGDS coated wafers were carried out.

Assaad, Jamil; Corbeil, Antoine; Richer, Patrick F.; Jodoin, Bertrand

2011-12-01

83

Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1985-04-03

84

Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

Meek, Thomas T. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1987-01-01

85

Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate. 2 figs.

Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1987-09-22

86

Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

Not Available

2014-05-01

87

Leaking electricity in domestic appliances  

SciTech Connect

Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost.

Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

1999-05-01

88

Batch-oriented software appliances  

E-print Network

This paper presents AppPot, a system for creating Linux software appliances. AppPot can be run as a regular batch or grid job and executed in user space, and requires no special virtualization support in the infrastructure. The main design goal of AppPot is to bring the benefits of a virtualization-based IaaS cloud to existing batch-oriented computing infrastructures. In particular, AppPot addresses the application deployment and configuration on large heterogeneous computing infrastructures: users are enabled to prepare their own customized virtual appliance for providing a safe execution environment for their applications. These appliances can then be executed on virtually any computing infrastructure being in a private or public cloud as well as any batch-controlled computing clusters the user may have access to. We give an overview of AppPot and its features, the technology that makes it possible, and report on experiences running it in production use within the Swiss National Grid infrastructure SMSCG.

Murri, Riccardo

2012-01-01

89

Kinetic effects and nonlinear heating in intense x-ray-laser-produced carbon plasmas.  

PubMed

The x-ray laser-matter interaction for a low-Z material, carbon, is studied with a particle-in-cell code that solves the photoionization and x-ray transport self-consistently. Photoionization is the dominant absorption mechanism and nonthermal photoelectrons are produced with energy near the x-ray photon energy. The photoelectrons ionize the target rapidly via collisional impact ionization and field ionization, producing a hot plasma column behind the laser pulse. The radial size of the heated region becomes larger than the laser spot size due to the kinetic nature of the photoelectrons. The plasma can have a temperature of more than 10 000 K (>1eV), an energy density greater than 10^{4} J/cm^{3}, an ion-ion Coulomb coupling parameter ??1, and electron degeneracy ??1, i.e., strongly coupled warm dense matter. By increasing the laser intensity, the plasma temperature rises nonlinearly from tens of eV to hundreds of eV, bringing it into the high energy density matter regime. The heating depth and temperature are also controllable by changing the photon energy of the incident laser light. PMID:25493733

Sentoku, Y; Paraschiv, I; Royle, R; Mancini, R C; Johzaki, T

2014-11-01

90

PRONA: a Proactive Support System for Networked Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a proactive operational model for home appliances. Users of home appliances often have difficulty in operating appliances due to their high functionality, complex interface, which have many buttons, and users.' lack of knowledge. The current operational model of home appliances is a reactive model, which it is necessary for users to notify appliances of operational information. This causes

Yukihiko Kirihara; J. Yura; J. Nakazawa; H. Tokuda

2002-01-01

91

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 5, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Housekeeping, off-duty, and medical data concerning the appliances considered for the space station are presented. Appliance functions analyzed include: cleanup, collection, processing and storage of refuse; crew entertainment and physical exercise, and the autoclaves and ergometers.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

92

Integration of Thermoelectric Generators and Wood Stove to Produce Heat, Hot Water, and Electrical Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional fire stoves are characterized by low efficiency. In this experimental study, the combustion chamber of the stove is augmented by two devices. An electric fan can increase the air-to-fuel ratio in order to increase the system's efficiency and decrease air pollution by providing complete combustion of wood. In addition, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) produce power that can be used to satisfy all basic needs. In this study, a water-based cooling system is designed to increase the efficiency of the TEGs and also produce hot water for residential use. Through a range of tests, an average of 7.9 W was achieved by a commercial TEG with substrate area of 56 mm × 56 mm, which can produce 14.7 W output power at the maximum matched load. The total power generated by the stove is 166 W. Also, in this study a reasonable ratio of fuel to time is described for residential use. The presented prototype is designed to fulfill the basic needs of domestic electricity, hot water, and essential heat for warming the room and cooking.

Goudarzi, A. M.; Mazandarani, P.; Panahi, R.; Behsaz, H.; Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

2013-07-01

93

Crew appliance computer program manual, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trade studies of numerous appliance concepts for advanced spacecraft galley, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and other areas were made to determine which best satisfy the space shuttle orbiter and modular space station mission requirements. Analytical models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the G-189A Generalized Environmental/Thermal Control and Life Support Systems (ETCLSS) Computer Program subroutine library were developed. The new appliance subroutines are given along with complete analytical model descriptions, solution methods, user's input instructions, and validation run results. The appliance components modeled were integrated with G-189A ETCLSS models for shuttle orbiter and modular space station, and results from computer runs of these systems are presented.

Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

94

Overview on PIV Application to Appliances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term appliances describes a wide range of products that are used to perform a wide variety of tasks. In the home environment, household appliances like refrigerators, ovens, washing machines, dishwashers, vacuum cleaners, hair driers are sold in million pieces per year; they also have commercial and industrial application. Typical products of the appliance industry have a relatively low industrial cost and the appliance market shows a strong competition, in which appliance technical performance plays a role together with aesthetics and costs. Therefore, efforts in applied research for product technical improvement can be done only if the ratio cost to benefits is advantageous. Many such appliances have complex fluid-dynamic problems; it is important that any experimental technique bears inherent characteristics of simplicity, provides a rapid means to collect experimental data, provides information that engineers can readily exploit for product enhancement, and mostly for computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) code validation. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) satisfies most of the above-mentioned requirements and therefore appears as a good candidate experimental technique to be proposed in the field of appliances. Nevertheless, PIV applications are rare. The PIVNet2 workshop on "PIV application to appliances" that took place in Ancona on June 2003 intended to illustrate the great potential for application of the PIV technique in this sector. This chapter presents an overview of PIV application to appliances according to the outcome from this workshop.

Tomasini, Enrico Primo; Paone, Nicola; Rossi, Massimiliano; Castellini, Paolo

95

Appliance efficiency and the solar building  

SciTech Connect

This report examines energy use in residential appliances. Current appliance energy use is evaluated and technologically feasible improvements are studied. A typical set of household appliances is developed, and modified by three classes of efficiency improvements. Significant energy saving potential is found in all major appliance energy uses, with the largest savings in water heaters and refrigerators. Costs of the improvements are relatively low, providing short payback times. The effects of the improvements on building thermal loads and electricity demand profiles are also examined.

Swisher, J.

1981-06-01

96

ELM simulation experiments using transient heat and particle load produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is considered that thermal transient events such as type I edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will limit the lifetime of plasma-facing components (PFCs) in ITER. It is predicted that the heat load onto the PFCs during type I ELMs in ITER is 0.2-2MJ/m2 with pulse length of ˜0.1-1ms. We have investigated interaction between transient heat and particle load and the PFCs by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) at University of Hyogo. In the experiment, a pulsed plasma with duration of ˜0.5ms, incident ion energy of ˜30eV, and surface absorbed energy density of ˜0.3-0.7MJ/m2 was produced by the MCPG. However, no melting occurred on a tungsten surface exposed to a single plasma pulse of ˜0.7MJ/m2, while cracks clearly appeared at the edge part of the W surface. Thus, we have recently started to improve the performance of the MCPG in order to investigate melt layer dynamics of a tungsten surface such as vapor cloud formation. In the modified MCPG, the capacitor bank energy for the plasma discharge is increased from 24.5 kJ to 144 kJ. In the preliminary experiments, the plasmoid with duration of ˜0.6 ms, incident ion energy of ˜ 40 eV, and the surface absorbed energy density of ˜2 MJ/m2 was successfully produced at the gun voltage of 6 kV.

Shoda, K.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

2011-11-01

97

14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances...1357(a), electric motors and transformers, including those installed in...

2012-01-01

98

14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.  

...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances...1357(a), electric motors and transformers, including those installed in...

2014-01-01

99

14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances...1357(a), electric motors and transformers, including those installed in...

2013-01-01

100

Spotlight on the microbes that produce heat shock protein 90-targeting antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a promising cancer drug target as a molecular chaperone critical for stabilization and activation of several of the oncoproteins that drive cancer progression. Its actions depend upon its essential ATPase, an activity fortuitously inhibited with a very high degree of selectivity by natural antibiotics: notably the actinomycete-derived benzoquinone ansamycins (e.g. geldanamycin) and certain fungal-derived resorcyclic acid lactones (e.g. radicicol). The molecular interactions made by these antibiotics when bound within the ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90 have served as templates for the development of several synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor drugs. Much attention now focuses on the clinical trials of these drugs. However, because microbes have evolved antibiotics to target Hsp90, it is probable that they often exploit Hsp90 inhibition when interacting with each other and with plants. Fungi known to produce Hsp90 inhibitors include mycoparasitic, as well as plant-pathogenic, endophytic and mycorrhizal species. The Hsp90 chaperone may, therefore, be a prominent target in establishing a number of mycoparasitic (interfungal), fungal pathogen–plant and symbiotic fungus–plant relationships. Furthermore the Hsp90 family proteins of the microbes that produce Hsp90 inhibitor antibiotics are able to reveal how drug resistance can arise by amino acid changes in the highly conserved ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90. PMID:23271830

Piper, Peter W.; Millson, Stefan H.

2012-01-01

101

Structure of Ba-Ti-Al-O glasses produced by aerodynamic levitation and laser heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ba0.09Al0.18Ti0.12O0.61 glasses have been produced by aerodynamic levitation and laser heating. Neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, molecular dynamics simulation, and reverse Monte Carlo refinement methods have been used to obtain a detailed atomistic structural model of the glass. This model has been used to investigate its atomic coordination and network structure. It is found that the Al atoms are almost exclusively fourfold tetrahedrally coordinated to oxygen atoms. In contrast, the Ti atoms coordinate to oxygen atoms in approximately equal numbers of four- and fivefold coordinated sites with a small number of sixfold sites. The results show the presence of some tetrahedral TiO4 structural motifs although the dominant O-Ti-O bond angle occurs at 90? . It is found that Al/Ti-O network structure shows strong similarities with other oxide glass forming systems although a first sharp diffraction peak is not observed. The results are used to discuss the unusual properties of the Ba-Al-Ti-O glasses produced under different quenching conditions.

Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Skinner, Lawrie B.; Barnes, Adrian C.; Klysubun, Wantana; Fischer, Henry E.

2014-09-01

102

On applying SIP security to networked appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of security to networked appliances is unarguable. In one of the worst possible scenarios, a successful attacker may gain control of the networked devices in a victim's home. Disastrous consequences are not difficult to imagine. In this work, we provide a general security threats analysis for networked appliances and discuss the implications of using session initiation protocol (SIP)

Tat Chan; Senthil Sengodan

2002-01-01

103

Secure component composition for networked appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a position statement on the problems of secure component composition for networked appliance systems, based on speculative research recently carried out within our research group. We highlight the problems faced by engineers of such systems and give a brief description of secure component composition techniques, and how these can be related to networked appliance systems. We conclude with

Bob Askwith; Qi Shi; Madjid Merabti

2002-01-01

104

A wireless networked appliances MAC bridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless networked appliances interoperability is a huge concern for the connected user who would be equipped with many mobile devices and deals with many other appliances at home and office. Interworking the domains where these devices are operating, being, the wireless local area network (WLAN) and the wireless personal area network (WPAN) is a major interoperability challenge since each was

O. Abuelma'atti; Madjid Merabti; Bob Askwith

2002-01-01

105

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR SUBMITTING APPLIANCE CERTIFICATION DATA  

E-print Network

of Authority, please visit the compliance page at http://www.energy.ca.gov/appliances/forms/. When a third their appliance efficiency data and other information to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission). The Energy Commission promotes energy efficiency by establishing and enforcing energy efficiency standards

106

Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review  

SciTech Connect

An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

2009-12-09

107

Functional Diversity of Heat-labile Toxins (LT) Produced by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Heat-labile toxins (LTs) have ADP-ribosylation activity and induce the secretory diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains in different mammalian hosts. LTs also act as adjuvants following delivery via mucosal, parenteral, or transcutaneous routes. Previously we have shown that LT produced by human-derived ETEC strains encompass a group of 16 polymorphic variants, including the reference toxin (LT1 or hLT) produced by the H10407 strain and one variant that is found mainly among bacterial strains isolated from pigs (LT4 or pLT). Herein, we show that LT4 (with six polymorphic sites in the A (K4R, K213E, and N238D) and B (S4T, A46E, and E102K) subunits) displays differential in vitro toxicity and in vivo adjuvant activities compared with LT1. One in vitro generated LT mutant (LTK4R), in which the lysine at position 4 of the A subunit was replaced by arginine, showed most of the LT4 features with an ?10-fold reduction of the cytotonic effects, ADP-ribosylation activity, and accumulation of intracellular cAMP in Y1 cells. Molecular dynamic studies of the A subunit showed that the K4R replacement reduces the N-terminal region flexibility and decreases the catalytic site crevice. Noticeably, LT4 showed a stronger Th1-biased adjuvant activity with regard to LT1, particularly concerning activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes when delivered via the intranasal route. Our results further emphasize the relevance of LT polymorphism among human-derived ETEC strains that may impact both the pathogenicity of the bacterial strain and the use of these toxins as potential vaccine adjuvants. PMID:21135101

Rodrigues, Juliana F.; Mathias-Santos, Camila; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria Elisabete; Amorim, Jaime H.; Cabrera-Crespo, Joaquim; Balan, Andrea; Ferreira, Luís C. S.

2011-01-01

108

Bacillus sporothermodurans, a new species producing highly heat-resistant endospores.  

PubMed

Bacteria that differentiate into highly heat-resistant endospores (HHRS strains) may survive ultrahigh-temperature treatment of milk and germinate in the final product. They do not noticeably spoil the milk and are nonpathogenic. The complete (>96%) 16S rRNA genes from three HHRS strains were identical, and phylogenetic analysis placed them alongside Bacillus firmus in the B. megaterium group of the genus Bacillus. Moreover, the approximately 550 nucleotides between regions U2 and U5 were invariant for seven HHRS strains. However, three cloned 16S rRNA genes from one HHRS strain, M215, showed marked size and sequence variations within the V1 and V2 regions. DNA reassociation assays confirmed the distinction between a reference HHRS strain and closely related members of the B. megaterium group, notably, B. firmus (30%), B. benzoevorans (28%), and B. circulans (20%). Ribotyping and pyrolysis mass spectrometry both indicated that the HHRS strains belong to a homogeneous, species-ranked taxon, an exception being strain TP1248, which is slightly atypical. The HHRS strains are unusual in that they grow poorly, if at all, on nutrient agar; good growth is obtained on brain heart infusion agar. On subculture, most HHRS strains form long, filamentous rods which stain unevenly in the Gram reaction. They are strictly aerobic and do not produce acid from sugars. We propose the name Bacillus sporothermodurans for these bacteria, which are phenotypically and phylogenetically distinct from other Bacillus species. The type strain is M215 (= DSMZ 10599). PMID:8782686

Pettersson, B; Lembke, F; Hammer, P; Stackebrandt, E; Priest, F G

1996-07-01

109

Jenseniin G, a heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Propionibacterium jensenii P126.  

PubMed Central

The genus Propionibacterium includes cutaneous species typically found on human skin and the dairy or classical species (Propionibacterium freudenreichii, P. jensenii, P. thoenii, and P. acidipropionici) used industrially for the production of Swiss cheese and propionic acid. Grinstead (1989, M.S. thesis, Iowa State University, Ames) has previously observed that some dairy propionibacteria inhibit other species in the classical grouping. We further investigated the inhibitor(s) produced by P. jensenii P126 (ATCC 4872). An antagonist(s) from anaerobic agar cultures of P126 strongly inhibited two closely related strains of propionibacteria, P. acidipropionici P5 and P. jensenii P54, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus NCDO 1489, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 4797, Lactococcus cremoris NCDO 799, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2. The inhibitor, designated jenseniin G, was active at pH 7.0; inactivated by treatment with pronase E, proteinase K, and type 14 protease; insensitive to catalase; and stable to freezing, cold storage (4 degrees C, 3 days), and heat (100 degrees C, 15 min). Classification of the inhibitor as a bacteriocin is supported by its proteinaceous nature and its bactericidal activity against L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 4797. The lack of detectable plasmids suggests a chromosomal location for the determinant(s) of jenseniin G. Images PMID:1539976

Grinstead, D A; Barefoot, S F

1992-01-01

110

Effects of cervical headgear and pendulum appliance on vertical dimension in growing subjects: a retrospective controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

Summary OBJECTIVE : To analyze the effects on vertical dentoskeletal dimension produced by cervical headgear (CHG) or Pendulum (P) both followed by full fixed appliances in growing patients with Class II malocclusion. PMID:25316493

Lione, Roberta; Franchi, Lorenzo; Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

2014-10-14

111

Facilitation of a nociceptive flexion reflex in man by nonnoxious radiant heat produced by a laser.  

PubMed

Electromyographic recordings were made in healthy volunteers from the knee-flexor biceps femoris muscle of the nociceptive RIII reflex elicited by electrical stimulation of the cutaneous sural nerve. The stimulus intensity was adjusted to produce a moderate pricking-pain sensation. The test responses were conditioned by a nonnoxious thermal (heat with a beam diameter of 20 mm. Its power was 22.7 +/- 4.2 W (7.2 mJ/mm2), and it produced a sensation of warmth. The maximum surface temperature reached at the end of the period of stimulation was calculated to be 7 degrees C above the actual reference temperature of the skin (32 degrees C). The interval between the laser (conditioning) and electrical (test) stimuli was varied from 50 to 3, 000 ms in steps of 50 ms. It was found that the nociceptive flexion reflex was facilitated by the thermal stimulus; this modulation occurred with particular conditioning-test intervals, which peaked at 500 and 1,100 ms with an additional late, long-lasting phase between 1,600 and 2,300 ms. It was calculated that the conduction velocities of the cutaneous afferent fibers responsible for facilitating the RIII reflex, fell into three ranges: one corresponding to A delta fibers (3.2 m/s) and two in the C fiber range (1.3 and 0.7 m/s). It is concluded that information emanating from warm receptors and nociceptors converges. In this respect, the present data show, for the first time, that in man, conditioning nonnociceptive warm thermoreceptive A delta and C fibers results in an interaction at the spinal level with a nociceptive reflex. This interaction may constitute a useful means whereby signals add together to trigger flexion reflexes in defensive reactions and other basic motor behaviors. It also may contribute to hyperalgesia in inflammatory processes. The methodology used in this study appears to be a useful noninvasive tool for exploring the thermoalgesic mechanisms in both experimental and clinical situations. PMID:9582228

Plaghki, L; Bragard, D; Le Bars, D; Willer, J C; Godfraind, J M

1998-05-01

112

Magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel produced via self-heat-sustained (SHS) technique  

E-print Network

Magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel produced via self-heat-sustained (SHS) technique Lim Rooi molten aluminum and magnesia appeared to have led to the powder with a very high fraction of the spinel Magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) is an excellent refractory oxide of immense technological importance

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

113

Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each.

Hart, George W. (Natick, MA); Kern, Jr., Edward C. (Lincoln, MA); Schweppe, Fred C. (Carlisle, MA)

1989-08-15

114

State Appliance Standards (released in AEO2009)  

EIA Publications

State appliance standards have existed for decades, starting with Californias enforcement of minimum efficiency requirements for refrigerators and several other products in 1979. In 1987, recognizing that different efficiency standards for the same products in different states could create problems for manufacturers, Congress enacted the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA), which initially covered 12 products. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT92), EPACT2005, and EISA2007 added additional residential and commercial products to the 12 products originally specified under NAECA.

2009-01-01

115

Home appliance control using AMIDEN architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a peer-to-peer scheme of AMIDEN networked appliances to integrate economically regular information appliances and simple devices such as on\\/off switches in the same network. We have introduced phase 2 AMIDEN architecture over existing phase 1 AMIDEN architecture for integration. In the phase 2 architecture, AMIDEN nodes have been classified into 3 types: regular nodes supporting only phase

M. Minoh; N. Takahashi; J. Tanaka; Y. Tajika; T. Kamae

2002-01-01

116

Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each. 9 figs.

Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.; Schweppe, F.C.

1989-08-15

117

A new appliance for forced eruption.  

PubMed

The purpose of these case reports is to introduce an innovative orthodontic appliance to effect forced eruption. This device is useful when attempting to erupt teeth in the esthetic zone with minimal effect on adjacent teeth. It is especially indicated for adjacent teeth with esthetic restorations. The appliance is easy to fabricate, cost-effective and very useful in forced eruption efforts for the "non-restorable" tooth. PMID:16604939

Uddin, Monira; Mosheshvili, Natia; Segelnick, Stuart L

2006-01-01

118

Magnet-retained Prophylactic Appliance for Post-excisional Pressure Therapy and Custom-made Acrylic Therapeutic Pressure Appliance for Auricular Keloid: A Clinical Report  

PubMed Central

Keloid is cutaneous lesion characterized by fibrous growth produced as a result of aberration in the healing process. Pressure therapy, in combination with other forms of therapy, is used for the management of keloids. Clips or stents are generally used for the therapy and prophylaxis. This report presents use of presurgical compression and prophylactic passive pressure therapy with acrylic appliances for auricular keloids in a patient. Spring and magnets were used in the design of custom-made appliances for compression and retention. PMID:25013550

Rathee, Manu; Kundu, Renu

2014-01-01

119

Thick film heater elements and temperature sensors in modern domestic appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of thick film heating elements in domestic appliances, and comparison is made of performance and cost between thick film and traditional heaters. Thick films are created by screen printing pastes, usually containing glass and metal powders, onto a flat substrate. A brief explanation of thick film technology is given. This technology has been used for

R. B. Tait; R. Humphries; J. Lorenz

1994-01-01

120

Thick film heater elements and temperature sensors in modern domestic appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of thick film heating elements in domestic appliances, and comparison is made of performance and cost between thick film and traditional heaters. Thick films are created by screen printing pastes, usually containing glass and metal powders, onto a flat substrate. A brief explanation of thick film technology is given. This technology has been used for

R. B. Tait; R. Humphries; J. Lorenz

2009-01-01

121

Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Industrial Technologies Div.

1995-08-01

122

Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. Methods The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Results Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Conclusions Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height. PMID:25162565

Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

2014-01-01

123

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Motor-Operated Appliances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum, this course is designed to prepare students to operate, diagnose malfunctions, repair, and service motor operated appliances. The course is comprised of seven units: (1) Mixers and Blenders, (2) Vacuum Cleaners and Floor Polishers, (3) Washing Machines, (4) Garbage…

Ziller, T.

124

Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [3H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

Birdi, Tannaz J.; Brijesh, S.; Daswani, Poonam G.

2014-01-01

125

Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [(3)H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

Birdi, Tannaz J; Brijesh, S; Daswani, Poonam G

2014-05-01

126

Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-Lee (Spring Valley, NY)

1986-01-01

127

Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

1982-01-01

128

Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source  

DOEpatents

A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01

129

Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

Blake, R.D.; Meek, T.T.

1984-10-10

130

Method for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seals by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

Method for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy, and a sealing mixture which comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01

131

Development of a Transient Heat and Mass Transfer Model of Residential Attics to Predict Energy Savings Produced by the Use of Radiant Barriers  

E-print Network

A transient heat and mass transfer model was developed to predict ceiling heat gain/loss through the attic space in residences and to accurately estimate savings in cooling and heating loads produced by the use of radiant barriers. The model...

Medina, M. A.

132

SPATIAL SUMMATION ON THE FOREHEAD, FOREARM, AND BACK PRODUCED BY RADIANT AND CONDUCTED HEAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

WARM THRESHOLDS ON THE FOREHEAD, FOREARM, AND BACK PRODUCED BY NONPENETRATING INFRARED RADIATION WERE COMPARED. THE FOREHEAD WAS THE MOST SENSITIVE AND THE BACK THE LEAST SENSITIVE SITE AT AREAS OF EXPOSURE OF 1-12 SQUARE CM. COMPLETE SUMMATION OCCURRED AT ALL 3 SITES. RADIANT WARM THRESHOLDS AND THOSE PRODUCED BY CONDUCTED ENERGY USING STIMULATORS WITH AREAS OF 1.7, 7.1, AND

DAN R. KENSHALO; THOMAS DECKER; ANNE HAMILTON

1967-01-01

133

Structural modifications during heating of bulk nanocrystalline FeAl produced by high-pressure torsion  

PubMed Central

The deformation-induced nanostructure developed during high-pressure torsion of B2 long-range ordered FeAl is shown to be unstable upon heating. The structural changes were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and microhardness measurements. Heating up to 220 °C leads to the recurrence of the chemical long-range order that is destroyed during deformation. It is shown that the transition to the long-range-ordered phase evolves in the form of small ordered domains homogeneously distributed inside the nanosized grains. At temperatures between 220 and 370 °C recovery of dislocations and antiphase boundary faults cause a reduction in the grain size from 77 to 35 nm. Grain growth occurs at temperatures above 370 °C. The evolution of the strength monitored by microhardness is discussed in the framework of grain-size hardening and hardening by defect recovery. PMID:20953414

Mangler, C.; Gammer, C.; Karnthaler, H.P.; Rentenberger, C.

2010-01-01

134

Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electron heating (up to â¼5eV average energy), ionization of neutrals, and excitation of optical emissions in the mesosphere\\/lower ionosphere. Model calculations predict the possibility of significant (several orders of magnitude) modification of the

V. P. Pasko; T. F. Bell; Y. N. Taranenko

1997-01-01

135

Installation and Maintenance of Wood-Burning Appliance  

MedlinePLUS

... Information EPA and fire officials recommend having your wood-burning appliance, chimney, and vents professionally inspected and ... smell smoke in your home? Shut down your wood-burning appliance, open a window, be sure the ...

136

38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances. Artificial limbs, braces, orthopedic shoes, hearing aids, wheelchairs, medical accessories, similar appliances including invalid lifts and...

2010-07-01

137

Heat-induced transfer of protons from chitosan to glycerol phosphate produces chitosan precipitation and gelation.  

PubMed

Recently, chitosan dissolved in solutions containing glycerol phosphate (GP) were found to undergo a sol-gel transition when heated and the proposed gelling mechanism was based on increasing hydrophobic interactions with temperature. Subsequently, an investigation of ionization and precipitation behavior of chitosan, including dependencies on temperature, added salt, and fraction of deacetylated monomers (fD) was performed. This latter study revealed important differences in the temperature dependence of pKa of chitosan versus GP and led us to propose an alternative hypothesis for the mechanism of gelation in chitosan-GP systems whereby heat induces transfer of protons from chitosan to glycerol phosphate thereby neutralizing chitosan and allowing attractive interchain forces to form a physical gel. To investigate this specific molecular thermogelling mechanism, temperature ramp experiments on dilute chitosan-GP solutions were performed. Chitosans with fD of 0.72 and 0.98 were used to prepare solutions with a range of molar ratios of GP to chitosan glucosamine monomer of 1.25 to 10 and with 0 or 150 mM added monovalent salt. Light transmittance measurements were performed simultaneously to indicate precipitation in these dilute systems as a surrogate for gelation in concentrated systems. Measured temperatures of precipitation ranged from 15 to 85 degrees C, where solutions with less GP (used in a disodium salt form) had lower precipitation temperatures. A theoretical model using acid-base equilibria with temperature dependent pKa's, including the electrostatic contribution from the polyelectrolyte nature of chitosan, was used to calculate the degree ionization of chitosan (alpha, the fraction of protonated glucosamine monomer) as a function of temperature and showed a significant decrease in alpha with increased temperature due to proton transfer from chitosan to GP. This heat-induced proton transfer from chitosan to GP was experimentally confirmed by 31P NMR measurements during temperature ramp experiments since the chemical shift of 31P of GP is an indicator of its level of protonation. By assuming average temperature independent values of alpha p that were calculated from measured T(p), the model was able to accurately predict measured temperatures of precipitation (T(p)) of all chitosan-GP mixtures. The resulting alpha(p) were temperature independent but increased with increased chitosan fD and with increased salt. Measurements and theory revealed that T(p) can be adjusted in a predictable manner by changing the chitosan-GP molar ratio and thereby systematically tailored to obtain a large range of precipitation temperatures. Finally, similar temperature ramp experiments using inorganic phosphate and MES in place of GP demonstrated that the temperature-induced precipitation of chitosan also occurs with these buffers, confirming that the key feature of the buffer used with chitosan is its ability to absorb heat-stimulated release of chitosan protons and facilitate chitosan neutralization. A theoretical expression for the variation of chitosan ionization degree with temperature in a system composed of two titratable species (chitosan and buffer) was derived and allowed us to establish the required characteristics of the buffer for efficient heat-stimulated proton transfer between a chitosan and the buffer. These results provide a useful explanation for the mechanism of heat-induced gelation of chitosan-based systems that could be exploited for numerous practical applications. PMID:18186608

Lavertu, Marc; Filion, Dominic; Buschmann, Michael D

2008-02-01

138

Measurement of soil bacterial colony temperatures and isolation of a high heat-producing bacterium  

PubMed Central

Background The cellular temperatures of microorganisms are considered to be the same as those of their surroundings because the cellular volume is too small to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. However, by forming a colony or a biofilm, microorganisms may be able to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. In this study, we measured the temperatures of bacterial colonies isolated from soils using an infrared imager and investigated the thermogenesis by a bacterium that increases its colony temperature. Results The temperatures of some colonies were higher or lower than that of the surrounding medium. A bacterial isolate with the highest colony temperature was identified as Pseudomonas putida. This bacterial isolate had an increased colony temperature when it grew at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Measurements of heat production using a microcalorimeter showed that the temperature of this extraordinary, microcalorimetrically determined thermogenesis corresponded with the thermographically observed increase in bacterial colony temperature. When investigating the effects of the energy source on this thermal behavior, we found that heat production by this bacterium increased without additional biomass production at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Conclusions We found that heat production by bacteria affected the bacterial colony temperature and that a bacterium identified as Pseudomonas putida could maintain a cellular temperature different from the ambient temperature, particularly at a sub-optimal growth temperature. The bacterial isolate P. putida KT1401 increased its colony temperature by an energy-spilling reaction when the incubation temperature limited its growth. PMID:23497132

2013-01-01

139

Weather sensitivity in household appliance energy end-use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a Residential Energy Study (RES) were used to examine the weather sensitivity of various household appliances located in households within the Sydney metropolitan area. Thermal environmental indices effective temperature (ET?), standard effective temperature (SET?) and simple air temperature degree–days were used to quantify the dependence of household appliance energy consumption on outdoor weather. Specific appliances included: room air-conditioners,

Melissa Hart; Richard de Dear

2004-01-01

140

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 3, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical data collected for housekeeping, off-duty activities, and medical appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented. Equipment cleaning, refuse management, garment/linen maintenance, entertainment, physical conditioning, sterilization, and physical monitoring were analyzed.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

141

Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China  

SciTech Connect

China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

Lin, Jiang

2006-07-10

142

Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

Nunn, John

2013-01-01

143

Form ElectApp12 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES  

E-print Network

Form ElectApp12 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES In accordance with Residence Regulation 15.2 (see Section Two. Permission to bring personal electrical items will not be unreasonably withheld, but will not be granted · amplifiers · electrical heaters · cooking equipment such as deep fat fryers. (Please note that permitted

Applebaum, David

144

Form ElectApp11 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES  

E-print Network

Form ElectApp11 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES In accordance with Residence Regulation 14.2 (see Section Two. Permission to bring personal electrical items will not be unreasonably withheld, but will not be granted amplifiers electrical heaters cooking equipment such as deep fat fryers. (Please note that permitted cooking

Applebaum, David

145

Appliance Services. Basic Course. Career Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 25 terminal objectives for a basic appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (2 hours daily) designed to enable the student to be well-grounded in the fundamentals of electricity as well as applied electricity.…

Killough, Joseph

146

Using capability profiles for appliance aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe how several existing standards try to address specific use cases for appliance aggregation. These standards all rely on devices being able to describe their capabilities to other devices. In order to do this, each standard defines its own idiosyncratic profile structure and profile vocabulary. Furthermore applications using this information often need to perform standard tasks such as selection,

Mark H. Butler

2002-01-01

147

49 CFR 238.429 - Safety appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appliance mechanical fasteners shall have mechanical strength and fatigue resistance equal to or greater than a 1/2 -inch diameter...made of steel or a material of equal or greater strength and fatigue resistance; (3) The minimum tread length of the sill...

2010-10-01

148

49 CFR 238.429 - Safety appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...appliance mechanical fasteners shall have mechanical strength and fatigue resistance equal to or greater than a 1/2 -inch diameter...made of steel or a material of equal or greater strength and fatigue resistance; (3) The minimum tread length of the sill...

2011-10-01

149

49 CFR 238.429 - Safety appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...appliance mechanical fasteners shall have mechanical strength and fatigue resistance equal to or greater than a 1/2 -inch diameter...made of steel or a material of equal or greater strength and fatigue resistance; (3) The minimum tread length of the sill...

2012-10-01

150

49 CFR 238.429 - Safety appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...appliance mechanical fasteners shall have mechanical strength and fatigue resistance equal to or greater than a 1/2 -inch diameter...made of steel or a material of equal or greater strength and fatigue resistance; (3) The minimum tread length of the sill...

2013-10-01

151

APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY REGULATIONS FOR REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS  

E-print Network

#12;#12;APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY REGULATIONS FOR REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS sold in California: (a) Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers which can be operated in recreational vehicles and other mobile equipment; (2) those refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers with total

152

Appliance Services. Intermediate Course. Career Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 16 terminal objectives for an intermediate appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) covering the areas of refrigeration, maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting of refrigerators and air…

Killough, Joseph

153

A 3rd Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS) Produced by Dual Stabilization Heat Treatment (DSHT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3rd generation advanced high-strength steel containing, in wt pct, 0.3 C, 4.0 Mn, 1.5 Al, 2.1 Si, and 0.5 Cr has been produced using a dual stabilization heat treatment—a five stage thermal processing schedule compatible with continuous galvanized steel production. In excess of 30 vol pct retained austenite containing at least 0.80 wt pct C was achieved with this alloy, which had tensile strengths up to 1650 MPa and tensile elongations around 20 pct.

Qu, Hao; Michal, Gary M.; Heuer, Arthur H.

2013-10-01

154

Non-extraction treatment of severe crowding with pendulum appliance.  

PubMed

An extraction case was planned for non-extraction treatment using pendulum appliance and the effect of appliance was evaluated in a 14-year-old girl with a severe maxillary and mandibular crowding followed by non-extraction fixed appliance preadjusted edgewise appliance mechanotherapy. Total treatment time was for 22 months. The obtuse nasolabial angle was maintained intact. Correction of crowding, co-ordinated arch forms was achieved with molar distalization. The impetus on soft-tissue paradigm is stressed in this case report and pendulum appliance can indeed boost our clinical acumen and swing our priorities toward non-extraction treatment. PMID:23956605

Gandikota, Chandrasekhar; Venkata, Yudhister Palla; Challa, Padmalatha; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao

2013-07-01

155

Transient liquid-crystal technique used to produce high-resolution convective heat-transfer-coefficient maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated for the color isothermal pattern produced. Although the test was run transiently, the heat transfer coefficients are for the steady-state case. The upstream thermal boundary condition was considered to be isothermal. This transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique was used in a transient air tunnel in which a square-inlet, 3-to-1 exit transition duct was placed. The duct was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. The resulting isothermal contours on the duct surfaces were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. The duct surfaces were uniformly heated using two heating systems: the first was an automatic temperature-controlled heater blanket completely surrounding the test duct like an oven, and the second was an internal hot-air loop through the inside of the test duct. The hot-air loop path was confined inside the test duct by insulated heat dams located at the inlet and exit ends of the test duct. A recirculating fan moved hot air into the duct inlet, through the duct, out of the duct exit, through the oven, and back to the duct inlet. The temperature nonuniformity of the test duct model wall was held very small. Test results are reported for two inlet Reynolds numbers of 200,000 and 1,150,000 (based on the square-inlet hydraulic diameter) and two free-stream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 20 percent (using a grid), which is typical of real engine conditions.

Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

1993-01-01

156

Hydrated silica exterior produced by biomimetic silicification confers viral vaccine heat-resistance.  

PubMed

Heat-lability is a key roadblock that strangles the widespread applications of many biological products. In nature, archaeal and extremophilic organisms utilize amorphous silica as a protective biomineral and exhibit considerable thermal tolerance. Here we present a bioinspired approach to generate thermostable virus by introducing an artificial hydrated silica exterior on individual virion. Similar to thermophiles, silicified viruses can survive longer at high temperature than their wild-type relatives. Virus inactivation assays showed that silica hydration exterior of the modified virus effectively prolonged infectivity of viruses by ?10-fold at room temperature, achieving a similar result as that obtained by storing native ones at 4 °C. Mechanistic studies indicate that amorphous silica nanoclusters stabilize the inner virion structure by forming a layer that restricts molecular mobility, acting as physiochemical nanoanchors. Notably, we further evaluate the potential application of this biomimetic strategy in stabilizing clinically approved vaccine, and the silicified polio vaccine that can retain 90% potency after the storage at room temperature for 35 days was generated by this biosilicification approach and validated with in vivo experiments. This approach not only biomimetically connects inorganic material and living virus but also provides an innovative resolution to improve the thermal stability of biological agents using nanomaterials. PMID:25574563

Wang, Guangchuan; Wang, Hong-Jiang; Zhou, Hangyu; Nian, Qing-Gong; Song, Zhiyong; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Li, Xiao-Feng; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Tang, Ruikang

2015-01-27

157

Model of Optical Emissions and Artificial Ionization Produced by Ionospheric HF-Heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the upgraded HAARP transmitter capabilities Pedersen et al., [2010] demonstrated for the first time the formation and control of artificial ionospheric layers by resonant F-region heating. The paper presents a model of the underlying physics based on preheating the electrons at the upper hybrid resonance followed by acceleration at the plasma resonant layer by the ensuing Langmuir turbulence. A number of component models are integrated in a novel numerical scheme to address the issue. A multi-grid approach based on propagation and the generalized Zakharov equations is used to study the formation of the Langmuir turbulence at the F-region peak. Super-thermal formation of electron tails is modeled by using a test particle approach as well as the solution of the diffusion equation in velocity space. A transport model including elastic and inelastic processes is used to study ionization and optical emissions. The model addresses several issues related to Artificial Plasma Layers, including thresholds for artificial ionization structure and the speed of the descending ionization front. The model results are compared with available observations. The work was supported by DARPA via a subcontract with BAE Systems, and by the ONR MURI Grant. Pedersen T., et al. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, doi:10.1029/2009GL040047, 2009.

Milikh, G. M.; Elliason, B.; Shao, X.; Sharma, S.; Chang, C.; Mishin, E. V.; Papadopoulos, K.

2011-12-01

158

Self-Focused Electron and Positive-Ion Beams Produced by Heated or Cooled Pyroelectric Crystals in Dilute Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-focusing, spatially stable, variable energy electron and positive-ion beams accelerated from LiNbO3 crystal surfaces in dilute gases after the crystal has been heated and returned to room temperature have been observed. A 4 mm dia x 10 mm cylindrical LiNbO3 crystal in <10 mtorr of dry N2 is heated from the + z base to 160^0 C and allowed to cool to room temperature after which spatially-stable electron beams are produced. A ZnS screen was placed at the focal length (16 cm) of the crystal and photographs of the beam spot were taken at different pressures. A 100 ?m surface barrier electron detector was used to determine the maximum electron beam energy (147keV). A similar crystal in 5x10-6 torr of dry N2 when heated from the z base accelerated N_2^+ ions up to 113 keV from the +z base on cooling. The dynamic behavior of the electron beam as pressure changes will be demonstrated on a CD rom and laptop. 1 J.D. Brownridge, S. M. Shafroth, D. Trott, B. Stoner, W. Hooke (Applied Physics Letts, Jan 22,01) 2. J.D. Brownridge, Nature (London) 358, 278 (1992) 3. J.D. Brownridge, and S. Raboy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 640 (1999)

Brownridge, James; Shafroth, Stephen

2001-04-01

159

Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LMPF-EA 4106, Rue Saint Dominique, BP 508, 51006, Chalons-en-Champagne, Cedex (France)

2011-01-17

160

Method for producing a secondary lithium cell comprising a heat-sensitive protective mechanism  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a secondary lithium cell which has at least one lithium-cycling negative electrode, at least one lithium-intercalating positive electrode, at least one separator disposed between the positive and the negative electrode, and a nonaqueous lithium ion-conducting electrolyte. The method is carried out by the electrodes and/or the separator being coated, by means of electrostatic powder coating, with wax particles which are insoluble in the electrolyte and have a melting temperature of from about 50 to about 150 .degree. C. and a mean particle size of from about 6 to about 20 .mu.m, the amount of wax being between about 0.5 and about 2.5 mg/cm.sup.2 of electrode area.

Ullrich, Matthias (Kelkheim, DE); Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Rabenstein, Heinrich (Frankfurt, DE); Brohm, Thomas (Kelkheim, DE)

2003-01-01

161

Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii by heat labile bacteriocins produced by probiotic LAB isolated from healthy infants.  

PubMed

Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause bacteremia, meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most often in neonates with case-fatality rates that may reach 80%. The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against a wide range of foodborne pathogens is well-established in different types of food products. The objective of the current study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei isolated from feces of healthy infants against different strains of C. sakazakii in agar and a rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF) model. The inhibition zones of C. sakazakii around L. acidophilus or L. casei ranged from 22 to 32 mm on eMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar under aerobic conditions, while a slight reduction in antibacterial activity was noted on modified MRS (0.2% glucose) under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that pH-neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of L. acidophilus or L. casei was inhibitory against tested C. sakazakii strains. The inhibition zones of neutralized CFS were lower than the antibacterial activities of live cultures. The antibacterial activity of CFS was abolished when CFS from L. acidophilus or L. casei was heated at 60 or 80 °C for either 10 min or 2 h, or treated with trypsin or pepsin. This was considered strong evidence that the inhibition was due to the production of bacteriocins by L. casei and L. acidophilus. Both the CFS and active growing cells of L. casei and L. acidophilus were able to reduce the viability of C. sakazakii in the RIMF model. The results may extend the use of natural antimicrobials instead of conventional preservation methods to improve the safety of RIMF. PMID:23924352

Awaisheh, Saddam S; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Ibrahim, Salam; Holley, Richard

2013-09-01

162

Dentoskeletal effects of the Bite-Jumping Appliance and the Twin-Block Appliance in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Summary OBJECTIVES: The current parallel group, randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the dentoalveolar and skeletal changes resulting from treatment using two popular functional appliances: the Bite-Jumping Appliance (BJA) and the Twin-Block Appliance (TBA). PMID:25296729

Burhan, Ahmad S; Nawaya, Fehmieh R

2014-10-01

163

A heat treatment procedure to produce fine-grained lamellar microstructures in a P/M titanium aluminide alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process for fabricating advanced aerospace titanium aluminide alloys starting from metal powders (the hot isostatically consolidated P/M process) is presented in this thesis. This process does not suffer the difficulties of chemical inhomogeneities and coarse grain structure of castings. In addition heat treatments which take advantage of the refined structure of HIP processed materials are developed to achieve microstructure control and subsequent mechanical property control. It is shown that a better "property balance" is possible after the heat treatment of HIP consolidated materials than it is with alternative processing. It is well understood that the standard microstructures (near-gamma, duplex, nearly lamellar, and fully lamellar) do not have the balanced mechanical properties (tensile, yield, creep and fatigue strength, ductility and fracture toughness) necessary for optimal performance in aero engine and automotive applications. In this work a fine-grained fully lamellar (FGFL) microstructure is developed for property control and in particular for achieving a much improved property balance. A heat treatment procedure for this purpose which consists of cyclic processing in the alpha transus temperature region to achieve an FGFL structure with grain sizes in the range of 50 mum to 150 mum is presented. Compared with conventional duplex structured materials, the minimum creep rate is an order of magnitude lower with only a 10% loss in tensile yield strength. Moreover, a three-fold increase in tensile elongation is possible by converting to an FGFL structure with only a 30% loss in minimum creep rate. These are attractive trade-offs when considering the use of these alloys for aerospace purposes. A thorough literature review of the mechanisms of formation of standard microstructures and their deformation under mechanical loading is contained in the thesis. In addition, conventional techniques to produce FGFL microstructures in wrought and cast materials are discussed in detail. Beyond the review, the results of experiments are described for determining the alpha transus temperature, the phase transformation kinetics in this region and the effects of heat treatment time and cooling rate on microstructure. Based on this preliminary work, a heat treatment to achieve a FGFL microstructure with grain sizes in the range of 50 mum to 150 mum is proposed and confirmed. The room temperature and high temperature mechanical properties of these materials are compared with those of conventional duplex and fully lamellar structures. The results of this experimentation are discussed in terms of the fundamental mechanisms for controlling microstructure and mechanical properties in these materials. The potential for applying cyclic heat treatments to cast and wrought materials to improve the mechanical property balance in engineering practice is discussed.

Au, Peter

164

Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air  

SciTech Connect

This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

Brand, L.

2014-04-01

165

Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electron heating (up to ~5eV average energy), ionization of neutrals, and excitation of optical emissions in the mesosphere/lower ionosphere. Model calculations predict the possibility of significant (several orders of magnitude) modification of the lower ionospheric conductivity in the form of depletions of electron density due to dissociative attachment to O2 molecules and/or in the form of enhancements of electron density due to breakdown ionization. Results indicate that the optical emission intensities of the 1st positive band of N2 corresponding to fast (~1ms) removal of 100-300 C of thundercloud charge from 10 km altitude are in good agreement with observations of the upper part (``head'' and ``hair'' [Sentman et al., 1995]) of the sprites. The typical region of brightest optical emission has horizontal and vertical dimensions ~10km, centered at altitudes 70 km and is interpreted as the head of the sprite. The model also shows the formation of low intensity glow (``hair'') above this region due to the excitation of optical emissions at altitudes ~85km during ~500?s at the initial stage of the lightning discharge. Comparison of the optical emission intensities of the 1st and 2nd positive bands of N2, Meinel and 1st negative bands of N2+, and 1st negative band of O2+ demonstrates that the 1st positive band of N2 is the dominating optical emission in the altitude range around ~70km, which accounts for the observed red color of sprites, in excellent agreement with recent spectroscopic observations of sprites. Results indicate that the optical emission levels are predominantly defined by the lightning discharge duration and the conductivity properties of the atmosphere/lower ionosphere (i.e., relaxation time of electric field in the conducting medium). The model demonstrates that for low ambient conductivities the lightning discharge duration can be significantly extended with no loss in production of optical emissions. The peak intensity of optical emissions is determined primarily by the value of the removed thundercloud charge and its altitude. The preexisting inhomogeneities in the mesospheric conductivity and the neutral density may contribute to the formation of a vertically striated fine structure of sprites and explain why sprites often repeatedly occur in the same place in the sky as well as their clustering. Comparison of the model results for different types of lightning discharges indicates that positive cloud to ground discharges lead to the largest electric fields and optical emissions at ionospheric altitudes since they are associated with the removal of larger amounts of charge from higher altitudes.

Pasko, V. P.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.; Taranenko, Y. N.

1997-03-01

166

Photoelastic evaluation of the standard bionator appliance.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to demonstrate the forces in the craniofacial complex generated by the activation of the standard bionator appliance. A three-dimensional skull replica of an orthodontic patient with a Class II Division 1 malocclusion in the mixed dentition was fabricated using a urethane based photoelastic material to simulate bone. Four muscles of mastication were simulated on the photoelastic model. Various anatomical areas of the skull were viewed in a circular polariscope and recorded photographically before and after inserting the bionator. The downward and forward repositioning of the lower jaw by the bionator appliance caused various stresses on the craniofacial complex. The photoelastic stresses visualized in this investigation would most likely cause: an increase in the gonial angle; downward repositioning of the midface; and a posterior displacement and expansion of the maxilla. PMID:10412477

Stefanac, J; Chaconas, S J; Caputo, A A; Griffith, J

1993-09-01

167

Characterization of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powders produced by water atomization and powder heat treatment  

SciTech Connect

Since the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic shows its importance in industrial applications, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic-containing powders, produced by a powder processing route with a high production rate, were characterized. The route consisted of water atomization of an alloy melt (Cu–61 wt.% Sn) and subsequent heat treatment of the water-atomized powders. Characterization of the water-atomized powders and their heated forms was conducted by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Fine water-atomized powder microstructures consisted of primary hexagonal ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites coexisting with interdendritic ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic. Solidification of fine melt droplets was governed by surface nucleation and growth of the primary hexagonal ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites followed by ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid. In coarse melt droplets, nucleation and growth of primary ?-Cu{sub 3}Sn dendrites were followed by peritectic reaction (?-Cu{sub 3}Sn + liquid ? ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5}) or direct crystallization of ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} phase from the undercooled melt. Finally, the ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid occurred. Heating of the water-atomized powders at different temperatures resulted in microstructural homogenization. The water-atomized powders with mixed phases were transformed to powders with single monoclinic ?-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase. - Highlights: • The Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powder production route was proposed. • Single phase Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} powders could be by water atomization and heating. • Water-atomized Cu–Sn powders contained mixed Cu–Sn phases. • Solidification and heat treatment of water-atomized Cu–Sn powders are explained.

Tongsri, Ruangdaj, E-mail: ruangdt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Yotkaew, Thanyaporn, E-mail: thanyy@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Krataitong, Rungtip, E-mail: rungtipk@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Wila, Pongsak, E-mail: pongsakw@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Sir-on, Autcharaporn, E-mail: autchars@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Muthitamongkol, Pennapa, E-mail: pennapm@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Tosangthum, Nattaya, E-mail: nattayt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand)

2013-12-15

168

Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation  

SciTech Connect

This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

Fitzgerald, J.; Bohac, D.

2014-04-01

169

Comparison of emissions from selected commercial kitchen appliances and food products  

SciTech Connect

Effluents have been measured from various grease-producing cooking processes in an attempt to quantify the emissions that enter typical commercial kitchen exhaust hoods. The appliances tested include gas and electric versions of single-sided griddles, open-vat deep fat fryers, under-fired broilers, full size convection ovens, and six burner ranges. Food products include hamburger, chicken breast, fries, sausage pizza, and a spaghetti meal. Emission data were obtained for particles, grease vapor, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. Velocity and temperature fields were measured in the plume above each appliance. Results show that a large fraction of the grease emission is typically in vapor form. The broilers emit significantly more particles less than 2.5 {micro}m in size (PM 2.5) than the other appliances tested. Combustion by-products were measured for all gas appliances. Both the gas and electric broilers emitted significant amounts of CO when hamburgers were cooked. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were below detectable limits in all tests.

Kuehn, T.H.; Gerstler, W.D.; Pui, D.Y.H.; Ramsey, J.W.

1999-07-01

170

Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances  

DOEpatents

A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

2014-10-21

171

Clinical application of palatal lift appliance in velopharyngeal incompetence.  

PubMed

The presence of nasal air leak in cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal incompetence leads to characteristic nasal snort. The efficacy of the palatal lift appliance in patients with adequate velopharyngeal tissue with incompetence was tested. Speech quality improved after the wearing of palatal lift appliance. Palatal lift appliances are simple and efficient in reducing the nasal air leak. Ongoing speech therapy is necessary and advised for patients receiving palatal lift. PMID:22169842

Premkumar, S

2011-12-01

172

The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-04-01

173

76 FR 56126 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program: Treatment of ``Smart'' Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards...comments on the request for information on ``smart'' appliances is extended to September...related to the analytical treatment of ``smart'' appliances in the development of...

2011-09-12

174

42 CFR 410.36 - Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. 410...Services § 410.36 Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. (a...for the following medical supplies, appliances and devices: (1)...

2010-10-01

175

42 CFR 410.36 - Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. 410...Services § 410.36 Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. (a...for the following medical supplies, appliances and devices: (1)...

2012-10-01

176

42 CFR 410.36 - Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. 410...Services § 410.36 Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. (a...for the following medical supplies, appliances and devices: (1)...

2013-10-01

177

42 CFR 410.36 - Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. 410...Services § 410.36 Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. (a...for the following medical supplies, appliances and devices: (1)...

2011-10-01

178

Techniques to reduce the emissions from existing woodburning appliances  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few years, it has become widely recognized that wood stoves can produce high levels of incomplete combustion products. In some areas, wood smoke is one of the most serious air pollution sources. Indeed, Whitehorse, in Canada's Yukon Territory, has one of the highest levels of air pollution due to wood stoves in North America. Most efforts to date, both from the technical and the regulatory side, have concentrated on developing new, cleaner burning appliances. While this approach is commendable and is resulting in a number of cleaner, more efficient appliances on the market today, the majority of wood stoves installed in homes in North America are of the older, inferior combustion type. To compound the problem, many people have bought stoves that were too large for their needs, following the adage that bigger is better. This often results in the homeowner reducing the firing rate by closing the air supply, to avoid overheating the house, making the combustion even worse. That most stoves have been installed in the past eight years or less makes the probability of their replacement in the near term unlikely. Unless retrofit technologies or use control strategies are applied in an effective manner, the emissions from wood stoves will be with us for a long time to come. This paper discusses some reduction in emission levels possible through consumer education in proper stove operating procedures. The paper also discusses changes to the hardware, which allow upgrading of existing equipment and means of reducing emissions from existing stoves, through general consumer acceptance. The specific retrofit technique examined in detail for this paper was the use of a retrofit add-on catalyst to react some of the incomplete combustion products, specifically hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, which would otherwise condense to form creosote in the flue or be released as undesirable pollutants to the atmosphere.

Hayden, A.C.S.; Braaten, R.W. (Canadian Combustion Research Lab., Ottawa (CA))

1988-01-01

179

Study on solid lubricant properties of carbon onions produced by heat treatment of diamond clusters or particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribological properties of carbon onions prepared by heat treatment of diamond clusters or particles are presented. Diamond clusters used as the source material are heated with an infrared radiation furnace to 1730 °C in argon at atmospheric pressure. As a result of heating at 1730 °C for 1 min, diamond clusters are transformed into carbon onions. High resolution TEM observation

Atsushi Hirata; Masaki Igarashi; Takahiro Kaito

2004-01-01

180

Volumetric wear of various orthotic appliance materials.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the resistance to wear of six commonly used orthotic appliance materials. These materials were: SR Ivocap (Ivoclar Vivadent, Inc., Amherst, NY), Eclipse (Dentsply International, York, PA), ProBase (Ivoclar Vivadent), Valplast (Valplast International Corp., Oceanside, NY), Impak (CMP Industries LLC, Albany, NY), and Clearsplint (Astron Dental Corp., Lake Zurich, IL). Twelve cylindrical specimens of each material were fabricated per manufacturer instructions. Occlusal wear was simulated in a custom-made wear simulator with each specimen receiving four wear scars in a two-body wear simulation using a 1.5 mm tungsten-carbide tipped stylus at 40 newtons for 2500 cycles at 1 Hz, while immersed in 37 degrees C distilled water (n = 48). The specimens were evaluated before and after wear testing using a three-dimensional (3D) noncontact profilometer (Proscan 2000, Scantron Corp., Eagan, MN). A mean change in volume was determined for each orthotic material. Results found that Clearsplint material displayed the greatest amount of volume loss/wear, while SR Ivocap, Eclipse, and ProBase materials had the least amount of wear. Valplast and Impak performed more moderately. Based upon this wear knowledge, practitioners are able to more reliably choose the appliance material necessary for their various patients. PMID:24308100

Issar-Grill, Noana; Roberts, Howard W; Wright, Edward F; Dixon, Sara A; Vandewalle, Kraig S

2013-10-01

181

Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2011-10-31

182

Smart Meter Deployment Optimization for Efficient Electrical Appliance State Monitoring  

E-print Network

Smart Meter Deployment Optimization for Efficient Electrical Appliance State Monitoring Xiaohong approaches generally require large-scale smart sensor/meter networks, and thus suffer from the high to optimize the smart meter deployments to track the on/off states of the massive electrical appliances

Wang, Yongcai

183

APSSNMP as a protocol for managing network appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network appliances are getting more popular and common both in the household and in industry. As more items become network aware, the variety of items also increases drastically. This leads to more heterogeneous systems with different vendors providing different implementations. As network appliances' functionality is expanded, people develop a greater dependence on them and hence their status and the ease

Chin Mun Wee; M. Salim Beg; Benoit Vaillant

2002-01-01

184

Networked smart home appliances - enabling real ubiquitous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are 'networked smart home appliances'? What is a 'ubiquitous culture'? With the rapid advancement in technology and the Internet, the consumer can appreciate the usefulness of connectivity. As connectivity becomes more pervasive the consumer will come to expect even home appliances to be connected to a network within the home. The present TV or PC-centric networks are anticipated to

R. Kango; P. R. Moore; J. Pu

2002-01-01

185

Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances  

DOEpatents

A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The device comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a hinged cover plate attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate, the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position. 15 figs.

Cliff, P.L. Jr.

1996-07-09

186

Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances  

DOEpatents

A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The devise comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a cover plate hingedly attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate and the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position.

Cliff, Jr., Paul L. (Bloomingdale, IL)

1996-01-01

187

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

188

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

189

Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics.  

PubMed

Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health.The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance.There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application and the scientific investigation of this effectiveness of fixed appliances or orthodontic treatment in general. There is much research in the area of diagnostics or further development of appliances or techniques done, however extremely few in the area of need for intervention, analysis of the sustainability; influence factors on the success, like caries or quantification of side effects e. g. root resorption. This research to evaluate the indications is completely lacking, also the required evaluation parameters (e. g. means long-term dental maintenance). This gap is in this respect dubious since a link of determining the demand (inducing demand) and supply in Central European health systems is economically given. This enables to create a possibility for a so-called supply induced demand. To get rid of discussions that the professional work of orthodontics can be near to induced demand or unnecessary indications, research of this topic is quite essential. This requires much stronger information for indications. This can improve confidence for patients and insurance companies. Existing indices like the Index of Treatment Need (IOTN) seem to be of academic interest without practice importance for daily work. The question which indications can be regarded as scientifically proven for the intervention must be given big attention immediately. The individual and subjective assessment of the orthodontist (whose experience is not doubted) has to be considered as not sufficient. The scientific background is absolutely necessary due to ethic reasons for the patient, economic reasons for the social insurance system or financiers and also for the orthodontists to evaluative and legitimates the treatment. Well coordinated research with the goal of collecting specific data is urgently required for individual therapeutic processes with appropriate design. The study quality is also an essential topic. It is unacceptable at the beginning of the 21st century with the background of the evidence based medicine, that studies are published with enormous methodological errors. Orthodontics deserves a well

Frank, Wilhelm; Pfaller, Karin; Konta, Brigitte

2008-01-01

190

Using Computer Vision to Access Appliance Displays  

PubMed Central

People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties accessing a growing array of everyday appliances, needed to perform a variety of daily activities, because they are equipped with electronic displays. We are developing a “Display Reader” smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display, to address this problem. The current prototype analyzes video from the smartphone’s camera, providing real-time feedback to guide the user until a satisfactory image is acquired, based on automatic estimates of image blur and glare. Formative studies were conducted with several blind and visually impaired participants, whose feedback is guiding the development of the user interface. The prototype software has been released as a Free and Open Source (FOSS) project.

Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Ladner, Richard E.; Coughlan, James M.

2014-01-01

191

Gas dynamics and radiation heat transfer in the vapor plume produced by pulsed laser irradiation of aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of pulsed laser irradiation of nanosecond duration with a metal surface is studied by numerical simulation. The heat transfer in the solid substrate and the melted liquid is modeled as one-dimensional transient heat conduction using the enthalpy formulation for the solution of phase change problems. A discontinuity layer is assumed just above the liquid surface. Mass, momentum, and

J. R. Ho; C. P. Grigoropoulos; J. A. C. Humphrey

1996-01-01

192

HeatProbe: A Thermal-based Power Meter for Accounting Disaggregated Electricity Usage  

E-print Network

, and tested the HeatProbe system. Re- sults show that HeatProbe successfully senses individual appliance), they can explore ways to make positive changes in their energy usage. As emphasized by Stern [17 generated by running appliances. This ap- proach is based on indirect sensing. Rather than directly sensing

Ouhyoung, Ming

193

Long but not short-term heat acclimation produces an apoptosis-resistant cardiac phenotype: a lesson from heat stress and ischemic\\/reperfusion insults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term heat acclimation (AC, 30d\\/34°C) is a phenotypic adaptation leading to increased thermotolerance during heat stress\\u000a (HS, 2 h 41°C). AC also renders protection against ischemic\\/reperfusion (I\\/R, 30? global ischemia\\/40? reperfusion) insult\\u000a via cross-tolerance mechanisms. In contrast to the protected AC phenotype, the onset of acclimation (34°C, AC2d) is characterized\\u000a by cellular perturbations, suggesting increased susceptibility to HS and I\\/R insults.

Miri Assayag; Gary Gerstenblith; Michael D. Stern; Michal Horowitz

2010-01-01

194

Gypsum scale formation on a heated copper plate under natural convection conditions and produced water remediation technologies review  

E-print Network

Scaling or crystallization fouling of unwanted salts is one of the most challenging and expensive problems encountered in different applications such as heat exchangers and thermal water treatment technologies. Formation ...

Mirhi, Mohamad H. (Mohamad Hussein)

2013-01-01

195

Copper tin sulfide semiconductor thin films produced by heating SnS CuS layers deposited from chemical bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper tin sulfide (Cu4SnS4) thin films have been prepared by heating a layer of CuS thin film deposited over an SnS thin film, both obtained by chemical bath deposition. Upon heating in a nitrogen atmosphere at 300-340 °C, the CuS layer converts to Cu8S5, which reacts with the underlying SnS thin film at about 400 °C to form Cu4SnS4. The

M. T. S. Nair; C. Lopéz-Mata; O. Gomez Daza; P. K. Nair

2003-01-01

196

Copper tin sulfide semiconductor thin films produced by heating SnS–CuS layers deposited from chemical bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper tin sulfide (Cu4SnS4) thin films have been prepared by heating a layer of CuS thin film deposited over an SnS thin film, both obtained by chemical bath deposition. Upon heating in a nitrogen atmosphere at 300–340 °C, the CuS layer converts to Cu8S5, which reacts with the underlying SnS thin film at about 400 °C to form Cu4SnS4. The

M T S Nair; C Lopéz-Mata; O GomezDaza; P K Nair

2003-01-01

197

Controlled oxidation of FeCo magnetic nanoparticles to produce faceted FeCo/ferrite nanocomposites for rf heating applications  

E-print Network

for rf heating applications K. N. Collier,1,2 N. J. Jones,1 K. J. Miller,1 Y. L. Qin,1 D. E. Laughlin,1 for polydisperse FeCo magnetic nanoparticles MNPs synthesized using an induction plasma torch. X-ray diffraction the FeCo core and oxide shell. We show HRTEM images of MNP chaining and compare the rf heating of samples

Laughlin, David E.

198

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel 316L Coatings Produced by Cold Spray for Biomedical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cold sprayed stainless steel 316L coatings using N2 and He as propellant gases were investigated. Powder and coating characterizations, including coating microhardness, coating porosity, and XRD phase analysis were performed. It was found that heat treatment reduced porosity, improved inter-particle bonding, and increased ductility. XRD results confirmed that no phase transformation occurred during deposition. Significant increase in UTS and ductility was observed for the annealed specimens obtained with nitrogen propellant, whereas little changes were observed for the helium propellant produced specimen.

AL-Mangour, Bandar; Vo, Phuong; Mongrain, Rosaire; Irissou, Eric; Yue, Stephen

2014-04-01

199

46 CFR 108.580 - Personal lifesaving appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...108.580 Section 108.580 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.580 Personal lifesaving appliances. (a)...

2010-10-01

200

46 CFR 108.580 - Personal lifesaving appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...108.580 Section 108.580 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.580 Personal lifesaving appliances. (a)...

2011-10-01

201

46 CFR 108.597 - Line-throwing appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...108.597 Section 108.597 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.597 Line-throwing appliance. (a)...

2013-10-01

202

46 CFR 108.665 - Appliances for watertight integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...108.665 Section 108.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.665 Appliances for watertight...

2010-10-01

203

Waste Home Appliance Disposal and Low Temperature Crushing Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the viewpoint of environmental preservation, considerable interest is being advanced by the recycling of industrial goods such as home appliances. In terms of waste home appliances, there is an urgent need for an improvement in recycling rates for waste, because four items (refrigerators, airconditioners, washing machines and televisions) were designated as primary specified goods under those laws that encourage the use of recycled materials. Under this situation, new merits are being discovered in low temperature crushing technology as an appropriate disposal technology for recycling activities. Here, crushing and separating technology for metal composites, and crushing and sorting technology for plastics will be introduced as examples of low temperature crushing technology developed for waste home appliances that achieves recycling rates of over 90% through recycle system for waste home appliances.

Hayashi, Masakatsu; Takamura, Yoshiyuki

204

49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.  

...may include smoke and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (life-saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be packed in accordance with § 173.185 and Special Provisions A54 and...

2014-10-01

205

49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...which may include smoke and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and Special Provisions...

2012-10-01

206

49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...which may include smoke and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and Special Provisions...

2010-10-01

207

49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...which may include smoke and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and Special Provisions...

2013-10-01

208

49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...which may include smoke and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and Special Provisions...

2011-10-01

209

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

210

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

211

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

212

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

213

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

214

Fido: Fast Inter-Virtual-Machine Communication for Enterprise Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise-class server appliances such as network- attached storage systems or network routers can bene- fit greatly from virtualization technologies. However, current inter-VM communication techniques have sig- nificant performance overheads when employed between highly-collaborative appliance components, thereby lim- iting the use of virtualization in such systems. We present Fido, an inter-VM communication mechanism that leverages the inherent relaxed trust model between

Anton Burtsev; Kiran Srinivasan; Prashanth Radhakrishnan; Lakshmi N. Bairavasundaram; Kaladhar Voruganti; Garth R. Goodson

215

[Interceptive treatment with the DAC appliance: structural analysis].  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective short and middle term study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects during early class II treatment. Thirty subjects were treated with DAC appliance, 32 children were not treated. Data were collected at the start of the study (t(1)), after the active treatment (t(1')) and 28 months after t(1) (t(2)). L.D.V. and Tweed cephalometric analyses were applied on the lateral roentgenograms of the three groups. Differences for all the variables from t(1) to t(1') and t(2) were calculated and compared by t-test. Results suggested that DAC appliance was able to achieve twice more mandibular growth in the treated group than in the non treated group. Anterior total skeletal and matricial rotations were similar to control group. Early DAC appliance achieved overjet correction thanks to major skeletal participation (89%) and little dental participation (11%). During following-up stage, overjet relapsed partially as shown in other articles with other appliances. As a conclusion, DAC appliance may be an orthopedic appliance indicated to achieve correction in class II skeletal pattern without maxillary prognathism and with mandibular retrognathism. PMID:18082118

Gebeile-Chauty, Sarah; Archer, Jean-Antoine; Lautrou, Alain; Aknin, Jean-Jacques

2007-12-01

216

Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

2009-11-22

217

A Functional Antigen in a Practical Crop: LT-B Producing Maize Protects Mice against Escherichia coli Heat Labile Enterotoxin (LT) and Cholera Toxin (CT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason; Kan Wang

2002-01-01

218

A functional antigen in a practical crop: LT-B producing maize protects mice against Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason

2002-01-01

219

The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System  

E-print Network

" and next at proper home insulation, window coverings, etc. The other electrical appliances in the home use relatively minor amounts of electricity compared to the air conditioning and hot water heating system. This paper will describe the geothermal heat...

Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

1985-01-01

220

Project Title: Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation  

SciTech Connect

Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

Clark, Thomas M [Principal Investigator; Erlach, Celeste [Communications Mgr.

2014-12-30

221

Causes and consequences of backdrafting of vented gas appliances.  

PubMed

House depressurization occurs when household equipment such as a kitchen or bathroom fan or a fireplace exhausts air from the house and lowers the pressure indoors with respect to the outside. The operation of air handlers for forced-air heating or cooling systems also can have a depressurization effect. This depressurization can hinder the natural draft from vented combustion appliances and lead to backdrafting, which in turn can result in combustion gases spilling into the indoor airspace. Extensive spillage can cause elevated indoor levels of combustion products such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor, as well as contaminants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The focus of this paper is to review studies on depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage from gas-fired, drafthood equipped furnaces and domestic hot water heaters. Qualitative and quantitative techniques that were used in depressurization and backdrafting studies conducted in Canada, Europe, and the United States are analyzed. These studies have shown that exhaust fans operated simultaneously with fireplaces depressurize houses by 3 to 8 Pa on average. The CO indoor concentrations due to spillage, as reported in these studies, generally have been lower than 5 ppm. However, such low CO concentrations do not necessarily imply that a potential problem associated with backdrafting does not exist. Other combustion products, such as NO2, rarely have been measured in prior backdrafting studies. It can be concluded from the literature review that causes of house depressurization are well understood. However, more comprehensive research is needed to better understand the frequency, duration, and severity of depressurization-induced spillage in a broad cross section of houses. Efforts in this direction have begun recently in the United States through a workshop to define research issues, pilot studies to develop comprehensive measurement protocols, and consensus standard development activities to prepare standardized methods and protocols. PMID:8806218

Nagda, N L; Koontz, M D; Billick, I H; Leslie, N P; Behrens, D W

1996-09-01

222

The prospects for incineration of municipal solid waste in Russia in order to produce heat and electric power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the results of the low-temperature pyrolysis of the main components of municipal solid waste (MSW): wood, products of wood processing (paper, cardboard, fabrics, etc.), various plastics, rubber, as well as of a representative sample of MSW. A waste-to-energy plant is described, at which municipal solid waste is subjected to the pyrolysis, and then pyrolysis products are incinerated in a slagging-bottom furnace. The paper presents an analysis of the operation of a modern waste-to-energy plant equipped with a wet scrubber, with a high-degree recovery of the heat of exhaust gases by means of a heat pump, and with evaporation cooling of glowing slag in a tank filled with water. Chemical treatment of water circulating in the system makes it possible to convert heavy metals and other hazardous substances into the insoluble form and then to remove them.

Baskakov, A. P.

2014-04-01

223

Comparative study of SnO 2:Sb transparent conducting films produced by various coating and heat treatment techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent electrically conducting SnO2:Sb coatings have been prepared by the sol—gel dip-coating process from an ethanolic solution of SnCl2(OAc)2 and SbCl3 (5 mol%). The room temperature resistivity of the dip-coated films heat treated in a furnace or by laser IR irradiation is systematically greater than that obtained for films made by spray pyrolysis. Solution precursors and stabilisers and above all

M. A. Aegerter; A. Reich; D. Ganz; G. Gasparro; J. Pütz; T. Krajewski

1997-01-01

224

Nonwearable Gaze Tracking System for Controlling Home Appliance  

PubMed Central

A novel gaze tracking system for controlling home appliances in 3D space is proposed in this study. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, we propose a nonwearable gaze tracking system containing frontal viewing and eye tracking cameras. Second, our system includes three modes: navigation (for moving the wheelchair depending on the direction of gaze movement), selection (for selecting a specific appliance by gaze estimation), and manipulation (for controlling the selected appliance by gazing at the control panel). The modes can be changed by closing eyes during a specific time period or gazing. Third, in the navigation mode, the signal for moving the wheelchair can be triggered according to the direction of gaze movement. Fourth, after a specific home appliance is selected by gazing at it for more than predetermined time period, a control panel with 3 × 2 menu is displayed on laptop computer below the gaze tracking system for manipulation. The user gazes at one of the menu options for a specific time period, which can be manually adjusted according to the user, and the signal for controlling the home appliance can be triggered. The proposed method is shown to have high detection accuracy through a series of experiments. PMID:25298966

Jung, Dongwook

2014-01-01

225

49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. 231...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. (a...an existing industry safety appliance...standard for new construction of...

2012-10-01

226

49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. 231...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. (a...an existing industry safety appliance...standard for new construction of...

2011-10-01

227

49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. 231...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. (a...an existing industry safety appliance...standard for new construction of...

2013-10-01

228

A test procedure for energetic and performance analysis of cold appliances for the food industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we present a novel approach for the characterization of cold appliances and in particular of refrigerators based on the standard vapour compression cycle with a reciprocating on/off compressor. The test procedure is based on a virtual instrument that perform both the stimulus and the data acquisition on the device under test. Acquired data is elaborated to fit a semi-empirical model based on the energetic balances between thermal and electrical sub systems and the heat exchanged with the environment. This approach results in a simple method to calculate useful parameters of the refrigerator, such as energetic performance, cooling effect and limit values of thermal loads. The test procedure requires only a few temperatures and the electric power consumption to be monitored, resulting in a low impact on the refrigerator. Preliminary tests showed a good estimation of parameters and prediction of energy consumption and heat extraction capacity of the refrigerator under test.

Armani, F.; Boscolo, A.

2013-09-01

229

Using thermal energy produced by irradiation of Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MZF-NPs) for heat-inducible gene expression.  

PubMed

One of the main advantages of gene therapy over traditional therapy is the potential to target the expression of therapeutic genes in desired cells or tissues. To achieve targeted gene expression, we developed a novel heat-inducible gene expression system in which thermal energy generated by Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MZF-NPs) under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) was used to activate gene expression. MZF-NPs, obtained by co-precipitation method, were firstly surface modified with cation poly(ethylenimine) (PEI). Then thermodynamic test of various doses of MZF-NPs was preformed in vivo and in vitro. PEI-MZF-NPs showed good DNA binding ability and high transfection efficiency. In AMF, they could rise to a steady temperature. To analyze the heat-induced gene expression under an AMF, we combined P1730OR vector transfection with hyperthermia produced by irradiation of MZF-NPs. By using LacZ gene as a reporter gene and Hsp70 as a promoter, it was demonstrated that expression of a heterogeneous gene could be elevated to 10 to 500-fold over background by moderate hyperthermia (added 12.24 or 25.81 mg MZF-NPs to growth medium) in tissue cultured cells. When injected with 2.6 or 4.6 mg MZF-NPs, the temperature of tumor-bearing nude mice could rise to 39.5 or 42.8 degrees C, respectively, and the beta-gal concentration could increase up to 3.8 or 8.1 mU/mg proteins accordingly 1 day after hyperthermia treatment. Our results therefore supported hyperthermia produced by irradiation of MZF-NPs under an AMF as a feasible approach for targeted heat-induced gene expression. This novel system made use of the relative low Curie point of MZF-NPs to control the in vivo hyperthermia temperature and therefore acquired safe and effective heat-inducible transgene expression. PMID:18396332

Tang, Qiu-sha; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Cong, Xiao-ming; Wan, Mei-ling; Jin, Li-qiang

2008-06-01

230

Formation and catalytic activity of high molecular weight soluble polymers produced by heating amino acids in a modified sea medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eighteen protein amino acids with milk casein composition were heated in a modified sea medium. Marigranules were formed in the precipitates and soluble polymers were formed in the supernatant. Time course of the reaction (ultraviolet spectra, the concentration of metal ions, and the concentration of amino acids in the supernatant) were measured. The time course of the formation of the soluble polymers was also studied by Bio-Gel P-2 column. High molecular weight soluble polymers (HMWSP) were separated from low molecular weight ones by dialysis. It was shown that these polymers catalyzed the dehydrogenation of NADH. These polymers also catalyzed the coupled reaction between dehydrogenation of NADH and reduction of resazurin. This coupled reaction was accelerated by the light.

Okihana, Hiroyuki

1982-06-01

231

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOEpatents

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2011-01-18

232

46 CFR 174.100 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.  

...SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.100 Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity. (a) Appliances to insure...

2014-10-01

233

78 FR 57139 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Case No. RF-031...Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America...From the Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator...Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Decision and Order...Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of...

2013-09-17

234

78 FR 35894 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Case No. RF-031...Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America...From the Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator...U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Washington, DC 20585...Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of...

2013-06-14

235

49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction. A petition for special approval of an industry standard for...

2013-10-01

236

49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction. A petition for special approval of an industry standard for...

2012-10-01

237

Novel behaviour and structure of new glasses of the type Ba-Al-O and Ba-Al-Ti-O produced by aerodynamic levitation and laser heating.  

PubMed

Novel barium aluminate (BaAl(2)O(4)) and barium alumino-titanate (BaAl(2)TiO(6)) glasses have been produced by aerodynamic levitation and laser heating. BaAl(2)O(4) forms a clear and colourless glass under containerless and rapid quenching conditions. Under similar rapid quenching conditions BaAl(2)TiO(6) forms an opaque and black glass, while under slower and controlled quenching conditions it is possible to form a clear and colourless glass. The formation of the opaque or clear glass is reversible and purely dependent on the quench rate used. By slowing the quench rate further, it is possible to produce a milky glass suggestive of liquid-liquid phase separation in the liquid before glassification. High-energy x-ray diffraction experiments confirm the glassy state of these materials and show coordination structures and bond distances similar to their crystalline analogues. PMID:21690853

Skinner, L B; Barnes, A C; Crichton, W

2006-08-16

238

Catalog of DC Appliances and Power Systems  

E-print Network

Room Air Conditioners Security Systems Solar Water Heatersor more 200W solar panels)[9]. Table 2. DC air-conditioners,Air Conditioners Geothermal Heat Pumps Lighting-Incandescent Lighting-Fluorescent Lighting-Reflector Lighting-Torchiere Electric Other Electric Water Heaters Solar

Garbesi, Karina

2012-01-01

239

A solution for parallel network architectures applied to network defense appliances and sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network defense has more technologies available for purchase today than ever before. As the number of threats increase, organizations are deploying multiple defense technologies to defend their networks. For instance, an enterprise network boundary often implements multiple network defense appliances, some with overlapping capabilities (e.g., firewalls, IDS/IPS, DNS Defense). These appliances are applied in a serial fashion to create a chain of network processing specifically designed to drop bad traffic from the network. In these architectures, once a packet is dropped by an appliance subsequent appliances do not process it. This introduces significant limitations; (1) Stateful appliances will maintain an internal state which differs from network reality; (2) The network manager cannot determine, or unit test, how each appliance would have treated each packet; (3) The appliance "votes" cannot be combined to achieve higherlevel functionality. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel, backwards-compatible Parallel Architecture for Network Defense Appliances (PANDA). Our approach allows every appliance to process all network traffic and cast a vote to drop or allow each packet. This "crowd-sourcing" approach allows the network designer to take full advantage of each appliance, understand how each appliance is behaving, and achieve new collaborative appliance behavior.

Naber, Eric C.; Velez, Paul G.; Johal, Amanpreet S.

2012-06-01

240

Improving the efficiency and effectiveness of railcar safety appliance inspection using machine vision technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before a train departs a yard, many aspects of the freight cars and locomotives undergo inspection, including their safety appliances. Safety appliances are handholds, ladders and other objects that serve as the interface between humans and railcars during transportation. Federal safety rules govern the design and condition of safety appliances. The current car inspection process is primarily visual making it

Riley Edwards; Christopher P. L. Barkan; J. M. Hart; Sinisa Todorovic

2006-01-01

241

Home appliances controller using wireless controller area network (WCAN) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a wireless remote controller in which providing a wireless sensing solution for home users to operate essential household appliances, ranging from simple lightings to sophisticated electronic devices. A wireless protocol based on wireless token ring protocol (WTRP) has been modified, yielding wireless controller area network (WCAN) data centric communications, which is then proposed to be applied in

Wei Lun Ng; Chee Kyun Ng; N. K. Noordin; F. Z. Rokhani; B. M. Ali

2010-01-01

242

Nickel Allergy Associated with a Transpalatal Arch Appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The purpose of this article was to present a case in which nickel sensitivity of the oral mucosa was demonstrated during the use of a transpalatal arch appliance (TPA). Case report: An 11-year 8-month old post-menarchal female presented for orthodontic treatment with Class III buccal segments and bilateral open bite. The treatment plan consisted of placing a rapid palatal

Amy L. Counts; Marlo A. Miller; Milan L. Khakhria; Steven Strange

2002-01-01

243

Dentoalveolar and skeletal changes associated with the pendulum appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine the dentoalveolar and skeletal effects of the pendulum appliance in Class II patients at varying stages of dental development and with varying facial patterns (high, neutral, and low mandibular plane angles). Specifically, the amount and nature of the “distalization” of the maxillary first molars and the reciprocal effects on the anchoring maxillary

Timothy J. Bussick; James A. McNamara

2000-01-01

244

On secured end-to-end appliance control using SIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of home networks and the proliferation of broadband connectivity to homes, there is an increasing demand for a secure end-to-end protocol to remotely control home appliances from remote sites on the other side of the Internet. Recently session initiation protocol (SIP) with some extensions has been proposed as a candidate protocol for delivering control commands to home

Mahfuur Rahman; Cuneyt Akinlar; Ibrahim Kamel

2002-01-01

245

Adverse reactions to orthodontic appliances in nickel-allergic patients.  

PubMed

Nickel allergy (NA) is common and causes more cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) than all other metals combined. Many orthodontic appliances (ODAs) contain nickel but their clinical relevance in nickel-allergic patients is unclear. We aimed to characterize the relationship between NA and ODAs because the medical literature investigating this is controversial. A survey concerning adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA was distributed to members of the Wisconsin Society of Orthodontics. Forty-three surveys were analyzed. The surveyed group was experienced, representing a mean of 21.2 years in practice and averaging 242 appliances placed per year per orthodontist. Most new patients with orthodontia were 10-18 years old. Most wires used were nickel-titanium alloy. Although 76% of orthodontists inquired about NA at initial evaluation, 37% still placed nickel-containing ODAs in known nickel-allergic patients. Fifty percent placed a single intraoral appliance, observing for reactions. Three orthodontists applied ODAs to the skin similar to patch testing. Only 8 patients with reactions to ODAs were described in detail, 6 were female patients and 6 were aged 13-14 years. Intraoral and extraoral reactions were mild; diffuse urticaria was reported in one patient. Treatment included removing the appliances or changing to nonnickel alternatives with favorable outcomes. These cases, which included >33,000 patients, suggest a prevalence of 0.03%. Adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA have been observed but are uncommon. Using suitable alternatives, patients usually can be accommodated. PMID:17883919

Volkman, Kristen K; Inda, Michael J; Reichl, Peter G; Zacharisen, Michael C

2007-01-01

246

Electricity savings from residential appliance standards in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained in Sweden by instituting specific standards for five appliances: Refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. At the present time, Sweden has no minimum energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained by instituting specific standards for five product types (refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and dryers) starting in 1995. A methodology similar to that used in analyses for the European Community was employed in this study. In the Swedish study, we used appliance test data developed by the Swedish consumer agency, Konsument Verket, to estimate new unit energy consumption for each product type. Shipments, saturations, energy use, and demographic data were input to a spreadsheet model that sums energy consumption for each product type over the period 1990--2010. Both a base case and a standards case scenario are simulated for each of the five appliance types. It was found that electricity use for these five products can be reduced by 12% over the time period from 1990--2010. Most of the energy savings come from instituting efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. For each product class type, the impact on manufacturer offerings is discussed. For example, for simple refrigerators, eleven 1990 models meet the 1995 standard and six models meet the 2000 standard out of a total of 63 models.

Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lebot, B. [Agence Francaise pour la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

1993-04-01

247

Domestic Refrigerators; Appliance Repair--Advanced: 9027.03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course outline is presented to provide the major appliance service student with a fundamental knowledge of the procedures necessary to repair a refrigerator using information on electrical circuitry and mechanical functioning components. The course may be taught in 90 or 135 clock hours, depending on the amount of detail presented and the…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

248

Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second edition contains teacher and student guides for 14 units of instruction in major appliance repair. Each unit in the teacher edition includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities, answers to assignment sheets, answers to the written test, written test, a unit evaluation form, teacher…

Smreker, Gene; Calvert, King

249

Bottom: The PNNL-developed Grid Appliance Controller was  

E-print Network

could give grid operators the cushion they need to balance the system. The Grid-Friendly Appliance integrate cleaner, renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power; on understanding the impacts understand the health of the system, take action to address potential problems before they spin out

250

Teeth Shape Modeling Pipeline for Oral Healthcare Appliances Development  

E-print Network

Teeth Shape Modeling Pipeline for Oral Healthcare Appliances Development (Invited Paper) Jacek to development of novel consumer oral healthcare devices. The pipeline is implemented in a processing framework changes. I. INTRODUCTION Oral healthcare consumer devices have come a long way from the classic, flat

Telea, Alexandru C.

251

3C intelligent home appliance control system - Example with refrigerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a creative and initial work focused on designing an intelligently automatic detecting and sensor system for home appliances being smartly interactive with mankind with speech in the living space. Since the tide of automation flowed over the industry, manufacturing business, even the living space of mankind resulting from shifting and highly developing of computer technique such as

Chun-Liang Hsu; Sheng-Yuan Yang; Wei-Bin Wu

2010-01-01

252

49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...16-inch sheet steel; (ii) The area of the weld is sufficient to ensure a minimum weld strength, based on yield, of three times the...required for attachment of the safety appliance, the weld is continuous around the perimeter of the...

2010-10-01

253

49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...considered part of the car body; (ii) The weld on the safety appliance bracket or support...17(e) if any part or portion of the weld contains a defect. Any repairs...trained and qualified to identify defective weld conditions. At a minimum, these...

2012-10-01

254

49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...16-inch sheet steel; (ii) The area of the weld is sufficient to ensure a minimum weld strength, based on yield, of three times the...required for attachment of the safety appliance, the weld is continuous around the perimeter of the...

2013-10-01

255

49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...16-inch sheet steel; (ii) The area of the weld is sufficient to ensure a minimum weld strength, based on yield, of three times the...required for attachment of the safety appliance, the weld is continuous around the perimeter of the...

2011-10-01

256

49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...considered part of the car body; (ii) The weld on the safety appliance bracket or support...17(e) if any part or portion of the weld contains a defect. Any repairs...trained and qualified to identify defective weld conditions. At a minimum, these...

2011-10-01

257

49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...16-inch sheet steel; (ii) The area of the weld is sufficient to ensure a minimum weld strength, based on yield, of three times the...required for attachment of the safety appliance, the weld is continuous around the perimeter of the...

2012-10-01

258

49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...considered part of the car body; (ii) The weld on the safety appliance bracket or support...17(e) if any part or portion of the weld contains a defect. Any repairs...trained and qualified to identify defective weld conditions. At a minimum, these...

2010-10-01

259

49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...considered part of the car body; (ii) The weld on the safety appliance bracket or support...17(e) if any part or portion of the weld contains a defect. Any repairs...trained and qualified to identify defective weld conditions. At a minimum, these...

2013-10-01

260

Design and Development of the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

For people with significant mobility impairments who also have both lower and upper limb disability, there are few technology solutions. The aim of this article is to describe the design and development of the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance, a device that provides coordinated mobility and bimanual manipulation for people with both lower and upper limb impairment. The Personal Mobility

Garrett G. Grindle; Hongwu Wang; Benjamin A. Salatin; Juan J. Vazquez; Rory A. Cooper

2011-01-01

261

The use of neutral beam heating to produce high performance fusion plasmas, including the injection of tritium beams into the Joint European Torus (JET)  

SciTech Connect

The neutral beam injection (NBI) system of the Joint European Torus (JET) [[ital Plasma] [ital Physics] [ital and] [ital Controlled] [ital Nuclear] [ital Fusion] [ital Research] (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), Vol. 1, p. 11] has proved to be an extremely effective and flexible heating method capable of producing high performance plasmas and performing a wide range of related physics experiments. High fusion performance deuterium plasmas have been obtained in the hot-ion (HI) H-mode regime, using the central particle fueling and ion heating capabilities of the NBI system in low target density plasmas, and in the pellet enhanced plasma (PEP) H-mode regime, where the good central confinement properties of pellet fueled plasmas are exploited by additional heating and fueling as well as the transition to H mode. The HI H-mode configuration was used for the First Tritium Experiment (FTE) in JET in which NBI was used to heat the plasma using 14 D[sup 0] beams and, for the first time, to inject T[sup 0] using the two remaining beams. These plasmas had a peak fusion power of 1.7 MW from deuterium--tritium (D--T) fusion reactions. The capability for injection of a variety of beam species (H[sup 0], D[sup 0], [sup 3]He[sup 0], and [sup 4]He[sup 0]) has allowed the study of confinement variation with atomic mass and the simulation of [alpha]-particle transport. Additionally, the use of the NBI system has permitted an investigation of the plasma behavior near the toroidal [beta] limit over a wide range of toroidal field strengths.

Thompson, E.; Stork, D.; de Esch, H.P.L. (JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon 0X14 3EA (United Kingdom)); the JET Team

1993-07-01

262

Treatment of severe rotations of maxillary central incisors with whip appliance: Report of three cases  

PubMed Central

The routine treatment for rotated maxillary incisor is a fixed appliance, but in some instance the use of this method is impossible. In addition, in only limited cases of rotation, removable appliance is applicable. In this study, the use of a semi-removable appliance is presented, which has some benefits over the other methods. In this study, the corrections of about 70-90° rotation of the maxillary central incisors in different phases of mixed dentition were performed in three patients using whip appliance. This method was performed using a simple removable appliance such as Hawley appliance and whip spring that forced the couple to derotate the tooth. In all cases, treatment was successfully completed in relative short duration. Whip appliance can be recommended as an effective method to correct rotation of maxillary incisor in mixed dentition with several advantages like rapid correction. PMID:24688574

Parisay, Iman; Boskabady, Marzie; Abdollahi, Mojtaba; Sufiani, Mostafa

2014-01-01

263

Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

1993-08-01

264

Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals  

PubMed Central

Background Prions, infectious agents associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, are primarily composed of the misfolded and pathogenic form (PrPSc) of the host-encoded prion protein. Because PrPSc retains infectivity after undergoing routine sterilizing processes, the cause of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) outbreaks are suspected to be feeding cattle meat and bone meals (MBMs) contaminated with the prion. To assess the validity of prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease, which is produced in the industrial manufacturing process of MBMs, we pooled, homogenized, and heat treated the spinal cords of BSE-infected cows under various experimental conditions. Results Prion inactivation was analyzed quantitatively in terms of the infectivity and PrPSc of the treated samples. Following treatment at 140°C for 1 h, infectivity was reduced to 1/35 of that of the untreated samples. Treatment at 180°C for 3 h was required to reduce infectivity. However, PrPSc was detected in all heat-treated samples by using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique, which amplifies PrPScin vitro. Quantitative analysis of the inactivation efficiency of BSE PrPSc was possible with the introduction of the PMCA50, which is the dilution ratio of 10% homogenate needed to yield 50% positivity for PrPSc in amplified samples. Conclusions Log PMCA50 exhibited a strong linear correlation with the transmission rate in the bioassay; infectivity was no longer detected when the log PMCA50 of the inoculated sample was reduced to 1.75. The quantitative PMCA assay may be useful for safety evaluation for recycling and effective utilization of MBMs as an organic resource. PMID:23835086

2013-01-01

265

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

SciTech Connect

China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

2010-06-07

266

Mechanical Strength and Failure Characteristics of Cast Mg-9 pctAl-1 pctZn Alloys Produced by a Heated-Mold Continuous Casting Process: Tensile Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties and failure characteristics of a cast Mg alloy (AZ91: Mg-Al8.9-Zn0.6-Mn0.2) produced by a heated-mold continuous casting process (HMC) are investigated. In a modification of the original HMC process, the cooling of the liquid alloy by direct water spray is carried out in an atmosphere of high-purity argon gas. The HMC-AZ91 alloy exhibits excellent mechanical properties (high strength and high ductility) that are about twice as high as those for the same alloy produced by conventional gravity casting. The increased material strength and ductility of the HMC sample are attributed to nanoscale and microscale microstructural characteristics. The fine grains and tiny spherical eutectic structures ( e.g., Mg17Al12 and Al6Mn) distributed randomly in the matrix of the HMC alloy result in resistance to dislocation movement, leading to high tensile strength. Basal slip on (0001) planes in the relatively organized crystal orientation of the HMC alloy, as well as grain boundary sliding through tiny spherical eutectic structures, results in high ductility. Details of the failure mechanism under static loading in the HMC alloy are also discussed using failure models.

Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Shuhei; Ohfuji, Hiroaki

2014-11-01

267

The Herbst appliance and TMJ morphology: is there an effect?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sources Medline, Best Evidence, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase, abstracts of related articles and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were searched by hand.Study selection To be selected, work had to be in the form of controlled studies (minimum-internal control with pre-intervention and post-intervention imaging) of Class II malocclusions treated with the Herbst appliance. Magnetic resonance

Chung How Kau

2004-01-01

268

16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating and... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN...APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...

2010-01-01

269

16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating and... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN...APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...

2011-01-01

270

An extended period of functional appliance therapy: a controlled clinical trial comparing the Twin Block and Dynamax appliances.  

PubMed

The aim of this clinical trial was to compare the hard- and soft-tissue effects of 15 month full-time functional appliance therapy with Twin Block (TB) and Dynamax (Dx) appliances. The effects on both hard and soft tissue were analysed using cephalograms and three-dimensional optical surface laser scans. One hundred and three subjects with a class II division 1 malocclusion, and a minimum overjet of 7mm were available for analysis following stratified randomization according to gender and age. Data was collected at the start of treatment, 15 month therapy, and after 3 month post-treatment observation. Statistical analysis was conducted using analysis of covariance. The results demonstrated both appliances corrected the overjet with significantly increased skeletal dimensional changes with the TB compared with the Dx with forward movement of pogonion of 5.2mm (TB) and 0.7mm (Dx) P = 0.003. In addition, significant changes occurred particularly in the vertical dimension where there was also an increase in total anterior face height in both groups (TB = 6.4mm, Dx = 5.5mm) and significant (P = 0.003) mandibular length changes were also observed (TB = 7.2mm, Dx = 3.8mm). The cephalometric soft-tissue changes were significantly different between the two appliances at soft-tissue pogonion (TB = 9.8mm, Dx = 4.6mm, P = 0.001). Laser scan three-dimansional changes showed significant difference in the lower labial sulcus region where forward movements were observed (TB = 8.2mm, Dx = 6.2mm; P = 0.04). Overall these changes appear to be greater and more stable than those achieved in a previous 9 month study. PMID:23291502

Lee, Robert T; Barnes, Emma; DiBiase, Andrew; Govender, Ravichandram; Qureshi, Usman

2014-10-01

271

An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

2008-01-25

272

Heights integrated model as instrument for simulation of hydrodynamic, radiation transport, and heat conduction phenomena of laser-produced plasma in EUV applications.  

SciTech Connect

The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.

Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

2007-01-16

273

Clinical features of infections due to Escherichia coli producing heat-stable toxin during an outbreak in Wisconsin: a rarely suspected cause of diarrhea in the United States.  

PubMed

In September 1994, a foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection occurred in attendees of a banquet in Milwaukee. E. coli was isolated from stool specimens from 13 patients that were comprehensively tested; isolates from five patients were positive for E. coli producing heat-stable toxin, were biochemically identified and serotyped as E. coli O153:H45, and were all resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, and streptomycin. Diarrhea (100%) and abdominal cramps (83%) were the most prevalent symptoms in 205 cases; vomiting (13%) and fever (19%) were less common. The median duration of diarrhea and abdominal cramps was 6 days and 5 days, respectively. In the United States, health care providers rarely consider ETEC as a possible cause of diarrhea in their patients, and few laboratories offer testing to identify ETEC. Hence, outbreaks of ETEC infection may be underdiagnosed and underreported. As in this outbreak, the relatively high prevalence of diarrhea and cramps lasting > or = 4 days and the low prevalence of vomiting and fever can help distinguish ETEC infection from Norwalk-like virus infection and gastroenteritis due to other causes with incubation times of > or = 15 hours and can provide direction for confirmatory laboratory testing. PMID:9564472

Roels, T H; Proctor, M E; Robinson, L C; Hulbert, K; Bopp, C A; Davis, J P

1998-04-01

274

Ultrafine particles from electric appliances and cooking pans: experiments suggesting desorption/nucleation of sorbed organics as the primary source.  

PubMed

Ultrafine particles are observed when metal surfaces, such as heating elements in electric appliances, or even empty cooking pans, are heated. The source of the particles has not been identified. We present evidence that particles >10 nm are not emitted directly from the heating elements or the metal surfaces. Using repeated heating of an electric burner, several types of cooking pans, and a steam iron, the increase in the number of particles (>10 nm) can be reduced to 0. After the devices are exposed to indoor air for several hours or days, subsequent heating results in renewed particle production, suggesting that organic matter has sorbed on their surfaces. Also, after a pan has been heated to the point that no increase in particles is observed, washing with detergent results in copious production of particles the next time the pan is heated. These observations suggest that detergent residue and organics sorbed from indoor air are the sources of the particles. We hypothesize that organic compounds are thermally desorbed from the hot surface as gaseous molecules; as they diffuse from the hot air near the pan into cooler air, selected compounds exceed their saturation concentration and nucleation occurs. PMID:25250820

Wallace, L A; Ott, W R; Weschler, C J

2014-09-24

275

Heat powered refrigeration compressor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This prototype will be of similar capacity as the compressor that will eventually be commercially produced. This unit can operate on almost any moderate temperature water heat source. This heat source could include such applications as industrial waste heat, solar, wood burning stove, resistance electrical heat produced by a windmill, or even perhaps heat put out by the condenser of another refrigeration system.

Goad, R. R.

276

Magnetic field exposure from electric appliances and childhood cancer  

SciTech Connect

The effect on childhood cancer of prolonged exposure to 60-H magnetic fields from electric appliances was examined using interview data from a recently completed case-control study. Exposures of children aged 0-14 years whose incident cancers were diagnosed between 1976 and 1983 and who resided in the Denver, Colorado, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared with those of controls selected by random digit dialing, matched on age, sex, and telephone exchange area. Parents of 252 cases and 222 controls were interviewed at home about the use of electric appliances by the mother during pregnancy (prenatal exposure) and by the child (postnatal exposure). After adjustment for income, prenatal electric blanket exposure was associated with a small increase in the incidence of childhood cancers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.2) that was more pronounced for leukemia (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.6) and brain cancer (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5). Postnatal exposure to electric blankets was also weakly associated with childhood cancer (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.6-3.4), with a larger but imprecise association with acute lymphocytic leukemia (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.6-6.5). Water beds and bedside electric clocks were unrelated to childhood cancer incidence. Results are limited by nonresponse and imprecision resulting from the rarity of appliance use, especially for subgroups of cases. Nonetheless, electric blankets, one of the principal sources of prolonged magnetic field exposure, were weakly associated with childhood cancer and warrant a more thorough evaluation.

Savitz, D.A.; John, E.M.; Kleckner, R.C. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

1990-05-01

277

Simplified feeding appliance for an infant with cleft palate.  

PubMed

A child born with cleft palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Early surgical treatment may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain of the infant. The case presented here is of a 1-month-old neonate born with cleft palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using pressure molding technique to aid in proper feeding. The patient's weight and health significantly improved after the insertion of obturator. The advantages of this material included being lightweight, moldability, good palatal fit and decreased soft tissue injury. PMID:25231044

Masih, Shaila; Chacko, Reena Annie; Thomas, Abi M; Singh, Namita; Thomas, Rodny; Abraham, Deena

2014-01-01

278

New energy test procedures for refrigerators and other appliances  

SciTech Connect

Many innovations in refrigerator design rely on microprocessors, sensors, and algorithms to control automatic defrost, variable speed,and other features. Even though these features strongly influence energy consumption, the major energy test procedures presently test only a refrigerator's mechanical efficiency and ignore the ''software'' aspects. We describe a new test procedure where both ''hardware'' and ''software'' tests are fed into a dynamic simulation model. A wide range of conditions can be tested and simulated. This approach promotes international harmonization because the simulation model can also be programmed to estimate energy use for the ISO, DOE, or JIS test. The approach outlined for refrigerators can also be applied to other appliances.

Meier, Alan; Ernebrant, Stefan; Kawamoto, Kaoru; Wihlborg, Mats

1999-04-01

279

In vitro release of nickel and chromium from different types of simulated orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

Five identical samples, each consisting of a fixed appliance, a headgear and a quad-helix for one-half of a dental arch, were immersed in 0.9% sodium chloride for 2 hours, 24 hours and 7 days. A control appliance was subjected to dynamic test conditions in a specially built "oral simulator" under similar test conditions. A significant release of nickel was detected from the quad-helix during the first two hours in static conditions, whereas during the following two periods significantly less nickel was released from the quad-helix than from the other appliances. The fixed appliance with simulated function showed a significantly higher cumulative release of nickel than the similar appliance in static conditions, 44.2 micrograms (SD 22.8) and 17.1 micrograms (SD 3.4). The total amounts of chromium released from the fixed appliance were significantly lower than those of nickel. No difference in the release of chromium was seen between the static and dynamic conditions. The results indicate certain differences in the amount and pattern of nickel release from different stainless steel orthodontic appliances in vitro. The release rate of nickel from dynamically loaded fixed appliances was found to be accelerated compared with that released under static conditions. Caution should be exercised when applying the results to the in vivo situation. PMID:7785801

Kerosuo, H; Moe, G; Kleven, E

1995-01-01

280

Pin&Play: Bringing Power and Networking to Wall-Mounted Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classic obstacles in the digital augmentation of everyday objects and appliances are usually situated around batteries, communication, size, and weight. Wired communication is often not possible, changing or charging batteries is generally considered a nuisance, and augmenting an appliance is usually not worth it if it means increasing its size or weight. For the subclass of devices and objects

Kristof Van Laerhoven; Nicolas Villar; Maria Hakansson; Hans-Werner Gellersen

2002-01-01

281

Dynamic message-path generation for improvised composition of networked appliances services  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a networked appliances services composition model based on a task graph. We also introduce a mechanism for dynamically generating data\\/event exchange paths (message-paths) among the distributed services. A home network is a heterogeneous and dynamic environment. It consists of various devices including networked appliances, sensors, and computers. This paper focuses on three solutions for achieving adaptability in composition

Jin Nakazawa; Masayuki Iwai; Hideyuki Tokuda

2002-01-01

282

78 FR 28190 - Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water Heaters); Louisville, Kentucky On January 7, 2013, GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C in Louisville, Kentucky, submitted a notification of proposed production activity...

2013-05-14

283

Integration of the Herbst and Begg appliance in the management of severe Class II malocclusion.  

PubMed

The efficacy of the Herbst appliance in a normalizing sagittal relationship in patients with a Class II malocclusion is well-documented. This case report describes the treatment of a 14-year-old male patient with severe Class II Division 1 malocclusion due to retrognathic mandible and mildly prognathic maxilla, convex profile, and lip trap. He had severely proclined maxillary incisors and retroclined mandibular incisors, overjet of 13 mm and overbite of 7 mm. Since the patient was in the peak pubertal growth phase, growth modulation was carried out with the Herbst appliance for 8 months, followed by fixed appliance therapy with the Begg appliance for 11 months. Combination of Herbst and Begg appliance led to a very favorable treatment outcome and greatly improved the patient's appearance. PMID:25395773

Desai, Asavari L; Hegde, Manjunath; Dinesh, M R; Amarnath, B C

2014-10-01

284

A Field Study of Lightning Surges Propagating through Low-voltage Electric Appliances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In today's highly information-based society, lightning damage has a significant impact on an increasing number of electric appliances such as personal computers and facsimile machines. Lightning surge protection devices for electric appliances are on the market and concern for lightning protection has been increasing, but there are still many unknown aspects of lightning surges that propagate into residences. To provide effective lightning protection measures, clarification of surge propagation patterns is needed. The Tokyo Electric Power Company has observed the patterns of lightning surge propagation into houses using lightning surge waveform detectors installed at ordinary residences and obtained data on 30 lightning surge current waveforms between 2008 and 2009. This paper discusses various aspects of lightning surge currents propagating into low-voltage appliances, including home electric appliances, based on the lightning surge current waveform data obtained from lightning observations. The result revealed the patterns of lightning surge currents propagating into the ground and lines of low-voltage appliances.

Ishii, Tsunayoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshiki; Oguchi, Shuichi; Okabe, Shigemitsu

285

The Demand Reduction Potential of Smart Appliances in U.S. Homes  

SciTech Connect

The widespread deployment of demand respond (DR) enabled home appliances is expected to have significant reduction in the demand of electricity during peak hours. The work documented in this paper focuses on estimating the energy shift resulting from the installation of DR enabled smart appliances in the U.S. This estimation is based on analyzing the market for smart appliances and calculating the total energy demand that can potentially be shifted by DR control in appliances. Appliance operation is examined by considering their sub components individually to identify their energy consumptions and savings resulting from interrupting and shifting their load, e.g., by delaying the refrigerator defrost cycle. In addition to major residential appliances, residential pool pumps are also included in this study given their energy consumption profiles that make them favorable for DR applications. In the market analysis study documented in this paper, the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) databases are used to examine the expected life of an appliance, the number of appliances installed in homes constructed in 10 year intervals after 1940 and home owner income. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the smart appliances in reducing electrical demand have been drawn and a ranking of appliances in terms of their contribution to load shift is presented. E.g., it was concluded that DR enabled water heaters result in the maximum load shift; whereas, dishwashers have the highest user elasticity and hence the highest potential for load shifting through DR. This work is part of a larger effort to bring novel home energy management concepts and technologies to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak electricity demand, integrate renewables and storage technology, and change homeowner behavior to manage and consume less energy and potentially save consumer energy costs.

Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Parker, Graham B.

2013-08-14

286

A Simple Calorimeter for the Simultaneous Determination of Heat Loss and Heat Production in Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new type of gradient calorimeter which permits the rapid simultaneous measurement of respiratory metabolism and heat loss. It uses the temperature difference between the inner and outer aspect of a fixed transitional layer of air rather than adiabatic principles. (W. O. Atwater and F. G. Benedict, ``A respiration calorimeter with appliances for the direct determination of

Lawrence R. Prouty; Martha J. Barrett; James D. Hardy

1949-01-01

287

Modeling operation mode of pellet boilers for residential heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the consumption of wood pellets as energy source for residential heating lias increased, not only as fuel for stoves, but also for small-scale residential boilers that, produce hot water used for both space heating and domestic hot water. Reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (CO, dust., HC) is an obvious target of wood pellet boiler manufacturers, however they are also quite interested in producing low- maintenance appliances. The need of frequent maintenance turns in higher operating costs and inconvenience for the user, and in lower boiler efficiency and higher emissions also. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical model able to simulate the dynamic behavior of a pellet boiler. The model takes into account many features of real pellet boilers. Furthermore, with this model, it is possible to pay more attention to the influence of the boiler control strategy. Control strategy evaluation is based not only on pellet consumption and on total emissions, but also on critical operating conditions such as start-up and stop or prolonged operation at substantially reduced power level. Results are obtained for a residential heating system based on a wood pellet boiler coupled with a thermal energy storage. Results obtained so far show a weak dependence of performance in terms of fuel consumption and total emissions on control strategy, however some control strategies present some critical issues regarding maintenance frequency.

Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

2014-11-01

288

7 CFR 3300.13 - Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated body.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed... § 3300.13 Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed...insulated body. In determining the efficiency of a thermal appliance with respect...

2010-01-01

289

Oil Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP) users manual and engineering report  

SciTech Connect

Oil-fired heating appliances have traditionally used conventional chimney venting systems. In more recent times, masonry chimneys have given way to fabricated metal chimneys which have had the advantage of lower installed cost. Even more recently, there has been an effort by the industry to apply power venting technology to oil-fired appliances. These changes in venting technology have been accompanied by ever improving appliance efficiencies. The successful application of these modern, high efficiency oil-fired appliances depends upon the safe and cost effective integration of the heating appliance and the vent system. Unfortunately, due to the complexity inherent in such issues as heat loss, condensation and corrosion the available manual calculations provide only a steady state rather than transient analysis. In addition, these methods are exceedingly cumbersome. While computerized methods have been developed, for the most part they are usually these same steady state calculations placed into a spreadsheet or BASIC program. This report describes the oil heat vent analysis program (OHVAP) for the analysis of ventilation of oil-fired appliances.

Krajewski, R.F.

1996-11-01

290

[The pendulis appliance: a palatal miniscrew supported molar distalization device].  

PubMed

The maxillary molar distalization is a valuable therapeutic option in some clinical cases. Its biomechanics is challenging and difficult to obtain. Historically, various devices have been described offering successful solutions to this problem such as the Hilgers Pendulum Appliance (1992) and variants linked to mini screws which recently have shown interesting clinical potential. This article presents a new Pendulum variant using a miniscrew, the "pendulis". It follows the original concept (titanium-molybdenum alloy distalization springs and polymethyl-methacrylate pellet) but dental support is replaced by a single palatal miniscrew (median adults, para-median in children) to which the device is fixed by means of a metal welded cap easily positioned and removable by the practitioner. This allows for better control of the oral hygiene and completely controlled extraoral activation. Fabrication steps are described and instruction of use is illustrated with clinical documentation. PMID:25158749

Nappée-Miévilly, Magali; Nappée, François-Joseph; Kerbrat, Jean-Baptiste; Goudot, Patrick

2014-09-01

291

Over-temperature warning system for refrigerator appliance  

SciTech Connect

An over-temperature alarm system is described for an appliance having a freezer compartment for storing perishable items, the alarm system comprising: temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature in the freezer compartment; means responsive to the temperature sensing means operative to detect a first temperature condition when the sensed temperature is greater than a first reference temperature, and to detect a second temperature condition when the sensed temperature is greater than the first reference temperature; timer means for measuring the duration of the first and second temperature conditions; signal generating means responsive to the timer means operative to generate a first user discernible warning signal whenever the duration of a first temperature condition exceeds a first relatively long delay time or duration of a second temperature condition exceeds a second relatively short delay time less than the first delay time; whereby the user is alerted to the existence of an undesirable time/temperature condition in the freezer compartment.

Chiu, N.H.; Schneider, D.A.

1986-08-12

292

[Development of a prevention of body movement fixation appliance in leg digital subtraction angiography].  

PubMed

In the peripheral angiography to evaluate blood flow below the knee levels in patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans, a motion artifact occurs as a result of body movements of a patient in normal fixation. This sometimes makes a correct evaluation difficult. Therefore, we developed a fixed appliance which can restrain body movement without affecting image quality and blood flow in digital subtraction angiography of a leg. The appliance is filled with the styrofoam of 1 mm diameter in a sealed bag, after air is aspirated from inside the bag. The appliance is stiffened to fit the shape of the crus. We measured signal to noise ratio / contrast to noise ratio / a resolution limit by visual evaluation to examine the influence of the image before and after usage of this appliance. In addition, the blood velocity of the dorsalis artery in ultrasound was measured to examine the effect on the blood flow. As a result, the fixed appliance did not affect blood flow in peripheral angiography to evaluate the clinical significance, the usual 5-point evaluate scale was used. The scale was significantly improved (p <0.01) after usage of this appliance. The newly developed fixed appliance for digital subtraction angiography of a leg is useful to avoid motion artifacts in clinical settings. PMID:20145364

Yasuda, Mitsuyoshi; Kato, Kyouichi; Sakiyama, Koushi; Uchiyama, Yushi; Asanuma, Shinichi; Fujimura, Kazumasa; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Yasuo

2010-01-20

293

Communicating with whom? The effectiveness of appliance energy labels in the U.S. and Thailand  

SciTech Connect

The proliferation of household appliances is a global energy problem, and this comparative study of appliance energy labeling in the US and Thailand offers opportunities to learn from the implementation of programs in countries with different income levels and cultural and political climates. In the US, the author conducted participant observation in an appliance store and interviewed 16 policymakers, 14 salespeople, and 100 consumers. In Thailand, he interviewed 11 policymakers, 53 salespeople, and 62 consumers, and carried out a national survey of 971 consumers. This study is the first time that energy labels have been examined primarily as a problem of consumer cognition in context--that is, how consumers read, interpret, and think about energy labels in the retail environment. After just three years of implementation, the Thai appliance labeling program is having a significantly greater impact on the consumer appliance market than is the 20-year-old US program. While Thai salespeople report that more than 60% of consumers ask about or look at the label, the corresponding number for the US is just 20%. Energy efficiency was reported among the top-three purchase priorities by 28% of Thai appliance consumers, compared to just 11% of US consumers. In his in-store tests of label cognition, the US EnergyGuide label fared poorly, and the Thai appliance label was more effective at helping consumers to identify efficient models. Yet both labels suffer from the problem of too much detailed product information, which hinders label comprehension.

Pont, P. du

1998-07-01

294

Efficiency of appliance models on the market before and after DOE standards  

SciTech Connect

Energy efficiency standards for appliances mandate that appliance manufacturers not manufacture or import models that have a test energy efficiency below a specified level after the standard effective date. Thus, appliance standards set a floor for energy efficiency. But do they also induce more significant changes in the efficiencies that manufacturers offer after the standard becomes effective? To address this question, we undertook an examination of before-standard and after-standard efficiency of models on the market for three products: (1) Refrigerators (1990, 1993, and 2001 standards); (2) Room air conditioners (1990 and 2000 standards); and (3) Gas furnaces (1992 standard).

Meyers, Stephen

2004-06-15

295

Study of heat and radiation response of a malignant, melanin-producing cell line derived from C3H 10T1/2 cells transformed in culture by radiation  

SciTech Connect

The mouse C3H 10T1/2 cell line was transformed to the malignant state using ionizing radiation. One of the transformed lines (R25) that was isolated, displayed some properties similar to malignant melanoma cells. The cells became dark and pigmented after prolonged time in culture and this cell line produced tumors in C3H mice. The radiation survival curve of R25 had a large shoulder which was also observed for human melanoma cell lines. R25 was more resistant to heating at 45.0 degrees C than the normal cell line. Heating at 45.0 degrees C before irradiation resulted in a reduction of the survival curve shoulder. The heat and radiation sensitivity of R25 did not appear to be related to the melanin content of these cells.

Raaphorst, G.P.; Vadasz, J.; Azzam, E.I.

1986-12-01

296

Heat treatment of mechano-chemically produced BaFe12O19/Fe3O4 magnetic nano-composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) magnetic powder was synthesized via ceramic route by mixing of Fe2O3 and BaCO3 and subsequent calcination of the mixed powder in air at 1150°C. The synthesized barium hexaferrite was mixed with graphite to be treated mechano-chemically in high energy ball mill in air atmosphere for various times. Subsequently, the milled samples were subjected to high temperature in argon atmosphere. XRD patterns of the milled samples revealed that graphite partially reduced barium hexaferrite to Fe3O4 after 15 hours of milling, resulted in a magnetic nano-composite of BaFe12O19/Fe3O4. Extending milling time to 80 hours promoted the reduction process to FeO. Heat treatment of the milled samples resulted in different magnetic composites. Iron was seen in XRD pattern of the 40 hours milled sample that was heat treated at 680°C. SEM images showed that after heat treatment, fine particles in agglomerates grew and larger particles formed. As a result, mean particle size increased due to the heat treatment of the milled powder.

Molaei, M. J.; Ataie, A.; Raygan, S.

2011-04-01

297

Crystal structure and nanotopographical features on the surface of heat-treated and anodized porous titanium biomaterials produced using selective laser melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous titanium biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting are considered promising materials for orthopedic applications where the biomaterial needs to mimic the properties of bone. Despite their appropriate mechanical properties and the ample pore space they provide for bone ingrowth and osseointegration, porous titanium structures have an intrinsically bioinert surface and need to be subjected to surface bio-functionalizing procedures to enhance their in vivo performance. In this study, we used a specific anodizing process to build a hierarchical oxide layer on the surface of porous titanium structures made by selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V ELI powder. The hierarchical structure included both nanotopographical features (nanotubes) and micro-features (micropits). After anodizing, the biomaterial was heat treated in Argon at different temperatures ranging between 400 and 600 °C for either 1 or 2 h to improve its bioactivity. The effects of applied heat treatment on the crystal structure of TiO2 nanotubes and the nanotopographical features of the surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the transition from the initial crystal structure, i.e. anatase, to rutile occurs between 500 and 600 °C and that after 2 h of heat treatment at 600 °C the crystal structure is predominantly rutile. The nanotopographical features of the surface were found to be largely unchanged for heat treatments carried out at 500 °C or below, whereas they were partially or largely disrupted after heat treatment at 600 °C. The possible implications of these findings for the bioactivity of porous titanium structures are discussed.

Amin Yavari, S.; Wauthle, R.; Böttger, A. J.; Schrooten, J.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A. A.

2014-01-01

298

Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore heat transfer and energy efficiency using the context of energy efficient houses. They gain a solid understanding of the three types of heat transfer: radiation, convection and conduction, which are explained in detail and related to the real world. They learn about the many ways solar energy is used as a renewable energy source to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses and operating costs. Students also explore ways in which a device can capitalize on the methods of heat transfer to produce a beneficial result. They are given the tools to calculate the heat transferred between a system and its surroundings.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

299

POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

300

46 CFR 108.114 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...108.114 Section 108.114 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 108.114 Appliances for...

2013-10-01

301

42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.  

...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only if— (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they are— (1)...

2014-10-01

302

14 CFR 21.502 - Approval of materials, parts, and appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PARTS Approval of Engines, Propellers, Materials, Parts, and Appliances...Acceptance of Aircraft Engines, Propellers, and Articles for Import ...Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers. An aircraft engine or...

2010-01-01

303

Estimation of the Energy and Capacity Savings in Texas from Appliance Efficiency Standards  

E-print Network

The purpose of this presentation will be to assess the technical potential for energy and capacity savings in Texas by the year 2006 by the statewide adoption of minimum appliance efficiency standards equivalent to those recently adopted...

Verdict, M.

1986-01-01

304

0 + 0 = 1 : the appliance model of selling software bundled with hardware  

E-print Network

The business model of selling software bundled with hardware is called the appliance model. As hardware becomes less and less expensive and open source software is being offered for free, the traditional business model of ...

Hein, Bettina

2007-01-01

305

mP@gent: a framework of environment-aware mobile applications for small, networked appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new framework, m-P@gent, for environment-aware mobile agents that can run even on resource-limited devices such as PDA, cellular telephones, embedded devices and networked appliances

K. Takashio; M. Mori; H. Tokuda

2002-01-01

306

76 FR 1037 - Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Unlike standard televisions, battery-powered models are mobile, can operate on battery power without being connected...sell. IX. Final Rule List of Subjects in 16 CFR Part 305 Advertising, Energy conservation, Household appliances,...

2011-01-06

307

49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...information relating to the design, location, placement, and attachment of the safety appliances; (5) A demonstration of the ergonomic suitability of the proposed arrangements in normal use; and (6) A statement affirming that the petitioner has...

2011-10-01

308

15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... The appliances and equipment included in this program are room and central air conditioners, household refrigerators, home freezers, clothes washers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters,...

2013-01-01

309

15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.  

... The appliances and equipment included in this program are room and central air conditioners, household refrigerators, home freezers, clothes washers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters,...

2014-01-01

310

15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... The appliances and equipment included in this program are room and central air conditioners, household refrigerators, home freezers, clothes washers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters,...

2012-01-01

311

15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The appliances and equipment included in this program are room and central air conditioners, household refrigerators, home freezers, clothes washers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters,...

2010-01-01

312

15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... The appliances and equipment included in this program are room and central air conditioners, household refrigerators, home freezers, clothes washers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters,...

2011-01-01

313

78 FR 9785 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...identified in this AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd, Maesbury Road,...

2013-02-12

314

77 FR 64763 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...in this proposed AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd., Maesbury...

2012-10-23

315

42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only if— (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they are— (1)...

2011-10-01

316

42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only if— (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they are— (1)...

2013-10-01

317

42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only if— (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they are— (1)...

2010-10-01

318

42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only if— (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they are— (1)...

2012-10-01

319

Share of Energy Used by Appliances and Consumer Electronics Increases in U.S. Homes  

EIA Publications

Over the past three decades, the share of residential electricity used by appliances and electronics in U.S. homes has nearly doubled from 17% to 3% , growing from 1.77 quadrillion Btu (quads) to 3.25 quads. This rise has occurred while federal energy efficiency standards were enacted on every major appliance, overall household energy consumption actually decreased from 10.58 quads to 10.55 quads, and energy use per household fell 31%.

2011-01-01

320

Forced eruption of adjoining maxillary premolars using a removable orthodontic appliance: a case report.  

PubMed

Forced eruption can be performed in teeth with caries, fracture, resorption or perforation in the cervical third of the root or isolated teeth with one- or two-walled vertical periodontal defects. The purpose of this case report is to introduce an innovative orthodontic appliance which enables forced eruption. This appliance is easy to fabricate, cost-effective and very effective in forced eruption of non-restorable teeth. PMID:17429186

Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Talati, Ali; Basafa, Mohammad; Noorollahian, Saeed

2007-03-01

321

Topology of megagauss magnetic fields and of heat-carrying electrons produced in a high-power laser-solid interaction.  

PubMed

The intricate spatial and energy distribution of magnetic fields, self-generated during high power laser irradiation (at I?^{2}?10^{13}-10^{14}??W.cm^{-2}.?m^{2}) of a solid target, and of the heat-carrying electron currents, is studied in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) relevant conditions. This is done by comparing proton radiography measurements of the fields to an improved magnetohydrodynamic description that fully takes into account the nonlocality of the heat transport. We show that, in these conditions, magnetic fields are rapidly advected radially along the target surface and compressed over long time scales into the dense parts of the target. As a consequence, the electrons are weakly magnetized in most parts of the plasma flow, and we observe a reemergence of nonlocality which is a crucial effect for a correct description of the energetics of ICF experiments. PMID:25526131

Lancia, L; Albertazzi, B; Boniface, C; Grisollet, A; Riquier, R; Chaland, F; Le Thanh, K-C; Mellor, Ph; Antici, P; Buffechoux, S; Chen, S N; Doria, D; Nakatsutsumi, M; Peth, C; Swantusch, M; Stardubtsev, M; Palumbo, L; Borghesi, M; Willi, O; Pépin, H; Fuchs, J

2014-12-01

322

Topology of Megagauss Magnetic Fields and of Heat-Carrying Electrons Produced in a High-Power Laser-Solid Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intricate spatial and energy distribution of magnetic fields, self-generated during high power laser irradiation (at I ?2˜1 013-1 014 W .cm-2.? m2 ) of a solid target, and of the heat-carrying electron currents, is studied in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) relevant conditions. This is done by comparing proton radiography measurements of the fields to an improved magnetohydrodynamic description that fully takes into account the nonlocality of the heat transport. We show that, in these conditions, magnetic fields are rapidly advected radially along the target surface and compressed over long time scales into the dense parts of the target. As a consequence, the electrons are weakly magnetized in most parts of the plasma flow, and we observe a reemergence of nonlocality which is a crucial effect for a correct description of the energetics of ICF experiments.

Lancia, L.; Albertazzi, B.; Boniface, C.; Grisollet, A.; Riquier, R.; Chaland, F.; Le Thanh, K.-C.; Mellor, Ph.; Antici, P.; Buffechoux, S.; Chen, S. N.; Doria, D.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Peth, C.; Swantusch, M.; Stardubtsev, M.; Palumbo, L.; Borghesi, M.; Willi, O.; Pépin, H.; Fuchs, J.

2014-12-01

323

Effect of chlorhexidine gluconate mouth wash on the plaque microflora in children using intra oral appliances.  

PubMed

The effect of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth wash (Hexidine) on the plaque microflora was evaluated on children wearing intra oral removable appliances. Plaque samples were collected from the enamel sections, both primary and permanent, mounted on the removable appliances. These appliances were worn by 12 children for one week. Plaque was allowed to accumulate on the in situ test sites and on the adjacent natural dentition. At the end of the experimental period the plaque microflora associated with the enamel sections were compared with that obtained from lingual and interproximal areas of the lower molar teeth. It was also compared with a control group of 12 children without an appliance. In addition, the effect of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth wash on the plaque microflora for the next 14 days was also determined on both the groups. Although some quantitative difference was found between the proportion of isolates obtained from the different enamel surfaces, it was not statistically significant. There was a statistically significant increase in the isolates of plaque microflora after the insertion of removable appliance in children which decreased significantly with the use of 10 ml of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouth wash twice a day. The study indicates that the primary and permanent tooth specimens mounted on the intra-oral device collected plaque microflora similar to that present on the adjacent natural dentition and that chlorhexidine gluconate mouth wash therapy is effective in reducing plaque microflora in children with removable appliances. PMID:8634191

Amitha, H; Munshi, A K

1995-01-01

324

Treatment effects of the R-appliance and twin block in Class II division 1 malocclusion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a differently designed functional appliance (the R-appliance) with a twin-block (TB)-treated group. Thirty patients (18 girls and 12 boys) with a mean age of 10.5±0.7 years were treated with the R-appliance for 16.2±0.3 months and 25 (11 boys and 14 girls) with a mean age of 11.2±1.3 years with a TB for 16.1±1.4 months (control). All had a Class II division 1 malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency. Lateral cephalograms obtained at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of the study were analysed. Paired t-tests showed that SNB significantly increased in both groups. The incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was reduced in the R-appliance group by 1.9±4.9 degrees (P<0.04) but increased by 0.5±5.1 degrees (P<0.6) in the TB group. SNA in the R-appliance group showed an increase of 0.2±1.8 degrees (P<0.5), while it was decreased by 0.2±1.3 degrees (P<0.3) in the TB group. Both treatment modalities were successful in moving the mandible forward. However, with the R-appliance, this was achieved without retroclination of the lower incisors. PMID:20956385

Jamilian, Abdolreza; Showkatbakhsh, Rahman; Amiri, Shabnam Sheikholeslam

2011-08-01

325

Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak Load Shifting & Spinning Reserves: Cost Benefit Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Abstract In this paper, we present the results of an analytical cost-benefit study of residential smart appliances in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the EPA and DOE to provide a 5% credit to meet ENERGY STAR eligibility criteria for products that meet the definition of a smart appliance. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the challenges associated with increased electricity demand, and increased penetration of renewable sources of power. Our analytical model utilizes current annual appliance electricity consumption data, and estimates what the wholesale grid operating cost savings would be if some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads serve power system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. Historical wholesale market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States are used to estimate savings. The savings are then compared with the five percent credit, to determine if the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as the credit (cost) if not higher.

Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.

2010-12-01

326

Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?  

PubMed Central

Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA) on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents.

Rabelo Guimarães, Maria De Lourdes; Hermont, Ana Paula

2014-01-01

327

Torque control during lingual anterior retraction without posterior appliances  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the factors that affect torque control during anterior retraction when utilizing the C-retractor with a palatal miniplate as an exclusive source of anchorage without posterior appliances. Methods The C-retractor was modeled using a 3-dimensional beam element (0.9-mm-diameter stainless-steel wire) attached to mesh bonding pads. Various vertical heights and 2 attachment positions for the lingual anterior retraction hooks (LARHs) were evaluated. A force of 200 g was applied from each side hook of the miniplate to the splinted segment of 6 or 8 anterior teeth. Results During anterior retraction, an increase in the LARH vertical height increased the amount of lingual root torque and intrusion of the incisors. In particular, with increasing vertical height, the tooth displacement pattern changed from controlled tipping to bodily displacement and then to lingual root displacement. The effects were enhanced when the LARH was located between the central and lateral incisors, as compared to when the LARH was located between the lateral incisors and canines. Conclusions Three-dimensional lingual anterior retraction of the 6 or 8 anterior teeth can be accomplished using the palatal miniplate as the only anchorage source. Using LARHs at different heights or positions affects the quality of torque and intrusion. PMID:23502971

Mo, Sung-Seo; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Chun, Yun-Sic; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nelson, Gerald

2013-01-01

328

Analytical equivalent impedance for a planar circular induction heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of analytical expressions is derived for the equivalent impedance in a planar circular induction heating system, used for example in home appliances. The induction system consists of an n-turn planar winding loaded by a conductive material. Expressions that describe the frequency dependence of impedance are provided. The influence of load conductivity, load permeability, and geometrical dimensions is also

J. Acero; R. Alonso; J. M. Burdio; L. A. Barragan; D. Puyal

2006-01-01

329

46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD...Systems § 130.220 Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be...

2010-10-01

330

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 1, appendix A: Bibliography. [manned space shuttle orbiter environmental control and life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of crew appliance related literature was made to provide background engineering information for development of conceptual appliance systems for the shuttle orbiter and the modular space station. From this review, a file containing abstracts of 299 appliance-related documents coded according to subject was developed along with a computerized bibliography of 682 references. Trade studies were conducted using information from these references to determine the optimum concepts to satisfy the shuttle and space station mission requirements. An appliance system was devised for each vehicle which has minimum impact to the respective environmental control system with the smallest possible weight, volume, and electrical penalty. Engineering parameters for each appliance concept considered are presented along with the total thermal and electrical loads and weight and volume penalties for each of the optimized appliance systems.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

331

Differential expression of IGF family members in heat-stressed embryos produced in vitro from OPU-derived oocytes of Nelore (Bos indicus) and Holstein (Bos taurus) cows.  

PubMed

The IGF system is related to embryo quality. We aim to determine the effect of the heat stress on the mRNA expression of IGF1 and IGF2, IGFR1 and IGFR2, IGFBP2 and IGFBP4, and PAPPA in in vitro production (IVP) blastocysts from Nelore and Holstein after ovum pick up (OPU) to better understand the differences between these breeds. Oocytes from four Nelore and seven Holstein were collected in six OPU sessions. Following in vitro maturation and fertilization using six Nelore or Holstein sires, embryos were divided into control (cultured at 39°C) and heat stress (HS; exposed to 41°C for 9 h). Blastocysts were submitted to RNA extraction. The IGF1 expression was higher in blastocysts under HS in both breeds, and the expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 was higher in Holstein blastocysts under HS. The high PAPPA expression and the low expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 are associated with a more efficient degradation of IGFBPs, which results in greater IGF bioavailability in Nelore blastocysts and may contribute to the superior HS tolerance in Nelore, when compared to Holstein. PMID:23889323

Satrapa, R A; Razza, E M; Castilho, A C S; Simões, R A L; Silva, C F; Nabhan, T; Pegorer, M F; Barros, C M

2013-12-01

332

Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

Siegel, D.C.; Congleton, J.L.

1997-01-01

333

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards  

SciTech Connect

This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

2011-05-06

334

High-speed shadow imagery to characterize the size and velocity of the secondary droplets produced by drop impacts onto a heated surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the developmental stages of an optical technique that aims at measuring simultaneously the droplet size and velocity. This technique is based on shadowgraphy associated with high-speed imaging. It is used to investigate the impacts of droplets onto a wall heated above the Leidenfrost temperature. Image analysis involves a detection of the droplet outlines for measuring their size and a tracking of the droplet trajectories to determine their velocities. This paper describes the different steps of the image processing. Solutions are also proposed to address the problems inherent to blurred, deformed, and overlapping droplets as well as the size-dependant effect of the depth of field. The technique is finally applied to several cases of rebound and splashing. Results show the many advantages resulting from the combination of size and velocity measurements.

Castanet, G.; Dunand, P.; Caballina, O.; Lemoine, F.

2013-03-01

335

Supervised start system for microprocessor based appliance controls  

SciTech Connect

A supervisory start system is described for an appliance control that includes a microprocessor, manually actuatable keyboard switch means, and first and second relay means; the microprocessor including first, second and third input means and first, second and third output means and being conditioned to generate control signals at the output means upon receipt of electrical signals at the input means; the supervisory start circuit comprising, in combination, first, second and third transistors each having a base, an emitter and a collector. The first transistor means controls energization of the first relay means and is controlled by the manually actuatable switch means; the manually actuatable switch means being electrically connected to the first output means of the microprocessor and the base of the first transistor; the base of the second transistor being connected to the second output means of the microprocessor, the emitter of the second transistor being connected to a source of potential, the collector of the second transistor being connected to the emitter of the first transistor; the collector of the first transistor being connected to the first relay means; the second transistor being operable to connect the emitter of the first transistor to the source of potential when a signal from the second output means of the microprocessor is applied to the base of the second transistor; the microprocessor being conditioned to emit a signal at the second output means upon receipt of a signal at the first input means; means for latching the first transistor in a conducting condition upon being energized; and means for applying an electrical signal to the second input means when the first transistor means is in a conducting condition.

Fowler, D.L.; Kadwell, B.J.

1986-12-09

336

Purification and partial amino acid sequence of curvaticin FS47, a heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus FS47.  

PubMed Central

Curvaticin FS47, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus FS47, is inhibitory to Listeria monocytogenes, as well as Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Enterococcus, and Bacillus spp. The bacteriocin was purified by 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation, solid-phase extraction, and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Purified curvaticin FS47 was determined to be 4.07 kDa by mass spectrometry and was partially sequenced. Thirty-one N-terminal amino acids were identified; the curvaticin FS47 protein sequence did not show homology to the pediocin-like group of bacteriocins. Images PMID:8031103

Garver, K I; Muriana, P M

1994-01-01

337

Biochemical changes in the follicular fluid of the dominant follicle of high producing dairy cows exposed to heat stress early post-partum.  

PubMed

High yielding dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) early post-partum and it was hypothesized that this may be aggravated under summer heat stress (HS) conditions. In this study, which was performed in Egypt, 20 Holstein cows were followed during summer (n=10) and winter (n=10) seasons. All cows were multiparous and kept at the same herd. Blood was sampled from each cow starting 1 week before the expected calving date and then at 1-week intervals until week 6 post-partum. From week 2 to 6 post-partum follicular fluid was collected through transvaginal follicular fluid aspiration at 6 days intervals. Ambient air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH) were recorded and temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated as well. Respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and body condition score (BCS) were recorded for each cow at the time of blood sampling. Concentrations of glucose, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), urea and total cholesterol (TC) were measured in each blood and follicular fluid sample. All the cows showed a significantly higher RR and RT in summer (95.5+/-1.1 and 39.88+/-0.06, respectively) than in winter (43.89+/-0.61 and 38.94+/-0.07, respectively) (P<0.001). Body condition score loss during the early post-partum period was higher in summer than in winter (1.1+/-0.07 vs. 0.85+/-0.06 point, respectively) (P<0.001). The average dominant follicle diameter was significantly lower in summer than in winter during the period of negative energy balance (11.6+/-0.7mm vs. 15.3+/-1.2mm, respectively) (P<0.01). Under summer heat stress, the concentrations of glucose (2.98+/-0.07 and 2.19+/-0.04mmol/L), IGF-1 (106.7+/-2.9 and 99.0+/-3.4ng/ml) and TC (137.3+/-5.3 and 62.2+/-5.1mg/dl) in blood and FF, respectively, were significantly lower than winter concentrations by (0.17+/-0.03mmol/L, P<0.001 and 0.26+/-0.06mmol/L, P<0.001), (12.3+/-3.6ng/ml, P<0.001 and 9.0+/-2.7ng/ml, P<0.001) and (20.7+/-1.8mg/dl, P<0.001 and 7.3+/-1.1mg/dl, P<0.01), respectively. However, the concentrations of NEFA (0.68+/-0.14 and 0.22+/-0.02mmol/L) and urea (9.27+/-0.34 and 9.96+/-0.25mmol/L) in blood and FF, respectively, were significantly higher in summer compared to winter (0.50+/-0.08mmol/L, P<0.001 and 0.20+/-0.02mmol/L, P<0.001) and (8.77+/-0.23mmol/L, P<0.05 and 8.96+/-0.29mmol/L, P<0.001), respectively, throughout the experimental period. The results of the present study indicate that heat stress early post-partum aggravates NEB in high yielding dairy cows, reduces BCS, dominant follicle diameter and alters the biochemical concentrations in the follicular fluid of the dominant follicle which may result in inferior oocyte and granulosa cell quality and hence poorer fertility. PMID:19481380

Shehab-El-Deen, M A M M; Leroy, J L M R; Fadel, M S; Saleh, S Y A; Maes, D; Van Soom, A

2010-02-01

338

Material World: Forecasting Household Appliance Ownership in a Growing Global Economy  

SciTech Connect

Over the past years the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed an econometric model that predicts appliance ownership at the household level based on macroeconomic variables such as household income (corrected for purchase power parity), electrification, urbanization and climate variables. Hundreds of data points from around the world were collected in order to understand trends in acquisition of new appliances by households, especially in developing countries. The appliances covered by this model are refrigerators, lighting fixtures, air conditioners, washing machines and televisions. The approach followed allows the modeler to construct a bottom-up analysis based at the end use and the household level. It captures the appliance uptake and the saturation effect which will affect the energy demand growth in the residential sector. With this approach, the modeler can also account for stock changes in technology and efficiency as a function of time. This serves two important functions with regard to evaluation of the impact of energy efficiency policies. First, it provides insight into which end uses will be responsible for the largest share of demand growth, and therefore should be policy priorities. Second, it provides a characterization of the rate at which policies affecting new equipment penetrate the appliance stock. Over the past 3 years, this method has been used to support the development of energy demand forecasts at the country, region or global level.

Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

2009-03-23

339

Technology for efficiency measurement of woodburning and other solid fuel appliances  

SciTech Connect

The performance of residential-scale woodburning appliances is of interest because use of these appliances can have significant impacts on been developed so that energy efficiency and emissions can be measured under standardized conditions. During Phases 1 and 2 of this project, the accuracy of these methods was demonstrated for a wide range of appliances including catalytic stoves, conventional stoves, and fireplace stoves. Although some of the flue-loss test methods have good accuracy, there are serious concerns about whether laboratory test results correlated with field performance, i.e., do stoves with relatively high laboratory-measured efficiencies give relatively high efficiencies in field use. The major concerns are the lack of realism due to use of standardized fuel (dimensional lumber with enforced air gaps) in laboratory tests and the possibly rapid degradation of appliance performance. In Phase 3 of this project, three tasks were undertaken: the effect of fuel choice on test results was investigated in a preliminary way; an in-situ efficiency measurement system was developed and tested against the universally recognized reference method (room calorimetry) for efficiency; a flue-loss method developed during Phases 1 and 2 of the project has been demonstrated to be accurate when applied to pellet-burning appliances.

Jaasma, D.R. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (USA)); Shelton, J.W. (Shelton Research, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (USA))

1988-06-01

340

Advanced heat pump research and development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Office of Building Energy Research and Development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has been funding R&D in advanced heat pumps and appliances since 1976. Much of that research has been managed for DOE by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the Building Equipment Research (BER) program at ORNL has been to generate new concepts and develop a technology base for improving the energy efficiency and load characteristics of energy conversion equipment used in residential and commercial buildings. The research being pursued to achieve these objectives falls under three general areas: thermally activated heat pumps (TAHP), refrigeration systems, and building equipment systems. The TAHP work is concentrated on three technologies: (1) absorption heat pumps; (2) Stirling engine-driven heat pumps; and (3) internal combustion (IC) engine-driven heat pumps. Major project areas in refrigeration systems research include electric heat pumps, ground-coupled heat pumps, and refigerant mixtures. In the building equipment systems areas, project areas include advanced distribution systems, advanced insulation for appliances, and commercial building equipment.

Kuliasha, M. A.

341

Effect of physiologically relevant heat shock on development, apoptosis and expression of some genes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos produced in vitro.  

PubMed

For investigating the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock, buffalo oocytes/embryos were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or were exposed to 39.5°C (Group II) or 40.5°C (Group III) for 2 h once every day throughout in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC). Percentage of oocytes that developed to 8-cell, 16-cell or blastocyst stage was lower (p < 0.05) and the number of apoptotic nuclei was higher (p < 0.05) for Group III > Group II > controls. At both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages, relative mRNA abundance of stress-related genes HSP 70.1 and HSP 70.2 and pro-apoptotic genes CASPASE-3, BID and BAX was higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls with the exception of stress-related gene HSF1. Expression level of anti-apoptotic genes BCL-XL and MCL-1 was also higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls at both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages. Among the genes related to embryonic development, at 8-16-cell stage, the expression level of GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group III than that in controls, whereas that of GLUT1, ZAR1 and BMP15 was not significantly different among the three groups. At the blastocyst stage, relative mRNA abundance of GLUT1 and GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group II than that in controls, whereas that of ZAR-1 and BMP15 was not affected. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure of buffalo oocytes and embryos to elevated temperatures for duration of time that is physiologically relevant severely compromises their developmental competence, increases apoptosis and affects stress-, apoptosis- and development-related genes. PMID:23581430

Yadav, A; Singh, K P; Singh, M K; Saini, N; Palta, P; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Chauhan, M S

2013-10-01

342

An esthetic appliance for the management of crown-root fracture: a case report  

PubMed Central

Orthodontic extrusion is usually performed by means of a fixed orthodontic appliance that utilizes arch wire attached to adjacent teeth and transfers the desired force by elastic from the wire to the root. However, clinicians often encounter cases where the bonding required for tooth traction is not possible because the adjacent teeth have been restored with ceramic or veneer. The purpose of this case report is to describe a modified orthodontic extrusion appliance that is useful when conventional orthodontic treatment is not possible. The modified appliance was fabricated using an artificial tooth, clear plastic sheeting, and a braided fiber-reinforced composite strip that covered adjacent teeth without bonding. It satisfied the esthetic and functional needs of the patient and established the optimal biologic width. PMID:25110648

Jeon, Sang-Min; Lee, Kang-Hee

2014-01-01

343

Evaluation of the effectiveness of a semi-finished occlusal appliance – a randomized, controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are usually treated with physiotherapy, self-exercises, medication-based therapy and splint therapy. For splint therapy different types of splints are available. Therefore this randomized controlled study compared the effectiveness of a semi-finished occlusal appliance (SB) with a laboratory-made occlusal appliance (SS) in myofascial pain patients. Method The trial subjects allocated to the experimental groups with the (SB) occlusal appliance and those provided with a laboratory-made occlusal appliance (SS) did, in addition, receive conservative treatment (self-exercises, drug-based and manual therapy). The control group was given conservative therapy (CO) only. Overall, a total of 63 patients participated in the study with each group consisting of 21 subjects. Results When the first follow-up examination took place (14 days after splint insertion) mouth opening within the SB group was significantly enlarged. When the second examination was conducted (2.5 months after splint insertion) mouth opening was significantly enlarged in both splint groups when compared with the initial value. In the control group, no significant enlargement of mouth opening was detected. At no point there was a significant reduction in the number of pressure-sensitive areas of the TMJ. On palpation of the masticatory muscles however, a significant reduction in the number of pressure-sensitive areas could be observed within the CO group and the SS group after 2.5 months. When comparing pain reduction (muscle/joint pain) and mouth opening, no significant differences could be detected between the treatments. Conclusion The results suggest that TMD should be treated conservatively. In cases of restricted mouth opening, the additional use of occlusal appliances can eliminate the patient’s discomfort more quickly. In this context, the tested, semi-finished occlusal appliance appears to offer an immediately available, temporary alternative to laboratory-made splints. PMID:23351923

2013-01-01

344

Low level laser intensity improves propulsive appliance effects on condylar cartilage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mandibular propulsive appliance (MPA) stimulates cell proliferation and gene expression on mandible condylar cartilage (Marques et al., 2008). However, its association with low level laser therapy (LLLT) is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of LLLT associated to MPA on mandibular condyle. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I received any treatment. Group II was bilaterally irradiated on temporomandibular joint with 10 J/cm2 low level laser (780nm, 40mW and 10s) on alternate days. Group III used the propulsive appliance for ten hours daily and Group IV used the appliance daily and was irradiated on alternate days. After 15 days the animals were killed by lethal doses of anesthetics. The condyles were fixed in Methacarn solution and decalcified in 4.13% EDTA solution for 30 days. Seriate saggital 5 ?m-thick sections were stained by the hematoxilin-eosin method. Morphological and morphometric analyses were performed to measure the length and the height of the mandibular condyle, the thickness of the condilar cartilage and the bone mass. Results were expressed as mean +/- standard deviation (one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post-test.) The appliance increased all measures compared to the control group, except bone mass. Alone, LLLT had no effects on all measures, however, the association of the appliance with the LLLT increased condylar cartilage and bone mass significantly compared to the others groups. These results suggest that LLLT improves the effects of mandibular propulsive appliance in the condylar cartilage growth and formation of bone mass.

Figueiredo, Augusto C. R.; dos Santos, Fernanda C. A.; Capeletti, Lucas R.; Galdino, Marcos V. B.; Araújo, Renan V.; Marques, Mara R.

2012-01-01

345

Ultrastructure and morphology of biofilms on thermoplastic orthodontic appliances in 'fast' and 'slow' plaque formers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological features and distribution of biofilms on Invisalign orthodontic appliances, in a sample of 'slow' and 'fast' plaque formers using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fifty-six Chinese male/female volunteers (aged 19-39 years) were screened for their plaque-forming rate using the plaque percentage index (PPI) coupled with digital photography and computer-based image analysis, after a period of 48 hours of abstinence from oral hygiene procedures. Eleven volunteers (seven males/four females) representing the lowest and highest ends of the plaque formation spectrum were chosen as slow and fast plaque formers, respectively. The subjects wore a full-coverage splint appliance, in which four tiles of Invisalign material were embedded. These tiles were collected at intervals of 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours, as well as 3, 7, and 14 days, immediately fixed in 10 per cent paraformaldehyde in 0.2 M cacodylate buffer solution and prepared for SEM. The surface configuration of the Invisalign appliance was visualized, as well as the chronological pattern of biofilm formation. Significance between fast and slow plaque formers was determined using a Student's t-test. Colonization appeared to centre initially on the raised edges or textured surfaces of the appliance, and initial adhesion was quicker and more abundant in the fast plaque-forming group. In the later stages of biofilm development, both groups showed no discernible differences in biofilm accrual on the surfaces, but the fast group displayed a more complex biofilm structure. More recessed and sheltered areas of the appliance, such as the cusp tips and attachment dimples, harboured more biofilm than the flat surfaces. Hence, it seems that the novel Invisialign orthodontic appliance is a useful tool to investigate the features of biofilm formation in time-course studies. PMID:21187528

Low, Bernard; Lee, Wilson; Seneviratne, C J; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Hägg, Urban

2011-10-01

346

Operations manual for the patient assist device. [to handle electrical appliances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quadriplegic patients and multiple amputee patients are almost totally dependent on nursing personnel for any activities or interests in which they participate. A patient assist device is reported which provides patient control over electrical devices in his environment. The patient operates three switches to acquire control over a desired electrical appliance. The type switches employed are chosen to conform to patient capabilities, even when such capabilities are as limited as eye or head movements. The switch operations are sensed and converted into command signals by the patient assist device to control ten electrical appliances simulataneously and independently.

Schrader, M. A.

1973-01-01

347

A High-Sensitivity Hydraulic Load Cell for Small Kitchen Appliances  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present a hydraulic load cell made from hydroformed metallic bellows. The load cell was designed for a small kitchen appliance with the weighing function integrated into the composite control and protection of the appliance. It is a simple, low-cost solution with small dimensions and represents an alternative to the existing hydraulic load cells in industrial use. A good non-linearity and a small hysteresis were achieved. The influence of temperature leads to an error of 7.5%, which can be compensated for by software to meet the requirements of the target application. PMID:22163665

Pa?nik, Roman; Novak, Franc

2010-01-01

348

Simple estimation of equivalent magnetic dipole moment to characterize ELF magnetic fields generated by electric appliances incorporating harmonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method of quantifying the ELF (extremely low frequency) magnetic field distribution around electric appliances, which takes the harmonics into account, is newly proposed. The proposed method involves: (1) a simple estimation of the position of an equivalent magnetic dipole moment inside an appliance, using two magnetic field meters; (2) identification of the amplitude of the dipole moment magnetic-field

Kenichi Yamazaki; Tadashi Kawamoto

2001-01-01

349

Long-term development in the mandible and incisor crowding with and without an orthodontic stabilising appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In children with dentoalveolar Class Il malocclusion with proclined upper incisors treated with extraction of the maxillary first premolars and appliance in the upper jaw only has been reported to increase the lower arch crowding when compared with children with untreated normal occlusion. Stabilising orthodontic appliances might therefore be useful in the lower jaw. A comparison was made of

Ulrike Schütz-Fransson; Krister Bjerklin; Jüri Kurol

1998-01-01

350

Burns and injuries from non-electric-appliance fires in low- and middle-income countries Part II. A strategy for intervention using the Haddon Matrix.  

PubMed

A large proportion of burns in developing countries are related to the nature of domestic appliances used for cooking, heating, and lighting. Our overview of the problem elucidated the need for better surveillance with epidemiologic studies, which will more accurately assess the true incidence in vulnerable populations. This paper will create a framework for envisaging new approaches to the problem and begin to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of proposed interventions. We used the Haddon Matrix to accumulate proposed interventions that encompass a pre-event, event, and post-event timeline. We propose an initial strategic outline plan for interventions based on values that are suited to the problem and the setting, are culturally appropriate, and can be employed in a reasonable period of time for a sustained period to ensure success. Recommended action steps include promoting the use of alternative energy sources, encouraging an integrated approach to finding interdisciplinary solutions, devising a better system of kerosene containerization, re-engineering appliance designs, legislating for enforcement of health and safety standards, taking a holistic approach through government inter-departmental collaboration, formally discouraging corruption, encouraging ventilation of cooking or living areas, implementing building codes, educating consumers, and training caregivers and health and emergency workers. PMID:18206310

Peck, Michael D; Kruger, Gerebreg E; van der Merwe, Anna E; Godakumbura, Wijaya; Oen, Irma M M; Swart, Dehran; Ahuja, Rajeev B

2008-05-01

351

Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

Not Available

2014-05-01

352

Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests  

SciTech Connect

Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

2012-10-01

353

Energy-Harvesting Thermoelectric Sensing for Unobtrusive Water and Appliance Metering  

E-print Network

Energy-Harvesting Thermoelectric Sensing for Unobtrusive Water and Appliance Metering Bradford that meters using the same thermoelectric generator with which it powers itself. In short, the rate at which be harvested with a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to power a sensor node. TEGs utilize the Seebeck effect

Dutta, Prabal

354

EFFECTS OF APPLIANCE TYPE AND OPERATING VARIABLES ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS: VOLUME II. APPENDICIES D-F.  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a project, in support of the intergared Air Cancer Project (IACP), to provide data on the specific effects of appliance type and operating variables on woodstove emissions. samples of particulate material and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were coll...

355

A case of severe crowding with nickel allergy, treated using non-nickel-containing orthodontic appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report the successful treatment of a patient, aged 19 years 6 months, with Class III malocclusion, severe crowding and nickel allergy; non-nickel-containing orthodontic appliances were used for whole treatment period. As a result of performing a patch test, a positive reaction for nickel sulfate and palladium chloride were noted. Then, we directly bonded composite resin braces and titanium

Yuichi Sakai; Shingo Kuroda; Nagato Tamamura; Takashi Yamashiro; Teruko Takano-Yamamoto

2009-01-01

356

SHARC: A scalable 3D graphics virtual appliance delivery framework in cloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in virtualization technology and wide acceptance of the cloud computing model are having significant impact on the software service industry. Though cloud computing and virtualization technology have been widely applied in supporting the information processing needs of conventional enterprise and business applications, there has been a little success to-date in enabling realtime 3D virtual appliances in the cloud.

Weidong Shi; Yang Lu; Zhu Li; Jonathan Engelsma

2011-01-01

357

46 CFR 174.100 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.100 Appliances...075 through 174.085; and (2) A wind heeling moment calculated in accordance with § 174.055 using a wind velocity of 50 knots (25.8 meters...

2012-10-01

358

46 CFR 174.100 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.100 Appliances...075 through 174.085; and (2) A wind heeling moment calculated in accordance with § 174.055 using a wind velocity of 50 knots (25.8 meters...

2013-10-01

359

46 CFR 174.100 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.100 Appliances...075 through 174.085; and (2) A wind heeling moment calculated in accordance with § 174.055 using a wind velocity of 50 knots (25.8 meters...

2011-10-01

360

46 CFR 174.100 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.100 Appliances...075 through 174.085; and (2) A wind heeling moment calculated in accordance with § 174.055 using a wind velocity of 50 knots (25.8 meters...

2010-10-01

361

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located above the weather deck shall be fitted with at least two natural ventilator ducts led from the atmosphere with one extending to the floor level and the other extending to the overhead of the...

2010-10-01

362

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located above the weather deck shall be fitted with at least two natural ventilator ducts led from the atmosphere with one extending to the floor level and the other extending to the overhead of the...

2013-10-01

363

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located above the weather deck shall be fitted with at least two natural ventilator ducts led from the atmosphere with one extending to the floor level and the other extending to the overhead of the...

2011-10-01

364

Service structure and its description in peer-to-peer network appliance architecture AMIDEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, novel service structure, service realization methods and the service description methods in the AMIDEN architecture are proposed. How it is applicable to actual appliances is discussed with some example applications. The concept of the service described in this paper is realized by the combination of one or more functions, which a set or a plurality of sets

Y. Tajika; D. Ajitomi; M. Minoh; T. Kamae

2002-01-01

365

An Jini-based infrastructure for networked appliance management and adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Networked appliances (NAs) are popularly viewed as one of the major Internet growth areas of the future and home networks and networked vehicles represent just two possible application areas. The potential market for such networks is great, but they prove difficult to deploy, configure and manage due to the dynamic behaviour stemming from their usage context. The lack of network

Denis Reilly; A. Taleb-Bendiab

2002-01-01

366

An Asymmetric Dual-Processor Architecture for Low Power Information Appliances  

E-print Network

conscious of their energy footprint--either to improve battery life or to respect the environment impacts how long the appliance can be used on a single charge of the battery. In this paper, we present in terms of device lifetime. The architecture combines a low power micro- controller with a high

Manohar, Rajit

367

Nonserial Dynamic Programming with Applications in Smart Home Appliances Scheduling Part II: Nonserial Dynamic Programming  

E-print Network

(ti) subject to lij tj -ti uij, {i, j} ti C, i, n i=1 gi(ti) b, (2) where fi are arbitrary givenNonserial Dynamic Programming with Applications in Smart Home Appliances Scheduling ­ Part II: Nonserial Dynamic Programming Kin Cheong Sou, Henrik Sandberg and Karl Henrik Johansson Abstract

Johansson, Karl Henrik

368

Mapping chemical elements on the surface of orthodontic appliance by SEM-EDX  

PubMed Central

Background During orthodontic treatment, the various elements that constitute the fixed appliance undergo different processes. As a result of a change of the surface, elution/coverage of metals on the surface can be observed in the process of corrosion/passivation. Material/Methods Scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive X-ray analytical system (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the composition of stainless steel elements of orthodontic fixed appliances (before and after orthodontic treatment), to obtain the composition of the surface of the elements. The analyzed elements were: brackets (Victory Series APC PLUS 022, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); wires (0.017×0.025, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); and bands (37+, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA). Results The results showed a decrease of chromium and iron contribution to the surface, with increase of oxygen content in used vs. new elements of the appliance. Conclusions Our results confirm the formation of oxides (passivation layer) on the surface of stainless steel as a result of the presence of the orthodontic appliance in patients’ oral cavities. PMID:24857929

Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wo?owiec, Paulina; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Czopor, Wojciech; Berniczei-Royko, Adam; Vegh, Andras; Gedrange, Thomas

2014-01-01

369

Fabrication and Evaluation of a Noncompliant Molar Distalizing Appliance: Bonded Molar Distalizer  

PubMed Central

Objective Attempts to treat class II malocclusions without extraction in non-compliant patients have led to utilization of intraoral molar distalizing appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate dental and skeletal effects of Bonded Molar Distalizer (BMD) which is a simple molar distalizing appliance. Materials and Methods Sixteen patients (12 girls, four boys) with bilateral half-cusp class II molar relationship, erupted permanent second molars and normal or vertical growth pattern were selected for bilateral distalization of maxillary molars via BMD. The screws were activated every other day, alternately. Lateral cephalograms and study models were obtained before treatment and after 11 weeks activation of the appliance. Results Significant amounts of molar distalization, molar distal tipping and anchorage loss were observed. The mean maxillary first molar distal movement was 1.22±0.936 mm with a distal tipping of 2.97±3.74 degrees in 11 weeks. The rate of distal movement was 0.48 mm per month. Reciprocal mesial movement of the first premolars was 2.26±1.12 mm with a mesial tipping of 4.25±3.12 degrees. Maxillary incisors moved 3.55±1.46 mm and tipped 9.87±5.03 degrees mesially. Lower anterior face height (LAFH) decreased 1.28±1.36 mm. Conclusion BMD is appropriate for distalizing maxillary molars, especially in patients with critical LAFH, although significant amounts of anchorage loss occur using this appliance. PMID:22457837

Sodagar, A.; Ahmad Akhoundi, M. S.; Rafighii, A.; Arab, S.

2011-01-01

370

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...containing gas-consuming appliances which are located above the weather deck shall be fitted with at least two natural ventilator ducts led from the atmosphere with one extending to the floor level and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment....

2012-10-01

371

Pre-directional appliance: a new approach to correct shifted premaxilla in bilateral cleft cases.  

PubMed

Management of bilateral cleft lip and palate cases is a challenging task, and if the premaxilla is shifted to either side, it poses a problem for the surgeon to operate and also for the orthodontist to do the orthodontic alignment. The aim of this study was to reposition the shifted premaxilla for better retraction with presurgical infant orthopedics, thus reducing the tissue tension and further scarring which have detrimental effects on maxillary growth. The innovative technique with pre-directional (PD) appliance is easy to fabricate and use and works in this direction. Acrylic, springs, permasoft liner, elastics, retentive tapes. Previous approach for the shifted premaxilla was more focused on the surgical correction. In adults, surgery with osteotomy is the only option, with its own limitations and disadvantages, in repositioning the shifted premaxilla. Thus, PD appliance aids to correct the shifted premaxilla in presurgical molding stage. The premaxilla was thus shifted 5.5 mm to the left side, with premaxilla in facial symmetry, with the PD appliance. Presurgical orthopedics with PD appliance is worth in infants with shifted premaxilla in bilateral clefts cases. PMID:22169835

Daigavane, P S; Hazarey, P; Vasant, R; Thombare, R

2011-12-01

372

Assessment and control of indoor air pollution resulting from wood burning appliance use  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of indoor combustion products was done in 20 homes with wood burning appliances to identify factors which might be involved in the release of pollutants. Homes selected were without cigarette smokers, gas cooking stoves and kerosene space heaters. Each home was monitored twice with the wood burner in operation and twice without. Participants recorded weight of wood burned,

P. Kaarakka; M. S. Kanarek; J. R. Lawrence

1989-01-01

373

78 FR 18533 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...That AD applies to certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...Applicability This AD applies to Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded...

2013-03-27

374

Energy, Appliances and Utilities Energy&Environment * EnergySTAR * Toyota PRIUS Myths, Facts, and Hype ...  

E-print Network

Energy, Appliances and Utilities Energy&Environment * EnergySTAR * Toyota PRIUS Myths, Facts therm = 100000 BTU = 29.307 kWhr 1 tonR = 12000 BTU/hr = 3.516 kW(c) cooling rate 1 SEER = (1 BTU it apply to the energy efficiency of air conditioners? Every air conditioning unit has an efficiency rating

Kostic, Milivoje M.

375

Treatment and posttreatment effects of the Herbst appliance on the dental arches and arch relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article was to give an overview of the dental effects of theHerbst appliance and to discuss their clinical consequences. The arch perimeter, arch widths, and interarch changes as well as mandibular incisor crowding and gingival recession during Herbst treatment are reviewed. The average changes in the short- and long-term perspective are shown, and the large individual

Ken Hansen

2003-01-01

376

76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...standards and qualification as an ENERGY STAR product. DATES: Written comments and...submitted a joint petition to the ENERGY STAR program regarding smart grid enabled appliances...consider a five percent credit to the ENERGY STAR performance level for smart grid...

2011-08-05

377

Enhanced bimanual manipulation assistance with the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance (PerMMA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the enhanced ability of manipulation with the newly developed Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance (PerMMA). PerMMA is a new assistive device that integrates bimanual manipulation with smart mobility to assist people with severe physical disabilities and enhance their quality of lives. Different from the fixed mounting method used in most existing systems, a novel mounting

Jijie Xu; Garrett G. Grindle; Ben Salatin; Juan J. Vazquez; Hongwu Wang; Dan Ding; R. A. Cooper

2010-01-01

378

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

1990-01-01

379

Updated Buildings Sector Appliance and Equipment Costs and Efficiency  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) works with technology experts to project the cost and efficiency of future heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and other major end-use equipment rather than developing residential and commercial technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for some of the most important assumptions used for our Annual Energy Outlook projections of buildings energy demand.

2013-01-01

380

Development of the lined masonry chimney oil appliance  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development of the lined masonry chimney venting tables form the output of the Oil Heat Analysis Program 9OHVAP. These new tables are different from the prior format, offered in the Proceedings of the 1995 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, paper No. 95-4. Issues expressed by representatives of the oil heat industry at last years conference during the Venting Technology Workshop resulted in subsequent discussions. A full day meeting was held, co-sponsored by BNL and the Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA), to address revision of the format of the venting tables prior to submission to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 31 Technical Committee. The resulting tables and text were submitted to NFPA during the first week of October, 1995. Since then minor changes were made reflecting the addition of data obtained by including intermediate firing rates (0.4, 0.65, and 0.85 gph) not included in the original tables which were developed in increments of 0.25 gph. The new tables address the specific question; {open_quotes}If remediation is required, what is the recommendation for the sizing of a metal liner and the appropriate firing rate range to be used with that liner?{close_quotes}

Krajewski, R.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-07-01

381

Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets  

SciTech Connect

Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of labeling strategies and promotion in China.

Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

2002-08-20

382

The use of Twin Force functional fixed orthopedic appliance in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion.  

PubMed

Fixed protruding appliances are interesting tools for correction of Class II dental malocclusion in adult and growing patients. The appliances most commonly used for this purpose are: Herbst, Forsus and Jasper Jumper. The present clinical case report shows an alternative called Twin Force Bite Corrector which was used for 3 months by a patient aged 10 years and 6 months associated with the Andrews prescription fixed appliance (Abzil 3M). After treatment, malocclusion was found to be adjusted to Class I dental occlusion in a single stage. PMID:24812744

Yamazaki, Marcos Shinao; Rosário, Henrique Damian; El-Haje, Ossam; Alvim-Pereira, Fabiano; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

2014-01-01

383

Project Produce  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this science- and social studies-integrated lesson, students researched the produce found at their local grocery store. The class learned the difference between fruits and vegetables and learned the origins of various "exotic" food items. Students also interviewed local gardeners and prepared ethnic foods in the classroom.

Wolfinger, Donna M.

2005-01-01

384

Project Produce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

Wolfinger, Donna M.

2005-01-01

385

Producer Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An article written for children, this reading explains the role of plants as producers. It is written at a grade 4-5 reading level, and it is a good supplement to the evidence that students can observe and record through experimentation with photosynthesis.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

386

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25

387

Mini-implant-borne Pendulum B appliance for maxillary molar distalisation: design and clinical procedure.  

PubMed

A treatment objective of upper molar distalisation may often be required during the correction of a malocclusion. Distalisation is not only indicated for the management of Class II patients, but also for Class III surgery patients who require decompensation in the upper arch if upper incisor retrusion is needed. Unfortunately, most conventional intra-oral devices for non-compliance maxillary molar distalisation experience anchorage loss. A Pendulum type of appliance and a mini-implant-borne distalisation mechanism have been designed which can be inserted at chair-side, without a prior laboratory procedure and immediately after mini-implant placement. For re-activation purposes, a distal screw may be added to the Pendulum B appliance. PMID:25549527

Wilmes, Benedict; Katyal, Vandana; Drescher, Dieter

2014-11-01

388

Changes of tongue position and oropharynx following treatment with functional appliance.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine changes of tongue position and oropharyngeal space following treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div I malocclusion. In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div I malocclusion were investigated. The range of age of females was 10-13 years and males 11-14 years. These samples were treated for II months. McNamara analysis and some linear variables were used to determine positional changes of tongue and oropharyngeal space. In this study, tongue moved significantly (P. value < 0.05) forwards in the horizontal dimension and non-significantly downwards in the vertical dimension. Treatment with functional appliance leads to significant alterations in tongue position and significantly increases the extent of oropharyngeal space. PMID:19161068

Yassaei, S; Bahrololoomi, Z; Sorush, M

2007-01-01

389

Evaluation of Spectral and Prosodic Features of Speech Affected by Orthodontic Appliances Using the Gmm Classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes our experiment with using the Gaussian mixture models (GMM) for classification of speech uttered by a person wearing orthodontic appliances. For the GMM classification, the input feature vectors comprise the basic and the complementary spectral properties as well as the supra-segmental parameters. Dependence of classification correctness on the number of the parameters in the input feature vector and on the computation complexity is also evaluated. In addition, an influence of the initial setting of the parameters for GMM training process was analyzed. Obtained recognition results are compared visually in the form of graphs as well as numerically in the form of tables and confusion matrices for tested sentences uttered using three configurations of orthodontic appliances.

P?ibil, Ji?í; P?ibilová, Anna; ?ura?koá, Daniela

2014-01-01

390

Study of the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion device on a wood burning appliance  

SciTech Connect

The increased use of catalytic combustion devices on wood-burning appliances has raised a number of concerns regarding the emissions from these sources into residential areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of catalytic combustors in reducing emissions of hydrocarbons and CO, and also to determine the species of compounds which are emitted during the operation of a typical catalytic-equipped appliance. The stove used in this program had a honeycomb, ceramic catalytic device, referred to as a catalyst, internally within the stove. While the catalyst is believed to be effective in the promotion of combustion, actual operation had not been thoroughly characterized with respect to stove operating variables. Of particular concern to this study were the following: Operating conditions where the catalyst is most effective in reducing emissions. Effectiveness of the catalyst in low burn-rate operation. Combustion products formed in the catalytic combustion process.

Allen, J.M.; Cooke, M.; Piipspanen, W.M.

1983-06-01

391

Custom made pressure appliance for presurgical sustained compression of auricular keloid.  

PubMed

Keloid is dermal lesion characterized by nodular fibroblastic proliferation, which is considered an aberration of wound healing process. It is believed to be the confused scar that does not know when to stop growing. Pressure therapy using clips or splints is widely used for the treatment of keloids; however, it is often very difficult to control the amount and direction of pressure applied. Among the most common complications of this therapy is ulceration due to excessive pressure. A case of presurgical size reduction for a large ear keloid with a custom made pressure appliance is presented. This novel design of the appliance allows for better control over the amount and direction of the pressure applied on the scar tissue. PMID:25184083

Rathee, M; Kundu, R; Tamrakar, Ak

2014-07-01

392

Custom Made Pressure Appliance for Presurgical Sustained Compression of Auricular Keloid  

PubMed Central

Keloid is dermal lesion characterized by nodular fibroblastic proliferation, which is considered an aberration of wound healing process. It is believed to be the confused scar that does not know when to stop growing. Pressure therapy using clips or splints is widely used for the treatment of keloids; however, it is often very difficult to control the amount and direction of pressure applied. Among the most common complications of this therapy is ulceration due to excessive pressure. A case of presurgical size reduction for a large ear keloid with a custom made pressure appliance is presented. This novel design of the appliance allows for better control over the amount and direction of the pressure applied on the scar tissue. PMID:25184083

Rathee, M; Kundu, R; Tamrakar, AK

2014-01-01

393

The Quatro appliance: a removable aligner with a changeable labial bow.  

PubMed

Lower labial segment irregularity is a feature that is presenting more frequently as greater emphasis is placed on aesthetics than ever before. The authors report on a removable appliance that is easy to construct and use and is designed to deal with mild labial tooth irregularity. In cases of crowding the aligner can be used in conjunction with inter-proximal stripping. The device incorporates a removable labial bow attached bilaterally to a sliding lock. This lock permits the addition of sectional archwires to the labial part of the appliance. The versatility of the aligner allows round and rectangular wires of different materials and dimensions to be placed with or without bends. PMID:18042823

Singh, P; Ash, S; Mizrahi, E

2007-12-01

394

Small, Embedded Web Server for Home Appliances with Embedded MPU and Real-time Operating System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a small, power saving, and embeddable Web server for home appliances. The proposed device has an embedded MPU and a real-time operating system to actualize small size and power-saving for consumer use. First, a T-Engine, embedded 32-bit RISC MPU was used as the hardware of the proposed system. Next, a real-time operating system designed for embedded use,

Masato Shimano; Futoshi Okazaki; Yoshihiro Saito; Akiya Fukui; Takako Nonaka; Tomohiro Hase

2007-01-01

395

Efficiency of a pendulum appliance for molar distalization related to second and third molar eruption stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified pendulum appliance, including a distal screw and special preactivated pendulum springs (built-in straightening activation and toe-in bending), was used for bilateral maxillary molar distalization in 36 adolescent patients in various stages of the molar dentition. The patients were divided into 3 groups (PG 1-3) according to the stage of eruption of their second and third molars. In PG

Gero S. M Kinzinger; Ulrike B Fritz; Franz-Günter Sander; Peter R Diedrich

2004-01-01

396

Discomfort associated with fixed orthodontic appliances: determinant factors and influence on quality of life  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the determinant factors of discomfort attributed to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance and the effect on the quality of life of adolescents. Material and Methods Two hundred and seventy-two individuals aged between 9 and 18 years old, enrolled in public and private schools and undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants were randomly selected from a sample comprising 62,496 individuals of the same age group. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and an interview. Discomfort intensity and bio-psychosocial variables were assessed using the Oral Impact on Daily Performance questionnaire. Self-esteem was determined using the Global Negative Self-Evaluation questionnaire. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test and both simple and multiple Poisson regression analyses. Results Although most individuals did not present discomfort, there was a prevalence of 15.9% of impact on individuals' daily life exclusively due to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance . Age [PR: 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2-8.5)], speech impairment [PR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6)], poor oral hygiene [PR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8)] and tooth mobility [PR: 3.9 (95% CI: 1.8-8.1)] remained independently associated with a greater prevalence of discomfort (P ? 0.05). Conclusions Discomfort associated with the use of fixed orthodontic appliances exerted a negative influence on the quality of life of the adolescents comprising the present study. The determinants of this association were age, poor oral hygiene, speech impairment and tooth mobility. PMID:25162573

Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins; Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Pereira, Luciano José; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

2014-01-01

397

RFID based production and distribution management systems for home appliance industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the paper is to provide RFID based management methodologies for the production and distribution processes in the life cycle management of home appliances. Major hardware components and software functions of the process management systems are described as a combination case of closed-loop and open-loop applications. For the closed-loop application in factories, HF RFID tray tags, workstation readers

Xubing Chen; Yuhui Wang; Zhouping Yin

2010-01-01

398

Design and Implementation of a Web2.0Based Home-Appliances Control Service Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid progress of information techniques, people should have a convenient environment and life. This study designs and develops a Web2.0-based home-appliances control service platform (WHALE), which is based on the standard of Devices Profile for Web Services (DPWS) and the service platform of Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi). WHALE is designed and implemented for users to easily control

Chung-Ming Huang; Hao-Hsiang Ku; Cheng-Wei Lin

2009-01-01

399

Phase change heat transfer device for process heat applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and\\/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up

Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

2010-01-01

400

The influence of orthodontic fixed appliances on the oral microbiota: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether there is scientific evidence to support the hypothesis that the presence of orthodontic fixed appliances influences the oral microbiota. Methods The search for articles was conducted in PubMed; ISI Web of Knowledge and Ovid databases, including articles published in English until May 17th, 2012. They should report human observational studies presenting the following keywords: "fixed orthodontic appliance" AND "microbiological colonization"; OR "periodontal pathogens"; OR "Streptococcus"; OR "Lactobacillus"; OR "Candida"; OR "Tannerella forsythia"; OR "Treponema denticola"; OR "Fusobacterium nucleatum"; OR "Actimomyces actinomycetemcomitans"; OR "Prevotella intermedia", OR "Prevotella nigrescens"; OR "Porphyromonas gingivalis". Articles were previously selected by title and abstract. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed and classified as having low, moderate or high methodology quality. A new detailed checklist for quality assessment was developed based on the information required for applicable data extraction for reviews. The study design, sample, follow-up period, collection and microbial analysis methods, statistical treatment, results and discussion were assessed. Results The initial search retrieved 305 articles of which 33 articles were selected by title and abstract. After full-text reading, 8 articles met the inclusion criteria, out of which 4 articles were classified as having low and 4 as moderate methodological quality. The moderate methodological quality studies were included in the systematic review. Conclusions The literature revealed moderate evidence that the presence of fixed appliances influences the quantity and quality of oral microbiota. PMID:24945514

de Freitas, Amanda Osório Ayres; Marquezan, Mariana; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Maia, Lucianne Cople

2014-01-01

401

High-Resolution Gas Metering and Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis deals with design and implementation of a high-resolution metering system for residential natural gas meters. Detailed experimental measurements are performed on the meter to characterize and understand its measurement properties. Results from these experiments are used to develop a simple, fast and accurate technique to non-intrusively monitor the gas consumption of individual appliances in homes by resolving small amounts of gas usage. The technique is applied on an existing meter retrofitted with a module that includes a high-resolution encoder to collect gas flow data and a microprocessor to analyze and identify appliance load profiles. This approach provides a number of appealing features including low cost, easy installation and integration with automated meter reading (AMR) systems. The application of this method to residential gas meters currently deployed is also given. This is done by performing a load simulation on realistic gas loads with the aim of identifying the necessary parameters that minimize the cost and complexity of the mechanical encoder module. The primary benefits of the system are efficiency analysis, appliance health monitoring and real-time customer feedback of gas usage. Additional benefits of include the ability to detect very small leaks and theft. This system has the potential for wide scale market adoption.

Tewolde, Mahder

402

Heat simulation via Scilab programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discussed the used of an open source sofware called Scilab to develop a heat simulator. In this paper, heat equation was used to simulate heat behavior in an object. The simulator was developed using finite difference method. Numerical experiment output show that Scilab can produce a good heat behavior simulation with marvellous visual output with only developing simple computer code.

Hasan, Mohammad Khatim; Sulaiman, Jumat; Karim, Samsul Arifin Abdul

2014-07-01

403

Treatment effects of intraoral appliances with conventional anchorage designs for non-compliance maxillary molar distalization: a literature review.  

PubMed

Since the end of the 1970s, various appliances with intramaxillary anchorage for distalization of the upper molars have been described as an alternative to headgear. The major advantages of these innovative appliances are that they act permanently and are independent of patient compliance. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency, both quantitatively and qualitatively, of various appliance types with intramaxillary anchorage for non-compliance molar distalization. Eighty-five papers were reviewed, and 22 were identified as being suitable for inclusion. The selection was based on compliance with the following criteria: treatment group with at least 10 non-syndromal patients, conventional intraoral anchorage design using a palatal button and anchorage teeth, consistent cephalometric measurements in clinical-epidemiological studies, exact data on the course of treatment, and statistical presentation of the measured outcomes and their standard deviations. The results show that non-compliance molar distalization is possible with numerous different appliances. While molar distalization with standard pendulum appliances exhibited the largest values for dental-linear distalization, it also resulted in concurrent, substantial therapeutically undesirable distal tipping. However, specific modifications to the pendulum appliance allow achievement of almost bodily molar distalization. Different outcomes are quoted in the studies for the efficiency of loaded spring systems for distal molar movement, but it seems that the first class appliance and the palatal distal jet are more efficient than the vestibular Jones Jig. The studies identify anchorage loss as being found in the area of the incisors rather than the area of the first premolars. There was a trend for more substantial reciprocal side-effects to occur when only two teeth were included in the anchorage unit. Vertical components acting on the molars, premolars, and incisors, such as intrusion and extrusion, tended to be of secondary importance and, therefore, may be disregarded. PMID:18820306

Kinzinger, Gero S M; Eren, Mert; Diedrich, Peter R

2008-12-01

404

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2010-07-01

405

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2014-07-01

406

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2013-07-01

407

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2011-07-01

408

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2011-07-01

409

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2012-07-01

410

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2012-07-01

411

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2014-07-01

412

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2013-07-01

413

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2010-07-01

414

In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes  

SciTech Connect

CARB partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and LAMELs through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and lighting, appliances, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs).

Puttagunta, S.; Shapiro, C.

2012-04-01

415

Impact of fixed orthodontic appliances on quality of life among adolescents’ in India  

PubMed Central

Context: Malocclusion can seriously impair quality of life and they may affect various aspects of life, including function, appearance, interpersonal relationships and even career opportunities. Objectives: To assess and determine various factors that may influence the impact of orthodontic treatment on the quality of life of adolescents. Study Design: Cross sectional study in adolescents of Moradabad was conducted on 109 males and 113 females (n=222) adolescents having a fixed orthodontic appliance, aged 13 to 22 years (mean 17.5±1.5). A pre-structured questionnaire designed by Mandall et al, with nine conceptual impact sub-scales to highlight the problem faced by the patient in daily life after wearing the appliance was used to collect the data. Unpaired t-test was used to determine the statistical significance and the influence of variables were analysed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Factors which demonstrated high impact were oral hygiene (Mean=3.42; SD=0.78) followed by time constraints (Mean=3.23; SD=0.72) and physical impact (Mean=3.00; SD=0.61). Gender difference showed statistical significance in social impact (p=0.009), time constraints (p=0.001) and travel or cost implications (p=0.009). Internal reliability of the questionnaire ranged from low to good (Cronbach’s alpha 0.29-0.81). Test-retest reliability ranged from an intra-class correlation coefficient 0.09-0.42. Conclusions: Patients who had been comprehensively informed about their treatment had greatest levels of satisfaction and compliance with treatment. Younger patients showed an earlier adaptation to treatment with fixed appliances which influenced the treatment to be started at the earliest possible age. Key words:Impact, malocclusion, quality of life. PMID:25593662

Ramesh, Gayathri; Sandesh, Nagarajappa; Lingesha, Ravishankar-Telgi; Hussain, Mohammed- Abid-Zahir

2014-01-01

416

Fixed versus Removable Appliance for Palatal Expansion; A 3D Analysis Using the Finite Element Method  

PubMed Central

Objective: Several appliances have been used for palatal expansion for treatment of posterior cross bite. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress induced in the apical and crestal alveolar bone and the pattern of tooth displacement following expansion via removable expansion plates or fixed-banded palatal expander using the finite element method (FEM) analysis. Materials and Methods: Two 3D FEM models were designed from a mesio-distal slice of the maxilla containing the upper first molars, their periodontium and alveolar bone. Two palatal expanders (removable and fixed) were modeled. The models were designed in SolidWorks 2006 and then transferred to ANSYS Workbench. The appliance halves were displaced 0.1 mm laterally. The von Mises stress in the apical, crestal, and PDL areas and also the vertical displacement of the cusps (palatal and buccal) was were evaluated. Results: The total PDL stress was 0.40003 MPa in the removable appliance (RA) model and 4.88e-2 MPa in the fixed appliance (FA) model and the apical stress was 9.9e-2 and 1.17e-2 MPa, respectively. The crestal stress was 2.99e-1 MPa in RA and 7.62e-2 MPa in the FA. The stress in the cortical bone crest was 0.30327 and 7.9244e-2 MPa for RA and FA, respectively and 3.7271 and 7.4373e-2 MPa in crestal area of spongy bone, respectively. The vertical displacement of the buccal cusp and palatal cusp was 1.64e-2 and 5.90e-2 mm in RA and 1.05e-4 and 1.7e-4 mm in FA, respectively. Conclusion: The overall stress as well as apical and crestal stress in periodontium of anchor teeth was higher in RA than FA; RA elicited higher stress in both cortical and spongy bone. The vertical displacement of molar cusps was more in removable than fixed palatal expander model. PMID:24910679

Geramy, Allahyar; Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar

2014-01-01

417

Intraoral-appliance modification to retract the premaxilla in patients with bilateral cleft lip.  

PubMed

Management of the protrusive premaxilla in patients with bilateral cleft lip is challenging for the reconstructive team. Several intra- and extraoral orthopedic techniques to reposition the protrusive premaxilla prior to bilateral cleft lip repair have been presented in the literature. A modification to a previously described tissue-borne palatal plate with a latex strap is presented. In the modified plate, the latex strap is replaced by an orthodontic elastomeric chain, and the chain over the prolabium is covered with soft denture liner. This appliance is effective in retracting the premaxilla, noninvasive, easy to construct and adjust, economic, well tolerated by the patient, and accepted by the parents. PMID:8939376

Figueroa, A A; Reisberg, D J; Polley, J W; Cohen, M

1996-11-01

418

The Swiss Retrofit Heat Pump Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing boilers by a combination of cogeneration units with electric heat pumps can double the energy efficiency in producing low temperature heat. Even when replacing boilers in older dwellings by heat pumps and cogeneration units, a total energy performance factor of about 1.5 can be attained. However, this requires heat pumps with a smaller drop of heating capacity at higher

Martin Zogg

419

Radiofrequency heating of metallic dental devices during 3.0?T MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To estimate the risk of injury from radiofrequency (RF) heating of metallic dental devices in use during 3.0?T MRI. Methods: The whole-body specific absorption rate (WB-SAR) was calculated on the basis of saline temperature elevation under the maximum RF irradiation for 15?min to determine the operation parameters for the heating test. The temperature changes of three types of three-unit bridges, a full-arch fixed dental prosthesis and an orthodontic appliance in use during MRI with a 3.0?T MR system (Magnetom® Verio; Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) were then tested in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials F2182-09 standardized procedure under the maximum RF heating during 15?min RF irradiation. Results: The system console-predicted WB-SAR was approximately 1.4?W?kg?1 and that measured with a saline phantom was 2.1?W?kg?1. In the assessment of RF heating, the highest temperature increase was +1.80?°C in the bridges, +1.59?°C in the full-arch fixed dental prosthesis and +2.61?°C in the orthodontic appliance. Conclusions: The relatively minor RF heating of dental casting material-based prostheses in Magnetom Verio systems in the normal operating mode should not pose a risk to patients. However, orthodontic appliances may exhibit RF heating above the industrial standard (CENELEC standard prEN45502-2-3); therefore, the wire should be removed from the bracket or a spacer should be used between the appliance and the oral mucosa during MRI. PMID:23520391

Hasegawa, M; Miyata, K; Abe, Y; Ishigami, T

2013-01-01

420

The influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on masticatory and swallowing threshold performances.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that treatment with orthodontic appliances disturbs masticatory and swallowing performances. Twenty-seven subjects with malocclusions requiring orthodontic treatment were included in this prospective study. The masticatory and swallowing performances were evaluated at five different times: before bracket placement (T0), immediately after archwire placement (T1), 48 h after archwire placement (T2), 30 days after archwire placement (T3) and 3 months after the initial appointment (T4). Masticatory performance was determined by the median particle sizes for the Optocal test food after 15 chewing strokes, and the swallowing thresholds were registered for both the test food and a natural food (peanuts). Pain during mastication was evaluated using a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Masticatory performance was significantly reduced at T2, at which time patients reported the highest pain values. The time spent to the first swallow was increased at T2 for the natural food but not for the test food. The values for pain, masticatory and swallowing performances at T3 and T4 were similar to those at T0. Orthodontic patient masticatory function is only reduced during the period of higher pain experience, which could also disrupt the deglutition of harder foods. However, neither mastication nor deglutition processes were disturbed by orthodontic appliances in long-term treatment. PMID:25155222

Magalhães, I B; Pereira, L J; Andrade, A S; Gouvea, D B; Gameiro, G H

2014-12-01

421

Appliances, Lighting, Electronics, and Miscellaneous EquipmentElectricity Use in New Homes  

SciTech Connect

The "Other" end-uses (appliances, lighting, electronics, andmiscellaneous equipment) continue to grow. This is particularly true innew homes, where increasing floor area and amenities are leading tohigher saturation of these types of devices. This paper combines thefindings of several field studies to assess the current state ofknowledge about the "Other" end-uses in new homes. The field studiesinclude sub-metered measurements of occupied houses in Arizona, Florida,and Colorado, as well as device-level surveys and power measurements inunoccupied new homes. We find that appliances, lighting, electronics, andmiscellaneous equipment can consume from 46 percent to 88 percent ofwhole-house electricity use in current low-energy homes. Moreover, theannual consumption for the "Other" end-uses is not significantly lower innew homes (even those designed for low energy use) compared to existinghomes. The device-level surveys show that builder-installed equipment isa significant contributor to annual electricity consumption, and certaindevices that are becoming more common in new homes, such as structuredwiring systems, contribute significantly to this power consumption. Thesefindings suggest that energy consumption by these "Other" end uses isstill too large to allow cost-effective zero-energy homes.

Brown, Richard E.; Rittelman, William; Parker, Danny; Homan,Gregory

2007-02-28

422

Metal ions released from fixed orthodontic appliance affect hair mineral content.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate metal ion accumulation in hair of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in time. The patients (N?=?47) participated in a questionnaire survey. Hair sampling was performed at the beginning and in the 4th, 8th, and 12th month of the treatment. The content of metals (Cr, Ni, Fe) in hair was analyzed by ICP-OES equipped with USN nebulizer. The peak release of Cr and Fe occurred after 4 months of the treatment, and the peak release of Ni gradually increased throughout the whole year of the therapy. During 1 year treatment, an average accumulation of metals in hair tissue was 7.42?±?14.19 ?g of Ni, 8.94?±?13.1 ?g of Cr, and 131?±?279 ?g of Fe. The mean content of Cr was higher than the 90th percentile value for this element. The upper limit of literature reference ranges for Cr, Ni, and Fe in hair was not exceeded. The value of exposure (kinetics and dose) of orthodontic patients to metal ions released from orthodontic appliances can be assessed by hair mineral analysis. The content of Cr was statistically significantly higher during the treatment than before the beginning of therapy. PMID:25326780

Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wo?owiec, Paulina; Loster, Bart?omiej; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

2015-02-01

423

EPA ENERGY STAR: Tackling Growth in Home Electronics and Small Appliances  

SciTech Connect

Over a decade ago, the electricity consumption associated with home electronics and other small appliances emerged onto the global energy policy landscape as one of the fastest growing residential end uses with the opportunity to deliver significant energy savings. As our knowledge of this end use matures, it is essential to step back and evaluate the degree to which energy efficiency programs have successfully realized energy savings and where savings opportunities have been missed.For the past fifteen years, we have quantified energy, utility bill, and carbon savings for US EPA?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program. In this paper, we present a unique look into the US residential program savings claimed to date for EPA?s ENERGY STAR office equipment, consumer electronics, and other small household appliances as well as EPA?s projected program savings over the next five years. We present a top-level discussion identifying program areas where EPA?s ENERGY STAR efforts have succeeded and program areas where ENERGY STAR efforts did not successfully address underlying market factors, technology issues and/or consumer behavior. We end by presenting the magnitude of ?overlooked? savings.

Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory

2008-11-17

424

A randomized controlled trial to assess the pain associated with the debond of orthodontic fixed appliances  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine patient experience of pain during treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances, expectations of pain during debond and whether biting on a soft acrylic wafer during debond decreases pain experience. Design: Multicentre randomized controlled trial. Setting: Three UK hospital based orthodontic departments: Mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham Dental Hospital and University Hospital of North Staffordshire. Materials and methods: Ninety patients were randomly allocated to either the control (n?=?45) or wafer group (n?=?45). A visual analogue scale-based questionnaire was completed pre-debond to determine pain experience during treatment and expectations of pain during debond. The appliances were debonded and those in the wafer group bit on a soft acrylic wafer. A second questionnaire was completed post-debond to assess the pain experienced. Results: Biting on an acrylic wafer significantly reduced the pain experienced when debonding the posterior teeth (P?0·05). Thirty-nine per cent found the lower anterior teeth the most painful. The expected pain was significantly greater than that actually experienced (P?0·0001). Greater pain during treatment correlated with increased expectations and increased actually experienced pain (P?0·0001). Conclusions: Biting on a soft acrylic wafer during debond of the posterior teeth reduces the pain experienced. The lower anterior teeth are the most painful. The pain expected is significantly greater than actually experienced. Patients who had greater pain during treatment expected and experienced greater pain at debond. PMID:24009318

Mangnall, Louise A R; Dietrich, Thomas; Scholey, John M

2013-01-01

425

Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the levels of interleukine-1 beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in saliva and IL-1?, TNF-?, and NO in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Method. The subject population consisted of 50 volunteers who were in need of orthodontic treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. GCF and saliva samples were obtained from all individuals before treatment, at 1st month of treatment and at 6th month of treatment. Periodontal clinical parameters were measured. Samples were investigated to detect IL-1?, TNF-?, and 8-OHdG levels using ELISA method and NO and MDA levels using spectrophotometric method. Results. Since IL-1? level detected in GCF at the 6th month of orthodontic treatment is statistically significant according to baseline (P < 0.05), all other biochemical parameters detected both in saliva and in GCF did not show any significant change at any measurement periods. Conclusion. Orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontic materials used in orthodontic treatment do not lead to a change above the physiological limits that is suggestive of oxidative damage in both GCF and saliva. PMID:24864131

Atu? Özcan, Sevil Sema; Ceylan, ?smail; Kurt, Nezahat; Da?suyu, ?lhan Metin; Çanakçi, Cenk Fatih

2014-01-01

426

Reclaiming Waste Heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'Air-O-Space' heater, based on spacecraft heat, requires no fuel other than electricity to run fan. Installed in chimney flue, heat pipes transfer heat from waste hot gases (but not the gases themselves) to fresh air blown across the other end of the pipes. It can transport roughly 500 times the heat flux of the best solid conductors with a temperature drop of less than 3 degrees per foot. This instrument has also been used by Kin-Tek Laboratories Inc. to produce an instrument to calibrate gas analyzers for air-pollution monitoring.

1976-01-01

427

77 FR 234 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ANPR'') on disclosure requirements for heating and cooling equipment. In response to...below. Write ``Regional Labeling for Heating and Cooling Equipment (16 CFR Part 305...extending the comment period for its ANPR on heating and cooling equipment disclosures to...

2012-01-04

428

Heat illness in the athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat illness is one of the most common causes of disability in American football and there are frequent deaths caused by heatstroke. A better understanding of the physiology of heatstroke has changed the man ner of the approach to heat problems in the past 25 years. Sweating is the way the body dissipates the internal heat produced by muscular exercise.

Robert J. Murphy

1984-01-01

429

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOEpatents

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18

430

EFFECTS OF APPLIANCE TYPE AND OPERATING VARIABLES ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS: VOLUME I. REPORT AND APPENDICIES A-C.  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a project, in support of the intergrated Air Canver Project (IACP) to provide data on the specific effects of appliance type and operating variales on woodstove emissions. Samples of particulate material and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were colle...

431

Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo | University Housing Update to Appliance and Electronic Device Guidelines for Residence Halls  

E-print Network

and add a significant electrical load to our systems. As a result, the residence hall electrical device schedule. Each residence hall will be equipped with a K-cup coffee maker and electric tea kettle for your use. Electrical Cooking Appliances: Microwaves Coffee makers Electric kettles or water heaters Rice

Sze, Lawrence

432

An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

1997-09-01

433

Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

Cawley, William E. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

434

Absorption heat pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

1987-03-01

435

Aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus is described which consists of: an aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator adapted to be located on the leading edge of an airframe of a hypersonic aircraft and being responsive to aerodynamic heating of water by a compression shock airstream to produce steam pressure; an expansion shock air-cooled condensor adapted to be located in the airframe rearward of and operatively coupled to the aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator to receive and condense the steam pressure; and an aerodynamic heated steam injector manifold adapted to distribute heated steam into the airstream flowing through an exterior generating channel of an air-breathing, ducted power plant.

Kim, K.

1986-08-12

436

Stress distribution produced by correction of the maxillary second molar in buccal crossbite.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution produced in the dentoalveolar system by a maxillary posterior crossbite appliance used for the correction of maxillary second molars in buccal crossbite. A photoelastic model was fabricated using a photoelastic material (PL-3) to simulate alveolar bone and ivory-colored resin teeth. The model was anteriorly and posteriorly observed with a circular polariscope and photographically recorded before and after activation of the maxillary posterior crossbite appliance. An uncontrolled palatal tipping and a rotating force were generated when the traction force was applied on the palatal surface of the maxillary second molar. A controlled tipping and an intrusive force were generated when the traction force was applied on the buccal surface of the maxillary second molar. PMID:12401047

Yoon, Young-Jooh; Jang, Sung-Ho; Hwang, Gab-Woon; Kim, Kwang-Won

2002-10-01

437

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heat Conduction in Nanostructures: Effect of Heat Bath  

E-print Network

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heat Conduction in Nanostructures: Effect of Heat Bath Jie CHEN1 on heat conduction in nanostructures exemplified by silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and silicon/germanium nano produce consistent results with experiment in large heat bath parameter range. KEYWORDS: heat conduction

Li, Baowen

438

Simple removable appliances to correct anterior and posterior crossbite in mixed dentition: Case report  

PubMed Central

Different techniques have been used to correct anterior and posterior crossbites in mixed dentition. This case report illustrates the treatment of anterior and unilateral posterior crossbites during the mixed dentition. The patient was a 9-year-old boy with a crossbite of the maxillary right permanent central incisor and a unilateral right posterior crossbite, both expressed by a functional shift in the sagittal and transverse dimensions. Two upper acrylic removable appliances, each with an expansion jackscrew, were used to correct the crossbites. The total active treatment time was 4 months; the treatment outcomes were successfully maintained for the subsequent 4 months. General and pediatric dentists, as well as orthodontists, may find this technique useful in managing crossbite cases of the mixed dentition and utilizing the discussion and illustrations for further clinical guidance. PMID:23960537

Bindayel, Naif A.

2012-01-01

439

Prediction of post-treatment outcome after combined treatment with maxillary protraction and chincap appliances.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to identify differences in the initial skeletal morphology between successful and unsuccessful groups and to establish a novel method for predicting the final outcome of treatment with a maxillary protraction appliance (MPA) and chincap. The cephalograms used in this study were taken from 32 Japanese girls (mean age 10.2 years) with a Class III malocclusion at the beginning of treatment with an MPA and chincap (T1), at removal of the appliance (T2), and during the final post-treatment period (T3). The subjects were divided into two groups according to the treatment outcome at T3. Lower face height (ANS-Me), total face height (N-Me), ratio of face height (ANS-Me/N-ANS), maxillary position, mandibular plane and gonial angle at T1 were all significantly larger in the unsuccessful group, compared with the successful group. Discriminant analysis indicated that lower face height and gonial angle were significant determinants for distinguishing between the two groups at T1. From T1 to T2, while the anterior displacement of the maxilla was almost the same in the two groups, SNB decreased by 1.6 degrees in the successful group and 0.4 degrees in the unsuccessful group. After orthopaedic treatment, a second phase of treatment with a multibracket system was performed (T2 to T3). From T2 to T3, SNA increased by 0.4 degrees in the successful group and decreased by 0.7 degrees in the unsuccessful group. These results indicate that the vertical dimensions of the craniofacial skeleton are important for predicting the prognosis of skeletal Class III patients treated with a MPA and chincap and that the discriminant formula established in this study is effective in predicting the final treatment outcome. PMID:16113036

Yoshida, Ikue; Yamaguchi, Nobuhito; Mizoguchi, Itaru

2006-02-01

440

Emission factors from biomass burning in three types of appliances: fireplace, woodstove and pellet stove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, the importance of biomass fuels has increased mainly for two reasons. One of them is the effort to control the emissions of greenhouse gases, and on the other hand, the increasing costs associated with fossil fuels. Besides that, biomass burning is now recognised as one of the major sources contributing to high concentrations of particulate matter, especially during winter time. Southern European countries have a lack of information regarding emission profiles from biomass burning. Because of that, in most source apportionment studies, the information used comes from northern and alpine countries, whose combustion appliances, fuels and habits are different from those in Mediterranean countries. Due to this lack of information, series of tests using different types of equipment, as well as fuels, were carried out in order to obtain emission profiles and emission factors that correspond to the reality in southern European countries. Tests involved three types of biomass appliances used in Portugal, a fireplace, a woodstove and a modern pellet stove. Emission factors (mg.kg-1 fuel, dry basis) for CO, THC and PM10 were obtained. CO emission factors ranged from 38, for pine on the woodstove, to 84 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. THC emissions were between 4 and 24, for pine in the woodstove and eucalyptus in the fireplace, respectively. PM10 emission factors were in the range from 3.99, for pine in the woodstove, to 17.3 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. On average, the emission factors obtained for the fireplace are 1.5 (CO) to 4 (THC) times higher than those of the woodstove. The fireplace has emission factors for CO, THC and PM10 10, 35 and 32 times, respectively, higher than the pellet stove.

Duarte, Márcio; Vicente, Estela; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luis; Alves, Célia

2014-05-01

441

NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger  

SciTech Connect

One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

2008-09-01

442

Methods of producing transportation fuel  

DOEpatents

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

2011-12-27

443

Heat loss in Dumbo: a theoretical approach.  

PubMed

A flat plate model was used to calculate heat loss from the pinnae of the animated elephant Dumbo. In conditions of high wind velocity and large gradients, Dumbo could potentially dissipate more heat than he produces. This suggests that he may need the large ears to help lose the excess heat produced while flying. PMID:11163927

Phillips, P K.; Heath, J E.

2001-04-01

444

Heat pumps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What electric heating system is the most efficient in moderate climates? This reading, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the modern heat pump. Students read about the efficiency of heat pumps and the three types currently being used in homes. A simple explanation of how a heat pump works is offered. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

445

Heat waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of transmission of heat by waves is reviewed and interpreted. The notion of an effective thermal conductivity, an effective heat capacity, and relaxation functions for heat and energy is introduced along lines used recently to describe the elastic response of viscous liquids. An annotated bibliography of the literature on heat waves, from the beginning until now, gives a

D. D. Joseph; Luigi Preziosi

1989-01-01

446

Effect of the MARA Appliance on the Position of the Lower Anteriors in Children, Adolescents and Adults with Class II Malocclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:  Aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the effect of the fixed functional appliance MARA (Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance) on the position of the lower anteriors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:  For 1.3 years on average, 90 patients with a skeletal and dental Angle Class II malocclusion were treated simultaneously with\\u000a the MARA and multi-bracket appliances to attain anterior mandibular repositioning. The

Uta Gönner; Volkan Özkan; Edward Jahn; Douglas Edward Toll

2007-01-01

447

Principle of a multi-load\\/single converter system for low power induction heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction heating appliances used for cooking generally include two or four inductors and in the most common solution, a converter is connected to each inductor. The main aim of this paper is to suggest a way of building a multi-load\\/single converter system, based on the use of a series-resonant ZVS inverter supplying several resonant loads. The principle can be

F. Forest; E. Laboure; F. Costa; J. Y. Gaspard

2000-01-01

448

Heat pump  

SciTech Connect

A heat pump is disclosed that is, driven by a free piston engine, wherein a refrigeration type of heat transfer unit is used and no externally energized electric motors are required but could be used, if desired. The engine is larger in horsepower than would be required for driving the compressor of the unit only, as it also provides power for driving one or more gas driven or other motors for forcing air through heat exchangers. This arrangement requires substantially less total energy than a unit requiring external electrical energy for operating portions of the heat pumps in that the extra heat in the exhaust from the larger horsepower engine is utilized in a heat exchanger to supply extra heat to the space being heated by the heat pump's primary heat supplier.

Braun, A.

1981-10-06

449

Fine particle emissions in three different combustion conditions of a wood chip-fired appliance - Particulate physico-chemical properties and induced cell death  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A biomass combustion reactor with a moving grate was utilised as a model system to produce three different combustion conditions corresponding to efficient, intermediate, and smouldering combustion. The efficient conditions (based on a CO level of approximately 7 mg MJ-1) corresponded to a modern pellet boiler. The intermediate conditions (CO level of approximately 300 mg MJ-1) corresponded to non-optimal settings in a continuously fired biomass combustion appliance. The smouldering conditions (CO level of approximately 2200 mg MJ-1) approached a batch combustion situation. The gaseous and particle emissions were characterised under each condition. Moreover, the ability of fine particles to cause cell death was determined using the particle emissions samples. The physico-chemical properties of the emitted particles and their toxicity were considerably different between the studied combustion conditions. In the efficient combustion, the emitted particles were small in size and large in number. The PM1 emission was low, and it was composed of ash species. In the intermediate and smouldering combustion, the PM1 emission was higher, and the particles were larger in size and smaller in number. In both of these conditions, there were high-emission peaks that produced a significant fraction of the emissions. The PAH emissions were the lowest in the efficient combustion. The smouldering combustion conditions produced the largest PAH emissions. In efficient combustion conditions, the emitted fine particles had the highest potential to cause cell death. This finding was most likely observed because these fine particles were mainly composed of inorganic ash species, and their relative contents of Zn were high. Thus, even the PM1 from optimal biomass combustion might cause health effects, but in these conditions, the particle emissions per energy unit produced were considerably lower.

Leskinen, J.; Tissari, J.; Uski, O.; Virén, A.; Torvela, T.; Kaivosoja, T.; Lamberg, H.; Nuutinen, I.; Kettunen, T.; Joutsensaari, J.; Jalava, P. I.; Sippula, O.; Hirvonen, M.-R.; Jokiniemi, J.

2014-04-01

450

RECYCLING INCINERATION WASTES FOR PRODUCING SYNTHETIC AGGREGATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work involves the utilisation of a by-product from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) for producing lightweight aggregates to be further used in building construction. This residue that comprehends fly ashes from the heat recovery devices as well as the residues produced in the scrubber and bag filters, is referred as Air Pollution Control (APC) residues. At present this waste

Margarida J. Quina; Marisa A. Almeida; Regina Santos; António S. Correia; Rosa M. Quinta-Ferreira

451

Method for producing microporous metal bodies  

DOEpatents

Tungsten is vapor-deposited by hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride (WF.sub.6) to produce a tungsten body having from 40 to 100 ppm fluorine. The tungsten is then heated under vacuum to produce grain boundary porosity for a sufficient period of time to allow the pores along the grain boundaries to become interconnected.

Danko, Joseph C. (Danville, CA)

1982-01-01

452

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-print Network

a special induction disk may be used as a heating elementInduction cooktops utilize rapidly oscillating magnetic fields that induce miniature electric currents in a pot (with corresponding electric resistance heating).

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01

453

NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed system performance maps that were developed by this testing program will be used to: (1) Target regions of the country that would benefit most from this technology; (2) Identify improvements in current systems to maximize homeowner cost savings; and (3) Explore opportunities for development of advanced hot water heating systems.

Not Available

2012-01-01

454

Correction of Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion with a mandibular protraction appliances and multiloop edgewise archwire technique.  

PubMed

A Brazilian girl aged 14 years and 9 months presented with a chief complaint of protrusive teeth. She had a convex facial profile, extreme overjet, deep bite, lack of passive lip seal, acute nasolabial angle, and retrognathic mandible. Intraorally, she showed maxillary diastemas, slight mandibular incisor crowding, a small maxillary arch, 13-mm overjet, and 4-mm overbite. After the diagnosis of severe Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion, a mandibular protraction appliance was placed to correct the Class II relationships and multiloop edgewise archwires were used for finishing. Follow-up examinations revealed an improved facial profile, normal overjet and overbite, and good intercuspation. The patient was satisfied with her occlusion, smile, and facial appearance. The excellent results suggest that orthodontic camouflage by using a mandibular protraction appliance in combination with the multiloop edgewise archwire technique is an effective option for correcting Class II malocclusions in patients who refuse orthognathic surgery. PMID:25309867

Freitas, Benedito; Freitas, Heloiza; Dos Santos, Pedro César F; Janson, Guilherme

2014-09-01

455

Correction of Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion with a mandibular protraction appliances and multiloop edgewise archwire technique  

PubMed Central

A Brazilian girl aged 14 years and 9 months presented with a chief complaint of protrusive teeth. She had a convex facial profile, extreme overjet, deep bite, lack of passive lip seal, acute nasolabial angle, and retrognathic mandible. Intraorally, she showed maxillary diastemas, slight mandibular incisor crowding, a small maxillary arch, 13-mm overjet, and 4-mm overbite. After the diagnosis of severe Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion, a mandibular protraction appliance was placed to correct the Class II relationships and multiloop edgewise archwires were used for finishing. Follow-up examinations revealed an improved facial profile, normal overjet and overbite, and good intercuspation. The patient was satisfied with her occlusion, smile, and facial appearance. The excellent results suggest that orthodontic camouflage by using a mandibular protraction appliance in combination with the multiloop edgewise archwire technique is an effective option for correcting Class II malocclusions in patients who refuse orthognathic surgery. PMID:25309867

Freitas, Heloiza; dos Santos, Pedro César F; Janson, Guilherme

2014-01-01

456

Non-fire related carbon monoxide incidents: Morbidity and mortality related to the use of household appliances (for microcomputers). Data file  

SciTech Connect

This data file contains information about carbon monoxide deaths and injuries and the products associated with the incidents. For more than a decade, CPSC has been concerned over the number of nonfire-related deaths attributed to carbon monoxide poisoning associated with the use of household appliances, averaging 250 per year. Gas space heaters and furnaces have been associated with the largest number of CO deaths, excluding fatalities from automotive exhaust and fires. These deaths and injuries are preventable. CPSC reviewed information from in-depth investigations associated in fiscal 1992 to respond to such questions as: (1) How many CO deaths and injuries occur in permanent residences as opposed to temporary residences such as tents, recreational vehicles, etc; (2) Which products are responsible for the highest mortality and morbidity; (3) In what types of homes or enclosures are CO incidents most frequently occuring; (4) In what rooms or areas of the home are the products producing CO located; and (5) What is the age and sex distribution of deaths and injuries. This product answers these questions and gives an overview of the problem of CO in residences.

NONE

1995-08-01

457

Quasi-phase-matching induced enhancement of the groups of high-order harmonics generating in various multi-jet plasmas produced using perforated targets and modulated heating pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-phase-matching (QPM) of the harmonics of ultrashort pulses in the perforated aluminum, indium, and chromium plasma plumes produced by different techniques is analyzed. We extend our recent studies (2014 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47 105401) to other plasma ablations and show the advantages of modulated plasma profiles for the harmonic generation. We demonstrate the 20 × growth of QPM-enhanced harmonics in the plasma produced on the perforated aluminum surface. The calculations of plasma concentrations at different delays and distances from ablating targets are presented. We show the tuning of maximally enhanced harmonics using variable excitation of metallic targets at the conditions of QPM, as well as demonstrate the use of a two-color pump of the four-jet indium plasma for enhancement of the harmonics, which were not present in the spectra obtained from the extended indium plasma.

Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Yoneya, S.; Kuroda, H.

2014-11-01

458

Heating Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... from heating equipment, such as the furnace, fireplace, wood stove, or portable heater. • Only use heating equipment ... into the room and burn only dry, seasoned wood. Allow ashes to cool before disposing in a ...

459

Heat emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... can lead to heat exhaustion and then heatstroke. Heat stroke occurs when the body is no longer able to regulate the temperature, and it keeps rising. Heatstroke can cause shock, brain damage, organ failure, and even death. The ...

460

Orthodontic extrusion of subgingivally fractured tooth using a removable appliance: An alternative treatment to reestablish biological width.  

PubMed

Restoration of a traumatically injured tooth presents a clinical challenge for a predictable aesthetic outcome. This case report describes a multidisciplinary approach of a subgingivally fractured permanent maxillary central incisor. A removable orthodontic appliance was used for orthodontic extrusion of root, and surgical gingival recontouring was done with electrocautery to reestablish the biological width. Form and function were restored establishing biological width and esthetics was repaired with porcelain fused to metal crown. PMID:25511074

Verma, Kanika Gupta; Juneja, Suruchi; Kumar, Sandeep; Goyal, Tanya

2014-01-01

461

In vitro immunotoxic and genotoxic activities of particles emitted from two different small-scale wood combustion appliances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residential wood combustion appliances emit large quantities of fine particles which are suspected to cause a substantial health burden worldwide. Wood combustion particles contain several potential health-damaging metals and carbon compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which may determine the toxic properties of the emitted particles. The aim of the present study was to characterize in vitro immunotoxicological and chemical properties of PM 1 ( Dp ? 1 ?m) emitted from a pellet boiler and a conventional masonry heater. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed for 24 h to different doses of the emission particles. Cytotoxicity, production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-? and the chemokine MIP-2, apoptosis and phases of the cell cycle as well as genotoxic activity were measured after the exposure. The type of wood combustion appliance had a significant effect on emissions and chemical composition of the particles. All the studied PM 1 samples induced cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses in a dose-dependent manner. The particles emitted from the conventional masonry heater were 3-fold more potent inducers of programmed cell death and DNA damage than those emitted from the pellet boiler. Furthermore, the particulate samples that induced extensive DNA damage contained also large amounts of PAH compounds. Instead, significant differences between the studied appliances were not detected in measurements of inflammatory mediators, although the chemical composition of the combustion particles differed considerably from each other. In conclusion, the present results show that appliances representing different combustion technology have remarkable effects on physicochemical and associated toxicological and properties of wood combustion particles. The present data indicate that the particles emitted from incomplete combustion are toxicologically more potent than those emitted from more complete combustion processes.

Tapanainen, Maija; Jalava, Pasi I.; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hakulinen, Pasi; Happo, Mikko S.; Lamberg, Heikki; Ruusunen, Jarno; Tissari, Jarkko; Nuutinen, Kati; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O.; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

2011-12-01

462

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

SciTech Connect

China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

2011-04-01

463

Use of palatal miniscrew anchorage and lingual multi-bracket appliances to enhance efficiency of molar scissors-bite correction.  

PubMed

This article reports the successful treatment method of scissors-bite correction using miniscrew anchorage and a lingual multi-bracket appliance. A female patient, 17 years and 4 months old, had a chief complaint of crowding of anterior teeth. The patient was given the diagnosis of Angle Class I malocclusion with bimaxillary protrusion and incisor crowding. She also showed a scissors-bite of the second molar on the right side. Miniscrews were inserted into the palatal region of the upper second molar to reinforce the anchorage, and a lingual multi-bracket appliance was placed into the maxilla. Miniscrews inserted palatally were used to correct the scissors-bite in the first 3 months; afterward, they were used to retract the six anterior teeth. The total active treatment period was 26 months. Because of the bite-plane effect, the upper and lower molars were separated in occlusion, and the scissors-bite was corrected effectively within a short time. The combined use of palatal miniscrew anchorage and lingual multi-bracket appliances enhances efficiency of molar scissors-bite correction. PMID:19413381

Tamamura, Nagato; Kuroda, Shingo; Sugawara, Yasuyo; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

2009-05-01

464

Dentoskeletal effects of Class II malocclusion treatment with the Twin Block appliance in a Brazilian sample: A prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to assess the dentoskeletal effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Twin Block appliance. Methods The experimental group comprised 20 individuals with initial mean age of 11.76 years and was treated for a period of 1.13 years. The control group comprised 25 individuals with initial mean age of 11.39 years and a follow-up period of 1.07 years. Lateral cephalograms were taken at treatment onset and completion to assess treatment outcomes. Intergroup comparison was performed by means of the chi-square and independent t tests. Results The Twin Block appliance did not show significant effects on the maxillary component. The mandibular component showed a statistically significant increase in the effective mandibular length (Co-Gn) and significant improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship. The maxillary and mandibular dentoalveolar components presented a significant inclination of anterior teeth in both arches. The maxillary incisors were lingually tipped and retruded, while the mandibular incisors were labially tipped and protruded. Conclusions The Twin Block appliance has great effectiveness for correction of skeletal Class II malocclusion in individuals with growth potential. Most changes are of dentoalveolar nature with a large component of tooth inclination associated with a significant skeletal effect on the mandible. PMID:24713558

Saikoski, Luciano Zilio; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore

2014-01-01

465

Heat transfer in microwave heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat transfer is considered as one of the most critical issues for design and implement of large-scale microwave heating systems, in which improvement of the microwave absorption of materials and suppression of uneven temperature distribution are the two main objectives. The present work focuses on the analysis of heat transfer in microwave heating for achieving highly efficient microwave assisted steelmaking through the investigations on the following aspects: (1) characterization of microwave dissipation using the derived equations, (2) quantification of magnetic loss, (3) determination of microwave absorption properties of materials, (4) modeling of microwave propagation, (5) simulation of heat transfer, and (6) improvement of microwave absorption and heating uniformity. Microwave heating is attributed to the heat generation in materials, which depends on the microwave dissipation. To theoretically characterize microwave heating, simplified equations for determining the transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) power penetration depth, microwave field attenuation length, and half-power depth of microwaves in materials having both magnetic and dielectric responses were derived. It was followed by developing a simplified equation for quantifying magnetic loss in materials under microwave irradiation to demonstrate the importance of magnetic loss in microwave heating. The permittivity and permeability measurements of various materials, namely, hematite, magnetite concentrate, wüstite, and coal were performed. Microwave loss calculations for these materials were carried out. It is suggested that magnetic loss can play a major role in the heating of magnetic dielectrics. Microwave propagation in various media was predicted using the finite-difference time-domain method. For lossy magnetic dielectrics, the dissipation of microwaves in the medium is ascribed to the decay of both electric and magnetic fields. The heat transfer process in microwave heating of magnetite, which is a typical magnetic dielectric, was simulated by using an explicit finite-difference approach. It is demonstrated that the heat generation due to microwave irradiation dominates the initial temperature rise in the heating and the heat radiation heavily affects the temperature distribution, giving rise to a hot spot in the predicted temperature profile. Microwave heating at 915 MHz exhibits better heating homogeneity than that at 2450 MHz due to larger microwave penetration depth. To minimize/avoid temperature nonuniformity during microwave heating the optimization of object dimension should be considered. The calculated reflection loss over the temperature range of heating is found to be useful for obtaining a rapid optimization of absorber dimension, which increases microwave absorption and achieves relatively uniform heating. To further improve the heating effectiveness, a function for evaluating absorber impedance matching in microwave heating was proposed. It is found that the maximum absorption is associated with perfect impedance matching, which can be achieved by either selecting a reasonable sample dimension or modifying the microwave parameters of the sample.

Peng, Zhiwei

466

Case Series of an Intraoral Balancing Appliance Therapy on Subjective Symptom Severity and Cervical Spine Alignment  

PubMed Central

Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a holistic intraoral appliance (OA) on cervical spine alignment and subjective symptom severity. Design. An observational study on case series with holistic OA therapy. Setting. An outpatient clinic for holistic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) therapy under the supervision of the Pain Center, CHA Biomedical center, CHA University. Subjects. Ambulatory patients presenting with diverse chief complaints in the holistic TMJ clinic. Main Measures. Any immediate change in the curvature of cervical spine and the degree of atlantoaxial rotation was investigated in the images of simple X-ray and computed tomography of cervical spine with or without OA. Changes of subjective symptom severity were also analyzed for the holistic OA therapy cases. Results. A total of 59 cases were reviewed. Alignment of upper cervical spine rotation showed an immediate improvement (P < 0.001). Changes of subjective symptom severity also showed significant improvement (P < 0.05). Conclusion. These cases revealed rudimentary clinical evidence that holistic OA therapy may be related to an alleviated symptom severity and an improved cervical spinal alignment. These results show that further researches may warrant for the holistic TMJ therapy. PMID:23935655

Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Joo Kang; Jung, Soo Chang; Lee, Hwang-woo; Yin, Chang Shik; Lee, Young Jin

2013-01-01

467

Impact of Functional Appliances on Muscle Activity: A Surface Electromyography Study in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Electromyography (EMG) is the most objective tool for assessing changes in the electrical activity of the masticatory muscles. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the tone of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles in growing children before and after 6 months of treatment with functional removable orthodontic appliances. Material/Methods The sample conisted of 51 patients with a mean age 10.7 years with Class II malocclusion. EMG recordings were performed by using a DAB-Bluetooth instrument (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany). Recordings were performed in mandibular rest position, during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and during maximum effort. Results The results of the study indicated that the electrical activity of the muscles in each of the clinical situations was the same in the group of girls and boys. The factor that determined the activity of the muscles was their type. In mandibular rest position and in MVC, the activity of the temporalis muscles was significantly higher that that of the masseter muscels. The maximum effort test indicated a higher fatigue in masseter than in temporalis muscles. Conclusions Surface electromyography is a useful tool for monitoring muscle activity. A 6-month period of functional therapy resulted in changes in the activity of the masticatory muscles. PMID:25600247

Wo?niak, Krzysztof; Pi?tkowska, Dagmara; Szyszka-Sommerfeld, Liliana; Buczkowska-Radli?ska, Jadwiga

2015-01-01

468

Development of an advanced mobile base for personal mobility and manipulation appliance generation II robotic wheelchair  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes the development of a mobile base for the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance Generation II (PerMMA Gen II robotic wheelchair), an obstacle-climbing wheelchair able to move in structured and unstructured environments, and to climb over curbs as high as 8 inches. The mechanical, electrical, and software systems of the mobile base are presented in detail, and similar devices such as the iBOT mobility system, TopChair, and 6X6 Explorer are described. Findings The mobile base of PerMMA Gen II has two operating modes: “advanced driving mode” on flat and uneven terrain, and “automatic climbing mode” during stair climbing. The different operating modes are triggered either by local and dynamic conditions or by external commands from users. A step-climbing sequence, up to 0.2 m, is under development and to be evaluated via simulation. The mathematical model of the mobile base is introduced. A feedback and a feed-forward controller have been developed to maintain the posture of the passenger when driving over uneven surfaces or slopes. The effectiveness of the controller has been evaluated by simulation using the open dynamics engine tool. Conclusion Future work for PerMMA Gen II mobile base is implementation of the simulation and control on a real system and evaluation of the system via further experimental tests. PMID:23820149

Wang, Hongwu; Candiotti, Jorge; Shino, Motoki; Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Grindle, Garrett G.; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A.

2013-01-01

469

Impacts of China's Current Appliance Standards and LabelingProgram to 2020  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes the history and nature of China sstandardsand labeling program in the Introduction in Section 1. Trends indomestic production, exports, penetration rates, unit energy consumptionand the history of S&L technical levels by product are discussed ingreat detail in Section 2. The national energy impactsanalysis found inSection 3 concludes that overall China s standards and labeling programsreduce total electricity consumption in 2020 by an annual 106 TWh, or 16percent of what would otherwise been expected in that year in the absenceof standards and labeling programs.In total, the report concludes thatthe S&L programs currently in place in China are expected to save acumulative 1143 TWh by 2020, or 9 percent of the cumulative consumptionof residential electricity to that year. In 2020 alone, annual savingsare expected to be equivalent to 11 percent of residential electricityuse. In average generation terms, this is equivalent to 27 1-GW coalfired plants that would have required around 75 million tonnes of coal tooperate.In comparison, savings from the US appliance standards programalone is expected to save 10 percent of residential electricityconsumption in 2020.

Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

2007-03-03

470

Swallowing appliance: intraoral reshaping prosthesis for dysphagia secondary to oral floor cancer: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Patients with oral floor cancer often have difficulty swallowing solid foods. The aim of this study was to improve the propulsion of solid foods using a swallowing appliance (SW-A). Subjects comprised three patients with oral floor cancer who had undergone curative surgery. Each participant was asked to swallow gelatin under three conditions: without an SW-A, with a maxillary SW-A, and with both maxillary and mandibular SW-As. This procedure was repeated thrice with three volumes of gelatin (2.5, 5, and 7.5 ml), with videofluorographic swallowing study. Swallowing was assessed on the basis of whether the participant could propel the gelatin from the oral cavity to the pharynx. No subject could propel 2.5 ml of gelatin to the pharynx without an SW-A or with only a maxillary SW-A in place. When both SW-As were used, all subjects could propel all three volumes of gelatin. The mandibular SW-A complemented the compensatory effects of the maxillary SW-A. PMID:25133617

Koyama, Yuji; Ota, Yoshihide; Sakaizumi, Kazuo; Simoda, Naoshi; Kodama, Mitsuhiko; Toyokura, Minoru; Masakado, Yoshihisa

2014-11-01

471

Impact of functional appliances on muscle activity: a surface electromyography study in children.  

PubMed

Background Electromyography (EMG) is the most objective tool for assessing changes in the electrical activity of the masticatory muscles. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the tone of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles in growing children before and after 6 months of treatment with functional removable orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods The sample conisted of 51 patients with a mean age 10.7 years with Class II malocclusion. EMG recordings were performed by using a DAB-Bluetooth instrument (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany). Recordings were performed in mandibular rest position, during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and during maximum effort. Results The results of the study indicated that the electrical activity of the muscles in each of the clinical situations was the same in the group of girls and boys. The factor that determined the activity of the muscles was their type. In mandibular rest position and in MVC, the activity of the temporalis muscles was significantly higher that that of the masseter muscels. The maximum effort test indicated a higher fatigue in masseter than in temporalis muscles. Conclusions Surface electromyography is a useful tool for monitoring muscle activity. A 6-month period of functional therapy resulted in changes in the activity of the masticatory muscles. PMID:25600247

Wo?niak, Krzysztof; Pi?tkowska, Dagmara; Szyszka-Sommerfeld, Liliana; Buczkowska-Radli?ska, Jadwiga

2015-01-01

472

Release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report the results of an in vitro experiment on the release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances composed of alloys containing iron, chromium, nickel, silicon, and molybdenum into artificial saliva. The concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, calcium, titanium, vanadium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, nickel, and chromium were significantly higher in artificial saliva in which metal brackets, bands, and wires used in orthodontics were incubated. In relation to the maximum acceptable concentrations of metal ions in drinking water and to recommended daily doses, two elements of concern were nickel (573 vs. 15 ?g/l in the controls) and chromium (101 vs. 8 ?g/l in the controls). Three ion release coefficients were defined: ?, a dimensionless multiplication factor; ?, the difference in concentrations (in micrograms per liter); and ?, the ion release coefficient (in percent). The elevated levels of metals in saliva are thought to occur by corrosion of the chemical elements in the alloys or welding materials. The concentrations of some groups of dissolved elements appear to be interrelated. PMID:22011837

Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wo?niak, Barbara; Downarowicz, Patrycja

2012-05-01

473

Martian surface heat production and crustal heat flow from Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Martian thermal state and evolution depend principally on the radiogenic heat-producing element (HPE) distributions in the planet's crust and mantle. The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has mapped the surface abundances of HPEs across Mars. From these data, we produce the first models of global and regional surface heat production and crustal heat flow. As previous

B. C. Hahn; S. M. McLennan; E. C. Klein

2011-01-01

474

Artificial muscles on heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 ?W when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

2014-03-01

475

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

1991-01-01

476

Work, heat, and oxygen cost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human energy is discussed in terms of the whole man. The physical work a man does, the heat he produces, and the quantity of oxygen he takes from the air to combine with food, the fuel source of his energy, are described. The daily energy exchange, work and heat dissipation, oxygen costs of specific activities, anaerobic work, and working in space suits are summarized.

Webb, P.

1973-01-01

477

Heat recovery apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Heat transfer is a living science and technical advances are constantly being made. However, in many cases, progress is limited by the equipment that is available on the market, rather than by knowledge of the heat transfer process. A case in point is the design of economizers: in such equipment a small quantity of water (with a relatively good heat transfer coefficient) is heated by a large quantity of low-pressure gas (with an inherently low heat transfer coefficient). As a first step in design finned tubing is used to lessen the discrepancy in coefficients. From this point, it becomes apparent that the equipment consists of a small number of tubes (to maintain good velocity on the water side) of considerable length (to provide sufficient area). In the process industries the base pressure, though low, may be in the region of 0.5 bar, and there is no convenient flue in which to place the heat recovery coil. It is therefore contained in a flat-sided enclosure, which is ill-fitted to pressure containment and is therefore reinforced with a plethora of structural sections. Such inelegant construction is quite common in North America; in Europe, cylindrical containments of vast size have been supplied for the same purposes. The real shortcoming is a successful marriage of different disciplines to produce reliable and efficient heat transfer equipment suitably contained.

McFarland, I.

1987-01-01

478

Heat transport system  

DOEpatents

A falling bed of ceramic particles receives neutron irradiation from a neutron-producing plasma and thereby transports energy as heat from the plasma to a heat exchange location where the ceramic particles are cooled by a gas flow. The cooled ceramic particles are elevated to a location from which they may again pass by gravity through the region where they are exposed to neutron radiation. Ceramic particles of alumina, magnesia, silica and combinations of these materials are contemplated as high-temperature materials that will accept energy from neutron irradiation. Separate containers of material incorporating lithium are exposed to the neutron flux for the breeding of tritium that may subsequently be used in neutron-producing reactions. The falling bed of ceramic particles includes velocity partitioning between compartments near to the neutron-producing plasma and compartments away from the plasma to moderate the maximum temperature in the bed.

Harkness, Samuel D. (McMurray, PA)

1982-01-01

479

Postharvest treatments of fresh produce.  

PubMed

Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

Mahajan, P V; Caleb, O J; Singh, Z; Watkins, C B; Geyer, M

2014-06-13

480

Opportunities for regional harmonization of appliance standards and l abeling program  

SciTech Connect

The South Asian Regional Initiative for Energy (SARI/Energy) calls for a series of activities to promote Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) of end use appliances in the region. In pursuit of this goal, the project supports several seminars and meetings that bring together policymakers and stakeholders from throughout the region. The purpose of these gatherings is to encourage a dialogue among participants as to the benefits and barriers associated with EES&L programs. In addition, it is the role of the program organizers to provide participants with the technical details necessary to make progress towards effective efficiency programs. One component of the initiative is to encourage the harmonization (alignment) of existing program components, and the pursuit of new programs coordinated at the regional level. In support of this goal, the report provides information aimed at motivating and enabling cooperative activities which will provide concrete benefits to programs in each country, whether well developed, or still in the initial planning stage. It should be emphasized that the underlying objective of the harmonization component of the SARI/Energy project is to increase the potential for success of EES&L programs of all countries involved, and to reduce burdens on manufacturers, exporters and importers in each country. Harmonization ''for it's own sake'' is not desirable, nor is it suggested that policymakers should bring their programs in line with international norms if doing so would present a disadvantage to their own efficiency programs, or to commercial interests within their country. If there is no such disadvantage, however, the program encourages alignment of policies and provides a forum at which this alignment can be pursued. The report covers several main topics, with varying emphasis. First, a general discussion of the motivation for an explicit policy of regional harmonization is given. Next, the current status of existing programs in the region are discussed in some detail. The section that follows covers the harmonization of efficiency test procedures. Special attention is given to this component of an EES&L program because it is the most critical element in terms of harmonization--having incompatible test procedures between trade partners can greatly impact the effectiveness of a program, and it can also unduly impact trade. Currently, policymakers in India and Sri Lanka are collaborating with the goal of aligning refrigerator test procedures used in their respective programs. For this reason, the section on test procedures of refrigerators goes into a significant amount of technical detail, in order to provide the clearest possible articulation of issues to be resolved in bringing the procedures into alignment. Following the discussion of test procedures, the report contains a section each on harmonization of efficiency rating levels, development of label designs, and enforcement issues. The report is organized such that the sections covering current programs and test procedures are subdivided by target appliance. These sections are further divided by country, where applicable. Each section is concluded with recommendations.

McNeil, Michael A.

2003-09-01

481

Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration  

SciTech Connect

China first adopted minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in 1989. Today, there are standards for a wide range of domestic, commercial and selected industrial equipment. In 1999, China launched a voluntary endorsement label, which has grown to cover over 40 products including water-saving products (See Figure 1). Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label (also referred to as the 'Energy Label'). Today, the Energy Label is applied to four products including: air conditioners; household refrigerators; clothes washers; and unitary air conditioners (See Figure 2). MEPS and the voluntary endorsement labeling specifications have been updated and revised in order to reflect technology improvements to those products in the market. These programs have had an important impact in reducing energy consumption of appliances in China. Indeed, China has built up a strong infrastructure to develop and implement product standards. Historically, however, the government's primary focus has been on the technical requirements for efficiency performance. Less attention has been paid to monitoring and enforcement with a minimal commitment of resources and little expansion of administrative capacity in this area. Thus, market compliance with both mandatory standards and labeling programs has been questionable and actual energy savings may have been undermined as a result. The establishment of a regularized monitoring system for tracking compliance with the mandatory standard and energy information label in China is a major area for program improvement. Over the years, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) has partnered with several Chinese institutions to promote energy-efficient products in China. CLASP, together with its implementing partner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), has assisted China in developing and updating the above-mentioned standards and labeling programs. Because of the increasing need for the development of a monitoring system to track compliance with standards and labeling, CLASP, with support from Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), has expanded its ongoing collaboration with the China National Institute of Standards (CNIS) to include enforcement and monitoring. CNIS has already begun working on the issue of compliance. CNIS has conducted modest sample testing in 2006 for refrigerators, freezers and room air-conditioners, and repeated the same task in 2007 with a similar sample size for three products (refrigerators, freezers, air-conditioners and clothes washers). And, CNIS, with technical support from LBNL, has analyzed the data collected through testing. At the same time, parallel effort has also been paid to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. In conjunction with CNIS, CLASP technical experts reviewed the standards development timeline of the four products currently subject to the mandatory energy information label. CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing: technical input to the process; comment and advice on particular technical issues; as well as evaluation of the results. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. This short report summarizes the status of Standards and Labeling program, current enforcement and monitoring mechanism in China, and states the importance of international collaborations.

Zhou, Nan

2008-03-01

482

Compression Pad Cavity Heating Augmentation on Orion Heat Shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study has been conducted to assess the effects of compression pad cavities on the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle heat shield. Testing was conducted in Mach 6 and 10 perfect-gas wind tunnels to obtain heating measurements in and around the compression pads cavities using global phosphor thermography. Data were obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers that produced laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow within and downstream of the cavities. The effects of cavity dimensions on boundary-layer transition and heating augmentation levels were studied. Correlations were developed for transition onset and for the average cavity-heating augmentation.

Hollis, Brian R.

2011-01-01

483

Long-term use of occlusal appliance has impact on sleep structure.  

PubMed

Acrylic occlusal appliances (OAs) have been used for temporomandibular disorders and sleep bruxism, but the effects of the treatment are still insufficiently evaluated. Two all-night polysomnographic recordings were made in a sleep laboratory on 14 bruxists (9 females and 5 males with mean age of 27·5 years). The measurement included basic polysomnography with additional masseter muscle electromyogram and movement recording (static charge-sensitive bed method) using randomisation. The base night recording was followed by the second study night after 8 weeks regular use of OA. The OA was made on the occlusal surface of the teeth of the upper jaw, and it was used at night time during the study period. With the OA, rapid eye movement sleep changed from 23·3% to 19·6% (P = 0·078), and slow wave sleep increased significantly from 10·2% to 14·7% (P = 0·039). Masseter contraction (MC) episodes occurred with similar frequency (9·7 vs. 10·5 episodes per hour, P = 0·272). The intensity of the rhythmic MC bursts within an episode decreased from 5·5 to 4·4 (P = 0·027). The groups were post hoc divided into responders and non-responders using a 20% change in MC episode per hour as a cut-off point. The results indicated that 43% of bruxists increased activity (negative responders), while 36% decreased (positive responders), and in 21%, there was no change in the level. It is concluded that OA does not have significant feedback inhibition on masseter muscle motor activity during sleep. However, OA may increase slow wave sleep. PMID:24942041

Sjoholm, T; Kauko, T; Kemppaine