Sample records for heat producing appliances

  1. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707 Section 3280...Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. (a) Heat-producing appliances and vents, roof...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707 Section 3280...Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. (a) Heat-producing appliances and vents, roof...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.707...external heating or combination heating/cooling appliance, preparation of the manufactured...percent. (e) Each space heating, cooling or combination heating and...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.707...external heating or combination heating/cooling appliance, preparation of the manufactured...percent. (e) Each space heating, cooling or combination heating and...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.707...external heating or combination heating/cooling appliance, preparation of the manufactured...percent. (e) Each space heating, cooling or combination heating and...

  6. Integrated space heating, air conditioning and potable water heating appliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gerstmann; G. M. Jr. Celorier; W. S. Hill

    1989-01-01

    An integrated water heating and space heating and cooling appliance is described comprising: a housing having a lower water storage section, a middle burner section, and an upper internal air handling section in an internal portion, and having a side external air handling section extending from the internal portion to pass through a building wall; an insulated hot water storage

  7. Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

    1983-11-21

    An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

  8. Integrated space heating, air conditioning and potable water heating appliance

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstmann, J.; Celorier, G.M. Jr.; Hill, W.S.

    1989-01-17

    An integrated water heating and space heating and cooling appliance is described comprising: a housing having a lower water storage section, a middle burner section, and an upper internal air handling section in an internal portion, and having a side external air handling section extending from the internal portion to pass through a building wall; an insulated hot water storage tank in the lower section of the housing; a burner and burner heat exchanger in the middle section for heating a liquid heating medium; a liquid to air heat exchanger in the upper section; a heat transfer fluid circuit means for selectively directing heating medium from the burner heat exchanger in the middle section into heat exchange relationship with hot water in the hot water storage tank; an air conditioner evaporator in the upper section adjacent to and in face to face relationship with the liquid to air heat exchanger; a blower in the upper section for blowing space conditioning air past the liquid to air heat exchanger and the evaporator for heating the air by the heat exchanger or cooling the air by the evaporator; an air conditioner condenser in the side section; a compressor operatively connected by conduit means to the compressor and evaporator to form a refrigeration system; and a blower in the side section for blowing external air past the condenser.

  9. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, John J [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the dump valve on these two appliances would have eliminated uncertainty in knowing when waste water was flowing and the recovery system operated. The study also suggested that capture of dryer exhaust heat to heat incoming air to the dryer should be examined as an alternative to using drying exhaust energy for water heating. The study found that over a 6-week test period, the system in each house was able to recover on average approximately 3000 W-h of waste heat daily from these appliance and showers with slightly less on simulated weekdays and slightly more on simulated weekends which were heavy wash/dry days. Most of these energy savings were due to the shower/GFX operation, and the least savings were for the dishwasher/GFX operation. Overall, the value of the 3000 W-h of displaced energy would have been $0.27/day based on an electricity price of $.09/kWh. Although small for today s convention house, these savings are significant for a home designed to approach maximum affordable efficiency where daily operating costs for the whole house are less than a dollar per day. In 2010 the actual measured cost of energy in one of the simulated occupancy houses which waste heat recovery testing was undertaken was $0.77/day.

  10. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  11. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  12. Effect of excess air on the optimization of heating appliances for biomass combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Menghini, D. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Marra, F.S.; Allouis, C.; Beretta, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Napoli (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    The performance of a domestic appliance for wood logs combustion is a function of several variables, such as the geometric design of the appliance and its operating parameters. Among them, air feeding conditions are really decisive if the objective function is the maximization of the heat recovered from flue gases. Therefore, even if pollutant emissions have to be ever considered, the amount of excess air can be seen as a fundamental parameter in the definition of thermal efficiency of the appliance. In this paper the role of this parameter is analysed. The analysis is conducted by linking the results obtained from experimental data, detailed CFD simulations and a simplified mathematical model based on a network of CSTR. The derivation of an idealized schematization of the appliance was essential to realize the role of excess air variations, with more generality than with respect to a specific appliance configuration. Conversely, while the experimental data and CFD results were necessary to derive the simplified model, the indications given by this simplified model were useful to analyze results coming from both experiments and detailed numerical simulations. It has been evidenced the need to distinguish between the role of excess air in the chemical combustion and in the heat recovery in the appliance as well as to quantify the feedback between these two processes. (author)

  13. The domestic induction heating appliance: An overview of recent research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Acero; J. M. Burdio; L. A. Barragan; D. Navarro; R. Alonso; J. R. Garcia; F. Monterde; P. Hernandez; S. Llorente; I. Garde

    2008-01-01

    In this paper several research topics pertaining to the design and modeling of domestic induction appliances are reviewed. Each topic is summarized, stressing its most significant advances and pointing to its future tendencies. A bibliographic review showing some of the published papers during the last years is included. The emphases and relative contributions of some of them are also discussed.

  14. A two-output series-resonant inverter for induction-heating cooking appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Burdío; Fernando Monterde; José R. García; Luis A. Barragán; Abelardo Martínez

    2005-01-01

    Multiple-burner induction-heating cooking appliances are suitable for using multiple-output inverters. Some common approaches use several single-output inverters or a single-output inverter multiplexing the loads along the time periodically. By specifying a two-output series-resonant high-frequency inverter, a new inverter is obtained fulfilling the requirements. The synthesized converter can be considered as a two-output extension of a full-bridge topology. It allows the

  15. Frequency-dependent resistance in Litzwire planar windings for domestic induction heating appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Acero; Rafael Alonso; José M. Burdío; Luis A. Barragán; Diego Puyal

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the frequency-dependent resistance in Litz-wire planar windings for domestic induction heating appliances is analyzed. For these inductors, in which the size is not an essential constraint, an analytical model is developed based on the superposition of different loss effects in the wire. Eddy current losses, including conduction losses and proximity-effect losses, both internal and external, were considered

  16. FPGA Implementation of a Switching Frequency Modulation Circuit for EMI Reduction in Resonant Inverters for Induction Heating Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis A. Barragan; Denis Navarro; JesÚs Acero; Isidro Urriza; JosÉ M. Burdio

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the use of frequency modulation as a spread spectrum technique to reduce conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the A frequency band (9-150 kHz) caused by resonant inverters used in induction heating home appliances. For sinusoidal, triangular, and sawtooth modulation profiles, the influence of peak period deviation in EMI reduction and in the power delivered to the load

  17. Oral Appliances

    MedlinePLUS

    ... two categories. The diverse variety is simply a variation of a few major themes. Oral appliances can be classified by mode of action or design variation. Tongue Retaining Appliances Tongue retaining appliances hold the ...

  18. FPGA-Based Power Measuring for Induction Heating Appliances Using Sigma–Delta A\\/D Conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Acero; Denis Navarro; L. A. Barraga; Ignacio Garde; José I. Artigas; José M. Burdío

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a digital circuit that measures in real time the output power of medium-frequency (25-50 kHz) induction-heated cooking appliances. The voltage and current are sensed using first-order sigma-delta (SigmaDelta) analog-to-digital converters. The power-measuring algorithm is very simple while maintaining good accuracy. The algorithm is developed using a hardware description language (VHDL).

  19. Measurements of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in British homes using unflued heating or cooking appliances.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, K J

    1985-08-01

    Measurements of Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) were made in three kitchens, two with gas cookers and one all electric, and two living rooms, one heated by a portable butane heater and the other by a paraffin stove. The measurements were taken whilst the homes were in normal use and the occupants kept a diary of when specific appliances were used. Measurements of NO2 were made simultaneously by chemiluminescence and by diffusion tubes. The accuracy of the diffusion tube measurements relative to the chemiluminescent standard was estimated as +/- 10% and the precision less than or equal to 300 ppb. hr. Results from diffusion tubes were used to indicate the distribution of NO2 throughout other rooms in the house. At the all electric house the CO and NO2 concentrations were very similar to the expected outdoor levels. In all the other houses NO2 levels exceeded typical outdoor concentrations measured in Central London and in the paraffin heated house and one gas cooking house median CO concentrations exceeded these measured at the curbside of a very busy road in Central London. The living room concentrations of NO2 where the paraffin heater was in use were elevated for long periods. Analysis of the decay of pollutant concentration in one kitchen yielded an effective deposition velocity for NO2 of 3 X 10(-5) m s-1. The magnitude of the CO and NO2 concentrations measured in this survey confirms that indoor air pollution should be taken into account when assessing overall public exposure to air pollution. PMID:3836508

  20. Induction-heated cooking appliance using new quasi-resonant ZVS-PWM inverter with power factor correction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengpei Wang; Kiyoshi Izaki; Izuo Hirota; Hidekazu Yamashita; Hideki Omori; Mutsuo Nakaoka

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new prototype of a voltage-fed quasi-load resonant inverter with a constant-frequency variable-power (CFVP) regulation scheme, which is developed for the next-generation high-frequency high-power induction-heated (IH) cooking appliances in household applications. This application-specific high-frequency single-ended push-pull inverter using new-generation specially designed insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) can efficiently operate under a principle of zero-voltage switching pulsewidth modulation

  1. Global residential appliance standards

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; McMahon, J.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (US); Lebot, B. [Agence Francaise pour la Maitrise de l`Energie, Valbonne (FR)

    1993-03-01

    In most countries, residential electricity consumption typically ranges from 20% to 40% of total electricity consumption. This energy is used for heating, cooling, refrigeration and other end-uses. Significant energy savings are possible if new appliance purchases are for models with higher efficiency than that of existing models. There are several ways to ensure or encourage such an outcome, for example, appliance rebates, innovative procurement, and minimum efficiency standards. This paper focuses on the latter approach. At the present time, the US is the only country with comprehensive appliance energy efficiency standards. However, many other countries, such as Australia, Canada, the European Community (EC), Japan and Korea, are considering enacting standards. The greatest potential impact of minimum efficiency standards for appliances is in the developing countries (e.g., China and India), where saturations of household appliances are relatively low but growing rapidly. This paper discusses the potential savings that could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also discusses the impediments to establishing common standards for certain appliance types, such as differing test procedures, characteristics, and fuel prices. A methodology for establishing global efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers is described.

  2. Appliance Analysis :Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Quaid, Maureen; Kunkle, Rick; Lagerberg, Brian

    1991-08-01

    The appliance use of RCDP-2 homes was analyzed to determine whether significant differences existed in houses that had efficient appliances (domestic hot water (DHW) and refrigerators) compared to those with appliances not considered efficient. Specific analyses addressed: (1) DHW and refrigerator appliance end uses; (2) whole house and space heat energy use; and, (3) interaction effects between appliance use and space heating energy use.

  3. Appliance Analysis : Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Quaid, Maureen; Kunkle, Rick; Lagerberg, Brian

    1991-08-01

    The appliance use of RCDP-2 homes was analyzed to determine whether significant differences existed in houses that had efficient appliances (domestic hot water (DHW) and refrigerators) compared to those with appliances not considered efficient. Specific analyses addressed: (1) DHW and refrigerator appliance end uses; (2) whole house and space heat energy use; and, (3) interaction effects between appliance use and space heating energy use.

  4. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  5. Pulmonary inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung after exposure to PM samples from biomass heating appliances of old and modern technologies.

    PubMed

    Happo, Mikko S; Uski, Oskari; Jalava, Pasi I; Kelz, Joachim; Brunner, Thomas; Hakulinen, Pasi; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Obernberger, Ingwald; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2013-01-15

    Current levels of ambient air fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) are associated with mortality and morbidity in urban populations worldwide. In residential areas wood combustion is one of the main sources of PM(2.5) emissions, especially during wintertime. However, the adverse health effects of particulate emissions from the modern heating appliances and fuels are poorly known. In this study, health related toxicological properties of PM(1) emissions from five modern and two old technology appliances were examined. The PM(1) samples were collected by using a Dekati® Gravimetric Impactor (DGI). The collected samples were weighed and extracted with methanol for chemical and toxicological analyses. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally exposed to a single dose of 1, 3, 10 or 15 mg/kg of the particulate samples for 4, 18 or 24h. Thereafter, the lungs were lavaged and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Lungs of 24h exposed mice were collected for inspection of pulmonary tissue damage. There were substantial differences in the combustion qualities of old and modern technology appliances. Modern technology appliances had the lowest PM(1) (mg/MJ) emissions, but they induced the highest inflammatory, cytotoxic and genotoxic activities. In contrast, old technology appliances had clearly the highest PM(1) (mg/MJ) emissions, but their effect in the mouse lungs were the lowest. Increased inflammatory activity was associated with ash related components of the emissions, whereas high PAH concentrations were correlating with the smallest detected responses, possibly due to their immunosuppressive effect. PMID:23201646

  6. Design and characterisation of an electrostatic precipitator for small heating appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Schmatloch; S. Rauch

    2005-01-01

    Promoting the use of renewable sources of energy is part of the efforts being undertaken to tackle the problem of global warming due to the greenhouse effect. Generation of heat or energy by wood combustion takes advantage of a renewable and often locally available source of energy and can help to reduce the overall emissions of CO2. Particularly small wood-fired

  7. Atopic dermatitis and indoor use of energy sources in cooking and heating appliances

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence has considerably increased worldwide in recent years. Studying indoor environments is particularly relevant, especially in industrialised countries where many people spend 80% of their time at home, particularly children. This study is aimed to identify the potential association between AD and the energy source (biomass, gas and electricity) used for cooking and domestic heating in a Spanish schoolchildren population. Methods As part of the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) phase III study, a cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted with 21,355 6-to-7-year-old children from 8 Spanish ISAAC centres. AD prevalence, environmental risk factors and the use of domestic heating/cooking devices were assessed using the validated ISAAC questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (cOR, aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. A logistic regression analysis was performed (Chi-square test, p-value?heating was the only type which obtained a significant aOR (1.13; 95% CI: 1.00-1.27). Finally, the model with all selected confounding variables (sex, BMI, number of siblings, mother’s educational level, smoking habits of parents, truck traffic and geographical area), showed aOR values which were very similar to those obtained in the previous adjusted logistic analysis. None of the results was statistically significant, but the use of electric heating showed an aOR close to significance (1.14; 95% CI: 0.99-1.31). Conclusion In our study population, no statistically significant associations were found between the type of indoor energy sources used and the presence of AD. PMID:23088771

  8. Method for producing micro heat panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Peterson, George P. (Inventor); Rummler, Donald R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Flat or curved micro heat pipe panels are fabricated by arranging essentially parallel filaments in the shape of the desired panel. The configuration of the filaments corresponds to the desired configuration of the tubes that will constitute the heat pipes. A thermally conductive material is then deposited on and around the filaments to fill in the desired shape of the panel. The filaments are then removed, leaving tubular passageways of the desired configuration and surface texture in the material. The tubes are then filled with a working fluid and sealed. Composite micro heat pipe laminates are formed by layering individual micro heat pipe panels and bonding them to each other to form a single structure. The layering sequence of the micro heat pipe panels can be tailored to transport heat preferentially in specific directions as desired for a particular application.

  9. Geothermal Heat Pumps Produce Dramatic Savings

    E-print Network

    Niess, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The widespread use of geothermal energy to reduce heating costs has been limited in part by the high initial cost of digging deep wells to obtain moderate temperature water (under 220 F) for direct-use industrial process and space heating...

  10. Glycerol citrate polyesters produced through microwave heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of various heating methods without catalysis to prepare copolyesters from citric acid:glycerol blends were studied. In the presence of short term microwave treatments, i.e., 60 sec at 1200 W, blends of glycerol and citric acid invariably formed solid amorphous copolyesters. Fourier tra...

  11. Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yushi Kato; Takashi Kubo; Masayuki Muramatsu; Kiyokatsu Tanaka; Atsushi Kitagawa; Yoshikazu Yoshida; Toyohisa Asaji; Fuminobu Sato; Toshiyuki Iida

    2008-01-01

    Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators,

  12. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX)

    2011-01-11

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  13. Design options for energy efficiency improvement of residential appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Turiel

    1986-01-01

    This report presents information needed for the Department of Energy (DOE) appliance standards evaluation effort. The appliances discussed are refrigerator\\/freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, television sets, kitchen ranges and ovens, clothes washers, humidifiers and dehumidifiers, central air conditioners (including heat pmps), and furnaces. In the original standards analysis, completed in the early

  14. Appliance Repair, Tips & Help

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On this site, visitors can find information about common household appliance parts and repair - categorized by type - including kitchen appliances, laundry equipment, and refrigerators. By clicking on the images of the individual machines, visitors can find more information including parts, how they work, common problems, and maintenance tips. There are also helpfully labeled images for particular brands and models of each appliance, which indicate the different features and parts of those particular machines. While some of the site is commercial (such as the links to appliance accessories), there is plenty of free and handy information for students working toward a career in appliance installation and repair.

  15. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances...Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including, but not limited...

  16. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances...Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including, but not limited...

  17. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances...Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including, but not limited...

  18. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances...Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including, but not limited...

  19. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  20. Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555, Japan and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama (Japan); Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., Tateyama Kagaku Group, 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama (Japan); Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., Tateyama Kagaku Group, 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe{sup 13+} are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

  1. Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2008-02-01

    Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe(13+) are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods. PMID:18315102

  2. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems ...cooling. (a) Every air conditioning unit...Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump...coefficient of performance ratios not less than shown...Gas fired absorption air conditioners must...appliance. (c) Fuel-burning air...

  3. Fundamentals of Refrigeration; Air Conditioning and Heating Mechanics 1--Appliance Repair 2: 9013.01 and 9025.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Providing the student with an understanding of the basic refrigeration fundamentals, the course introduces the various types of tools and equipment used in this trade. The course consists of 90 clock hours and is organized into six instructional blocks. The student will gain an understanding of trade terminology, heat and temperature, transfer of…

  4. Magnetic fields from domestic appliances in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, A. W.; Kaune, W.; Grainger, P.; Preece, S.; Golding, J.

    1997-01-01

    In a survey of 50 UK homes the 50 Hz fundamental and harmonic magnetic fields generated by 806 domestic appliances found in the homes, and used regularly by mothers, were measured. Measurements were made in the direction of most likely access, and from the surface of the appliances. Mothers completed a questionnaire on the use of appliances and were monitored for 24 h so that acquired exposure could be compared with the measured ambient fields in the home. Appliances were measured at standard distances and an algorithm was used to calculate fields at 100 and 50 cm to remove room background contributions. A few appliances generated fields in excess of at 1 m: microwave cookers ; washing machines ; dishwashers ; some electric showers and can openers . Of continuously operating devices, only central heating pumps (), central heating boilers () and fish-tank air pumps () produced significant fields at 0.5 m. There were no obvious ways to group different types of appliances as high- or low-strength sources. Mothers spent on average about 4.5 h per day in the kitchen, where the strongest sources of magnetic field were located.

  5. Preformed beading and boxing appliance.

    PubMed

    Reddy, J Sashi Deepth; Padmanabhan, T V; Veerareddy, Chandrika; Chandrasekhar, M; Narendra, R

    2013-03-01

    Conventional beading and boxing procedure is time consuming and involves application of heat that might distort green stick compound used for border molding. Earlier studies regarding beading and boxing methods have shown usage of various materials that were disposable and that cannot be recycled. To reduce the time consumed for beading and boxing procedure and to make this procedure cost-effective by using recyclable beading material, "Preformed boxing appliance" with moldable clay meant for beading the secondary impression was used. Secondary impression was supported by 3 studs provided on the floor of the boxing appliance. The cast was poured. The duration for the entire procedure was much less than the conventional procedure. PMID:24431707

  6. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  7. What can we learn from high-frequency appliance-level energy metering? Results from a field experiment

    E-print Network

    Chen, VL; Delmas, MA; Kaiser, WJ; Locke, SL

    2015-01-01

    disposal, and appliances plugged in the kitchen such asappliances will lead to differences in the other kitchen andkitchen Heating/cooling Refrigerator All other a Notes: The average share for each appliance

  8. Heating Appliance (Firegaurds): The Heating Appliances (Fireguards) Regulations, 1953 

    E-print Network

    Fyfe, David Maxwell

    1953-03-25

    These Regulations require fireguards to be fitted to gas fires, electric fires and oil beaters wbich are so designed that they are suitable for use in residential premises and are of such a type that, without a guard. there ...

  9. Micro heat pipe panels and method for producing same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Peterson, George P. (Inventor); Rummler, Donald R. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Flat or curved micro heat pipe panels are fabricated by arranging essentially parallel filaments in the shape of the desired panel. The configuration of the filaments corresponds to the desired configuration of the tubes that will constitute the heat pipes. A thermally conductive material is then deposited on and around the filaments to fill in the desired shape of the panel. The filaments are then removed, leaving tubular passageways of the desired configuration and surface texture in the material. The tubes are then filled with a working fluid and sealed. Composite micro heat pipe laminates are formed by layering individual micro heat pipe panels and bonding them to each other to form a single structure. The layering sequence of the micro heat pipe panels can be tailored to transport heat preferentially in specific directions as desired for a particular application.

  10. Heating of domestic water by waste heat recovery from household refrigerating equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Reil; B. Kaster; M. Wegner

    1982-01-01

    Heat from a 370 l deep freeze was used to heat water in a 250 l boiler. Both units were made from mass produced components. Tests show that the functions of cooling and deep freezing units can be effectively combined with one warm water boiler. The necessary expenditure for the appliance is, however, only economical with deep freezing units because

  11. Information Appliances through Conceptual Design Proposals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Gaver; Heather Martin

    As a way of mapping a design space for a project on infor- mation appliances, we produced a workbook describing about twenty conceptual design proposals. On the one hand, they serve as suggestions that digital devices might embody values apart from those traditionally associated with functionality and usefulness. On the other, they are examples of research through design, balancing concrete-

  12. Home Appliance Repair Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This link in the howstuffworks website includes seven major topics to repairing major appliances, from â??Major Appliance Repair Basicsâ? to â??Repairing Pilot Lights and Thermocopules.â? Each topic contains multiple paragraphs to explain how to accomplish a task, general hints on repairing such devices easier and making them more trouble-free. In general, each topic contains numerous pictures or diagrams to aid in understanding the process. It should also be noted that when more difficult topics are discussed, even further in-depth explanations are included. Links are also provided in the navigation bar to similar articles that may also be of interest to the user. All the information contained on the site is free and well organized, making it a fantastic means to learn and understand the topics of Appliance Repair. [TB

  13. Splinted mandibular protraction appliance

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satinder Pal

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of mandible rather than tooth movement is an ideal treatment for the correction of Class II malocclusion resulting from mandibular retrusion. In growing patients, forward repositioning of mandible by mandibular repositioning appliances is considered as a treatment of choice. Correction of mandibular retrusion by the conventional mandibular protraction appliances (MPAs) is mainly due to dento-alveolar changes and by altering the design of original MPAs, these limitations were minimized. The modified design enhanced the mandibular growth and contributed for the better skeletal correction of Class II malocclusion as compared to the conventional MPAs. This article highlights the design and fabrication of a splinted MPA for the correction of Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrusion and also describes a patient managed by this appliance.

  14. Crew appliance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Viable crew appliance concepts were identified by means of a thorough literature search. Studies were made of the food management, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and off-duty habitability functions to determine which concepts best satisfy the Space Shuttle Orbiter and Modular Space Station mission requirements. Models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the generalized environmental-thermal control and life support systems computer program were developed and validated. Development plans of selected concepts were generated for future reference. A shuttle freezer conceptual design was developed and a test support activity was provided for regenerative environmental control life support subsystems.

  15. Heat Stress Creates Many Challenges for Milk Producers

    E-print Network

    . External heat accumulates from solar radiation, high ambient air temperature, and high relative humidity-abatement methods include the use of fans, soakers, shade and cooling ponds. Cooling systems result in reduced body

  16. Thermal parameter identification of simplified building model with electric appliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Ruellan; Adrien Bouvet; Eric Monmasson; Rachid Bennacer

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce heat energy demand in residential building, thermal insulation and indoor air tightness become more important. However, in a well-insulated environment, internal heat gain caused by solar radiation, metabolism and losses of home electric appliance (i.e. refrigerator, lamp, television, etc.) can be dominant to home global energy management. To quantify and to modelize the heat gain due

  17. Residential consumer's handbook for wood-fired appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, D.; Maxwell, T. T.; Nunnelly, R. M.

    1981-11-01

    This manual describes the various types of wood burning appliances and accessories on the market. The characteristics of the various types of units are given to assess the best unit for a given application. Tips on selecting a unit are given. The most important overall considerations are shown to be the size (heat output) and safety features of the unit. Performance parameters, particularly heat output and efficiency, are defined. Test values for these parameters for several appliances of each type are given. This summary of results allows the various types of appliances and design features to be evaluated. This table also shows that the performance of units in a given category is very similar. Hence price, quality of construction, appearance, and type of appliance, rather than efficiency, become the most important parameters in selecting a stove in a given category.

  18. Appliance Servicing Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents the standard appliance servicing technician curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard…

  19. A Universal Information Appliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin F. Eustice; Tobin J. Lehman; Armando Morales; Michelle C. Munson; Stefan Edlund; Miguel Guillen

    1999-01-01

    The consumer's view of a universal information appliance (UIA) is a personal device, such as a PDA (personal digital assistant) or a wearable computer that can interact with any application, access any information store, or remotely operate any electronic device.The technologist's view of the UIA is a portable computer, communicating over a bi-directional wireless link to an elaborate software system

  20. Carbon nanostructures produced by CCVD with induction heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lupu; A. R. Biri?; A. Jianu; C. Bunescu; E. Burkel; E. Indrea; G. Mih?ilescu; S. Pruneanu; L. Olenic; I. Mi?an

    2004-01-01

    The catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method in which the outer furnace is replaced by the high frequency induction heating (IH) has been used for synthesis of carbon nanostructures. Using different catalysts, various types of carbon nanofibers were obtained, with the absence of the catalyst particles at their tip as a common characteristic. The IH mode combined with the CCVD

  1. Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

    2011-06-30

    This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

  2. Electricity-producing heating apparatus utilizing a turbine generator in a semi-closed brayton cycle

    DOEpatents

    Labinov, Solomon D.; Christian, Jeffrey E.

    2003-10-07

    The present invention provides apparatus and methods for producing both heat and electrical energy by burning fuels in a stove or boiler using a novel arrangement of a surface heat exchanger and microturbine-powered generator and novel surface heat exchanger. The equipment is particularly suited for use in rural and relatively undeveloped areas, especially in cold regions and highlands.

  3. Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

    1983-08-01

    The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

  4. Emission factors from small scale appliances burning wood and pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgen, Senem; Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Giugliano, Michele; Angelino, Elisabetta; Marongiu, Alessandro; Hugony, Francesca; Migliavacca, Gabriele; Morreale, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Four manually fed (6-11 kW) firewood burning and two automatic wood pellets (8.8-25 kW) residential heating appliances were tested under real-world operating conditions in order to determine emission factors (EFs) of macropollutants, i.e., carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter (PM) and trace pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins. The results were examined for the influence of different factors (i.e., type of wood, appliance and combustion cycle). The experimental EFs were also compared with the values proposed by the European emission inventory guidebook used in the local inventory in order to evaluate their representativeness of real world emissions. The composite macropollutant EFs for manually fed appliances were: for CO 5858 g GJ-1, for NOx 122 g GJ-1, NMHC 542 g GJ-1, PM 254 g GJ-1, whereas emissions were much lower for automatic pellets appliances: CO 219 g GJ-1, for NOx 66 g GJ-1, NMHC 5 g GJ-1, PM 85 g GJ-1. The highest emissions were generally observed for the open fireplace, however traditional and advanced stoves have the highest overall CO EFs. Especially for the advanced stove real-world emissions are far worse than those measured under cycles used for type testing of residential solid fuel appliances. No great difference is observed for different firewood types in batch working appliances, diversely the quality of the pellets is observed to influence directly the emission performance of the automatic appliances. Benzo(b)fluoranthene is the PAH with the highest contribution (110 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 2 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices) followed by benzo(a)pyrene (77 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 0.8 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices).

  5. Pressure Loss and Heat Transfer Through Heat Sinks Produced by Selective Laser Melting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Wong; Ieuan Owen; Chris J. Sutcliffe

    2009-01-01

    Heat removal from electronic packages is often assisted with the use of heat sinks whose heat transfer surfaces come in a variety of forms such as cylindrical pins, flat fins, and corrugated sheet. These conventional designs are manufactured by traditional methods such as forging, machining, casting, stamping and bending, or a combination of processes. This article introduces a novel manufacturing

  6. Appliance use figures need revision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Blumst; L. D. Hoffman

    1977-01-01

    A just completed appliance research study has resulted in recommendations that certain national average appliance-use figures be revised and that others be researched more thoroughly before any changes are made. These results have broad implications in efforts currently under way to improve appliance efficiency, to encourage adoption of point-of-purchase labeling, and to aid conservation by utilities and government. Some of

  7. Simulations of nonequilibrium warm dense gold produced by ultrafast heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, B.; Recoules, V.; Torrent, M.; Chen, Z.; Sametoglu, V.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Kirkwood, S. E.; Reid, M.; Mazevet, S.; Ng, A.

    2013-03-01

    The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with metals produces nonequilibrium states consisting of hot electrons and cold ions. These can last for many picoseconds before relaxing to a thermodynamic equilibrium. Recent experiments using a chirped pulse probe technique provided AC conductivity data of gold at a sufficient time resolution to observe this relaxation process. We developed an ab-initio model that characterizes thermodynamic properties of warm dense matter states in nonequilibrium. Our theoretical scheme combines a standard two temperature model with temperature dependent material parameters and an energy transfer rate that are obtained by means of ab-initio simulations. This enables us to give a prediction for the temperature evolution during the relaxation process. Additionally, we derive the AC conductivity of the nonequilibrium states from our simulations using the Kubo-Greenwood formula. It is used to test our model against measurements. We observe agreement with experiment using an energy relaxation rate, that is smaller than predicted, giving us reason to revisit its determination. We can furthermore provide thermodynamical and structural data of nonequilibrium warm dense gold which are not accessible in experiment.

  8. Process for producing an activated carbon adsorbent with integral heat transfer apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing an integral adsorbent-heat exchanger apparatus useful in ammonia refrigerant heat pump systems. In one embodiment, the process wets an activated carbon particles-solvent mixture with a binder-solvent mixture, presses the binder wetted activated carbon mixture on a metal tube surface and thereafter pyrolyzes the mixture to form a bonded activated carbon matrix adjoined to the tube surface. The integral apparatus can be easily and inexpensively produced by the process in large quantities.

  9. Frequency-Synchronized Resonant Converters for the Supply of Multiwinding Coils in Induction Cooking Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Forest; Sébastien Faucher; Jean-Yves Gaspard; Didier Montloup; Jean-Jacques Huselstein; Charles Joubert

    2007-01-01

    The induction heating principle has been successfully introduced for about 20 years in domestic cooking appliances. The technical developments now concern the improvement of the current appliances and the introduction of new functions. So, one tendency is the design of multiwinding induction coils that are very adaptive concerning the shape and the power capability. This paper describes different original converter

  10. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  11. Heat Treatment Devices and Method of Operation Thereof to Produce Dual Microstructure Superalloys Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John (Inventor); Gabb, Timothy P. (Inventor); Kantzos, Peter T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A heat treatment assembly and heat treatment methods are disclosed for producing different microstructures in the bore and rim portions of nickel-based superalloy disks, particu- larly suited for gas turbine applications. The heat treatment assembly is capable of being removed from the furnace and disassembled to allow rapid fan or oil quenching of the disk. For solutioning heat treatments of the disk, temperatures higher than that of this solvus temperature of the disk are used to produce coarse grains in the rim of each disk so as to give maximum creep and dwell crack resistance at the rim service temperature. At the same time, solution temperature lower than the solvus temperature of the disk are provided to produce fine grain in the bore of the disk so as to give maximum strength and low cycle fatigue resistance.

  12. Remote repair appliance

    DOEpatents

    Heumann, Frederick K. (Ballston Spa, NY); Wilkinson, Jay C. (Ballston Spa, NY); Wooding, David R. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

    1997-01-01

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a worksite on a substantially circular bore of a workpiece and for providing video signals of the worksite to a remote monitor comprising: a baseplate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the baseplate and positioned to roll against the bore of the workpiece when the baseplate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the baseplate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the baseplate; a camera for providing video signals of the worksite to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the baseplate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris.

  13. Remote repair appliance

    SciTech Connect

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    A remote appliance is described for supporting a tool for performing work at a worksite on a substantially circular bore of a workpiece and for providing video signals of the worksite to a remote monitor comprising: a baseplate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the baseplate and positioned to roll against the bore of the workpiece when the baseplate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the baseplate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the baseplate; a camera for providing video signals of the worksite to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the baseplate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris.

  14. Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil

    SciTech Connect

    Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

  15. Direct evidence of strongly inhomogeneous energy deposition in target heating with laser-produced ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Brambrink, E.; Audebert, P. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI), Unite Mixte No. 7605 CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique-Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Palaiseau (France); Schlegel, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Malka, G.; Aleonard, M. M.; Claverie, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Scheurer, J. N.; Tarisien, M. [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, 33175 Gradignan (France); Amthor, K. U. [Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany); Meot, V.; Morel, P. [CEA/DAM, Ile de France, Boite Postale 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Nicolai, P.; Tikhonchuk, V. [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2007-06-15

    We report on strong nonuniformities in target heating with intense, laser-produced proton beams. The observed inhomogeneity in energy deposition can strongly perturb equation of state (EOS) measurements with laser-accelerated ions which are planned in several laboratories. Interferometric measurements of the target expansion show different expansion velocities on the front and rear surfaces, indicating a strong difference in local temperature. The nonuniformity indicates at an additional heating mechanism, which seems to originate from electrons in the keV range.

  16. Direct evidence of strongly inhomogeneous energy deposition in target heating with laser-produced ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambrink, E.; Schlegel, T.; Malka, G.; Amthor, K. U.; Aléonard, M. M.; Claverie, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Méot, V.; Morel, P.; Nicolai, P.; Scheurer, J. N.; Tarisien, M.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Audebert, P.

    2007-06-01

    We report on strong nonuniformities in target heating with intense, laser-produced proton beams. The observed inhomogeneity in energy deposition can strongly perturb equation of state (EOS) measurements with laser-accelerated ions which are planned in several laboratories. Interferometric measurements of the target expansion show different expansion velocities on the front and rear surfaces, indicating a strong difference in local temperature. The nonuniformity indicates at an additional heating mechanism, which seems to originate from electrons in the keV range.

  17. Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power by Thomas Schmeister B.Sc., University

  18. New method for producing glass matrices for heat-resistant glass-enamel coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oo No Tkacheva; V. E. Gorbatenko; A. G. Tkachev

    1990-01-01

    The problem of reducing the energy and materials consumption of the enamel industry, and of increasing the quality of pieces, can be resolved by applying glass-ceramic coatings on the firing instrument and heating elements of annealing furnaces. The practical utilization of these coatings depends on the economy and accessibility of the method for producing their glass matrix. At the present

  19. Heat Resistant Proteases Produced in Milk by Psychrotorophic Bacteria of Dairy Origin1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Adams; J. T. Barach; M. L. Speck

    1975-01-01

    Production of heat resistant proteases by psychrotrophs growing in milk, resist- ance of such proteases to ultrahigh tem- perature treatments and action of these enzymes on milk were studied. All of the psychrotrophs obtained from raw milk produced proteases that survived 149 C for 10 s. Seventy to ninety percent of the raw milk samples contained psychro- trophs capable of

  20. Direct evidence of strongly inhomogeneous energy deposition in target heating with laser-produced ion beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Brambrink; T. Schlegel; G. Malka; K. U. Amthor; M. M. Aléonard; G. Claverie; M. Gerbaux; F. Gobet; F. Hannachi; V. Méot; P. Morel; P. Nicolai; J. N. Scheurer; M. Tarisien; V. Tikhonchuk; P. Audebert

    2007-01-01

    We report on strong nonuniformities in target heating with intense, laser-produced proton beams. The observed inhomogeneity in energy deposition can strongly perturb equation of state (EOS) measurements with laser-accelerated ions which are planned in several laboratories. Interferometric measurements of the target expansion show different expansion velocities on the front and rear surfaces, indicating a strong difference in local temperature. The

  1. 46 CFR 195.06-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 195.06-1 Section 195.06-1...EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 195.06-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances...

  2. 46 CFR 70.28-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 70.28-1 Section 70.28-1...PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 70.28-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances...

  3. 46 CFR 90.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 90.27-1 Section 90.27-1...PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 90.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances...

  4. 46 CFR 188.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 188.27-1 Section 188.27-1...PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 188.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances...

  5. Energy Corner: Heat Reclamation Rescues Wasted Heat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    Heat reclamation systems added to pre-existing central heating systems provide maximum savings at minimum cost. The benefits of a particular appliance marketed under the brand name "Energizer" are discussed. (Author/MLF)

  6. Development and application of a standard test method for the performance of exhaust hoods with commercial cooking appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, E.B.; Parvin, F.A. [American Gas Association Labs., Independence, OH (United States); Horton, D.J. [D.J. Horton and Associates, Inc., Lombard, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the development and application of a standard test method for evaluating the performance of commercial kitchen ventilation (CKV) systems, including exhaust hoods, cooking appliances, and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment. An energy balance protocol is described with which energy into cooking appliances is measured and proportioned into energy exhausted, energy into food, and energy transferred to the room in which the appliances are located (e.g., commercial kitchen). When energy transferred to the room is calculated and plotted over a range of hood exhaust rates, the shape and magnitude of the curve provide quantitative measures of the overall performance of the hood, appliance, and HVAC system.

  7. Direct evidence of strongly inhomogeneous energy deposition in target heating with laser-produced ion beams.

    PubMed

    Brambrink, E; Schlegel, T; Malka, G; Amthor, K U; Aléonard, M M; Claverie, G; Gerbaux, M; Gobet, F; Hannachi, F; Méot, V; Morel, P; Nicolai, P; Scheurer, J N; Tarisien, M; Tikhonchuk, V; Audebert, P

    2007-06-01

    We report on strong nonuniformities in target heating with intense, laser-produced proton beams. The observed inhomogeneity in energy deposition can strongly perturb equation of state (EOS) measurements with laser-accelerated ions which are planned in several laboratories. Interferometric measurements of the target expansion show different expansion velocities on the front and rear surfaces, indicating a strong difference in local temperature. The nonuniformity indicates at an additional heating mechanism, which seems to originate from electrons in the keV range. PMID:17677318

  8. Alternatives: exploring information appliances through conceptual design proposals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Gaver; Heather Martin

    2000-01-01

    As a way of mapping a design space for a project on information appliances, we produced a workbook describing about twenty conceptual design proposals. On the one hand, they serve as suggestions that digital devices might embody values apart from those traditionally associated with functionality and usefulness. On the other, they are examples of research through design, balancing concreteness with

  9. Energy Star Appliances 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service ENERGY STAR Appliances

    E-print Network

    Energy Star® Appliances 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service ENERGY STAR® Appliances ENERGY STAR with savings on your utility bill. One helpful way to figure out if buying an Energy Star® appliance makes of Energy Star® rated appliances. If yours does, this would reduce the initial price. The second price tag

  10. Comparison of Adjustable and Fixed Oral Appliances for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri, Christopher J.; Paolino, Nathalie; Eliasson, Arn H.; Shah, Anita A.; Holley, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the efficacy of adjustable and fixed oral appliances for the treatment of OSA. Methods: Retrospective review of consecutive patients with OSA treated with either adjustable or fixed oral appliances. Polysomnography was conducted before and during therapy. Effective treatment was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) < 5 events/h or < 10 events/h with resolution of sleepiness (Epworth < 10). We compared efficacy rates between fixed and adjustable appliances and sought to identify factors associated with greater success. Results: We included 805 patients, 602 (74.8%) treated with an adjustable and 203 (25.2%) a fixed oral appliances. Among the cohort, 86.4% were men; mean age was 41.3 ± 9.2 years. Mean AHI was 30.7 ± 25.6, with 34.1% having mild (AHI 5-14.9), 29.2% moderate (AHI 15-29.9), and 36.8% severe (AHI ? 30) OSA. Successful therapy was significantly more common with adjustable appliances. Obstructive events were reduced to < 5/h in 56.8% with adjustable compared to 47.0% with fixed appliances (p = 0.02). Similarly, a reduction of events to < 10 with resolution of sleepiness occurred in 66.4% with adjustable appliances versus 44.9% with fixed appliances (p < 0.001). For both devices, success was more common in younger patients, with lower BMI and less severe disease. Conclusions: Adjustable devices produced greater reductions in obstructive events and were more likely to provide successful therapy, especially in moderate-severe OSA. Fixed appliances were effective in mild disease, but were less successful in those with higher AHIs. Given these findings, the baseline AHI should be considered when selecting the type of oral appliance. Citation: Lettieri CJ; Paolino N; Eliasson AH; Shah AA; Holley AB. Comparison of adjustable and fixed oral appliances for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(5):439-445. PMID:22003337

  11. Appliance Standards and Advanced Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-11-01

    Energy efficiency has long been considered one of the most effective and least costly means of reducing national energy demand. The U.S. Department of Energy runs the appliances and commercial equipment standards program, which sets federal mandatory minimum efficiency levels for many residential appliances, commercial equipment, and lighting products. The Department uses an engineering-economic analysis approach to determine appropriate standard levels that are technologically feasible and economically justified (i.e., a net positive economic benefit to consumers and the nation as a whole). The program has been very successful and has significantly reduced national energy consumption. Efficiency is also a renewable resource, with many new, even more efficient technologies continuously replacing older ones. There are many promising advanced technologies on the horizon today that could dramatically reduce appliance and commercial equipment energy use even further.

  12. The sources of energy for crustal melting and the geochemistry of heat-producing elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bea, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Crustal melting to produce granite magmas requires a tremendous amount of energy. In principle, there are three main mechanisms of heating that can extensively melt a fertile crust: radiogenic heat caused by the decay of 40K, 230Th, 235U and 238U; increased subcrustal heat flux caused by the upwelling of deeper, therefore hotter, mantle materials; advection of heat caused by the emplacement and crystallization of hot mantle magmas. Two-dimensional finite elements modeling reveals that a fertile crust thickened to 65-70 km would produce copious granite magmatism after 30-40 M.y. if its average heat-production is A > 1.2 ?W m- 3, but it would scarcely melt if A < 0.65 ?W m- 3. Increasing the subcrustal heat flow from the normal value of QM ? 0.025 W m- 2 to QM ? 0.04 W m- 2 may also lead to extensive crustal melting, especially if the crust does not thin to less than 30-35 km. Very high QM (? 0.06 W m- 2) affecting the continental crust is unlikely, but the combination of moderately high QM (? 0.04 W m- 2) and a thick fertile crust with A < 1.2 ?W m- 3, such as often happens in the volcanic and back-arc areas of subduction zones, is ideal to produce copious granite magmatism. Lastly, the emplacement of hot mantle magmas in a fertile crust can produce crustal melts in just a few thousand years, but the volume of these is equal to or less than the volume of the intruding magma. A clue for understanding the relative importance of each of these three mechanisms comes from the radiogenic heat production of granite rocks calculated from the concentration of 40K, 230Th, 235U and 238U at the time of their formation. This parameter estimated on more than 3400 granites samples of different ages and provenance reveals a strongly asymmetric distribution peaking around 2.4 ?W m- 3, a value much higher than the average continental crust (about 1-1.2 ?W m- 3) and certainly much higher than the average lower continental crust (about 0.4-0.8 ?W m- 3). Only those granite rock types that are clearly connected with mantle heat sources such as the Archean TTG, post-Archean subduction-related trondhjemites, and recent adakites have a heat production equal to or smaller than the lower continental crust. Since the bulk melt/solid partition coefficient of the heat-producing elements (HPE: K, Th and U) is k ? 1, the elevated HPE contents of granites indicates that most of them have been derived from HPE-rich sources. We conclude that radiogenic heating is often essential, and always advantageous, for generating large volumes of granite magmas, and that granite magmatism is the main cause of the accumulation of HPE in the upper crust.

  13. Modeling of GE Appliances: Final Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-01-31

    This report is the final in a series of three reports funded by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) in collaboration with GE Appliances’ through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to describe the potential of GE Appliances’ DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid.

  14. Overdense Plasmas Produced by Electron Cyclotron Heating in a Linear Multipole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Fukao; Ken-ichi Matsuura

    1994-01-01

    A report is given of characteristics of a plasma produced by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in a linear multipole (LMP) field configuration. The electron density measured by a 6 mm microwave interferometer reached 2×1012 cm-3, which corresponds to 30 times the cutoff density for the 2.45 GHz RF source. On the basis of the spatial distributions of electron density, electron

  15. Energy Interactions of Electric Clothes Dryers and Heat Pump Water Heaters with Building Equipment Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William P. Levins

    1984-01-01

    The way in which an appliance is used or where the appliance is located affects its energy usage. The building equipment system which usually is most affected by the efficiency and\\/or the manner of operation of other building equipment systems (appliances) is the house heating and cooling (HVAC) system. Two cases of energy interactions between appliances and the house HVAC

  16. Heating of domestic water by waste heat recovery from household refrigerating equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reil, J.; Kaster, B.; Wegner, M.

    1982-09-01

    Heat from a 370 l deep freeze was used to heat water in a 250 l boiler. Both units were made from mass produced components. Tests show that the functions of cooling and deep freezing units can be effectively combined with one warm water boiler. The necessary expenditure for the appliance is, however, only economical with deep freezing units because with normal domestic refrigerators the amount of waste heat is too small. The economy of the unit could be considerably increased by the development of a mass produced motor compressor with a sufficiently large oil cooler to accomplish an optimum thermal insulation of the motor compressor surface area.

  17. Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  18. Life Cycle Analysis of High Quality Recycled Aggregate Produced byHeating and Rubbing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Hirokazu; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Tateyashiki, Hisashi

    Most of demolished concrete is recycled as road subbase, but its generation is expected to increase rapidly and exceed the demand of road subbase in a near future. To promote the recycling of concrete, the technology to produce high quality recycled aggregate by the heating and rubbing method has been developed. In this method, demolished concrete is heated up to about 300°C in a heater to make cement paste brittle with its dehydration. The heated concrete is then rubbed in two mills to recover the recycled aggregate, while the paste is removed from the surface of aggregate and collected as cement fine powder. In this method, much energy is consumed to heat and rub concrete; however, the cement fine powder is utilized for a soil stabilizer and cement raw materials, so that the environmental load is reduced in cement manufacturing. The life cycle analysis of the recycled aggregate is carried out to evaluate this technology. As a result, the life cycle CO2 is a negative value because the deduction of CO2 emission in cement manufacturing by the powder is much large. This technology is proved to be very effective to reduce CO2.

  19. Energy conservation policies for builders' purchases of domestic appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Quelch

    1980-01-01

    Policy makers should become more interested in the impact that imposed-choice purchases of energy-using equipment by builders have on residential-sector energy consumption. Canadian data suggest that builder purchases account for 48% of the annual energy consumption attributable to all purchases of furnaces and space-heating equipment, water heaters, and major kitchen and laundry appliances. An analysis is presented of the information

  20. Effect of a moving object on air and contaminant distributions in a commercial kitchen with electrical cooking appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yosuke Suzuki; Sagnik Mazumdar; Yasushi Kondo; Hajime Yoshino

    The ventilation rate in electrical commercial kitchens can be lower than that in gas kitchens since the electrical cooking appliance does not produce combustion gases. However the thermal plume generated from the electric cooking appliance is easily to be disturbed by a moving object compared with that generated from the gas one due to the weaker thermal plume from the

  1. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1987-09-22

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate. 2 figs.

  2. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, Thomas T. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

  3. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1985-04-03

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

  4. [Environmental and health impacts of wood combustion to produce heat and power].

    PubMed

    Valerio, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Toxic chemicals such as benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and ultra fine particles were found in the smoke produced by wood combustion. Emission factors confirm that, to produce the same energy amount, many more pollutants are emitted by wood than by natural gas. Biomass burning produces a relevant deterioration of air quality inside and outside houses, notably due to emissions of fine and ultra fine dust (PM10, PM2.5) according to reviewed studies. Important improvements in emission quality are obtained with the use of more efficient household heating systems, both in developed and in developing countries. Numerous studies have assessed the possible health effects produced by wood smoke, providing sufficient evidence that the indoor exposure to wood smoke, even in developed countries, can have adverse effects on human health. In 2010 IARC classified wood smoke as a possible human carcinogen. In Europe, electricity generation from biomass combustion is increasing (12% each year) thanks to incentives provided to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and use of fossil fuels.Today adequate studies to assess the environmental and health effects of emissions from power plants fuelled by solid biomasses are still needed. PMID:22418798

  5. Heat Shock Protein 47: A Novel Biomarker of Phenotypically Altered Collagen-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Takashi; Nazneen, Arifa; Al-Shihri, Abdulmonem A.; Turkistani, Khadijah A.; Razzaque, Mohammed S.

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) is a collagen-specific molecular chaperone that helps the molecular maturation of various types of collagens. A close association between increased expression of HSP47 and the excessive accumulation of collagens is found in various human and experimental fibrotic diseases. Increased levels of HSP47 in fibrotic diseases are thought to assist in the increased assembly of procollagen, and thereby contribute to the excessive deposition of collagens in fibrotic areas. Currently, there is not a good universal histological marker to identify collagen-producing cells. Identifying phenotypically altered collagen-producing cells is essential for the development of cell-based therapies to reduce the progression of fibrotic diseases. Since HSP47 has a single substrate, which is collagen, the HSP47 cellular expression provides a novel universal biomarker to identify phenotypically altered collagen-producing cells during wound healing and fibrosis. In this brief article, we explained why HSP47 could be used as a universal marker for identifying phenotypically altered collagen-producing cells. PMID:21614164

  6. Leaking electricity in domestic appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

    1999-05-01

    Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost.

  7. Status of European appliance standards

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Lebot, B. (Agence de L'Environnement et de la Maitrise de L'Energie, Valbonne (France))

    1992-05-01

    The European Community (EC) recently commissioned a study of the impact of potential appliance standards on electricity consumption in the twelve EC nations. This study looks at refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The impact of minimum efficiency standards on electricity use over the time period from 1995--2010 is estimated. The results of this study were presented to the EC in September of 1991. Revisions were made to the draft report and final copies sent to all interested parties. The member nations of the EC will soon consider whether they wish to implement uniform energy efficiency standards that would take effect in 1995. The results of the study described above will be presented and the political considerations will be discussed. In addition, data describing the appliance market in Europe will be presented.

  8. Kinetic effects and nonlinear heating in intense x-ray-laser-produced carbon plasmas.

    PubMed

    Sentoku, Y; Paraschiv, I; Royle, R; Mancini, R C; Johzaki, T

    2014-11-01

    The x-ray laser-matter interaction for a low-Z material, carbon, is studied with a particle-in-cell code that solves the photoionization and x-ray transport self-consistently. Photoionization is the dominant absorption mechanism and nonthermal photoelectrons are produced with energy near the x-ray photon energy. The photoelectrons ionize the target rapidly via collisional impact ionization and field ionization, producing a hot plasma column behind the laser pulse. The radial size of the heated region becomes larger than the laser spot size due to the kinetic nature of the photoelectrons. The plasma can have a temperature of more than 10 000 K (>1eV), an energy density greater than 10^{4} J/cm^{3}, an ion-ion Coulomb coupling parameter ??1, and electron degeneracy ??1, i.e., strongly coupled warm dense matter. By increasing the laser intensity, the plasma temperature rises nonlinearly from tens of eV to hundreds of eV, bringing it into the high energy density matter regime. The heating depth and temperature are also controllable by changing the photon energy of the incident laser light. PMID:25493733

  9. Kinetic effects and nonlinear heating in intense x-ray-laser-produced carbon plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentoku, Y.; Paraschiv, I.; Royle, R.; Mancini, R. C.; Johzaki, T.

    2014-11-01

    The x-ray laser-matter interaction for a low-Z material, carbon, is studied with a particle-in-cell code that solves the photoionization and x-ray transport self-consistently. Photoionization is the dominant absorption mechanism and nonthermal photoelectrons are produced with energy near the x-ray photon energy. The photoelectrons ionize the target rapidly via collisional impact ionization and field ionization, producing a hot plasma column behind the laser pulse. The radial size of the heated region becomes larger than the laser spot size due to the kinetic nature of the photoelectrons. The plasma can have a temperature of more than 10 000 K (>1 eV ), an energy density greater than 104 J /cm3 , an ion-ion Coulomb coupling parameter ? ?1 , and electron degeneracy ? ?1 , i.e., strongly coupled warm dense matter. By increasing the laser intensity, the plasma temperature rises nonlinearly from tens of eV to hundreds of eV, bringing it into the high energy density matter regime. The heating depth and temperature are also controllable by changing the photon energy of the incident laser light.

  10. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 5, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Housekeeping, off-duty, and medical data concerning the appliances considered for the space station are presented. Appliance functions analyzed include: cleanup, collection, processing and storage of refuse; crew entertainment and physical exercise, and the autoclaves and ergometers.

  11. NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-print Network

    Hall, Julian

    be distilled. It costs £0.10 to distill a barrel of oil and the result of the distillation is 0.25 barrelsNATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4.5 for heating

  12. Crew appliance computer program manual, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Trade studies of numerous appliance concepts for advanced spacecraft galley, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and other areas were made to determine which best satisfy the space shuttle orbiter and modular space station mission requirements. Analytical models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the G-189A Generalized Environmental/Thermal Control and Life Support Systems (ETCLSS) Computer Program subroutine library were developed. The new appliance subroutines are given along with complete analytical model descriptions, solution methods, user's input instructions, and validation run results. The appliance components modeled were integrated with G-189A ETCLSS models for shuttle orbiter and modular space station, and results from computer runs of these systems are presented.

  13. Hazards of orthodontics appliances and the oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Dibiase, A T; Samuels, R H; Ozdiler, E; Akcam, M O; Turkkahraman, H

    2000-12-01

    Occasionally orthodontic appliances or parts of orthodontic appliances have caused problems with either the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. The type of appliances that have caused problems and their clinical management are discussed. A case is described in which an upper removable appliance with inadequate retention became lodged in a patient's pharynx lacerating the palatine tonsils. Suggestions are made to try and avoid the problems that were encountered in this case and others reported in the literature in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. PMID:11099566

  14. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances...1357(a), electric motors and transformers, including those installed in...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances...1357(a), electric motors and transformers, including those installed in...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances...1357(a), electric motors and transformers, including those installed in...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances...1357(a), electric motors and transformers, including those installed in...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365...Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances...1357(a), electric motors and transformers, including those installed in...

  19. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250...Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture fixation appliance is a...

  20. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250...Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture fixation appliance is a...

  1. Integration of Thermoelectric Generators and Wood Stove to Produce Heat, Hot Water, and Electrical Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, A. M.; Mazandarani, P.; Panahi, R.; Behsaz, H.; Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2013-07-01

    Traditional fire stoves are characterized by low efficiency. In this experimental study, the combustion chamber of the stove is augmented by two devices. An electric fan can increase the air-to-fuel ratio in order to increase the system's efficiency and decrease air pollution by providing complete combustion of wood. In addition, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) produce power that can be used to satisfy all basic needs. In this study, a water-based cooling system is designed to increase the efficiency of the TEGs and also produce hot water for residential use. Through a range of tests, an average of 7.9 W was achieved by a commercial TEG with substrate area of 56 mm × 56 mm, which can produce 14.7 W output power at the maximum matched load. The total power generated by the stove is 166 W. Also, in this study a reasonable ratio of fuel to time is described for residential use. The presented prototype is designed to fulfill the basic needs of domestic electricity, hot water, and essential heat for warming the room and cooking.

  2. Appliance energy efficiency in new home construction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-30

    A survey of 224 builders was conducted to which 160 builders responded. Each respondent completed between one and seven separate questionnaires. Each of the seven questionnaires were designed to collect information about one type of equipment or major appliance. These are: heat pump; heating system; air conditioner; domestic water heater; dishwasher; range; and refrigerator. Analysis of the resulting 406 questionnaires indicated that builders were primarily responsible for brand selection. These choices were made primarily without regard for the energy efficiency of the product. A similar apparent lack of consideration of energy efficiency during brand and model selection was found among home buyers and specialized subcontractors.

  3. Mean flow field and surface heating produced by unequal shock interactions at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birch, S. F.; Rudy, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mean velocity profiles were measured in a free shear layer produced by the interaction of two unequal strength shock waves at hypersonic free-stream Mach numbers. Measurements were made over a unit Reynolds number range of 3,770,000 per meter to 17,400,000 per meter based on the flow on the high velocity side of the shear layer. The variation in measured spreading parameters with Mach number for the fully developed flows is consistent with the trend of the available zero velocity ratio data when the Mach numbers for the data given in this study are taken to be characteristic Mach numbers based on the velocity difference across the mixing layer. Surface measurements in the shear-layer attachment region of the blunt-body model indicate peak local heating and static pressure consistent with other published data. Transition Reynolds numbers were found to be significantly lower than those found in previous data.

  4. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  5. Magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel produced via self-heat-sustained (SHS) technique

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel produced via self-heat-sustained (SHS) technique Lim Rooi of the reactants to produce very high phase-purity magnesium aluminate powder under rather mild experi- mental effect of slightly off-stoichiometry ( 9 wt. %) in composi- tions on either side of magnesium aluminate

  6. Spotlight on the microbes that produce heat shock protein 90-targeting antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Peter W.; Millson, Stefan H.

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a promising cancer drug target as a molecular chaperone critical for stabilization and activation of several of the oncoproteins that drive cancer progression. Its actions depend upon its essential ATPase, an activity fortuitously inhibited with a very high degree of selectivity by natural antibiotics: notably the actinomycete-derived benzoquinone ansamycins (e.g. geldanamycin) and certain fungal-derived resorcyclic acid lactones (e.g. radicicol). The molecular interactions made by these antibiotics when bound within the ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90 have served as templates for the development of several synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor drugs. Much attention now focuses on the clinical trials of these drugs. However, because microbes have evolved antibiotics to target Hsp90, it is probable that they often exploit Hsp90 inhibition when interacting with each other and with plants. Fungi known to produce Hsp90 inhibitors include mycoparasitic, as well as plant-pathogenic, endophytic and mycorrhizal species. The Hsp90 chaperone may, therefore, be a prominent target in establishing a number of mycoparasitic (interfungal), fungal pathogen–plant and symbiotic fungus–plant relationships. Furthermore the Hsp90 family proteins of the microbes that produce Hsp90 inhibitor antibiotics are able to reveal how drug resistance can arise by amino acid changes in the highly conserved ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90. PMID:23271830

  7. Structure of Ba-Ti-Al-O glasses produced by aerodynamic levitation and laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Skinner, Lawrie B.; Barnes, Adrian C.; Klysubun, Wantana; Fischer, Henry E.

    2014-09-01

    Ba0.09Al0.18Ti0.12O0.61 glasses have been produced by aerodynamic levitation and laser heating. Neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, molecular dynamics simulation, and reverse Monte Carlo refinement methods have been used to obtain a detailed atomistic structural model of the glass. This model has been used to investigate its atomic coordination and network structure. It is found that the Al atoms are almost exclusively fourfold tetrahedrally coordinated to oxygen atoms. In contrast, the Ti atoms coordinate to oxygen atoms in approximately equal numbers of four- and fivefold coordinated sites with a small number of sixfold sites. The results show the presence of some tetrahedral TiO4 structural motifs although the dominant O-Ti-O bond angle occurs at 90? . It is found that Al/Ti-O network structure shows strong similarities with other oxide glass forming systems although a first sharp diffraction peak is not observed. The results are used to discuss the unusual properties of the Ba-Al-Ti-O glasses produced under different quenching conditions.

  8. A viable process for producing hydrogen synfuel using nuclear fusion heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, T. R.; Brown, L. C.

    Analytical and costing analyses of a thermochemical water splitting plant powered by a tandem mirror fusion reactor are presented. Design criteria indicated directing high quality steam to the chemical plant, where no liquid metal coolants would be used. Minimal pumping distances for high pressure He, multiple barriers between the neutron-activated blanket and the hydrogen product, and modular construction where possible are necessary. A He-Brayton topping cycle, coupled to a steam-Rankine bottoming cycle are selected. Slightly over 1111 MWt and about 720 MWe could be produced by the plant if all low grade waste heat is directed to the Rankine cycle. SO3 is used with water for the splitting process, then recombined. H2 is siphoned off as a fuel and O2 is delivered to a coal reforming plant. A 30 yr plant life is projected, operating at a 70% thermal efficiency for the splitting process and producing H2 at $10-12/GJ. The plant is expected to become economically viable in the year 2030 if debt financing is available at 12.25% per year.

  9. S2A: secure smart household appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuxin Chen; Bo Luo

    2012-01-01

    Security protection is an integral component for smart homes; however, smart appliances security has received little attention in the research community. Household appliances become very vulnerable if we introduce smart functions without proper security protection. In particular, smart access functions enable users to operate devices remotely. Meanwhile, smart devices are are also designed to support residential demand response, i.e. postpone

  10. Form ElectApp13 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

    E-print Network

    Applebaum, David

    /portable appliance test Hairdryer Styling tongs/irons Television (TV's are provided in kitchens at the ApartmentsForm ElectApp13 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES In accordance with the Agreement Terms and Conditions clause that permitted cooking equipment is for use in kitchen/pantries only). Under the Electricity at Work Regulations

  11. Form ElectApp12 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

    E-print Network

    Applebaum, David

    /portable appliance test Hairdryer Styling tongs/irons Television (TV's are provided in kitchens at the ApartmentsForm ElectApp12 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES In accordance with Residence Regulation 15.2 (see Section Two cooking equipment is for use in kitchen/pantries only). Under the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989

  12. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  13. Trismus appliances and indications for use.

    PubMed

    Lund, T W; Cohen, J I

    1993-04-01

    Trismus is a condition that impairs eating, interferes with oral hygiene, restricts access for dental procedures, and may adversely affect speech and facial appearance. The success of treatment depends on recognition of the cause and initiation of appropriate management. Ideally, trismus appliances are used in conjunction with physical therapy and are most effective when the condition is the result of muscle fibrosis or scar tissue that has not yet matured. Trismus appliances act either externally or internally, and the forces they impart can be continuous or intermittent, light or heavy, and elastic or inelastic. Six appliances have been described in the literature. A seventh appliance, a plastic tapered cylinder, is also effective. The tapered cylinder relies on the patient's depressor muscles to separate the jaws, and allows easy appreciation of the progress made. The stretching force applied with this appliance is limited by the strength of the patient's depressor muscles. PMID:8362040

  14. Effects of cervical headgear and pendulum appliance on vertical dimension in growing subjects: a retrospective controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lione, Roberta; Franchi, Lorenzo; Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

    2014-10-14

    Summary OBJECTIVE : To analyze the effects on vertical dentoskeletal dimension produced by cervical headgear (CHG) or Pendulum (P) both followed by full fixed appliances in growing patients with Class II malocclusion. PMID:25316493

  15. GRI's Gas Appliance Technology Center annual report, January 1989-January 1990 (Activity at A. G. A. laboratories)

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, C.A.

    1990-09-01

    The report describes specific codes and standards support work involved in developing test procedures for (1) flame rollout safety switches, (2) combination space/water heating appliances, (3) gas logs, (4) appliance connectors, and (5) griddles. Technology development activities included (1) gas grill and gas logs compatible with the SMART House, (2) water purification, (3) eliminating or reducing gas appliance venting requirements. Product development activities included (1) flame coloring technology for gas fireplaces and logs and (2) combination broiler/griddle. Assessment studies evaluated (1) emission requirements for gas-fired cooling equipment and (2) commercial kitchen ventilation.

  16. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE...D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range...

  17. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE...D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range...

  18. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE...D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range...

  19. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE...D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range...

  20. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Volpe

    2010-01-01

    This report studies the behaviour of the Italian purchasers of built-in appliances taking into consideration: the sales performance for kitchens and built-in appliances, purchasing criteria by major purchasers of built-in appliances, development of brand-name image and customer satisfaction of major built-in appliances purchasers. The study is based on 170 telephone interviews with kitchen furniture manufacturers, built-in appliances wholesalers and specialised

  1. Impact of domestic woodburning appliances on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Impact of domestic woodburning appliances on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1 , Jacques Ribéron2 on the impact of domestic woodburning on indoor air quality (IAQ) is poor whereas use of such heating systems on indoor air quality in industrialised countries is rather poor. Even if the International Agency

  2. Energy-Harvesting Thermoelectric Sensing for Unobtrusive Water and Appliance Metering

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabal

    Energy-Harvesting Thermoelectric Sensing for Unobtrusive Water and Appliance Metering Bradford address these common pitfalls for water and heat metering by developing a small, energy-harvesting sensor Keywords Water-Sensing, Energy Metering, Wireless Sensing, Energy-Harvesting Permission to make digital

  3. Hot water service using high-efficiency gas-fired appliances†

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Moore; N. M. Gibson; G. F. Wright

    1992-01-01

    Smnmary Research on boilers used for heating systems has been extensive but less attention has been paid in the past to hot water appliances. Improved boiler performance, higher insulation of buildings and increased adventitious gains have meant that energy use for the supply of hot water has become more significant. Field and laboratory studies have therefore been carried out to

  4. A study of high-energy ions produced by ICRF heating in LHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Saito; R. Kumazawa; T. Mutoh; T. Seki; T. Watari; T. Yamamoto; Y. Torii; N. Takeuchi; C. Zhang; Y. Zhao; A. Fukuyama; F. Shimpo; G. Nomura; M. Yokota; A. Kato; M. Sasao; M. Isobe; A. V. Krasilnikov; T. Ozaki; M. Osakabe; K. Narihara; Y. Nagayama; S. Inagaki; K. Itoh; T. Ido; S. Morita; K. Ohkubo; M. Sato; S. Kubo; T. Shimozuma; H. Idei; Y. Yoshimura; T. Notake; O. Kaneko; Y. Takeiri; Y. Oka; K. Tsumori; K. Ikeda; A. Komori; H. Yamada; H. Funaba; K. Y. Watanabe; S. Sakakibara; R. Sakamoto; J. Miyazawa; K. Tanaka; B. J. Peterson; N. Ashikawa; S. Murakami; T. Minami; M. Shoji; S. Ohdachi; S. Yamamoto; H. Suzuki; K. Kawahata; M. Emoto; H. Nakanishi; N. Inoue; N. Ohyabu; Y. Nakamura; S. Masuzaki; S. Muto; K. Sato; T. Morisaki; M. Yokoyama; T. Watanabe; M. Goto; I. Yamada; K. Ida; T. Tokuzawa; N. Noda; K. Toi; S. Yamaguchi; K. Akaishi; A. Sagara; K. Nishimura; K. Yamazaki; S. Sudo; Y. Hamada; O. Motojima; M. Fujiwara

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the behaviour of high-energy ions created by ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating on the Large Helical Device (LHD). In the third experimental campaign conducted in 1999, it was found that minority heating has good heating performance, and high-energy particles were observed. In the fourth campaign in 2000, the temporal behaviour of high-energy ions was

  5. NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-print Network

    Hall, Julian

    15000 barrels of oil can be distilled. It costs £0.10 to distill a barrel of oil. Each barrel of crude 1 heating oil or it can be sent through the catalytic cracker (at a cost of £0.15 per barrel). Each dayNATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel

  6. Energy saving technologies for home appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuyoshi, K.

    1982-07-01

    Since the first oil shock in the fall of 1973, there has been a growing demand in the electric industry for the development of energy-saving home electric appliances. The industry is now carrying out the technical development of such energy-saving appliances under the guidance of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. This report reviews the current status of energy-saving technologies for home electric appliances, providing some real examples from the Tokyo Shibaura Electric Company, Ltd. First, the present status of domestic energy consumption and its future trend in Japan is presented. Then, some current technologies for the production of the energy-saving home electric appliances are outlined. Finally, the trend of research and development activities in the industry are discussed.

  7. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hart, George W. (Natick, MA); Kern, Jr., Edward C. (Lincoln, MA); Schweppe, Fred C. (Carlisle, MA)

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each.

  8. State Appliance Standards (released in AEO2009)

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    State appliance standards have existed for decades, starting with Californias enforcement of minimum efficiency requirements for refrigerators and several other products in 1979. In 1987, recognizing that different efficiency standards for the same products in different states could create problems for manufacturers, Congress enacted the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA), which initially covered 12 products. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT92), EPACT2005, and EISA2007 added additional residential and commercial products to the 12 products originally specified under NAECA.

  9. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each. 9 figs.

  10. Development of a carbon-heat hybrid ethylene scrubber for fresh horticultural produce storage purposes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Domingo Martínez-Romero; Fabián Guillén; Salvador Castillo; Pedro Javier Zapata; María Serrano; Daniel Valero

    2009-01-01

    A scrubber to remove ethylene continuously from stored environments was developed. The device comprised a cartridge heater tightly joined to the activated carbon–1% Pd. The application of heat pulses led to an increase in ethylene oxidation and to auto-regeneration of the activated carbon. The efficacy of ethylene removal was higher with the number of heat pulses. Several combinations of exogenous

  11. Control of pore size by metallic fibres in glass matrix composite foams produced by microwave heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Minay; P. Veronesi; V. Cannillo; C. Leonelli; A. R. Boccaccini

    2004-01-01

    The application of microwave radiation as the heating source for the fabrication of glass foams reinforced with metallic fibres has been investigated. A soda-borosilicate glass powder was chosen for the matrix. The metal fibres were Hastelloy X fibres in volume concentration of 0, 2 and 10%. The fibre diameter was 8 ?m and length was 100 ?m. The microwave heating

  12. Heat treatment effects on mechanical behavior of copper-nickel-tin produced via powder metallurgy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Benjamin Caris

    2007-01-01

    Certain spring applications require a material with a combination of high strength, stiffness, and electrical conductivity. An alloy, Cu-15wt%Ni-8wt%Sn, formed via a powder metallurgy process, is one of several copper-based alloys which can be heat treated\\/processed to form a metallic nano-structured alloy with good combinations of yield strength and electrical conductivity. For certain heat treatment conditions, this alloy decomposes spinodally

  13. Design options for energy efficiency improvement of residential appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.

    1986-10-01

    This report presents information needed for the Department of Energy (DOE) appliance standards evaluation effort. The appliances discussed are refrigerator/freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, television sets, kitchen ranges and ovens, clothes washers, humidifiers and dehumidifiers, central air conditioners (including heat pmps), and furnaces. In the original standards analysis, completed in the early 1980's, DOE segregated the basic models of each product type into separate classes to which different energy efficiency standards would apply. As mandated by the National Energy Conservation Act, the classes were differentiated by type of energy used, and capacity or performance-related features which provided utility to the consumer and affected efficiency. The purpose of this report is to identify the changes that have taken place in the products since the early 1980's, suggest possible revisions to product classes, and update the selection of design options for energy efficiency improvement. Product classes are recommended for each of these 13 product types. Design options to improve energy efficiency are described for each of the product types. Options used in foreign products and in the prototype stage of development are included.

  14. GE Appliance Park Louisville, KY Plant Wide Assessment Final Report October 25th, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Chandon Rao; Richard Urschel

    2007-10-25

    Used a team of experts to analyze and model major systems at a large industrial appliance manufacturer. During the data gathering stage, the team specifically looked for baselining the efficiency of the systems as well as developing short term and longer term efficiency projects. Electrical distribution, Compressed air generation and thermal heat recovery for the production facility and front office heating and cooling optimization were all baselined during the study.

  15. Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Birdi, Tannaz J; Brijesh, S; Daswani, Poonam G

    2014-05-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [(3)H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

  16. Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-Lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1986-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  17. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  18. Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Meek, T.T.

    1984-10-10

    A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

  19. Method for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seals by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    Method for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy, and a sealing mixture which comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

  20. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  1. Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

    2013-01-01

    Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3?-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, “Yongcheon” showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas “Somok” had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the “Cheongil” mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

  2. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prosthetic and similar appliances. 17.150...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances....

  3. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prosthetic and similar appliances. 17.150...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances....

  4. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prosthetic and similar appliances. 17.150...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances....

  5. Merchant Shipping: The Merchant Shipping (Fire Appliances) Rules, 1952 

    E-print Network

    Jenkins, Gilmour

    1952-01-01

    These Rules arrange ships into classes, the classification being uniform with that in the Merchant Shipping (Life-Saving Appliances) Rules, 1952 (S.I. 1952/1949). The Rules provide for the fire appliances to be carried in ...

  6. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prosthetic and similar appliances. 17.150...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances....

  7. Facilitating Children's Adjustment to Orthotic and Prosthetic Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrick, Jeff; Fletcher, Donna

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to help teachers understand the nature and use of orthotic and prosthetic appliances for disabled students. Classroom behavior observations are noted so that teachers can help monitor the child's adjustment to the appliance. (CL)

  8. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prosthetic and similar appliances. 17.150...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances....

  9. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...exterior access shall be framed-in or guarded with noncombustible material such that the distance from the appliance to the framing or guarding material is not greater than three inches unless the appliance is installed in compliance with paragraph...

  10. Colostomies and the use of colostomy appliances.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Elaine

    The surgical formation of a colostomy is indicated as part of the treatment of various conditions, primarily colon cancer, requiring the patient (ostomist) to wear a colostomy pouch. Today's stoma appliances bear no resemblance to those worn three or four decades ago when colostomy, ileostomy and urostomy bags were made entirely from rubber. The patient, who would have two to three bags in circulation at a time, would interchange them allowing for the washing and drying of the previous one, thus minimizing odour and potential perishing of the rubber. The design of these appliances was simple, but they were large and bulky and the outlet resembled that of a hot-water bottle stopper or a cap from an old soda bottle that required the insertion of coinage (2p) to open it. This article explores the range of colostomy appliances and management options available to the nurse when caring for patients with a colostomy. PMID:18948854

  11. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  12. Structural modifications during heating of bulk nanocrystalline FeAl produced by high-pressure torsion

    PubMed Central

    Mangler, C.; Gammer, C.; Karnthaler, H.P.; Rentenberger, C.

    2010-01-01

    The deformation-induced nanostructure developed during high-pressure torsion of B2 long-range ordered FeAl is shown to be unstable upon heating. The structural changes were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and microhardness measurements. Heating up to 220 °C leads to the recurrence of the chemical long-range order that is destroyed during deformation. It is shown that the transition to the long-range-ordered phase evolves in the form of small ordered domains homogeneously distributed inside the nanosized grains. At temperatures between 220 and 370 °C recovery of dislocations and antiphase boundary faults cause a reduction in the grain size from 77 to 35 nm. Grain growth occurs at temperatures above 370 °C. The evolution of the strength monitored by microhardness is discussed in the framework of grain-size hardening and hardening by defect recovery. PMID:20953414

  13. Structural modifications during heating of bulk nanocrystalline FeAl produced by high-pressure torsion.

    PubMed

    Mangler, C; Gammer, C; Karnthaler, H P; Rentenberger, C

    2010-10-01

    The deformation-induced nanostructure developed during high-pressure torsion of B2 long-range ordered FeAl is shown to be unstable upon heating. The structural changes were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and microhardness measurements. Heating up to 220 °C leads to the recurrence of the chemical long-range order that is destroyed during deformation. It is shown that the transition to the long-range-ordered phase evolves in the form of small ordered domains homogeneously distributed inside the nanosized grains. At temperatures between 220 and 370 °C recovery of dislocations and antiphase boundary faults cause a reduction in the grain size from 77 to 35 nm. Grain growth occurs at temperatures above 370 °C. The evolution of the strength monitored by microhardness is discussed in the framework of grain-size hardening and hardening by defect recovery. PMID:20953414

  14. Anomalous Heat Produced by Electrolysis of Palladium using a Heavy-Water Electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmund Storms

    Significant heat was generated for about 740 min when a sample of palladium foil was electrolyzed as the cathode in D2O+LiOD. A very stable Seebeck calorimeter is described and used to make the measurements. The source of this anomalous energy is unknown. However, the observed energy and production of unexpected elements based on EDX examination are similar to the behaviors

  15. X-Ray Spectroscopy of Dense Plasmas Produced by Isochoric Heating with Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidmann, K.; Andiel, U.; Pisani, F.; Hakel, P.; Mancini, R. C.; Abdallah, J.; Junkel-Vives, G. C.; Witte, K.

    2004-10-01

    Hot plasma with temperatures up to 500 eV and densities close to solid state have been generated by focusing intense ultrashort laser pulses on flat solid targets. The heating process is attributed to the energetic electrons, which are created during the laser plasma interaction. They propagate deeply into the target and heat it isochorically. The laser was a frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire laser with an energy of 60 mJ and a pulse duration of 150 fs. It was focused on layered plane solid targets with an incidence angle of 45° and p-polarized. The K-shell spectra emitted from thin Al sample layers embedded in solid carbon show features such as line broadening, line shift and strong satellite emission, which are characteristic of dense plasmas. The typical duration of the x-ray emission is a few ps. Al targets covered by a diamond layer show that the depth (expressed through areal density) up to which the target is heated is close to 1 mg/cm2, which corresponds to the range of 20 keV electrons. This means that a considerable fraction of 20 to 25% of the incident laser energy is deposited by the hot electrons in the target.

  16. A Virtual Overlay Network for Integrating Home Appliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuo Nakajima; Daiki Ueno; Eiji Tokunaga; Hiro Ishikawa; Ichiro Satoh

    2002-01-01

    Various home appliances and personal appliances are expected to be connected to the Internet in the near future. However, the conventional IP protocol is not expected to be sufficient for connecting these appliances without protocol translation. Since adding new functionalities to the IP protocol is too generic for most applications, we believe that future networks should be customized according to

  17. Applying power meters for appliance recognition on the electric panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gu-yuan Lin; Shih-chiang Lee; Jane Yung-jen Hsu; Wan-rong Jih

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of appliances states is an import building block for making energy-efficiency schemes and providing energy-saving advice and performing automatic control. Several existing approaches use smart outlets or detectors to acquire the information of individual appliance and recognize the operating state. However, such approaches have to install numerous devices if they want to monitor the states of all appliances. This

  18. Measurement of soil bacterial colony temperatures and isolation of a high heat-producing bacterium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cellular temperatures of microorganisms are considered to be the same as those of their surroundings because the cellular volume is too small to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. However, by forming a colony or a biofilm, microorganisms may be able to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. In this study, we measured the temperatures of bacterial colonies isolated from soils using an infrared imager and investigated the thermogenesis by a bacterium that increases its colony temperature. Results The temperatures of some colonies were higher or lower than that of the surrounding medium. A bacterial isolate with the highest colony temperature was identified as Pseudomonas putida. This bacterial isolate had an increased colony temperature when it grew at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Measurements of heat production using a microcalorimeter showed that the temperature of this extraordinary, microcalorimetrically determined thermogenesis corresponded with the thermographically observed increase in bacterial colony temperature. When investigating the effects of the energy source on this thermal behavior, we found that heat production by this bacterium increased without additional biomass production at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Conclusions We found that heat production by bacteria affected the bacterial colony temperature and that a bacterium identified as Pseudomonas putida could maintain a cellular temperature different from the ambient temperature, particularly at a sub-optimal growth temperature. The bacterial isolate P. putida KT1401 increased its colony temperature by an energy-spilling reaction when the incubation temperature limited its growth. PMID:23497132

  19. Producing regenerated gratings in hydrogen-loaded single mode fiber by heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haihu; Li, Gengmin; Li, Xiaofu; Guo, Huiyong

    2014-06-01

    The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is a passive optical fiber component with the refractive index modulated along the fiber length and has been widely applied in fiber sensing systems. High-temperature stable fiber gratings are promising for uses at high temperatures and attract extensive attention. In this paper, FBGs were inscribed in hydrogen loaded standard single mode fibers with the 248-nm excimer laser, and regenerated gratings were obtained through heat treatment. The shift of the central wavelength of the regenerated FBG had a good linearity with temperature, and the reflectivity of the regenerated FBG could almost keep unchanged at 800 °C.

  20. Enhanced performance of high current discharges in JET produced by ICRF heating during the current rise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bures; V. Bhatnagar; J. P. Christiansen; G. Cottrell; S. Corti; L.-G. Eriksson; T. Hellsten; J. Jacquinot; O. N. J. Jarvis; P. Lallia; P. Lomas; J. O'Rourke; A. Taroni; C. Sack; D. F. H. Start

    1989-01-01

    The performance of high current discharges can be improved by applying central ICRF heating before or shortly after the onset of sawtooth activity in the plasma current rise phase. Long sawtooth-free periods have been obtained which result in a transiently-enhanced discharge performance. High Te(0)=9-10.5 keV with peaked profiles Te(0)\\/(Te)=3-4 were obtained giving values of Ne(0)Te(0) up to 6*1020 (keV m-3).

  1. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 3, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for housekeeping, off-duty activities, and medical appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented. Equipment cleaning, refuse management, garment/linen maintenance, entertainment, physical conditioning, sterilization, and physical monitoring were analyzed.

  2. RESEARCH NOTE: Parameters of plasma produced by an electron cyclotron resonance heating plasma gun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masataka Masuda; Yuji Tanaka; Takayoshi Okuda

    1972-01-01

    Plasma parameters of a plasma produced by a slotted cylindrical microwave cavity are investigated experimentally, and two components of electron temperature are observed. When the neutral gas pressure is decreased, both the temperature of the hot component and the energy density increase. The electron temperature rises at a rate of approximately 2 to 4·5 MeV s?1. This suggests that the

  3. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  4. California Appliance Efficiency Regulations for Manufacturers

    E-print Network

    California Appliance Efficiency Regulations for Manufacturers CEC-400-2012-FS-004-En Updated 3/6/2012 What Manufacturers Need to Know If you manufacture or distribute certain types of new products that use requires To verify that covered products meet the regulations, manufacturers must: · Testthe products using

  5. Appliance Services. Basic Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 25 terminal objectives for a basic appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (2 hours daily) designed to enable the student to be well-grounded in the fundamentals of electricity as well as applied electricity.…

  6. Early treatment with the ALF functional appliance.

    PubMed

    Bronson, James M; Bronson, James Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report five cases of children treated with an interceptive technique utilizing ALF (Advanced Light Force) functional orthodontic appliances in anterior and/or posterior cross bites in primary and early mixed dentition. PMID:24812735

  7. Appliance Services. Intermediate Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 16 terminal objectives for an intermediate appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) covering the areas of refrigeration, maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting of refrigerators and air…

  8. Microwave Cooking Appliance Placement in Residential Kitchens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Becky Love Yust; Wanda W. Olson

    1987-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine recommendations for placement of a microwave cooking appliance in residential kitchens. In the first study, 30 sub jects completed tasks using microwave ovens located at heights typically used in kitchens and evaluated the safety and convenience of the tasks on a five-point rating scale. The ratings at the varied microwave oven heights differed signifi

  9. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karina Garbesi; Peter Chan; Jeffery Greenblatt; Colleen Kantner; Alex Lekov; Stephen Meyers; Gregory Rosenquist; Robert Van Buskirk; Hung-Chia Yang; Louis-Benoit Desroches

    2011-01-01

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known

  10. Isochoric heating of reduced mass targets by ultra-intense laser produced relativistic electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, P; Lee, H J; Offerman, D; Shipton, E; Kemp, A; Kritcher, A L; Doppner, T; Back, C A; Glenzer, S H

    2009-02-04

    We present measurements of the chlorine K-alpha emission from reduced mass targets, irradiated with ultra-high intensity laser pulses. Chlorinated plastic targets with diameters down to 50 micrometers and mass of a few 10{sup -8} g were irradiated with up to 7 J of laser energy focused to intensities of several 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The conversion of laser energy to K-alpha radiation is measured, as well as high resolution spectra that allow observation of line shifts, indicating isochoric heating of the target up to 18 eV. A zero-dimensional 2-temperature equilibration model, combined with electron impact K-shell ionization and post processed spectra from collisional radiative calculations reproduces the observed K-alpha yields and line shifts, and shows the importance of target expansion due to the hot electron pressure.

  11. Transient liquid-crystal technique used to produce high-resolution convective heat-transfer-coefficient maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

    1993-01-01

    In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated for the color isothermal pattern produced. Although the test was run transiently, the heat transfer coefficients are for the steady-state case. The upstream thermal boundary condition was considered to be isothermal. This transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique was used in a transient air tunnel in which a square-inlet, 3-to-1 exit transition duct was placed. The duct was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. The resulting isothermal contours on the duct surfaces were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. The duct surfaces were uniformly heated using two heating systems: the first was an automatic temperature-controlled heater blanket completely surrounding the test duct like an oven, and the second was an internal hot-air loop through the inside of the test duct. The hot-air loop path was confined inside the test duct by insulated heat dams located at the inlet and exit ends of the test duct. A recirculating fan moved hot air into the duct inlet, through the duct, out of the duct exit, through the oven, and back to the duct inlet. The temperature nonuniformity of the test duct model wall was held very small. Test results are reported for two inlet Reynolds numbers of 200,000 and 1,150,000 (based on the square-inlet hydraulic diameter) and two free-stream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 20 percent (using a grid), which is typical of real engine conditions.

  12. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  13. Prosequence switching: an effective strategy to produce biologically active E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin STh.

    PubMed

    Weiglmeier, Philipp R; Berkner, Hanna; Seebahn, Angela; Vogel, Nico; Schreiber, Rainer; Wöhrl, Birgitta M; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Rösch, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections account for the majority of cases of acute secretory diarrhea. The causative agents are enterotoxins secreted by ETEC, among them is the heat-stable enterotoxin, STh. STh is a 19-amino acid peptide containing three disulfide bonds that stimulates fluid secretion in the bowel by binding to the receptor domain of intestinal guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C). Since GC-C agonists have pharmacologic potential for diagnosis and treatment of disorders such as constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C), chronic constipation, and colorectal carcinoma, it is crucial to develop methods for the large-scale production of STh and related peptides. Here, we present a strategy for recombinant expression of STh that relies on the use of the prosequence of human uroguanylin to support proper folding and disulfide bond formation. The chimeric protein CysCys-STh consisting of the propeptide of uroguanylin as N-terminus and the STh peptide as C-terminus was expressed in E. coli, and an efficient purification protocol was developed. Trypsin digestion of this protein released the enterotoxin which could be obtained in high purity. NMR and mass spectrometry confirmed the identity and homogeneity of the toxin, and its biological activity was confirmed by a cell-based in vivo assay. The expression scheme introduced here represents a cost-efficient and scalable way of STh production. PMID:23968404

  14. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LMPF-EA 4106, Rue Saint Dominique, BP 508, 51006, Chalons-en-Champagne, Cedex (France)

    2011-01-17

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  15. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930° C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380° C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  16. Method for producing a secondary lithium cell comprising a heat-sensitive protective mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Ullrich, Matthias (Kelkheim, DE); Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Rabenstein, Heinrich (Frankfurt, DE); Brohm, Thomas (Kelkheim, DE)

    2003-01-01

    A method for producing a secondary lithium cell which has at least one lithium-cycling negative electrode, at least one lithium-intercalating positive electrode, at least one separator disposed between the positive and the negative electrode, and a nonaqueous lithium ion-conducting electrolyte. The method is carried out by the electrodes and/or the separator being coated, by means of electrostatic powder coating, with wax particles which are insoluble in the electrolyte and have a melting temperature of from about 50 to about 150 .degree. C. and a mean particle size of from about 6 to about 20 .mu.m, the amount of wax being between about 0.5 and about 2.5 mg/cm.sup.2 of electrode area.

  17. Concentration of saline produced water from coalbed methane gas wells in a multiple-effect evaporator using waste heat from the gas compressor and compressor drive engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon Y. Sadler; Oommen George

    1995-01-01

    The use of heat of compression from the gas compressor and waste heat from the diesel compressor drive engine in a triple-effect feed forward evaporator was studied as a means of concentrating saline produced water to facilitate its disposal. The saline water, trapped in deeply buried coal seems, must be continuously pumped from coalbed natural gas wells so that the

  18. Comparison of emissions from selected commercial kitchen appliances and food products

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, T.H.; Gerstler, W.D.; Pui, D.Y.H.; Ramsey, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Effluents have been measured from various grease-producing cooking processes in an attempt to quantify the emissions that enter typical commercial kitchen exhaust hoods. The appliances tested include gas and electric versions of single-sided griddles, open-vat deep fat fryers, under-fired broilers, full size convection ovens, and six burner ranges. Food products include hamburger, chicken breast, fries, sausage pizza, and a spaghetti meal. Emission data were obtained for particles, grease vapor, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. Velocity and temperature fields were measured in the plume above each appliance. Results show that a large fraction of the grease emission is typically in vapor form. The broilers emit significantly more particles less than 2.5 {micro}m in size (PM 2.5) than the other appliances tested. Combustion by-products were measured for all gas appliances. Both the gas and electric broilers emitted significant amounts of CO when hamburgers were cooked. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were below detectable limits in all tests.

  19. Characterization of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powders produced by water atomization and powder heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Tongsri, Ruangdaj, E-mail: ruangdt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Yotkaew, Thanyaporn, E-mail: thanyy@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Krataitong, Rungtip, E-mail: rungtipk@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Wila, Pongsak, E-mail: pongsakw@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Sir-on, Autcharaporn, E-mail: autchars@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Muthitamongkol, Pennapa, E-mail: pennapm@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Tosangthum, Nattaya, E-mail: nattayt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    Since the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic shows its importance in industrial applications, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic-containing powders, produced by a powder processing route with a high production rate, were characterized. The route consisted of water atomization of an alloy melt (Cu–61 wt.% Sn) and subsequent heat treatment of the water-atomized powders. Characterization of the water-atomized powders and their heated forms was conducted by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Fine water-atomized powder microstructures consisted of primary hexagonal ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites coexisting with interdendritic ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic. Solidification of fine melt droplets was governed by surface nucleation and growth of the primary hexagonal ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites followed by ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid. In coarse melt droplets, nucleation and growth of primary ?-Cu{sub 3}Sn dendrites were followed by peritectic reaction (?-Cu{sub 3}Sn + liquid ? ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5}) or direct crystallization of ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} phase from the undercooled melt. Finally, the ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid occurred. Heating of the water-atomized powders at different temperatures resulted in microstructural homogenization. The water-atomized powders with mixed phases were transformed to powders with single monoclinic ?-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase. - Highlights: • The Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powder production route was proposed. • Single phase Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} powders could be by water atomization and heating. • Water-atomized Cu–Sn powders contained mixed Cu–Sn phases. • Solidification and heat treatment of water-atomized Cu–Sn powders are explained.

  20. Equipment for the emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal boreholes. [Horizontal vs vertical emplacement

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.D.; Scully, L.W.; Fisk, A.; deBakker, P.; Friant, J.; Anderson, A.

    1983-01-01

    Emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal holes may offer several technical and economic advantages over shallow vertical hole emplacement. Less of the host rock suffers damage as a result of drift construction; the heat from the waste can be isolated from the access drifts for long periods of time; and the amount of rock which must be excavated is much less than in traditional disposal scenarios. One of the major reasons that has been used to reject the long hole concept in the past and adhere to the shallow vertical hole concept is the equipment required to drill the holes and to emplace and retrieve the waste. Such equipment does not currently exist. It clearly is more difficult to drill a 600 to 1000 foot horizontal hole, possibly 3 to 4 feet in diameter, and place a canister of waste at the end of it than to drill a 30 foot vertical hole and lower the waste to the bottom. A liner, for emplacement hole stabilization, appears to be feasible by adapting existing technology for concrete slip forming or jacking in a steel liner. The conceptual design of the equipment to drill long horizontal holes, emplace waste and retrieve waste will be discussed. Various options in concept will be presented as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The operating scenario of the selected concept will be described as well as solutions to potential problems encountered.

  1. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    DOEpatents

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  2. Rapid tooling method for soft customized removable oral appliances.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient's dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

  3. Rapid Tooling Method for Soft Customized Removable Oral Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient’s dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

  4. 78 FR 35894 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ...Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America Corporation (PAPRSA) From the Department...Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America (PAPRSA) seeking an exemption from specified...Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America, meaning that it is the same...

  5. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included...dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water...receivers. Additional appliances and equipment may...

  6. 77 FR 61385 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...Administration [A-570-941] Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the...antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the...description, available in Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from...

  7. 78 FR 63166 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...Administration [C-570-942] Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the...countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (kitchen...Duty Administrative Review: Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from...

  8. 77 FR 72324 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...Administration [C-570-942] Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the...countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the...Republic of China. See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From...

  9. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included...dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water...receivers. Additional appliances and equipment may...

  10. 77 FR 61396 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...Administration [C-570-942] Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the...countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (``kitchen...Countervailing Duty Order: Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From...

  11. 77 FR 12811 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...Administration [A-570-941] Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the...antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the...the Antidumping Duty Order--Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from...

  12. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included...dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water...receivers. Additional appliances and equipment may...

  13. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included...dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water...receivers. Additional appliances and equipment may...

  14. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included...dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water...receivers. Additional appliances and equipment may...

  15. 46 CFR 31.36-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL. 31.36-1 Section...CERTIFICATION Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 31.36-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements—TB/ALL. All lifesaving...

  16. 46 CFR 199.40 - Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 199.40 Section 199.40 Shipping...CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED...approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. (a) Each item of...

  17. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for...aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for...aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  18. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.; Bohac, D.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  19. Life cycle based analysis of demands and emissions for residential water-using appliances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mengshan; Tansel, Berrin

    2012-06-30

    Environmental impacts of energy and water demand and greenhouse gas emissions from three residential water-using appliances were analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach in collaboration of economic input-output model. This study especially focused on indirect consumption and environmental impacts from end-use/demand phase of each appliance. Water-related activities such as water supply, water heating and wastewater treatment were included in the analysis. The results showed that environmental impacts from end-use/demand phase are most significant for the water system, particularly for the energy demand for water heating (73% for clothes washer and 93% for showerheads). Reducing water/hot water consumption during the end-use/demand phase is expected to improve the overall water-related energy burden and water use sustainability. In the analysis of optimal lifespan for appliances, the estimated values (8-21 years) using energy consumption balance approach were found to be lower than that using other methods (10-25 years). This implies that earlier replacement with efficiency models is encouraged to minimize the environmental impacts of the product. PMID:22406847

  20. Therapeutic effects of functional orthodontic appliances on cervical spine posture: a retrospective cephalometric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Interactions between the cervical spine and the stomatognathic system have been discussed in literature. The present study was conducted to investigate whether, and to what extent, orthodontically induced mandibular advancement produces changes in cervical spine posture. Furthermore, possible appliance-specific effects should be distinguished. Material and methods The cephalograms of 64 patients with skeletal class II were analysed before and after mandibular advancement. Linear and angular cephalometric parameters were identified to define the position of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. The total example was divided into two subgroups (comprising 32 individuals each) according to the employed appliance: activator versus bite-jump appliance (BJA). Student's t-test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis. Results Overall, a significant straightening of the cervical spine was observed during the treatment. This conclusion is based on changes of Chamberlain (p?=?0.0055), CVT (p?=?0.0003), OPT (p?Appliance-specific changes were found in the activator subgroup for a number of linear parameters (Chamberlain, McGregor, CVT, OPT, Redlund-Johnell/Petersson). In contrast, only two linear parameters (OPT and Powers ratio) revealed statistically significant changes in the BJA subgroup. Conclusions During skeletal class II treatment the position of upper cervical spine changes. In the activator subgroup the observed effects were more pronounced than those in the BJA subgroup. Further studies including a control group comprised with non-treated class II patients are needed to assess whether these effects may be caused directly by the appliances irrespective of growth. PMID:24661951

  1. Comparison of emissions from selected commercial kitchen appliances and food products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Kuehn; W. D. Gerstler; D. Y. H. Pui; J. W. Ramsey

    1999-01-01

    Effluents have been measured from various grease-producing cooking processes in an attempt to quantify the emissions that enter typical commercial kitchen exhaust hoods. The appliances tested include gas and electric versions of single-sided griddles, open-vat deep fat fryers, under-fired broilers, full size convection ovens, and six burner ranges. Food products include hamburger, chicken breast, fries, sausage pizza, and a spaghetti

  2. Boiler with waste heat recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    A fuel-fired fluid heating appliance, such as a gas-fired boiler is provided for heating a fluid such as water circulating in a central heating system. The boiler includes a flue for discharging the combustion products, e.g. exhaust gas, to atmosphere by way of a heat exchanger incorporated within a portion of the flue external of the boiler housing. The heat

  3. Greenhouse cooling and heat recovery using fine wire heat exchangers in a closed pot plant greenhouse: design of an energy producing greenhouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Bakker; Zwart de H. F; J. B. Campen

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse cooling system with heat storage for completely closed greenhouses has been designed, based on the use of a fine wire heat exchanger. The performance of the fine wire heat exchangers was tested under laboratory conditions and in a small greenhouse compartment. The effects of the system on the environmental conditions (temperature and humidity distribution) in the greenhouse were

  4. The 2D lingual appliance system.

    PubMed

    Cacciafesta, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) lingual bracket system represents a valuable treatment option for adult patients seeking a completely invisible orthodontic appliance. The ease of direct or simplified indirect bonding of 2D lingual brackets in combination with low friction mechanics makes it possible to achieve a good functional and aesthetic occlusion, even in the presence of a severe malocclusion. The use of a self-ligating bracket significantly reduces chair-side time for the orthodontist, and the low-profile bracket design greatly improves patient comfort. PMID:24005953

  5. Smart Meter Deployment Optimization for Efficient Electrical Appliance State Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yongcai

    Smart Meter Deployment Optimization for Efficient Electrical Appliance State Monitoring Xiaohong approaches generally require large-scale smart sensor/meter networks, and thus suffer from the high to optimize the smart meter deployments to track the on/off states of the massive electrical appliances

  6. Brand Loyalty and Marketing Strategy: An Application to Home Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry L. Bayus

    1992-01-01

    In the academic literature, the modelling of brand choice and switching behavior has a long history for frequently purchased packaged goods. Comparable efforts with consumer durable goods, however, are generally absent. This paper presents an application of the brand switching model proposed by Colombo and Morrison (1989) to a set of four major home appliances. Appliance brand loyalty, however, is

  7. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Volpe; Mariano Peluso

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Russia as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Russian market. The research also includes an overview of the Russian kitchen furniture market providing data on production, consumption international trade, distribution and prices. Tables

  8. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Denmark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Denmark as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Danish market. The research also includes an overview of the Danish kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption,

  9. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Volpe; Mariano Peluso

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Spain as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Spanish market. The research also includes an overview of the Spanish kitchen furniture market providing data on kitchen furniture production and consumption, international trade, supply

  10. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Volpe

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in France as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the French market. The research also includes an overview of the French kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption,

  11. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Belgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Belgium as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Belgian market. The research also includes an overview of the Belgian kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption,

  12. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Poland as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Polish market. The research includes an overview of the kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, production, consumption, international

  13. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Hungary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Hungary as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Hungarian market. The research includes an overview of the kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption and international

  14. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Volpe

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Greece as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Greek market. The research also includes an overview of the Greek kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption,

  15. Towards Security Auto-Configuration for Smart Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Seigneur; Christian Damsgaard Jensen; Stephen Farrell; Elizabeth Gray; Yong Chen

    2003-01-01

    Now that smart home appliances are easily plugged into smart home networks, the question of how to simplify security management, especially of access rights, for such appliances arises. The problem is aggravated by the fact that home users cannot be considered as \\

  16. Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances

    DOEpatents

    Cliff, P.L. Jr.

    1996-07-09

    A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The device comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a hinged cover plate attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate, the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position. 15 figs.

  17. Microemulsions as nanoreactors to produce whey protein nanoparticles with enhanced heat stability by sequential enzymatic cross-linking and thermal pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weinong; Zhong, Qixin

    2009-10-14

    Sequential enzymatic cross-linking and heat pretreatments were used in this work to enhance the heat stability of whey protein isolate (WPI). In the first route, WPI was cross-linked by transglutaminase before incorporation in microemulsions for heat pretreatment at 90 degrees C for 20 min. In the second route, WPI was cross-linked by transglutaminase within microemulsions before thermal pretreatment. Particles produced from the two routes were different in dimension and heat stability and were also affected by the ratio of WPI and enzyme and cross-linking duration. At appropriate conditions, for example, 10 h of cross-linking by transglutaminase equivalent to 5% mass of WPI using the first route, a 5% dispersion (pH 6.8 and 100 mM NaCl) of the produced nanoparticles remained clear after heating at 90 degrees C for 20 min. In comparison, nanoparticles produced by thermal pretreatment only in a microemulsion corresponded to a translucent, flowable dispersion, whereas native WPI formed a gel. This novel approach can be used to manufacture heat-stable whey protein ingredients for clear beverage applications. PMID:19807163

  18. On a heating mechanism for cold hydrogen and deuterium atoms produced at the edge of a tokamak plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, J. D.; Chu, C. C.; Hintz, E.

    1999-07-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of the Dicons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> and Hicons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> line profiles emitted within the edge region of a tokamak plasma, have revealed the existence of a cold central component, broadened mainly by the Zeeman effect arising from the confining magnetic field. Evaluation of the Doppler broadening suggests that the cold component is probably produced by electron impact-induced molecular dissociation, dissociative excitation being one of the few mechanisms which can explain the formation of atoms of kinetic energy around 0.2 eV against a background of comparatively hot electrons and ions. Further analysis of these line profiles, observed along different directions in the equatorial plane and under various tokamak discharge conditions, reveals, in addition to this effective `cold temperature', an effective `lukewarm temperature', which we explain in terms of an appreciable collisional heating mechanism. Estimates of the rates for ion-induced dipole and ion-induced quadrupole collisions with excited atoms, yield values of the correct order of magnitude for this observed `lukewarm temperature'. In addition, measurements of Balmer-icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> line profiles, radiated from a gas discharge in a magnetic field of similar magnitude, are analysed and their shapes compared with those from the tokamak plasma.

  19. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  20. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

  1. Advances in Household Appliances- A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S. market. The significance and usefulness of each technology was evaluated in order to prioritize the R&D needs to improve energy efficiency of appliances in view of energy savings, cost, and complexity. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Although significant energy savings may be achieved, one of the major barriers in most cases is high first cost. One way of addressing this issue and promoting the introduction of new technologies is to level the playing field for all manufacturers by establishing Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) which are not cost prohibitive and promoting energy efficient products through incentives to both manufacturers and consumers.

  2. Interceptive therapy with elastodontic appliance: case report

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Summary Aim of this report is to describe a case of a patient in mixed dentition with dento-skeletal class II malocclusion, deep bite, increased overjet and gummy smile. In this kind of clinical case the objectives of treatment were: to correct the dento-skeletal malocclusion, to obtain a correct overbite and overjet, to control the permanent teeth in a good eruption, to improve aesthetical conditions and to maintain clinical results. Treatment plan included just Occlus-o-guide®, the type that is indicated for mixed dentition (G type). The active phase of therapy was conducted in twelve months and the retention time was two years. Then the patient was controlled every three months and she used the appliance nighttime in alternance for one year more. Occlus-o-guide® was the indicated appliance to obtain all the objectives requested to solve the malocclusion. The early therapy with Occlus-o-guide® is easy, short and most of treated cases don’t need a second phase of orthodontic therapy. PMID:22238711

  3. New analysis techniques for estimating impacts of federal appliance efficiency standards

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.

    2003-06-24

    Impacts of U.S. appliance and equipment standards have been described previously. Since 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has updated standards for clothes washers, water heaters, and residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. A revised estimate of the aggregate impacts of all the residential appliance standards in the United States shows that existing standards will reduce residential primary energy consumption and associated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by 89 percent in 2020 compared to the levels expected without any standards. Studies of possible new standards are underway for residential furnaces and boilers, as well as a number of products in the commercial (tertiary) sector, such as distribution transformers and unitary air conditioners. The analysis of standards has evolved in response to critiques and in an attempt to develop more precise estimates of costs and benefits of these regulations. The newer analysis elements include: (1) valuing energy savings by using marginal (rather than average) energy prices specific to an end-use; (2) simulating the impacts of energy efficiency increases over a sample population of consumers to quantify the proportion of households having net benefits or net costs over the life of the appliance; and (3) calculating marginal markups in distribution channels to derive the incremental change in retail prices associated with increased manufacturing costs for improving energy efficiency.

  4. Home network configuring scheme for all electric appliances using ZigBee-based integrated remote controller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Il-kyu Hwang; Dae-sung Lee; Jin-wook Baek

    2009-01-01

    Controlling the electric appliances is the essential technique in the home automation, and wireless communication between the residence gateway and electric appliances is one of the most important parts in the home network system. In these days, most of the electric appliances are controlled by infrared remote controllers. However, it is very difficult to connect most of the electric appliances

  5. ADAPTION AND VALIDATION OF A FIN-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER MODEL FOR TRNSYS USING PRODUCER-SPECIFIC DESIGN SOFTWARE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elimar Frank; Klaus Vajen

    The investigation of solar heating systems with TRNSYS requires proper numerical models and parameters of the individual components. For standard TRNSYS air-to-water heat-exchanger models heat transfer parameters have to be provided. If these are not known, costly experiments are necessary. The paper describes the verification of a TRNSYS type and the adaptation of parameters for a fin- and-tube air to

  6. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220...Systems § 130.220 Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided with...

  7. The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    E-print Network

    Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    " and next at proper home insulation, window coverings, etc. The other electrical appliances in the home use relatively minor amounts of electricity compared to the air conditioning and hot water heating system. This paper will describe the geothermal heat...

  8. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners I Appendix I to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and...

  9. The use of functional appliances in contemporary orthodontic practice.

    PubMed

    DiBiase, A T; Cobourne, M T; Lee, R T

    2015-02-16

    Functional appliances have been used for over 100 years in orthodontics to correct Class II malocclusion. During this time numerous different systems have been developed often accompanied by claims of modification and enhancement of growth. Recent clinical evidence has questioned whether they really have a lasting influence on facial growth, their skeletal effects appearing to be short term. However, despite these findings, the clinical effectiveness of these appliances is acknowledged and they can be very useful in the correction of sagittal arch discrepancies. This article will discuss the clinical use of functional appliances, the underlying evidence for their use and their limitations. PMID:25686429

  10. Using Computer Vision to Access Appliance Displays

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Ladner, Richard E.; Coughlan, James M.

    2014-01-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties accessing a growing array of everyday appliances, needed to perform a variety of daily activities, because they are equipped with electronic displays. We are developing a “Display Reader” smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display, to address this problem. The current prototype analyzes video from the smartphone’s camera, providing real-time feedback to guide the user until a satisfactory image is acquired, based on automatic estimates of image blur and glare. Formative studies were conducted with several blind and visually impaired participants, whose feedback is guiding the development of the user interface. The prototype software has been released as a Free and Open Source (FOSS) project. PMID:25531011

  11. Effects of heat stress on development, quality and survival of Bos indicus and Bos taurus embryos produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Silva, C F; Sartorelli, E S; Castilho, A C S; Satrapa, R A; Puelker, R Z; Razza, E M; Ticianelli, J S; Eduardo, H P; Loureiro, B; Barros, C M

    2013-01-15

    Heat stress is an important cause of poor development and low survival rates in bovine embryos. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that Bos indicus embryos are more resistant to heat stress than are Bos taurus embryos. In experiment 1, Nelore and Jersey embryos from oocyte pick-up-derived oocytes were submitted to heat stress (96 hours post-insemination, 41 °C, 6 hours), developmental ratios were assessed at Day 7 (Day 0 = day of fertilization), and blastocysts were frozen for RNA extraction. Experiment 2 evaluated expression of COX2, CDX2, HSF1, and PLAC8 in previously frozen blastocysts. In experiment 3, Nellore and Angus embryos from oocyte pick-up-derived oocytes were submitted to heat stress (96 hours post-insemination, 41 °C, 12 hours) and transferred to recipients on Day 7. In experiment 4, embryos developed as in experiment 3 were fixed for Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling labeling and total cell counting. In experiment 1, heat stress decreased the percentage of Jersey oocytes that became blastocysts, but had no effect on Nellore embryos (34.6%, 25.0%, 39.5%, and 33.0% for Jersey control, Jersey heat-stressed, Nellore control, and Nellore heat-stressed oocytes, respectively; P < 0.05). In experiment 2, heat stress decreased (P < 0.05) expression of CDX2 and PLAC8, with higher expression of these genes in Nellore embryos than in Jersey embryos. Heat stress also decreased (P < 0.05) expression of COX2 in Jersey embryos, but had no effect on Nellore embryos. Expression of HSF1 was decreased (P < 0.05) by heat stress in both breeds, with a greater effect in Nellore embryos. In experiment 3, heat stress tended (P = 0.1) to decrease the percentage of pregnancies among cows (Day 30 to 35) that received Angus embryos. In experiment 4, heat stress increased (P < 0.05) the percentage of apoptotic blastomeres, but had no breed-specific effects. In addition, Nellore embryos had fewer (P < 0.05) Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling- positive blastomeres than did Angus embryos. We concluded that the detrimental effects of heat stress were dependent upon embryo breed and were more evident in Bos taurus embryos than in Bos indicus embryos. PMID:23154141

  12. Gypsum scale formation on a heated copper plate under natural convection conditions and produced water remediation technologies review

    E-print Network

    Mirhi, Mohamad H. (Mohamad Hussein)

    2013-01-01

    Scaling or crystallization fouling of unwanted salts is one of the most challenging and expensive problems encountered in different applications such as heat exchangers and thermal water treatment technologies. Formation ...

  13. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  14. Waste Home Appliance Disposal and Low Temperature Crushing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masakatsu; Takamura, Yoshiyuki

    From the viewpoint of environmental preservation, considerable interest is being advanced by the recycling of industrial goods such as home appliances. In terms of waste home appliances, there is an urgent need for an improvement in recycling rates for waste, because four items (refrigerators, airconditioners, washing machines and televisions) were designated as primary specified goods under those laws that encourage the use of recycled materials. Under this situation, new merits are being discovered in low temperature crushing technology as an appropriate disposal technology for recycling activities. Here, crushing and separating technology for metal composites, and crushing and sorting technology for plastics will be introduced as examples of low temperature crushing technology developed for waste home appliances that achieves recycling rates of over 90% through recycle system for waste home appliances.

  15. 46 CFR 108.580 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...108.580 Section 108.580 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.580 Personal lifesaving appliances. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 108.665 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...108.665 Section 108.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.665 Appliances for watertight...

  17. 46 CFR 108.597 - Line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...108.597 Section 108.597 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.597 Line-throwing appliance. (a)...

  18. Improving search quality of the Google search appliance

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Huy, M. Eng (Huy Le). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we describe various experiments on the ranking function of the Google Search Appliance to improve search quality. An evolutionary computation framework is implemented and applied to optimize various parameter ...

  19. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external...

  20. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external...

  1. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external...

  2. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...may include smoke and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (life-saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be packed in accordance with § 173.185 and Special Provisions A54 and...

  3. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...which may include smoke and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and Special Provisions...

  4. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...which may include smoke and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and Special Provisions...

  5. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...which may include smoke and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and Special Provisions...

  6. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...appliance and accessories is a device intended for use in orthodontic treatment. The device is affixed to a tooth so that pressure can be exerted on the teeth. This device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material,...

  7. Study on the performance improvements of electrical domestic appliance factory

    E-print Network

    Kasan Hidayat, Andy Darwin

    2007-01-01

    This thesis has two objectives. First, it aims to help TECHSOL electronics domestic appliance measure and analyze its current performance. Secondly, it is aimed to ascertain where a small improvement can result in significant ...

  8. Controlled oxidation of FeCo magnetic nanoparticles to produce faceted FeCo/ferrite nanocomposites for rf heating applications

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    for rf heating applications K. N. Collier,1,2 N. J. Jones,1 K. J. Miller,1 Y. L. Qin,1 D. E. Laughlin,1 for polydisperse FeCo magnetic nanoparticles MNPs synthesized using an induction plasma torch. X-ray diffraction the FeCo core and oxide shell. We show HRTEM images of MNP chaining and compare the rf heating of samples

  9. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel 316L Coatings Produced by Cold Spray for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Mangour, Bandar; Vo, Phuong; Mongrain, Rosaire; Irissou, Eric; Yue, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cold sprayed stainless steel 316L coatings using N2 and He as propellant gases were investigated. Powder and coating characterizations, including coating microhardness, coating porosity, and XRD phase analysis were performed. It was found that heat treatment reduced porosity, improved inter-particle bonding, and increased ductility. XRD results confirmed that no phase transformation occurred during deposition. Significant increase in UTS and ductility was observed for the annealed specimens obtained with nitrogen propellant, whereas little changes were observed for the helium propellant produced specimen.

  10. The Acceptance of Domestic Ambient Intelligence Appliances by Prospective Users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somaya Ben Allouch; Jan A. G. M. van Dijk; Oscar Peters

    2009-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AmI) is a growing interdisciplinary area where the focus is shifted towards users instead of merely\\u000a emphasizing the technological opportunities of AmI. Different methods are employed to understand the adoption of AmI appliances\\u000a by users. However, these are often small-scale methods that are focused on specific subgroups. Large scale quantitative studies\\u000a to understand the adoption of AmI appliances

  11. Lingual arch appliance fabrication in the dental office.

    PubMed

    Ferdianakis, K; Laskou, M; Spyrou, L

    1998-01-01

    Lingual arch is a mandibular fixed bilateral space maintaining appliance. It prevents the first permanent molar from drifting forward and preserves the available space, especially the leeway space in mixed dentition cases. The purpose of the present article is to present a simplified way of lingual arch appliance fabrication in the dental office, which will result in effective space maintenance and time savings for both the patient and the dentist. PMID:9796495

  12. Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2009-11-22

    This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

  13. A fast and conformal heating scheme for producing large thermal lesions using a 2D ultrasound phased array.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Li; Lin, Win-Li; Chen, Yung-Yaw

    2007-02-01

    The treatment conformability and the total treatment time of large tumors are both important issues in ultrasound thermal therapy. Previous heating strategies all show their restrictions in achieving these two issues to satisfactory levels simultaneously. This work theoretically presents a new heating strategy which is capable of both increasing the treatment conformability and shortening the treatment time, when using a 2D ultrasound phased array transducer. To perform this, a set of the multiple-foci patterns (considered the basic heating units) were temporally switched to steer the beam at different focal planes with the lesion length being well-controlled. Then, to conformally cover an irregular target volume, the 2D phased array was laterally shifted by a positioning system to deposit a suitable heating unit to cover a subvolume part. Results demonstrated that the totally treatment time can be largely reduced. The heating rate can be increased up to 0.96 cm3/min compared to the previously reported 0.26 cm3/min. Also, the proposed scheme showed that the tumor regions can be completely treated with the normal tissue damage at satisfactory level. The feasibility of the proposed strategy for irregular tumor treatment was also demonstrated. This study offers useful information in large tumor treatment in ultrasound thermal therapy. PMID:17575725

  14. A Functional Antigen in a Practical Crop: LT-B Producing Maize Protects Mice against Escherichia coli Heat Labile Enterotoxin (LT) and Cholera Toxin (CT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason; Kan Wang

    2002-01-01

    We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

  15. A functional antigen in a practical crop: LT-B producing maize protects mice against Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason

    2002-01-01

    We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

  16. Heat gain testing to energy balance protocol. Final report, August 1995-February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Knappmiller, K.; Schrock, D.

    1997-02-01

    Under sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute, heat gain tests were conducted on gas and electric commercial cooking appliances, applying the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for the Performance of Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Systems, F1704-96. The commercial cooking appliances tested in this program were gas and electric: griddles, ranges, convection ovens, charbroilers, and fryers. These appliances were all tested under a wall canopy hood operating at a single exhaust rate appropriate for the particular cooking appliance.

  17. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  18. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  19. 38 CFR 17.122 - Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished...reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished...authorization. The expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances, or similar...

  20. 38 CFR 17.122 - Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished...reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished...authorization. The expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances, or similar...

  1. 38 CFR 17.122 - Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished...reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished...authorization. The expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances, or similar...

  2. 38 CFR 17.122 - Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished...reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished...authorization. The expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances, or similar...

  3. 38 CFR 17.122 - Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished...reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished...authorization. The expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances, or similar...

  4. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. 231...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. (a...an existing industry safety appliance...standard for new construction of...

  5. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. 231...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. (a...an existing industry safety appliance...standard for new construction of...

  6. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. 231...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. (a...an existing industry safety appliance...standard for new construction of...

  7. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. 231...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. (a...an existing industry safety appliance...standard for new construction of...

  8. 78 FR 78815 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...Administration [A-570-941] Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the...antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the...antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from...

  9. 76 FR 20950 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ...Administration [A-570-941] Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the...administrative review of certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the...Antidumping Review of Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from...

  10. 78 FR 5414 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ...Administration [A-570-941] Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the...antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the...1\\ See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From...

  11. 78 FR 21594 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...Administration [C-570-942] Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the...CVD'') order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the...1\\ See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From...

  12. 77 FR 82 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...Administration [C-570-942] Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the...countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the...December 31, 2009. See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From...

  13. 77 FR 22559 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ...Administration [A-570-941] Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the...antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the...Antidumping Duty Review of Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from...

  14. Project Title: Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Thomas M [Principal Investigator; Erlach, Celeste [Communications Mgr.

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  15. The prospects for incineration of municipal solid waste in Russia in order to produce heat and electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskakov, A. P.

    2014-04-01

    The article presents the results of the low-temperature pyrolysis of the main components of municipal solid waste (MSW): wood, products of wood processing (paper, cardboard, fabrics, etc.), various plastics, rubber, as well as of a representative sample of MSW. A waste-to-energy plant is described, at which municipal solid waste is subjected to the pyrolysis, and then pyrolysis products are incinerated in a slagging-bottom furnace. The paper presents an analysis of the operation of a modern waste-to-energy plant equipped with a wet scrubber, with a high-degree recovery of the heat of exhaust gases by means of a heat pump, and with evaporation cooling of glowing slag in a tank filled with water. Chemical treatment of water circulating in the system makes it possible to convert heavy metals and other hazardous substances into the insoluble form and then to remove them.

  16. High radiogenic heat producing granites and metamorphism—An example from the western Mount Isa inlier, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, Sandra; Sandiford, Mike; Hand, Martin

    1999-08-01

    The origins of metamorphism (˜600 °C and 3 4 kbar) in the western Mount Isa inlier, Australia, remain controversial for a number of reasons. (1) No synmetamorphic intrusive bodies can be recognized; (2) high temperatures appear to be sustained for periods >100 m.y.; and (3) metamorphism follows an extended phase of thermal subsidence. We show that the burial of granite batholiths enriched in radiogenic elements beneath the thick insulating sedimentary succession of the Mount Isa Group (deposited in response to repeated rift-sag cycles) was capable of generating steep upper crustal thermal gradients immediately prior to the Isan orogeny. These gradients are appropriate to peak metamorphic conditions, such that the ensuing Isan orogeny required no significant additional heat input. This result is significant in that it may provide a mechanism for understanding the origins of high-temperature metamorphism in other terranes where the involvement of transient heating is not obvious.

  17. Influence of Heat Treatment on Structure and Charge Capacity of Sol-Gel Produced TiO2 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Orhan; Gökdemir, Fatma P?nar; Keskin, Bahad?r; Kutlu, Kubilay

    Titanium dioxide thin films were synthesized by sol-gel route from titanium isopropoxide (TIP) with acetic acid. Prior to the heat treatment, the films were amorphous phase. Above 400 °C, phase transition took place from amorphous into anatase phase. Electrochromic properties of each phase indicated reversible coloration upon Li+ ion intercalation in cyclic voltammetric measurements. Nevertheless, both charge capacity and energy band gap of films begun to decrease with increase in annealing temperature due to the crystallization.

  18. Evaluation of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of less polar ginsenosides produced from polar ginsenosides by heat-transformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Yang, Xiushi; Yu, Xiaona; Yao, Yang; Ren, Guixing

    2013-12-18

    Ginsenosides are the major active constituents in both white and red American ginseng (AG), and their pharmacological effects on central nervous, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems have been well elucidated. However, the anti-Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) activity of them is still unknown. In this study, 5 ginsenosides enriched fractions were obtained from the total ginsenosides extract of AG roots (TAG) by resin adsorption and heat-transformation. Resin purification decreased the total polyphenol (TP) content in the fractions. However, heat treatment increased the TP content and induced extensive conversion of the polar ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, and Gyp XVII) to less polar compounds (Rg2, Rg3, Rg6/F4, Rs3, and Rg5/Rk1). Only the heat-treated fraction from 65% methanol elution of the HP-20 column (HPHF) showed antibacterial activity against P. acnes (ATCC11827, MIC, 128 ?g/mL; ATCC6919 MIC, 64 ?g/mL), S. epidermidis (MIC, 4100 ?g/mL) and S. aureus (MIC, 15000 ?g/mL). In the anti-inflammatory activity assay, 10 ?g/mL of HPHF significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that less polar ginsenosides enriched fraction HPHF obtained from AG might be useful to develop new types of antibacterial substances and new skin care cosmetics for acne prevention and therapy. PMID:24289140

  19. A test procedure for energetic and performance analysis of cold appliances for the food industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armani, F.; Boscolo, A.

    2013-09-01

    In this article we present a novel approach for the characterization of cold appliances and in particular of refrigerators based on the standard vapour compression cycle with a reciprocating on/off compressor. The test procedure is based on a virtual instrument that perform both the stimulus and the data acquisition on the device under test. Acquired data is elaborated to fit a semi-empirical model based on the energetic balances between thermal and electrical sub systems and the heat exchanged with the environment. This approach results in a simple method to calculate useful parameters of the refrigerator, such as energetic performance, cooling effect and limit values of thermal loads. The test procedure requires only a few temperatures and the electric power consumption to be monitored, resulting in a low impact on the refrigerator. Preliminary tests showed a good estimation of parameters and prediction of energy consumption and heat extraction capacity of the refrigerator under test.

  20. Nonwearable Gaze Tracking System for Controlling Home Appliance

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dongwook

    2014-01-01

    A novel gaze tracking system for controlling home appliances in 3D space is proposed in this study. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, we propose a nonwearable gaze tracking system containing frontal viewing and eye tracking cameras. Second, our system includes three modes: navigation (for moving the wheelchair depending on the direction of gaze movement), selection (for selecting a specific appliance by gaze estimation), and manipulation (for controlling the selected appliance by gazing at the control panel). The modes can be changed by closing eyes during a specific time period or gazing. Third, in the navigation mode, the signal for moving the wheelchair can be triggered according to the direction of gaze movement. Fourth, after a specific home appliance is selected by gazing at it for more than predetermined time period, a control panel with 3 × 2 menu is displayed on laptop computer below the gaze tracking system for manipulation. The user gazes at one of the menu options for a specific time period, which can be manually adjusted according to the user, and the signal for controlling the home appliance can be triggered. The proposed method is shown to have high detection accuracy through a series of experiments. PMID:25298966

  1. The influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on halitosis.

    PubMed

    Zurfluh, Monika A; van Waes, Hubertus J M; Filippi, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Halitosis is a widely spread condition. There are numerous causes. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on the occurrence of halitosis. 55 patients in an orthodontic practice were monitored at three points in time after application of orthodontic appliance (T1: immediately after application, T2: 4 weeks after application, T3: 3 months after application). Monitoring included patient self-evaluation, plaque index, tongue coating index and organoleptic measurement. The subjective parameters taste, dry mouth and breath odor did not show statistical differences. However, with the presence of fixed orthodontic appliances, confidence when performing dental hygiene decreased statistically significantly (p = 0.003). Additionally, the tongue coating index showed a statistically significant difference between T1 and T2 (p = 0.012) as well as T1 and T3 (p ? 0.001). Analogous results were found for organoleptic measurement (T1 and T2 [p = 0.002]; T1 and T3 [p ? 0.001]) and plaque index (T1 and T2/ T3 [p ? 0.001]). Fixed orthodontic appliances lead to a statistically significant increase of the plaque and tongue coating indices. A statistically significant increase was also observed with organoleptic measurement scores. The suspected positive correlation between halitosis and fixed orthodontic appliances was confirmed. Halitosis can be an important indicator of oral health during orthodontic treatment and can serve as a motivating factor for adequate patient oral health care maintenance. PMID:24554561

  2. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally...

  3. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally...

  4. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally...

  5. 76 FR 56126 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...appliances in the development of DOE's energy conservation standards...appliances in the development of DOE's energy conservation standards...Energy Efficiency, Office of Technology Development, Energy Efficiency and...

  6. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction. A petition for special approval of an industry standard for...

  7. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction. A petition for special approval of an industry standard for...

  8. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction. A petition for special approval of an industry standard for...

  9. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction. A petition for special approval of an industry standard for...

  10. 42 CFR 410.36 - Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Services § 410.36 Medical supplies, appliances, and devices...for the following medical supplies, appliances and devices...including colostomy bags and supplies directly related to colostomy...section requires a written physician order before delivery of...

  11. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312...Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with...

  12. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally...

  13. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally...

  14. Developing a New Appliance to Dissipate Mechanical Load on Teeth and Improve Limitation of Vertical Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Satomi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takehito; Iino, Mituyoshi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The principle of leverage to superpose the convex surfaces of two shells was applied to develop a device for treating limitation of mouth opening and called it the "shell-shaped mouth opener" and analyzed pressure on the teeth with the TheraBite® appliance and the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance. Material and Methods To compare the TheraBite® appliance and the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance, pressure on the teeth in the dentition model with both devices was analyzed using the Inastomer® flexible conductive sensor. Results The load was better dispersed to each tooth in the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance in the all quadrants compared to the TheraBite® appliance. Conclusions The present study revealed that the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance which was originally invented in our lab, dissipated the mechanical load on teeth more evenly than the TheraBite® appliance. PMID:24422037

  15. A Texas Study of the Effects of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987

    E-print Network

    Bachmeier, R.

    1987-01-01

    At the present time, no legislated efficiency standards exist in Texas for residential appliances. However, the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) of 1987 passed by the U.S. Senate in February, 1987, sets strict nationwide limits...

  16. Material Characterization of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by a Sustainable Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, Anil; El Mansori, Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Selecting a suitable manufacturing process is one way of achieving sustainability of a product by diminishing energy consumption during its production cycle and improving material efficiency. The article attempts to explore the new processing technology for direct manufacturing of lightweight austempered ductile iron (ADI) casting in a permanent mold. The new processing technology is based on the innovative integrated approach toward casting and heat-treatment process. In this technology, the ductile iron samples obtained using the permanent mold are first austenized immediately after solidification process followed by austempering heat treatment in the fluidized bed and then air cooled at room temperature to obtain ADI material. The influence of austempering time on the microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties, and strain-hardening behavior of ADI was studied. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed to correlate the mechanical properties with microstructural characteristics. It was observed that the mechanical properties of resulting ADI samples were influenced by the microstructural transformations and varied retained austenite volume fractions obtained due to different austempering time. The results indicate that the strain-hardening behavior of the ADI material is influenced by the carbon content of retained austenite.

  17. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The three primary analyses presented in this report are: Nevertheless, it is important to analyze best-on-market products, since data on truly max tech technologies are limited. (1) an analysis of the cross-cutting strategies most promising for reducing appliance and equipment energy use in the U.S.; (2) a macro-analysis of the U.S. energy-saving potential inherent in promising ultra-efficient appliance technologies; and (3) a product-level analysis of the energy-saving potential.

  18. Augmenting Kitchen Appliances with a Shared Context using Knowledge about Daily Events

    E-print Network

    Augmenting Kitchen Appliances with a Shared Context using Knowledge about Daily Events Chia Events, Kitchen. 1. INTRODUCTION Kitchen appliances have so many built-in functions that they can you to succeed at that? This paper presents kitchen appliances that are networked with a series

  19. 46 CFR 133.40 - Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 133.40 Section 133.40 Shipping...approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. (a) Each item of lifesaving...accept a novel lifesaving appliance or arrangement if it provides a level of safety...

  20. A solution for parallel network architectures applied to network defense appliances and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naber, Eric C.; Velez, Paul G.; Johal, Amanpreet S.

    2012-06-01

    Network defense has more technologies available for purchase today than ever before. As the number of threats increase, organizations are deploying multiple defense technologies to defend their networks. For instance, an enterprise network boundary often implements multiple network defense appliances, some with overlapping capabilities (e.g., firewalls, IDS/IPS, DNS Defense). These appliances are applied in a serial fashion to create a chain of network processing specifically designed to drop bad traffic from the network. In these architectures, once a packet is dropped by an appliance subsequent appliances do not process it. This introduces significant limitations; (1) Stateful appliances will maintain an internal state which differs from network reality; (2) The network manager cannot determine, or unit test, how each appliance would have treated each packet; (3) The appliance "votes" cannot be combined to achieve higherlevel functionality. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel, backwards-compatible Parallel Architecture for Network Defense Appliances (PANDA). Our approach allows every appliance to process all network traffic and cast a vote to drop or allow each packet. This "crowd-sourcing" approach allows the network designer to take full advantage of each appliance, understand how each appliance is behaving, and achieve new collaborative appliance behavior.

  1. [Microbial colonization and various cleaning procedures for orthodontic appliances].

    PubMed

    Diedrich, P

    1989-06-01

    The cleaning of removable appliances was analysed in three groups: 1. cleaning with tooth-brush/toothpaste, 2. self-acting cleansing agent, 3. ultrasonic treatment. In the same patient group identical plates were fitted each for one month and cleaned by the different procedures. The microbial population and the cleansing effects were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The findings shows clearly, that the toothbrush alone is unsatisfactory for achieving effective decontamination in the hygiene-critical areas of the plates. In contrast to this cleansing tablets and ultrasonic treatment were more effective in plaque-accumulating areas. None of the cleansing procedures effected complete decontamination of the removable appliances. PMID:2767590

  2. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  3. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2012-04-10

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  4. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  5. An investigation into the vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Conein, Emma; Henshaw, Denis L.

    2005-07-01

    Elliptically polarized magnetic fields induce higher currents in the body compared with their plane polarized counterparts. This investigation examines the degree of vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) in the home, with regard to the adverse health effects reportedly associated with ELF-MFs, for instance childhood leukaemia. Tri-axial measurements of the magnitude and phase of the 0-3000 Hz magnetic fields, produced by 226 domestic mains-fed appliances of 32 different types, were carried out in 16 homes in Worcestershire in the summer of 2004. Magnetic field strengths were low, with average (RMS) values of 0.03 ± 0.02 µT across all residences. In contrast, background field ellipticities were high, on average 47 ± 11%. Microwave and electric ovens produced the highest ellipticities: mean respective values of 21 ± 21% and 21 ± 17% were observed 20 cm away from these appliances. There was a negative correlation between field strength and field polarization, which we attribute to the higher relative field contribution close to each individual (single-phase) appliance. The measurements demonstrate that domestic magnetic fields are extremely complex and cannot simply be characterized by traditional measurements such as time-weighted average or peak exposure levels. We conclude that ellipticity should become a relevant metric for future epidemiological studies of health and ELF-MF exposure. This work is supported by the charity CHILDREN with LEUKAEMIA, registered charity number 298405.

  6. Development of Machine Vision Technology for Railcar Safety Appliance Inspection

    E-print Network

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    to determine the optimal illumination needed for proper functioning of the algorithms. Future work will consist, sill steps, brake steps, ladders, running boards, uncoupling levers, and brake wheels, as well as other appliances are currently regulated under U.S. Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) regulations that specify

  7. Monitoring Massive Appliances by a Minimal Number of Smart Meters

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yongcai

    56 Monitoring Massive Appliances by a Minimal Number of Smart Meters YONGCAI WANG, XIAOHONG HAO. This article presents a framework for deploying a minimal number of smart meters to accurately track the ON of required smart meters is studied by an entropy-based approach, which qualifies the impact of meter

  8. 3C intelligent home appliance control system - Example with refrigerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Liang Hsu; Sheng-Yuan Yang; Wei-Bin Wu

    2010-01-01

    This study is a creative and initial work focused on designing an intelligently automatic detecting and sensor system for home appliances being smartly interactive with mankind with speech in the living space. Since the tide of automation flowed over the industry, manufacturing business, even the living space of mankind resulting from shifting and highly developing of computer technique such as

  9. Deploying Database Appliances in the Cloud Ashraf Aboulnaga

    E-print Network

    Aboulnaga, Ashraf

    of computing clouds is Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) clouds, exemplified by Amazon's Elastic Computing appliances on IaaS clouds and performance tuning and optimization in this environ- ment introduce some (IaaS) clouds. A very prominent example Copyright 0000 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted

  10. Dentoalveolar and skeletal changes associated with the pendulum appliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Bussick; James A. McNamara

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the dentoalveolar and skeletal effects of the pendulum appliance in Class II patients at varying stages of dental development and with varying facial patterns (high, neutral, and low mandibular plane angles). Specifically, the amount and nature of the “distalization” of the maxillary first molars and the reciprocal effects on the anchoring maxillary

  11. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...of a safety appliance be a bolt, rivet, or screw to mean...used solely to provide extra strength or steadiness to the safety...mechanical fastener (i.e. , bolts, rivets, or screws...design or at least twice the strength of a bolted mechanical...

  12. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...of a safety appliance be a bolt, rivet, or screw to mean...used solely to provide extra strength or steadiness to the safety...mechanical fastener (i.e. , bolts, rivets, or screws...design or at least twice the strength of a bolted mechanical...

  13. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...of a safety appliance be a bolt, rivet, or screw to mean...used solely to provide extra strength or steadiness to the safety...mechanical fastener (i.e. , bolts, rivets, or screws...design or at least twice the strength of a bolted mechanical...

  14. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...of a safety appliance be a bolt, rivet, or screw to mean...used solely to provide extra strength or steadiness to the safety...mechanical fastener (i.e. , bolts, rivets, or screws...design or at least twice the strength of a bolted mechanical...

  15. Implicit functionality: dynamic services composition for home networked appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mingkhwan; P. Fergus; O. Abuelmaatti; M. Merabti

    2004-01-01

    The proliferation of networked appliances and the increased complexity associated with their configuration requires considerable effort from specialists and home users alike. Many of the common applications they offer and the sophisticated functions they support could be better utilised to increase performance and ensure simplicity. For example a TV, DVD player and radio have all got output speakers and they

  16. Trade and Industrial Education Course of Study for Appliance Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Frederick G., Ed.

    Designed for use by instructors of appliance repair to help establish a uniform curriculum, this manual presents a basic course of study. Individual instructors can add or delete jobs or lessons to suit their particular teaching situations. Contents include the course philosophy, listing of course objectives and activities to achieve them, plan of…

  17. Major appliances and kitchen furniture market in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Volpe

    2007-01-01

    After a decline during the 1997-2003 period, the market for household appliances is recovering since 2004 and probably will reach again the 1997 level (22 million units) between 2006 and 2007. A large, and growing population of unmarried adults and the generation of baby boomers (born between 1971-1974), used to live in an affluent country, contribute to the consumption of

  18. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Gene; Calvert, King

    This second edition contains teacher and student guides for 14 units of instruction in major appliance repair. Each unit in the teacher edition includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities, answers to assignment sheets, answers to the written test, written test, a unit evaluation form, teacher…

  19. A Reliable Natural Language Interface To Household Appliances

    E-print Network

    Yates, Alexander

    complex feature sets into appliances such as phones, TVs, microwave Permission to make digital or hard't know how to operate it, just as I don't know how to operate my TV, which has features out the wazooty of buttons compared with a personal computer. Thus, standard Graphical User Interface (GUI) techniques

  20. A Reliable Natural Language Interface To Household Appliances

    E-print Network

    Etzioni, Oren

    complex feature sets into appliances such as phones, TVs, microwave Permission to make digital or hard to operate it, just as I don't know how to operate my TV, which has features out the wazooty and requires compared with a personal computer. Thus, standard Graphical User Interface (GUI) techniques

  1. REMOTE CONTROL OF ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES VIA POWER LINE 230V

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Adamek; Pavel Martine; Michaela Barinov

    2009-01-01

    The presented work deals with problems of data transfer via power line 230 V for the purposes of remote control electrical appliances. The devices providing relative communication via power line for a one-family house were designed and assembled. The designed devices, namely the input-output unit, PC interface and the GSM gate, work on a bus principle. The bus is constructed

  2. The use of neutral beam heating to produce high performance fusion plasmas, including the injection of tritium beams into the Joint European Torus (JET)

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, E.; Stork, D.; de Esch, H.P.L. (JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon 0X14 3EA (United Kingdom)); the JET Team

    1993-07-01

    The neutral beam injection (NBI) system of the Joint European Torus (JET) [[ital Plasma] [ital Physics] [ital and] [ital Controlled] [ital Nuclear] [ital Fusion] [ital Research] (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), Vol. 1, p. 11] has proved to be an extremely effective and flexible heating method capable of producing high performance plasmas and performing a wide range of related physics experiments. High fusion performance deuterium plasmas have been obtained in the hot-ion (HI) H-mode regime, using the central particle fueling and ion heating capabilities of the NBI system in low target density plasmas, and in the pellet enhanced plasma (PEP) H-mode regime, where the good central confinement properties of pellet fueled plasmas are exploited by additional heating and fueling as well as the transition to H mode. The HI H-mode configuration was used for the First Tritium Experiment (FTE) in JET in which NBI was used to heat the plasma using 14 D[sup 0] beams and, for the first time, to inject T[sup 0] using the two remaining beams. These plasmas had a peak fusion power of 1.7 MW from deuterium--tritium (D--T) fusion reactions. The capability for injection of a variety of beam species (H[sup 0], D[sup 0], [sup 3]He[sup 0], and [sup 4]He[sup 0]) has allowed the study of confinement variation with atomic mass and the simulation of [alpha]-particle transport. Additionally, the use of the NBI system has permitted an investigation of the plasma behavior near the toroidal [beta] limit over a wide range of toroidal field strengths.

  3. 16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating and... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN...APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...

  4. 16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating and... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN...APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...

  5. 16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating and... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN...APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...

  6. 16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating and... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN...APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...

  7. Thermochronology of high heat-producing crust at Mount Painter, South Australia: Implications for tectonic reactivation of continental interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, Sandra; Dunlap, W. James; Sandiford, Mike; McDougall, Ian

    2002-07-01

    The Mount Painter Region in the Northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia, contains a Mesoproterozoic gneissic complex characterized by extraordinary heat production (~16 ?W m-3), resulting in the development of elevated middle-upper crustal thermal gradients through much of the Paleozoic. Early Paleozoic deformation and metamorphism attained amphibolite facies (>500°C) in the deepest parts of the metamorphic pile (~10-12 km) during the ~500 Ma Cambro-Ordovician Delamerian orogeny. The subsequent thermal history of these rocks is assessed through new K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age measurements on amphiboles and micas and multiple-diffusion-domain thermal modeling of K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar data. The preferred interpretation of these data is that the deepest rocks were at ~500°C until around 430 Ma, requiring average upper crustal thermal regimes of the order of 40°C km-1 for at least 70 million years. At around 430 Ma, and again at 400 Ma, the terrane underwent periods of moderately fast cooling, possibly separated by a period of isothermal residence. Following cooling at 400 Ma, the terrane entered a second period of relative tectonic quiescence remaining essentially isothermal until ~330 Ma. This long residence near the closure temperature of biotite resulted in variable argon loss from biotites in the 400 Ma to 330 Ma interval. Tectonic and thermal stability was terminated by a further period of moderately fast cooling (~4°-8°C Ma-1) in the interval between 330 and 320 Ma. The three cooling episodes at around 430 Ma, 400 Ma, and 330 Ma are interpreted to be the result of exhumation resulting in a combined minimum of 6-7 km of denudation. We attribute this exhumation to the Alice Springs orogeny, a major intraplate tectonothermal event known throughout central Australia but not previously recognized as a significant tectonic event in the Adelaide Fold Belt. These new data provide compelling evidence that thermally modulated variations in lithospheric strength control the distribution of intraplate deformation at the continental scale.

  8. Heat Shock Transcriptional Responses in an MC-Producing Cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii) and Its MC-Deficient Mutant under High Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thi Du Chi; Bernard, Cecile; Ammar, Myriam; Chaouch, Soraya; Comte, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are the most commonly-reported hepatotoxins produced by various cyanobacterial taxa in fresh waters to constitute a potential threat to human and animal health. The biological role of MCs in the producer organisms is not known, and it would be very useful to understand the driving force behind the toxin production. Recent studies have suggested that MCs may have a protective function in cells facing environmental stress. Following this starting premise, we speculate that under adverse conditions the expression of stress-related genes coding for Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp) might be different in an MC-producing strain and its MC-deficient mutant. We therefore used RT-qPCR to compare the expression of 13 hsp genes of an MC-producing strain of Planktothrix agardhii (CYA126/8) and its MC-deficient ?mcyD mutant over different periods of exposure to high light stress (HL). Three reference genes (RGs) were selected from six candidates to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Of these three RGs (rsh, rpoD, and gltA), gltA is used here for the first time as an RG in prokaryotes. Under HL stress, five genes were found to be strongly up-regulated in both strains (htpG, dnaK, hspA, groES, and groEL). Unexpectedly, we found that the MC-producing wild type strain accumulated higher levels of htpG and dnaK transcripts in response to HL stress than the MC-deficient mutant. In addition, a significant increase in the mcyE transcript was detected in the mutant, suggesting that MCs are required under HL conditions. We discuss several possible roles of MCs in the response to HL stress through their possible involvement in the protective mechanisms of the cells. PMID:24023831

  9. Epidemiology and properties of heat-stable enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli serotype O169:H41.

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Y.; Helander, A.; Ogasawara, J.; Moyer, N. P.; Hanaoka, M.; Hase, A.; Yasukawa, A.

    1998-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) serotype O169:H41 organisms have become the most prevalent ETEC in Japan since the first outbreak in 1991. It was assumed that the outbreaks were due to clonal spread of this new ETEC serotype. The relationship of 32 strains isolated from 6 outbreaks were examined for biotype, antibiotic susceptibility, enterotoxigenicity, protein banding pattern, lipopolysaccharide banding pattern, plasmid analysis, and ribotyping. Further, the strains were examined by haemagglutination, surface hydrophobicity, and the ability to adhere to HEp-2 cells. The present study suggests that the outbreaks were caused by multiple clones of STp-producing O169:H41 since they showed differences in ribotype and outer membrane protein banding patterns. The strains did not agglutinate human or bovine red blood cells in a mannose-resistant manner. They adhered to HEp-2 cells in a manner resembling enteroaggregative E. coli. Five strains were examined by dot-blot tests for the colonization factor antigens CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS7, PCFO159, PCFO166 and CFA/III. Although four strains expressed CS6, no structure for CS6 was identified. A strain that the anti-CS6 MAbs did not react with could adhere to HEp-2 cells in mannose resistant manner; thus, it is unlikely that CS6 play an important role in the adhesion to the cells. Electron microscopy studies of the O169:H41 strains suggested that curly fimbriae, a possible new colonization factor, may be playing an important role in the adhesion of the bacteria to HEp-2 cells. In conclusion, outbreaks due to ETEC O169:H41 were caused by multiple clones, and the strains should be examined in detail for a possible new colonization factor. PMID:9747753

  10. Thermal plumes of kitchen appliances: Cooking mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Risto Kosonen; Hannu Koskela; Pekka Saarinen

    2006-01-01

    The main method in the design practice of kitchen ventilation has been the calculation of the airflow rate, which is sufficient to extract the convective heat and contaminants. Undersized airflow rates could lead into indoor air problems and oversized ventilation system increases unnecessary energy consumption and the life-cycle costs of the system. In the most accurate design method, the design

  11. Household appliance usage data. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Davies; R. V. Kelly; A. C. Lewis; C. D. Lovett; T. J. Wang

    1980-01-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) requires the development of test procedures for the measurement of the energy efficiencies and the computation of Estimated Annual Operating Costs (EAOC's) of consumer products covered by the EPCA. These products are refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, television sets, kitchen ranges and ovens, clothes washers,

  12. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  13. A cephalometric comparative study of class II correction with Sabbagh Universal Spring (SUS2) and Forsus FRD appliances

    PubMed Central

    Oztoprak, Mehmet Oguz; Nalbantgil, Didem; Uyanlar, Ayhan; Arun, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this clinical prospective study was to compare the dentofacial changes produced by the Sabbagh Universal Spring (SUS2) and Forsus FRD appliances in late adolescent patients with Class II malocclusion, and quantify them in comparison with an untreated group. Method: The study was carried out on 59 patients with skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion due to retrognatic mandible. Among these, 20 were treated with SUS2, 20 were treated with FRD, and no treatment was done to 19 subjects as the control group. 36 cephalometric landmarks were identified on each lateral cephalometric radiograph. Results: The effects of both appliances were dentoalveolar and no significant vertical and sagittal skeletal effect on maxilla and mandible was achieved. The retrusion and extrusion of the maxillary incisors as well as the protrusion and intrusion of mandibular incisors were found to be statistically significant in both treatment groups. Soft tissue profile improvement was limited in both treatment groups. Conclusions: Both appliances corrected Class II discrepancies through dentoalveolar changes; however lower incisor proclination was more prominent with the Forsus FRD. PMID:22904659

  14. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  15. Household appliance usage data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, A.D.; Kelly, R.V.; Lewis, A.C.; Lovett, C.D.; Wang, T.J.

    1980-03-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) requires the development of test procedures for the measurement of the energy efficiencies and the computation of Estimated Annual Operating Costs (EAOC's) of consumer products covered by the EPCA. These products are refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, television sets, kitchen ranges and ovens, clothes washers, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, central air conditioners and furnaces. The purpose of the report is to provide perspective in selecting usage factors for future study and refinement. The items found to be most in need of refinement were factors bearing on temperature and humidity control and on water heating, both on national and regional bases.

  16. Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

    1993-08-01

    This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

  17. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Yong; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim Sunny, Seong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model. PMID:24899895

  18. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim (Sunny), Seong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model. PMID:24899895

  19. Exploring Information Appliances through Conceptual Design Proposals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Gaver; Heather Martin

    2000-01-01

    ever, the field has been defined largely at a conceptual level, with the space of devices that might populate it little defined either analytically or by example. In order to better understand the range of information appli- ances that might evolve, we developed a large number of conceptual design proposals which we presented in a work- book produced for our

  20. Mechanical Strength and Failure Characteristics of Cast Mg-9 pctAl-1 pctZn Alloys Produced by a Heated-Mold Continuous Casting Process: Tensile Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Shuhei; Ohfuji, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical properties and failure characteristics of a cast Mg alloy (AZ91: Mg-Al8.9-Zn0.6-Mn0.2) produced by a heated-mold continuous casting process (HMC) are investigated. In a modification of the original HMC process, the cooling of the liquid alloy by direct water spray is carried out in an atmosphere of high-purity argon gas. The HMC-AZ91 alloy exhibits excellent mechanical properties (high strength and high ductility) that are about twice as high as those for the same alloy produced by conventional gravity casting. The increased material strength and ductility of the HMC sample are attributed to nanoscale and microscale microstructural characteristics. The fine grains and tiny spherical eutectic structures ( e.g., Mg17Al12 and Al6Mn) distributed randomly in the matrix of the HMC alloy result in resistance to dislocation movement, leading to high tensile strength. Basal slip on (0001) planes in the relatively organized crystal orientation of the HMC alloy, as well as grain boundary sliding through tiny spherical eutectic structures, results in high ductility. Details of the failure mechanism under static loading in the HMC alloy are also discussed using failure models.

  1. Stoma appliances and accessories: getting it right for the patient.

    PubMed

    Burch, Jennie

    2014-09-24

    This article will examine some of the appliances and accessories that can be used to care for a stoma. There are three types of stoma that can be surgically formed and each will be discussed. Furthermore, there will be brief explanations of why stomas might be formed and what the output from each stoma type will be. Complications are associated with stomas, such as sore skin, which is commonly seen within the first few months after the stoma is formed. This important topic is examined and some of the accessories that can be used to treat these issues will be explored. To aid the reader to undertake their own research on the topic, the websites from some of the stoma manufacturers are included. These websites contain more details about appliances, accessories and information for people with a stoma that can be of benefit to nurses too. PMID:25251316

  2. Virtual Application Appliances in Practice: Basic Mechanisms and Overheads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkan Unal; Paul Lu; Cam Macdonell

    2010-01-01

    Virtual application appliances (VAA) (i.e., prebuilt virtual machines (VM) for specific scientific applications) are useful mechanisms to deal with the packaging of complex software systems and heterogeneous software environments (e.g., library version conflicts on different clusters and clouds). As an experience paper, we discuss some basic techniques for creating VAAs (e.g., virtual disk repositories (VDR)) and scripting their execution. As

  3. Cast Haas-type RME appliance: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, Mauro; Fontana, Mattia; Cozzani, Paolo; Bertelli, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in the initial stages of occlusal development has become a routine procedure in orthodontic practice. The increase of the transverse dimensions of the maxilla in the mixed dentition can be carried out by a rapid palatal expander that exploits primary teeth as anchorage to minimize any negative effects on permanent teeth. This case report demonstrates the use of a modified Haas-type RME appliance in a Caucasian girl 7 years 6 months of age with a maxillary transverse deficiency, unilateral crossbite, dental midline deviation, and maxillary anterior dental crowding. The patient was treated with a modified Haas-type RME appliance composed of a six-band metal-cast structure with a partial occlusal covering that was bonded to the primary teeth using glass-ionomer cement. Clinicians see advantages in terms of speed of application and patient compliance by taking a single impression. Stability and retention of the appliance improve thanks to custom-made metal casting and the risks of decementation minimize via the use of glass-ionomer cement. Moreover, the fabrication in inert titanium, hypoallergenic resin, and laser soldering means patients with allergies can use it. The results demonstrate that the expansion carried out on primary teeth is followed by permanent molars and remains stable. PMID:22022696

  4. Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Michie, Preston; Oliver, Terry V.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Eustis, Conrad; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Marek, W.; Munson, Ryan L.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances were installed and monitored for more than a year at residential sites at three locations in Washington and Oregon. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow underfrequency event—an average of one event per day—and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Appliance owners reported that the appliance responses were unnoticed and caused little or no inconvenience for the homes’ occupants.

  5. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-01-25

    This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

  6. Heating performance improvement and field study of the induction cooker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Meng; K. W. E. Cheng; K. W. Chan

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic induction heating is a common technique exploiting high frequency eddy current losses on metallic objects. In the past one to two decades, induction heating has been extended to the catering industry as induction cooker. Currently, the induction cooker draws more and more attentions as one of the popular kitchen appliances. This paper mainly investigates the magnetic field of induction

  7. Smart residential appliances: Will the information superhighway dead end into a dumb house?

    SciTech Connect

    Vishwanath, P.

    1995-07-01

    Growing numbers of electric utilities--in partnership with cable companies, controls vendors, and telecommunications providers--are working to develop and deploy interactive home energy management networks capable of communicating with residential appliances. Appliance manufacturers, however, are moving slowly, if at all, to develop and manufacture products designed to interact with networks in the home. The reasons for this are twofold. First, the appliance industry is not convinced that consumers will be willing to pay for features that require communications capabilities. Second, even if they were, there is no widely accepted industry standard communication protocol to use for these purposes. Retrofit options to link appliances to communications networks are unlikely to provide much more than remote on/off control, thus falling short of the promise of more valuable functions such as remote diagnostics, alarm functions, or other more sophisticated features. Given the slow turnover of appliance stock, however, retrofits will be the only way to achieve significant market penetration any time soon. There are several ways that utilities interested in accelerating the development of smart appliances can elicit cooperation from appliance manufacturers. Cooperative action is needed from utility and appliance industries to ensure that an open and consistent appliance communications interface is developed instead of a multitude of incompatible and proprietary systems.

  8. Development of a new fixed functional appliance for treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion first report.

    PubMed

    Kinzinger, Gero; Ostheimer, Jens; Förster, Frank; Kwandt, Paul B; Reul, Helmut; Diedrich, Peter

    2002-09-01

    Developed under interdisciplinary cooperation, the Functional Mandibular Advancer (FMA) is a new, rigid and fixed appliance for sagittal correction of the intermaxillary jaw relationship in adolescents and young adults. The appliance is non-dependent on patient compliance and is aimed at providing an alternative to the Herbst and MARA appliances. A number of designs, all based on the mechanical principle of the inclined plane combined with guide pins and allowing reactivation, were developed. The version of the appliance providing the best technical advantages was developed to the stage of practical application in patients. PMID:12297967

  9. Eddy current dual packs heater based continuous pipeline fluid heating using soft switching PWM high frequency inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tanaka; M. Kaneda; S. Chandhaket; M. Aubdallah; M. Nakaoka; N. Uchida; T. Ueno

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative prototype of a new conceptual electromagnetic induction eddy-current based fluid heating appliance using voltage-fed quasi resonant zero voltage soft switching PWM high-frequency inverter using IGBTs, which can operate at a constant frequency variable power regulation scheme. The promising simple high-efficient low noise inverter type electromagnetic induction eddy-current based pipeline fluid heating appliance is proposed for

  10. Heights integrated model as instrument for simulation of hydrodynamic, radiation transport, and heat conduction phenomena of laser-produced plasma in EUV applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-01-16

    The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.

  11. Oil Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP) users manual and engineering report

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewski, R.F.

    1996-11-01

    Oil-fired heating appliances have traditionally used conventional chimney venting systems. In more recent times, masonry chimneys have given way to fabricated metal chimneys which have had the advantage of lower installed cost. Even more recently, there has been an effort by the industry to apply power venting technology to oil-fired appliances. These changes in venting technology have been accompanied by ever improving appliance efficiencies. The successful application of these modern, high efficiency oil-fired appliances depends upon the safe and cost effective integration of the heating appliance and the vent system. Unfortunately, due to the complexity inherent in such issues as heat loss, condensation and corrosion the available manual calculations provide only a steady state rather than transient analysis. In addition, these methods are exceedingly cumbersome. While computerized methods have been developed, for the most part they are usually these same steady state calculations placed into a spreadsheet or BASIC program. This report describes the oil heat vent analysis program (OHVAP) for the analysis of ventilation of oil-fired appliances.

  12. 33 CFR 150.506 - When must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? 150.506 Section...DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Emergency and Specialty Equipment ...lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? (a) The operator...inflatable lifejacket, and marine evacuation system at 1-year...

  13. 33 CFR 150.506 - When must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? 150.506 Section...DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Emergency and Specialty Equipment ...lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? (a) The operator...inflatable lifejacket, and marine evacuation system at 1-year...

  14. 33 CFR 150.506 - When must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? 150.506 Section...DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Emergency and Specialty Equipment ...lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? (a) The operator...inflatable lifejacket, and marine evacuation system at 1-year...

  15. 33 CFR 150.506 - When must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? 150.506 Section...DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Emergency and Specialty Equipment ...lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? (a) The operator...inflatable lifejacket, and marine evacuation system at 1-year...

  16. 33 CFR 150.506 - When must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? 150.506 Section...DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Emergency and Specialty Equipment ...lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? (a) The operator...inflatable lifejacket, and marine evacuation system at 1-year...

  17. Automatic water heating, utilizing subbituminous coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. F. Parry; W. S. Landers; J. B. Goodman

    1946-01-01

    A new stoker-fired heater capable of supplying hot water automatically for at least 30 days at a cost of less than $1 a month is described. New water-heating system is a product of several years of intensive Bureau of Mines research in use of low-rank coals in domestic appliances and is designed primarily to utilize subbituminous fuels. Although heating system

  18. Magnetic field exposure from electric appliances and childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; John, E.M.; Kleckner, R.C. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The effect on childhood cancer of prolonged exposure to 60-H magnetic fields from electric appliances was examined using interview data from a recently completed case-control study. Exposures of children aged 0-14 years whose incident cancers were diagnosed between 1976 and 1983 and who resided in the Denver, Colorado, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared with those of controls selected by random digit dialing, matched on age, sex, and telephone exchange area. Parents of 252 cases and 222 controls were interviewed at home about the use of electric appliances by the mother during pregnancy (prenatal exposure) and by the child (postnatal exposure). After adjustment for income, prenatal electric blanket exposure was associated with a small increase in the incidence of childhood cancers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.2) that was more pronounced for leukemia (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.6) and brain cancer (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5). Postnatal exposure to electric blankets was also weakly associated with childhood cancer (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.6-3.4), with a larger but imprecise association with acute lymphocytic leukemia (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.6-6.5). Water beds and bedside electric clocks were unrelated to childhood cancer incidence. Results are limited by nonresponse and imprecision resulting from the rarity of appliance use, especially for subgroups of cases. Nonetheless, electric blankets, one of the principal sources of prolonged magnetic field exposure, were weakly associated with childhood cancer and warrant a more thorough evaluation.

  19. Exposure to metals from orthodontic appliances by hair mineral analysis.

    PubMed

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Zieli?ska, Agnieszka; Michalak, Izabela

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure of patients to metals released from orthodontic appliances in situ. The paper reports the results of biocompatibility studies of orthodontic appliances by an in vivo method using hair sampled from the group of patients (N = 28) and a control group (N = 18). The mean content of metals (Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe) in hair that were hypothesized to be systemically absorbed from stainless steel, was provided. The highest difference between the groups was found for Ni (39% higher level in hair of patients), Mn (18%), Fe (4.1%), Cr (2.5%), as calculated by a new dimensionless metal release coefficient (?). The second coefficient defined in the present work (?) corresponded to the difference in the mean content of elements between the groups. The coefficient was the highest for Fe, subsequently Ni, Mn and Cr. None of the differences was statistically significant. For each group and a given element, ranges between 10th and 90th percentile were determined. The upper value of the range differed the mostly between the groups for Ni (82.5%) showing that stainless steel of orthodontic appliance can be the source of exposure to this element. The difference was also identified for Mn (26.5%). For Cr and Fe, the lower value of the range was elevated. It was noted that 22% of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment had elevated levels of Ni in hair. A correlation matrix between the content of the elements in hair was calculated. Statistically significant correlations were found between Cr and Fe, showing similar sources of exposure. Multiple regression analysis showed the dependence of Ni content (dependent variable) on the level of Co and Mg (synergism) and V (antagonism). PMID:21787724

  20. Modeling operation mode of pellet boilers for residential heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years the consumption of wood pellets as energy source for residential heating lias increased, not only as fuel for stoves, but also for small-scale residential boilers that, produce hot water used for both space heating and domestic hot water. Reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (CO, dust., HC) is an obvious target of wood pellet boiler manufacturers, however they are also quite interested in producing low- maintenance appliances. The need of frequent maintenance turns in higher operating costs and inconvenience for the user, and in lower boiler efficiency and higher emissions also. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical model able to simulate the dynamic behavior of a pellet boiler. The model takes into account many features of real pellet boilers. Furthermore, with this model, it is possible to pay more attention to the influence of the boiler control strategy. Control strategy evaluation is based not only on pellet consumption and on total emissions, but also on critical operating conditions such as start-up and stop or prolonged operation at substantially reduced power level. Results are obtained for a residential heating system based on a wood pellet boiler coupled with a thermal energy storage. Results obtained so far show a weak dependence of performance in terms of fuel consumption and total emissions on control strategy, however some control strategies present some critical issues regarding maintenance frequency.

  1. New energy test procedures for refrigerators and other appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Ernebrant, Stefan; Kawamoto, Kaoru; Wihlborg, Mats

    1999-04-01

    Many innovations in refrigerator design rely on microprocessors, sensors, and algorithms to control automatic defrost, variable speed,and other features. Even though these features strongly influence energy consumption, the major energy test procedures presently test only a refrigerator's mechanical efficiency and ignore the ''software'' aspects. We describe a new test procedure where both ''hardware'' and ''software'' tests are fed into a dynamic simulation model. A wide range of conditions can be tested and simulated. This approach promotes international harmonization because the simulation model can also be programmed to estimate energy use for the ISO, DOE, or JIS test. The approach outlined for refrigerators can also be applied to other appliances.

  2. Simplified feeding appliance for an infant with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Masih, Shaila; Chacko, Reena Annie; Thomas, Abi M; Singh, Namita; Thomas, Rodny; Abraham, Deena

    2014-01-01

    A child born with cleft palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Early surgical treatment may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain of the infant. The case presented here is of a 1-month-old neonate born with cleft palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using pressure molding technique to aid in proper feeding. The patient's weight and health significantly improved after the insertion of obturator. The advantages of this material included being lightweight, moldability, good palatal fit and decreased soft tissue injury. PMID:25231044

  3. Oral appliances for the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SCOTT R. SCHOEM

    2000-01-01

    Oral appliances have been used by dentists for several decades to treat snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Although these devices are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, most have undergone only sparse clinical testing for efficacy and safety. Most otolaryngologists are not well-versed in their applicability as treatment options. This review summarizes the historical development of oral appliances, the

  4. Formal Modeling and Verification of High-Availability Protocol for Network Security Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moonzoo Kim

    2007-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for information society is secure and reliable communication among computing systems. Accordingly, network security appliances become key components of infrastructure, not only as security guardians, but also as reliable network components. Thus, for both fault tolerance and high network throughput, multiple security appliances are often deployed together in a group and managed via High- Availability (HA)

  5. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...a) Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which...ventilation may be used provided the motor is outside the compartment. (b) Compartments in which gas-consuming appliances are...least once every 6 minutes. The motor for the powered ventilation...

  6. A Knowledge-Based Computer Environment for the Conceptual Design of Small Electromechanical Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Tong; Andrew Gomory

    1993-01-01

    A knowledge-based computer environment that supports the concurrent engineering of small electromechanical appliances such as kitchen appliances and lighting is described. The environment integrates and provides active assistance for the following engineering activities: specification acquisition, conceptual design and redesign, and qualitative simulation. The design environment is examined by reviewing the steps in a redesign sequence that transforms a manual juicer

  7. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in the Netherlands as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Dutch market. The research also includes an overview of the Dutch kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture,

  8. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in the Czech Republic as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Czech market. The research includes an overview of the kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption,

  9. In vitro release of nickel and chromium from different types of simulated orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Kerosuo, H; Moe, G; Kleven, E

    1995-01-01

    Five identical samples, each consisting of a fixed appliance, a headgear and a quad-helix for one-half of a dental arch, were immersed in 0.9% sodium chloride for 2 hours, 24 hours and 7 days. A control appliance was subjected to dynamic test conditions in a specially built "oral simulator" under similar test conditions. A significant release of nickel was detected from the quad-helix during the first two hours in static conditions, whereas during the following two periods significantly less nickel was released from the quad-helix than from the other appliances. The fixed appliance with simulated function showed a significantly higher cumulative release of nickel than the similar appliance in static conditions, 44.2 micrograms (SD 22.8) and 17.1 micrograms (SD 3.4). The total amounts of chromium released from the fixed appliance were significantly lower than those of nickel. No difference in the release of chromium was seen between the static and dynamic conditions. The results indicate certain differences in the amount and pattern of nickel release from different stainless steel orthodontic appliances in vitro. The release rate of nickel from dynamically loaded fixed appliances was found to be accelerated compared with that released under static conditions. Caution should be exercised when applying the results to the in vivo situation. PMID:7785801

  10. Orientation, Shop Tools and Equipment; Appliance Repair--Basic: 9023.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Presented as an introduction to appliance repair, the course is intended as an orientation in the duties, responsibilities, and career opportunities of the major appliances service technician. It also introduces the learner to the various types of tools and equipment used in this trade, and provides him an opportunity for instruction and practice…

  11. Burner technology bulletin: control of NO\\/sub x\\/ emissions from residential gas appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Murphy; A. A. Putnam

    1985-01-01

    The bulletin summarizes the status of technology on NOx control for reference by appliance manufacturers. It is intended as a primer for engineering personnel. The bulletin contains information on: the origin of NO and NO2 emissions, typical NO and NO2 emissions from various types of gas appliances, effects of combustion variables on NOx emissions, methods of NOx reduction, test methods

  12. The Demand Reduction Potential of Smart Appliances in U.S. Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-08-14

    The widespread deployment of demand respond (DR) enabled home appliances is expected to have significant reduction in the demand of electricity during peak hours. The work documented in this paper focuses on estimating the energy shift resulting from the installation of DR enabled smart appliances in the U.S. This estimation is based on analyzing the market for smart appliances and calculating the total energy demand that can potentially be shifted by DR control in appliances. Appliance operation is examined by considering their sub components individually to identify their energy consumptions and savings resulting from interrupting and shifting their load, e.g., by delaying the refrigerator defrost cycle. In addition to major residential appliances, residential pool pumps are also included in this study given their energy consumption profiles that make them favorable for DR applications. In the market analysis study documented in this paper, the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) databases are used to examine the expected life of an appliance, the number of appliances installed in homes constructed in 10 year intervals after 1940 and home owner income. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the smart appliances in reducing electrical demand have been drawn and a ranking of appliances in terms of their contribution to load shift is presented. E.g., it was concluded that DR enabled water heaters result in the maximum load shift; whereas, dishwashers have the highest user elasticity and hence the highest potential for load shifting through DR. This work is part of a larger effort to bring novel home energy management concepts and technologies to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak electricity demand, integrate renewables and storage technology, and change homeowner behavior to manage and consume less energy and potentially save consumer energy costs.

  13. 77 FR 25747 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ...Technology, Inc. (``Align'') of Santa Clara, California (now of San Jose, California). 71 FR 7995-96. The complaint alleged violations...notice of investigation named OrthoClear, Inc. of San Francisco, California; OrthoClear...

  14. 78 FR 2282 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ...Technology, Inc. (``Align'') of Santa Clara, California (now of San Jose, California). 71 FR 7995-96. The complaint alleged violations...notice of investigation named OrthoClear, Inc. of San Francisco, California; OrthoClear...

  15. Efficiency of appliance models on the market before and after DOE standards

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen

    2004-06-15

    Energy efficiency standards for appliances mandate that appliance manufacturers not manufacture or import models that have a test energy efficiency below a specified level after the standard effective date. Thus, appliance standards set a floor for energy efficiency. But do they also induce more significant changes in the efficiencies that manufacturers offer after the standard becomes effective? To address this question, we undertook an examination of before-standard and after-standard efficiency of models on the market for three products: (1) Refrigerators (1990, 1993, and 2001 standards); (2) Room air conditioners (1990 and 2000 standards); and (3) Gas furnaces (1992 standard).

  16. [The pendulis appliance: a palatal miniscrew supported molar distalization device].

    PubMed

    Nappée-Miévilly, Magali; Nappée, François-Joseph; Kerbrat, Jean-Baptiste; Goudot, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    The maxillary molar distalization is a valuable therapeutic option in some clinical cases. Its biomechanics is challenging and difficult to obtain. Historically, various devices have been described offering successful solutions to this problem such as the Hilgers Pendulum Appliance (1992) and variants linked to mini screws which recently have shown interesting clinical potential. This article presents a new Pendulum variant using a miniscrew, the "pendulis". It follows the original concept (titanium-molybdenum alloy distalization springs and polymethyl-methacrylate pellet) but dental support is replaced by a single palatal miniscrew (median adults, para-median in children) to which the device is fixed by means of a metal welded cap easily positioned and removable by the practitioner. This allows for better control of the oral hygiene and completely controlled extraoral activation. Fabrication steps are described and instruction of use is illustrated with clinical documentation. PMID:25158749

  17. Oral Appliance Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Kate; Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Tsuda, Hiroko; Marklund, Marie; Gagnadoux, Frederic; Kushida, Clete A.; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Oral appliances (OA) have emerged as an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment. The most commonly used OA reduces upper airway collapse by advancing the mandible (OAm). There is a strong evidence base demonstrating OAm improve OSA in the majority of patients, including some with more severe disease. However OAm are not efficacious for all, with approximately one-third of patients experiencing no therapeutic benefit. OAm are generally well tolerated, although short-term adverse effects during acclimatization are common. Long-term dental changes do occur, but these are for the most part subclinical and do not preclude continued use. Patients often prefer OAm to gold-standard CPAP treatment. Head-to-head trials confirm CPAP is superior in reducing OSA parameters on polysomnography; however, this greater efficacy does not necessarily translate into better health outcomes in clinical practice. Comparable effectiveness of OAm and CPAP has been attributed to higher reported nightly use of OAm, suggesting that inferiority in reducing apneic events may be counteracted by greater treatment adherence. Recently, significant advances in commercially available OAm technologies have been made. Remotely controlled mandibular positioners have the potential to identify treatment responders and the level of therapeutic advancement required in single night titration polysomnography. Objective monitoring of OAm adherence using small embedded temperature sensing data loggers is now available and will enhance clinical practice and research. These technologies will further enhance efficacy and effectiveness of OAm treatment for OSA. Citation: Sutherland K; Vanderveken OM; Tsuda H; Marklund M; Gagnadoux F; Kushida CA; Cistulli PA; on behalf of the ORANGE-Registry. Oral appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea: an update. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(2):215-227. PMID:24533007

  18. Analytical equivalent impedance for a planar circular induction heating system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Acero; R. Alonso; J. M. Burdio; L. A. Barragan; D. Puyal

    2006-01-01

    A set of analytical expressions is derived for the equivalent impedance in a planar circular induction heating system, used for example in home appliances. The induction system consists of an n-turn planar winding loaded by a conductive material. Expressions that describe the frequency dependence of impedance are provided. The influence of load conductivity, load permeability, and geometrical dimensions is also

  19. Study of heat and radiation response of a malignant, melanin-producing cell line derived from C3H 10T1/2 cells transformed in culture by radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Vadasz, J.; Azzam, E.I.

    1986-12-01

    The mouse C3H 10T1/2 cell line was transformed to the malignant state using ionizing radiation. One of the transformed lines (R25) that was isolated, displayed some properties similar to malignant melanoma cells. The cells became dark and pigmented after prolonged time in culture and this cell line produced tumors in C3H mice. The radiation survival curve of R25 had a large shoulder which was also observed for human melanoma cell lines. R25 was more resistant to heating at 45.0 degrees C than the normal cell line. Heating at 45.0 degrees C before irradiation resulted in a reduction of the survival curve shoulder. The heat and radiation sensitivity of R25 did not appear to be related to the melanin content of these cells.

  20. Using heat demand prediction to optimise Virtual Power Plant production capacity

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    - generators, the electricity production is determined by heat demand. In this paper we propose a VPP control distributed electricity generation (micro- generation) is expected. Micro-generators are small appliances that generate electricity (and heat) at the kilowatt level, which allows them to be installed in households

  1. New recommended heat gains for commercial cooking equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R. [Fisher Consultants, Danville, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Radiant heat gain from cooking equipment can significantly impact the air-conditioning load and/or human comfort in a commercial kitchen. This paper presents and discusses updated heat gain data for several types of commercial cooking equipment based on recent testing by gas and electric utility research organizations. The cooking equipment was tested under exhaust-only, wall-canopy hoods. The fundamentals of appliance heat gain are reviewed and the new data are compared with data published in the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 26, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. These updated data are now incorporated in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 28, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. The paper also discusses appliance heat gain with respect to sizing air-conditioning systems for commercial kitchens and presents representative radiant factors that may be used to estimate heat gain from other sizes or types of gas and electric cooking equipment when appliance specific heat gain data are not avoidable.

  2. Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. Special technical report: technical feasibility of combustion heated process for producing aluminum-silicon alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Troup, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    As part of a contract to develop a process for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum-silicon alloys, the technical feasibility of an atmospheric combustion-heated reactor was investigated. Potentially, such a reactor could have lower energy and capital requirements than current processes for producing aluminum and silicon. Reduction reactions were modelled using two chemical equilibrium computer programs which predicted the aluminum recovery in the reduction zone and the carbon rate needed to meet the energy requirements of the process.

  3. CONTEMPORARY CORRELATIONS FOR HEAT AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER IN IRRIGATED PACKED BEDS APPLIED TO THE DESIGN OF COOLING EQUIPMENT FOR HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Thorpe

    If it is to remain fresh, horticultural produce such as fruits and vegetables must be cooled as soon after harvest as possible. An effective way of achieving this is to spray chilled water through beds of the produce, after which the water is treated and re- cycled around the system. Designers need guidelines on the effects of design parameters such

  4. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...calibrated-box method shall be used, as set forth in ARI Standard 1110, Standard for Mechanical Refrigeration Units, of the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. (b) The appliance shall be rated according to the class, or...

  5. 77 FR 64763 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...in this proposed AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd., Maesbury...

  6. 78 FR 9785 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...identified in this AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd, Maesbury Road,...

  7. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  8. Estimation of the Energy and Capacity Savings in Texas from Appliance Efficiency Standards

    E-print Network

    Verdict, M.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation will be to assess the technical potential for energy and capacity savings in Texas by the year 2006 by the statewide adoption of minimum appliance efficiency standards equivalent to those recently adopted...

  9. 46 CFR 108.114 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...108.114 Section 108.114 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 108.114 Appliances for...

  10. 42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only if— (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they are— (1)...

  11. 42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only if— (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they are— (1)...

  12. 42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only if— (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they are— (1)...

  13. 42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only if— (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they are— (1)...

  14. 42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.25 Drugs, biologicals...for drugs and biologicals as posthospital SNF care only if— (1) They represent a...appliances, and equipment as posthospital SNF care only if they are— (1)...

  15. 0 + 0 = 1 : the appliance model of selling software bundled with hardware

    E-print Network

    Hein, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    The business model of selling software bundled with hardware is called the appliance model. As hardware becomes less and less expensive and open source software is being offered for free, the traditional business model of ...

  16. 78 FR 57139 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ...Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Decision and...U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) gives notice...Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America...procedures for determining the energy consumption of residential...to test and rate its hybrid wine...

  17. 21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3030 Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3030 Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories. (a)...

  19. 76 FR 72872 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...Products Required Under the Energy Policy and Conservation...EPCA),\\1\\ requires energy labeling for major household...freezers, dishwashers, water heaters, clothes...

  20. 14 CFR 21.502 - Approval of materials, parts, and appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...PARTS Approval of Engines, Propellers, Materials, Parts, and Appliances...Acceptance of Aircraft Engines, Propellers, and Articles for Import ...Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers. An aircraft engine or...

  1. Heat Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students explore heat transfer and energy efficiency using the context of energy efficient houses. They gain a solid understanding of the three types of heat transfer: radiation, convection and conduction, which are explained in detail and related to the real world. They learn about the many ways solar energy is used as a renewable energy source to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses and operating costs. Students also explore ways in which a device can capitalize on the methods of heat transfer to produce a beneficial result. They are given the tools to calculate the heat transferred between a system and its surroundings.

  2. An Effective Architecture for Automated Appliance Management System Applying Ontology-Based Cloud Discovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Vahid Dastjerdi; Sayed Gholam Hassan Tabatabaei; Rajkumar Buyya

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is a computing paradigm which allows access of computing elements and storages on-demand over the Internet. Virtual Appliances, pre-configured, ready- to-run applications are emerging as a breakthrough technology to solve the complexities of service deployment on Cloud infrastructure. However, an automated approach to deploy required appliances on the most suitable Cloud infrastructure is neglected by previous works which

  3. Oral electrical burns in children-early treatment and appliance fabrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Joseph LeCompte; Barry M. Goldman

    1982-01-01

    A case report of an electrical burn oF the lips in a 22-month-old child is presented. The principles oF early medical and dental treatment and the sequence of appliance Fabrication are detailed. The appliance Fabrication utilized in this case is unique because it is an intraoral treatment approach to a commissural burn in a child that had not yet erupted

  4. Share of Energy Used by Appliances and Consumer Electronics Increases in U.S. Homes

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the share of residential electricity used by appliances and electronics in U.S. homes has nearly doubled from 17% to 3% , growing from 1.77 quadrillion Btu (quads) to 3.25 quads. This rise has occurred while federal energy efficiency standards were enacted on every major appliance, overall household energy consumption actually decreased from 10.58 quads to 10.55 quads, and energy use per household fell 31%.

  5. Crystal structure and nanotopographical features on the surface of heat-treated and anodized porous titanium biomaterials produced using selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin Yavari, S.; Wauthle, R.; Böttger, A. J.; Schrooten, J.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Porous titanium biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting are considered promising materials for orthopedic applications where the biomaterial needs to mimic the properties of bone. Despite their appropriate mechanical properties and the ample pore space they provide for bone ingrowth and osseointegration, porous titanium structures have an intrinsically bioinert surface and need to be subjected to surface bio-functionalizing procedures to enhance their in vivo performance. In this study, we used a specific anodizing process to build a hierarchical oxide layer on the surface of porous titanium structures made by selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V ELI powder. The hierarchical structure included both nanotopographical features (nanotubes) and micro-features (micropits). After anodizing, the biomaterial was heat treated in Argon at different temperatures ranging between 400 and 600 °C for either 1 or 2 h to improve its bioactivity. The effects of applied heat treatment on the crystal structure of TiO2 nanotubes and the nanotopographical features of the surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the transition from the initial crystal structure, i.e. anatase, to rutile occurs between 500 and 600 °C and that after 2 h of heat treatment at 600 °C the crystal structure is predominantly rutile. The nanotopographical features of the surface were found to be largely unchanged for heat treatments carried out at 500 °C or below, whereas they were partially or largely disrupted after heat treatment at 600 °C. The possible implications of these findings for the bioactivity of porous titanium structures are discussed.

  6. TF-XRD examination of surface-reactive TiO 2 coatings produced by heat treatment and CO 2 laser treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niko Moritz; Sami Areva; Joop Wolke; Timo Peltola

    2005-01-01

    When surface-reactive (bioactive) coatings are applied to medical implants by means of CO2 laser processing, the bioactivity of the surface of the implant can be locally modified to match the properties of the surrounding tissues to provide a firm fixation of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the heat treated TiO2 coatings with the laser-treated TiO2

  7. Attenuation of allergy to ovomucoid in pigs by neonatal treatment with heat-killed Escherichia coli or E. coli producing porcine IFN-gamma.

    PubMed

    Rupa, Prithy; Schmied, Julie; Lai, Serene; Wilkie, Bruce N

    2009-11-15

    Food allergy is epidemic and prompts investigation to reduce allergic predisposition. It was hypothesized that heat-killed Escherichia coli injected intramuscularly (im) with or without interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), reduces neonatal susceptibility to experimental egg allergy. Two litters of Yorkshire pigs were assigned to three intramuscular treatment groups (four/group): control (PBS), heat-killed E. coli with or without IFN-gamma-expressing plasmid. Pigs were sensitized to ovomucoid (Ovm) by intraperitoneal injection with cholera toxin. To assess induction of allergy, pigs were fed egg white in yoghurt and assigned scores for allergic signs. Significantly fewer pigs developed allergy and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in E. coli and E. coli+IFN-gamma vs control groups. E. coli-treated pigs also had significantly lower frequency of mean clinical scores. E. coli and E. coli+IFN-gamma groups did not differ. Serum antibody associated with IgG (H & L), IgG(1), IgG(2) or IgE all correlated but did not differ by treatment groups. Thus, treatment of neonatal pigs with heat-killed E. coli by im injection reduced susceptibility to allergic sensitization with Ovm. Inclusion of the type-1 cytokine, IFN-gamma, had no additional effect. Results indicate a method for prophylaxis of allergy and suggest support for the "hygiene hypothesis". PMID:19833393

  8. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 1, appendix A: Bibliography. [manned space shuttle orbiter environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A review of crew appliance related literature was made to provide background engineering information for development of conceptual appliance systems for the shuttle orbiter and the modular space station. From this review, a file containing abstracts of 299 appliance-related documents coded according to subject was developed along with a computerized bibliography of 682 references. Trade studies were conducted using information from these references to determine the optimum concepts to satisfy the shuttle and space station mission requirements. An appliance system was devised for each vehicle which has minimum impact to the respective environmental control system with the smallest possible weight, volume, and electrical penalty. Engineering parameters for each appliance concept considered are presented along with the total thermal and electrical loads and weight and volume penalties for each of the optimized appliance systems.

  9. Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo Guimarães, Maria De Lourdes; Hermont, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA) on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents. PMID:25568596

  10. The use of solar simulation systems for producing artificial global radiation for the purpose of determining the heat load of rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalt, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    Certain climatic tests which require solar and sky radiation were carried out in the laboratory by using simulated global radiation. The advantages of such a method of measurement and the possibilities and limitations resulting from the simulation of global radiation are described. Experiments concerning the thermal load in rooms were conducted in order to test the procedure. In particular, the heat gain through a window with sunshade is discussed, a venetian blind between the panes of a double-glazed window being used in most cases.

  11. Controlled, rapid uprighting of molars: a surprisingly simple solution the pivot arm appliance.

    PubMed

    Warise, T R; Galella, S A

    2000-01-01

    In orthodontic cases where the regional anatomy provides limited room for eruption, there is etiologically a higher occurrence of tipped/impacted second molars. Although second molar extraction with third molar replacement is a useful option, the "Pivot Arm Appliance" encourages the uprighting of the second molar as a preferred treatment. The most unique and important attribute of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" is the rotating tube. In cases of access limitation, the disto-occlusal surface of the molar presents as one area that is accessible. Other features of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" include: The position of the rotator tube delivers optimal rotational force through the pivoting action of the tube/arm complex. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" takes advantage of the efficiency and simplicity of a Class I lever system. The anatomical fulcrum being the dense cortical bone located anterior to the ascending ramus. The vertical spring system is compact, reliable and delivers gentle controlled force in rotational direction. The lingual location of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not hinder the function of the tongue, impinge on the soft tissue or interfere with normal masticatory function. The ease of placement of the rotator tube and subsequent insertion of the spring. It is well to note the uprighting appliance provides a very useful and practical approach to the unique problem of severely tipped second molars with limited buccal access. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not function only in these situations but can be used in all cases of second molar uprighting of a moderate to severe nature. PMID:12455424

  12. Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, D.C.; Congleton, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

  13. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

    2011-05-06

    This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

  14. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  15. CFD simulation of Electrical Commercial Kitchens with Moving Boundary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryohei Yoshida

    The ventilation rate in electrical commercial kitchens can be lower than that in gas kitchens since the electrical cooking appliance does not produce combustion gases. However, since electrical cooking appliance generates less heat than gas appliance does, and air velocity of thermal plume above electrical cooking appliance is low, the plume is easily disturbed by ambient flow such as air

  16. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Arman, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  17. DNA Damage in Oral Mucosa Cells of Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Heravi, Farzin; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Merati, Mohsen; Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Dadkhah, Ezzat; Ahrari, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The release of toxic metal ions from orthodontic alloys has induced concerns regarding the biocompatibility of fixed appliances. This study investigated the genotoxic effect of metal appliances in a sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The study included twenty-five healthy individuals requiring orthodontic therapy in both jaws. The patients were treated by stainless steel orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium or stainless steel arch wires. The oral mucosa cells were gathered just before the appliance placement and 9 months later. The cells were centrifuged, fixed and dropped onto slides. After staining, the micronucleus (MN) assay was used to determine genome alteration. The data were analyzed by paired sample t-test. Results: The mean micronuclei frequency in the buccal mucosa was 10.6 ± 5.7 per 1000 cells before the appliance placement and 9.2 ± 6.37 per 1000 cells 9 months later. No significant difference was found in the MN count before and 9 months after therapy (p=0.336). Conclusion: Under the conditions used in this study, application of fixed orthodontic appliances did not expose healthy individuals to increased risk of DNA damage in oral mucosa cells. PMID:24910659

  18. Material World: Forecasting Household Appliance Ownership in a Growing Global Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2009-03-23

    Over the past years the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed an econometric model that predicts appliance ownership at the household level based on macroeconomic variables such as household income (corrected for purchase power parity), electrification, urbanization and climate variables. Hundreds of data points from around the world were collected in order to understand trends in acquisition of new appliances by households, especially in developing countries. The appliances covered by this model are refrigerators, lighting fixtures, air conditioners, washing machines and televisions. The approach followed allows the modeler to construct a bottom-up analysis based at the end use and the household level. It captures the appliance uptake and the saturation effect which will affect the energy demand growth in the residential sector. With this approach, the modeler can also account for stock changes in technology and efficiency as a function of time. This serves two important functions with regard to evaluation of the impact of energy efficiency policies. First, it provides insight into which end uses will be responsible for the largest share of demand growth, and therefore should be policy priorities. Second, it provides a characterization of the rate at which policies affecting new equipment penetrate the appliance stock. Over the past 3 years, this method has been used to support the development of energy demand forecasts at the country, region or global level.

  19. Supervised start system for microprocessor based appliance controls

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, D.L.; Kadwell, B.J.

    1986-12-09

    A supervisory start system is described for an appliance control that includes a microprocessor, manually actuatable keyboard switch means, and first and second relay means; the microprocessor including first, second and third input means and first, second and third output means and being conditioned to generate control signals at the output means upon receipt of electrical signals at the input means; the supervisory start circuit comprising, in combination, first, second and third transistors each having a base, an emitter and a collector. The first transistor means controls energization of the first relay means and is controlled by the manually actuatable switch means; the manually actuatable switch means being electrically connected to the first output means of the microprocessor and the base of the first transistor; the base of the second transistor being connected to the second output means of the microprocessor, the emitter of the second transistor being connected to a source of potential, the collector of the second transistor being connected to the emitter of the first transistor; the collector of the first transistor being connected to the first relay means; the second transistor being operable to connect the emitter of the first transistor to the source of potential when a signal from the second output means of the microprocessor is applied to the base of the second transistor; the microprocessor being conditioned to emit a signal at the second output means upon receipt of a signal at the first input means; means for latching the first transistor in a conducting condition upon being energized; and means for applying an electrical signal to the second input means when the first transistor means is in a conducting condition.

  20. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  1. Estimation of Operating Condition of Appliances Using Circuit Current Data on Electric Distribution Boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshie

    The Energy management systems (EMS) on demand sides are expected as a method to enhance the capability of supply and demand balancing of a power system under the anticipated penetration of renewable energy generation such as Photovoltaics (PV). Elucidation of energy consumption structure in a building is one of important elements for realization of EMS and contributes to the extraction of potential energy saving. In this paper, we propose the estimation method of operating condition of household appliances using circuit current data on an electric distribution board. Circuit current data are broken down by their shape using a self-organization map method and aggregated by appliance based on customers' information of appliance possessed. Proposed method is verified using residential energy consumption measurement survey data.

  2. Effects of magnetic field of power lines and household appliances on human and animals and its mitigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ali; A. R. Memari

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses effects of magnetic field on human being associated with household appliances and possible relationship between health hazard and exposure to residential appliances will be thoroughly discussed. Occupational and non-occupational exposure to magnetic field will also be studied. The effect of high voltage transmission line magnetic field exposure on human will also be thoroughly investigated. Finally a mathematical

  3. Suggested Curriculum Guide for Developing a Program in Appliance Service and Repair. Bulletin No. 48-174.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    The outline curriculum guide has been developed to assist in planning, developing, and instructing a program in appliance service and repair. The material consists of a unit outline and suggested exercieses and assignments for 17 areas: shop mathematics, communication skills, safety, orientation to appliance service and repair, blueprint reading,…

  4. A crossover design study to evaluate the effectiveness of appliance inspection and servicing for lowering indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Colome; I. H. Billick; P. E. Baker; S. A. Beals; S. A. Rubio; S. J. Cunningham; A. L. Wilson

    1988-01-01

    Some researchers have suggested that natural gas appliances are significant contributors to indoor air pollution. Indoor unvented combustion appliances, such as gas-fired ranges, unvented space heaters, and portable kerosene space heaters, have been associated with a wide variety of pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NOâ), sulfur dioxide (SOâ), formaldehyde (HCHO), and respirable particles. Previous indoor

  5. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak-Load Shifting and Spinning Reserves Cost\\/Benefit Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chellury Sastry; Robert G. Pratt; Viraj Srivastava; Shun Li

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost\\/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility\\/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production

  6. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  7. Low level laser intensity improves propulsive appliance effects on condylar cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Augusto C. R.; dos Santos, Fernanda C. A.; Capeletti, Lucas R.; Galdino, Marcos V. B.; Araújo, Renan V.; Marques, Mara R.

    2012-01-01

    Mandibular propulsive appliance (MPA) stimulates cell proliferation and gene expression on mandible condylar cartilage (Marques et al., 2008). However, its association with low level laser therapy (LLLT) is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of LLLT associated to MPA on mandibular condyle. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I received any treatment. Group II was bilaterally irradiated on temporomandibular joint with 10 J/cm2 low level laser (780nm, 40mW and 10s) on alternate days. Group III used the propulsive appliance for ten hours daily and Group IV used the appliance daily and was irradiated on alternate days. After 15 days the animals were killed by lethal doses of anesthetics. The condyles were fixed in Methacarn solution and decalcified in 4.13% EDTA solution for 30 days. Seriate saggital 5 ?m-thick sections were stained by the hematoxilin-eosin method. Morphological and morphometric analyses were performed to measure the length and the height of the mandibular condyle, the thickness of the condilar cartilage and the bone mass. Results were expressed as mean +/- standard deviation (one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post-test.) The appliance increased all measures compared to the control group, except bone mass. Alone, LLLT had no effects on all measures, however, the association of the appliance with the LLLT increased condylar cartilage and bone mass significantly compared to the others groups. These results suggest that LLLT improves the effects of mandibular propulsive appliance in the condylar cartilage growth and formation of bone mass.

  8. Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-04-29

    The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

  9. Effect of physiologically relevant heat shock on development, apoptosis and expression of some genes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yadav, A; Singh, K P; Singh, M K; Saini, N; Palta, P; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Chauhan, M S

    2013-10-01

    For investigating the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock, buffalo oocytes/embryos were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or were exposed to 39.5°C (Group II) or 40.5°C (Group III) for 2 h once every day throughout in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC). Percentage of oocytes that developed to 8-cell, 16-cell or blastocyst stage was lower (p < 0.05) and the number of apoptotic nuclei was higher (p < 0.05) for Group III > Group II > controls. At both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages, relative mRNA abundance of stress-related genes HSP 70.1 and HSP 70.2 and pro-apoptotic genes CASPASE-3, BID and BAX was higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls with the exception of stress-related gene HSF1. Expression level of anti-apoptotic genes BCL-XL and MCL-1 was also higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls at both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages. Among the genes related to embryonic development, at 8-16-cell stage, the expression level of GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group III than that in controls, whereas that of GLUT1, ZAR1 and BMP15 was not significantly different among the three groups. At the blastocyst stage, relative mRNA abundance of GLUT1 and GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group II than that in controls, whereas that of ZAR-1 and BMP15 was not affected. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure of buffalo oocytes and embryos to elevated temperatures for duration of time that is physiologically relevant severely compromises their developmental competence, increases apoptosis and affects stress-, apoptosis- and development-related genes. PMID:23581430

  10. A High-Sensitivity Hydraulic Load Cell for Small Kitchen Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Pa?nik, Roman; Novak, Franc

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a hydraulic load cell made from hydroformed metallic bellows. The load cell was designed for a small kitchen appliance with the weighing function integrated into the composite control and protection of the appliance. It is a simple, low-cost solution with small dimensions and represents an alternative to the existing hydraulic load cells in industrial use. A good non-linearity and a small hysteresis were achieved. The influence of temperature leads to an error of 7.5%, which can be compensated for by software to meet the requirements of the target application. PMID:22163665

  11. Operations manual for the patient assist device. [to handle electrical appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Quadriplegic patients and multiple amputee patients are almost totally dependent on nursing personnel for any activities or interests in which they participate. A patient assist device is reported which provides patient control over electrical devices in his environment. The patient operates three switches to acquire control over a desired electrical appliance. The type switches employed are chosen to conform to patient capabilities, even when such capabilities are as limited as eye or head movements. The switch operations are sensed and converted into command signals by the patient assist device to control ten electrical appliances simulataneously and independently.

  12. Modified quad helix appliance for thumb sucking and cross bite correction

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, C; Sandeep, V; Hanumanth Rao, C H; Uloopi, K S; Kumar, A Siva

    2013-01-01

    Digit sucking habit is a learned pattern of behavior commonly seen in children of preschool age. Prolonged digit sucking beyond the preschool age, lead to the development of malocclusion such as anterior open bite, maxillary constriction and posterior crossbite. Treatment strategies include interception of habit and correction of the malocclusion. The present case report describes a modified quad helix appliance used successfully in a 9-year-old child to intercept thumb sucking habit and simultaneous correction of posterior crossbite. The appliance has the advantage of easy fabrication, being versatile and more patients compliant. PMID:24403802

  13. A modified over-tie for the ligation of Incognito™ lingual fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Peter N

    2013-09-01

    The Incognito lingual appliance has a ribbon-wise slot with vertically inserted wires. Control of tip can be problematic with this appliance and the conventional method to overcome this is to achieve full wire engagement via the use of power-ties. Although effective, these can be very difficult to place and also create very high friction. A method of ligation is described which consists of a modified elastic double over-tie. This is easily placed and very effective at controlling tip in Incognito brackets using a variety of arch wires. This method creates less friction than the power-tie. PMID:24009324

  14. A high-sensitivity hydraulic load cell for small kitchen appliances.

    PubMed

    Pa?nik, Roman; Novak, Franc

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a hydraulic load cell made from hydroformed metallic bellows. The load cell was designed for a small kitchen appliance with the weighing function integrated into the composite control and protection of the appliance. It is a simple, low-cost solution with small dimensions and represents an alternative to the existing hydraulic load cells in industrial use. A good non-linearity and a small hysteresis were achieved. The influence of temperature leads to an error of 7.5%, which can be compensated for by software to meet the requirements of the target application. PMID:22163665

  15. Upper molar distalization on palatal miniscrews: an easy to manage palatal appliance.

    PubMed

    Huanca Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas; Piepoli, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    Upper molar distalization supported by miniscrews has become increasingly popular in the last years. A detailed clinical and lab procedure for the realization of a distalization appliance (fast back or distal jet) connected to miniscrews inserted in the anterior region of the palate is presented. A case report illustrates the use of a fast back appliance supported by miniscrews to correct the mesial shift of the molars and of the premolars as a consequence of an early loss of the maxillary deciduous canines. PMID:22583590

  16. Influence of Host Interleukin-10 Polymorphisms on Development of Traveler's Diarrhea Due to Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Travelers from the United States Who Are Visiting Mexico?

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Jose; DuPont, Herbert L.; Lee, Stephanie A.; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Paredes, Mercedes; Mohamed, Jamal A.; Armitige, Lisa Y.; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Okhuysen, Pablo C.

    2008-01-01

    Up to 60% of U.S. visitors to Mexico develop traveler's diarrhea (TD), mostly due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins. Distinct single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter have been associated with high, intermediate, or low production of IL-10. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the association of SNPs in the IL-10 promoter and the occurrence of TD in ETEC LT-exposed travelers. Sera from U.S. travelers to Mexico collected on arrival and departure were studied for ETEC LT seroconversion by using cholera toxin as the antigen. Pyrosequencing was performed to genotype IL-10 SNPs. Stools from subjects who developed diarrhea were also studied for other enteropathogens. One hundred twenty-one of 569 (21.3%) travelers seroconverted to ETEC LT, and among them 75 (62%) developed diarrhea. Symptomatic seroconversion was more commonly seen in subjects who carried a genotype producing high levels of IL-10; it was seen in 83% of subjects with the GG genotype versus 54% of subjects with the AA genotype at IL-10 gene position ?1082 (P, 0.02), in 71% of those with the CC genotype versus 33% of those with the TT genotype at position ?819 (P, 0.005), and in 71% of those with the CC genotype versus 38% of those with the AA genotype at position ?592 (P, 0.02). Travelers with the GCC haplotype were more likely to have symptomatic seroconversion than those with the ATA haplotype (71% versus 38%; P, 0.002). Travelers genetically predisposed to produce high levels of IL-10 were more likely to experience symptomatic ETEC TD. PMID:18579697

  17. Calculating Energy Rating of Domestic Refrigerators Through Laboratory Heat Transfer Measurements and Computer Simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mir-Akbar Hessami

    Most domestic refrigerators are supplied with an energy rating label which con- sumers can use to assess the quality of their appliance. This rating can be deter- mined by (a) testing the refrigerator under specified environmental conditions ac- cording to relevant standards and measuring its power consumption, or (b) analys- ing the refrigeration cycle thermodynamically, or (c) measuring the heat

  18. Caries-inhibiting effect of preventive measures during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Derks; C. Katsaros; J. E. F. M. Frencken; M. A. van't Hof; A. M. Kuijpers-Jagtman

    2004-01-01

    A systematic review was performed of published data on the caries-inhibiting effect of preventive measures during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The purpose was to develop evidence-based recommendations about the most effective means of preventing white spot lesions in orthodontic patients. The 15 studies included were divided into four groups based on comparable preventive measures: fluoride, chlorhexidine, sealants and bonding

  19. Caries-Inhibiting Effect of Preventive Measures during Orthodontic Treatment with Fixed Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Derks; C. Katsaros; J. E. Frencken; M. A. van ’t Hof; A. M. Kuijpers-Jagtman

    2004-01-01

    A systematic review was performed of published data on the caries-inhibiting effect of preventive measures during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The purpose was to develop evidence-based recommendations about the most effective means of preventing white spot lesions in orthodontic patients. The 15 studies included were divided into four groups based on comparable preventive measures: fluoride, chlorhexidine, sealants and bonding

  20. Mapping chemical elements on the surface of orthodontic appliance by SEM-EDX

    PubMed Central

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wo?owiec, Paulina; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Czopor, Wojciech; Berniczei-Royko, Adam; Vegh, Andras; Gedrange, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background During orthodontic treatment, the various elements that constitute the fixed appliance undergo different processes. As a result of a change of the surface, elution/coverage of metals on the surface can be observed in the process of corrosion/passivation. Material/Methods Scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive X-ray analytical system (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the composition of stainless steel elements of orthodontic fixed appliances (before and after orthodontic treatment), to obtain the composition of the surface of the elements. The analyzed elements were: brackets (Victory Series APC PLUS 022, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); wires (0.017×0.025, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); and bands (37+, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA). Results The results showed a decrease of chromium and iron contribution to the surface, with increase of oxygen content in used vs. new elements of the appliance. Conclusions Our results confirm the formation of oxides (passivation layer) on the surface of stainless steel as a result of the presence of the orthodontic appliance in patients’ oral cavities. PMID:24857929

  1. The usability problem for home appliances: engineers caused it, engineers can fix it!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Marks

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary people already have great difficulty using the advanced features of digitally enabled household appliances, and the problem grows worse with time as more customization and programming features are added. This usability problem cannot be solved using the tiny displays and limited control buttons typically found on such devices. In this talk I will describe a new type of collaborative

  2. Appliance-Based Autonomic Provisioning Framework for Virtualized Outsourcing Data Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoying Wang; Dongjun Lan; Gang Wang; Xing Fang; Meng Ye; Ying Chen; Qingbo Wang

    2007-01-01

    As outsourcing data centers emerge to host applications or services from many different organizations and companies, it is critical for data center owners to isolate different applications while dynamically and optimally allocate resources among them. To address this problem, we propose a virtual-appliance-based autonomic resource provisioning framework for large virtualized data centers. Firstly, we present the architecture of the data

  3. Discomfort caused by bonded lingual orthodontic appliances in adult patients as examined by retrospective questionnaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shouichi Miyawaki; Mika Yasuhara; Yasuhiro Koh

    1999-01-01

    A retrospective questionnaire survey of 111 retention-period adult patients was performed to examine discomfort that may be caused by bonded lingual orthodontic appliances. Despite instructions to avoid or relieve the discomfort, 57% to 76% of patients complained of tongue soreness, difficulty in chewing fibrous food, difficulty in pronouncing the s and t sounds, and difficulty in tooth brushing after the

  4. National appliance efficiency standards in the USA: cost-effective federal regulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Geller

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of Federal appliance and equipment efficiency standards in the United States and summarizes the impacts these standards are having on consumers, manufacturers, and the nation. It shows that standards already adopted are expected to save consumers $132 billion net and displace the need for 31 large (500 MW) baseload power plants by 2000. Existing standards

  5. Appliances and Software: The Importance of the Buyer's Warranty and the Developer's Liability

    E-print Network

    Berry, Daniel M.

    that would accrue if formal methods were to be used regularly in software development [20, 14, 11, 12Appliances and Software: The Importance of the Buyer's Warranty and the Developer's Liability in Promoting the Use of Systematic Quality Assurance and Formal Methods Daniel M. Berry Computer Science

  6. Appliance Service Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 2307.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The graduate of the Appliance Service Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyperson; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) use and maintain hand and power tools to the standards of competency and safety required in the trade; (4) by skill…

  7. Design and Implementation of ZigBee based URC Applicable to Legacy Home Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-Ki Park; Chang-Sic Choi; Jinsoo Han; Intark Han

    2007-01-01

    There are many various CE (consumer electronics) home appliances being controlled and managed with each different remote control unit based on IR(Infra-Red) signal in our home environments. A universal remote control (URC) unit is an integrated device for controlling these various devices (with a single one). To control them based on IR control signal, the URC unit has to have

  8. 78 FR 18533 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...That AD applies to certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...Applicability This AD applies to Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded...

  9. 76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ...standards and qualification as an ENERGY STAR product. DATES: Written comments and...submitted a joint petition to the ENERGY STAR program regarding smart grid enabled appliances...consider a five percent credit to the ENERGY STAR performance level for smart grid...

  10. Advertising and Promotion Expenditures on Business Performance: Comparison between Chinese and Japanese Household Appliance Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng He; Rong Chen

    2007-01-01

    This study begins with measuring Chinese and Japanese listed companies' business performance by the company's market power efficiency and profitability efficiency basing on stochastic frontier analysis in household appliance industry from 2001 to 2004. This estimation shows that Chinese average technical efficiency score is about half of Japanese score on both market power efficiency and profitability efficiency. Then this paper

  11. Experience from Building Industry Strength Agent-Based Appliances Leon Sterling

    E-print Network

    Taveter, Kuldar

    industrial partner Adacel Technologies in 2004. The Intelligent Lifecycle project aimed to design and build]. Because of its distributed nature, a promising area of application for intelligent agents is in building. The collaboration includes an Industry Linkage Project to build a system of `invisibly intelligent' appliances

  12. EFFECTS OF APPLIANCE TYPE AND OPERATING VARIABLES ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS: VOLUME II. APPENDICIES D-F.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project, in support of the intergared Air Cancer Project (IACP), to provide data on the specific effects of appliance type and operating variables on woodstove emissions. samples of particulate material and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were coll...

  13. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  14. Regaining leeway space and anterior crossbite correction with a modified maxillary molar distalizing appliance.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Tai, K; Ikeda, M; Kanao, A

    2013-01-01

    During the mixed dentition stage, adolescents experience rapid dental and skeletal development. Unfortunately, many of them do not visit the orthodontist early enough and miss out on the opportunity to take advantage of preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatment. This article describes the management of regaining leeway space and correcting anterior crossbite using a modified maxillary molar distalizing appliance. PMID:23855181

  15. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...appliance. (a) Ten service projectiles, each machined from steel or bronze, weighing about 225 g (8 oz.), and having a...line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One auxiliary line consisting of at...

  16. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...appliance. (a) Ten service projectiles, each machined from steel or bronze, weighing about 225 g (8 oz.), and having a...line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One auxiliary line consisting of at...

  17. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...appliance. (a) Ten service projectiles, each machined from steel or bronze, weighing about 225 g (8 oz.), and having a...line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One auxiliary line consisting of at...

  18. File system virtual appliances: Third-party file system implementations without the pain

    E-print Network

    File system virtual appliances: Third-party file system implementations without the pain Michael, extensibility 1 #12;1 Introduction Building and maintaining third-party file systems (FSs) is painful. Of course with version-specific "#ifdef"s, making it increasingly difficult to understand and modify correctly. The pain

  19. The ownership and use of small kitchen domestic appliances: case study, Liverpool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aglaia Efstathiou; Diane Grant; Sheila M. Maxwell

    2004-01-01

    AbstractThe nutritional habits of UK consumers have become a cause for concern with an increasing number of people suffering from diseases related to nutrition. The way in which food is prepared may contribute to the nutritional content of the diet. Traditional methods of cooking and eating are being influenced by increased ownership of domestic appliances. This study aimed to carry

  20. Augmenting kitchen appliances with a shared context using knowledge about daily events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-hsun Jackie Lee; Leonardo Bonanni; José H. Espinosa; Henry Lieberman; Ted Selker

    2006-01-01

    Networked appliances might make them aware of each other, but interacting with a complex network can be difficult in itself. KitchenSense is a sensor rich networked kitchen research platform that uses Common Sense reasoning to simplify control interfaces and augment interaction. The system's sensor net attempts to interpret people's intentions to create fail-soft support for safe, efficient and aesthetic activity.

  1. Appliance Repair; Radio and Television. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the electricity/electronics occupations cluster, this guide identifies the essentials of the appliance repair and radio and television trade as recommended by successful servicemen. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to adequately…

  2. InfoPoint: A Device that Provides a Uniform User Interface to Allow Appliances to Work

    E-print Network

    Redmiles, David F.

    in the GUIs of PC and workstation desktop environment. InfoPoint provides a unified interface that gives improvements in digital and network technologies, network connection is extending beyond personal computers to em- brace home appliances such as TVs, air condi- tioners and refrigerators. Such network- connected

  3. Adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances. Part I: a comparison between Labial, Lingual, and Invisalign™.

    PubMed

    Shalish, Miri; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Tsur, Boaz; Bachar, Eytan; Chaushu, Stella

    2012-12-01

    This prospective study examined the adult patient's perception of recovery after insertion of three types of orthodontic appliances: Buccal, Lingual and Invisalign. The sample consisted of sixty-eight adult patients (45 females and 23 males) who comprised three groups: 28 Buccal, 19 Lingual, and 21 Invisalign patients. After appliance insertion, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire daily for the first week and again on day 14, in order to assess patients' perception of pain and analgesic consumption. In addition, four areas of dysfunction were assessed: oral dysfunction, eating disturbances, general activity parameters, and oral symptoms. Lingual appliance was associated with more severe pain and analgesic consumption, the greatest oral and general dysfunction, and the most difficult and longest recovery. The Invisalign patients complained of relatively high levels of pain in the first days after insertion; however this group was characterized by the lowest level of oral symptoms and by a similar level of general activity disturbances and oral dysfunction compared to the Buccal appliance. Many Lingual and some Buccal patients did not reach a full recovery from their eating difficulties by the end of the study period. The present study provides information to adult patients and clinicians assisting them in choosing the most appropriate treatment modality in relation to Health-Related Quality of Life parameters. PMID:21750242

  4. SHARC: A scalable 3D graphics virtual appliance delivery framework in cloud

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weidong Shi; Yang Lu; Zhu Li; Jonathan Engelsma

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in virtualization technology and wide acceptance of the cloud computing model are having significant impact on the software service industry. Though cloud computing and virtualization technology have been widely applied in supporting the information processing needs of conventional enterprise and business applications, there has been a little success to-date in enabling realtime 3D virtual appliances in the cloud.

  5. Environmental Benefit of Waste Home Appliance Recycling II - A Trial to Reduce Environmental Loads -

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kawamura; H. Suzuki

    2005-01-01

    A recycling plant is constructed for waste home appliances and operated from April 2000. A life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare recycling scenarios was conducted using the data from the operation. The results of the assessment show that it was effective from not only the reduction in the amount of the final disposal but also the point of the reduction

  6. Asymmetric maxillary expansion (AMEX) appliance for treatment of true unilateral posterior crossbite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Serdar Toroglu; Erhan Uzel; Mustafa Kayalioglu; ?lter Uzel

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an asymmetrical maxillary expansion (AMEX) appliance. Patients with true unilateral posterior crossbites were included in the study. The treatment group consisted of 18 patients who had a mean age of 14 ± 2.3 years. Treatment effects were evaluated on posteroanterior radiographs, dental casts, and photographs of the dental casts.

  7. Data Transfer over A Low Voltage Power Line for Data Acquisition and Monitoring of Electrical Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Khan; J. Omar; O. O Khalifa; M. R. Islam; I. Adam; A. B. Hassan

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a data communication system over a low voltage power line, meant primarily for applications of data acquisition from sites and monitoring of electrical appliances at the sites. The hardware developed, the interfacing required and the software used for implementation of the protocol are addressed. The developed system has been tested and results

  8. www.ornl.gov Energy-Efficient Building Appliances for Market Success

    E-print Network

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    www.ornl.gov Energy-Efficient Building Appliances for Market Success Building equipment experts in ORNL's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program find success through cooperative RD&D, market element of our strategy for successful market penetration and deployment of energy-efficient building

  9. The stoma appliances market in five European countries: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornago, Dante; Garattini, Livio

    2002-01-01

    This comparative exercise analysed the domestic market for stoma appliances in five European countries--Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. National legislation, prescription procedures, delivery modalities and the market were investigated in each country. The analysis involved reviewing national and international literature on stoma appliances and interviewing a selected expert panel of market operators in each country comprising at least one health authority representative, one distributor of medical devices and one manufacturer. No specific relationship was found between the health care system framework and the stoma market, except for a greater inclination towards home care in national health services. All five countries reimburse stoma bags, but the distribution of these appliances varies widely, ranging from Denmark, where home delivery is mandatory, to Italy, where any channel can be used. The comparative analysis underlined two important features of the stoma bag market: the discretion of enterostomists in directing patients towards a specific brand of bags, and the patients' high brand loyalty. Despite that, the analysis did not identify any single country that could be considered a benchmark for stoma bag regulation. Each country deals with stoma appliances in different ways, making this a very fragmented market. PMID:14618747

  10. A remote control system for home appliances using the Internet and radio connection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Yanhao Chen; Jen-Tsan Kuan; Fuh-Liang Wen; Shi-Jie Lin

    2004-01-01

    This system offers a new approach to control home appliances from a remote terminal, with an option from a local server, using the Internet and radio connection. This system is accomplished by personal computers, interface cards, radio transmitters and receivers, microprocessors, ac phase control circuits, along with window-type software and microprocessor control software. The system is designed to control home

  11. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  12. Efficient Activation of Human T Cells of Both CD4 and CD8 Subsets by Urease-Deficient Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG That Produced a Heat Shock Protein 70-M. tuberculosis-Derived Major Membrane Protein II Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Tetsu; Tsukamoto, Yumiko; Maeda, Yumi; Tamura, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of obtaining Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) capable of activating human naive T cells, urease-deficient BCG expressing a fusion protein composed of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived major membrane protein II (MMP-II) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of BCG (BCG-DHTM) was produced. BCG-DHTM secreted the HSP70-MMP-II fusion protein and effectively activated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) by inducing phenotypic changes and enhanced cytokine production. BCG-DHTM-infected DCs activated naive T cells of both CD4 and naive CD8 subsets, in an antigen (Ag)-dependent manner. The T cell activation induced by BCG-DHTM was inhibited by the pretreatment of DCs with chloroquine. The naive CD8+ T cell activation was mediated by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP) and the proteosome-dependent cytosolic cross-priming pathway. Memory CD8+ T cells and perforin-producing effector CD8+ T cells were efficiently produced from the naive T cell population by BCG-DHTM stimulation. Single primary infection with BCG-DHTM in C57BL/6 mice efficiently produced T cells responsive to in vitro secondary stimulation with HSP70, MMP-II, and M. tuberculosis-derived cytosolic protein and inhibited the multiplication of subsequently aerosol-challenged M. tuberculosis more efficiently than did vector control BCG. These results indicate that the introduction of MMP-II and HSP70 into urease-deficient BCG may be useful for improving BCG for control of tuberculosis. PMID:24152387

  13. Initial forces generated by three types of thermoplastic appliances on an upper central incisor during tipping.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Wolfram; Fialka-Fricke, Julia; Dathe, Henning; Fricke-Zech, Susanne; Zapf, Antonia; Gruber, Rudolf; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Sadat-Khonsari, Reza

    2009-12-01

    The force properties of thermoformed appliances have not been systematically investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to quantify the forces delivered by thermoplastic appliances manufactured from three different materials, with the same thickness, on a central upper incisor, during tipping. Five identical appliances were manufactured from three different materials all with a thickness of 1.0 mm (Ideal Clear, Erkodur, and Biolon). For measuring the forces, an isolated measuring tooth, as part of a standardized resin model incorporated in a newly developed measuring device, was tipped in nine 2.7 arc minute (0.04629 degree) steps, from 0 to 0.416 degrees in the vestibular and palatal directions around a rotational axis through the virtual apex, after positioning an appliance on the model. For statistical analysis, the force components Fx/tipping and Fz/intrusion at a displacement of +/-0.151 mm from the incisor edge were determined. Means and standard deviations (SDs) were calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test for overall effects and the Wilcoxon two-sample test for individual group pairings were used (P < 0.05 significance level). The mean Fx forces ranged from -2.82 N (SD 0.62) to 5.42 N (SD 0.56). The mean Fz forces were between -0.14 N (SD 0.52) and -2.3 N (SD 0.43). The highest intrusive forces were measured during vestibular displacement of the measuring tooth. The forces delivered by the Biolon appliance were found to be much greater (P < 0.01) than those of the other materials. The forces delivered by the materials investigated were mostly higher than those stated in the literature. PMID:19525441

  14. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.709...location exterior to the enclosure. (3) Cooling coils installed as a portion of, or...required in § 3280.511. (5) If a cooling coil is installed with a...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.709...location exterior to the enclosure. (3) Cooling coils installed as a portion of, or...required in § 3280.511. (5) If a cooling coil is installed with a...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.709...location exterior to the enclosure. (3) Cooling coils installed as a portion of, or...required in § 3280.511. (5) If a cooling coil is installed with a...

  17. The use of Twin Force functional fixed orthopedic appliance in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Marcos Shinao; Rosário, Henrique Damian; El-Haje, Ossam; Alvim-Pereira, Fabiano; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2014-01-01

    Fixed protruding appliances are interesting tools for correction of Class II dental malocclusion in adult and growing patients. The appliances most commonly used for this purpose are: Herbst, Forsus and Jasper Jumper. The present clinical case report shows an alternative called Twin Force Bite Corrector which was used for 3 months by a patient aged 10 years and 6 months associated with the Andrews prescription fixed appliance (Abzil 3M). After treatment, malocclusion was found to be adjusted to Class I dental occlusion in a single stage. PMID:24812744

  18. Electricity from waste heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaakko Larjola; Olli Lindgren; Esa Vakkilainen

    1991-01-01

    In industry and in ships, large amounts of waste heat with quite a high release temperature are produced: examples are combustion gases and the exhaust gases of ceramic kilns. Very often they cannot be used for heating purposes because of long transport distances or because there is no local district heating network. Thus, a practical solution would be to convert

  19. Analysis of Heating by Friction in Plastic Clothes Dryer Components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald E. Duvall; Thomas J. Bajzek; R. Nelson Koopman

    2007-01-01

    Many household appliances utilize plastic materials in their construction. For example, many clothes dryers include plastics\\u000a in the air blower and venting systems. The air blower in a dryer is used to move air past the burner or heating element, through\\u000a the dryer drum and out through the exhaust duct. It has been alleged that friction between moving and stationary

  20. Waste heat economic opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gault

    1981-01-01

    Recovering waste heat from compressor-station stack gases and generating steam for producing power, ethanol, gasohol, or process heat is a promising alternative-energy technology. NUS modeled four typical candidate installations - Stations A and B using gas-turbine-driven compressors, Stations C and D having reciprocating-engine prime movers. All four stations produced enough waste heat to generate either 18,000-63,000 lb\\/hr of steam or