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1

24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...addendums Z21.10.1a-1991 and Z21.10.1b-1992 except that for oil-fired units. CF=1.0, Q=total gallons of oil consumed and H=total heating value of oil in BTU/gallon. Storagecapacity in gallons Recoveryefficiency...

2013-04-01

2

Heat pump and appliance research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The areas of residential heating and cooling, residential heat pump and prime mover, commercial heat pump and prime mover, residential and commercial appliance, and building systems were examined. Project information provided include contractor, GRI project manager, objectives, results to data and status, and future plans. These research and development projects on gas end-use technology support GRI's objectives to develop improved gas using equipment that is more effective, meets environmental standards, and offers competitive consumer costs at equivalent or higher quality of service compared with alternative energy service options.

1987-09-01

3

Integrated space heating, air conditioning and potable water heating appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated water heating and space heating and cooling appliance is described comprising: a housing having a lower water storage section, a middle burner section, and an upper internal air handling section in an internal portion, and having a side external air handling section extending from the internal portion to pass through a building wall; an insulated hot water storage

J. Gerstmann; G. M. Jr. Celorier; W. S. Hill

1989-01-01

4

Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

1983-11-21

5

Etched Foil Elements: A New Approach to Uniform Appliance Heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Etched metal foil elements are gaining recognition as a practical new way of heating appliances. They are super thin, lightweight, and offer great flexibility and versatility in applying the heat where it is needed. For the appliance manufacturer, the foil heater offers several major advantages over the traditional strip or tubular types.

Benjamin N. Moore

1975-01-01

6

Comparison of the effects produced by headgear and pendulum appliances followed by fi xed orthodontic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study compared the effects produced by two different molar distalizers, namely cervical headgear (CHG) and the intraoral pendulum appliance, associated with fi xed orthodontic appliances. The headgear group comprised 30 patients (19 females, 11 males), with an initial age of 13.07 years (standard deviation (SD) = 1.3), treated with CHG and fi xed orthodontic appliances for a mean

Fernanda Angelieri; Renato Rodrigues de Almeida; Guilherme Janson; José Fernando Castanha Henriques; Arnaldo Pinzan

2008-01-01

7

Treatment effects produced by the Twin-block appliance and the FR2 appliance of Fränkel compared with an untreated Class II sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective cephalometric study compares the treatment effects produced in 40 patients treated with the Twin-block appliance to those seen in a matched sample of 40 children treated with the FR-2 appliance of Fränkel and to changes undergone in 40 untreated Class II controls from The University of Michigan Elementary and Secondary School Growth Study. The average starting ages for

Linda Ratner Toth; James A. McNamara

1999-01-01

8

The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels  

SciTech Connect

In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

1988-09-01

9

The domestic induction heating appliance: An overview of recent research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper several research topics pertaining to the design and modeling of domestic induction appliances are reviewed. Each topic is summarized, stressing its most significant advances and pointing to its future tendencies. A bibliographic review showing some of the published papers during the last years is included. The emphases and relative contributions of some of them are also discussed.

J. Acero; J. M. Burdio; L. A. Barragan; D. Navarro; R. Alonso; J. R. Garcia; F. Monterde; P. Hernandez; S. Llorente; I. Garde

2008-01-01

10

Effect of excess air on the optimization of heating appliances for biomass combustion  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a domestic appliance for wood logs combustion is a function of several variables, such as the geometric design of the appliance and its operating parameters. Among them, air feeding conditions are really decisive if the objective function is the maximization of the heat recovered from flue gases. Therefore, even if pollutant emissions have to be ever considered, the amount of excess air can be seen as a fundamental parameter in the definition of thermal efficiency of the appliance. In this paper the role of this parameter is analysed. The analysis is conducted by linking the results obtained from experimental data, detailed CFD simulations and a simplified mathematical model based on a network of CSTR. The derivation of an idealized schematization of the appliance was essential to realize the role of excess air variations, with more generality than with respect to a specific appliance configuration. Conversely, while the experimental data and CFD results were necessary to derive the simplified model, the indications given by this simplified model were useful to analyze results coming from both experiments and detailed numerical simulations. It has been evidenced the need to distinguish between the role of excess air in the chemical combustion and in the heat recovery in the appliance as well as to quantify the feedback between these two processes. (author)

Menghini, D. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Marra, F.S.; Allouis, C.; Beretta, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Napoli (Italy)

2008-07-15

11

77 FR 25747 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-562] Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of...importation of certain incremental dental positioning adjustment appliances by reason of infringement...the United States incremental dental positioning adjustment appliances and any...

2012-05-01

12

78 FR 2282 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-562] Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of...importation of certain incremental dental positioning adjustment appliances by reason of infringement...after importation of incremental dental positioning adjustment appliances referenced...

2013-01-10

13

Use of unvented residential heating appliances--United States, 1988-1994.  

PubMed

Many heating appliances rely on combustion of carbon-based fuels and therefore are potential sources of health-threatening indoor air pollution. Most combustion heating appliances are vented to the outside of buildings to facilitate removal of the products of combustion, which include carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor. However, some combustion heating devices may be unvented (e.g., kerosene- and propane-fueled space heaters, some gas-fueled log sets, and cooking devices used improperly for heating), and the use of such unvented devices in closed settings may be associated with risks for exposure to toxic gases and other emissions. This report presents an analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to estimate the number and regional distribution of adults using unvented residential heating appliances and stoves or ovens misused as heating devices in the United States during 1988-1994. The findings indicate that the percentage of adults using these devices was higher in the South, among low-income groups, among blacks, and among rural residents, and underscore the need for public education about the health risks associated with exposure to elevated levels of combustion by-products. NHANES III collected data from approximately 20,000 adults about household characteristics, including the prevalence of various types of residential heating appliances, the use of unvented combustion space heaters, and use of stoves or ovens specifically for heating during the previous year. NHANES weights were used to obtain national estimates based on these responses. Because responses by race/ethnicity other than for whites and blacks were too small for reliable estimates, responses from all others were combined. PMID:9427213

1997-12-26

14

Waste-heat recovery system for commercial cooking appliances. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Installation of the Hydrocoil Waste Heat Recovery System over a battery of gas-fired commercial cooking appliances in a restaurant in Pasadena, California, is discussed. Installation of the equipment resulted in gas usage reduction, a savings to the restaurant owner of $70/month at a gas cost of $0.26/ccf. The term load factor or the ratio of actual usage compared to the maximum potential burner consumption of gas for commercial cooking equipment is defined. (MCW)

Jones, R.J.

1980-12-01

15

Effect of fuels and domestic heating appliance types on emission factors of selected organic pollutants.  

PubMed

This study reports on the first complex data set of emission factors (EFs) of selected pollutants from combustion of five fuel types (lignite, bituminous coal, spruce, beech, and maize) in six different domestic heating appliances of various combustion designs. The effect of fuel as well as the effect of boiler type was studied. In total, 46 combustion runs were performed, during which numerous EFs were measured, including the EFs of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), etc. The highest EFs of nonchlorinated pollutants were measured for old-type boilers with over-fire and under-fire designs and with manual stoking and natural draft. Emissions of the above-mentioned pollutants from modern-type boilers (automatic, downdraft) were 10 times lower or more. The decisive factor for emission rate of nonchlorinated pollutants was the type of appliance; the type of fuel plays only a minor role. Emissions of chlorinated pollutants were proportional mainly to the chlorine content in fuel, but the type of appliance also influenced the rate of emissions significantly. Surprisingly, higher EFs of PCDD/F from combustion of chlorinated bituminous coal were observed for modern-type boilers (downdraft, automatic) than for old-type ones. On the other hand, when bituminous coal was burned, higher emissions of HxCBz were found for old-type boilers than for modern-type ones. PMID:21932830

Šyc, Michal; Horák, Ji?í; Hopan, František; Krpec, Kamil; Tomšej, Tomáš; Ocelka, Tomáš; Pekárek, Vladimír

2011-10-12

16

FPGA Implementation of a Switching Frequency Modulation Circuit for EMI Reduction in Resonant Inverters for Induction Heating Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the use of frequency modulation as a spread spectrum technique to reduce conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the A frequency band (9-150 kHz) caused by resonant inverters used in induction heating home appliances. For sinusoidal, triangular, and sawtooth modulation profiles, the influence of peak period deviation in EMI reduction and in the power delivered to the load

Luis A. Barragan; Denis Navarro; JesÚs Acero; Isidro Urriza; JosÉ M. Burdio

2008-01-01

17

Cephalometric analysis of changes produced by a modified Herbst appliance in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion.  

PubMed

This study investigated treatment changes produced by the Herbst appliance in a sample of severe Class II division 1 cases, over a period of 8 months. The sample consisted of 16 girls, of whom eight were treated by the Herbst appliance, whilst eight served as controls. All cases were matched with respect to age, sex, skeletofacial morphology, and length of treatment/observation period. Twenty-two skeletal and 19 dental parameters were recorded on pre- and post-treatment cephalograms. The net treatment effect of Herbst therapy was evaluated, taking into account the growth that occurred in the control sample. The study revealed that during 8 months of Herbst therapy there was a significant increase in mandibular length, along with sagittal repositioning. The skeletal changes in the mandible were mainly responsible for overjet and molar relation correction. A slight, favourable forward rotation of the mandible was identified. Dentoalveolar features included flaring of lower incisors and distalization of upper molars. The appliance did not have any retrusive effect on the maxilla. The modified splint design differed from the original and was cemented rather than bonded. PMID:7786859

Sidhu, M S; Kharbanda, O P; Sidhu, S S

1995-02-01

18

Induction-heated cooking appliance using new quasi-resonant ZVS-PWM with power factor correction  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a new prototype of a voltage-fed quasi-load resonant inverter with a constant-frequency variable-power (CFVP) regulation scheme, which is developed for the next-generation high-frequency high-power induction-heated (IH) cooking appliances in household applications. This application-specific high-frequency single-ended push-pull inverter using new-generation specially designed insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT`s) can efficiently operate under a principle of zero-voltage switching pulsewidth modulation (ZVS-PWM) strategy. This low-cost soft-switching inverter using reverse-conducting and reverse-blocking IGBT`s is more suitable for multiple-burner-type induction-heating cooking appliances. The operating principle and unique features of a new resonant ZVS-PWM inverter circuit topology is originally described, together with its steady-state power regulation characteristics, which are illustrated on the basis of its computer-aided simulation and experimental results. The ZVS operation condition on power regulation, loss analysis of new IGBT`s incorporated into this inverter, and its active filtering performance are discussed herein for IH cooking appliances.

Wang, S.; Nakaoka, Mutsuo [Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering; Izaki, Kiyoshi; Hirota, Izuo; Yamashita, Hidekazu; Omori, Hideki [Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Home Appliance Research and Development Lab.

1998-07-01

19

Radiofrequency-induced Heating near Fixed Orthodontic Appliances in High Field MRI Systems at 3.0 Tesla  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective:\\u000a   To assess radiofrequency (RF)-induced heating of\\u000a fixed orthodontic appliances during acquisition of three different\\u000a sequences in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods:\\u000a   Ten commonly used fixed orthodontic\\u000a appliances were investigated utilizing a phantom head and simulating\\u000a the in vivo intraoral situation. A 3 Tesla MRI system (Intera,\\u000a Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) was

Marc Regier; Jörn Kemper; Michael G. Kaul; Markus Feddersen; Gerhard Adam; Bärbel Kahl-Nieke; Arndt Klocke

2009-01-01

20

A comparative analysis of maxillary tooth movement produced by cervical headgear and pend-x appliance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of cervical headgear and pend-x on the maxillary first molar, second molar, first premolar, and upper incisors. Cephalometric radiographs were obtained at the start of treatment (T1) and after molar distalization was completed (T2) for 13 patients in a pend-x group and 13 patients in a cervical headgear group. The changes of the maxillary teeth were measured on maxillary superimpositions. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the mean differences between the two groups. The mean amount of distalization for the headgear group was 3.15 +/- 1.94 mm and that for the pend-x group was 3.81 +/- 2.25 mm. The second molar teeth were also distalized to a mean amount of 2.27 +/- 1.33 mm in the headgear group and 2.04 +/- 2.15 mm in the pend-x group. The mean treatment time for distalization was 11.38 +/- 3.18 months for the headgear group and 7.31 +/- 4.09 months for the pend-x group. During distalization, the maxillary molars tipped distally in both groups, but intergroup differences were not significant. The anterior inclinations of the first premolar and upper incisor increased significantly in the pend-x group (P < .01). Maxillary molars showed no vertical movement in the pend-x group but extruded in the headgear group (P < .01). The anchorage loss of the pend-x appliance as well as the necessary patient compliance and greater treatment time with the cervical headgear should be taken into consideration. PMID:14719733

Taner, Tülin U?ur; Yukay, Filiz; Pehlivanoglu, Muge; Cakirer, Banu

2003-12-01

21

Appliance Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ordinary household appliances can be used in the classroom to inspire unusual research, artwork, and problem solving. Suggestions on how to organize and collect materials to develop an appliance science unit are offered. (DF)

McGhee, James

1984-01-01

22

FIELD PERFORMANCE OF WOODBURNING AND COALBURNING APPLIANCES IN CRESTED BUTTE DURING THE 1989-1990 HEATING SEASON  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evacuation of the field performance of woodburning and coalburning appliances in and around Crested Butte, CO. easurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and weekly average burn rates. Woodburning appliances included convent...

23

The state-of-the art electromagnetic induction flow-through pipeline package type fluid heating appliance using series resonant PWM inverter with self-tuning PID controller-based feedback implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a newly-developed prototype of an electromagnetic induction flow-through metallic package-in-nonmetallic pipeline type fluid heating appliance, which is composed of a series loaded resonant phase-shift PWM invertor using IGBT modules and their intelligent driver modules, in addition to an auto-tuning PID controller incorporated into the feedback loop. This inverter-fed fluid heating appliance is more acceptable for high-quality heat

Y. Uchihori; Y. Kawamura; S. Morita; H. Yasutune; M. Nakaoka

1995-01-01

24

24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electric resistance heat conforming to ARI...and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment shall show... (2) Gas fired absorption air conditioners...1-1996, Gas Fired, Heat Activated, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Appliances,...

2010-04-01

25

24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electric resistance heat conforming to ARI...and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment shall show... (2) Gas fired absorption air conditioners...1-1996, Gas Fired, Heat Activated, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Appliances,...

2009-04-01

26

Appliance Analysis : Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle 2.  

SciTech Connect

The appliance use of RCDP-2 homes was analyzed to determine whether significant differences existed in houses that had efficient appliances (domestic hot water (DHW) and refrigerators) compared to those with appliances not considered efficient. Specific analyses addressed: (1) DHW and refrigerator appliance end uses; (2) whole house and space heat energy use; and, (3) interaction effects between appliance use and space heating energy use.

Quaid, Maureen; Kunkle, Rick; Lagerberg, Brian

1991-08-01

27

Appliance Analysis :Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle 2.  

SciTech Connect

The appliance use of RCDP-2 homes was analyzed to determine whether significant differences existed in houses that had efficient appliances (domestic hot water (DHW) and refrigerators) compared to those with appliances not considered efficient. Specific analyses addressed: (1) DHW and refrigerator appliance end uses; (2) whole house and space heat energy use; and, (3) interaction effects between appliance use and space heating energy use.

Quaid, Maureen; Kunkle, Rick; Lagerberg, Brian

1991-08-01

28

EMI improvements using the switching frequency modulation in a resonant inverter for domestic induction heating appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the spread-spectrum technique is applied to a resonant half-bridge inverter for domestic induction heating in order to improve the electromagnetic interference (EMI). This technique has been successfully applied in switching mode power supplies (SMPS). Two different switching frequency modulation strategies are tested and the influence of different modulation parameters is analysed. Both simulation and experimental test bench

J. Acero; J. M. Burdio; L. A. Barragan; D. Navarro; S. Llorente

2004-01-01

29

24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...installed in areas with interior or exterior access shall be framed-in or guarded with noncombustible material such that the...surrounding heat producing appliances are not required to be framed-in or guarded when: (i) A space is designed...

2009-04-01

30

24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...installed in areas with interior or exterior access shall be framed-in or guarded with noncombustible material such that the...surrounding heat producing appliances are not required to be framed-in or guarded when: (i) A space is designed...

2010-04-01

31

Atopic dermatitis and indoor use of energy sources in cooking and heating appliances  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence has considerably increased worldwide in recent years. Studying indoor environments is particularly relevant, especially in industrialised countries where many people spend 80% of their time at home, particularly children. This study is aimed to identify the potential association between AD and the energy source (biomass, gas and electricity) used for cooking and domestic heating in a Spanish schoolchildren population. Methods As part of the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) phase III study, a cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted with 21,355 6-to-7-year-old children from 8 Spanish ISAAC centres. AD prevalence, environmental risk factors and the use of domestic heating/cooking devices were assessed using the validated ISAAC questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (cOR, aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. A logistic regression analysis was performed (Chi-square test, p-value?heating was the only type which obtained a significant aOR (1.13; 95% CI: 1.00-1.27). Finally, the model with all selected confounding variables (sex, BMI, number of siblings, mother’s educational level, smoking habits of parents, truck traffic and geographical area), showed aOR values which were very similar to those obtained in the previous adjusted logistic analysis. None of the results was statistically significant, but the use of electric heating showed an aOR close to significance (1.14; 95% CI: 0.99-1.31). Conclusion In our study population, no statistically significant associations were found between the type of indoor energy sources used and the presence of AD.

2012-01-01

32

Glycerol citrate polyesters produced through microwave heating  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of various heating methods without catalysis to prepare copolyesters from citric acid:glycerol blends were studied. In the presence of short term microwave treatments, i.e., 60 sec at 1200 W, blends of glycerol and citric acid invariably formed solid amorphous copolyesters. Fourier tra...

33

Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid  

DOEpatents

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX)

2011-01-11

34

Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

2013-05-28

35

Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process  

DOEpatents

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Munsterman, Erwin Henh (Amsterdam, NL); Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus (Amsterdam, NL); Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius (Amsterdam, NL)

2009-10-20

36

Electric toothbrushes induce electric current in fixed dental appliances by creating magnetic fields.  

PubMed

Magnetic fields can represent a health problem, especially low frequency electromagnetic fields sometimes induced by electric current in metallic objects worn or used in or on the body (as opposed to high frequency electromagnetic fields that produce heat). Electric toothbrushes are widely used because of their convenience, but the electric motors that power them may produce electromagnetic waves. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generate low frequency (1-2000 Hz) magnetic fields and induce electric current in dental appliances (e. g. orthodontic and prosthetic appliances and dental implants). Current induced by electric toothbrushes might be dependent on the quantity and types of metals used, and the shape of the appliances. Furthermore, these induced currents in dental appliances could impact upon human oral health, producing pain and discomfort. PMID:23037851

Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Ishii, Nozomu; Sano, Natsuki; Ogura, Hideo; Terada, Kazuto

2012-01-01

37

Load control in low voltage level of the electricity grid using µCHP appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of microCHP (Combined Heat and Power) appliances and other means of distributed generation causes a shift in the way electricity is produced and consumed. Households themselves produce electricity and deliver the surplus to the grid. In this way, the distributed generation also has implications on the transformers and, thus, on the grid. In this work we study the

M. G. C. Bosman; V. Bakker; A. Molderink; J. L. Hurink; G. J. M. Smit

2008-01-01

38

Measurement of Heat Propagation in a Laser Produced Plasma  

SciTech Connect

We present the observation of a nonlocal heat wave by measuring spatially and temporally resolved electron temperature profiles in a laser produced nitrogen plasma. Absolutely calibrated measurements have been performed by resolving the ion-acoustic wave spectra across the plasma volume with Thomson scattering. We find that the experimental electron temperature profiles disagree with flux-limited models, but are consistent with transport models that account for the nonlocal effects in heat conduction by fast electrons.

Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Knight, J; Niemann, C; Price, D; Froula, D H; Edwards, J; Town, R P J; Brantov, A; Bychenkov, V Y; Rozmus, W

2003-08-22

39

A novel ice slurry producing system: Producing ice by utilizing inner waste heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice storage is a potential energy saving method for air conditioning systems. An ice slurry is an ideal material for ice storage. The conventional ice slurry producing method using supercooled water suffers from the instability of ice block and depends heavily on electric power. A novel ice slurry producing system utilizing inner waste heat was proposed to improve this situation.

Xiu-Wei Li; Xiao-Song Zhang; Rong-Quan Cao; Xiu-Zhang Fu

2009-01-01

40

ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMAN, SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO AID IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING A COURSE FOR TRAINING ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMEN. OUTLINES (ONE PAGE EACH) COVER -- (1) RELATED INSTRUCTION, (2) FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY, (3) BASIC CONTROLS AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, (4) RESISTANCE HEATING APPLIANCES, (5) MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC APPLIANCES, (6) MOTOR DRIVEN…

LOVE, L. CARL; RONEY, MAURICE W.

41

Heat production in an Archean crustal profile and implications for heat flow and mobilization of heat-producing elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of heat producing elements (Th, U, and K) in 58 samples representative of the main lithologies in a 100-km transect of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield have been obtained. The relatively large variation in heat production found among the silicic plutonic rocks is shown to correlate with modal abundances of accessory minerals, and these variations are interpreted

L. D. Ashwal; P. Morgan; S. A. Kelley; J. A. Percival

1987-01-01

42

Speech Appliances in the Treatment of Phonological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the rationale for and issues related to the use of speech appliances, especially a removable speech appliance that positions the tongue to produce the correct /r/ phoneme. Research results suggest that this appliance was successful with a large group of clients. (Author/DB)

Ruscello, Dennis M.

1995-01-01

43

The Herbst appliance updated  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution that the Herbst appliance has experienced in the last 30 years. In particular the different designs proposed for the Herbst appliance are examined and the related differences in clinical management, indications, and treatment effects are also illustrated. The two major challenges in the clinical management of the Herbst appliance are

Raffaele Schiavoni

2011-01-01

44

Heat-stable measles vaccine produced by spray drying.  

PubMed

A combination of unique stabilizers and mild spray drying process conditions was employed to produce heat-stable measles vaccine powder. Live attenuated measles vaccine from Serum Institute of India was formulated with pharmaceutically approved stabilizers, including sugars, proteins, amino acids, polymers, surfactants, and plasticizers, as well as charged ions. In addition, the effects of buffer salt and pH on the storage stability of measles virus were examined. The potency of the dried vaccine stored at several temperatures was quantified by TCID(50) assay on Vero cells. As a comparison to other process methods, lead formulations were also subjected to freeze drying and foam drying. The optimized measles vaccine formulation tested at 37 degrees C was stable for approximately 8 weeks (i.e. time for 1 log TCID(50) loss). The measles titer decreased in a bi-phasic manner, with initial rapid loss within the first week but relative stability thereafter. Key stabilizers identified during the formulation screening processes were L-arginine, human serum albumin, and a combination of divalent cations. Spray drying was identified as the optimal processing method for the preparation of dried vaccine, as it generally resulted in negligible process loss and comparable, if not better storage stability, with respect to the other processes. Processing methods and formulation components were developed that produced a measles vaccine stable for up to 8 weeks at 37 degrees C, which surpassed the WHO requirement for heat stability of 1 week at that temperature. PMID:19944152

Ohtake, Satoshi; Martin, Russell A; Yee, Luisa; Chen, Dexiang; Kristensen, Debra D; Lechuga-Ballesteros, David; Truong-Le, Vu

2009-11-25

45

Gas-heating alternatives to the residential electric heat pump. Gas Appliance Technology Center 1987 program. Topical report for Work Area 1. 1, October 1989March 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of electric heat pumps are described. Options are defined and assessed for utilizing gas heating in conjunction with existing residential electric heat pumps. These options include gas heat introduced into the refrigeration circuit, a flue gas-heated tube bank in the air supply duct, and a hot-water-to-air coil in the supply duct. Economics are presented for conversion of a

Haas

1990-01-01

46

Fundamentals of Refrigeration; Air Conditioning and Heating Mechanics 1--Appliance Repair 2: 9013.01 and 9025.05.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Providing the student with an understanding of the basic refrigeration fundamentals, the course introduces the various types of tools and equipment used in this trade. The course consists of 90 clock hours and is organized into six instructional blocks. The student will gain an understanding of trade terminology, heat and temperature, transfer of…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

47

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. 58.16-20...AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a)...

2012-10-01

48

15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES...APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION ...heating equipment, and television receivers. Additional...553. Individual units of appliances and...

2013-01-01

49

Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends  

SciTech Connect

Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

2008-07-20

50

Appliance design and application.  

PubMed

Today's dental practice can increase patient satisfaction, as well as profitability, through the use of emerging technologies in the realm of dental appliances. Appliances can aid in an array of pathologies; however, many dentists struggle in their prescription of appliances due to a lack of scientific literature on the devices themselves. Blindly choosing an appliance can create a legal liability; therefore, undergirding selection with accurate information is critical for proper use and quality of care. The aim of this article is to serve as a quick reference for the practitioner in his selection of the appropriate dental device. PMID:23220314

Yount, Keith A

51

Magnetic fields from domestic appliances in the UK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a survey of 50 UK homes the 50 Hz fundamental and harmonic magnetic fields generated by 806 domestic appliances found in the homes, and used regularly by mothers, were measured. Measurements were made in the direction of most likely access, and from the surface of the appliances. Mothers completed a questionnaire on the use of appliances and were monitored for 24 h so that acquired exposure could be compared with the measured ambient fields in the home. Appliances were measured at standard distances and an algorithm was used to calculate fields at 100 and 50 cm to remove room background contributions. A few appliances generated fields in excess of at 1 m: microwave cookers ; washing machines ; dishwashers ; some electric showers and can openers . Of continuously operating devices, only central heating pumps (), central heating boilers () and fish-tank air pumps () produced significant fields at 0.5 m. There were no obvious ways to group different types of appliances as high- or low-strength sources. Mothers spent on average about 4.5 h per day in the kitchen, where the strongest sources of magnetic field were located.

Preece, A. W.; Kaune, W.; Grainger, P.; Preece, S.; Golding, J.

1997-01-01

52

Home appliances get smart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe how novel sensors and control algorithms embedded in today's domestic appliances make them smart enough to estimate the size and dirtiness of a load of clothes tossed in a washer or to determine whether water in a pot on the stove is boiling. They argue that, as semiconductor costs come down, such appliances will get even smarter

V. V. Badami; N. W. Chbat

1998-01-01

53

A continuous hybrid microwave heating process for producing rapid and uniform rewarming of cryopreserved tissues.  

PubMed

This study investigated use of a continuous hybrid microwave heating process for producing rapid and uniform heating of cryopreserved tissues. This process combines volumetric energy deposition by microwaves with convective surface heating to produce increased warming rates. Moreover, such as a combination of heating techniques introduces additional parameters which can be varied in order to obtain better control of the heating process. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a continuous hybrid heating scheme, a numerical simulation was developed which solved for electric and temperature fields within a microwave resonant cavity containing beef tissue. The simulation accounted for the temperature dependence of cryopreserved tissue's dielectric properties through an iterative scheme which can simulate thermal runaway. The simulation indicated that a continuous hybrid heating heating process could produce uniform warming at rates which would be unobtainable by conventional microwave heating. PMID:9988669

Zhang, Q; Jackson, T H; Ungan, A

1998-09-11

54

Residential-appliance load characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of residential photovoltaic systems in combination with energy efficient appliances is examined. The load characteristics are presented for several types of major residential appliances. Load characteristics consist of the average energy use of each appliance, the power demand while the appliance is operating, and a typical use schedule. Potential energy conserving features are investigated for each appliance and used to identify a best available model and maximum feasible energy efficient appliance. Load characteristics of these energy conserving designs are then compared with the load characteristics of a standard model. The feasibility of converting appliances to dc power for use with photovoltaic systems is also discussed.

Kohler, J.

1982-04-01

55

Major Appliance Management Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Major appliances (also called 'white goods') have long been managed as part of the traditional municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, with the most common management method being landfill disposal. Over the past several years, it has become increasingly appa...

M. Robertson K. F. O'Donnell

1990-01-01

56

Work of Appliances Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Applet can be used to evaluate the work done by common household appliances. This applet even allows the user to calculate the total annual energy bill based on cost of use and number of hours used per day.

Russell, Sean; Bothun, Greg; Mason, David; Caley, David; Mcgrew, Amy

57

Terminologie des appareils electromenagers (Vocabulary for Electric Appliances).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This glossary of common French words and expressions used in reference to major electric appliances is designed for consumers, producers, and advertisers. Emphasis is placed on current rather than technical French-Canadian vocabulary. The terms are classified into five sections according to type of appliance: (1) electric range, (2) refrigerator,…

Dupuis, Henriette, Comp.; Lalut, Jeanne, Comp.

58

Sensible appliances: applying context-awareness to appliance design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensible appliance is an appliance which understands user's situation and takes appropriate actions to provide a high-quality user experience. A sensible appliance should be able to collect and infer relevant contexts to understand the user's situation. It is important for designers to understand context- awareness and its impact on design. In this paper we introduce what context and context-awareness are

Sung Woo Kim; Sang Hyun Park; Jung Bong Lee; Young Kyu Jin; Hyun-mi Park; Amy Chung; Seung Eok Choi; Woo Sik Choi

2004-01-01

59

Appliance Servicing Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide presents the standard appliance servicing technician curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

60

Appliance Servicing Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This program guide presents the standard appliance servicing technician curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

61

Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

1989-12-12

62

Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid  

DOEpatents

A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Muylle, Michel Serge Marie (Houston, TX); Mandema, Remco Hugo (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

2009-09-01

63

Energy-efficient appliances  

SciTech Connect

The major issues confronting policy makers in their effort to promote energy-efficiency in the home are: performance testing and ratings, marketing and foreign competition, federal standards and incentives, utility load management and incentives, and consumer education. The report concludes by describing some new directions, some of which are extensions of existing programs. They include taxes on inefficient appliances, utility rebates, programs to replace or to audit and modify equipment, appliance ratings as part of home-efficiency ratings, advertising, and public procurements. A research agenda stresses field performance, analytical work, data gathering, and program evaluation. Economic analyses of return on investment, the cost of conserved energy, and early retirement appear in an appendix. 216 references, 14 figures, 15 tables.

Geller, H.S.

1983-01-01

64

Appliances and Thermometers  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Safety Fact Sheets / Appliances and Thermometers Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

65

Direct evidence of strongly inhomogeneous energy deposition in target heating with laser-produced ion beams  

SciTech Connect

We report on strong nonuniformities in target heating with intense, laser-produced proton beams. The observed inhomogeneity in energy deposition can strongly perturb equation of state (EOS) measurements with laser-accelerated ions which are planned in several laboratories. Interferometric measurements of the target expansion show different expansion velocities on the front and rear surfaces, indicating a strong difference in local temperature. The nonuniformity indicates at an additional heating mechanism, which seems to originate from electrons in the keV range.

Brambrink, E.; Audebert, P. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI), Unite Mixte No. 7605 CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique-Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Palaiseau (France); Schlegel, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Malka, G.; Aleonard, M. M.; Claverie, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Scheurer, J. N.; Tarisien, M. [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, 33175 Gradignan (France); Amthor, K. U. [Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany); Meot, V.; Morel, P. [CEA/DAM, Ile de France, Boite Postale 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Nicolai, P.; Tikhonchuk, V. [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 33175 Gradignan (France)

2007-06-15

66

Appliance energy efficiency in new home construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of 224 builders was conducted to which 160 builders responded. Each respondent completed between one and seven separate questionnaires. Each of the seven questionnaires were designed to collect information about one type of equipment or major appliance. These are: heat pump; heating system; air conditioner; domestic water heater; dishwasher; range; and refrigerator. Analyses of the resulting 406 questionnaires indicated that builders were primarily responsible for brand selection. These choices were made primarily without regard for the secondary efficiency of the product. A similar apparent lack of consideration of energy efficiency during brand and model selection was found among home buyers and specialized subcontractors.

1980-11-01

67

Limits Imposed on Heat Produced during Core Formation by Radiative Transfer Processes and Thermodynamic Laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The popular view that Earth is sufficiently hot to still be shedding primordal heat, largely originating in the core, is inconsistent with thermodynamic constraints and recent heat transport studies. Previous work presumes that the large difference in gravitational potential energy (Ug) between a fictious, homogeneous reference state and Earth’s current layered configuration of metallic core and rocky mantle was converted to frictional heat during core formation, greatly increasing temperature (T) inside the Earth. However, heating (?T >0) was deduced by assuming that Ug is positive, which is inconsistent with Newton’s law of gravitation. Use of an erroneous sign for ?Ug has prevented recognition that the process is an exothermic transformation. Thermodynamic principles were not considered in previous analyses: neglecting the effect of the change in configuration on entropy and energy contributes greatly to the view that heat is retained. Instead, stringent limits are set on the permissible temperature increase by the rapid rate of ballistic radiative transfer, a process associated with transient events, as well as by the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics. In the static, instantaneous model of core formation, configurational entropy (S) of the Earth decreases upon forming the ordered layered state; this entropy decrease is offset by a greater increase in S of the surrounding universe, which can only be accomplished by release of heat to space (the surroundings). Instantaneous dissipation of heat in the static model reasonably approximates radiative processes being superfast. Core formation involves negligible changes in volume and rotational energy, so Helmholtz free energy (=Ug-TS) is conserved, as in atmospheric processes and other graviational-thermodynamic problems. Because S of the universe is immense and heat must flow from hotter to colder bodies, negligible heat from core formation is retained, consistent with the exothermic nature of this transition. Irreversibility does not permit heat retention; instead, more local order is produced while more entropy and energy are transferred to the surroundings. We also consider a dynamic model, wherein the core forms via settling in boundary layers inside the convecting planet. For this case, the work performed is small, as is the amount of heat evolved. Small rises in T are dissipated in accord with the 2nd law. Furthermore, the maximum amount of heat that could have been produced was limited by inhomogeneity during accretion, and by the size and temperature of the proto-Earth when its core formed. Core heating is unimportant under all circumstances. Instead, core formation hastens planetary cooling, due to segregation of radioactive elements towards the surface.

Criss, R. E.; Hofmeister, A.

2010-12-01

68

Simple heat treatments to produce ferrite and pearlite. Part 1: Full annealing and normalizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Casting, welding, forging, rolling and other manufacturing processes may produce parts having nonuniform microstructures and, thus, nonuniform properties. An important example of this relationship is solidification segregation of the alloying elements in steel castings, which often results in poor properties. However, the proper heat treatment may enhance the properties of such castings and virtually eliminate the detrimental effects of nonuniform

1995-01-01

69

Heat Resistant Proteases Produced in Milk by Psychrotorophic Bacteria of Dairy Origin1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of heat resistant proteases by psychrotrophs growing in milk, resist- ance of such proteases to ultrahigh tem- perature treatments and action of these enzymes on milk were studied. All of the psychrotrophs obtained from raw milk produced proteases that survived 149 C for 10 s. Seventy to ninety percent of the raw milk samples contained psychro- trophs capable of

D. M. Adams; J. T. Barach; M. L. Speck

1975-01-01

70

Measurements of radial heat wave propagation in laser-produced exploding-foil plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Time-resolved, 2D images of x-ray emission from thin, laser-irradiated titanium foils are presented. The foils are irradiated with 0.35 [mu]m light at intensities of 1[times]10[sup 15] W/cm[sup 2] which produces a plasma with electron densities [le]10[sup 22] cm[sup [minus]3] and electron temperature of 3--4 keV. X-ray emission that is characteristic of the thermal heat front is observed to propagate radially outward from the heated region. Comparison of these measurements with 2D hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment suggests the radial heat flux to be about 3% of the free-streaming heat flux.

Montgomery, D.S.; Landen, O.L.; Drake, R.P.; Estabrook, K.G.; Baldis, H.A.; Batha, S.H.; Bradley, K.S.; Procassini, R.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States) Plasma Physics Research Institute, University of California Davis, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States) Department of Applied Science, University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States))

1994-10-10

71

Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

72

Personal Fuel Appliance  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress made in Phase I of Stuart's Personal Fueling Appliance Program. Phase I concluded in March 2002 with the demonstration and deployment of several working models. As proposed in the original project plan, working models of the PFA were built to prove feasibility and technically market the concept. Future follow up phases of the project, Phase II and III, will take the concept through prototyping development to pre-production of commercially viable product. The Phase I program successfully demonstrate a home fueling system capable of running on a household circuit, 220V/40 Amp/single phase or equivalent. Connected to a source of ''drinking water'' the system has all the functions necessary to convert water and electricity to high-pressure hydrogen fuel. Pressures of up to 3600 psig were achieved on demonstration systems and higher pressures up to 5000 psig were achieved in the lab. The development program spanned building 3 series of prototypes: White Box (1 unit built 1998), PFA Series 100 (4 units built 1999-2000), and Series 200 (6 units built 2000-02). Advanced in controls and process learned in the PFA program have been embodied in Stuart's larger fuel appliances.

Stuart Energy

2003-12-30

73

Heat resistance of histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated tuna loins.  

PubMed

Consumption of foods high in biogenic amines leads to an illness known as histamine, or scombrotoxin, poisoning. The illness is commonly associated with consumption of fish with high levels of histamine ( $ 500 ppm). The objective of this study was to determine and compare the heat resistance of five histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated albacore tuna loins. Heat-resistance parameters (D- and z-values) were determined for Morganella morganii, Raoultella planticola, Hafnia alvei, and Enterobacter aerogenes. D- or z-values were not determined for Photobacterium damselae, which was the most heat-sensitive organism in this study. P. damselae declined > 5.9 log CFU/g after a heat treatment of 50°C for 10 min, 54°C for 3 min, and 56°C for 0.5 min. M. morganii was the most heat-resistant histamine-producing bacteria in albacore tuna loins, followed by E. aerogenes, H. alvei, and R. planticola. M. morganii and E. aerogenes had the highest D(50°C), 49.7 ± 17.57 and 51.8 ± 17.38 min, respectively. In addition, M. morganii had the highest D-values for all other temperatures (54, 56, and 58°C) tested. D- and zvalues were also determined for M. morganii in skipjack tuna. While no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed between D(54°C) and D(56°C) of M. morganii in either albacore or skipjack tuna, the D(58°C) (0.4 ± 0.17 min) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in skipjack than in albacore (0.9 ± 0.24 min). The z-values for all organisms tested were in the range of 3.2 to 3.8°C. This study suggests that heat treatment designed to control M. morganii in tuna loins is sufficient for controlling histamine-producing bacteria in canned-tuna processing environments. PMID:23992506

Enache, Elena; Kataoka, Ai; Black, D Glenn; Weddig, Lisa; Hayman, Melinda; Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin

2013-09-01

74

SiC/C nanocable structure produced in silicon carbide by arc plasma heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defect-free and long SiC/C nanocables have been produced by heating SiC powder at 3000°C by employing dc arc plasma (Ar) in a specially designed configuration of graphite arc. Microstructural characterizations of the heat-treated powder carried out by TEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, and micro Raman spectroscopy showed the nanocables to consist of a SiC shell/sheath stuffed with wire type solid C core. A possible mechanism is discussed to explain the cable-type growth.

Nayak, B. B.

2012-01-01

75

Heating dynamics and extreme ultraviolet radiation emission of laser-produced Sn plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The impact of 1.064 mum laser absorption depth on the heating and in-band (2% bandwidth) 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emissions in Sn plasmas is investigated experimentally and numerically. In-band emission lasting longer than the laser pulse and separation between the laser absorption and in-band emission region are observed. Maximum efficiency is achieved by additional heating of the core of the plasma to allow the optimal temperature to expand to a lower and more optically thin density. This leads to higher temperature plasma that emits less in-band light as compared to CO{sub 2} produced plasma sources for the same application.

Yuspeh, S.; Sequoia, K. L.; Tao, Y.; Tillack, M. S.; Burdt, R. A.; Najmabadi, F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

2010-06-28

76

Adult leukemia risk and personal appliance use: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that use of personal electric appliances may be associated with increased risk of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in adults was tested using interview data from a previously completed case-control study of 114 cases and 133 controls conducted between 1981 and 1984. Cases were obtained from a population-based cancer registry in western Washington state, and controls were obtained from the same area by random digit dialing. Of 32 electrical home appliances for which data on use were available for adult acute nonlymphocytic leukemia cases and controls, three motor-driven personal appliances (electric razors, hair dryers, and massage units) were selected a priori because their use represents exposure to higher peak magnetic fields than that from most other home appliances. When compared on an "ever used" versus "never used" basis, use of one or more of these appliances was not associated with increased risk of leukemia in the population studied (odds ratio (OR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-1.24). When the appliances were considered individually, massage units were more likely to have been used by cases than by controls (OR = 3.00, 95% CI 1.43-6.32), while hair dryers were more likely to have been used by controls than cases (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.22-0.66). There was a nonsignificant tendency for electric razor use to differentiate the cases from controls (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 0.80-2.23). When reported daily time of use was stratified, there was no overall increased risk with increased time of use except for electric razors (p < 0.05). In addition to the analysis of appliance use data from the case-control study, the authors obtained several models of these motor-driven personal appliances and characterized the magnetic fields they produce. Magnetic field flux density, or the B-field, and spectral measurements showed that partial body exposure from such appliances may exceed 0.5 mTesla (root mean squared) at rates-of-change exceeding 10 Tesla/sec. These epidemiologic data must be interpreted cautiously because the number of cases is limited and because of proxy reporting of appliance use for deceased cases. Nevertheless, the authors believe these data indicate that peak magnetic field exposure from personal appliances warrants further investigation as a possible risk factor for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in adults. PMID:8067344

Lovely, R H; Buschbom, R L; Slavich, A L; Anderson, L E; Hansen, N H; Wilson, B W

1994-09-15

77

Causes and Consequences of Backdrafting of Vented Gas Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

House depressurization occurs when household equipment such as a kitchen or bathroom fan or a fireplace exhausts air from the house and lowers the pressure indoors with respect to the outside. The operation of air handlers for forced-air heating or cooling systems also can have a depressurization effect. This depressurization can hinder the natural draft from vented combustion appliances and

Niren L. Nagda; Michael D. Koontz; Irwin H. Billick; Neil P. Leslie; David W. Behrens

1996-01-01

78

Gas appliance and installation quality  

SciTech Connect

British Gas plc only sells and installs domestic gas appliances which conform to the requirements of a third party certification scheme. This involves type testing of appliance prototypes, assessment of the manufacturers quality system and quality auditing of production appliances. This certification is augmented by additional quality auditing of appliances both in the factory and at British Gas warehouses. In order to achieve the quality objectives of safety and customer satisfaction comprehensive installation procedures and practices have been developed which are designed to deal with large installation and servicing workload. The quality standards achieved are independently assessed by market research into customers reactions. This competence of service engineers is maintained and enhanced by regular training and education and high standards of performance at regional and local level are rewarded through annual national competitions.

Dance, E.W.G.; Mulholland, P.M.

1988-01-01

79

Net Shape Fins for Compact Heat Exchanger Produced by Cold Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work explores the manufacturability of pyramidal fin arrays produced using the cold spray process. Near-net shaped pyramidal fin arrays of various sizes and fin densities were manufactured using masks made of commercially available steel wire mesh. The feedstock powders used to produce the fins are characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Obstruction of the masks was investigated. The standoff distances between the substrate, mesh, and nozzle were empirically determined. Fin array characterization was performed using digital microscopy. The fin arrays' heat transfer performance was assessed experimentally for a range of Reynolds number relevant to the application sought. The fins produced using the cold spray process outperform traditional straight (rectangular) fins at the same fin density and it is hypothesized that this is due to increased fluid mixing and turbulence.

Cormier, Yannick; Dupuis, Philippe; Jodoin, Bertrand; Corbeil, Antoine

2013-10-01

80

Life Cycle Analysis of High Quality Recycled Aggregate Produced byHeating and Rubbing Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of demolished concrete is recycled as road subbase, but its generation is expected to increase rapidly and exceed the demand of road subbase in a near future. To promote the recycling of concrete, the technology to produce high quality recycled aggregate by the heating and rubbing method has been developed. In this method, demolished concrete is heated up to about 300°C in a heater to make cement paste brittle with its dehydration. The heated concrete is then rubbed in two mills to recover the recycled aggregate, while the paste is removed from the surface of aggregate and collected as cement fine powder. In this method, much energy is consumed to heat and rub concrete; however, the cement fine powder is utilized for a soil stabilizer and cement raw materials, so that the environmental load is reduced in cement manufacturing. The life cycle analysis of the recycled aggregate is carried out to evaluate this technology. As a result, the life cycle CO2 is a negative value because the deduction of CO2 emission in cement manufacturing by the powder is much large. This technology is proved to be very effective to reduce CO2.

Shima, Hirokazu; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Tateyashiki, Hisashi

81

Novel Stacked Wire Mesh Compact Heat Exchangers Produced Using Cold Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the feasibility of using the pulsed gas dynamic spraying (PGDS) process to deposit metal powder on the outer surfaces of metal wire mesh wafers for use as high-performance compact heat exchangers. Plain-square weave woven mesh produced from stainless steel wires were stacked and sintered to form wire mesh bricks, which were then cut into wafers. The outer surfaces of the wafers were sealed using the PGDS deposition technique as opposed to the more traditional brazing sheet solution. This approach provides more intimate contact between the mesh wire tips and sealed surface, thereby promoting conduction through the outer walls and improving the heat exchanger efficiency. In addition, PGDS is an attractive alternative to brazing sheets for this application because of its potential for reduced manufacturing costs. Burst and tensile tests of the PGDS coated wafers were carried out.

Assaad, Jamil; Corbeil, Antoine; Richer, Patrick F.; Jodoin, Bertrand

2011-12-01

82

Using finite difference to solve heat removal in metallic sections industrially produced  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is dedicated to analyze the heat removal phenomena during the simulation of the continuous casting process of the steel squared sections; it is a useful method to produce big mounts of steel and some other metals such as aluminum. Radiation, forced convection and thermal conduction are the physical phenomena involved. The method used to solve the heat removal and distribution is a finite difference. Steel is discretized using a regular squared mesh. Here a 3D problem is simplified to a 2D in which every node represents a 3D steel volume, but the assumptions are appropriately justified in order to reduce computing time without sacrifice precision on calculation. The efficiency of the method is also evaluated and alternatives to improve the approaching and results are commented.

Ramírez-López, A.; Muñoz-Negron, D.; Palomar-Pardeve, M.; Romero-Romo, M. A.; Cruz-Morales, V.

2012-09-01

83

Heat pipe process could produce syncrude for operating cost of $13. 32/barrel  

SciTech Connect

Work at the University of Utah has been focused on a two-stage fluidized bed process utilizing heat pipes for retorting Utah tar sands. In the first zone, bitumen is pyrolyzed at 450-550/sup 0/C to produce coke and a gas, which when condensed yields a synthetic crude oil that can be upgraded and then blended with conventional crude oils. The remaining sand, coated with coke, is transported to a second zone, where the coke is combusted at 550/sup 0/C or higher with air or enriched oxygen. Energy is required in the pyrolysis zone to preheat the tar sand and to supply the endothermic heat of pyrolysis. This energy can be obtained from the combustion zone, where exothermic reactions occur. Process efficiency, process design, and an economic evaluation are discussed. 2 figures, 4 tables.

Not Available

1986-12-01

84

Domestic refrigeration appliances in Poland: Potential for improving energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This report is based on information collected from the main Polish manufacturer of refrigeration appliances. We describe their production facilities, and show that the energy consumption of their models for domestic sale is substantially higher than the average for similar models made in W. Europe. Lack of data and uncertainty about future production costs in Poland limits our evaluation of the cost-effective potential to increase energy efficiency, but it appears likely that considerable improvement would be economic from a societal perspective. Many design options are likely to have a simple payback of less than five years. We found that the production facilities are in need of substantial modernization in order to produce higher quality and more efficient appliances. We discuss policy options that could help to build a market for more efficient appliances in Poland and thereby encourage investment to produce such equipment.

Meyers, S.; Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lebot, B. [Agence de l`Environnement and de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 6 - Sophia Antipolis (France)

1993-08-01

85

Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1985-04-03

86

Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

Meek, Thomas T. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1987-01-01

87

Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate. 2 figs.

Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1987-09-22

88

On the frequency dependence of ELF/VLF waves produced by modulated ionospheric heating  

SciTech Connect

Results for local field strength and apparent source height as a function of frequency from 200-6600 Hz were obtained for ELF/VLF waves produced in the auroral D region through modulated RF heating. Besides the normal amplitude peaks near 2, 4, and 6 kHz, the occasional presence of peaks is noted at intermediate frequencies, particularly in the right-hand circularly polarized mode. A model involving a full-wave solution of the ELF/VLF waves produced by the self-consistently calculated source currents, and corrected for the effects of finite source current extent and multiple earth-ionosphere reflections, is shown to accurately reproduce the measured amplitudes and source heights about 600 Hz, but to increasingly underestimate the measured amplitudes below this value. 15 refs.

Rietveld, M.T.; Stubbe, P.; Kopka, H. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany, F.R.))

1989-06-01

89

Beam heated linear theta-pinch device for producing hot plasmas  

DOEpatents

A device for producing hot plasmas comprising a single turn theta-pinch coil, a fast discharge capacitor bank connected to the coil, a fuel element disposed along the center axis of the coil, a predetermined gas disposed within the theta-pinch coil, and a high power photon, electron or ion beam generator concentrically aligned to the theta-pinch coil. Discharge of the capacitor bank generates a cylindrical plasma sheath within the theta-pinch coil which heats the outer layer of the fuel element to form a fuel element plasma layer. The beam deposits energy in either the cylindrical plasma sheath or the fuel element plasma layer to assist the implosion of the fuel element to produce a hot plasma.

Bohachevsky, Ihor O. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

90

Heat treatment effects on mechanical behavior of copper-nickel-tin produced via powder metallurgy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain spring applications require a material with a combination of high strength, stiffness, and electrical conductivity. An alloy, Cu-15wt%Ni-8wt%Sn, formed via a powder metallurgy process, is one of several copper-based alloys which can be heat treated/processed to form a metallic nano-structured alloy with good combinations of yield strength and electrical conductivity. For certain heat treatment conditions, this alloy decomposes spinodally from a face centered cubic disordered phase to form tin-rich and tin-lean composition fluctuations that are 10-100nm thick. Additional time at temperature produces ordering of the tin-rich regions. Uniaxial tensile tests have been used to identify the aging conditions with the highest yield strength. The uniaxial tensile and fully-reversed, flexural fatigue properties of the various heat-treated conditions were compared with observed fracture surfaces to characterize the failure mechanisms of the various time and temperature evolved microstructures. The mechanical properties have been correlated with structural information obtained from a variety of different techniques. Optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy, resistivity.

Caris, Joshua Benjamin

91

Assessment of high heat-transfer evaporators as power plant condensers to produce abundant freshwater  

SciTech Connect

Energy requirements to produce abundant freshwater from saline water sources suggests the use of high heat-transfer evaporative condensers in power plants where sufficient waste heat is available for distillation. Review of current existence of such dual-purpose plants as well as a discussion of planning for future designs is presented. Computer programs utilizing available engineering equations and cost analysis for multieffect distillation plants have been developed and are presented with example problems. They are particularly useful for analysis of existing designs, and an additional computer code for optimization of new designs has been developed. The examples show appreciable improvement in lowering unit water cost of the product, as well as adjusting such variables as temperature, mass flow rates and evaporator areas. Preliminary computerized calculations show that a two-effect evaporator unit condensing 7 million pounds per hour of steam from a 1,000 MW power plant would produce 23 million gallons per day of freshwater at a cost of less than $1 per thousand gallons.

Laird, A.D.K.; Frisch, J.; Ensler, E.

1982-01-01

92

Method and apparatus for producing electrical power and for the simultaneous heating of fluid, utilizing a magnetohydrodynamic generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is provided a method and an apparatus for producing electrical power and for the simultaneous heating of fluid by means of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. The method comprises providing a heating means for heating a mixture of liquid metal and an organic liquid to form a two-phase liquid metal-vapor flow, directing the two-phase liquid metal-vapor through a MHD-generator to

Branover

1983-01-01

93

Market Evaluation for Advanced Integrated Appliances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attitudes of homebuilders, appliance manufacturers, and appliance distributors, as well as existing consumer data were surveyed to assess the market constraints to introducing potentially space efficient and energy saving integrated residential gas applia...

M. Novil

1985-01-01

94

Molar distalization with the Herbst appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the dental effects of the Herbst appliance as well as itslong-term effects on the dentition. The Herbst appliance exhibits a pronounced high-pull headgear effect on the maxillary molars. Without retention, the molars tend to return to their former anteroposterior positions after the removal of the appliance. These distal movements of the maxillary molars are favorable in Class

Meson Lai

2000-01-01

95

Virtual Appliances for Deploying and Maintaining Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to address the complexity of system administration by making the labor of applying soft- ware updates independent of the number of computers on which the software is run. Complete networks of machines are packaged up as data; we refer to them as virtual appliances. The publisher of an appliance con- trols the software installed on the appliance,

Constantine P. Sapuntzakis; David Brumley; Ramesh Chandra; Nickolai Zeldovich; Jim Chow; Monica S. Lam; Mendel Rosenblum

2003-01-01

96

Timing the Use of Household Appliances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to clarify the situation regarding possibilities for timing the use of household appliances from the point of view of both the user and appliance technology. The study dealt with the use of household appliances in households w...

R. Sotku

1989-01-01

97

Stereospecificity in hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of four ginsenosides produced by heat processing.  

PubMed

The activity-guided fractionation of sun ginseng (SG, heat processed Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer at 120 degrees C) was carried out to identify its main active hydroxyl radical (*OH) scavenging components. As a result, the n-BuOH fraction mainly consisting of ginsenosides showed the strongest activity. Of several ginsenosides of SG, the *OH scavenging activities of relatively high contents of 20(S)-Rg(3), 20(R)-Rg(3), Rk(1), and Rg(5) were compared. Rg(5) and 20(S)-Rg(3) showed strong *OH scavenging IC(50) values of 0.15 and 0.44 mM, respectively, and these activities were prominently higher than each of their respective isomers. Therefore, stereospecificity exists in the *OH scavenging activities of ginsenosides produced by heat processing. Especially, the double bond at carbon-20(22) or the OH group at carbon-20 geometrically close to OH at carbon-12 is thought to increase the *OH scavenging activity of ginsenosides. PMID:16901695

Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Hyun Young; Yamabe, Noriko; Yokozawa, Takako

2006-08-09

98

Process for utilizing the waste heat content of condensate and/or vapor produced in the manufacture of sugar  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for utilizing the waste heat content of condensate and/or vapor produced in the manufacture of sugar in which thin juice is cooled, subjected to one or more stages of flash evaporation to concentrate and further cool the juice, after which it is heated with condensate and/or vapor produced elsewhere in the sugar manufacturing process and with incoming thin juice thereby heating the outgoing juice to substantially its original temperature and providing the cooling of the incoming thin juice. In another embodiment completely purified thin juice is concentrated in a multiple effect evaporating plant wherein the vapor produced in the final evaporator is compressed and is returned selectively to one of the preceding evaporators of the evaporating plant for use in heating the juice.

Huber, H.; Schiweck, H.

1981-09-22

99

Sensor-based information appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the existing home infrastructure based on open industry standards, we will be able to integrate the home network with external networks to easily manage home devices, both locally and remotely. The advent of pervasive computing marks an urgent need for a new generation of intelligent sensing agents and information appliances. It will also demand environments for resource management of

Emil M. Petriu; Nicolas D. Georganas; Dorina C. Petriu; Dimitrios Makrakis; Voicu Z. Groza

2000-01-01

100

Power-Aware Information Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, there has been tremendous growth in the popularity of personal electronics, including cellular phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), MP3 players, and digital cameras. In the future these devices will connect a variety of appliances and other devices to themselves and to the Internet through wireless ad hoc networks. Some of these devices will be relatively

Bruce R. Childers; Pat Bohrer

101

How to build smart appliances?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article smart appliances are characterized as devices that are attentive to their environment. We introduce a terminology for situation, sensor data, context, and context-aware applications because it is important to gain a thorough understanding of these concepts to successfully build such artifacts. In the article the relation between a real-world situation and the data read by sensors is

Albrecht Schmidt; Kristof Van Laerhoven

2001-01-01

102

Temperature fields and thermal stresses produced by unsteady induction heating of hollow cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorrect heating conditions during local induction annealing of welded seams may lead to the appearance of high thermal stresses and to the formation of cracks. A specific characteristic of induction heating of metals is nonuniform distribution of heat sources along the thickness of the object heated, which is especially marked in the case of magnetic materials characterized by a small

Ya. S. Podstrigach; Z. I. Goryacheva; B. I. Kolodii; G. V. Plyatsko; A. N. Komarov

1973-01-01

103

Spotlight on the microbes that produce heat shock protein 90-targeting antibiotics.  

PubMed

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a promising cancer drug target as a molecular chaperone critical for stabilization and activation of several of the oncoproteins that drive cancer progression. Its actions depend upon its essential ATPase, an activity fortuitously inhibited with a very high degree of selectivity by natural antibiotics: notably the actinomycete-derived benzoquinone ansamycins (e.g. geldanamycin) and certain fungal-derived resorcyclic acid lactones (e.g. radicicol). The molecular interactions made by these antibiotics when bound within the ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90 have served as templates for the development of several synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor drugs. Much attention now focuses on the clinical trials of these drugs. However, because microbes have evolved antibiotics to target Hsp90, it is probable that they often exploit Hsp90 inhibition when interacting with each other and with plants. Fungi known to produce Hsp90 inhibitors include mycoparasitic, as well as plant-pathogenic, endophytic and mycorrhizal species. The Hsp90 chaperone may, therefore, be a prominent target in establishing a number of mycoparasitic (interfungal), fungal pathogen-plant and symbiotic fungus-plant relationships. Furthermore the Hsp90 family proteins of the microbes that produce Hsp90 inhibitor antibiotics are able to reveal how drug resistance can arise by amino acid changes in the highly conserved ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90. PMID:23271830

Piper, Peter W; Millson, Stefan H

2012-12-12

104

Spotlight on the microbes that produce heat shock protein 90-targeting antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a promising cancer drug target as a molecular chaperone critical for stabilization and activation of several of the oncoproteins that drive cancer progression. Its actions depend upon its essential ATPase, an activity fortuitously inhibited with a very high degree of selectivity by natural antibiotics: notably the actinomycete-derived benzoquinone ansamycins (e.g. geldanamycin) and certain fungal-derived resorcyclic acid lactones (e.g. radicicol). The molecular interactions made by these antibiotics when bound within the ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90 have served as templates for the development of several synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor drugs. Much attention now focuses on the clinical trials of these drugs. However, because microbes have evolved antibiotics to target Hsp90, it is probable that they often exploit Hsp90 inhibition when interacting with each other and with plants. Fungi known to produce Hsp90 inhibitors include mycoparasitic, as well as plant-pathogenic, endophytic and mycorrhizal species. The Hsp90 chaperone may, therefore, be a prominent target in establishing a number of mycoparasitic (interfungal), fungal pathogen–plant and symbiotic fungus–plant relationships. Furthermore the Hsp90 family proteins of the microbes that produce Hsp90 inhibitor antibiotics are able to reveal how drug resistance can arise by amino acid changes in the highly conserved ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90.

Piper, Peter W.; Millson, Stefan H.

2012-01-01

105

Microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances from laboratories and impact of clinical storage.  

PubMed

Decontamination of dental instruments has recently been the subject of considerable debate. However, little information is available on the potential bacterial colonisation of dental appliances returning from dental laboratories and their need for decontamination. This study investigated the extent and nature of microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances produced at different dental laboratories and stored in two clinical teaching units (CTU 1 and CTU 2) of a dental hospital and school. Forty consecutive dental prosthodontic appliances that were being stored under varying conditions in the two clinical teaching units were selected for study; the appliances having been produced 'in-house' (hospital laboratory) or 'out-of-house' (external commercial laboratory). Two appliances, that were known to have undergone decontamination before storage, were used as controls. Swabs were taken according to a standard protocol and transferred to the microbiological laboratory with bacterial growth expressed as colony forming units (cfu) per cm(2). Microbial sampling yielded growth from 23 (58%) of the 40 appliances studied (CTU 1, n = 22; CTU 2, n = 18), with 38% of these having a high level of contamination (>42,000 cfu/cm(2)). The predominant bacteria isolated were Bacillus spp. (57%), pseudomonads (22%) and staphylococci (13%). Fungi of the genus Candida were detected in 38% of the samples. There was no significant difference in contamination of the appliances in relation to either their place of production or the CTU (p >0.05). However, the level of contamination was significantly higher (p = 0.035) for those appliances stored in plastic bag with fluid (n = 16) compared to those stored on models (n = 19). No growth was recovered from the two appliances that had undergone decontamination before storage. The research showed that appliances received from laboratories are often contaminated and therefore there is a need for routine disinfection of such items before use and a review of storage conditions required. PMID:21869790

Williams, D W; Chamary, N; Lewis, M A O; Milward, P J; McAndrew, R

2011-08-26

106

Gas Appliance Technology Center. Annual report, January 1985-December 1985  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the activity during the third year of Gas Research Insitute's Gas Appliance Technology Center program. The report highlights the work done in assessing, evaluating, developing and demonstrating improved concepts in the areas of gas-fired residential/commercial appliances and residential/commercial space-conditioning systems. Specific development work pertaining to low-NOx ovens, commercial steamers and doughnut fryers is described. The extensive work done on corrosion of heat exchangers, removal of NO/sub 2/ from indoor air, emissions and venting, characterization of space heaters and development of advanced burner systems is covered. The results of several studies and laboratory evaluations of state-of-the-art appliances, including integrated appliances, performance test procedures, use of 2 psig gas in residential distribution systems, use of plumbing vents for venting flue products, schoolroom heaters and Btu meters are presented. Information is included on the Energy Research House, recently acquired in the Chicago area, and the characterization studies proposed on this and other houses.

Jayaraman, V.

1987-08-01

107

Reports Published by the Gas Research Institute in the Area of Gas Appliances: Bibliography and Abstracts Update through Mid-1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The updated bibliography contains citations of reports published by the Gas Research Institute pertaining to residential and commercial gas appliances and space conditioning equipment. It does not include heat pumps or cogeneration. The reports are listed...

M. J. Murphy D. W. Locklin O. D. Johnson V. J. Brown

1990-01-01

108

Isolation and epidemiological characterization of heat-labile enterotoxin-producing Escherichia fergusonii from healthy chickens.  

PubMed

Escherichia fergusonii has been associated with a wide variety of intestinal and extraintestinal infections in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)-producing E. fergusonii in healthy chickens and its plasmid-mediated LT toxin gene transfer to other Enterobacteriaceae. We tested faecal samples from 184 chicken flocks (consisting of 109 broilers and 75 layers) of 78 commercial chicken farms for the presence of the LT gene using a polymerase chain reaction-based screening and identified samples from 43 flocks (23.4%) as positive for the LT gene. We subsequently isolated and identified E. fergusonii harboring the LT gene from all LT-positive samples and observed 21 various biochemical types. The plasmids encoding LT in 16 (37.2%) of the 43 isolates were conjugally transferred to the recipient strain Escherichia coli J53. Southern hybridization showed that all plasmids from the transconjugants carried the eltAB gene (Ent plasmid) and belonged to the narrow-host-range IncF type. In addition, all the E. fergusonii strains identified were classified into 17 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types, and it is likely that there was an association between the PFGE types and geographical location or breed of flocks. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that LT-producing E. fergusonii strains were present in the faeces of healthy chickens and that plasmid-mediated virulence genes can be transferred to E. coli and may have a great potential to cause human disease. PMID:22771038

Oh, Jae-Young; Kang, Min-Su; An, Byung-Ki; Shin, Eun-Gyeong; Kim, Mi-Jin; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Kwon, Yong-Kuk

2012-06-01

109

Functional Diversity of Heat-labile Toxins (LT) Produced by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Heat-labile toxins (LTs) have ADP-ribosylation activity and induce the secretory diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains in different mammalian hosts. LTs also act as adjuvants following delivery via mucosal, parenteral, or transcutaneous routes. Previously we have shown that LT produced by human-derived ETEC strains encompass a group of 16 polymorphic variants, including the reference toxin (LT1 or hLT) produced by the H10407 strain and one variant that is found mainly among bacterial strains isolated from pigs (LT4 or pLT). Herein, we show that LT4 (with six polymorphic sites in the A (K4R, K213E, and N238D) and B (S4T, A46E, and E102K) subunits) displays differential in vitro toxicity and in vivo adjuvant activities compared with LT1. One in vitro generated LT mutant (LTK4R), in which the lysine at position 4 of the A subunit was replaced by arginine, showed most of the LT4 features with an ?10-fold reduction of the cytotonic effects, ADP-ribosylation activity, and accumulation of intracellular cAMP in Y1 cells. Molecular dynamic studies of the A subunit showed that the K4R replacement reduces the N-terminal region flexibility and decreases the catalytic site crevice. Noticeably, LT4 showed a stronger Th1-biased adjuvant activity with regard to LT1, particularly concerning activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes when delivered via the intranasal route. Our results further emphasize the relevance of LT polymorphism among human-derived ETEC strains that may impact both the pathogenicity of the bacterial strain and the use of these toxins as potential vaccine adjuvants.

Rodrigues, Juliana F.; Mathias-Santos, Camila; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria Elisabete; Amorim, Jaime H.; Cabrera-Crespo, Joaquim; Balan, Andrea; Ferreira, Luis C. S.

2011-01-01

110

Characteristic Properties of a Locally Produced Paraffinic Oil and Its Suitability as a Heat-Transfer Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermo-physical properties of a paraffinic mineral oil produced in a local refinery were experimentally determined over a wide temperature range of 30–360°C to determine its suitability for use as a heat-transfer fluid. The effect of temperature on the physical characteristics of the oil and two synthetic organic heat transfer fluids was evaluated at high temperatures (180–360°C). Comparison of the

L. O. Oyekunle; A. A. Susu

2005-01-01

111

Leaking electricity in domestic appliances  

SciTech Connect

Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost.

Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

1999-05-01

112

Status of European appliance standards  

SciTech Connect

The European Community (EC) recently commissioned a study of the impact of potential appliance standards on electricity consumption in the twelve EC nations. This study looks at refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The impact of minimum efficiency standards on electricity use over the time period from 1995--2010 is estimated. The results of this study were presented to the EC in September of 1991. Revisions were made to the draft report and final copies sent to all interested parties. The member nations of the EC will soon consider whether they wish to implement uniform energy efficiency standards that would take effect in 1995. The results of the study described above will be presented and the political considerations will be discussed. In addition, data describing the appliance market in Europe will be presented.

Turiel, I. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Lebot, B. (Agence de L'Environnement et de la Maitrise de L'Energie, Valbonne (France))

1992-05-01

113

MELBA MEditerranean Lagrangian Buoy Appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MEditerranean Lagrangian Buoy Appliance project (MELBA) is a project oriented towards the realisation of an instrument (buoy) for the Mediterranean area, which presents restricted spatial dimensions in many cases associated with a high variability of sea depth. The dynamics of the body-of-water flux, in the Mediterranean area, is affected by the deep-sea and coastal line variability. The MELBA project

Fiorello Cavallini; D. Maffei; R. dell'Erba

2001-01-01

114

Service portability of networked appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This document ,outlines an approach ,for delivering services to Networked ,Appliances using techniques that allow mobility of these ,services both in a ,conventional location independent sense and between,physical devices. Key requirements to address this market are identified and the document,then goes on to present a technical solution tomeet,these ,requirements ,together ,with ,worked examples. It concludes with suggestions for further

S. Moyer; D. Maples; S. Tsang; A. Ghosh

2002-01-01

115

Achieving enhanced product EMC in high volume home appliance manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

EMC performance of an appliance is not only a sign of regulatory compliance and also a sign of the quality of the appliance at the same time. Since the number of appliances and the electronics used in these appliances is increasing rapidly, achieving regulatory compliances and company specific quality specifications are becoming very hard for high volume appliance manufacturer. When

C. Kural; Y. Ercil

2003-01-01

116

Method and apparatus for producing electrical power and for the simultaneous heating of fluid, utilizing a magnetohydrodynamic generator  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a method and an apparatus for producing electrical power and for the simultaneous heating of fluid by means of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. The method comprises providing a heating means for heating a mixture of liquid metal and an organic liquid to form a two-phase liquid metal-vapor flow, directing the two-phase liquid metal-vapor through a MHD-generator to generate electricity, condensing the vapor phase from the two-phase liquid metal-vapor to form liquid metal carrying organic liquid droplets, and recycling the metal and organic liquid droplets to be reheated by the heating means. The mhd apparatus comprises a closed duct system containing a mixture of liquid metal and an organic liquid, a heating means for heating the mixture in the closed system, a mhd-generator, located along the flow path of a two-phase liquid metal-vapor flow formed by the heated mixture, means for condensing the twophase flow to form a single phase flow of metal liquid containing organic liquid droplets, and means for propelling the singlephase flow to be reheated by the heating means.

Branover, H.

1983-04-26

117

Mathematical Modeling Procedures for Airflow, Heat and Mass Transfer During Forced Convection Cooling of Produce: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review paper is to give comprehensive and detailed mathematical modeling procedures for the airflow, heat\\u000a and mass transfer occurred during forced convection cooling of produce in order to optimize the cooling process. First, a\\u000a brief explanation of forced-air precooling process and its importance in improving produce market quality will be given. Then,\\u000a two main modeling procedures

Jalal Dehghannya; Michael Ngadi; Clement Vigneault

2010-01-01

118

Multi-kanban mechanism for appliance disassembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of household appliances continues to rise every year. A significant number of End-Of-Life (EOL) appliances are generated because of the introduction of newer models that are more attractive, efficient and affordable. Others are, of course, generated when they become non-functional. Many regulations encourage recycling of EOL appliances to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills. In addition,

Gun Udomsawat; Surendra M. Gupta

2005-01-01

119

Metal release from simulated fixed orthodontic appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most orthodontic appliances and archwires are stainless steel or nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys that can release metal ions, with saliva as the medium. To measure metal released from the fixed orthodontic appliances currently in use, we fabricated simulated fixed orthodontic appliances that corresponded to half of the maxillary arch and soaked them in 50 mL of artificial saliva (pH 6.75 ±

Chung-Ju Hwang; Ji-Soo Shin; Jung-Yul Cha

2001-01-01

120

Sensitivity of the Rhesus Monkey Cornea and Surrounding Tissues to Heat Produced by CO2 Laser Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rhesus monkeys were trained to report the presence of heat produced by a CO2 laser system. Four, 8, and 16 mm diameter beams were directed at the cornea, lids, and face of the animals at irradiances ranging from 1 to 200 mw/sq cm, and the results compared...

B. E. Stuck D. I. Randolph

1976-01-01

121

Process for producing cold and/or heat by means of an adsorption cycle comprising at least two absorption steps  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for producing cold and/or heat by means of a thermal unit operating by absorption. Increased performances are obtained by using a condensable auxiliary fluid and performing the absorption in two successive steps. The unit for conducting the process essentially comprises a generator, a condenser, an evaporator and two absorbers.

Rojey, A.; Bonifay, R.; Cariou, J.-P.

1985-08-06

122

How to effectively use a 2 x 4 appliance.  

PubMed

A mixed dentition treatment can efficiently and effectively be provided using a 2 x 4 appliance. The indications for early treatment are discussed and advantages of fixed appliances over traditionally used removable appliances illustrated using four case reports. PMID:15489369

Dowsing, P; Sandler, P J

2004-09-01

123

38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances. Artificial limbs, braces, orthopedic shoes, hearing aids, wheelchairs, medical accessories, similar appliances...

2013-07-01

124

Heat treatment effects on mechanical behavior of copper-nickel-tin produced via powder metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain spring applications require a material with a combination of high strength, stiffness, and electrical conductivity. An alloy, Cu-15wt%Ni-8wt%Sn, formed via a powder metallurgy process, is one of several copper-based alloys which can be heat treated\\/processed to form a metallic nano-structured alloy with good combinations of yield strength and electrical conductivity. For certain heat treatment conditions, this alloy decomposes spinodally

Joshua Benjamin Caris

2007-01-01

125

Influence of Orthodontic Appliances on Myofunctional Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various removable and fixed orthodontic appliances were rated by interview and questionnaire by 42 myofunctional therapists in the Hamburg area with respect to their influence during myofunctional therapy. The Nance holding arch was given the most negative rating of all appliances covering the palate area. For the active plate, marking the rest position of the tongue by roughening the acrylic

Arndt Klocke; Heike Korbmacher; Bärbel Kahl-Nieke

2000-01-01

126

Appliance Repair. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary appliance repair education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for development of entry level skills in appliance repair in the areas of knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability, related supportive skills, and occupational survival skills. The first…

Watkins, James F.; And Others

127

Nonintrusive appliance load monitoring: Review and outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer systems for home energy management can provide significant energy saving. Such systems may be based on nonintrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM), in which individual appliance power consumption information is disaggregated from single-point measurements. The disaggregation methods constitute the most important part of NIALM systems. This paper reviews the methodology of consumer systems for NIALM in residential buildings. 1

Michael Zeifman; Kurt Roth

2011-01-01

128

Building appliances out of components using Pebble  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appliances are special purpose systems that offer high processing speed, ease of configuration, safety, fault isolation, and minimal need for administration by human experts. Traditional approaches to building an appliance operating system have been either building it from scratch [CacheOS] or stripping down a monolithic kernel to its basic components [Jaeger99]. The former approach is costly and the resulting product

Kostas Magoutis; José Carlos Brustoloni; Eran Gabber; Wee Teck Ng; Abraham Silberschatz

2000-01-01

129

Long-range detection of VLF radiation produced by heating the auroral electrojet  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the first evidence of long-range detection (greater than 1000 km) of calibrated VLF signals resulting from the HF heating of the auroral electrojet, that is, signal detection at a point of direct 'line of sight' of the heated patch of ionosphere. The 'radial' as well as the'azimuthal' magnetic component of the signals are recorded; from their ratio, the waveguide mode polarization is obtained. Observed absolute magnetic field strengths and waveguide polarizations are found to be in line with the predictions of simple waveguide models. 17 refs.

Barr, R.; Stubbe, P.; Kopka, H. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Federal Republic of Germany))

1991-08-01

130

Enhanced isochoric heating from fast electrons produced by high-contrast, relativistic-intensity laser pulses.  

PubMed

Thin, mass-limited targets composed of V/Cu/Al layers with diameters ranging from 50 to 300 microm have been isochorically heated by a 300 fs laser pulse delivering up to 10 J at 2x10{19} W/cm{2} irradiance. Detailed spectral analysis of the Cu x-ray emission indicates that the highest temperatures, of the order of 100 eV, have been reached when irradiating the smallest targets with a high-contrast, frequency-doubled pulse despite a reduced laser energy. Collisional particle-in-cell simulations confirm the detrimental influence of the preformed plasma on the bulk target heating. PMID:20366940

Perez, F; Gremillet, L; Koenig, M; Baton, S D; Audebert, P; Chahid, M; Rousseaux, C; Drouin, M; Lefebvre, E; Vinci, T; Rassuchine, J; Cowan, T; Gaillard, S A; Flippo, K A; Shepherd, R

2010-02-25

131

Enhanced Isochoric Heating from Fast Electrons Produced by High-Contrast, Relativistic-Intensity Laser Pulses  

SciTech Connect

Thin, mass-limited targets composed of V/Cu/Al layers with diameters ranging from 50 to 300 {mu}m have been isochorically heated by a 300 fs laser pulse delivering up to 10 J at 2x10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} irradiance. Detailed spectral analysis of the Cu x-ray emission indicates that the highest temperatures, of the order of 100 eV, have been reached when irradiating the smallest targets with a high-contrast, frequency-doubled pulse despite a reduced laser energy. Collisional particle-in-cell simulations confirm the detrimental influence of the preformed plasma on the bulk target heating.

Perez, F.; Koenig, M.; Baton, S. D.; Audebert, P.; Chahid, M. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-X-Paris VI, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Gremillet, L.; Rousseaux, C.; Drouin, M.; Lefebvre, E.; Vinci, T. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); Rassuchine, J.; Cowan, T. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, POB 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Gaillard, S. A. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, POB 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Flippo, K. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Shepherd, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2010-02-26

132

Rapid palatal expansion: a comparison of two appliances.  

PubMed

This study analyzed occlusal radiographs to compare the transverse changes produced in patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion using two types of appliances. The sample consisted of 31 children aged 7 to 10.6 years, of both genders, with posterior cross-bite. Fifteen children were treated with a tooth-borne expander and 16 were treated with a tooth-tissue-borne expander. Occlusal radiographs obtained at treatment onset and at the end of the retention period were digitized. The following variables were measured: intermolar distance (IMD), interapical distance (IApD), interbase distance (IBaD) and interarm distance (IArD). The results revealed increases in all measurements in both groups after rapid maxillary expansion. Comparison between groups revealed that the increases were greater in patients treated with the tooth-borne expander, except for the IArD measurement, which presented the same increase in both groups. Even though the IMD measurements differed between expanders, they were proportional to the activation of the appliances (IBaD). The increase in the IApD measurement was proportionally greater in the group treated with the tooth-borne expander (0.7:1.0) than in that treated with the tooth-tissue-borne expander (0.4:1.0). It was concluded that both appliances had similar effects, although the tooth-tissue-borne expander produced a lesser opening at the apical region of the incisors. PMID:22641444

Rodrigues, Amanda do Prado; Monini, André da Costa; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga; Santos-Pinto, Ary dos

133

A case-control study of diarrhoea in children caused by Escherichia coli producing heat-stable enterotoxin (EAST1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli strains associated with diarrhoeal disease have been classified into several types according to the pathogenic mechanism. Among these, enteroaggregative E. coli strains (EAggEC) have been associated with persistent childhood diarrhoea. Some strains of EAggEC produce a heat-stable toxin (EAST-1) that differs from others described previously. The main goal of this case-control study was to determine the prevalence of

J. Vila; A. Gene; M. Vargas; J. Gascon; C. Latorre; M. T. Jimenez De Anta

1998-01-01

134

Thomson scattering measurements of heat flux from ion-acoustic waves in laser-produced aluminum plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Thomson scattering (TS) measurements are performed at different locations in a laser-produced aluminum plasma. Variations of the separation, wavelength shift, and asymmetric distribution of the two ion-acoustic waves are investigated from their spectral-time-resolved TS images. Detailed information on the space-time evolution of the plasma parameters is obtained. Electron distribution and variation of the heat flux in the plasma are also obtained for a steep temperature gradient.

Yu, Q.Z.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.T.; Lu, X.; Hawreliak, J.; Wark, J.; Chambers, D.M.; Wang, Z.B.; Yu, C.X.; Jiang, X.H.; Li, W.H.; Liu, S.Y.; Zheng, Z.J. [Laboratory of Optical Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 603, Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Research Center for Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2005-04-01

135

Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source  

DOEpatents

A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01

136

Acoustic heating produced in the thermoviscous flow of a Bingham plastic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is devoted to the instantaneous acoustic heating of a Bingham plastic. The model of the Bingham plastic's viscous stress tensor includes the yield stress along with the shear viscosity, which differentiates a Bingham plastic from a viscous Newtonian fluid. A special linear combination of the conservation equations in differential form makes it possible to reduce all acoustic terms in the linear part of of the final equation governing acoustic heating, and to retain those belonging to the thermal mode. The nonlinear terms of the final equation are a result of interaction between sounds and the thermal mode. In the field of intense sound, the resulting nonlinear acoustic terms form a driving force for the heating. The final governing dynamic equation of the thermal mode is valid in a weakly nonlinear flow. It is instantaneous, and does not imply that sounds be periodic. The equations governing the dynamics of both sounds and the thermal mode depend on sign of the shear rate. An example of the propagation of a bipolar initially acoustic pulse and the evolution of the heating induced by it is illustrated and discussed.

Perelomova, Anna

2011-02-01

137

Modelling subsurface temperatures in a heat producing coal waste rock pile, Svalbard (78°N)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of Acid Mine Drainage, AMD, from mine waste rocks in Arctic areas is commonly assumed to be limited by low air temperatures and permafrost. Here we show that heat generation within a sulphidic coal mining waste rock pile in Svalbard (78°N) is sufficiently high to keep the pile warm at roughly 5 °C throughout the year despite average winter

J. Hollesen; B. Elberling; B. U. Hansen

2009-01-01

138

Sodium Nitrate Containing Mixture for Producing Ceramic-Glass-Ceramic Seal by Microwave Heating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibi...

R. D. Blake T. T. Meek

1984-01-01

139

Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

R. D. Blake; T. T. Meek

1984-01-01

140

Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

Blake, R.D.; Meek, T.T.

1984-10-10

141

Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Underdense Plasma for Efficient X-Ray Generation  

SciTech Connect

We have observed supersonic heat wave propagation in a low-density aerogel target ({rho} {approx} 3.2 mg/cc) irradiated at the intensity of 4 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The heat wave propagation was measured with a time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics, and the results were compared with simulations made with the two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic code, RAICHO. Propagation velocity of the ionization front gradually decreased as the wave propagates into the target. The reason of decrease is due to increase of laser absorption region as the front propagates and interplay of hydrodynamic motion and reflection of laser propagation. These features are well reported with the simulation.

Tanabe, M; Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S; Nagai, K; Iwamae, A; Ohnishi, N; Fournier, K B; Girard, F; Primout, M; Villette, B; Tobin, M; Mima, K

2008-06-12

142

Controlling Home and Office Appliances with Smart Phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today most of the home and office appliances that we interact with contain microprocessors. All of these appliances have some user interface, but many users become frustrated with the difficulty of using the complex functions of their appliances. We are developing a framework that allows users to interact with appliances through a separate user interface device that they are already

Jeffrey Nichols; Brad A. Myers

2006-01-01

143

Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electron heating (up to â¼5eV average energy), ionization of neutrals, and excitation of optical emissions in the mesosphere\\/lower ionosphere. Model calculations predict the possibility of significant (several orders of magnitude) modification of the

V. P. Pasko; T. F. Bell; Y. N. Taranenko

1997-01-01

144

X-Ray Spectroscopy of Dense Plasmas Produced by Isochoric Heating with Ultrashort Laser Pulses  

SciTech Connect

Hot plasma with temperatures up to 500 eV and densities close to solid state have been generated by focusing intense ultrashort laser pulses on flat solid targets. The heating process is attributed to the energetic electrons, which are created during the laser plasma interaction. They propagate deeply into the target and heat it isochorically. The laser was a frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire laser with an energy of 60 mJ and a pulse duration of 150 fs. It was focused on layered plane solid targets with an incidence angle of 45 deg. and p-polarized. The K-shell spectra emitted from thin Al sample layers embedded in solid carbon show features such as line broadening, line shift and strong satellite emission, which are characteristic of dense plasmas. The typical duration of the x-ray emission is a few ps. Al targets covered by a diamond layer show that the depth (expressed through areal density) up to which the target is heated is close to 1 mg/cm2, which corresponds to the range of 20 keV electrons. This means that a considerable fraction of 20 to 25% of the incident laser energy is deposited by the hot electrons in the target.

Eidmann, K.; Andiel, U.; Pisani, F.; Witte, K. [Max Planck Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Hakel, P.; Abdallah, J.; Junkel-Vives, G.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mancini, R.C. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557-0058 (United States)

2004-10-20

145

SPATIAL SUMMATION ON THE FOREHEAD, FOREARM, AND BACK PRODUCED BY RADIANT AND CONDUCTED HEAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

WARM THRESHOLDS ON THE FOREHEAD, FOREARM, AND BACK PRODUCED BY NONPENETRATING INFRARED RADIATION WERE COMPARED. THE FOREHEAD WAS THE MOST SENSITIVE AND THE BACK THE LEAST SENSITIVE SITE AT AREAS OF EXPOSURE OF 1-12 SQUARE CM. COMPLETE SUMMATION OCCURRED AT ALL 3 SITES. RADIANT WARM THRESHOLDS AND THOSE PRODUCED BY CONDUCTED ENERGY USING STIMULATORS WITH AREAS OF 1.7, 7.1, AND

DAN R. KENSHALO; THOMAS DECKER; ANNE HAMILTON

1967-01-01

146

Heat-producing elements in the lunar mantle: Insights from ion microprobe analyses of lunar pyroclastic glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide new estimates for the abundance of heat-producing elements in the lunar mantle by using SIMS techniques to measure the concentrations of thorium and samarium in lunar pyroclastic glasses. Lunar pyroclastic glasses are utilized in this study because they represent quenched products of near-primary melts from the lunar mantle and as such, they provide compositional information about the mantle itself. Thorium and samarium were measured because: (1) Th is not significantly fractionated from Sm during partial melting of the pyroclastic glass source regions, which are dominated by olivine and pyroxene. Therefore, the Th/Sm ratios that we measure in the pyroclastic glasses reflect the Th/Sm ratio of the pyroclastic glass source regions. (2) Strong correlations between Th, U, and K on the Moon allow us to use measured Th concentrations to estimate the concentrations of U and K in the pyroclastic glasses. (3) Th, Sm, U, and K are radioactive elements and as such, their concentrations can be used to investigate heat production in the lunar mantle. The results from this study show that the lunar mantle is heterogeneous with respect to heat-producing elements and that there is evidence for mixing of a KREEP component into the source regions of some of the pyroclastic glasses. Because the source regions for many of the glasses are deep (?400 km), we propose that a KREEP component was transported to the deep lunar mantle. KREEP enriched sources produce 138% more heat than sources that do not contain KREEP and therefore, could have provided a source of heat for extended periods of nearside basaltic magmatism. Data from this study, in conjunction with models for the fractional crystallization of a lunar magma ocean, are used to show that the average lunar mantle contains 0.15 ppm Th, 0.54 ppm Sm, 0.039 ppm U, and 212 ppm K. This is a greater enrichment in radiogenic elements than some earlier estimates, suggesting a more prolonged impact of radiogenic heat on nearside basaltic volcanism.

Hagerty, Justin J.; Shearer, Charles K.; Vaniman, David T.

2006-07-01

147

New Analysis Techniques for Estimating Impacts of Federal Appliance Efficiency Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Impacts of U.S. appliance and equipment standards have been described previously. Since 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has updated standards for clothes washers, water heaters, and residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. A revised ...

J. E. McMahon

2005-01-01

148

Hot water service using high-efficiency gas-fired appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smnmary Research on boilers used for heating systems has been extensive but less attention has been paid in the past to hot water appliances. Improved boiler performance, higher insulation of buildings and increased adventitious gains have meant that energy use for the supply of hot water has become more significant. Field and laboratory studies have therefore been carried out to

N. G. Moore; N. M. Gibson; G. F. Wright

1992-01-01

149

Functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA) III--modus operandi.  

PubMed

An intraoral intermaxillary appliance has been developed for the treatment of Class III malocclusions that exhibit midface sagittal deficiency with or without mandibular excess. The functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA) III consists of upper and lower acrylic plates with a permanent magnet incorporated into each plate. The upper magnet is linked to a retraction screw. The upper magnet is retracted periodically (e.g., monthly) to stimulate maxillary advancement and mandibular retardation. The attractive mode neodymium magnets used in this study produced a horizontal force of 98 gm and a vertical force of 371 gm. Six female Macaca fascicularis monkeys were treated with FOMA IIIs. An additional three animals were treated with sham appliances. After 4 months of treatment, the following results were found: the growth pattern of the cranial base (saddle angle) was not altered; midfacial protraction did occur along a recumbent hyperbolic curve with a horizontal maxillary displacement and an anterosuperior premaxillary rotation; the cumulative protraction of the maxillary complex was initiated at the pterygomaxillary fissure with an additional contribution provided by other circummaxillary sutures (zygomaticomaxillary s., transverse s., premaxillary s.); and inhibition of mandibular length was minimal, but a tendency toward a vertical condylar growth pattern was observed. The interaction between sutural and condylar growth sites appeared biphasic, characterized by an immediate and rapid excitation of the circummaxillary sutures followed by a delayed and slow suppression of the condylar cartilage. Long-term animal and clinical FOMA III studies are recommended. PMID:2301300

Vardimon, A D; Graber, T M; Voss, L R; Muller, T P

1990-02-01

150

Measurement of soil bacterial colony temperatures and isolation of a high heat-producing bacterium  

PubMed Central

Background The cellular temperatures of microorganisms are considered to be the same as those of their surroundings because the cellular volume is too small to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. However, by forming a colony or a biofilm, microorganisms may be able to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. In this study, we measured the temperatures of bacterial colonies isolated from soils using an infrared imager and investigated the thermogenesis by a bacterium that increases its colony temperature. Results The temperatures of some colonies were higher or lower than that of the surrounding medium. A bacterial isolate with the highest colony temperature was identified as Pseudomonas putida. This bacterial isolate had an increased colony temperature when it grew at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Measurements of heat production using a microcalorimeter showed that the temperature of this extraordinary, microcalorimetrically determined thermogenesis corresponded with the thermographically observed increase in bacterial colony temperature. When investigating the effects of the energy source on this thermal behavior, we found that heat production by this bacterium increased without additional biomass production at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Conclusions We found that heat production by bacteria affected the bacterial colony temperature and that a bacterium identified as Pseudomonas putida could maintain a cellular temperature different from the ambient temperature, particularly at a sub-optimal growth temperature. The bacterial isolate P. putida KT1401 increased its colony temperature by an energy-spilling reaction when the incubation temperature limited its growth.

2013-01-01

151

Properties of Medium-Density Fiberboard Produced in an Oil-Heated Laboratory Press.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fiberboards from mixed hardwoods produced commercially in a high frequency press had dense face layers (0.98 g/cc) and less dense cores (0.60 g/cc); such density profiles could be duplicated with sweetgum fibers pressed at 335F and 480 to 820 psi in a con...

O. Suchsland G. E. Woodson

1976-01-01

152

Method for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seals by microwave heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal comprising the steps of: a. preparing a mixture comprising a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer; b. applying the mixture to a plurality of ceramic workpieces for sealing; c. enclosing the ceramic workpieces with other such workpieces; d. surrounding the mixture and plurality of ceramic workpieces with an

R. D. Blake; T. T. Meek

1986-01-01

153

Heat Resistance of Alkaline Phosphatases Produced by Microorganisms Isolated from California Mexican-Style Cheeses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of Queso Fresco produced in California were tested for microbiological quality and alkaline phosphatase activity. Total plate counts ranged from 6 to 8 logs for freshly purchased cheeses. The majority of bacteria were nonlactic psychrotrophs. Coliform and enteric counts were greater than or equal to six logs in all samples. Colonies isolated on Standard Methods Agar were inoculated into

E. L. Pratt-Lowe; R. M. Geiger; T. Richardson; E. L. Barrett

1988-01-01

154

Reports Published by the Gas Research Institute in the Area of Residential/Commercial Appliances and Space Conditioning: Bibliography and Abstracts for the Period 1978-1987,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography contains citations of reports published by the Gas Research Institute pertaining to residential and commercial gas appliances and space conditioning equipment. It does not include heat pumps or cogeneration. The reports are listed in date...

M. J. Murphy D. W. Locklin O. D. Johnson

1988-01-01

155

Reports Published by the Gas Research Institute in the Area of Residential/Commercial Appliances and Space Conditioning: Bibliography and Abstracts. Update through 1988,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The updated bibliography contains citations of reports published by the Gas Research Institute pertaining to residential and commercial gas appliances and space conditioning equipment. It does not include heat pumps or cogeneration. The reports are listed...

M. J. Murphy D. W. Locklin O. D. Johnson

1989-01-01

156

76 FR 20233 - Appliance Labeling Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...detailed in NEMA's petition, the large number of packaging styles involved, the difficulties posed by overseas manufacturing...entities. V. Final Rule List of Subjects in 16 CFR part 305 Advertising, Energy conservation, Household appliances,...

2011-04-12

157

Overall Design Strategy for Household Appliances,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article deals with electrical household appliance development on the basis of an overall design strategy, introducing the concept of 'scene development' for observating new lifestyles and creating images with very widespread appeal. The article presen...

H. Tomozawa Y. Uchida H. Matsushita

1988-01-01

158

75 FR 81943 - Appliance Labeling Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by representatives of the American Council for Energy Efficient Economy, Appliance Standards Awareness Project, and the Alliance to Save Energy...Subjects in 16 CFR Part 305 Advertising, Energy conservation...recordkeeping requirements. For the reasons discussed...

2010-12-29

159

State Appliance Standards (released in AEO2009)  

EIA Publications

State appliance standards have existed for decades, starting with Californias enforcement of minimum efficiency requirements for refrigerators and several other products in 1979. In 1987, recognizing that different efficiency standards for the same products in different States could create problems for manufacturers, Congress enacted the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA), which initially covered 12 products. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT92), EPACT2005, and EISA2007 added additional residential and commercial products to the 12 products originally specified under NAECA.

Information Center

2009-03-31

160

Isochoric heating of reduced mass targets by ultra-intense laser produced relativistic electrons  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the chlorine K-alpha emission from reduced mass targets, irradiated with ultra-high intensity laser pulses. Chlorinated plastic targets with diameters down to 50 micrometers and mass of a few 10{sup -8} g were irradiated with up to 7 J of laser energy focused to intensities of several 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The conversion of laser energy to K-alpha radiation is measured, as well as high resolution spectra that allow observation of line shifts, indicating isochoric heating of the target up to 18 eV. A zero-dimensional 2-temperature equilibration model, combined with electron impact K-shell ionization and post processed spectra from collisional radiative calculations reproduces the observed K-alpha yields and line shifts, and shows the importance of target expansion due to the hot electron pressure.

Neumayer, P; Lee, H J; Offerman, D; Shipton, E; Kemp, A; Kritcher, A L; Doppner, T; Back, C A; Glenzer, S H

2009-02-04

161

Isochoric heating of reduced mass targets by ultra-intense laser produced relativistic electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurements of the chlorine K-alpha emission from reduced mass targets, irradiated with ultra-high intensity laser pulses. Chlorinated plastic targets with diameters down to 50 ?m and mass of a few 10-8 g were irradiated with up to 7 J of laser energy focused to intensities of several 1019 W/cm2. The conversion of laser energy to K-alpha radiation is measured, and high-resolution spectra that allow observation of line shifts are observed, indicating isochoric heating of the target up to 18 eV. A zero-dimensional 2-temperature equilibration model, combined with electron impact K-shell ionization and post processed spectra from collisional radiative calculations reproduces the observed K-alpha yields and line shifts, and shows the importance of target expansion due to the hot electron pressure.

Neumayer, P.; Lee, H. J.; Offerman, D.; Shipton, E.; Kemp, A.; Kritcher, A. L.; Döppner, T.; Back, C. A.; Glenzer, S. H.

2009-12-01

162

Optical ring formation by refraction from artificially produced density enhancements in HF heating experiments at HAARP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the upgrade of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter to 3.6 MW, bullseye patterns consisting of a ring around a sharp-edged central disc are commonly observed in optical measurements. These patterns are up to 40° across and cannot be explained by side lobes or other beam shape effects. Examination of these cases suggests they result from refraction by an artificially produced density bulge on the bottomside of the F region. We present tomographic reconstructions of the 3-D distribution of optical emissions from multi-site observations and compare this with ionosonde and GPS TEC density measurements as well as 427.8 nm nitrogen emissions, which provide an estimate of ionization production rates. Raytrace modeling of a variety of scenarios based on density measurements produces deflection and focusing of beam power into a ring consistent with the optical observations.

Pedersen, T. R.; Gustavsson, B.; Mishin, E. V.; Kendall, E. A.; MacKenzie, E.; Mills, T.; Starks, M. J.

2009-12-01

163

A 3rd Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS) Produced by Dual Stabilization Heat Treatment (DSHT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3rd generation advanced high-strength steel containing, in wt pct, 0.3 C, 4.0 Mn, 1.5 Al, 2.1 Si, and 0.5 Cr has been produced using a dual stabilization heat treatment—a five stage thermal processing schedule compatible with continuous galvanized steel production. In excess of 30 vol pct retained austenite containing at least 0.80 wt pct C was achieved with this alloy, which had tensile strengths up to 1650 MPa and tensile elongations around 20 pct.

Qu, Hao; Michal, Gary M.; Heuer, Arthur H.

2013-10-01

164

Tooth uprighting or separating appliance  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A tooth uprighting or separating appliance for cooperating with a pair of adjacent teeth having opposed and closely spaced side surfaces comprises a first member adapted to be interposed into a space between the pair of teeth for bearing against one of the opposed side surfaces of one of the pair of teeth, a second member adapted to be interposed into the space between the pair of teeth for bearing against the side surface of the other of the pair of teeth, and spring means interconnecting the first and second members for biassing the first and second members away from each other and toward the respective opposed side surfaces of the pair of teeth to thereby separate the teeth from each other. Preferably, the first and second members are adapted to pierce gum tissue which is located between the pair of teeth to facilitate installation. The spring means may comprise an elongated wire member or a coil spring portion from which the first and second means extend. The first and second members may both extend from the same side of the spring means, or may extend from opposite sides thereof.

Wallshein; Melvin (Brooklyn, NY)

1981-03-17

165

Thermal performance analysis for hot-wall condenser and evaporator configurations in refrigeration appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitivity study is presented about the investigation of the influence exerted by the design parameters on the thermal performance of those refrigeration appliances employing hot-wall condenser and evaporator configurations, compared to the usual refrigerators, in which external heat exchangers are used.The heat transfer rates inside the wall of the hot-wall refrigerator were evaluated by means of a parametric finite

Alessandro Rebora; Luca A. Tagliafico

1998-01-01

166

Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930° C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380° C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

2011-01-01

167

Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LMPF-EA 4106, Rue Saint Dominique, BP 508, 51006, Chalons-en-Champagne, Cedex (France)

2011-01-17

168

Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii by Heat Labile Bacteriocins Produced by Probiotic LAB Isolated from Healthy Infants.  

PubMed

Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause bacteremia, meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most often in neonates with case-fatality rates that may reach 80%. The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against a wide range of foodborne pathogens is well-established in different types of food products. The objective of the current study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei isolated from feces of healthy infants against different strains of C. sakazakii in agar and a rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF) model. The inhibition zones of C. sakazakii around L. acidophilus or L. casei ranged from 22 to 32 mm on eMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar under aerobic conditions, while a slight reduction in antibacterial activity was noted on modified MRS (0.2% glucose) under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that pH-neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of L. acidophilus or L. casei was inhibitory against tested C. sakazakii strains. The inhibition zones of neutralized CFS were lower than the antibacterial activities of live cultures. The antibacterial activity of CFS was abolished when CFS from L. acidophilus or L. casei was heated at 60 or 80 °C for either 10 min or 2 h, or treated with trypsin or pepsin. This was considered strong evidence that the inhibition was due to the production of bacteriocins by L. casei and L. acidophilus. Both the CFS and active growing cells of L. casei and L. acidophilus were able to reduce the viability of C. sakazakii in the RIMF model. The results may extend the use of natural antimicrobials instead of conventional preservation methods to improve the safety of RIMF. PMID:23924352

Awaisheh, Saddam S; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Ibrahim, Salam; Holley, Richard

2013-08-07

169

Method for producing a secondary lithium cell comprising a heat-sensitive protective mechanism  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a secondary lithium cell which has at least one lithium-cycling negative electrode, at least one lithium-intercalating positive electrode, at least one separator disposed between the positive and the negative electrode, and a nonaqueous lithium ion-conducting electrolyte. The method is carried out by the electrodes and/or the separator being coated, by means of electrostatic powder coating, with wax particles which are insoluble in the electrolyte and have a melting temperature of from about 50 to about 150 .degree. C. and a mean particle size of from about 6 to about 20 .mu.m, the amount of wax being between about 0.5 and about 2.5 mg/cm.sup.2 of electrode area.

Ullrich, Matthias (Kelkheim, DE); Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Rabenstein, Heinrich (Frankfurt, DE); Brohm, Thomas (Kelkheim, DE)

2003-01-01

170

A heat treatment procedure to produce fine-grained lamellar microstructures in a P/M titanium aluminide alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process for fabricating advanced aerospace titanium aluminide alloys starting from metal powders (the hot isostatically consolidated P/M process) is presented in this thesis. This process does not suffer the difficulties of chemical inhomogeneities and coarse grain structure of castings. In addition heat treatments which take advantage of the refined structure of HIP processed materials are developed to achieve microstructure control and subsequent mechanical property control. It is shown that a better "property balance" is possible after the heat treatment of HIP consolidated materials than it is with alternative processing. It is well understood that the standard microstructures (near-gamma, duplex, nearly lamellar, and fully lamellar) do not have the balanced mechanical properties (tensile, yield, creep and fatigue strength, ductility and fracture toughness) necessary for optimal performance in aero engine and automotive applications. In this work a fine-grained fully lamellar (FGFL) microstructure is developed for property control and in particular for achieving a much improved property balance. A heat treatment procedure for this purpose which consists of cyclic processing in the alpha transus temperature region to achieve an FGFL structure with grain sizes in the range of 50 mum to 150 mum is presented. Compared with conventional duplex structured materials, the minimum creep rate is an order of magnitude lower with only a 10% loss in tensile yield strength. Moreover, a three-fold increase in tensile elongation is possible by converting to an FGFL structure with only a 30% loss in minimum creep rate. These are attractive trade-offs when considering the use of these alloys for aerospace purposes. A thorough literature review of the mechanisms of formation of standard microstructures and their deformation under mechanical loading is contained in the thesis. In addition, conventional techniques to produce FGFL microstructures in wrought and cast materials are discussed in detail. Beyond the review, the results of experiments are described for determining the alpha transus temperature, the phase transformation kinetics in this region and the effects of heat treatment time and cooling rate on microstructure. Based on this preliminary work, a heat treatment to achieve a FGFL microstructure with grain sizes in the range of 50 mum to 150 mum is proposed and confirmed. The room temperature and high temperature mechanical properties of these materials are compared with those of conventional duplex and fully lamellar structures. The results of this experimentation are discussed in terms of the fundamental mechanisms for controlling microstructure and mechanical properties in these materials. The potential for applying cyclic heat treatments to cast and wrought materials to improve the mechanical property balance in engineering practice is discussed.

Au, Peter

171

Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations  

SciTech Connect

The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

1982-12-01

172

Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electron heating (up to ~5eV average energy), ionization of neutrals, and excitation of optical emissions in the mesosphere/lower ionosphere. Model calculations predict the possibility of significant (several orders of magnitude) modification of the lower ionospheric conductivity in the form of depletions of electron density due to dissociative attachment to O2 molecules and/or in the form of enhancements of electron density due to breakdown ionization. Results indicate that the optical emission intensities of the 1st positive band of N2 corresponding to fast (~1ms) removal of 100-300 C of thundercloud charge from 10 km altitude are in good agreement with observations of the upper part (``head'' and ``hair'' [Sentman et al., 1995]) of the sprites. The typical region of brightest optical emission has horizontal and vertical dimensions ~10km, centered at altitudes 70 km and is interpreted as the head of the sprite. The model also shows the formation of low intensity glow (``hair'') above this region due to the excitation of optical emissions at altitudes ~85km during ~500?s at the initial stage of the lightning discharge. Comparison of the optical emission intensities of the 1st and 2nd positive bands of N2, Meinel and 1st negative bands of N2+, and 1st negative band of O2+ demonstrates that the 1st positive band of N2 is the dominating optical emission in the altitude range around ~70km, which accounts for the observed red color of sprites, in excellent agreement with recent spectroscopic observations of sprites. Results indicate that the optical emission levels are predominantly defined by the lightning discharge duration and the conductivity properties of the atmosphere/lower ionosphere (i.e., relaxation time of electric field in the conducting medium). The model demonstrates that for low ambient conductivities the lightning discharge duration can be significantly extended with no loss in production of optical emissions. The peak intensity of optical emissions is determined primarily by the value of the removed thundercloud charge and its altitude. The preexisting inhomogeneities in the mesospheric conductivity and the neutral density may contribute to the formation of a vertically striated fine structure of sprites and explain why sprites often repeatedly occur in the same place in the sky as well as their clustering. Comparison of the model results for different types of lightning discharges indicates that positive cloud to ground discharges lead to the largest electric fields and optical emissions at ionospheric altitudes since they are associated with the removal of larger amounts of charge from higher altitudes.

Pasko, V. P.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.; Taranenko, Y. N.

1997-03-01

173

Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances.  

PubMed

The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

2012-11-07

174

Predicting future quantities of obsolete household appliances in Nanjing by a stock-based model  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has become one of the largest producers of obsolete household appliances (HAs) in the world. However, information on discarded HAs in China is deficient owing to the unavailability of reliable data. The estimation of future obsolete streams is a crucial issue for the establishment of efficient waste collection and recycling systems. The present study describes a prediction model to

Ling Zhang; Zengwei Yuan; Jun Bi

2011-01-01

175

Contribution to resource conservation by reuse of electrical and electronic household appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extending the product life of electric and electronic equipment by reuse is considered as an effective means to contribute to the goal of resource conservation (materials and energy) since less appliances have to be produced to cover consumer demand. On the other hand, new products tend to consume less energy during use. Reuse of older products delays the launch of

Nina Truttmann; Helmut Rechberger

2006-01-01

176

Similarity and Disparity of China's Home Appliances' Diffusion Trajectory in Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washing machine, refrigerator and color TV set, representing China's traditional home appliances, have got rapid diffusion in urban area with the continual economic development, and information of similarity and disparity of their diffusion trajectory and potential space is significant for domestic producers to make and adjust their strategy for more market share. Using Simple Logistic Growth Model and Logistic Growth

Lei Shanyu; Miao Jin; Li Guiyuan

2009-01-01

177

Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the i...

K. Fujita K. S. Fujita L. Dale

2008-01-01

178

33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 ...COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound signal appliances. Each vessel under the...

2009-07-01

179

33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 ...COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound signal appliances. Each vessel under the...

2010-07-01

180

38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Prosthetic and similar appliances...VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances. Artificial limbs, braces,...

2010-07-01

181

38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Prosthetic and similar appliances...VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances. Artificial limbs, braces,...

2009-07-01

182

24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807 Section... Electrical Systems § 3280.807 Fixtures and appliances. (a) Electrical...Specifically listed pendant-type fixtures or pendant cords shall be permitted...

2013-04-01

183

Facilitating Children's Adjustment to Orthotic and Prosthetic Appliances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines are offered to help teachers understand the nature and use of orthotic and prosthetic appliances for disabled students. Classroom behavior observations are noted so that teachers can help monitor the child's adjustment to the appliance. (CL)

Fredrick, Jeff; Fletcher, Donna

1985-01-01

184

Careers for the 70's In Appliance Repair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A typical day for an appliance repairman is described to serve as an example and to provide occupational information for a career in appliance repairing. Also, the type of skills needed for this job are described. (DS)

Smith, Howard, Ed

1974-01-01

185

Facilitating Children's Adjustment to Orthotic and Prosthetic Appliances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Guidelines are offered to help teachers understand the nature and use of orthotic and prosthetic appliances for disabled students. Classroom behavior observations are noted so that teachers can help monitor the child's adjustment to the appliance. (CL)|

Fredrick, Jeff; Fletcher, Donna

1985-01-01

186

Equipment for the emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal boreholes. [Horizontal vs vertical emplacement  

SciTech Connect

Emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal holes may offer several technical and economic advantages over shallow vertical hole emplacement. Less of the host rock suffers damage as a result of drift construction; the heat from the waste can be isolated from the access drifts for long periods of time; and the amount of rock which must be excavated is much less than in traditional disposal scenarios. One of the major reasons that has been used to reject the long hole concept in the past and adhere to the shallow vertical hole concept is the equipment required to drill the holes and to emplace and retrieve the waste. Such equipment does not currently exist. It clearly is more difficult to drill a 600 to 1000 foot horizontal hole, possibly 3 to 4 feet in diameter, and place a canister of waste at the end of it than to drill a 30 foot vertical hole and lower the waste to the bottom. A liner, for emplacement hole stabilization, appears to be feasible by adapting existing technology for concrete slip forming or jacking in a steel liner. The conceptual design of the equipment to drill long horizontal holes, emplace waste and retrieve waste will be discussed. Various options in concept will be presented as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The operating scenario of the selected concept will be described as well as solutions to potential problems encountered.

Young, K.D.; Scully, L.W.; Fisk, A.; deBakker, P.; Friant, J.; Anderson, A.

1983-01-01

187

Appropriate Appliances for the Older Arthritic Patient  

PubMed Central

Many of the functional problems in the everyday life of the arthritic patient can be minimized by appliances. Examples of these are listed according to the job they do: altering height, improving leverage, enlarging handles, extending reach, improving safety, simplifying methods. The authors suggest sources of appliances, and mention measures such as structural alterations and patient education. Initial assessment of need, follow-up and planning in terms of overall rehabilitation are important; often an occupational therapist is best qualified to work out solutions. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4

Thompson, Flora M.; Morison, Angela; MacBain, K. Patricia

1972-01-01

188

Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China  

SciTech Connect

China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

Lin, Jiang

2006-07-10

189

Active power residential non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional methods for gathering appliance specific data require the installation of individual meters on each appliance of interest. This approach to collect data is not only expensive, but also hard to install. A new non-intrusive load monitoring system (NIALMS) has been developed in this paper which is able to disaggregate the total active power to obtain appliance specific data. The

Arend J. Bijker; Xiaohua Xia; Jiangfeng Zhang

2009-01-01

190

46 CFR 199.170 - Line-throwing appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 199.170 Section 199.170 Shipping...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS...Vessels § 199.170 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each vessel...

2009-10-01

191

46 CFR 199.170 - Line-throwing appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Line-throwing appliance. 199.170 Section 199.170 Shipping...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS...Vessels § 199.170 Line-throwing appliance. (a) General. Each vessel...

2010-10-01

192

Neuronal injury produced by NMDA antagonists can be detected using heat shock proteins and can be blocked with antipsychotics.  

PubMed

Noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, including ketamine, MK-801, and phencyclidine (PCP), induce the HSP70 heat shock or stress gene in pyramidal neurons in rat posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortex. PCP also induces HSP70 in many other pyramidal neurons in brain including neocortex, insular cortex, piriform cortex, hippocampus, and basal nuclei of the amygdala. Several neurotransmitter antagonists, including haloperidol, clozapine, SCH-22390, diazepam, and muscimol, inhibited induction of HSP70 produced by PCP. Baclofen had no effect. Nifedipine blocked induction of HSP70 by PCP in cingulate, neocortex, and insular cortex but only partially blocked HSP70 in piriform cortex and amygdala. These data suggest that phencyclidine injures pyramidal neurons via dopamine D1, D2, D4, sigma, and other receptors. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists ameliorate the injury. A model is proposed whereby NMDA receptor blockade on GABA neurons decreases inhibitory inputs onto cortical pyramidal neurons and makes them more vulnerable to injury from a variety of excitatory inputs. It is possible that psychosis produced by PCP and other NMDA antagonists correlates with overactivity and eventual injury to cingulate pyramidal neurons. PMID:7770620

Sharp, F R; Butman, M; Aardalen, K; Nickolenko, J; Nakki, R; Massa, S M; Swanson, R A; Sagar, S M

1994-01-01

193

Maxillary molar distalization or mandibular enhancement: a cephalometric comparison of comprehensive orthodontic treatment including the pendulum and the Herbst appliances.  

PubMed

Several methods of Class II treatment that do not rely on significant patient compliance have become popular during the last decade, including several versions of the Herbst appliance and the pendulum or Pendex molar-distalization appliances. Yet, these 2 general approaches theoretically have opposite treatment effects, one presumably enhancing mandibular growth, and the other moving the maxillary teeth posteriorly. This study examined the treatment effects produced by 2 types of the Herbst appliance (acrylic splint and stainless-steel crown) followed by fixed appliances, and the pendulum appliance followed by fixed appliances. For each of the 3 treatment groups, lateral cephalograms were analyzed before the start of treatment (T1) and after the second phase of treatment (T2). Patients were matched according to age and sex. The comprehensive treatment time for the pendulum group was 31.6 months, and the acrylic and crowned Herbst groups were treated for 29.5 months and 28.0 months, respectively. Overall from T1 to T2, there were no statistically significant differences in mandibular growth among the 3 groups. Skeletal changes accounted for a larger portion of molar correction in the Herbst treatment groups than in the pendulum group. Patients in the pendulum group had an increase in the mandibular plane angle. Conversely, the mandibular plane angle in patients treated with either Herbst appliance closed slightly from T1 to T2. At T2, the chin points (pogonion) of patients in both Herbst groups, however, were located slightly more anteriorly than were the chin points of the pendulum patients. It is likely that the slight downward and backward rotation of the mandible occurring during treatment in the pendulum patients accounted for much of this difference. The treatment effects produced by the 2 types of Herbst appliance were similar at T2, in spite of their differences in design. It is important not to generalize the findings of this comparison beyond the appliance systems evaluated. The 2 general approaches we evaluated involved a substantial dentoalveolar component in the treatment of Class II malocclusion. A comparison of a molar-distalizing appliance such as the pendulum with other types of functional appliances might yield differing results. PMID:12594414

Burkhardt, Donald R; McNamara, James A; Baccetti, Tiziano

2003-02-01

194

The palatal shape of upper removable appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a clinical-experimental study the influence of variations in the palatal shape of upper removable appliances upon tongue position during swallowing was investigated. During a clinical examination of 35 dental students displaying a physiological swallowing pattern, the tongue position during swallowing was recorded by palatography on an individually adapted upper plate. During swallowing with a roughened plate with an individual

Christine Reinicke; Nicole Obijou; Joachim Tränkmann

1998-01-01

195

Appliance Services. Intermediate Course. Career Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 16 terminal objectives for an intermediate appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) covering the areas of refrigeration, maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting of refrigerators and air…

Killough, Joseph

196

49 CFR 238.429 - Safety appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...appliances shall be securely fastened to the car body structure with mechanical fasteners that...contrasts with the color of the vehicle body to which they are fastened. (4) The...vertical handrail or handhold and the vehicle body shall be 21/2 inches for the...

2011-10-01

197

Posttreatment evaluation of the distal jet appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed molar distalization with the distal jet appliance, its effect on the anchor teeth, and the outcome at the completion of orthodontic treatment. Pretreatment, after distalization, and posttreatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated for 21 adolescent girls and 12 adolescent boys. The mean age of the subjects at the time of the pretreatment radiograph was 12.8 ± 2.2

Vonny Ngantung; Ram S. Nanda; S. Jay Bowman

2001-01-01

198

Advances in household appliances- A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S.

Pradeep K Bansal; Edward Allan Vineyard; Omar Abdelaziz

2011-01-01

199

Appliance Services. Intermediate Course. Career Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 16 terminal objectives for an intermediate appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) covering the areas of refrigeration, maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting of refrigerators and air…

Killough, Joseph

200

Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.  

PubMed

Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. PMID:21195285

Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

2011-01-01

201

Concept for meeting the whole house heating load using a pulse combustion space heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documentation of a method to provide heat to an entire structure by means of an added pulse combustion space heating appliance installed in one room shows that a highly efficient space-heating appliance is an economically viable alternative. Case studies show the value of the approach and the problems associated with its use. Data show the fraction of the furnace load

J. L. West; W. H. Thrasher; L. R. Brand

1985-01-01

202

Mobile based Appliances switching using Bluetooth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How many times do you have to get up from your desk to switch on your Air conditioner or fan when you are completely into your table work? How many times do you feel lazy to get off your comfort to switch on/off your home appliances in different rooms? How much energy do you lose in a day for operating your appliances? The solution is either a large amount of manual work-or the idea that is presented over here: APP-CON (APP-CON stands for appliances control). Here the ordinary cell phone with bluetooth capability acts as remote designed in such a manner that it acts as a helping hand to human by reducing its manual work and therefore saving human energy. The cell phone control of APP-CON units lets you access many of your home appliances situated in different rooms by using just a single remote from distance. Electronics hobbyists would love to make such a remote control themselves. But they find it difficult due to complex circuitry rather than the high cost because of using a number of frequency counting techniques and decade counters. The APP-CON system given here overcomes the aforesaid problems by using a single microcontroller and moreover a simple program or software for bluetooth enabled cell phone and employing simple coding and decoding of remote signals. Here the mobile based remote control is used to operate a number of home appliances basically consists of Bluetooth technology. The unit consists of a transmitter and a receiver consisting of a microcontroller. The importance of bluetooth technology is that the signal to be transmitted from transmitter to the receiver is done without requiring line of sight.

Gupta, Sureshchandra J., Dr; Desai, Kalp; Gaikawad, Deepak; Pawar, Vijay N.; Gangal, Devendranath R.

2008-04-01

203

Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring based on Integer Programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new nonintrusive appliance load monitoring technique based on the integer programming. Nonintrusive appliance load monitoring is a problem to identify the operating conditions of the electric appliances in a house only by observing the overall load current and voltage. Since the overall load current is expressed as a superposition of each current of the operating appliance, the monitoring problem can be formulated as an integer quadratic programming problem by expressing the operating conditions as integer variables. This problem is solvable with sufficiently small computational burden thanks to the recent development of the commercial software. The proposed method does not require the relearning even when a new appliance is installed in the house. Furthermore, the proposed formulation is applicable to cases that some appliance has multiple modes, and cases that some same-type appliances operate simultaneously. Usefulness of the proposed technique is verified through some experimental results.

Inagaki, Shinkichi; Egami, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hisahide; Ito, Koichi

204

Treatment effects of the mandibular anterior repositioning appliance on patients with Class II malocclusion.  

PubMed

The mandibular anterior repositioning appliance (MARA) is a tooth-borne functional appliance for use in patients with Class II malocclusions; it positions the mandible forward into a Class I occlusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the MARA's dental and skeletal effects on anterior, posterior, and vertical changes in 30 Class II patients. The treatment group consisted of 12 boys with an average age of 11.2 years and 18 girls with an average age of 11.3 years. A pretreatment cephalometric radiograph was taken 2 weeks before treatment, and a posttreatment cephalometric radiograph was taken 6 weeks after removal of the MARA, with an average treatment time of 10.7 months. The mean and standard deviation were calculated for each cephalometric variable, and Student t tests were performed to determine the statistical significance of the changes. The results of the study showed that the MARA produced measurable treatment effects on the skeletal and dental elements of the craniofacial complex. These effects included a considerable distalization of the maxillary molar, a measurable forward movement of the mandibular molar and incisor, a significant increase in mandibular length, and an increase in posterior face height. The effects of the MARA treatment were then compared with those of the Herbst and Fränkel appliances. The treatment results of the MARA were very similar to those produced by the Herbst appliance but with less headgear effect on the maxilla and less mandibular incisor proclination than observed in the Herbst treatment group. PMID:12637901

Pangrazio-Kulbersh, Valmy; Berger, Jeffrey L; Chermak, David S; Kaczynski, Richard; Simon, Eugene S; Haerian, Andre

2003-03-01

205

Pacific Northwest Residential Consumer: Perceptions and Preferences of Home Heating Fuels, Major Appliances, and Appliance Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two f...

S. A. Harkreader M. P. Hattrup

1988-01-01

206

Integrating information appliances into an interactive workspace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a robust, infrastructure-centric, and platform-independent approach to integrating information appliances into the iRoom, an interactive workspace. The Interactive Workspaces Project at Stanford explores new possibilities for people to work together in technology-rich spaces with computing and interaction devices on many different scales. It includes faculty and students from the areas of graphics, human-computer interaction (HCI), networking, ubiquitous

Armando Fox; Brad Johanson; Pat Hanrahan; Terry Winograd

2000-01-01

207

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical

Matthew K. Donnelly; David P. Chassin; Jeffery E. Dagle; Michael Kintner-Meyer; David W. Winiarski; Robert G. Pratt; Anne Marie Boberly-Bartis

2006-01-01

208

Comparison of emissions from selected commercial kitchen appliances and food products  

SciTech Connect

Effluents have been measured from various grease-producing cooking processes in an attempt to quantify the emissions that enter typical commercial kitchen exhaust hoods. The appliances tested include gas and electric versions of single-sided griddles, open-vat deep fat fryers, under-fired broilers, full size convection ovens, and six burner ranges. Food products include hamburger, chicken breast, fries, sausage pizza, and a spaghetti meal. Emission data were obtained for particles, grease vapor, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. Velocity and temperature fields were measured in the plume above each appliance. Results show that a large fraction of the grease emission is typically in vapor form. The broilers emit significantly more particles less than 2.5 {micro}m in size (PM 2.5) than the other appliances tested. Combustion by-products were measured for all gas appliances. Both the gas and electric broilers emitted significant amounts of CO when hamburgers were cooked. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were below detectable limits in all tests.

Kuehn, T.H.; Gerstler, W.D.; Pui, D.Y.H.; Ramsey, J.W.

1999-07-01

209

Jet impingement onto a laser produced kerf : Influence of kerf thickness on heat transfer and skin friction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the heat transfer rates from the kerf surfaces and skin friction at the kerf wall due to the jet impingement in relation to laser cutting process. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Three-dimensional modeling for the flow and heat transfer analysis is considered. The numerical scheme using the control volume approach is introduced to

Omar A. Melhem; Bekir S. Yilbas; S. Z. Shuja

2011-01-01

210

Life cycle based analysis of demands and emissions for residential water-using appliances.  

PubMed

Environmental impacts of energy and water demand and greenhouse gas emissions from three residential water-using appliances were analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach in collaboration of economic input-output model. This study especially focused on indirect consumption and environmental impacts from end-use/demand phase of each appliance. Water-related activities such as water supply, water heating and wastewater treatment were included in the analysis. The results showed that environmental impacts from end-use/demand phase are most significant for the water system, particularly for the energy demand for water heating (73% for clothes washer and 93% for showerheads). Reducing water/hot water consumption during the end-use/demand phase is expected to improve the overall water-related energy burden and water use sustainability. In the analysis of optimal lifespan for appliances, the estimated values (8-21 years) using energy consumption balance approach were found to be lower than that using other methods (10-25 years). This implies that earlier replacement with efficiency models is encouraged to minimize the environmental impacts of the product. PMID:22406847

Lee, Mengshan; Tansel, Berrin

2012-03-07

211

Rapid Tooling Method for Soft Customized Removable Oral Appliances  

PubMed Central

Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient’s dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance.

Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Makitie, Antti

2012-01-01

212

Rapid tooling method for soft customized removable oral appliances.  

PubMed

Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient's dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

2012-05-09

213

24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must address all the heat loss or heat gain considerations in...calculation of the transmission heat loss coefficient if in the aggregate...calculated transmission heat loss coefficient (Uo) used for...required by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987...

2013-04-01

214

15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included in...

2012-01-01

215

Electrical Appliance Energy Consumption Control Methods and Electrical Energy Consumption Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distr...

D. P. Chassin D. W. Winiarski J. E. Dagle M. Kinter-Meyer M. K. Donnelly

2005-01-01

216

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. 58.16-20 Section...Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a) Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located...

2010-10-01

217

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. 58.16-20 Section...Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a) Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located...

2009-10-01

218

77 FR 48504 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Coal and Woodburning Appliances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request--Coal and Woodburning Appliances AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission...regulations on coal and woodburning appliances. No comments were received in response...manufacturers of coal and woodburning appliances who are subject to the information...

2012-08-14

219

77 FR 15745 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC): Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory...ACTION: Notice of Establishment of the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory...2012, a notice of Establishment of the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal...

2012-03-16

220

76 FR 14100 - Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division Including On-Site Leased...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division Including On-Site Leased...Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division, Webster City, Iowa. The...Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division. The Department has...

2011-03-15

221

78 FR 3854 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Chapter II Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory...document announces the first meeting of the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory...standards and test procedures for residential appliances and commercial equipment,...

2013-01-17

222

46 CFR 199.40 - Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 199.40 Section...SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS...testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. (a) Each...

2009-10-01

223

76 FR 5832 - Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division, Including On-Site Leased...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division, Including On-Site Leased...Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division, Webster City, Iowa. The...Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division. The Department has...

2011-02-02

224

14 CFR 21.502 - Approval of materials, parts, and appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Approval of materials, parts, and appliances. 21.502 Section 21.502 ...Propellers, Materials, Parts, and Appliances: Import § 21.502 Approval of materials, parts, and appliances. (a) A material, part,...

2009-01-01

225

78 FR 37995 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Teleconference/Webinar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. EERE-2013-BT-NOC-0023] Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory...This document announces a meeting of the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory...standards and test procedures for residential appliances and commercial equipment,...

2013-06-25

226

46 CFR 199.40 - Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 199.40 Section...SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS...testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. (a) Each...

2010-10-01

227

78 FR 51100 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Teleconference/Webinar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. EERE-2013-BT-NOC-0023] Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory...This notice announces a meeting of the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory...Federal Officer, Program Manager for Appliance Standards and Building Codes,...

2013-08-20

228

7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300.37 Section 3300.37 Agriculture...Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a...

2010-01-01

229

15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Appliances and equipment included in program...VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in...

2009-01-01

230

14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for...aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for...aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

2013-01-01

231

A magnetic appliance for treatment of snoring patients with and without obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

The aim of this intraindividual study was to investigate the effects of an intraoral magnetic appliance on snoring, daytime sleepiness, and blood oxygen saturation, as well as to analyze the effects on the craniomandibular complex and investigate the response of the device to craniofacial structure. Twenty-five male patients (mean age 54.1 years, SD 11.44) with handicapping snoring or obstructed sleep apnea (OSAS) participated in the study. The appliance consisted of a maxillary and a mandibular occlusal acrylic splint. In each splint, four cylindrical neodymium-iron-boron magnets were embedded and oriented to produce intermaxillary forces that pulled the mandible forward. After a treatment period of 6 months, questionnaires were used for registration of the patients' subjective rating of daytime sleepiness and their close relatives' opinions about the snoring. The treatment effects on the temporomandibular joint were evaluated, according to Helkimos' anamnestic and dysfunctional index, and nightly registration of blood oxygen saturation was performed before and after 6 months of treatment. The effects on craniofacial skeletal and soft tissue profiles were analyzed cephalometrically. All patients easily accepted the magnetic appliance. The main symptoms, snoring and daytime sleepiness, decreased significantly when the magnet appliance was inserted (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0002, respectively). The blood oxygen saturation during sleep was also improved (p = 0.012). The treatment had no aberrant effects on the temporomandibular joint status. The appliance made the mandible rotate downward and backward, mean 7.8 degrees, and this rotation mostly camouflaged the forward movement of the mandible. There was no significant influence on the hyoid bone position, but the hypopharyngeal airway space increased, the tongue base was lowered, and the contact between the tongue and soft palate was reduced significantly. PMID:9484205

Bernhold, M; Bondemark, L

1998-02-01

232

The 2D lingual appliance system.  

PubMed

The two-dimensional (2D) lingual bracket system represents a valuable treatment option for adult patients seeking a completely invisible orthodontic appliance. The ease of direct or simplified indirect bonding of 2D lingual brackets in combination with low friction mechanics makes it possible to achieve a good functional and aesthetic occlusion, even in the presence of a severe malocclusion. The use of a self-ligating bracket significantly reduces chair-side time for the orthodontist, and the low-profile bracket design greatly improves patient comfort. PMID:24005953

Cacciafesta, Vittorio

2013-09-01

233

Dentoalveolar Open Bite Treatment with Spur Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:  The purpose of this prospective, longitudinally-controlled study was to analyze the isolated effect of spurs on the craniofacial\\u000a and dentoalveolar complex of patients presenting anterior open bite due to tongue dysfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and Methods:  Following a standardized treatment protocol, fifteen patients (mean age 13 years, 10 months ± 5 years, 7 months) underwent\\u000a treatment with a fixed palatal spur appliance for

Philipp Meyer-Marcotty; Jutta Hartmann; Angelika Stellzig-Eisenhauer

2007-01-01

234

Seeing the self in the washing machine: the deep affordance of 2.0 philosophy in the household appliance domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acceleration of rhythm of everyday life requires efficiency and flexibility in daily routines. The real expectations and needs of people concerning intelligent home devices should be carefully researched. The project Moon 2.0 by Indesit Company presents alternative ways of producing household appliance services developing a 2.0 Human Machine Interface and programs setting unit for washing machines, totally manageable by

Caterina Calefato; Enrico Frumento; Monica Milani; Roberto Montanari

2010-01-01

235

UIML: An Appliance-Independent XML User Interface Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's Internet appliances feature user interface technologies almost unknown a few years ago: touch screens, styli, handwriting and voice recognition, speech synthesis, tiny screens, and more. This richness creates problems. First, different appliances use different languages: WML for cell phones; SpeechML, JSML, and VoxML for voice enabled devices such as phones; HTML and XUL for desktop computers, and so on.

Marc Abrams; Constantinos Phanouriou; Alan L. Batongbacal; Stephen M. Williams; Jonathan E. Shuster

1999-01-01

236

Recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to provide a calculation of recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan, for the EPA to amend these rates in order to increase the recycling efficiency. The recycling rate is calculated by a formula according to the statistical results obtained through: (1) an estimation of domestic use of home appliances using time series

E. Hsu; C.-M. Kuo

2005-01-01

237

Dental appliances with inadequate occlusal coverage: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case is presented which illustrates the occlusal problems that can develop when a dental appliance such as a temporomandibular splint with incomplete occlusal cover is worn for a reasonable length of time. As in this case, the selective over-eruption of posterior teeth not incorporated in the appliance can lead to the development of an anterior open bite and an

D. T. Falconer; R. A. C. Chate

2011-01-01

238

Networked smart home appliances - enabling real ubiquitous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are 'networked smart home appliances'? What is a 'ubiquitous culture'? With the rapid advancement in technology and the Internet, the consumer can appreciate the usefulness of connectivity. As connectivity becomes more pervasive the consumer will come to expect even home appliances to be connected to a network within the home. The present TV or PC-centric networks are anticipated to

R. Kango; P. R. Moore; J. Pu

2002-01-01

239

Towards Security Auto-Configuration for Smart Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now that smart home appliances are easily plugged into smart home networks, the question of how to simplify security management, especially of access rights, for such appliances arises. The problem is aggravated by the fact that home users cannot be considered as \\

Jean-Marc Seigneur; Christian Damsgaard Jensen; Stephen Farrell; Elizabeth Gray; Yong Chen

2003-01-01

240

Building audio and visual home appliances on Linux  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe our ongoing work to build future networked audio and visual home appliances. We have developed a prototype system on a Linux-based PC The system has adopted HAVi (Home Audio\\/Video Interoperability) as distributed middleware for home appliances. We have implemented HAVi in Java. Adopting both Linux and Java increases the portability of the software modules and

K. Soejima; M. Matsuda; T. Iino; T. Hayashi; T. Nakajima

2002-01-01

241

Retail Buyers of Apparel and Appliances: A Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among selected variables from a model of industrial buying behavior in the study of retail buying and to compare apparel and appliance buyers. One hundred-twenty apparel buyers and 126 appliance buyers responded to a mailed questionnaire. A factor analysis generated factors for Product Fashionability, Vendor, Negotiations, Supply, and Brand Name. Further

Sally K Francis; Daniel J. Brown

1985-01-01

242

Generative usability: security and user centered design beyond the appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this position paper we consider the ways in which users can be given control over technology and information, considering the spectrum of design possibilities from 'generative component' solutions, to 'appliance' solutions. We show how security concerns and the processes of user centered design tend to encourage a migration towards the appliance end of the spectrum and then describe problems

Luke Church; Alma Whitten

2009-01-01

243

An Analysis of Department of Energy Residential Appliance Efficiency Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have initiated an array of policies aimed at limiting domestic consumption of fossil fuels. Several policy initiatives, aimed at residential fossil-based energy conservation, have included residential appliance efficiency standards, the commercialization of residential applications of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations and solar thermal appliances, and the implementation

Raymond S. Hartman

1981-01-01

244

Proceedings of the Technical Opportunities for Energy Conservation in Appliances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty papers on energy consumption in appliances in the U.S. and energy conservation opportunities for gas-fired and electric appliances were presented at the conference. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. (ERA citation 02:052150)

1976-01-01

245

Class II correction with the Incognito lingual appliance.  

PubMed

The Incognito fully customized lingual appliance provides excellent torque control. This offers the potential for class II correction using inter-maxillary traction without the usual iatrogenic effects associated with their use. A case is presented showing the potential of these appliances in controlling torque and achieving full class II correction on a non-extraction basis. PMID:24005951

Lawson, Robert B

2013-09-01

246

46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5...Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all valves, including cross connecting...

2012-10-01

247

A Functional Antigen in a Practical Crop: LT-B Producing Maize Protects Mice against Escherichia coli Heat Labile Enterotoxin (LT) and Cholera Toxin (CT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason; Kan Wang

2002-01-01

248

A functional antigen in a practical crop: LT-B producing maize protects mice against Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason

2002-01-01

249

Interceptive therapy with elastodontic appliance: case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim of this report is to describe a case of a patient in mixed dentition with dento-skeletal class II malocclusion, deep bite, increased overjet and gummy smile. In this kind of clinical case the objectives of treatment were: to correct the dento-skeletal malocclusion, to obtain a correct overbite and overjet, to control the permanent teeth in a good eruption, to improve aesthetical conditions and to maintain clinical results. Treatment plan included just Occlus-o-guide®, the type that is indicated for mixed dentition (G type). The active phase of therapy was conducted in twelve months and the retention time was two years. Then the patient was controlled every three months and she used the appliance nighttime in alternance for one year more. Occlus-o-guide® was the indicated appliance to obtain all the objectives requested to solve the malocclusion. The early therapy with Occlus-o-guide® is easy, short and most of treated cases don’t need a second phase of orthodontic therapy.

Lagana, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

2011-01-01

250

Posttreatment evaluation of the distal jet appliance.  

PubMed

This study analyzed molar distalization with the distal jet appliance, its effect on the anchor teeth, and the outcome at the completion of orthodontic treatment. Pretreatment, after distalization, and posttreatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated for 21 adolescent girls and 12 adolescent boys. The mean age of the subjects at the time of the pretreatment radiograph was 12.8 +/- 2.2 years. The mean time for the correction of the Class II molar relationship was 6.7 +/- 1.7 months, and the mean total treatment time was 25.7 +/- 3.9 months. The results of this study showed that the distal jet appliance distalized the maxillary molars, but there was significant loss of anchorage. The distal jet also showed less tipping of the maxillary molars and better bodily movement of molars because the force was applied closer to the center of resistance. The observations of treatment outcome indicate that the 1.8-mm mean net anterior movement of the maxillary first molar was more than offset by the 4.8-mm mesial movement of the mandibular first molar. There was no significant increase in lower face height. Consequently the effect on the facial balance was negligible. PMID:11500660

Ngantung, V; Nanda, R S; Bowman, S J

2001-08-01

251

Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2011-10-31

252

Advances in Household Appliances- A Review  

SciTech Connect

An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S. market. The significance and usefulness of each technology was evaluated in order to prioritize the R&D needs to improve energy efficiency of appliances in view of energy savings, cost, and complexity. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Although significant energy savings may be achieved, one of the major barriers in most cases is high first cost. One way of addressing this issue and promoting the introduction of new technologies is to level the playing field for all manufacturers by establishing Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) which are not cost prohibitive and promoting energy efficient products through incentives to both manufacturers and consumers.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

2011-01-01

253

A heat treatment procedure to produce fine-grained lamellar microstructures in a P\\/M titanium aluminide alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for fabricating advanced aerospace titanium aluminide alloys starting from metal powders (the hot isostatically consolidated P\\/M process) is presented in this thesis. This process does not suffer the difficulties of chemical inhomogeneities and coarse grain structure of castings. In addition heat treatments which take advantage of the refined structure of HIP processed materials are developed to achieve microstructure

Peter Au

1997-01-01

254

Electrical conductivity of magnesiowüstite\\/perovskite produced by laser heating of synthetic olivine in the diamond anvil cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples prepared from synthetic single crystals of olivine have electrical conductivity that differs significantly from samples prepared, under similar conditions, from San Carlos olivine. In particular, the oxygen fugacity with which the sample was treated before being loaded into the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) has a large effect on the electrical conductivity of magnesiowüstite\\/perovskite assemblages synthesized from San Carlos

Al Duba; Jean Peyronneau; Fabrice Visocekas; Jean-Paul Poirier

1997-01-01

255

Impulse Heating an Intercalated Compound Using a 27.12 MHz Atmospheric Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma to Produce Nanotubular Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown that impulse heating a covalently intercalated compound in inert gas environment yields closed nanotube structures\\u000a in the exfoliated graphite. Treated with FeCl3 and reheated, open nanotubular and nanoencapsulated structures are identified by TEM. This opens an exciting area of research\\u000a in that a variety of intercalated compounds could be tested as precursors and several metals (Ni, Co,

Thomas J. Manning; Andrea Noel; Mike Mitchell; Angela Miller; William Grow; Greg Gaddy; Kim Riddle; Ken Taylor; Joseph Stach

256

Sinterability of powder metallurgy tool steels produced with the application of heat-time treatment of the melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder metallurgy tool steels prepared from the powders of gas-atomized melts subjected to heat-time treatment were studied.\\u000a Material containing above 1.2% carbon, in addition to tungsten and molybdenum, exhibited a porosity decrease of 6–12% after\\u000a vacuum sintering at a temperature 70?C lower than that of solid-phase sintering. The increased sinterability of the alloys\\u000a was related to the presence of a

L. A. Poznyak; Y. V. Sorokin; N. P. Korzhova; O. V. Datskevich

1997-01-01

257

Effect of Energetic Trapped Particles Produced by ICRF Wave Heating on Sawtooth Instability in the DIII-D Tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the accuracy of the Porcelli sawtooth model using more realistic numerical models from the ORBIT-RF and GATO codes in DIII-D fast wave heating experiments. Simulation results confirm that the fast wave-induced energetic trapped particles may stabilize the sawtooth instability. The crucial kinetic stabilizing contribution strongly depends on both the experimentally reconstructed magnetic shear at the q = 1 surface and the calculated poloidal beta of energetic trapped particles inside the q = 1 surface.

Choi, M.; Chan, V. S.; Chu, M. S.; Jeon, Y. M.; Lao, L. L.; Li, G.; Pinsker, R. I.; Ren, Q.; Turnbull, A. D.

2007-09-01

258

Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics.  

PubMed

Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health.The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance.There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application and the scientific investigation of this effectiveness of fixed appliances or orthodontic treatment in general. There is much research in the area of diagnostics or further development of appliances or techniques done, however extremely few in the area of need for intervention, analysis of the sustainability; influence factors on the success, like caries or quantification of side effects e. g. root resorption. This research to evaluate the indications is completely lacking, also the required evaluation parameters (e. g. means long-term dental maintenance). This gap is in this respect dubious since a link of determining the demand (inducing demand) and supply in Central European health systems is economically given. This enables to create a possibility for a so-called supply induced demand. To get rid of discussions that the professional work of orthodontics can be near to induced demand or unnecessary indications, research of this topic is quite essential. This requires much stronger information for indications. This can improve confidence for patients and insurance companies. Existing indices like the Index of Treatment Need (IOTN) seem to be of academic interest without practice importance for daily work. The question which indications can be regarded as scientifically proven for the intervention must be given big attention immediately. The individual and subjective assessment of the orthodontist (whose experience is not doubted) has to be considered as not sufficient. The scientific background is absolutely necessary due to ethic reasons for the patient, economic reasons for the social insurance system or financiers and also for the orthodontists to evaluative and legitimates the treatment. Well coordinated research with the goal of collecting specific data is urgently required for individual therapeutic processes with appropriate design. The study quality is also an essential topic. It is unacceptable at the beginning of the 21st century with the background of the evidence based medicine, that studies are published with enormous methodological errors. Orthodontics deserves a well

Frank, Wilhelm; Pfaller, Karin; Konta, Brigitte

2008-03-11

259

Appliance electricity consumption in the residential sector: An economic approach  

SciTech Connect

In this article a theoretical framework within which the demand for electricity in the residential sector is studied. The cross-sectional household survey data is analyzed to estimate the consumption of electricity for different end uses by relating the household electricity consumption with the stock of electrical appliances. Using these estimates, appliances elasticities are obtained. It is shown how these elasticities can be used to relate future electricity usage to changes in the stock of appliances for Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka state in southern India.

Reddy, B.S. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Bombay (India)

1995-03-01

260

Material Characterization of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by a Sustainable Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selecting a suitable manufacturing process is one way of achieving sustainability of a product by diminishing energy consumption during its production cycle and improving material efficiency. The article attempts to explore the new processing technology for direct manufacturing of lightweight austempered ductile iron (ADI) casting in a permanent mold. The new processing technology is based on the innovative integrated approach toward casting and heat-treatment process. In this technology, the ductile iron samples obtained using the permanent mold are first austenized immediately after solidification process followed by austempering heat treatment in the fluidized bed and then air cooled at room temperature to obtain ADI material. The influence of austempering time on the microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties, and strain-hardening behavior of ADI was studied. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed to correlate the mechanical properties with microstructural characteristics. It was observed that the mechanical properties of resulting ADI samples were influenced by the microstructural transformations and varied retained austenite volume fractions obtained due to different austempering time. The results indicate that the strain-hardening behavior of the ADI material is influenced by the carbon content of retained austenite.

Meena, Anil; El Mansori, Mohamed

2012-12-01

261

Characterization of a heat stable anti-listerial bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium isolated from idli batter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce various types of bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized polypeptides, which\\u000a have antibacterial spectrum against many food borne pathogens. Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium, is of particular concern to the food industry because of its ability to grow even at refrigeration\\u000a temperatures and its tolerance to preservative agents. Some of the bacteriocins of LAB are

S. V. N. Vijayendra; K. Rajashree; Prakash M. Halami

2010-01-01

262

Effect of heat treatment on the structure and properties of sintered steels produced by dynamic hot pressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.After quenching and tempering, sintered steels possess mechanical properties superior to those of cast and forged steels of the same carbon content. This is evidence that quenching preserves the hardening induced by the thermomechanical effect of DHP.2.Cementite in high-carbon sintered steels produced by DHP exhibits increased stability. Its propensity for graphitization and coagulation grows as a result of quenching and

V. N. Mishchenko

1972-01-01

263

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOEpatents

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2012-04-10

264

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOEpatents

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

2013-04-02

265

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOEpatents

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2011-01-18

266

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

An external facial fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

2010-04-01

267

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

An external facial fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

2009-04-01

268

Managing Discarded Major Appliances: Current Practice, Regulation, and Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The public service report reviews the following aspects of managing used major household appliances, also known as white goods: generation rates in Illinois; available disposal/recycling capacity; regulatory impact; legislation outside of Illinois; backgr...

S. D. Cosper G. R. Brenniman W. H. Hallenbeck

1993-01-01

269

Reducing white spot lesion incidence during fixed appliance therapy.  

PubMed

Fixed orthodontic appliances are commonly used in contemporary orthodontic treatment and can be associated with the development of white spot lesions on the teeth. These lesions can be detrimental to both the aesthetics and health of the teeth so prevention is better than cure and patient selection is critical. This paper discusses predictors of development in addition to methods to help prevent white spot lesions during fixed appliance therapy. Recommendations for oral hygiene regimes during fixed orthodontic appliance treatment are given, the development of white spot lesions (WSLs) described and ways to predict their occurrence identified. Clinical Relevance: Most general dental practitioners will have patients who are considering orthodontic treatment or are wearing fixed orthodontic appliances and so are at increased risk of developing WSLs. It is therefore important they are aware of predictors and ways to prevent WSLs. PMID:23971348

Greene, Louise E; Bearn, D R

270

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a)...

2013-04-01

271

Magic Wand: an intuitive gesture remote control for home appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mickey Mouse controls several brooms using a magic wand in a Disney movie. Can we control home appliances in a similar way? MagicWand makes this dream comes true. Using MagicWand, we can operate more than one home appliance by intuitive actions. MagicWand has two 3-axis accelerometers to detect a control target by just pointing and to recognize command actions which

K. Ouchi; N. Esaka; Y. Tamura; M. Hirahara; M. Doi

2005-01-01

272

Premolar Root Changes Following Treatment with the Banded Herbst Appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:  The aim of this prospective study was to radiographically assess root morphology changes in maxillary and mandibular premolars following Herbst appliance treatment.Patients and Methods:  Twenty-five consecutive adolescents (19 boys and six girls, mean age 13.08 years) with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion were treated with the banded Herbst appliance for a mean period of 13.16 months. Periapical radiographs of the upper

Athanasios T. Nasiopoulos; Athanasios E. Athanasiou; Moschos A. Papadopoulos; George Kolokithas; Ioulia Ioannidou

2006-01-01

273

Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

2009-11-22

274

Heat gain testing to energy balance protocol. Final report, August 1995-February 1997  

SciTech Connect

Under sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute, heat gain tests were conducted on gas and electric commercial cooking appliances, applying the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for the Performance of Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Systems, F1704-96. The commercial cooking appliances tested in this program were gas and electric: griddles, ranges, convection ovens, charbroilers, and fryers. These appliances were all tested under a wall canopy hood operating at a single exhaust rate appropriate for the particular cooking appliance.

Knappmiller, K.; Schrock, D.

1997-02-01

275

Heat Shock Transcriptional Responses in an MC-Producing Cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii) and Its MC-Deficient Mutant under High Light Conditions  

PubMed Central

Microcystins (MCs) are the most commonly-reported hepatotoxins produced by various cyanobacterial taxa in fresh waters to constitute a potential threat to human and animal health. The biological role of MCs in the producer organisms is not known, and it would be very useful to understand the driving force behind the toxin production. Recent studies have suggested that MCs may have a protective function in cells facing environmental stress. Following this starting premise, we speculate that under adverse conditions the expression of stress-related genes coding for Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp) might be different in an MC-producing strain and its MC-deficient mutant. We therefore used RT-qPCR to compare the expression of 13 hsp genes of an MC-producing strain of Planktothrix agardhii (CYA126/8) and its MC-deficient ?mcyD mutant over different periods of exposure to high light stress (HL). Three reference genes (RGs) were selected from six candidates to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Of these three RGs (rsh, rpoD, and gltA), gltA is used here for the first time as an RG in prokaryotes. Under HL stress, five genes were found to be strongly up-regulated in both strains (htpG, dnaK, hspA, groES, and groEL). Unexpectedly, we found that the MC-producing wild type strain accumulated higher levels of htpG and dnaK transcripts in response to HL stress than the MC-deficient mutant. In addition, a significant increase in the mcyE transcript was detected in the mutant, suggesting that MCs are required under HL conditions. We discuss several possible roles of MCs in the response to HL stress through their possible involvement in the protective mechanisms of the cells.

Tran, Thi Du Chi; Bernard, Cecile; Ammar, Myriam; Chaouch, Soraya; Comte, Katia

2013-01-01

276

A test procedure for energetic and performance analysis of cold appliances for the food industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we present a novel approach for the characterization of cold appliances and in particular of refrigerators based on the standard vapour compression cycle with a reciprocating on/off compressor. The test procedure is based on a virtual instrument that perform both the stimulus and the data acquisition on the device under test. Acquired data is elaborated to fit a semi-empirical model based on the energetic balances between thermal and electrical sub systems and the heat exchanged with the environment. This approach results in a simple method to calculate useful parameters of the refrigerator, such as energetic performance, cooling effect and limit values of thermal loads. The test procedure requires only a few temperatures and the electric power consumption to be monitored, resulting in a low impact on the refrigerator. Preliminary tests showed a good estimation of parameters and prediction of energy consumption and heat extraction capacity of the refrigerator under test.

Armani, F.; Boscolo, A.

2013-09-01

277

49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar construction...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.35 Procedure...for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

2012-10-01

278

46 CFR 160.040-4 - Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance...Line-Throwing Appliance, Impulse-Projected Rocket Type (and Equipment) § 160.040-4 Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance....

2010-10-01

279

46 CFR 160.040-4 - Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance...Line-Throwing Appliance, Impulse-Projected Rocket Type (and Equipment) § 160.040-4 Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance....

2009-10-01

280

33 CFR 150.504 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? 150.504 Section 150.504 ...and Specialty Equipment Launching Appliances § 150.504 When must the operator...examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? (a) The operator must...

2009-07-01

281

38 CFR 17.122 - Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished...reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished...authorization. The expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances, or similar...

2013-07-01

282

33 CFR 150.504 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? 150.504 Section...service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? (a) The operator...launching appliances for lifeboats and rescue boats at intervals recommended in the...

2013-07-01

283

Magneto-resistance enhancement due to self-hole-doping in LaMnO3 produced by low temperature heat treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the magneto-resistance (MR) enhancement due to the self-hole-doping (SHD) in LaMnO3 (LMO) produced by low temperature heat treatment (LTHT). The polycrystalline LMO samples were prepared by solid-state-reaction. After the calcination at 1100°C for 18 hours under oxygen gas flow (OGF) and grinding, the powders were pressed into pellets and were sintered at 1100°C and 1300°C for 18 hours under the OGF Although the single crystal of LMO is an insulator, the polycrystalline LMO samples showed large electrical conduction due to the SHD and especially the sample sintered at 1100°C indicated the metallic conduction. We consider that by the sintering in sufficient oxygen gas atmosphere, excess oxygen was mainly introduced into the amorphous-like grain boundary regions (AGBRs) and the high SHD was caused. The LTHT generated large AGBRs in the LMO samples and the MR enhancement was observed.

Kobori, H.; Hoshino, A.; Yamasaki, A.; Sugimura, A.; Taniguchi, T.; Horie, T.; Naitoh, Y.; Shimizu, T.

2012-12-01

284

Lifetime of household appliances: empirical evidence of users behaviour.  

PubMed

The household appliance industry is one of the most important sectors from both the economic and environmental point of view. A greater understanding of the way in which consumers of these items behave would help to better plan the recycling needs as a function of previous purchase figures. This paper presents the findings of a field survey of Spanish consumer habits with respect to different common household appliances as regards replacement time and the reasons for replacing these appliances. The methodology used is based on survival analysis; specifically, a competing risks model. A Cox proportional hazards model is also used for the sake of comparison. Our results show that as the number of people and/or persons under 18 years in the household increases, the lifetimes of some types of appliance decrease significantly. Competing risk model shows that the probability of replacing the refrigerator due to malfunction and technological obsolescence increases with the increase of family members with a higher education. We also provide the cumulative incidence function for different appliances, which can be used to forecast future demands and electrical and electronic waste generation. PMID:20630942

Gutiérrez, Ester; Adenso-Díaz, Belarmino; Lozano, Sebastián; González-Torre, Pilar

2010-07-14

285

Non-intrusive submetering of residential gas appliances  

SciTech Connect

A new technique was developed to non-intrusively monitor the use of individual gas appliances in homes. It relied on a very sensitive master gas meter equipped with a pulse meter, data logger, and software. The procedure involves two steps: decomposition and identification of the end uses. The technique is about 95% accurate but the algorithms can still be confused by some relatively common situations. Further improvements in the software are expected to improve accuracy. The procedure was applied to over 600 homes in Tokyo, Japan. The aggregate data allow more accurate estimates of energy consumption by the major residential gas appliances in addition to their hourly load profiles. Key factors affecting energy demand by each gas appliance were obtained by combining the energy and demographic data. These data are essential for more accurate forecasting of gas consumption, system sizing, and other marketing activities. The system will not necessarily be as successful in America due to the presence of pilot lights, more appliances per household, and variable-rate gas appliances. Nevertheless, the approach appears promising because it is economical and accurate.

Yamagami, Shin; Nakamura, Hajime [Tokyo Gas Co. (Japan); Meier, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-08-01

286

Relative Importance of Heat-Labile Enterotoxin in the Causation of Severe Diarrheal Disease in the Gnotobiotic Piglet Model by a Strain of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli That Produces Multiple Enterotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce multiple enterotoxins are important causes of severe dehydrating diarrhea in human beings and animals, but the relative importance of these enterotoxins in the pathogenesis is poorly understood. Gnotobiotic piglets were used to study the importance of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) in infection with an ETEC strain that produces multiple enterotoxins. LT (eltAB) and complemented

Emil M. Berberov; You Zhou; David H. Francis; Michael A. Scott; Stephen D. Kachman; Rodney A. Moxley

2004-01-01

287

Least investment cost strategies for market transformation to high efficiency residential appliances and lighting - results of a country by country scenario analysis for 30 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficient electric appliances and lighting are one of the keystones of sustainable energy strategies. As for most of these products a more or less homogenous European producer market exists, they offer high potentials for policies and measures at the EU level as well as at national levels in order to transform the market and the stock of these electricity-consuming

Stefan Lechtenböhmer; Claus Barthel; Thomas Hanke; Matthias Wissner

288

76 FR 36908 - Draft Competition Rules for a Global Appliance Efficiency Award for Televisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Global Appliance Efficiency Award for Televisions AGENCY: Office of Policy and International...competition to identify the most efficient televisions (TVs) available on the market. Ultimately...Global Appliance Efficiency Award for Televisions and to offer an opportunity for...

2011-06-23

289

76 FR 31749 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers and External...Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers and External...Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for battery chargers and...

2011-06-01

290

49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312...Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with...

2011-10-01

291

49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312...Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with...

2012-10-01

292

Werkdocument Afgedanakt wit- en Bruingoed (Report on Discarded Electr(on)ic (Household) Appliances).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides information on the amount, the composition and the destination of discarded electronic household appliances. Electronic household appliances are divided in 3 main streams, namely: white goods (dishwasher, washing machine, etc.); other ...

A. H. Hanemaayer K. Meiling

1993-01-01

293

Energy efficiency and household electric appliances in developing and newly industrialized countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents data and analysis concerning household electric appliances in developing countries. Electricity demand for household appliances is an important source of growth in peak electricity demand in many countries. The authors illustrate how ...

S. Meyers S. Tyler J. Sathaye L. Schipper H. Geller

1990-01-01

294

38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally...

2013-07-01

295

Carrying out biological qualification, the control operation of moist-heat (steam sterilization) processes for producing sterile pharmaceuticals and medical devices.  

PubMed

In this report we will first discuss the principles behind the practices that are used today in the design and qualification of moist-heat (steam sterilization) microbial-control processes used to produce sterile pharmaceutical products and medical devices. Secondly, we will work through example applications of how to design and qualify processes of three levels of complexity which we call Empirical Overkill, Empirical, and Product Specific. Empirical Overkill is specifically for the microbial-control processes for indirect items, such as tanks, pipes, pumps and other hardware. Empirical is for pharmaceutical and medical-device products that are produced under good manufacturing conditions and, therefore, there is control of the level of the microbial bioburden. Product Specific is for microbial-control processes designed and qualified for a specific product on the basis of the numbers and resistance of the bioburden of that product. We will treat design in this report; however, the major thrust is in setting up and carrying out the biological qualification of the process, which is the mode of control used to assure the adequacy of these microbial-control processes. PMID:10822983

Pflug, I J; Evans, K D

296

Management of anterior dental crossbite with removable appliances  

PubMed Central

This case report describes the treatment of an 8-year-old girl with anterior dental crossbite using a series of removable appliances to bring the teeth into a normal position. Clinical presentation and intervention: A removable acrylic appliance with a bite plate incorporating a screw was used to correct the anterior dental crossbite and align the incisors. The subsequent eruption of the maxillary left lateral incisor on the palatinal side was treated with a second acrylic plate incorporating a labiolingual spring. After an 8-month period, the anterior crossbite involving multiple incisors was corrected.

Ulusoy, Ayca Tuba; Bodrumlu, Ebru Hazar

2013-01-01

297

Orthodontic parotitis: a rare complication from an orthodontic appliance.  

PubMed

A case is presented of a 14-year-old female undergoing orthodontic fixed appliance treatment who presented with right facial swelling in the parotid region. An initial diagnosis of acute infective parotitis was made by her primary care clinician. However, after clinical examination and ultrasonographic imaging, a diagnosis of salivary stasis secondary to inflammatory occlusion of Stensen's ductal orifice was made. The ductal orifice had been traumatized by the adjacent orthodontic appliance. This has not been described before in the literature. The differential diagnosis of parotid enlargement in children is discussed. PMID:23269695

McCarthy, Eileen; Cobb, Alistair R M

2012-12-01

298

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

SciTech Connect

It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The three primary analyses presented in this report are: Nevertheless, it is important to analyze best-on-market products, since data on truly max tech technologies are limited. (1) an analysis of the cross-cutting strategies most promising for reducing appliance and equipment energy use in the U.S.; (2) a macro-analysis of the U.S. energy-saving potential inherent in promising ultra-efficient appliance technologies; and (3) a product-level analysis of the energy-saving potential.

Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

2011-07-20

299

46 CFR 31.36-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL. 31.36-1 Section 31.36-1 Shipping COAST...Arrangements § 31.36-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangementsâTB/ALL. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on...

2012-10-01

300

Control of mandibular incisors with the combined Herbst and completely customized lingual appliance - a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The traditional Herbst appliance induces mandibular incisor proclination independent of the anchorage system used. The dental effects of the Herbst appliance as an element of a completely customized lingual orthodontic (LO) appliance (Incognito, 3 M) has not been analyzed yet and the aim of this paper was to measure the effect of mandibular incisor proclination using this Herbst-LO device.

Dirk Wiechmann; Rainer Schwestka-Polly; Hans Pancherz; Ariane Hohoff

2010-01-01

301

Treatment effects of the edgewise Herbst appliance: A cephalometric and tomographic investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The crown Herbst appliance was introduced in the late 1980s because of shortcomings of the banded Herbst. In edgewise Herbst treatment, a fixed appliance is used with the crown Herbst to maximize the skeletal effects of treatment. Treatment response to the edgewise Herbst appliance has not been reported in the literature. Our objective was to investigate skeletal and dental

Ryan VanLaecken; Chris A. Martin; Terry Dischinger; Thomas Razmus; Peter Ngane

302

In vivo determination of genotoxicity induced by metals from orthodontic appliances using micronucleus and comet assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthodontic appliances are usually made of stainless steel, which contains metals such as nickel, chromium and iron that have been associated with DNA damage. The aim of the present study was to de- termine the genetic toxicity associated with orthodontic fixed appliances in twenty healthy patients (16 ± 2.5 years) undergoing orthodontic treat - ment (fixed appliances - basic composition:

G. H. Westphalen; L. M. Menezes; D. Pra; G. G. Garcia; V. M. Schmitt; J. A. P. Henriques; R. Medina-Silva

2008-01-01

303

Design techniques for sensor appliances: foundations and light compass case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the first systematic, sensor-centric approach for quantitative design of sensor network appliances. We demonstrate its use by designing light appliance devices and the associated middleware. We have developed five models which are required to make this problem tractable and to undertake the challenging task of designing light sensor appliances: i. physical world, ii. light sensor, iii. physical phenomenon,

Jennifer L. Wong; Seapahn Megerian; M. Potkonjank

2003-01-01

304

Design techniques for sensor appliances: foundations and light compass case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the first systematic, sensor-centric approach for quantitative design of sensor network appliances. We demonstrate its use by designing light appliance devices and the associated middleware. We have developed five models which are required to make this problem tractable and to undertake the challenging task of designing light sensor appliances: (i) physical world, (ii) light sensor, (iii) physical phenomenon,

Jennifer L. Wong; Seapahn Megerian; Miodrag Potkonjak

2003-01-01

305

Potentials and applications of coordinated groups of thermal household appliances for power system control purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel load management approach using thermal household appliances is presented, which provides extensive possibilities to support power system control tasks. A recently developed coordination algorithm for a high number of small thermostat-controlled appliances requires the connection of individual appliances to a central control entity through a two-way communication channel. The control method, which does not cause

Stephan Koch; Marek Zima; G. Andersson

2009-01-01

306

16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating and... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN...APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...

2013-01-01

307

Condensing boilers: reduced space-heating costs in large residential buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Owners of buildings in which space heating is provided by centralised, gas-fired heating plants can reduce their heating costs through the use of highly efficient heating appliances known as condensing boilers. This paper is based on a monitoring programm...

M. J. B. Trim

1989-01-01

308

Energy Use And Quality Of Foods Cooked By Different Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to compare the energy consumption, cooking time, and quality of five foods cooked by procedures adapted for several electric appli ances. Appliances studied included electric range surface units and oven, induc tion cooktop, electric frypan, microwave oven, and toaster oven. \\

Dianne Odland; Carole Davis; Ruth Vettel; James E. Harris

1987-01-01

309

Applying Kerberos to the Communication Environment for Information Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

When IPv6 deploys, each information appliance shall have a global IP address and communicates directly with each other. Some devices may have much lower processing performance than PCs have due to various limitations (e.g. cost, physical size, power consumption). Such devices must have security function, that is confidentiality, integrity and access control, for provision of privacy even with a home

Shoichi Sakane; Nobuo Okabe; Ken-ichi KAMADA; Hiroshi Esaki

2003-01-01

310

Exercise bike powered electric generator for fitness club appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generator powered by a stationary bicycle for the purposes of generating electricity for fitness club appliances is considered. A generator is connected to a stationary bicycle in such a way as the circular rotation of the front wheel rotates the coils of wires inside the generator between the poles of the magnets inside the generator. The resulting Direct Current

R. Strzelecki; M. Jarnut; G. Benysek

2007-01-01

311

Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second edition contains teacher and student guides for 14 units of instruction in major appliance repair. Each unit in the teacher edition includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities, answers to assignment sheets, answers to the written test, written test, a unit evaluation form, teacher…

Smreker, Gene; Calvert, King

312

49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or supports considered part of the car body. Safety appliance brackets or supports will be considered part of the car body and will not be required to be mechanically...welded to a surface of the equipment's body that is at a minimum 3/16-inch...

2011-10-01

313

Issues in Federal Preemption of State Appliance Energy Efficiency Regulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study is to analyze the issues in federal preemption of state regulations on appliance energy efficiency, given DOE's proposed no standard rule set forth in the April 2, 1982, NOPR and the comments received during the rulemaking proc...

1982-01-01

314

Home appliances controller using wireless controller area network (WCAN) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a wireless remote controller in which providing a wireless sensing solution for home users to operate essential household appliances, ranging from simple lightings to sophisticated electronic devices. A wireless protocol based on wireless token ring protocol (WTRP) has been modified, yielding wireless controller area network (WCAN) data centric communications, which is then proposed to be applied in

Wei Lun Ng; Chee Kyun Ng; N. K. Noordin; F. Z. Rokhani; B. M. Ali

2010-01-01

315

Non-intrusive submetering of residential gas appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique was developed to non-intrusively monitor the use of individual gas appliances in homes. It relied on a very sensitive master gas meter equipped with a pulse meter, data logger, and software. The procedure involves two steps: decomposition and identification of the end uses. The technique is about 95% accurate but the algorithms can still be confused by

Shin Yamagami; Hajime Nakamura; A. Meier

1996-01-01

316

Refrigeration Controls: Electrical & Mechanical; Appliance Repair 3: 9027.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet outlines a course designed to equip major appliance service students with the fundamental knowledge and understanding of procedures, basic electrical circuitry, and nomenclatures of components necessary in successfully tracing a circuit and repairing or replacing a malfunctioning component. Course content includes goals, specific…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

317

Modified Nance palatal arch appliance for anterior tooth replacement.  

PubMed

The following case report presents a new and an innovative technique for the postextraction replacement of maxillary central incisors using the natural teeth as pontics. The novel appliance fabricated fully satisfied the demands of the adolescent patient for a fixed prosthetic, while fulfilling the aesthetic and functional requirements presented by the case. PMID:23749860

Sethi, Ntasha; Shanthraj, Srinivas L; Muraleedharan, Manju; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2013-06-07

318

Securing Mobile Appliances: New Challenges for the System Designer  

Microsoft Academic Search

As intelligent electronic systems pervade all aspects of our lives, capturing, storing, and communicating a wide range of sensitive and personal data, security is emerging as a critical concern that must be addressed in order to enable several current and future applications. Mobile appliances, which will play a critical role in enabling the visions of ubiquitous computing and communications, and

Anand Raghunathan; Srivaths Ravi; Sunil Hattangady; Jean-Jacques Quisquater

2003-01-01

319

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of Major Appliances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DOE has proposed energy efficiency standards for eight types of appliances. One of the criteria used to establish these standards is the economic impact of the standard on the consumers of the regulated products. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed f...

I. Turiel H. Estrada M. Levine

1980-01-01

320

Dentoalveolar and skeletal changes associated with the pendulum appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine the dentoalveolar and skeletal effects of the pendulum appliance in Class II patients at varying stages of dental development and with varying facial patterns (high, neutral, and low mandibular plane angles). Specifically, the amount and nature of the “distalization” of the maxillary first molars and the reciprocal effects on the anchoring maxillary

Timothy J. Bussick; James A. McNamara

2000-01-01

321

Characterization of Fluorescent Chimeras of Cholera Toxin and Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxins Produced by Use of the Twin Arginine Translocation System  

PubMed Central

Cholera toxin (CT) is an AB5 toxin responsible for the profuse secretory diarrhea resulting from Vibrio cholerae infection. CT consists of a pentameric, receptor-binding B subunit (CTB) and a monomeric A subunit (CTA) that has latent enzymatic activity. In addition to its enterotoxicity, CT has potent mucosal adjuvant activity and can also function as a carrier molecule with many potential applications in cell biology. In earlier studies, the toxic CTA1 domain was replaced by several other antigenic protein domains to produce holotoxin-like chimeras for use as potential mucosal vaccines. In the present study we utilized the twin arginine translocation (tat) system to produce fluorescent CT chimeras, as well as fluorescent chimeras of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxins LTI and LTIIb. Fusion proteins containing either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) and the A2 domain of CT, LTI, or LTIIb were transported to the periplasm of E. coli by the tat system, and the corresponding B polypeptides of CT, LTI, and LTIIb were transported to the periplasm by the sec system. The fluorescent fusion proteins were shown to assemble spontaneously and efficiently with the corresponding B polypeptides in the periplasm to form chimeric holotoxin-like molecules, and these chimeras bound to and entered cultured cells in a manner similar to native CT, LTI, or LTIIb. The GFP and mRFP derivatives of CT, LT, and LTIIb developed here are useful tools for studies on the cell biology of trafficking of the CT/LT family of bacterial enterotoxins. In addition, these constructs provide proof in principle for the development of novel chimeric CT-like or LT-like vaccine candidates containing CTA2 fusion proteins that cannot be delivered to the periplasm of E. coli by use of the sec secretion pathway.

Tinker, Juliette K.; Erbe, Jarrod L.; Holmes, Randall K.

2005-01-01

322

Characterization of fluorescent chimeras of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins produced by use of the twin arginine translocation system.  

PubMed

Cholera toxin (CT) is an AB(5) toxin responsible for the profuse secretory diarrhea resulting from Vibrio cholerae infection. CT consists of a pentameric, receptor-binding B subunit (CTB) and a monomeric A subunit (CTA) that has latent enzymatic activity. In addition to its enterotoxicity, CT has potent mucosal adjuvant activity and can also function as a carrier molecule with many potential applications in cell biology. In earlier studies, the toxic CTA(1) domain was replaced by several other antigenic protein domains to produce holotoxin-like chimeras for use as potential mucosal vaccines. In the present study we utilized the twin arginine translocation (tat) system to produce fluorescent CT chimeras, as well as fluorescent chimeras of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxins LTI and LTIIb. Fusion proteins containing either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) and the A(2) domain of CT, LTI, or LTIIb were transported to the periplasm of E. coli by the tat system, and the corresponding B polypeptides of CT, LTI, and LTIIb were transported to the periplasm by the sec system. The fluorescent fusion proteins were shown to assemble spontaneously and efficiently with the corresponding B polypeptides in the periplasm to form chimeric holotoxin-like molecules, and these chimeras bound to and entered cultured cells in a manner similar to native CT, LTI, or LTIIb. The GFP and mRFP derivatives of CT, LT, and LTIIb developed here are useful tools for studies on the cell biology of trafficking of the CT/LT family of bacterial enterotoxins. In addition, these constructs provide proof in principle for the development of novel chimeric CT-like or LT-like vaccine candidates containing CTA(2) fusion proteins that cannot be delivered to the periplasm of E. coli by use of the sec secretion pathway. PMID:15908392

Tinker, Juliette K; Erbe, Jarrod L; Holmes, Randall K

2005-06-01

323

Influence of host interleukin-10 polymorphisms on development of traveler's diarrhea due to heat-labile enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in travelers from the United States who are visiting Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to 60% of U.S. visitors to Mexico develop traveler's diarrhea (TD), mostly due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce heat-labile (LT) and\\/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins. Distinct single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter have been associated with high, intermediate, or low production of IL-10. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the association of SNPs in

Jose Flores; Herbert L. DuPont; Stephanie A. Lee; Jaime Belkind-Gerson; Mercedes Paredes; Jamal A. Mohamed; Lisa Y. Armitige; Dong-Chuan Guo; Pablo C. Okhuysen

2008-01-01

324

Secretory IgA-mediated protection against V. cholerae and heat-labile enterotoxin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by rice-based vaccine  

PubMed Central

Cholera and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are among the most common causes of acute infantile gastroenteritis globally. We previously developed a rice-based vaccine that expressed cholera toxin B subunit (MucoRice-CTB) and had the advantages of being cold chain–free and providing protection against cholera toxin (CT)–induced diarrhea. To advance the development of MucoRice-CTB for human clinical application, we investigated whether the CTB-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) induced by MucoRice-CTB gives longstanding protection against diarrhea induced by Vibrio cholerae and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)–producing ETEC (LT-ETEC) in mice. Oral immunization with MucoRice-CTB stored at room temperature for more than 3 y provided effective SIgA-mediated protection against CT- or LT-induced diarrhea, but the protection was impaired in polymeric Ig receptor–deficient mice lacking SIgA. The vaccine gave longstanding protection against CT- or LT-induced diarrhea (for ?6 months after primary immunization), and a single booster immunization extended the duration of protective immunity by at least 4 months. Furthermore, MucoRice-CTB vaccination prevented diarrhea in the event of V. cholerae and LT-ETEC challenges. Thus, MucoRice-CTB is an effective long-term cold chain–free oral vaccine that induces CTB-specific SIgA-mediated longstanding protection against V. cholerae– or LT-ETEC–induced diarrhea.

Tokuhara, Daisuke; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Nochi, Tomonori; Kodama, Toshio; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Takahashi, Yuko; Nanno, Masanobu; Nakanishi, Ushio; Takaiwa, Fumio; Honda, Takeshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

325

Ghana residential energy use and appliance ownership survey: Final Report on the Potential Impact of Appliance Performance Standards in Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Government of Ghana, through the Ministry of Mines and Energy is committed to improving the national energy infrastructure and market in Ghana. This report presents the results of a survey and analysis of household energy use and appliance ownership i...

S. Constantine A. Denver S. Hakim J. E. McMahon G. Rosenquist

1999-01-01

326

Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

2012-12-31

327

Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

1993-08-01

328

Solar assisted heat pump heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar assisted heat pump fluid heating system capable of reliable operation at higher than normal ambient temperatures is disclosed. The system includes a collection of solar panels and primary fluid storage tanks having integral coiled heat exchangers interconnected and charged with heat transfer fluid to produce heat. Temperature sensors positioned at the panels and storage tanks transmit temperature signals

Pendergrass

1984-01-01

329

Heating with Solid Fuels. A Unit of Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in industrial education programs at the secondary school level, this unit focuses on residential space heating although applications can be made to commercial settings. Wood heat is emphasized but coal-fired appliances and other energy sources are considered. Educational objectives with instructional strategies are provided for…

Rockel, Edward

330

Heating with Solid Fuels. A Unit of Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed for use in industrial education programs at the secondary school level, this unit focuses on residential space heating although applications can be made to commercial settings. Wood heat is emphasized but coal-fired appliances and other energy sources are considered. Educational objectives with instructional strategies are provided for…

Rockel, Edward

331

Is there a cost price for the heat produced from electro-nuclear power stations. Is thermodynamic equivalence an economic trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic equivalence between heat and electricity, when used uncritically and carelessly translated into a price equivalence, can effectively hide a very formidable economic 'trap' and the advantage it appears to indicate for heat production at relatively low temperatures is to be distrusted; in many cases, this advantage may be of little importance in comparison with the disadvantages of low

Charroppin

1977-01-01

332

IMRA: Immediate maxillary replacement appliance for anterior teeth.  

PubMed

When faced with the need for emergency replacement of anterior teeth, the problem for dentists and their patients is how can lost teeth be replaced quickly? Laboratory-fabricated replacement appliances require significant time and expense, not to mention an extended period, during which the patient remains edentulous. This report describes a procedure to construct an immediate, low-cost replacement for one or more missing anterior teeth-one that requires no laboratory time. The resulting appliance is meant only as a stop gap and does not support chewing; but it does offer an esthetically pleasing, removable prosthesis that provides phonetic and lip support during the short time necessary to fabricate and place a permanent prosthesis. PMID:21894829

Silver, Joel; Apltauer, James; Blye, Jeffrey; Friedman, Lawrence J

333

Design Considerations for Frequency Responsive Grid Friendly Appliances  

SciTech Connect

The paper addresses design considerations for frequency responsive Grid FriendlyTM appliances (FR-GFAs). Case studies have been done based on the frequency data collected in 2003 in Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) systems. An FR-GFA can turn on/off based on frequency signals and make selective low-frequency load shedding possible at appliance level. FR-GFAs can also be treated as an spinning reserve to maintain a load-to-generation balance under power system normal operation states. The triggering frequency and duration of the FR-GFA device with different frequency setting schemes are simulated. Design considerations of the FR-GFA are then discussed based on simulation results.

Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

2006-05-24

334

Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to analyze the issues in federal preemption of state regulations on appliance energy efficiency, given DOE's proposed no standard rule set forth in the April 2, 1982, NOPR and the comments received during the rulemaking process. This analysis includes the following issues: the commenting parties' positions on preemption, the state regulations subject to preemption, burden of proof, criteria for evaluating petitions for exemption, timing of preemption, and procedural as well as other related aspects.

Not Available

1982-12-01

335

Eddy current dual packs heater based continuous pipeline fluid heating using soft switching PWM high frequency inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an innovative prototype of a new conceptual electromagnetic induction eddy-current based fluid heating appliance using voltage-fed quasi resonant zero voltage soft switching PWM high-frequency inverter using IGBTs, which can operate at a constant frequency variable power regulation scheme. The promising simple high-efficient low noise inverter type electromagnetic induction eddy-current based pipeline fluid heating appliance is proposed for

H. Tanaka; M. Kaneda; S. Chandhaket; M. Aubdallah; M. Nakaoka; N. Uchida; T. Ueno

2000-01-01

336

Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project  

SciTech Connect

Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances were installed and monitored for more than a year at residential sites at three locations in Washington and Oregon. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow underfrequency event—an average of one event per day—and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Appliance owners reported that the appliance responses were unnoticed and caused little or no inconvenience for the homes’ occupants.

Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Michie, Preston; Oliver, Terry V.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Eustis, Conrad; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Marek, W.; Munson, Ryan L.; Pratt, Robert G.

2007-10-01

337

Adapting Legacy Home Appliances to Home Network Systems UsingWeb Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper presents a framework,that adapts the con- ventional home,electric appliances with the infrared re- mote controls (legacy appliances) to the emerging,home network system (HNS). The proposed,method,extensively uses the concept of service-oriented architecture to improve programmable,interoperability among,multi-vendor appli- ances. We first prepare APIs that assist a PC to send in- frared signals to the appliances. We then aggregate the

Masahide Nakamura; Akihiro Tanaka; Hiroshi Igaki; Haruaki Tamada; Ken-ichi Matsumoto

2006-01-01

338

Unilateral distal molar movement with an implant-supported distal jet appliance.  

PubMed

With the guidance of the basis of the distal jet appliance, we present a new implant-supported distal jet appliance. In this case, we used a modified distal jet appliance that was supported by a palatal implant placed at the anterior edge of the rugae region of the palate for molar distalization. The treatment results were evaluated from lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs and dental casts. We conclude that an implant-supported modified distal jet appliance is effective in the correction of a Class II molar relationship. PMID:11999940

Karaman, A I; Basciftci, F A; Polat, O

2002-04-01

339

Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore heat transfer and energy efficiency using the context of energy efficient houses. They gain a solid understanding of the three types of heat transfer: radiation, convection and conduction, which are explained in detail and related to the real world. They learn about the many ways solar energy is used as a renewable energy source to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses and operating costs. Students also explore ways in which a device can capitalize on the methods of heat transfer to produce a beneficial result. They are given the tools to calculate the heat transferred between a system and its surroundings.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

340

Magnetic field exposure from electric appliances and childhood cancer  

SciTech Connect

The effect on childhood cancer of prolonged exposure to 60-H magnetic fields from electric appliances was examined using interview data from a recently completed case-control study. Exposures of children aged 0-14 years whose incident cancers were diagnosed between 1976 and 1983 and who resided in the Denver, Colorado, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared with those of controls selected by random digit dialing, matched on age, sex, and telephone exchange area. Parents of 252 cases and 222 controls were interviewed at home about the use of electric appliances by the mother during pregnancy (prenatal exposure) and by the child (postnatal exposure). After adjustment for income, prenatal electric blanket exposure was associated with a small increase in the incidence of childhood cancers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.2) that was more pronounced for leukemia (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.6) and brain cancer (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5). Postnatal exposure to electric blankets was also weakly associated with childhood cancer (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.6-3.4), with a larger but imprecise association with acute lymphocytic leukemia (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.6-6.5). Water beds and bedside electric clocks were unrelated to childhood cancer incidence. Results are limited by nonresponse and imprecision resulting from the rarity of appliance use, especially for subgroups of cases. Nonetheless, electric blankets, one of the principal sources of prolonged magnetic field exposure, were weakly associated with childhood cancer and warrant a more thorough evaluation.

Savitz, D.A.; John, E.M.; Kleckner, R.C. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

1990-05-01

341

Dentoalveolar and skeletal changes associated with the pendulum appliance.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to examine the dentoalveolar and skeletal effects of the pendulum appliance in Class II patients at varying stages of dental development and with varying facial patterns (high, neutral, and low mandibular plane angles). Specifically, the amount and nature of the "distalization" of the maxillary first molars and the reciprocal effects on the anchoring maxillary first premolars and incisors were studied, as were skeletal changes in the sagittal and vertical dimensions of the face. Pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs obtained from 13 practitioners were used to document the treatment of 101 patients (45 boys and 56 girls). The average maxillary first molar distalization was 5.7 mm, with a distal tipping of 10.6 degrees. The anchoring anterior teeth moved mesially, as indicated by the 1.8-mm anterior movement of the upper first premolars, with a mesial tipping of 1.5 degrees. The maxillary first molars intruded 0.7 mm, and the first premolars extruded 1.0 mm. Lower anterior facial height increased 2.2 mm; there was no significant difference in lower anterior facial height increase between patients of high, neutral, or low mandibular plane angles. In patients with erupted maxillary second molars, there was a slightly greater increase in lower anterior face height and in the mandibular plane angle and a slightly greater decrease in overbite in comparison to patients with unerupted second molars. Similar findings were observed in patients with second premolar anchorage versus those with second deciduous molar anchorage. The results of this study suggest that the pendulum appliance is effective in moving maxillary molars posteriorly during orthodontic treatment. For maximum maxillary first molar distalization with minimal increase in lower anterior facial height, this appliance is used most effectively in patients with deciduous maxillary second molars for anchorage and unerupted permanent maxillary second molars, although significant bite opening was not a concern in any patient in this study. PMID:10715093

Bussick, T J; McNamara, J A

2000-03-01

342

Visual expression analysis of the responses of the alternative oxidase gene ( aox1) to heat shock, oxidative, and osmotic stresses in conidia of citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citric acid-producing filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger WU-2223L shows cyanide-insensitive respiration catalyzed by alternative oxidase in addition to the cytochrome pathway. Sequence analysis of the 5’ flanking region of the alternative oxidase gene (aox1) revealed a potential heat shock element (HSE) and a stress response element (STRE). We have previously confirmed aox1 expression in conidia. In this study, to confirm

Yuki Honda; Takasumi Hattori; Kohtaro Kirimura

343

Modified distal shoe appliance--fabrication and clinical performance.  

PubMed

When the primary second molar is prematurely lost, mesial movement and migration of the permanent first molar often occurs. This is one of the most difficult problems of the developing dentition confronted by pediatric dentists. Use of a space maintainer that will guide the permanent first molar into its normal position is indicated. In cases with bilateral premature loss of primary molars, the conventional design of distal shoe poses a variety of problems and, therefore, necessitates a customized design for the eruption guidance of permanent first molars. The purpose of this case report is to discuss an innovative design of a distal shoe appliance, which was used with good clinical results. PMID:23433624

Gujjar, Kumar Raghav; Indushekar, K R; Amith, H V; Sharma, Shefali Li

344

New energy test procedures for refrigerators and other appliances  

SciTech Connect

Many innovations in refrigerator design rely on microprocessors, sensors, and algorithms to control automatic defrost, variable speed,and other features. Even though these features strongly influence energy consumption, the major energy test procedures presently test only a refrigerator's mechanical efficiency and ignore the ''software'' aspects. We describe a new test procedure where both ''hardware'' and ''software'' tests are fed into a dynamic simulation model. A wide range of conditions can be tested and simulated. This approach promotes international harmonization because the simulation model can also be programmed to estimate energy use for the ISO, DOE, or JIS test. The approach outlined for refrigerators can also be applied to other appliances.

Meier, Alan; Ernebrant, Stefan; Kawamoto, Kaoru; Wihlborg, Mats

1999-04-01

345

Heat treatment of mechano-chemically produced BaFe12O19/Fe3O4 magnetic nano-composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) magnetic powder was synthesized via ceramic route by mixing of Fe2O3 and BaCO3 and subsequent calcination of the mixed powder in air at 1150°C. The synthesized barium hexaferrite was mixed with graphite to be treated mechano-chemically in high energy ball mill in air atmosphere for various times. Subsequently, the milled samples were subjected to high temperature in argon atmosphere. XRD patterns of the milled samples revealed that graphite partially reduced barium hexaferrite to Fe3O4 after 15 hours of milling, resulted in a magnetic nano-composite of BaFe12O19/Fe3O4. Extending milling time to 80 hours promoted the reduction process to FeO. Heat treatment of the milled samples resulted in different magnetic composites. Iron was seen in XRD pattern of the 40 hours milled sample that was heat treated at 680°C. SEM images showed that after heat treatment, fine particles in agglomerates grew and larger particles formed. As a result, mean particle size increased due to the heat treatment of the milled powder.

Molaei, M. J.; Ataie, A.; Raygan, S.

2011-04-01

346

Heat treatment and properties of high-speed steel 10R6M5MP produced by atomization and hot extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

With heat treatment to a given hardness, high-speed steels manufactured by atomization have higher mechanical properties than standard steel of similar composition due to the homogeneous fine-grained structure and even distribution of finely dispersed carbide phase. These steels should be quenched from temperatures 20–30° lower than for standard steels.

M. N. Goryushina; N. N. Gavrikov; I. B. Bolonkina; G. E. Titenskaya

1980-01-01

347

CONTEMPORARY CORRELATIONS FOR HEAT AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER IN IRRIGATED PACKED BEDS APPLIED TO THE DESIGN OF COOLING EQUIPMENT FOR HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

If it is to remain fresh, horticultural produce such as fruits and vegetables must be cooled as soon after harvest as possible. An effective way of achieving this is to spray chilled water through beds of the produce, after which the water is treated and re- cycled around the system. Designers need guidelines on the effects of design parameters such

G. R. Thorpe

348

78 FR 37586 - TE Connectivity, CIS-Appliances Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [TA-W-81,414] TE Connectivity, CIS-Appliances Division...workers and former workers of TE Connectivity, CIS-Appliances Division...skill level of employees across TE Connectivity. The Department also...

2013-06-21

349

40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart F of... - Method for Testing Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Appliances Recovery Efficiency Test Procedure for Refrigerant Recovery Equipment Used on Small Appliances...equipment designed to recover ozone depleting refrigerants (or any substitute refrigerant subject to the recycling rules...

2012-07-01

350

7 CFR 3300.13 - Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated body.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appliances as installed in the insulated body. 3300.13 Section 3300...appliances as installed in the insulated body. In determining the efficiency...respect to maintaining a prescribed temperature inside the body, the procedures in ATP,...

2009-01-01

351

7 CFR 3300.13 - Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated body.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appliances as installed in the insulated body. 3300.13 Section 3300...appliances as installed in the insulated body. In determining the efficiency...respect to maintaining a prescribed temperature inside the body, the procedures in ATP,...

2010-01-01

352

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...appliances which are located above the weather deck shall be fitted with at least...appliances are located entirely below the weather deck shall be provided with powered ventilation of sufficient capacity to effect a change of air at least once every 6...

2011-10-01

353

Treatment effects of the mandibular anterior repositioning appliance on patients with Class II malocclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mandibular anterior repositioning appliance (MARA) is a tooth-borne functional appliance for use in patients with Class II malocclusions; it positions the mandible forward into a Class I occlusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the MARA's dental and skeletal effects on anterior, posterior, and vertical changes in 30 Class II patients. The treatment group consisted of 12

Valmy Pangrazio-Kulbersh; Jeffrey L. Berger; David S. Chermak; Richard Kaczynski; Eugene S. Simon; Andre Haerian

2003-01-01

354

The Design of the Household Electric Appliances of Japan after World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

years after the World War II were called to be the beginning of household electric appliances in Japan, which demands and supplies extended rapidly especially in the 1950s. It is a well-known fact that the business improvement and the popular income stabilization by the Korean War had a great influence on the recognition of electric appliances' convenience in Japan. However,

Satoshi NOZOE; Shinnichi ISHIMURA

355

Short-term skeletal and dental effects of the Xbow appliance as measured on lateral cephalograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:Our objective was to determine the short-term skeletal and dental effects of the Xbow appliance when compared with an equivalent untreated control group as measured on lateral cephalograms. Methods: A prospective sample of 69 consecutive Class II patients treated with only the Xbow appliance was compared with 30 historical Class II untreated controls. Standardized lateral cephalograms were used. Results: Two

Carlos Flores-Mir; Gregory Barnett; Duncan W. Higgins; Giseon Heo; Paul W. Major

2009-01-01

356

Detecting Patterns of Appliances from Total Load Data Using a Dynamic Programming Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonintrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) systems require sufficient accurate total load data to separate the load into its major appliances. The most available solutions separate the whole electric energy consumption based on the measurement of all three voltages and currents. Aside from the cost for special measuring devices, the intrusion into the local installation is the main problem for reaching

Michael Baranski; Jürgen Voss

2004-01-01

357

The Orthotic Management of the Congenitally Short Lower Limb - A New Appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To describe an appliance used for equalisation of severe congenital lower limb length discrepancy for patients who refuse to undergo any operative correction but wish to walk and look better. Method: The appliance which is a combination of an ischial bearing brace and a below knee prosthesis was fitted to four patients, aged between 12 and 31 years, with

A S Devnani

358

The Market for Equipment and Appliances for Institutional Kitchens in France.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The appliances and machines which could be sold in France by American firms are principally as follows: High pressure cookers and autoclaves. Electric and infra-red grills and rotisseries. Dish-washing machines. Automatic kitchen appliances of low and med...

1965-01-01

359

Orientation, Shop Tools and Equipment; Appliance Repair--Basic: 9023.01.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented as an introduction to appliance repair, the course is intended as an orientation in the duties, responsibilities, and career opportunities of the major appliances service technician. It also introduces the learner to the various types of tools and equipment used in this trade, and provides him an opportunity for instruction and practice…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

360

Adapting Legacy Home Appliances to Home Network Systems Using Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework that adapts the con- ventional home electric appliances with the infrared re- mote controls (legacy appliances) to the emerging home network system (HNS). The proposed method extensively uses the concept of service-oriented architecture to improve programmable interoperability among multi-vendor appli- ances. We first prepare APIs that assist a PC to send in- frared signals to

Masahide Nakamura; Akihiro Tanaka; Hiroshi Igaki; Haruaki Tamada; Ken-ichi Matsumoto

361

In vitro release of nickel and chromium from different types of simulated orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

Five identical samples, each consisting of a fixed appliance, a headgear and a quad-helix for one-half of a dental arch, were immersed in 0.9% sodium chloride for 2 hours, 24 hours and 7 days. A control appliance was subjected to dynamic test conditions in a specially built "oral simulator" under similar test conditions. A significant release of nickel was detected from the quad-helix during the first two hours in static conditions, whereas during the following two periods significantly less nickel was released from the quad-helix than from the other appliances. The fixed appliance with simulated function showed a significantly higher cumulative release of nickel than the similar appliance in static conditions, 44.2 micrograms (SD 22.8) and 17.1 micrograms (SD 3.4). The total amounts of chromium released from the fixed appliance were significantly lower than those of nickel. No difference in the release of chromium was seen between the static and dynamic conditions. The results indicate certain differences in the amount and pattern of nickel release from different stainless steel orthodontic appliances in vitro. The release rate of nickel from dynamically loaded fixed appliances was found to be accelerated compared with that released under static conditions. Caution should be exercised when applying the results to the in vivo situation. PMID:7785801

Kerosuo, H; Moe, G; Kleven, E

1995-01-01

362

Preschool Children's Conceptions about the Electric Current and the Functioning of Electric Appliances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined 5- and 6-year-olds' ideas about the functioning of common electrical appliances and properties of electric current. Found that children represented current in a static way, thinking it was included in the appliance, and confounded electric current and water flow, believing external electricity was different from internal. They were…

Solomonidou, Christina; Kakana, Domna-Mika

2000-01-01

363

Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to

Jiang Lin; Jeanne Townend; David Fridley; Gary McNeil; Tony Silva; Robin Clark

2002-01-01

364

TF-XRD examination of surface-reactive TiO 2 coatings produced by heat treatment and CO 2 laser treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

When surface-reactive (bioactive) coatings are applied to medical implants by means of CO2 laser processing, the bioactivity of the surface of the implant can be locally modified to match the properties of the surrounding tissues to provide a firm fixation of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the heat treated TiO2 coatings with the laser-treated TiO2

Niko Moritz; Sami Areva; Joop Wolke; Timo Peltola

2005-01-01

365

Using thermal energy produced by irradiation of Mn–Zn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MZF-NPs) for heat-inducible gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main advantages of gene therapy over traditional therapy is the potential to target the expression of therapeutic genes in desired cells or tissues. To achieve targeted gene expression, we developed a novel heat-inducible gene expression system in which thermal energy generated by Mn–Zn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MZF-NPs) under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) was used to activate

Qiu-sha Tang; Dong-sheng Zhang; Xiao-ming Cong; Mei-ling Wan; Li-qiang Jin

2008-01-01

366

Influence of pH, Heat and Enzymatic Treatments on the Activity of Antibacterial Substance in MRS and Milk Media Produced by Lactobacillus fermentum F6  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the influence of pH, heat and enzymatic treatments on the activity of antibacterial substance in MRS, skim soy milk and bovine milk media fermented by a potential probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum F6. The antibacterial activity of the culture supernatant of L. fermentum F6 was tested against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including

Yong ZHANG; Yong LIU; Yan BAO; He-ping ZHANG

2010-01-01

367

Efficacy of Timed Embryo Transfer with Fresh and Frozen In Vitro Produced Embryos to Increase Pregnancy Rates in Heat-Stressed Dairy Cattle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine whether pregnancy rates in heat-stressed dairy cattle could be enhanced by timed embryo transfer of fresh (nonfrozen) or frozen- thawed in vitro-derived embryos compared to timed insemination. Ovulation in Holstein cows was synchro- nized by a GnRH injection followed 7 d later by PGF2? and a second treatment with GnRH 48 h later. Control cows

J. D. Ambrose; M. Drost; R. L. Monson; J. J. Rutledge; M. L. Leibfried-Rutledge; M.-J. Thatcher; T. Kassa; M. Binelli; P. J. Hansen; P. J. Chenoweth

1999-01-01

368

Observation of extreme ultraviolet hydrogen emission from incandescently heated hydrogen gas with strontium that produced an anomalous optically measured power balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the observation of intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from incandescently heated atomic hydrogen and atomized strontium. It has been reported that intense EUV emission was observed at low temperatures (e.g. ?103K) from atomic hydrogen and certain atomized elements or certain gaseous ions which ionize at integer multiples of the potential energy of atomic hydrogen, 27.2eV[1–5]. Strontium ionizes at

Randell L. Mills; Mark Nansteel; Ying Lu

2001-01-01

369

Correlates of objective patient compliance with removable appliance wear.  

PubMed

Patient compliance is considered a major problem in orthodontics. Yet, to date, few conclusive findings have been noted on determinants and consequences of failing adherence, probably because of method flaws and a lack of objective criteria. By following an outline of conceptual issues and selected research, we considered an investigation into correlates of patient compliance with removable appliance wear. We studied a sample of 77 university clinic patients ages 9 to 14 years over several months by means of psychologic inventories and electronic measurement of removable appliance wear. The actual compliance rate proved to be associated with many variables. Among those, characteristics of the patient and his family background, such as conformity and degree of consistent parental support and supervision are interpreted as determinants of satisfactory adherence, whereas treatment related and interactional correlates, such as duration of treatment, dominance of provider, and interpersonal perceptions, are conceived of in terms of mutually interdependent and/or consequent variables. The factors identified might be paralleled in the wearing of headgear and intraoral elastics that require a similar degree of active patient cooperation. After a critical discussion of our data in the light of previous findings, suggestions are provided for future research along with conclusions for clinical practice. PMID:8213661

Bartsch, A; Witt, E; Sahm, G; Schneider, S

1993-10-01

370

A Field Study of Lightning Surges Propagating through Low-voltage Electric Appliances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In today's highly information-based society, lightning damage has a significant impact on an increasing number of electric appliances such as personal computers and facsimile machines. Lightning surge protection devices for electric appliances are on the market and concern for lightning protection has been increasing, but there are still many unknown aspects of lightning surges that propagate into residences. To provide effective lightning protection measures, clarification of surge propagation patterns is needed. The Tokyo Electric Power Company has observed the patterns of lightning surge propagation into houses using lightning surge waveform detectors installed at ordinary residences and obtained data on 30 lightning surge current waveforms between 2008 and 2009. This paper discusses various aspects of lightning surge currents propagating into low-voltage appliances, including home electric appliances, based on the lightning surge current waveform data obtained from lightning observations. The result revealed the patterns of lightning surge currents propagating into the ground and lines of low-voltage appliances.

Ishii, Tsunayoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshiki; Oguchi, Shuichi; Okabe, Shigemitsu

371

High magnetic susceptibility produced in high velocity frictional tests and heating tests on core samples from the Chelungpu fault in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out high-velocity frictional tests and simple heating tests on crushed fault gouge from core samples from Hole B of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project to investigate the cause of high magnetic susceptibilities in the fault core. Black ultracataclasite resembling that observed in Hole B formed during the experiments, even under low axial stress of 0.5 to 1.5 MPa. The bulk magnetic susceptibility of the tested samples was proportional to the frictional work applied and increased as slip increased. Thermomagnetic analysis of the samples before frictional testing revealed that magnetization increased at temperatures above 400°C, probably because of thermal decomposition of paramagnetic minerals. The decomposition of siderite and pyrite that changes to magnetite can explain high magnetic susceptibility and observed thermomagnetic curves. Simple heating also increased magnetic susceptibility though the change is much smaller compared to that by frictional tests. Both the thermally and mechanically induced formation of ferrimagnetic minerals by high velocity friction might have caused a magnetic susceptibility anomaly. Our experimental results support the assumption that heat generation of short duration, even if it is below the melting point, can increase magnetic susceptibility.

Tanikawa, W.; Mishima, T.; Shimamoto, T.; Lin, W.; Soh, W.

2007-12-01

372

NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens,

Brett C. Singer; Michael G. Apte; Douglas R. Black; Toshifumi Hotchi; Donald Lucas; Melissa M. Lunden; Anna G. Mirer; Michael Spears; Douglas P. Sullivan

2009-01-01

373

A pilot study comparing the efficacy of hard and soft stabilizing appliances in treating patients with temporomandibular disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of problem. Soft and hard stabilizing appliances have been used to treat temporomandibular disorders. No data exist to suggest whether a hard or soft appliance is beneficial. Purpose. This study compared soft and hard acrylic resin stabilizing appliances in the reduction of masticatory muscle pain in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Materials and methods. Twenty-three patients with at least one

Craig A. Pettengill; Maurice R. Growney; Robert Schoff; Christian R. Kenworthy

1998-01-01

374

TF-XRD examination of surface-reactive TiO2 coatings produced by heat treatment and CO2 laser treatment.  

PubMed

When surface-reactive (bioactive) coatings are applied to medical implants by means of CO2 laser processing, the bioactivity of the surface of the implant can be locally modified to match the properties of the surrounding tissues to provide a firm fixation of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the heat treated TiO2 coatings with the laser-treated TiO2 coatings in terms of amorphous-crystalline-phase development. The coatings were characterized with thin-film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TiO2 coatings heat treated at 500 degrees C known to be bioactive in SBF (simulated body fluid) consisted mainly of anatase with some rutile-phase, suggesting a predominant effect of anatase on reactivity of coatings. However, the coatings preheat-treated at 500 degrees C with further laser treatment exhibited enhanced bioactivity while consisting mainly of rutile. These findings indicated a key role of both rutile and anatase for the reactivity of the coatings. Without preheat treatment, by laser treatment alone, the amorphous titania coatings developed into mixed anatase/rutile containing coatings. This structural organization and the increase in crystal size are thus considered to be the reasons for their bioactivity. The SBF results indicate the possibility to control bioactivity by altering laser power used through the anatase/rutile crystallinity enhancement. PMID:15701375

Moritz, Niko; Areva, Sami; Wolke, Joop; Peltola, Timo

2005-07-01

375

Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

Siegel, D. C.; Congleton, J. L.

1997-01-01

376

In vitro surface corrosion of stainless steel and NiTi orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

Simulated fixed orthodontic appliances were constructed, immersed and incubated in artificial saliva for periods up to three months. Two types of stainless steel archwires and two types of NiTi wires were used. The surface corrosion of the archwires was determined macroscopically, with scanning electron microscopy, and with spectrophotometry. The deposits on the wires were identified with X-ray diffraction. Uniform corrosion was observed on stainless steel wires, and a slight colour change was detected on the NiTi wires beneath stainless steel ligatures. The corrosion product on the stainless steel wires increased with immersion time, and the surface oxide films were easily detached from the underlying matrix. Crevice corrosion was observed under deposits of oxide, and at the interface between bracket and band. Such corrosion may weaken a wire or weld leading to fracture. In contrast, the NiTi archwires did not corrode, and there was no significant difference in surface morphology. The stainless steel archwires showed a significant loss of reflectance after heat treatment and immersion in artificial saliva. The NiTi archwires had the same reflectance before and after the immersion test. NiTi archwires are significantly more stable and resistant to corrosion than stainless steel archwires. PMID:12790351

Shin, Ji-Soo; Oh, Keun-Taek; Hwang, Chung-Ju

2003-04-01

377

Heat-transfer material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present invention concerns heat transfer material used for heat transfer recording, especially heat transfer material providing good recorded images on a substrate of poor surface smoothness, and the images can be corrected by a liftoff correction tape that produces adhesive properties when heated.

Katayama, Masahito; Sato, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Yoshihisa; Asaoka, Masanobu; Fukuda, Tsugihiro

1991-07-01

378

Long-term corrosion measurements in condensing heat exchangers. Topical report, September 1989January 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion of metals used in condensing heat exchangers for gas appliances has been correlated most strongly with the chloride content of the condensate. This study presents results of an experimental examination of the long-term corrosion in metals used in condensing heat exchangers. The objective of this work is to develop a rationale for predicting the performance and expected service life

G. H. Stickford; B. Hindin

1993-01-01

379

High-speed shadow imagery to characterize the size and velocity of the secondary droplets produced by drop impacts onto a heated surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the developmental stages of an optical technique that aims at measuring simultaneously the droplet size and velocity. This technique is based on shadowgraphy associated with high-speed imaging. It is used to investigate the impacts of droplets onto a wall heated above the Leidenfrost temperature. Image analysis involves a detection of the droplet outlines for measuring their size and a tracking of the droplet trajectories to determine their velocities. This paper describes the different steps of the image processing. Solutions are also proposed to address the problems inherent to blurred, deformed, and overlapping droplets as well as the size-dependant effect of the depth of field. The technique is finally applied to several cases of rebound and splashing. Results show the many advantages resulting from the combination of size and velocity measurements.

Castanet, G.; Dunand, P.; Caballina, O.; Lemoine, F.

2013-03-01

380

Oral appliances in the management of temporomandibular disorders.  

PubMed

Various types of oral appliances (OAs) have been used for over half a century to treat temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), but there has been considerable debate about how OAs should be designed, how they should be used, and what they actually do therapeutically. However, there is enough information in the scientific literature at this time to reach some evidence-based conclusions about these issues. The main focus of this review is on the materials and designs of various OAs in terms of their proposed mechanisms of action and their claimed clinical objectives. Based on current scientific evidence, an analysis is presented regarding the role that OAs can or cannot play in the management of TMDs. Finally, the concept that OAs may be an effective treatment modality for some TMDs owing to their potential for acting as an elaborate placebo rather than any specific therapeutic mechanism is considered. PMID:19138639

Klasser, Gary D; Greene, Charles S

2009-02-01

381

Suffer the little children: fixed intraoral habit appliances for treating childhood thumbsucking habits: a critical review of the literature.  

PubMed

A critical review of the literature is presented covering the treatment of childhood thumbsucking habits using fixed intraoral habit appliances (hayrake, palatal crib). The habit appliances are classified into type and function. Data is tabulated for key references revealing the fragmented and distorted nature of the literature and its lack of consistency. A chronological approach is presented to confirm the confused and idiosyncratic character of the literature. Information is provided on the early work of Massler and Graber and the paradox of Mack, Korner and Reider. Haryett's seminal studies at the University of Alberta regarding aspects of the treatment used are critically reviewed. Reflections are presented on why Larsson's study, casting doubt on the wisdom of using habit appliances, continues to be ignored. The emergence of the Bluegrass Appliance is discussed in terms of its being a more humane appliance and the seeming reluctance of practitioners to apply it as a kinder form of appliance therapy. Information is reported on the pain and serious injuries inflicted on children by habit appliances. A comparison of the use of appliances in the USA is made with the UK, where fixed habit appliances are not popular. Concludes that fixed intraoral habit appliances are cruel and inflict pain and suffering on children out of all proportion to their necessity. Questions why these appliances continue to be used, implying that it could be a combination of financial inducement, professional insularity and the absence of concerted opposition from behavioural therapists. PMID:12572258

Moore, Nicholas L

2002-11-01

382

Assessment of the effect on the gas industry of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987. Topical report, November 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates the effect on the appliance industry, the utility industry, and the consumer of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA). The Act affects residential appliances. Existing state efficiency standards are preempted. Most residential gas-fired appliances are affected by NAECA efficiency standards. Most severely affected (high percentage of models that do not meet efficiency standards) are

Liljenberg

1988-01-01

383

Latest electromagnetic induction-based fluid-heating equipment using high-frequency PWM load resonant inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the prototype of a new conceptual electromagnetic induction-based fluid heating appliance using an efficient series capacitor-compensated load resonant high-frequency IGBT inverter with phase-shifted PWM and power factor correction schemes. Its operating characteristics in the steady-state are illustrated and evaluated on the basis of its computer simulation and experimental results on a 10 kW breadboard appliance. Promising cost-effective

M. Yarnamoto; T. Iseki; A. Kajiyama; G. Bin; M. Nakaoka; M. Uemura

1997-01-01

384

Catalytic decomposition of O2, NO, N2O and NO2 on a heated Ir filament to produce atomic oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of O atoms was confirmed in the catalytic decomposition of O2, NO, N2O and NO2 on a heated Ir filament. No change in electric resistivity was observed when the filament was kept at 2350 K in the presence of 0.8 Pa of these species, showing that oxidation is not taking place under such conditions. The O-atom densities were evaluated by a vacuum-ultraviolet (vuv) laser-induced fluorescence technique at 130.2 nm as well as a vuv laser absorption technique, by which the absolute values can be evaluated. Arrhenius-type filament temperature dependences were observed for the O-atom densities in all systems. The activation energies for nitrogen oxides were similar, but that for O2 was smaller. The O-atom density was the highest when O2 was used as a source gas and the density could be increased up to 2 × 1012 cm-3. The O-atom density increased with the oxidant pressures, but showed saturation. The possible causes of such behaviours are discussed on the basis of the changes in the coverage conditions of the catalyst surfaces.

Umemoto, Hironobu; Kusanagi, Hiroki

2008-11-01

385

Effect of physiologically relevant heat shock on development, apoptosis and expression of some genes in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos produced in vitro.  

PubMed

For investigating the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock, buffalo oocytes/embryos were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or were exposed to 39.5°C (Group II) or 40.5°C (Group III) for 2 h once every day throughout in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC). Percentage of oocytes that developed to 8-cell, 16-cell or blastocyst stage was lower (p < 0.05) and the number of apoptotic nuclei was higher (p < 0.05) for Group III > Group II > controls. At both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages, relative mRNA abundance of stress-related genes HSP 70.1 and HSP 70.2 and pro-apoptotic genes CASPASE-3, BID and BAX was higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls with the exception of stress-related gene HSF1. Expression level of anti-apoptotic genes BCL-XL and MCL-1 was also higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls at both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages. Among the genes related to embryonic development, at 8-16-cell stage, the expression level of GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group III than that in controls, whereas that of GLUT1, ZAR1 and BMP15 was not significantly different among the three groups. At the blastocyst stage, relative mRNA abundance of GLUT1 and GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group II than that in controls, whereas that of ZAR-1 and BMP15 was not affected. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure of buffalo oocytes and embryos to elevated temperatures for duration of time that is physiologically relevant severely compromises their developmental competence, increases apoptosis and affects stress-, apoptosis- and development-related genes. PMID:23581430

Yadav, A; Singh, K P; Singh, M K; Saini, N; Palta, P; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Chauhan, M S

2013-04-15

386

Orthodontic forces generated by a simulated archwire appliance evaluated by the finite element method.  

PubMed

The finite element method has been used to determine the stress distribution generated by the initial placement of a simulated preset bracket-type orthodontic appliance utilizing titanium-nickel alloy archwire. PMID:2256565

Fotos, P G; Spyrakos, C C; Bernard, D O

1990-01-01

387

42 CFR 410.36 - Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope...HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.36...

2012-10-01

388

Effects of Appliance Type and Operating Variables on Woodstove Emissions. Volume 2. Appendices D-F.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a project, in support of the Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP), to provide data on the specific effects of appliance type and operating variables on woodstove emissions. Samples of particulate material and volatile organic c...

J. E. Houck P. G. Burnet R. B. Roholt

1990-01-01

389

Pacific Northwest GridWise Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly Appliance Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested th...

D. J. Hammerstrom R. G. Pratt T. A. Carlon T. V. Oliver W. Marek

2007-01-01

390

Energy-Efficient Appliance Labeling in China: Lessons for Successful Labeling Programs in Varied Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporti...

2004-01-01

391

77 FR 64763 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...in this proposed AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd., Maesbury...

2012-10-23

392

78 FR 9785 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...identified in this AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd, Maesbury Road,...

2013-02-12

393

Reverse logistics system planning for recycling electrical appliances and computers in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the disposition of end-of-life home appliances has caused tremendous attention, Taiwan recently promulgated a Scrap Home Appliances and Computers Recycling Regulation that mandates manufacturers and importers to take back their products. Reverse logistics system planning shall become vital as the take-back rate increases and the service area expands in the future. This study utilizes a mixed integer programming model

Li-Hsing Shih

2001-01-01

394

A User Interface for a Jini-Based Appliances in Ubiquitous Smart Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal in this paper is to provide the uniform appliances interface. One of the problems with many of existing appliances\\u000a may be not used the same interface for different devices, because the respective device have their heterogeneous characteristics\\u000a and limitations, even among different versions made by the same manufacturer. Therefore, if end-users can have the remote\\u000a controller meaning any

Seong Joon Lee; Won Tae Kim; Kwang Seon Ahn

2008-01-01

395

Esthetic Management of Unilateral Cross Bite with Dento-vestibular Enhancement Prosthetic Appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unilateral crossbite is a commonly encountered condition in clinical practice. The most frequently employed treatment protocol\\u000a to manage unilateral crossbite is orthodontic correction or orthognathic surgery or combination of both. When the clinical\\u000a situation less favours both these modalities of management, a transitional prosthetic appliance—-dentovestibular enhancement\\u000a prosthetic appliance— can be effectively used to manage this condition.

M. Dhanraj; Padma Ariga; S. Anand; Ashish R. Jain

2011-01-01

396

Share of energy used by appliances and consumer electronics increases in U.S. homes  

EIA Publications

Over the past three decades, the share of residential electricity used by appliances and electronics in U.S. homes has nearly doubled from 17 percent to 31 percent, growing from 1.77 quadrillion Btu (quads) to 3.25 quads. This rise has occurred while Federal energy efficiency standards were enacted on every major appliance, overall household energy consumption actually decreased from 10.58 quads to 10.55 quads, and energy use per household fell 31 percent.

2011-03-28

397

The Hybrid Aesthetic Functional (HAF) Appliance: A Less Visible Proposal for Functional Orthodontics.  

PubMed

In modern orthodontics, aesthetics appear to have a decisive influence on orthodontic appliance preferences and acceptability. This paper reports the early application of a newly emerged functional device with enhanced aesthetics in a Class II treatment. Patient perspectives and technical considerations are discussed along with recommendations for further design development. It can be assumed that the use of thermoplastic material-based appliances may meet both the therapeutic and aesthetic demands of young age groups. PMID:23956884

Livas, Christos

2013-07-17

398

Review of oral appliances for treatment of sleep-disordered breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1982 and 2006, there were 89 distinct publications dealing with oral appliance therapy involving a total of 3,027\\u000a patients, which reported results of sleep studies performed with and without the appliance. These studies, which constitute\\u000a a very heterogeneous group in terms of methodology and patient population, are reviewed and the results summarized. This review\\u000a focused on the following outcomes:

Victor Hoffstein

2007-01-01

399

Comparative study of 2 electric and 2 manual toothbrushes in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this prospective single-blind crossover clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of 4 toothbrushes in 33 children undergoing fixed appliance orthodontic therapy. The toothbrushes included in this study were the Braun Oral-B 3D Plaque Remover (Kronberg, Germany), the Philips-Jordan HP 510 (Philips Domestic Appliances, Groningen, The Netherlands), the Lactona orthodontic toothbrush (Bergen op Zoom, The Netherlands), and

Veronique Thienpont; Luc R. Dermaut; Georges Van Maele

2001-01-01

400

Limited evidence of a small effect on mandibular growth using functional appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sourcesPubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACS and Google Scholar.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials(RCTs) that assessed functional appliance therapy in Class II malocclusions were included where they; analysed treatment effects not confounded by additional and concomitant treatments (headgear, extractions or fixed appliances); used cephalometric analysis at the start of treatment and just after removal

Carlos Flores-Mir

2012-01-01

401

Influence of host interleukin-10 polymorphisms on development of traveler's diarrhea due to heat-labile enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in travelers from the United States who are visiting Mexico.  

PubMed

Up to 60% of U.S. visitors to Mexico develop traveler's diarrhea (TD), mostly due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins. Distinct single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter have been associated with high, intermediate, or low production of IL-10. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the association of SNPs in the IL-10 promoter and the occurrence of TD in ETEC LT-exposed travelers. Sera from U.S. travelers to Mexico collected on arrival and departure were studied for ETEC LT seroconversion by using cholera toxin as the antigen. Pyrosequencing was performed to genotype IL-10 SNPs. Stools from subjects who developed diarrhea were also studied for other enteropathogens. One hundred twenty-one of 569 (21.3%) travelers seroconverted to ETEC LT, and among them 75 (62%) developed diarrhea. Symptomatic seroconversion was more commonly seen in subjects who carried a genotype producing high levels of IL-10; it was seen in 83% of subjects with the GG genotype versus 54% of subjects with the AA genotype at IL-10 gene position -1082 (P, 0.02), in 71% of those with the CC genotype versus 33% of those with the TT genotype at position -819 (P, 0.005), and in 71% of those with the CC genotype versus 38% of those with the AA genotype at position -592 (P, 0.02). Travelers with the GCC haplotype were more likely to have symptomatic seroconversion than those with the ATA haplotype (71% versus 38%; P, 0.002). Travelers genetically predisposed to produce high levels of IL-10 were more likely to experience symptomatic ETEC TD. PMID:18579697

Flores, Jose; DuPont, Herbert L; Lee, Stephanie A; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Paredes, Mercedes; Mohamed, Jamal A; Armitige, Lisa Y; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Okhuysen, Pablo C

2008-06-25

402

[Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from furniture and electrical appliances].  

PubMed

Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Therefore, furniture and other household products as well as building products may influence the indoor air quality. This study was performed to estimate quantitatively influence of household products on indoor air quality. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were investigated for 10 products including furniture (chest, desk, dining table, sofa, cupboard) and electrical appliances (refrigerator, electric heater, desktop personal computer, liquid crystal display television and audio) by the large chamber test method (JIS A 1912) under the standard conditions of 28 degrees C, 50% relative humidity and 0.5 times/h ventilation. Emission rate of total VOC (TVOC) from the sofa showed the highest; over 7900 microg toluene-equivalent/unit/h. Relatively high TVOC emissions were observed also from desk and chest. Based on the emission rates, the impacts on the indoor TVOC were estimated by the simple model with a volume of 17.4 m3 and ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The estimated TVOC increment for the sofa was 911 microg/m3, accounting for almost 230% of the provisional target value, 400 microg/m3. The values of estimated increment of toluene emitted from cupboard and styrene emitted from refrigerator were 10% and 16% of guideline values, respectively. These results revealed that VOC emissions from household products may influence significantly indoor air quality. PMID:21381398

Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto; Furukawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Tetsuji

2010-01-01

403

Torque control during lingual anterior retraction without posterior appliances  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the factors that affect torque control during anterior retraction when utilizing the C-retractor with a palatal miniplate as an exclusive source of anchorage without posterior appliances. Methods The C-retractor was modeled using a 3-dimensional beam element (0.9-mm-diameter stainless-steel wire) attached to mesh bonding pads. Various vertical heights and 2 attachment positions for the lingual anterior retraction hooks (LARHs) were evaluated. A force of 200 g was applied from each side hook of the miniplate to the splinted segment of 6 or 8 anterior teeth. Results During anterior retraction, an increase in the LARH vertical height increased the amount of lingual root torque and intrusion of the incisors. In particular, with increasing vertical height, the tooth displacement pattern changed from controlled tipping to bodily displacement and then to lingual root displacement. The effects were enhanced when the LARH was located between the central and lateral incisors, as compared to when the LARH was located between the lateral incisors and canines. Conclusions Three-dimensional lingual anterior retraction of the 6 or 8 anterior teeth can be accomplished using the palatal miniplate as the only anchorage source. Using LARHs at different heights or positions affects the quality of torque and intrusion.

Mo, Sung-Seo; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Chun, Yun-Sic; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nelson, Gerald

2013-01-01

404

The effectiveness and clinical usability of a handheld information appliance.  

PubMed

Clinical environments are complex, stressful, and safety critical-heightening the demand for technological solutions that will help clinicians manage health information efficiently and safely. The industry has responded by creating numerous, increasingly compact and powerful health IT devices that fit in a pocket, hook to a belt, attach to eyeglasses, or wheel around on a cart. Untethering a provider from a physical "place" with compact, mobile technology while delivering the right information at the right time and at the right location are generally welcomed in clinical environments. These developments however, must be looked at ecumenically. The cognitive load of clinicians who are occupied with managing or operating several different devices during the process of a patient encounter is increased, and we know from decades of research that cognitive overload frequently leads to error. "Technology crowding," enhanced by the plethora of mobile health IT, can actually become an additional millstone for busy clinicians. This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of clinicians' interactions with a mobile clinical computing appliance (Motion Computing C5) designed to consolidate numerous technological functions into an all-in-one device. Features of usability and comparisons to current methods of documentation and task performance were undertaken and results are described. PMID:22548159

Abbott, Patricia A

2012-04-02

405

Sludge, fuel degradation and reducing fouling on heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract to the US Department of Energy, operates an oil heat research primarily to lower energy consumption in the 12 million oil heated homes in the US. The program objectives include: Improve steady state efficiency of oil heating equipment, Improve seasonal efficiencies, Eliminate or minimize factors which tend to degrade system performance. This paper provides an overview of the status of three specific projects which fall under the above objectives. This includes our fuel quality project, oil appliance venting and a project addressing efficiency degradation due to soot fouling of heat exchangers.

Butcher, T.; Litzke, Wai Lin; Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.

1992-02-01

406

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards  

SciTech Connect

This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

2011-05-06

407

Analysis and Modeling of Planar Concentric Windings Forming Adaptable-Diameter Burners for Induction Heating Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptable-diameter inductors are being imple- mented in domestic induction hobs in order to increase the range of suitable pot diameters and to achieve the better use of the rated power electronics. Such inductors are arranged by means of several concentric planar windings, usually up to three units, each one of them comprising several litz-wire turns. Currently, one resonant inverter is

Jesús Acero; Claudio Carretero; Ignacio Millán; Óscar Lucía; Rafael Alonso; José M. Burdío

2011-01-01

408

Learning energy efficiency: experience curves for household appliances and space heating, cooling, and lighting technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving demand side energy efficiency is an important strategy for establishing\\u000aa sustainable energy system. Large potentials for energy efficiency improvements exist in\\u000athe residential and commercial buildings sector. This sector currently accounts for almost\\u000a40% of the European Union’s (EU) final energy demand and offers the largest energy\\u000aefficiency potentials among all economic sectors in the EU. The extent,

Martin Weiss; H. M. Junginger; M. K. Patel

2008-01-01

409

A multi-output high frequency cycloinverter operation for induction-heating cooking appliances - Harmonic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, low frequency AC (LFAC) to high frequency AC (HFAC) power conversion system conditioning and processing circuit without DC smoothing. Capacitor filter link from the voltage grid of utility frequency AC power supply source is proposed and introduced. The operating principle of utility frequency AC-high frequency AC power frequency conversion circuit defined as high frequency cycloinverter is described.

S. M. W. Ahmed; M. M. Eissa; M. Edress; T. S. Abdel-Hameed

2009-01-01

410

Estimating future generation of obsolete household appliances in China.  

PubMed

The estimate of future obsolete streams is one of the crucial issues for the establishment of an efficient waste collection and recycling system in China. Due to low availability of reliable data, information on discarded household appliances (HAs) is deficient in China. This study adopts a stocks-based prediction model based on material flow analysis. The model firstly models the lifetime distribution of HAs, and then the future stocks of HAs are extrapolated. By determining the initial year of calculation, the model makes a prediction of future obsolete HAs in China in the time period from 2010-2030. The results show that the discarded amount of the five major kinds of HAs will increase from 130 million units in 2010 to 216 to 221 million units by 2020, and 259 to 282 million units by 2030. A total of 4370 to 4528 million units (149 to 155 million tonnes) of obsolete HAs will be generated in China over the next 20 years. Urban households will generate significantly more obsolete HAs (about 2619 to 2723 million units) than rural households, mainly due to the difference in their HAs possession levels. Thus recycling capacity must increase if the rising quantity of domestic obsolete HAs is to be handled properly. The results of this study can help to develop the collection and recycling systems and facilities needed for the obsolete HAs generated in the future. From a methodological perspective, the stock-based model provides a suitable tool to predict the generation of discarded HAs in the future. PMID:22517530

Zhang, Ling; Yuan, Zengwei; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

2012-04-19

411

Effects of the reciprocal mini-chin cup appliance.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the dentofacial effects of the reciprocal mini-chin cup (RMCC) appliance in subjects with pubertal growth and development potential (group 1) and in subjects that had completed this period (group 2). Eighteen patients (13 females, five males) with an Angle Class II division 1 and nine patients (six females, three males) with a Class II division 2 malocclusion, with mandibular dentoalveolar retrusion and optimal vertical facial dimension were included. A control group consisting of 14 subjects (nine females, five males) with pubertal growth and development potential was constructed for comparison with group 1. In both treatment groups a RMCC was used. A Class I molar relationship was achieved in an average period of 5.11 months in group 1 and 10.57 months in group 2. From lateral cephalometric tracings, beside the angular and linear parameters, eight parameters that determined the ratio of the skeletal and dental effects of RMCC were measured and statistically evaluated. A paired comparison t-test was used to assess the differences in each group and a Student's t text to evaluate the differences between the groups. In both groups, no effect of RMCC was found on either the maxilla and/or the sagittal position of the mandible. In group 1, lower anterior face height was increased more compared with group 2; the mandibular plane angle increased and the mandible developed mostly in the vertical dimension. While a Class I molar relationship and correction of the overbite and overjet were achieved in both groups, a greater correction of overjet was found in group 1. Retrusion of the upper incisors without extrusion, protrusion, or proclination of the lower incisors, distalization of the upper molars, mesialization and extrusion of the lower molars and mesialization of the mandibular dentoalveolar structures were observed in both groups. Contributions to the correction of overjet and molar relationship were mostly dentoalveolar in both groups. PMID:18276929

Aslan, Belma I?ik; Dinçer, Müfide

2008-02-01

412

Microbiological quality of carbonated drinking water produced with in-home carbonation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbiological quality of carbonated water produced with tap water in commercial in-home carbonation systems was determined, the results being discussed in the context of the microbiological quality of the tap water used, the properties of the drink makers, and the procedures of preparation and washing of various parts of the appliance. The last-mentioned data were received from each participant

Wolfgang Kohnen; Susanne Teske-Keiser; Heinz-Georg Meyer; Anja H. Loos; Michael Pietsch; Bernd Jansen

2005-01-01

413

Material World: Forecasting Household Appliance Ownership in a Growing Global Economy  

SciTech Connect

Over the past years the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed an econometric model that predicts appliance ownership at the household level based on macroeconomic variables such as household income (corrected for purchase power parity), electrification, urbanization and climate variables. Hundreds of data points from around the world were collected in order to understand trends in acquisition of new appliances by households, especially in developing countries. The appliances covered by this model are refrigerators, lighting fixtures, air conditioners, washing machines and televisions. The approach followed allows the modeler to construct a bottom-up analysis based at the end use and the household level. It captures the appliance uptake and the saturation effect which will affect the energy demand growth in the residential sector. With this approach, the modeler can also account for stock changes in technology and efficiency as a function of time. This serves two important functions with regard to evaluation of the impact of energy efficiency policies. First, it provides insight into which end uses will be responsible for the largest share of demand growth, and therefore should be policy priorities. Second, it provides a characterization of the rate at which policies affecting new equipment penetrate the appliance stock. Over the past 3 years, this method has been used to support the development of energy demand forecasts at the country, region or global level.

Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

2009-03-23

414

Estimation and comparison of ostomy appliance costs with tariffs in Belgium.  

PubMed

This study estimated costs of production and distribution of ostomy appliances, and compared cost estimates with tariffs in Belgium. The cost model took into account manufacturing costs, overhead, R&D, warehousing, profits, and distribution margins. Data were derived from manufacturers, a decomposition of finished products, and interviews with stakeholders. The cost model generated estimated retail prices of euro 2.96 for one-piece appliances, euro 1.62 for two-piece pouches, and euro 2.06 for two-piece flanges. Production and distribution costs accounted for 40 and 60% of retail prices, respectively. Estimated retail prices corresponded well with tariffs for one-piece appliances and for two-piece pouches. For two-piece regular flanges, a substantial difference was observed between the calculated price of euro 2.06 and the tariffs of euro 6.05. In the absence of publicly disclosed information on the cost structure of appliances, estimating ostomy appliance costs is valuable to reimbursement agencies when setting tariffs. PMID:17180385

Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Ramaekers, Dirk

2006-12-16

415

Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Arman, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

1996-03-01

416

Limitations of interview-based risk assessment of RF exposure from appliances.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the quality of interview-based exposure estimates obtained in a large epidemiologic case-control study: The Northern Germany Leukemia and Lymphoma Study (1997-2002) (NLL). The NLL used standardized, face-to-face, computer-assisted interviews to record subjects' lifetime use of radiofrequency (RF)-emitting appliances such as cellular telephones, cordless telephones, baby monitors, and television headphones. Exposure assessment comprised 3 levels of precision: ever use, gross vs. net appliance-years, and lifetime cumulative exposure hours. In the current study, the authors analyzed data from 3041 interviews of NLL controls, representing an age-stratified random sample of the general populations of 6 counties in Northern Germany. Weighted kappa coefficients for gross vs. net appliance-years for men were 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.46, 0.71) for baby monitors and 0.98 (95% CI = 0.97, 0.99) for cordless phones; for women, the coefficients were 0.68 (95% CI = 0.56, 0.79) and 0.97 (95% CI = 0.94, 0.98), respectively. Weighted kappa values were considerably lower when net appliance-years and lifetime cumulative exposure hours were compared. Study results demonstrated that interview information on use of RF-emitting appliances, when measured at different levels of precision, can result in misclassification and biased risk estimates. PMID:16238163

Behrens, Thomas; Terschüren, Claudia; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

2004-06-01

417

Raw Produce  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... harmful bacteria that may be in the soil or water where produce ... become contaminated after it is harvested, such as during preparation or storage. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants

418

Low level laser intensity improves propulsive appliance effects on condylar cartilage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mandibular propulsive appliance (MPA) stimulates cell proliferation and gene expression on mandible condylar cartilage (Marques et al., 2008). However, its association with low level laser therapy (LLLT) is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of LLLT associated to MPA on mandibular condyle. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I received any treatment. Group II was bilaterally irradiated on temporomandibular joint with 10 J/cm2 low level laser (780nm, 40mW and 10s) on alternate days. Group III used the propulsive appliance for ten hours daily and Group IV used the appliance daily and was irradiated on alternate days. After 15 days the animals were killed by lethal doses of anesthetics. The condyles were fixed in Methacarn solution and decalcified in 4.13% EDTA solution for 30 days. Seriate saggital 5 ?m-thick sections were stained by the hematoxilin-eosin method. Morphological and morphometric analyses were performed to measure the length and the height of the mandibular condyle, the thickness of the condilar cartilage and the bone mass. Results were expressed as mean +/- standard deviation (one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post-test.) The appliance increased all measures compared to the control group, except bone mass. Alone, LLLT had no effects on all measures, however, the association of the appliance with the LLLT increased condylar cartilage and bone mass significantly compared to the others groups. These results suggest that LLLT improves the effects of mandibular propulsive appliance in the condylar cartilage growth and formation of bone mass.

Figueiredo, Augusto C. R.; Dos Santos, Fernanda C. A.; Capeletti, Lucas R.; Galdino, Marcos V. B.; Araújo, Renan V.; Marques, Mara R.

2012-02-01

419

Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to reduce air pollutant emissions in some U.S. urban regions to meet federal and state air quality guidelines. Opportunities exist for reducing pollutant emissions from natural gas appliances in the residential sector. A cost-benefit analysis on various pollutant-reducing strategies is needed to evaluate these opportunities. The effectiveness of these pollutant-reducing strategies (e.g., low-emission burners, energy conservation) can then be ranked among themselves and compared with other pollutant-reducing strategies available for the region. A key step towards conducting a cost-benefit analysis is to collect information on pollutant emissions from existing residential natural gas appliances. An extensive literature search was conducted to collect data on residential natural-gas-appliance pollutant emission factors. The literature primarily describes laboratory tests and may not reflect actual emission factor distributions in the field. Pollutant emission factors for appliances operated at over 700 test conditions are summarized for nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter, formaldehyde, and methane. The appliances for which pollutant emissions are summarized include forced-air furnaces; stand-alone space heaters (vented and unvented); water heaters; cooking range burners, ovens, and broilers; and pilot lights. The arithmetic means of the nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter emission factor distributions agree well with the Environmental Protection Agency published emission factor values for domestic gas appliances (in report AP-42). However, the carbon monoxide and methane distribution means are much higher than the relevant AP-42 values. Formaldehyde emission factors are not addressed in AP-42, but the emission factor mean for formaldehyde is comparable to the AP-42 emission factor value for total hydrocarbon emissions.

Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Chang, G.-M.

1996-08-01

420

Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction  

SciTech Connect

The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

2012-04-29

421

Long-term development in the mandible and incisor crowding with and without an orthodontic stabilising appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In children with dentoalveolar Class Il malocclusion with proclined upper incisors treated with extraction of the maxillary first premolars and appliance in the upper jaw only has been reported to increase the lower arch crowding when compared with children with untreated normal occlusion. Stabilising orthodontic appliances might therefore be useful in the lower jaw. A comparison was made of

Ulrike Schütz-Fransson; Krister Bjerklin; Jüri Kurol

1998-01-01

422

Comparison of the effects of monoblock and twin-block appliances on the skeletal and dentoalveolar structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional appliances, which are used in the early treatment period of skeletal Class II malocclusions, induce the forward displacement of the mandible by altering the postural activity of the muscles and causing some changes in both skeletal and dentoalveolar structures. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the differences between monoblock and twin-block appliances. Two treatment groups composed of

Nazli Tümer; Ali S. Gültan

1999-01-01

423

In vivo study on metal release from fixed orthodontic appliances and DNA damage in oral mucosa cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the amount of metal ion intake from dental alloys has grown. Fixed orthodontic appliances usually include brackets, bands, and archwires made of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, or nickel-cobalt alloys, and these can release metal ions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility in vivo of fixed orthodontic appliances, evaluating the presence of metal ions in oral

Fiorenzo Faccioni; Paola Franceschetti; Marzia Cerpelloni; Maria E Fracasso

2003-01-01

424

Suggested Curriculum Guide for Developing a Program in Appliance Service and Repair. Bulletin No. 48-174.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The outline curriculum guide has been developed to assist in planning, developing, and instructing a program in appliance service and repair. The material consists of a unit outline and suggested exercieses and assignments for 17 areas: shop mathematics, communication skills, safety, orientation to appliance service and repair, blueprint reading,…

Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

425

Research on Returned Logistics Network Planning of Regional Discarded Household Appliance Recycling and Disposal Based on Revenue Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the function of the household appliance wastes recycling, gathering, detecting, classification, disassembling, regeneration, waste disposal and the strategic, economical efficiency, systematicness principle, we make up a recycling and disposal mode of the household appliance wastes. Starting from this model, an optimization model of returned logistics network is established to maximize the profit. A practical analysis is provided based

Gao Pingquan; Fan Houming; Tan Chaofeng; Zhang Jingyao; Li Jiashu; Feng Lin

2009-01-01

426

Simple estimation of equivalent magnetic dipole moment to characterize ELF magnetic fields generated by electric appliances incorporating harmonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method of quantifying the ELF (extremely low frequency) magnetic field distribution around electric appliances, which takes the harmonics into account, is newly proposed. The proposed method involves: (1) a simple estimation of the position of an equivalent magnetic dipole moment inside an appliance, using two magnetic field meters; (2) identification of the amplitude of the dipole moment magnetic-field

Kenichi Yamazaki; Tadashi Kawamoto

2001-01-01

427

Maxillary molar distalization or mandibular enhancement: A cephalometric comparison of comprehensive orthodontic treatment including the pendulum and the Herbst appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several methods of Class II treatment that do not rely on significant patient compliance have become popular during the last decade, including several versions of the Herbst appliance and the pendulum or Pendex molar-distalization appliances. Yet, these 2 general approaches theoretically have opposite treatment effects, one presumably enhancing mandibular growth, and the other moving the maxillary teeth posteriorly. This study

Donald R. Burkhardt; James A. McNamara; Tiziano Baccetti

2003-01-01

428

Open-Celled Polyurethane Foam Based Vacuum Panel Technology: A Fully Polyurethane Based Composite Technology for Vacuum Insulated Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum based insulation technology results, when introduced into appliances, in a substantial reduction in energy consumption of these appliances. This reduction depends on two factors: primarily on the vacuum panel technology used, but also, very importantly, on the quality of the polyurethane foam used to fill the confined space in the refrigerator walls after incorporation of the vacuum panels. ICI

R. De Vos; D. Rosbotham; J. Deschaght

1996-01-01

429

A modified over-tie for the ligation of Incognito™ lingual fixed appliances.  

PubMed

The Incognito lingual appliance has a ribbon-wise slot with vertically inserted wires. Control of tip can be problematic with this appliance and the conventional method to overcome this is to achieve full wire engagement via the use of power-ties. Although effective, these can be very difficult to place and also create very high friction. A method of ligation is described which consists of a modified elastic double over-tie. This is easily placed and very effective at controlling tip in Incognito brackets using a variety of arch wires. This method creates less friction than the power-tie. PMID:24009324

Huntley, Peter N

2013-09-01

430

A High-Sensitivity Hydraulic Load Cell for Small Kitchen Appliances  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present a hydraulic load cell made from hydroformed metallic bellows. The load cell was designed for a small kitchen appliance with the weighing function integrated into the composite control and protection of the appliance. It is a simple, low-cost solution with small dimensions and represents an alternative to the existing hydraulic load cells in industrial use. A good non-linearity and a small hysteresis were achieved. The influence of temperature leads to an error of 7.5%, which can be compensated for by software to meet the requirements of the target application.

Pacnik, Roman; Novak, Franc

2010-01-01

431

POSSIBILITY OF REDUCING DOMESTIC WATER SHORTAGE DURING DROUGHT BY POPULARIZATION OF WATER SAVING APPLIANCES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I studied possibility of reducing domestic water shortage during drought by popularization of water saving appliances. Dometic water demand can be reduced by 30% by popularization of water saving appliances. If domestic water demand is reduced by 25%, domestic water don't run short in case of drought equal to drought in 1994. If water demand is reduced by 15%, shortage of domestic water is allowable. If subsidy policy is adopted to reduce water demand by 15% within 10 years, every residents must pay 200 yen every month for operating fund.

Tsuda, Morimasa

432

Development of low cost components for residential heating technology. Final report, January 1990October 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual vent isolation device based on a venturi ejector design was evaluated for use on residential heating appliances. The design was tested on a forced warm air furnace of an upflow configuration and found to perform the required venting function, but only at air supply pressures which were in excess of design limitations. Over 60 different pieces of information

R. Sheridan; B. Loria

1993-01-01

433

Annual fuel usage charts for oil-fired boilers. [Building space heating and hot water supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of laboratory-determined boiler efficiency data, one may calculate the annual fuel usage (AFU) for any oil-fired boiler, serving a structure of a given design heat load, for any specified hourly weather pattern. Further, where data are available regarding the energy recapture rates of the strucutre due to direct gain solar energy (windows), lighting, cooking, electrical appliances, metabolic

A. L. Berlad; Y. J. Yeh; F. J. Salzano; R. J. Hoppe; J. Batey

1978-01-01

434

Method for producing a borohydride  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a borohydride is described and which includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material which chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature which substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-09-02

435

Prediction of Human Heat Tolerance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human tolerance to heat exposure is limited by body heat storage, as the body is unable to eliminate all the heat it produces and/or receives from the environment, and by the physiologic consequencies of such storage. Heat storage of about 80 kcal represe...

R. F. Goldman

1977-01-01

436

Functional diversity of heat-labile toxins (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: differential enzymatic and immunological activities of LT1 (hLT) AND LT4 (pLT).  

PubMed

Heat-labile toxins (LTs) have ADP-ribosylation activity and induce the secretory diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains in different mammalian hosts. LTs also act as adjuvants following delivery via mucosal, parenteral, or transcutaneous routes. Previously we have shown that LT produced by human-derived ETEC strains encompass a group of 16 polymorphic variants, including the reference toxin (LT1 or hLT) produced by the H10407 strain and one variant that is found mainly among bacterial strains isolated from pigs (LT4 or pLT). Herein, we show that LT4 (with six polymorphic sites in the A (K4R, K213E, and N238D) and B (S4T, A46E, and E102K) subunits) displays differential in vitro toxicity and in vivo adjuvant activities compared with LT1. One in vitro generated LT mutant (LTK4R), in which the lysine at position 4 of the A subunit was replaced by arginine, showed most of the LT4 features with an ?10-fold reduction of the cytotonic effects, ADP-ribosylation activity, and accumulation of intracellular cAMP in Y1 cells. Molecular dynamic studies of the A subunit showed that the K4R replacement reduces the N-terminal region flexibility and decreases the catalytic site crevice. Noticeably, LT4 showed a stronger Th1-biased adjuvant activity with regard to LT1, particularly concerning activation of cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes when delivered via the intranasal route. Our results further emphasize the relevance of LT polymorphism among human-derived ETEC strains that may impact both the pathogenicity of the bacterial strain and the use of these toxins as potential vaccine adjuvants. PMID:21135101

Rodrigues, Juliana F; Mathias-Santos, Camila; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria Elisabete; Amorim, Jaime H; Cabrera-Crespo, Joaquim; Balan, Andrea; Ferreira, Luís C S

2010-12-06

437

Project Produce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes…

Wolfinger, Donna M.

2005-01-01

438

Integrated gas-fired space-heating/water-heating system with electric air conditioning. Final report. January 1983-December 1987  

SciTech Connect

A Triple-Integrated-Appliance (TIA) for space conditioning and water heating was successfully developed for the multifamily housing market as an economical gas alternative to all-electric systems. The gas-fired portion of the system provides high-efficiency condensing operation in both the space-heating and water-heating modes. The TIA was evaluated in a comprehensive field-test program conducted nationwide at sites representative of multifamily applications. The field-test results demonstrated that the performance goals were achieved under actual usage conditions. The final pre-production prototype configuration provides the design and performance characteristics necessary to compete in the multifamily market.

Demetri, E.P.; Gerstmann, J.

1988-01-01

439

24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...installation of a self contained air conditioner comfort cooling...means to prevent the cooled air from passing through the...installation shall prevent the flow of heated air into the external cooling...fireplace or fireplace stove fire chamber opening and...

2013-04-01

440

The secure heating reactor  

SciTech Connect

The SECURE heating reactor was designed by ASEA-ATOM as a realistic alternative for district heating in urban areas and for supplying heat to process industries. SECURE has unique safety characteristics, that are based on fundamental laws of physics. The safety does not depend on active components or operator intervention for shutdown and cooling of the reactor. The inherent safety characteristics of the plant cannot be affected by operator errors. Due to its very low environment impact, it can be sited close to heat consumers. The SECURE heating reactor has been shown to be competitive in comparison with other alternatives for heating Helsinki and Seoul. The SECURE heating reactor forms a basis for the power-producing SECURE-P reactor known as PIUS (Process Inherent Ultimate Safety), which is based on the same inherent safety principles. The thermohydraulic function and transient response have been demonstrated in a large electrically heated loop at the ASEA-ATOM laboratories.

Pind, C.

1987-11-01

441

Assessment and control of indoor air pollution resulting from wood burning appliance use  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of indoor combustion products was done in 20 homes with wood burning appliances to identify factors which might be involved in the release of pollutants. Homes selected were without cigarette smokers, gas cooking stoves and kerosene space heaters. Each home was monitored twice with the wood burner in operation and twice without. Participants recorded weight of wood burned,

P. Kaarakka; M. S. Kanarek; J. R. Lawrence

1989-01-01

442

Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

2000-04-01

443

Orthodontic and orthopedic effects of Activator, Activator-HG combination, and Bass appliances: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orthodontic and orthopedic effects of the Activator, Activator-Headgear Combination (ACHG) and the Bass appliance systems were compared by analyzing the cephalometric records of 64 subjects, who were treated for skeletal Class II malocclusion, with both conventional and Pancherz's methods. Differences between observations on the different occasions (starting and ending values) were tested with Wilcoxon's matched pairs rank test. Kruskal-Wallis

Nil Cura; Müyesser Saraç; Yildiz Öztürk; Nazan Sürmeli

1996-01-01

444

Dentoskeletal effects induced by rapid molar distalization with the first class appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment effects of the first class appliance (FCA; Leone, Firenze, Italy), a new intraoral device for unilateral or bilateral rapid molar distalizaton. A retrospective study was conducted to compare the predistalization and postdistalization cephalograms of 17 patients (10 male, 7 female) with Class II malocclusions treated with the FCA. Mean age

Arturo Fortini; Massimo Lupoli; Fabio Giuntoli; Lorenzo Franchi

2004-01-01

445

Treatment effects of simple fixed appliance and reverse headgear in correction of anterior crossbites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the skeletal and dental changes contributing to the correction of Class III malocclusion using a 2 × 4 appliance and reverse headgear in the mixed dentition. Seventeen consecutive patients (mean age, 9.7 years) with pseudo-Class III malocclusions and an anterior functional shift and straight or concave facial profile were treated with a

Yan Gu; A. Bakr M. Rabie; Urban Hägg

2000-01-01

446

The usability problem for home appliances: engineers caused it, engineers can fix it!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ordinary people already have great difficulty using the advanced features of digitally enabled household appliances, and the problem grows worse with time as more customization and programming features are added. This usability problem cannot be solved using the tiny displays and limited control buttons typically found on such devices. In this talk I will describe a new type of collaborative

Joe Marks

2004-01-01

447

Effect of a maxillary appliance in an adult with obstructive sleep apnea: a case report.  

PubMed

Patients who arrive at the dental office with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are often managed with a mandibular advancement device (MAD). However, the use of MADs has been associated with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) issues. The authors describe a case report of a 64-year-old male who was treated with a novel, maxillary oral appliance. The baseline sleep study indicated an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 25.6/hour with 28 episodes of snoring, and 30.9 oxygen desaturation events/hour. The patient wore the maxillary oral appliance for 10-12 hours/day and night. The midpalatal screw mechanism of the appliance was advanced once per week for six months. By the end of this time, the minimum intra-premolar width increased from 27 mm to 30 mm; the minimum intramolar width increased from 35 mm to 37 mm, and the AHI dropped to < 5/hour. During this phase of treatment, the episodes of snoring decreased to 18, and the oxygen desaturation events also decreased to 5.5/hour. After a total of 14 months, the AHI remained at < 5/hour, the episodes of snoring decreased further to 12, and the oxygen desaturation events decreased to 5.2/hour. Therefore, by achieving a > 80% decrease in the AHI, less snoring and an improvement in oxygen saturation after 14 months, the use of a maxillary oral appliance appears to have reached resolution of OSA in an adult male. PMID:23971157

Singh, G Dave; Callister, John D

2013-07-01

448

Prevalence of white-spot lesions before and during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of white-spot lesions (WSLs) in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The cross-sectional study sample consisted of three groups of patients: group I, 59 patients treated orthodontically for 6 months; group II, 64 patients treated for 12 months; group 0 (control), 68 patients examined immediately before appliance placement. All groups were treated with a 0.022-inch slot preadjusted appliance and they wore a functional fixed appliance. The presence of WSLs was evaluated by visual examination using the scoring system proposed by Gorelick. The groups were evaluated for differences in the prevalence of at least one WSL using Fisher's exact test, followed by Bonferroni pairwise comparisons. The prevalence of WSLs by tooth type was evaluated with logistic regression (P < 0.05). Intraobserver agreement was assessed by means of the Cohen ? statistical method. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of WSLs between patients treated for 6 and 12 months (P = 0.855); however, there were significantly more WSLs in groups I and II than in group 0 (P = 0.000). No significant differences were found between girls and boys (P = 1.000). The mandibular first molars and maxillary lateral incisors were the most affected teeth, in both the treated and untreated groups. The study revealed significant decalcification at 6 months after orthodontic bonding. Considering how quickly these lesions can develop and become irreversible, early diagnosis is of critical importance. PMID:23045306

Lucchese, Alessandra; Gherlone, Enrico

2012-10-08

449

Microbiology and Acid\\/Anion Profiles of Enamel Surface Plaque from an in situ Caries Appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbiological species and acid\\/anion profiles of the plaque-like material which accumulates on exposed surfaces of enamel sections mounted in the experimental troughs of the previously described in situ caries appliance were studied. Each experiment lasted 1 week and the volunteers’ diet and oral hygiene patterns were unaltered, except that interproximal plaque was allowed to accumulate in an interproximal space

S. L. Creanor; T. W. Macfarlane; D. Mackenzie; D. A. Weetman; R. Strang; K. W. Stephen

1986-01-01

450

Environmental Benefit of Waste Home Appliance Recycling II - A Trial to Reduce Environmental Loads -  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recycling plant is constructed for waste home appliances and operated from April 2000. A life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare recycling scenarios was conducted using the data from the operation. The results of the assessment show that it was effective from not only the reduction in the amount of the final disposal but also the point of the reduction

Y. Kawamura; H. Suzuki

2005-01-01

451

Economic evaluation of optional recycling processes for waste electronic home appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an economic evaluation of three typical recycling processes for the five main types of waste electronic home appliances (EHA) (TV set, refrigerator, washing machine, air conditioner and personal computer) in Beijing, the capital of China. The main purpose is to identify the formal management framework with economic feasibility for the waste EHA generated in large municipalities of

Xianbing Liu; Masaru Tanaka; Yasuhiro Matsui

2009-01-01

452

A Study on the Assessment of Management Frameworks for Waste Electronic Home Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

carried out to plan and quantitatively evaluate the optional management frameworks for the selected five main types of large electronic home appliances in Beijing, the capital city and a typically big municipality in China. This paper outlined the main findings yielded from the series of assessment studies which started from the generation amount prediction and material flow analysis ofthe used

Xianbing UU; Masaru Tanaka; Yasuhiro Matsui

453

Estimation of appliance electricity consumption by monitoring currents on residential distribution boards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy management systems (EMS) on demand sides are expected as a method of controlling electricity supply and demand balance in power grids including large amount of PV power generations. EMS is supposed to determine the optimal daily operation of energy appliances including energy storage factors economically and efficiently to satisfy consumer's desire taking account of forecasted energy demand and PV

Y. Iwafune; Y. Yagita; K. Ogimoto

2010-01-01

454

Thinking model and tools for understanding user experience related to information appliance product concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The aim of this dissertation work is to develop thinking models and tools that would help in understandinguser experience (UE) related to information appliance (IA) product concepts. A product concept is understood in thisdissertation as a rough description of the technology, functionality and form of a product or a service, which is created during the very first phase of

ANU KANKAINEN

2002-01-01

455

The Visible Problems of the Invisible Computer: A Skeptical Look at Information Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future is said to belong to information appliances, specialized and easy to use devices that will have the car tell the coffee pot to brew a cup of coffee just in time for our arrival home. These gadgets are supposed to eliminate the complexity and resulting frustrations of the PC. The thesis of this essay is that while information

Andrew M. Odlyzko

1999-01-01

456

Discomfort caused by bonded lingual orthodontic appliances in adult patients as examined by retrospective questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective questionnaire survey of 111 retention-period adult patients was performed to examine discomfort that may be caused by bonded lingual orthodontic appliances. Despite instructions to avoid or relieve the discomfort, 57% to 76% of patients complained of tongue soreness, difficulty in chewing fibrous food, difficulty in pronouncing the s and t sounds, and difficulty in tooth brushing after the

Shouichi Miyawaki; Mika Yasuhara; Yasuhiro Koh

1999-01-01

457

Development of a flexible test platform for household appliance testing based on mobile agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an innovative and flexible test platform for the household appliances test based on mobile agents, in order to carry out efficient data collection and analysis and to assist products design by providing defective components identification. The diagnostic system is specifically designed for the life-test laboratories, in which the mobile agent performs several measurements on many products over

A. Cesetti; C. P. Scotti; G. Di Buo?; G. Angione; L. Lattanzi; C. Cristalli; S. Longhi

2010-01-01

458

Enabling Hardware-Software Multitasking on a Reconfigurable Computing Platform for Networked Portable Multimedia Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays a lot of multimedia applications are emerging on portable appliances. However these applications require both the flexibility of upgradable devices (typically software based) and a powerful computing engine (typically hardware). This application domain is therefore a very good target for reconfigurable com- puting. This paper describes a user scenario that motivates the introduction of reconfigurable hardware into portable devices

J. Y. Mignolet; S. Vernalde; D. Verkest; R. Lauwereins

459

Air supply and venting to improve performance of residential combustion appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

With homes being made tighter, combustion appliances are having an increasingly difficult time receiving adequate air to operate safely and properly. Spillage of incomplete combustion products or even chimney flow reversals (backdrafting) can result in significant amounts of carbon monoxide and other toxic combustion products being exhausted into the house. Some of these pollutants may cause immediate acute, even life

A. C. S. Hayden; F. Preto

1988-01-01

460

Design and implementation of a universal appliance controller based on selective interaction modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In next generation of smart computing environment, myriads of networked resources are pervasive and embedded into everyday consumer products and appliances. Still, most controller systems provide separate control user interfaces for different uses when users inevitably face an increased number of interfaces for control and interaction tasks in such environment. To simplify burdens of user and reduce complexities in control

Hyoseok Yoon; Woontack Woo

2008-01-01

461

Fabrication and Evaluation of a Noncompliant Molar Distalizing Appliance: Bonded Molar Distalizer  

PubMed Central

Objective Attempts to treat class II malocclusions without extraction in non-compliant patients have led to utilization of intraoral molar distalizing appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate dental and skeletal effects of Bonded Molar Distalizer (BMD) which is a simple molar distalizing appliance. Materials and Methods Sixteen patients (12 girls, four boys) with bilateral half-cusp class II molar relationship, erupted permanent second molars and normal or vertical growth pattern were selected for bilateral distalization of maxillary molars via BMD. The screws were activated every other day, alternately. Lateral cephalograms and study models were obtained before treatment and after 11 weeks activation of the appliance. Results Significant amounts of molar distalization, molar distal tipping and anchorage loss were observed. The mean maxillary first molar distal movement was 1.22±0.936 mm with a distal tipping of 2.97±3.74 degrees in 11 weeks. The rate of distal movement was 0.48 mm per month. Reciprocal mesial movement of the first premolars was 2.26±1.12 mm with a mesial tipping of 4.25±3.12 degrees. Maxillary incisors moved 3.55±1.46 mm and tipped 9.87±5.03 degrees mesially. Lower anterior face height (LAFH) decreased 1.28±1.36 mm. Conclusion BMD is appropriate for distalizing maxillary molars, especially in patients with critical LAFH, although significant amounts of anchorage loss occur using this appliance.

Sodagar, A.; Ahmad Akhoundi, M. S.; Rafighii, A.; Arab, S.

2011-01-01

462

An evaluation of two-phase treatment with the herbst appliance and preadjusted edgewise therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolarchanges occurring during two-phase orthodontic treatment. A cephalometric study of Class II correction was carried out in 40 subjects (20 females, 20 males) who had been treated with the acrylic-splint Herbst appliance immediately followed by a second phase of preadjusted edgewise therapy. The average age at the start of

Mesou Lai; James A. McNamara

1998-01-01

463

Men Purchase, Women Use: Coping with Domestic Electrical Appliances in Rural China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a field study in a village in the northern plain of China, this paper reviews three different types in how Han-Chinese rural people have coped with domestic electrical appliances during the last 40-odd years of electrification. The aim of this paper is to offer an ethnographic study of the complex relations between technology and social life in a

Xiujie Wu

2008-01-01

464

Can negotiated agreements replace efficiency standards as an instrument for transforming the electrical appliance market?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without reinforced energy saving policies, residential consumption of electricity will increase sharply over the next 20 years, in particular, as a result of expected growth in the specific uses of electricity. The main problem is not a lack of energy-efficient technologies, which do indeed exist for electrical appliances, but one of slow diffusion of existing technologies due to the weakness

Philippe Menanteau

2003-01-01

465

Appliance Service Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 2307.1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The graduate of the Appliance Service Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyperson; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) use and maintain hand and power tools to the standards of competency and safety required in the trade; (4) by skill…

Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2007

2007-01-01

466

Estimating CO2 Emission Reduction in Eco-Point Program for Green Home Appliances in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gas emission from residential sector is difficult to control since emission regulation cannot be implemented to individual household. Government should induce each household to have energy saving lifestyle in order to abate increasing CO2 emissions from household activities. The program to promote the spread of green home appliances by utilizing eco-points has been conducted in Japan since May 2009.

Yoshikuni Yoshida; Yuki Inahata; Miyako Enokibori; Ryuji Matsuhashi

2010-01-01

467

Opportunities for regional harmonization of appliance standards and l abeling program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Asian Regional Initiative for Energy (SARI\\/Energy) calls for a series of activities to promote Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) of end use appliances in the region. In pursuit of this goal, the project supports several seminars and meetings that bring together policymakers and stakeholders from throughout the region. The purpose of these gatherings is to encourage a

McNeil; Michael A

2003-01-01

468

78 FR 44036 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Intent To Establish the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) is giving notice that it intends to establish a negotiated rulemaking working group under the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC) in accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) and the Negotiated Rulemaking Act (NRA) to negotiate proposed Federal standards for the energy efficiency of......

2013-07-23

469

Reverse Logistics System Planning for Recycling Waste Household Electrical Appliances in Liaoning Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the disposal of waste household electrical appliances has caused tremendous concentration in recent years, a relative reverse logistics system planning has become into a matter of great urgency in Liaoning province. This study utilizes a new recycling system pattern as well as a mixed integer programming model under the analysis of prospect, total amount, supplying and demanding conditions and

Zhao Tong; Liu Yan; Fan Houming; Ci Jili

2007-01-01

470

78 FR 18533 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...That AD applies to certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...Applicability This AD applies to Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded...

2013-03-27

471

76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...standards and qualification as an ENERGY STAR product. DATES: Written comments and...submitted a joint petition to the ENERGY STAR program regarding smart grid enabled appliances...consider a five percent credit to the ENERGY STAR performance level for smart grid...

2011-08-05

472

Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets  

SciTech Connect

Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of labeling strategies and promotion in China.

Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

2002-08-20

473

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral Resources...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2009-07-01

474

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral Resources...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2010-07-01

475

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral Resources...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2009-07-01

476

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral Resources...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2010-07-01

477

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral Resources...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2013-07-01

478

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral Resources...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

2013-07-01

479

Induction Heating Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induction heating technology, a magnetic non-deforming process, was developed by Langley researchers to join plastic and composite components in space. Under NASA license, Inductron Corporation uses the process to produce induction heating systems and equipment for numerous applications. The Torobonder, a portable system, comes with a number of interchangeable heads for aircraft repair. Other developments are the E Heating Head, the Toroid Joining Gun, and the Torobrazer. These products perform bonding applications more quickly, safely and efficiently than previous methods.

1991-01-01

480

Heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for recovering waste heat from heating system exhaust gas is described. In a heating system located in a furnace room and including a furnace and an air blower for delivering air to the furnace via an inlet stack and heating pipes for the delivery of heated air from the furnace to the areas to be heated, the improvement

Anable

1975-01-01

481

Nanofluid heat capacities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

2011-12-01

482

Effect of heat treatment and heat-to-heat variations in the fatigue-crack growth response of Alloy 718  

SciTech Connect

The fatigue-crack growth behavior of seven heats of Alloy 718 was studied at five different test temperatures. These seven heats represented at least four different producers, four different product forms, two melt practices, and most of the heat were tested in two different heat-treated conditions. Heat-to-heat variations were noted; these were most obvious in material given the conventional heat-treatment. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

James, L.A.; Mills, W.J.

1980-04-01

483

Phase shifted ZVS-PWM high frequency load resonant inverter for induction heated foam metal type dual packs fluid heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel prototype of phase shift ZVS-PWM controlled high frequency load resonant inverter with lossless capacitor snubbers in addition to active resonant snubber for electromagnetic induction fluid heating appliances. The operating principle and unique features of this soft switching high frequency inverter circuit are described herein. The constant frequency phase shift ZVS-PWM controlled voltage source type high

Yoichi Kurose; Eiji Hiraki; Akito Fukui; Mutsuo Nakaoka

2003-01-01

484

Load resonant and quasiresonant hybrid mode ZVS-PWM high frequency inverter for induction heated foam metal fluid heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel prototype of phase shift ZVS-PWM controlled high frequency load resonant inverter with loss less capacitor snubbers in addition to active resonant snubber for electromagnetic induction fluid heating appliances. The operating principle and unique features of this soft switching high frequency inverter circuit are described herein. The constant frequency phase shift ZVS-PWM controlled voltage source type

Y. Kurose; E. Hirakil; I. Hirota; H. Yamashita; H. Omori; M. Nakaoka

2003-01-01

485

Microwave heating of different commercial categories of olive oil: Part I. Effect on chemical oxidative stability indices and phenolic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of microwave heating of extra virgin olive oil (EVOo), olive oil (Oo) and pomace olive oil (Po) in domestic appliances, was investigated in terms of chemical oxidative indices (peroxide, p-anisidine and Totox values), free acidity, water content, total phenol content and different classes of phenolic compounds.Water content of unheated EVOo was higher as compared to the other two

Lorenzo Cerretani; Alessandra Bendini; Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada; Elena Vittadini; Emma Chiavaro

2009-01-01

486

In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes  

SciTech Connect

CARB partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and LAMELs through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and lighting, appliances, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs).

Puttagunta, S.; Shapiro, C.

2012-04-01

487

Removable orthodontic appliance with nickel-titanium spring to reposition the upper incisors in an autistic patient.  

PubMed

A newly designed removable appliance with a shape-memory wire was used for the orthodontic treatment of the anterior teeth in an 11-year-old child who had autism and intellectual disability. The device was designed to reduce the lateral incisor crossbite and the central incisors' labial rotation. The child was treated for 1 year with this removable appliance. Tooth movement was analyzed using cephalograms and surface data were derived from study models. This device proved to be very durable. The lateral incisor crossbite was corrected, and the inclination of the upper central incisors and the interincisal angle were improved. This appliance exerts light and continuous orthodontic force, without requiring any adjustments of the spring wire. The appliance also facilitated orthodontic treatment in a child with intellectual disability in whom treatment with a standard orthodontic device would be unsuitable. PMID:23278147

Saito, Kan; Jang, Insan; Kubota, Kazumi; Hoshino, Tomonori; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Noriaki; Fujiwara, Taku

2012-11-12

488

What`s new in codes and standards - Office of Building Technologies (OBT): Appliance and lighting standards  

SciTech Connect

US homeowners spend $110 billion each year to power such home appliances as refrigerators, freezers, water heaters, furnaces, air conditioners, and lights. These uses account for about 70% of all the primary energy consumed in homes. During its typical 10-15-year lifetime, the appliance`s operating costs may exceed its initial purchase price several times over. Nevertheless, many consumers do not consider energy efficiency when making purchases. And manufacturers are reluctant to invest in more efficient technology that may not be accepted in the highly competitive marketplace. Recognizing the great potential for energy savings, many states began prescribing minimum energy efficiencies for appliances. Anticipating the burden of complying with differing state standards, manufacturers supported developing federal standards that would preempt state standards.

NONE

1995-09-01

489

Effects of Appliance Type and Operating Variables on Woodstove Emissions. Volume 1. Report and Appendices A-C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a project, in support of the Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP), to provide data on the specific effects of appliance type and operating variables on woodstove emissions. Samples of particulate material and volatile organic c...

P. G. Burnet J. E. Houck R. B. Roholt

1990-01-01

490

Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak-Load Shifting and Spinning Reserves Cost/Benefit Analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production of smart appliances. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the societal challenges, such as anthropogenic global warming, associated with increased electricity demand, and facilitate increased penetration of renewable sources of power. The appliances we consider include refrigerator/freezers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, room air-conditioners, and dishwashers. The petition requests the recognition that providing an appliance with smart grid capability, i.e., products that meet the definition of a smart appliance, is at least equivalent to a corresponding five percent in operational machine efficiencies. It is then expected that given sufficient incentives and value propositions, and suitable automation capabilities built into smart appliances, residential consumers will be adopting these smart appliances and will be willing participants in addressing the aforementioned societal challenges by more effectively managing their home electricity consumption. The analytical model we utilize in our cost/benefit analysis consists of a set of user-definable assumptions such as the definition of on-peak (hours of day, days of week, months of year), the expected percentage of normal consumer electricity consumption (also referred to as appliance loads) that can shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours, the average power rating of each appliance, etc. Based on these assumptions, we then formulate what the wholesale grid operating-cost savings, or benefits, would be if the smart capabilities of appliances were invoked, and some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads served power-system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. The rationale is that appliance loads can be curtailed for about ten minutes or less in response to a grid contingency without any diminution in the quality of service to the consumer. We then estimate the wholesale grid operating-cost savings based on historical wholesale-market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States. The savings derived from the smart grid capabilities of an appliance are then compared to the savings derived from a five percent increase in traditional operational machine efficiencies, referred to as cost in this report, to determine whether the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as or higher than the operational machine efficiency credit (cost).

Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Li, Shun

2010-12-01

491

A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO THE CONGENERATION SYSTEM FOR RURAL APPLIANCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposal of distributed generation system based on cogeneration Micro-Power Plants (MPP) is presented in the paper. The proposed MPP can operate using local energy resources as well as traditional fuels. The MPP power range can be from few kW up to 100 kW. The primeval fuel energy is better utilized in cogeneration MPP than in power plants producing only

A. Jan Iwaszkiewicz; B. Jacek Per

492

Appliance of Fuzzy Membership Conversion on Supply Chain Competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprises must realize the change from seller market to buyer market which forces enterprises to produce consumer-oriented products under environment of the needs of customers individuality and the ever-changing market, thus adopt the customer-centered supply chain managing thought. Competition among enterprises is the competition among the supply chains, and the competition advantage of supply chains depends on its own competitiveness.

Fuming Liu; Feng Wang; Yunfeng Song

2009-01-01

493

Evaluating the reduction in green house gas emissions achieved by the implementation of the household appliance recycling in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  The Home Appliance Recycling Law (hereunder referred to as the Law) for used cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, air conditioners,\\u000a refrigerators and washing machines was enacted in April 2001 in Japan. The Law requires that retailers reclaim, and manufacturers\\u000a and importers recycle such home appliances. Consumers are required to pay collection and recycling fees incurred in disposing

Katsuyuki Nakano; Ryosuke Aoki; Hiroshi Yagita; Nobuhiko Narita

2007-01-01

494

Microtube strip heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchanger. DSI completed a heat exchanger stress analysis of the ten-module heat exchanger bank; and, performed a shell-side flow inhomogeneity analysis of the three-module heat exchanger bank. The company produced 50 tubestrips using an in-house CNC milling machine and began pressing them onto tube arrays. DSI revised some of the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips into the array to improve some of the prototype tooling. 2 refs., 4 figs.

Doty, F.D.

1991-07-08

495

IEC 61883 and AV/C CTS-based IEEE 1394 digital home appliances control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a lot of home network technologies. One of them is IEEE 1394 technology that supports automatic configuration, QoS guaranteed real-time A/V transmission and high bandwidth. In the near future, IEEE 1394 home network will be deployed and IEEE 1394 digital home appliances will be universally available at a reasonable price for customers. Then, one needs an integrated control technology. This kind of control technology is based on IEC 61883-1 FCP and AV/C CTS. This paper issues the IEEE 1394-based technology to control digital home appliances and the test results from its implementation show the possibility to be used in a home gateway as a simple but effective control technology.

Kim, Il-Jung; Yang, Soo-Kyung; Rhee, Seung Hak; Choy, Ik Soo; Park, Jong-An

2001-12-01

496

The effect of oral appliance therapy on blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of oral appliance (OA) therapy on ambulatory blood pressure in patients\\u000a with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Eleven OSA patients who received OA therapy were prospectively investigated. Ambulatory\\u000a blood pressure was measured for 20 h from 4:00 p.m. to 12:00 noon the next day using an ambulatory bl