Sample records for heat producing appliances

  1. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707 Section 3280...Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. (a) Heat-producing appliances and vents, roof...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707 Section 3280...Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. (a) Heat-producing appliances and vents, roof...

  3. Observation of orthopedic force distribution produced by maxillary orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Chaconas, S J; Caputo, A A

    1982-12-01

    A three-dimensional anatomic model was duplicated from a human skull, using different birefringent materials to simulate the various craniofacial structures. Individual bones of the midface were fabricated separately and then articulated in their correct sutural relation. One removable and four fixed maxillary appliances were used. The fixed appliances included the Haas, Minne-expander, Hyrax, and quad helix devices. The removable appliance incorporated an expansion screw in a full acrylic palate with appropriate retentive clasps. After the insertion of each appliance, intraoral forces were produced by incremental activation. The model was examined and photographed in the field of a transmission polariscope. Each appliance used produced a different range of load-activation characteristics. This was reflected by the differences in the stresses transmitted through the bones of the craniofacial complex and the effect on the various sutures. Stresses produced by the fixed appliances were concentrated in the anterior region of the palate, progressing posteriorly toward the palatine bone. The Haas, Minne-expander, and Hyrax appliances produced stresses that radiated superiorly along the perpendicular plates of the palatine bone to deeper anatomic structures, such as the lacrimal, nasal, and malar bones, as well as the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid. Similar stress characteristics were seen with the removable appliance. However, increased activation decreased retention of the appliance, thereby lessening the stress. The quad helix appliance proved to be the least effective orthopedic device. Although the effects of palate separation were seen with increased activation, this appliance primarily affected the posterior teeth. PMID:6760725

  4. Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

    1983-11-21

    An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

  5. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  6. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  7. Waste-heat recovery system for commercial cooking appliances. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    Installation of the Hydrocoil Waste Heat Recovery System over a battery of gas-fired commercial cooking appliances in a restaurant in Pasadena, California, is discussed. Installation of the equipment resulted in gas usage reduction, a savings to the restaurant owner of $70\\/month at a gas cost of $0.26\\/ccf. The term load factor or the ratio of actual usage compared to the

  8. Soft-switched PWM high-frequency load-resonant inverter for induction heating cooking appliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Izaki; I. Hirota; H. Yamashita; H. Omori; S. P. Wang; Md. Jasni

    1997-01-01

    There is a strong demand for high-power multi-burner induction-heating (IH) cooking appliances. It is known that acoustic noise can be generated when conventional frequency-controlled inverters are applied to multi burner IH cooking heaters. In order to eliminate the acoustic noise, this paper presents a prototype voltage-fed quasi-load resonant half-bridge inverter operating at constant frequency variable power (CFVP) regulation scheme which

  9. New induction heated fluid energy conversion processing appliance incorporating auto-tuning PID control-based PWM resonant IGBT inverter with sensorless power factor correction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Uchihori; Y. Kawamura; M. Tokiwa; Y. J. Kim; M. Nakaoka

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a newly-developed prototype of an electromagnetic induction flow-through metallic package-in-nonmetallic pipeline type fluid heating appliance, which is composed of series-resonant phase-shift PWM inverter using IGBT modules in addition to an auto-tuning PID controller based on feedback implementation. This inverter-fed fluid heating appliance is to be more acceptable for high-quality heat transfer and delivery processing under a precise

  10. Power producing system employing geothermally heated fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shields

    1977-01-01

    A power producing system includes a source of geothermally heated fluid having inorganic salts dissolved therein. The fluid is directed through a first direct contact heat exchanger in heat transfer relation with a working fluid of a type insoluble in a liquid including inorganic salts. The vaporous working fluid thus produced is expanded through a prime mover and then directed

  11. FPGA-Based Power Measuring for Induction Heating Appliances Using Sigma–Delta A\\/D Conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Acero; Denis Navarro; L. A. Barraga; Ignacio Garde; José I. Artigas; José M. Burdío

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a digital circuit that measures in real time the output power of medium-frequency (25-50 kHz) induction-heated cooking appliances. The voltage and current are sensed using first-order sigma-delta (SigmaDelta) analog-to-digital converters. The power-measuring algorithm is very simple while maintaining good accuracy. The algorithm is developed using a hardware description language (VHDL).

  12. Comparison of the Initial Orthodontic Force Systems Produced by a New Lingual Bracket System and a Straight-Wire Appliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars-Michael Fuck; Dirk Wiechmann; Dieter Drescher

    2005-01-01

    Background and Aim: Over the last few years, lingual appliances have become an established orthodontic treatment technique. Many studies have concentrated on various esthetic aspects, on laboratory and clinical procedures, and on patient comfort and compliance. The orthodontic force systems of these appliances, however, have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was thus to determine the forces

  13. FIELD PERFORMANCE OF WOODBURNING AND COALBURNING APPLIANCES IN CRESTED BUTTE DURING THE 1989-1990 HEATING SEASON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evacuation of the field performance of woodburning and coalburning appliances in and around Crested Butte, CO. easurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and weekly average burn rates. Woodburning appliances included convent...

  14. The state-of-the art electromagnetic induction flow-through pipeline package type fluid heating appliance using series resonant PWM inverter with self-tuning PID controller-based feedback implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Uchihori; Y. Kawamura; S. Morita; H. Yasutune; M. Nakaoka

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a newly-developed prototype of an electromagnetic induction flow-through metallic package-in-nonmetallic pipeline type fluid heating appliance, which is composed of a series loaded resonant phase-shift PWM invertor using IGBT modules and their intelligent driver modules, in addition to an auto-tuning PID controller incorporated into the feedback loop. This inverter-fed fluid heating appliance is more acceptable for high-quality heat

  15. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  16. Pulmonary inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung after exposure to PM samples from biomass heating appliances of old and modern technologies.

    PubMed

    Happo, Mikko S; Uski, Oskari; Jalava, Pasi I; Kelz, Joachim; Brunner, Thomas; Hakulinen, Pasi; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Obernberger, Ingwald; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2013-01-15

    Current levels of ambient air fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) are associated with mortality and morbidity in urban populations worldwide. In residential areas wood combustion is one of the main sources of PM(2.5) emissions, especially during wintertime. However, the adverse health effects of particulate emissions from the modern heating appliances and fuels are poorly known. In this study, health related toxicological properties of PM(1) emissions from five modern and two old technology appliances were examined. The PM(1) samples were collected by using a Dekati® Gravimetric Impactor (DGI). The collected samples were weighed and extracted with methanol for chemical and toxicological analyses. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally exposed to a single dose of 1, 3, 10 or 15 mg/kg of the particulate samples for 4, 18 or 24h. Thereafter, the lungs were lavaged and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Lungs of 24h exposed mice were collected for inspection of pulmonary tissue damage. There were substantial differences in the combustion qualities of old and modern technology appliances. Modern technology appliances had the lowest PM(1) (mg/MJ) emissions, but they induced the highest inflammatory, cytotoxic and genotoxic activities. In contrast, old technology appliances had clearly the highest PM(1) (mg/MJ) emissions, but their effect in the mouse lungs were the lowest. Increased inflammatory activity was associated with ash related components of the emissions, whereas high PAH concentrations were correlating with the smallest detected responses, possibly due to their immunosuppressive effect. PMID:23201646

  17. Method for producing heat-resistant semi-inorganic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yajima, S.; Okamura, K.; Shishido, T.; Hasegawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The method for producing a heat resistant, semi-inorganic compound is discussed. Five examples in which various alcohols, phenols, and aromatic carbonic acids are used to test heat resistance and solubility are provided.

  18. Geothermal Heat Pumps Produce Dramatic Savings

    E-print Network

    Niess, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The widespread use of geothermal energy to reduce heating costs has been limited in part by the high initial cost of digging deep wells to obtain moderate temperature water (under 220 F) for direct-use industrial process and space heating...

  19. Electric toothbrushes induce electric current in fixed dental appliances by creating magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Ishii, Nozomu; Sano, Natsuki; Ogura, Hideo; Terada, Kazuto

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic fields can represent a health problem, especially low frequency electromagnetic fields sometimes induced by electric current in metallic objects worn or used in or on the body (as opposed to high frequency electromagnetic fields that produce heat). Electric toothbrushes are widely used because of their convenience, but the electric motors that power them may produce electromagnetic waves. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generate low frequency (1-2000 Hz) magnetic fields and induce electric current in dental appliances (e. g. orthodontic and prosthetic appliances and dental implants). Current induced by electric toothbrushes might be dependent on the quantity and types of metals used, and the shape of the appliances. Furthermore, these induced currents in dental appliances could impact upon human oral health, producing pain and discomfort. PMID:23037851

  20. Heat pump system utilizing produced water in oil fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaolin Gu; Jian Qiu; Yun Li; Guoguang Cai

    2003-01-01

    As the alternative to the heating furnace for crude oil heating, a heat pump system utilizing produced water, a main byproduct, in oil fields was proposed and the thermodynamic model of the system was established. A particular compression process with inner evaporative spray water cooling was applied in the screw compressor and an analysis method for the variable-mass compression process

  1. Glycerol citrate polyesters produced through microwave heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of various heating methods without catalysis to prepare copolyesters from citric acid:glycerol blends were studied. In the presence of short term microwave treatments, i.e., 60 sec at 1200 W, blends of glycerol and citric acid invariably formed solid amorphous copolyesters. Fourier tra...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Gas Fired, Heat Activated, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Appliances...refrigerating systems serving any air conditioning or comfort- cooling system...home shall employ a type of refrigerant that ranks no lower than...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Gas Fired, Heat Activated, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Appliances...refrigerating systems serving any air conditioning or comfort-cooling system...home shall employ a type of refrigerant that ranks no lower than...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Gas Fired, Heat Activated, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Appliances...refrigerating systems serving any air conditioning or comfort-cooling system...home shall employ a type of refrigerant that ranks no lower than...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Appliances, cooling. (a) Every air conditioning unit or a combination air conditioning and heating unit shall be listed or...ARI Standard 210/240-89 Unitary Air Conditioning and Air Source Unitary Heat Pump...

  6. Latest Developments of Soft-Switching Pulse Modulated High Frequency Conversion Systems for Consumer Induction Heating Power Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yasui; M. Mihara; H. Omori; M. Nakaoka

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with some technological evaluations based on key designs of application specific power semiconductor switching devices in developing generation stages for consumer power electronic cooking equipments. In addition to these, the historical review of soft-switching inverter circuits and systems using high frequency IGBTs are also summarized and described for IH cooking appliances. In particular, the new prototype soft-switching

  7. Heat Stress Creates Many Challenges for Milk Producers

    E-print Network

    Heat Stress Creates Many Challenges for Milk Producers There are a variety of factors that can influence a cow's milk production. In Texas, two of these factors are heat stress and reproduction, causing a cow's body temperature to increase, which has an adverse effect on both reproduction and milk

  8. ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMAN, SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOVE, L. CARL; RONEY, MAURICE W.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO AID IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING A COURSE FOR TRAINING ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMEN. OUTLINES (ONE PAGE EACH) COVER -- (1) RELATED INSTRUCTION, (2) FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY, (3) BASIC CONTROLS AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, (4) RESISTANCE HEATING APPLIANCES, (5) MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC APPLIANCES, (6) MOTOR DRIVEN…

  9. Appliance Repair, Tips & Help

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On this site, visitors can find information about common household appliance parts and repair - categorized by type - including kitchen appliances, laundry equipment, and refrigerators. By clicking on the images of the individual machines, visitors can find more information including parts, how they work, common problems, and maintenance tips. There are also helpfully labeled images for particular brands and models of each appliance, which indicate the different features and parts of those particular machines. While some of the site is commercial (such as the links to appliance accessories), there is plenty of free and handy information for students working toward a career in appliance installation and repair.

  10. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including, but not...

  11. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances...Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including, but not limited...

  12. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances...Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including, but not limited...

  13. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances...Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including, but not limited...

  14. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances...Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including, but not limited...

  15. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included in this program...dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters, comfort heating equipment, and television...

  16. Residential appliances technology atlas

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Residential appliance technology and efficiency opportunities for refrigerators and freezers, cooking appliances, clothes washers and dryers, dishwashers, and some often-ignored household devices such as spas, pool pumps, waterbed heaters, televisions, and home computers are thoroughly covered in this Atlas. The US appliance market, fuel shares, efficiency standards, labeling, and advances in home automation, design for recycling, and CFC issues are also discussed. The resource section contains lists of appliance manufacturers and distributors, and trade, professional, and governmental organizations, a summary of key resources for further information, and an index.

  17. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  18. Magnetic fields from electric toothbrushes promote corrosion in orthodontic stainless steel appliances but not in titanium appliances.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Oda, Hirotake; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2013-11-30

    Electric toothbrushes are widely used, and their electric motors have been reported to produce low-frequency electromagnetic fields that induced electric currents in metallic objects worn by the users. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generated low-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) and induced electric currents in orthodontic appliances in artificial saliva (AS), which accelerated corrosion in stainless steel (SUS) appliances, but not in titanium (Ti) appliances; the corrosion was evaluated by using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and a three-dimensional laser confocal microscope. The pH of AS used for appliance immersion did not change during or after MF exposure. These results suggested that MF-induced currents from electric toothbrushes could erode SUS appliances, but not Ti appliances, because of their high corrosion potentials. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms of metallic corrosion by induced currents in dental fields, which may trigger metal allergies in patients. PMID:24240898

  19. Vehicle Internet Appliance (VIA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hariri; Mahesh Indran

    2003-01-01

    Summary form only given. We present the design and implementation of an open and cost-effective vehicle information appliance (VIA) to enable the access to all car status information (e.g., engine temperature, engine condition, brakes, etc), as well as communicating with car passengers (e.g., multimedia video conferencing). The main objective of the vehicle Internet appliance is to effectively utilize the Internet

  20. The process of producing tomato paste by ohmic heating method.

    PubMed

    Torkian Boldaji, Mehdi; Borghei, Ali Mohammd; Beheshti, Babak; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the effect of ohmic heating technique on electrical conductivity, water evaporation rate, heating rate, colour parameters, pH and energy consumption of tomato samples was investigated. Ohmic heating was accomplished till the moisture content of the tomato samples reduced from initial moisture content of as 9.33 (dry basis) to a safer level of 2.2. The results of the nonlinear mathematical model including the effects of voltage gradient level and the temperature on the electrical conductivity changes had good agreement (R???0.955) with the experimental data. Also, it was observed that the electrical conductivity increased along with concentration of tomato samples. The range of electrical conductivity during ohmic heating was 3.19-8.95 (S/m). It was found that processing time decreased from 28.32 to 4.3 min over the voltage gradient range studied (6 to 14 V/cm), which resulted in decreased specific energy consumption from 4.63 to 3.05 (MJ/kg water). Due to increasing of heating rate and water evaporation rate at high voltage gradient, the change of the pH was limited. Samples processed in high voltage gradient had higher L*, b* and hue angle (h), lower a* and Chroma (C) values as compared to low voltage gradient. The optimum value of processing time, pH, colour, specific energy consumption was obtained at 14 V/cm voltage gradient level. PMID:26028742

  1. Tectonic feedback and the ordering of heat producing elements within the continental lithosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Sandiford; Sandra McLaren

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of the heat producing elements within the lithosphere provides an important control on continental thermal regimes and the mechanical strength of the lithosphere. Moreover, the strong temperature dependence of lithospheric rheology suggests the possibility of an important feedback between deformation and the distribution of heat producing elements. Simple models for lithospheric rheology are used to illustrate how such

  2. CALIFORNIA STATEWIDE RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCE

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA STATEWIDE RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCE SATURATION STUDY VOLUME 2, STUDY RESULTS FINAL REPORT end uses. The results of the CDA are included in summary form along with the general study results in this executive summary and are provided in further detail in the methodology section of the report. The study

  3. Appliance Servicing Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents the standard appliance servicing technician curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard…

  4. Heat flux and entropy produced by thermal fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Ciliberto, S; Imparato, A; Naert, A; Tanase, M

    2013-05-01

    We report an experimental and theoretical analysis of the energy exchanged between two conductors kept at different temperature and coupled by the electric thermal noise. Experimentally we determine, as functions of the temperature difference, the heat flux, the out-of-equilibrium variance, and a conservation law for the fluctuating entropy, which we justify theoretically. The system is ruled by the same equations as two Brownian particles kept at different temperatures and coupled by an elastic force. Our results set strong constraints on the energy exchanged between coupled nanosystems held at different temperatures. PMID:23683183

  5. Heat Flux and Entropy Produced by Thermal Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciliberto, S.; Imparato, A.; Naert, A.; Tanase, M.

    2013-05-01

    We report an experimental and theoretical analysis of the energy exchanged between two conductors kept at different temperature and coupled by the electric thermal noise. Experimentally we determine, as functions of the temperature difference, the heat flux, the out-of-equilibrium variance, and a conservation law for the fluctuating entropy, which we justify theoretically. The system is ruled by the same equations as two Brownian particles kept at different temperatures and coupled by an elastic force. Our results set strong constraints on the energy exchanged between coupled nanosystems held at different temperatures.

  6. Appliance Remote Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Oxer; Hugh Blemings

    \\u000a One of the basic tasks in many home automation systems is controlling power to appliances. These could be lights, a heater,\\u000a an exhaust fan, or just about anything else that runs on mains power. The problem, of course, is that it’s dangerous to mess\\u000a with mains-level power directly and you may even be in violation of your local building code

  7. Emission factors from small scale appliances burning wood and pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgen, Senem; Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Giugliano, Michele; Angelino, Elisabetta; Marongiu, Alessandro; Hugony, Francesca; Migliavacca, Gabriele; Morreale, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Four manually fed (6-11 kW) firewood burning and two automatic wood pellets (8.8-25 kW) residential heating appliances were tested under real-world operating conditions in order to determine emission factors (EFs) of macropollutants, i.e., carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter (PM) and trace pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins. The results were examined for the influence of different factors (i.e., type of wood, appliance and combustion cycle). The experimental EFs were also compared with the values proposed by the European emission inventory guidebook used in the local inventory in order to evaluate their representativeness of real world emissions. The composite macropollutant EFs for manually fed appliances were: for CO 5858 g GJ-1, for NOx 122 g GJ-1, NMHC 542 g GJ-1, PM 254 g GJ-1, whereas emissions were much lower for automatic pellets appliances: CO 219 g GJ-1, for NOx 66 g GJ-1, NMHC 5 g GJ-1, PM 85 g GJ-1. The highest emissions were generally observed for the open fireplace, however traditional and advanced stoves have the highest overall CO EFs. Especially for the advanced stove real-world emissions are far worse than those measured under cycles used for type testing of residential solid fuel appliances. No great difference is observed for different firewood types in batch working appliances, diversely the quality of the pellets is observed to influence directly the emission performance of the automatic appliances. Benzo(b)fluoranthene is the PAH with the highest contribution (110 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 2 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices) followed by benzo(a)pyrene (77 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 0.8 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices).

  8. New Insights Into the Heat Sources of Mantle Plumes, or: Where Does all the Heat Come From, Heat Producing Elements, Advective or Conductive Heat Flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushmer, T.; Beier, C.; Turner, S.

    2007-12-01

    Melting anomalies in the Earth's upper mantle have often been attributed to the presence of mantle plumes that may originate in the lower mantle, possibly from the core-mantle boundary. Globally, mantle plumes exhibit a large range in buoyancy flux that which is proportional to their temperature and volume. Plumes with higher buoyancy fluxes should have higher temperatures and experience higher degrees of partial melting. Excess heat in mantle plumes could reflect either a) an enrichment of the heat producing elements (HPE: U, Th, K) in their mantle source leading to an increase of heat production by radioactive decay or b) advective or conductive heat transport across the core-mantle boundary. The advective transport of heat may result in a physical contribution of material from the core to the lower mantle. If core material is incorporated into the lower mantle, mantle plumes with a higher buoyancy flux should have higher core tracers, e.g. increased 186Os and Fe concentrations. Geophysical and dynamic modelling indicate that at least Afar, Easter, Hawaii, Louisville and Samoa may all originate at the core-mantle boundary. These plumes encompass the whole range of known buoyancy fluxes from 1.2 Mgs -1(Afar) to 6.5 Mgs -1 (Hawaii) providing evidence that the buoyancy flux is largely independent of other geophysical parameters. In an effort to explore whether the heat producing elements are the cause of excess heat we looked for correlations between fractionation corrected concentrations of the HPE and buoyancy flux. Our results suggest that there is no correlation between HPE concentrations and buoyancy flux (with and without an additional correction for variable degrees of partial melting). As anticipated, K, Th and U are positively correlated with each other (e.g. Hawaii, Iceland and Galapagos have significantly lower concentrations than e.g. Tristan da Cunha, the Canary Islands and the Azores). We also find no correlation between currently available Fe concentration data and buoyancy flux. The apparent lack of correlation suggests that excess heat may be a result of conductive heat contribution from the core. Additional precise 186Os and Fe data are needed to further assess these conclusions.

  9. Process for producing an activated carbon adsorbent with integral heat transfer apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing an integral adsorbent-heat exchanger apparatus useful in ammonia refrigerant heat pump systems. In one embodiment, the process wets an activated carbon particles-solvent mixture with a binder-solvent mixture, presses the binder wetted activated carbon mixture on a metal tube surface and thereafter pyrolyzes the mixture to form a bonded activated carbon matrix adjoined to the tube surface. The integral apparatus can be easily and inexpensively produced by the process in large quantities.

  10. Networked appliances and their peer-to-peer architecture AMIDEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michihiko Minoh; Tak Kamae

    2001-01-01

    To connect appliances directly to each other and to let them cooperate with each other, a standard architecture for appliance networking is indispensable. Appliances with networking capabilities are called networked appliances. A networked appliance architecture called AMIDEN is being developed to realize networked appliances. AMIDEN is a peer-to-peer architecture that enables appliance networking and direct appliance interworking without a network

  11. Emerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and

    E-print Network

    -products are burned to produce heat and electricity. Woody Biomass for Energy in Michigan TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION to manufacture syngas or synthetic gas. The syngas can then be further processed to produce a range of transportation fuels and chemicals. References: Bergman, Richard and John Zerbe. 2004. Primer on Wood Biomass

  12. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    DOEpatents

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Muylle, Michel Serge Marie (Houston, TX); Mandema, Remco Hugo (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  13. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  14. Remote repair appliance

    DOEpatents

    Heumann, Frederick K. (Ballston Spa, NY); Wilkinson, Jay C. (Ballston Spa, NY); Wooding, David R. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

    1997-01-01

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a worksite on a substantially circular bore of a workpiece and for providing video signals of the worksite to a remote monitor comprising: a baseplate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the baseplate and positioned to roll against the bore of the workpiece when the baseplate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the baseplate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the baseplate; a camera for providing video signals of the worksite to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the baseplate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris.

  15. Personal Fuel Appliance

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Energy

    2003-12-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in Phase I of Stuart's Personal Fueling Appliance Program. Phase I concluded in March 2002 with the demonstration and deployment of several working models. As proposed in the original project plan, working models of the PFA were built to prove feasibility and technically market the concept. Future follow up phases of the project, Phase II and III, will take the concept through prototyping development to pre-production of commercially viable product. The Phase I program successfully demonstrate a home fueling system capable of running on a household circuit, 220V/40 Amp/single phase or equivalent. Connected to a source of ''drinking water'' the system has all the functions necessary to convert water and electricity to high-pressure hydrogen fuel. Pressures of up to 3600 psig were achieved on demonstration systems and higher pressures up to 5000 psig were achieved in the lab. The development program spanned building 3 series of prototypes: White Box (1 unit built 1998), PFA Series 100 (4 units built 1999-2000), and Series 200 (6 units built 2000-02). Advanced in controls and process learned in the PFA program have been embodied in Stuart's larger fuel appliances.

  16. Measurements of radial heat wave propagation in laser-produced exploding-foil plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Montgomery; O. L. Landen; R. P. Drake; K. G. Estabrook; H. A. Baldis; S. H. Batha; K. S. Bradley; R. J. Procassini

    1994-01-01

    Time-resolved, 2D images of x-ray emission from thin, laser-irradiated titanium foils are presented. The foils are irradiated with 0.35 mum light at intensities of 1×1015 W\\/cm2 which produces a plasma with electron densities <=1022 cm-3 and electron temperature of 3-4 keV. X-ray emission that is characteristic of the thermal heat front is observed to propagate radially outward from the heated

  17. Two-Stage Soft-Switching High-Frequency Inverter with Simple PFC Function for Consumer IH Cooking Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuki Kawaguchi; Eiji Hiraki; Toshihiko Tanaka; Hideki Sadakata; Atsushi Fujita; Hideki Omori; Mutsuo Nakaoka

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, consumer induction-heating (IH) cooking appliances have grown increasingly popular because of their easy cleaning, high efficiency, safety, and controllability. IH food cooking system for consumer home use are indispensable to heat various metallic pans, such as aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and iron cast for further diffusing. Furthermore, these appliances have to satisfy the utility AC grid harmonics

  18. Energy Star Appliances 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service ENERGY STAR Appliances

    E-print Network

    Energy Star® Appliances 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service ENERGY STAR® Appliances ENERGY STAR®-labeled appliances save you money by using less electricity and water than other appliances. Better appliance energy efficiency comes from quality materials and technologically advanced materials. Although energy efficient

  19. A Remote Surveillance Model for Appliance Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Chih Yu; Shing-chern D. You; Dwen-Ren Tsai

    2010-01-01

    Remote appliance control is an important vision for the smart home. Even in the next few decades, it is inevitable that conversional appliances and smart appliance will coexist together to help people live better. For this reason, this research proposed a remote control model for the conversional appliances to integrate with smart home environment. In this model, a smart home

  20. Assessment of Domestic Appliance Noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jeanette Rosamond

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The aims of this study were: (i) to identify the factors involved in eliciting a subjective reaction to domestic appliance noise, (ii) to identify the noise index (or indices) that correlate highly with a subjective reaction to the noise, and (iii) to investigate the contribution of domestic appliance noise to an individual's daily noise dose. Two series of experimental studies were carried out using several examples of each of five types of domestic appliances. One determined the index values of domestic appliance noise--namely L_{WA} (using ISO 3741), L_{pA} , L_{pD}, L _{p}, PNL, L_{Aeq, 30 sec}, L_{Amax} and L_{AX}; the other determined subjective reactions to domestic appliance noise (judgements of noisiness, annoyance, the acceptability of the appliance noise and appraisals of usefulness). The success or failure of the research hypotheses was assessed statistically by analysis of variance, regression analysis, log linear analysis, Hotelling test, bootstrapping, t-test and post-hoc comparisons. Ratings of annoyance, noisiness and the acceptability of the noise of the appliance were found to be interrelated and interdependent, and not influenced by appraisals of usefulness of the appliances. Noisiness ratings were the most consistent of the subjective ratings investigated, and were influenced by the duration of the exposure, and the actual appliance type under investigation. Significant correlations were obtained between noisiness ratings and all the noise indices under investigation. However, statistical analysis demonstrated that L_ {WA} correlated less successfully with noisiness ratings than all other indices. L_ {Amax},L_{Aeq,30 sec }, and L_{AX} indices were the most successful. It is therefore suggested that the labelling of domestic appliance noise consist of L_{WA} and L _{Aeq} as measured in a standardised test environment. The percentage contribution of domestic appliance noise to the total daily noise dose of an individual was found to vary considerably depending on the sex and occupation of the individual. However, in terms of the daily personal noise exposure of an individual (L _{EP,d}) domestic appliance noise is insignificant.

  1. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...the enclosure. (3) Cooling coils installed as a portion...3280.511. (5) If a cooling coil is installed with a forced-air...listing. When a furnace-coil unit has a limited listing...appliance or combination cooling/heating...

  2. Limits Imposed on Heat Produced during Core Formation by Radiative Transfer Processes and Thermodynamic Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criss, R. E.; Hofmeister, A.

    2010-12-01

    The popular view that Earth is sufficiently hot to still be shedding primordal heat, largely originating in the core, is inconsistent with thermodynamic constraints and recent heat transport studies. Previous work presumes that the large difference in gravitational potential energy (Ug) between a fictious, homogeneous reference state and Earth’s current layered configuration of metallic core and rocky mantle was converted to frictional heat during core formation, greatly increasing temperature (T) inside the Earth. However, heating (?T >0) was deduced by assuming that Ug is positive, which is inconsistent with Newton’s law of gravitation. Use of an erroneous sign for ?Ug has prevented recognition that the process is an exothermic transformation. Thermodynamic principles were not considered in previous analyses: neglecting the effect of the change in configuration on entropy and energy contributes greatly to the view that heat is retained. Instead, stringent limits are set on the permissible temperature increase by the rapid rate of ballistic radiative transfer, a process associated with transient events, as well as by the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics. In the static, instantaneous model of core formation, configurational entropy (S) of the Earth decreases upon forming the ordered layered state; this entropy decrease is offset by a greater increase in S of the surrounding universe, which can only be accomplished by release of heat to space (the surroundings). Instantaneous dissipation of heat in the static model reasonably approximates radiative processes being superfast. Core formation involves negligible changes in volume and rotational energy, so Helmholtz free energy (=Ug-TS) is conserved, as in atmospheric processes and other graviational-thermodynamic problems. Because S of the universe is immense and heat must flow from hotter to colder bodies, negligible heat from core formation is retained, consistent with the exothermic nature of this transition. Irreversibility does not permit heat retention; instead, more local order is produced while more entropy and energy are transferred to the surroundings. We also consider a dynamic model, wherein the core forms via settling in boundary layers inside the convecting planet. For this case, the work performed is small, as is the amount of heat evolved. Small rises in T are dissipated in accord with the 2nd law. Furthermore, the maximum amount of heat that could have been produced was limited by inhomogeneity during accretion, and by the size and temperature of the proto-Earth when its core formed. Core heating is unimportant under all circumstances. Instead, core formation hastens planetary cooling, due to segregation of radioactive elements towards the surface.

  3. Development of induction heated hot water producer using soft switching PWM high frequency inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Sadakata; M. Nakaoka; Hidekazu Yamashita; Hideki Omori; Haruo Terai

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new conceptual electromagnetic induction eddy current-based stainless steel spiral type heater for heat exchanger in hot water producer and boiler, which is suitable and acceptable for new generation consumer power application. In addition, an edge-resonant PWM high frequency inverter using IGBTs can operate under a principle of zero voltage soft commutation is developed and demonstrated for

  4. Heat Resistant Proteases Produced in Milk by Psychrotorophic Bacteria of Dairy Origin1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Adams; J. T. Barach; M. L. Speck

    1975-01-01

    Production of heat resistant proteases by psychrotrophs growing in milk, resist- ance of such proteases to ultrahigh tem- perature treatments and action of these enzymes on milk were studied. All of the psychrotrophs obtained from raw milk produced proteases that survived 149 C for 10 s. Seventy to ninety percent of the raw milk samples contained psychro- trophs capable of

  5. Measurements of radial heat wave propagation in laser-produced exploding-foil plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.S.; Landen, O.L.; Drake, R.P.; Estabrook, K.G.; Baldis, H.A.; Batha, S.H.; Bradley, K.S.; Procassini, R.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States) Plasma Physics Research Institute, University of California Davis, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States) Department of Applied Science, University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States))

    1994-10-10

    Time-resolved, 2D images of x-ray emission from thin, laser-irradiated titanium foils are presented. The foils are irradiated with 0.35 [mu]m light at intensities of 1[times]10[sup 15] W/cm[sup 2] which produces a plasma with electron densities [le]10[sup 22] cm[sup [minus]3] and electron temperature of 3--4 keV. X-ray emission that is characteristic of the thermal heat front is observed to propagate radially outward from the heated region. Comparison of these measurements with 2D hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment suggests the radial heat flux to be about 3% of the free-streaming heat flux.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of the radiant field produced by a multiple-lamp quartz heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by a reflected bank of tungsten-filament tubular-quartz radiant heaters. The method is correlated with experimental results from two cases, one consisting of a single lamp and a flat reflector and the other consisting of a single lamp and a parabolic reflector. The simulation methodology, computer implementation, and experimental procedures are discussed. Analytical refinements necessary for comparison with experiment are discussed and applied to a multilamp, common reflector heating system.

  7. SiC/C nanocable structure produced in silicon carbide by arc plasma heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    Defect-free and long SiC/C nanocables have been produced by heating SiC powder at 3000°C by employing dc arc plasma (Ar) in a specially designed configuration of graphite arc. Microstructural characterizations of the heat-treated powder carried out by TEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, and micro Raman spectroscopy showed the nanocables to consist of a SiC shell/sheath stuffed with wire type solid C core. A possible mechanism is discussed to explain the cable-type growth.

  8. A novel method to produce niobium phosphate glasses by microwave heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ghussn; J. R. Martinelli

    2004-01-01

    Niobium phosphate glasses were produced by microwave heating mixtures of Nb2O5, (NH4)2HPO4, KOH, PbO, and BaCO3. Not all tried compositions were melted during the microwave irradiation. Absorption of microwaves was checked for individual compounds to determine the best chemical form to be used. The presence of KOH is indispensable in the mixture to allow microwave coupling. Glasses were also prepared

  9. Single films and heat mirrors produced by plasma ion assisted deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Fu; G. Atanassov; Y. S. Dai; F. H. Tan; Z. Q. Mo

    1997-01-01

    Single TiO2, MgF2, Ag and TiN thin films and heat mirrors are produced by plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) in a vacuum system (Leybold APS 904). Experimental results for the optical properties, stress and topography are reported. The obtained refractive indices at wavelength 550 nm of both TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by PIAD are 2.40 ± 0.02 and

  10. Heat-stable-enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Wasteson, Y; Olsvik, O; Skancke, E; Bopp, C A; Fossum, K

    1988-01-01

    Five strains of hemolytic Escherichia coli isolated from dogs suffering from diarrhea were shown by radioactive and enzyme-labeled oligonucleotide probes to possess genes coding for heat-stable enterotoxin (STIa). Four of the strains were shown by immunoassay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and bioassay (infant mouse test) to produce STI in vitro. All five strains, however, were able to induce fluid accumulation in ligated dog intestinal loops. The four STI-producing strains all possessed the K99 fimbrial antigen (F5) and belonged to serotype O42:H37. In these strains, genes encoding STI were located on a 98-megadalton plasmid. In the fifth strain, which produced STI in vitro only after several subcultivations, the STI gene was located on an 80-megadalton plasmid. This strain was nontypable. Images PMID:3068249

  11. Voice Synthesis Appliances: A Pragmatic Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Baker

    1983-01-01

    Voice synthesis offers many attractive features to the home appliance manufacturer. For example, it can be used to instruct the user on the operation of a comp! ex appliance and tactfully correct mistakes. It makes an appliance more demonstrable on the sales floor and can cut the number of instructional service calls. It gives what might otherwise be perceived as

  12. Modeling of GE Appliances: Final Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-01-31

    This report is the final in a series of three reports funded by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) in collaboration with GE Appliances’ through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to describe the potential of GE Appliances’ DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid.

  13. Transcriptome profiling of heat-resistant strain Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC3962 producing Maotai flavor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Xu, Yan

    2012-02-29

    Although Maotai flavor liquor is exclusive due to its soy sauce flavor, knowledge of its key compound and production mechanism is still scarce until now. To gain insight into the production mechanism of soy sauce flavor, a soy sauce flavor producing strain with high efficiency and heat-resistant capability was obtained, and the metabolic mechanism of the strain was investigated with the technique of microarray profiling. Because high temperature was a key factor for soy sauce flavor production, the global gene expression of this heat-resistant strain fermented at 55 °C was analyzed. Except for the responsive increase of heat shock proteins, which maintained cell survival during heat stress, biosynthesis of cysteine was also up-regulated. In addition, some metabolites were significantly increased when cysteine was added to the fermentation medium, such as 2,3-butanediol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, and tetramethylpyrazine, which were important flavor compounds in soy sauce flavor liquor and might be related with soy sauce flavor. The results indicated that cysteine might play an important role in the formation of soy sauce flavor compound, and it might act as an indirect precursor or stimulator of soy sauce flavor formation. This was the first use of the microarray profiling tool to investigate the fermentative strains for Chinese traditional liquor, which would allow a deeper insight into the mechanism of the formation of soy sauce flavor compound. PMID:22283589

  14. Novel Stacked Wire Mesh Compact Heat Exchangers Produced Using Cold Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaad, Jamil; Corbeil, Antoine; Richer, Patrick F.; Jodoin, Bertrand

    2011-12-01

    This study examines the feasibility of using the pulsed gas dynamic spraying (PGDS) process to deposit metal powder on the outer surfaces of metal wire mesh wafers for use as high-performance compact heat exchangers. Plain-square weave woven mesh produced from stainless steel wires were stacked and sintered to form wire mesh bricks, which were then cut into wafers. The outer surfaces of the wafers were sealed using the PGDS deposition technique as opposed to the more traditional brazing sheet solution. This approach provides more intimate contact between the mesh wire tips and sealed surface, thereby promoting conduction through the outer walls and improving the heat exchanger efficiency. In addition, PGDS is an attractive alternative to brazing sheets for this application because of its potential for reduced manufacturing costs. Burst and tensile tests of the PGDS coated wafers were carried out.

  15. How to Build Smart Appliances?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albrecht Schmidt; Kristof Van Laerhoven

    2001-01-01

    In this article smart appliances are characterized as devices that are attentive to their environment. We introduce a terminology for situation, sensor data, context, and context-aware applications because it is important to gain a thorough understanding of these concepts to successfully build such artifacts. In the article the relation between a real-world situation and the data read by sensors is

  16. Overdense Plasmas Produced by Electron Cyclotron Heating in a Linear Multipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, Masayuki; Matsuura, Ken-ichi

    1994-07-01

    A report is given of characteristics of a plasma produced by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in a linear multipole (LMP) field configuration. The electron density measured by a 6 mm microwave interferometer reached 2×1012 cm-3, which corresponds to 30 times the cutoff density for the 2.45 GHz RF source. On the basis of the spatial distributions of electron density, electron temperature and space potential measured with Langmuir and emissive probes, the mechanism of overdense plasma production is discussed. Consideration is also given to steady operation of this configuration, which is essential for practical plasma process applications.

  17. Measurements of radial heat wave propagation in laser-produced exploding-foil plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Montgomery; O. L. Landen; R. P. Drake; K. G. Estabrook; H. A. Baldis; S. H. Batha; K. S. Bradley; R. J. Procassini

    1994-01-01

    Time-resolved, 2D images of x-ray emission from thin, laser-irradiated titanium foils are presented. The foils are irradiated with 0.35 [mu]m light at intensities of 1[times]10[sup 15] W\\/cm[sup 2] which produces a plasma with electron densities [le]10[sup 22] cm[sup [minus]3] and electron temperature of 3--4 keV. X-ray emission that is characteristic of the thermal heat front is observed to propagate radially

  18. Beam heated linear theta-pinch device for producing hot plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Bohachevsky, Ihor O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A device for producing hot plasmas comprising a single turn theta-pinch coil, a fast discharge capacitor bank connected to the coil, a fuel element disposed along the center axis of the coil, a predetermined gas disposed within the theta-pinch coil, and a high power photon, electron or ion beam generator concentrically aligned to the theta-pinch coil. Discharge of the capacitor bank generates a cylindrical plasma sheath within the theta-pinch coil which heats the outer layer of the fuel element to form a fuel element plasma layer. The beam deposits energy in either the cylindrical plasma sheath or the fuel element plasma layer to assist the implosion of the fuel element to produce a hot plasma.

  19. Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  20. Kinetic effects and nonlinear heating in intense x-ray-laser-produced carbon plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentoku, Y.; Paraschiv, I.; Royle, R.; Mancini, R. C.; Johzaki, T.

    2014-11-01

    The x-ray laser-matter interaction for a low-Z material, carbon, is studied with a particle-in-cell code that solves the photoionization and x-ray transport self-consistently. Photoionization is the dominant absorption mechanism and nonthermal photoelectrons are produced with energy near the x-ray photon energy. The photoelectrons ionize the target rapidly via collisional impact ionization and field ionization, producing a hot plasma column behind the laser pulse. The radial size of the heated region becomes larger than the laser spot size due to the kinetic nature of the photoelectrons. The plasma can have a temperature of more than 10 000 K (>1 eV ), an energy density greater than 104 J /cm3 , an ion-ion Coulomb coupling parameter ? ?1 , and electron degeneracy ? ?1 , i.e., strongly coupled warm dense matter. By increasing the laser intensity, the plasma temperature rises nonlinearly from tens of eV to hundreds of eV, bringing it into the high energy density matter regime. The heating depth and temperature are also controllable by changing the photon energy of the incident laser light.

  1. Kinetic effects and nonlinear heating in intense x-ray-laser-produced carbon plasmas.

    PubMed

    Sentoku, Y; Paraschiv, I; Royle, R; Mancini, R C; Johzaki, T

    2014-11-01

    The x-ray laser-matter interaction for a low-Z material, carbon, is studied with a particle-in-cell code that solves the photoionization and x-ray transport self-consistently. Photoionization is the dominant absorption mechanism and nonthermal photoelectrons are produced with energy near the x-ray photon energy. The photoelectrons ionize the target rapidly via collisional impact ionization and field ionization, producing a hot plasma column behind the laser pulse. The radial size of the heated region becomes larger than the laser spot size due to the kinetic nature of the photoelectrons. The plasma can have a temperature of more than 10 000 K (>1eV), an energy density greater than 10^{4} J/cm^{3}, an ion-ion Coulomb coupling parameter ??1, and electron degeneracy ??1, i.e., strongly coupled warm dense matter. By increasing the laser intensity, the plasma temperature rises nonlinearly from tens of eV to hundreds of eV, bringing it into the high energy density matter regime. The heating depth and temperature are also controllable by changing the photon energy of the incident laser light. PMID:25493733

  2. Development of a Transient Heat and Mass Transfer Model of Residential Attics to Predict Energy Savings Produced by the Use of Radiant Barriers 

    E-print Network

    Medina, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    A transient heat and mass transfer model was developed to predict ceiling heat gain/loss through the attic space in residences and to accurately estimate savings in cooling and heating loads produced by the use of radiant ...

  3. Cytotoxic effect of orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Grimsdottir, M R; Hensten-Pettersen, A; Kullmann, A

    1992-02-01

    The use of orthodontic appliances may contribute to local gingivitis, often attributed to increased plaque retention. Gingivitis of bacterial origin cannot clinically be distinguished from local tissue irritation caused by corrosion products. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the cytotoxic effect of various metallic components used in orthodontics. Multicomponent devices such as facebows, molar bands, and brackets along with single-component brackets and archwires were tested by the agar overlay cytotoxicity test with mouse fibroblast cells. None of the archwires caused any cytotoxic effect, even though some contained 54 per cent nickel. However, the multi-component devices, which were joined with silver- and copper-based brazing alloys were more cytotoxic than the single-component devices. Copper is more cytotoxic than nickel, which could explain the greater cytotoxic effect of the samples with brazing materials. It is speculated that cytotoxic corrosion products from orthodontic appliances might contribute to localized gingivitis. PMID:1563474

  4. Leaking electricity in domestic appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

    1999-05-01

    Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost.

  5. Mean flow field and surface heating produced by unequal shock interactions at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birch, S. F.; Rudy, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mean velocity profiles were measured in a free shear layer produced by the interaction of two unequal strength shock waves at hypersonic free-stream Mach numbers. Measurements were made over a unit Reynolds number range of 3,770,000 per meter to 17,400,000 per meter based on the flow on the high velocity side of the shear layer. The variation in measured spreading parameters with Mach number for the fully developed flows is consistent with the trend of the available zero velocity ratio data when the Mach numbers for the data given in this study are taken to be characteristic Mach numbers based on the velocity difference across the mixing layer. Surface measurements in the shear-layer attachment region of the blunt-body model indicate peak local heating and static pressure consistent with other published data. Transition Reynolds numbers were found to be significantly lower than those found in previous data.

  6. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances. PMID:24583645

  7. ELM simulation experiments using transient heat and particle load produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoda, K.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2011-10-01

    It is considered that thermal transient events such as type I edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will limit the lifetime of plasma-facing components (PFCs) in ITER. It is predicted that the heat load onto the PFCs during type I ELMs in ITER is 0.2-2MJ/m2 with pulse length of ~0.1-1ms. We have investigated interaction between transient heat and particle load and the PFCs by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) at University of Hyogo. In the experiment, a pulsed plasma with duration of ~0.5ms, incident ion energy of ~30eV, and surface absorbed energy density of ~0.3-0.7MJ/m2 was produced by the MCPG. However, no melting occurred on a tungsten surface exposed to a single plasma pulse of ~0.7MJ/m2, while cracks clearly appeared at the edge part of the W surface. Thus, we have recently started to improve the performance of the MCPG in order to investigate melt layer dynamics of a tungsten surface such as vapor cloud formation. In the modified MCPG, the capacitor bank energy for the plasma discharge is increased from 24.5 kJ to 144 kJ. In the preliminary experiments, the plasmoid with duration of ~0.6 ms, incident ion energy of ~ 40 eV, and the surface absorbed energy density of ~2 MJ/m2 was successfully produced at the gun voltage of 6 kV.

  8. Crew appliance computer program manual, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Trade studies of numerous appliance concepts for advanced spacecraft galley, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and other areas were made to determine which best satisfy the space shuttle orbiter and modular space station mission requirements. Analytical models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the G-189A Generalized Environmental/Thermal Control and Life Support Systems (ETCLSS) Computer Program subroutine library were developed. The new appliance subroutines are given along with complete analytical model descriptions, solution methods, user's input instructions, and validation run results. The appliance components modeled were integrated with G-189A ETCLSS models for shuttle orbiter and modular space station, and results from computer runs of these systems are presented.

  9. Appliance energy efficiency in new home construction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-30

    A survey of 224 builders was conducted to which 160 builders responded. Each respondent completed between one and seven separate questionnaires. Each of the seven questionnaires were designed to collect information about one type of equipment or major appliance. These are: heat pump; heating system; air conditioner; domestic water heater; dishwasher; range; and refrigerator. Analysis of the resulting 406 questionnaires indicated that builders were primarily responsible for brand selection. These choices were made primarily without regard for the energy efficiency of the product. A similar apparent lack of consideration of energy efficiency during brand and model selection was found among home buyers and specialized subcontractors.

  10. Structure of Ba-Ti-Al-O glasses produced by aerodynamic levitation and laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Skinner, Lawrie B.; Barnes, Adrian C.; Klysubun, Wantana; Fischer, Henry E.

    2014-09-01

    Ba0.09Al0.18Ti0.12O0.61 glasses have been produced by aerodynamic levitation and laser heating. Neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, molecular dynamics simulation, and reverse Monte Carlo refinement methods have been used to obtain a detailed atomistic structural model of the glass. This model has been used to investigate its atomic coordination and network structure. It is found that the Al atoms are almost exclusively fourfold tetrahedrally coordinated to oxygen atoms. In contrast, the Ti atoms coordinate to oxygen atoms in approximately equal numbers of four- and fivefold coordinated sites with a small number of sixfold sites. The results show the presence of some tetrahedral TiO4 structural motifs although the dominant O-Ti-O bond angle occurs at 90? . It is found that Al/Ti-O network structure shows strong similarities with other oxide glass forming systems although a first sharp diffraction peak is not observed. The results are used to discuss the unusual properties of the Ba-Al-Ti-O glasses produced under different quenching conditions.

  11. A viable process for producing hydrogen synfuel using nuclear fusion heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, T. R.; Brown, L. C.

    Analytical and costing analyses of a thermochemical water splitting plant powered by a tandem mirror fusion reactor are presented. Design criteria indicated directing high quality steam to the chemical plant, where no liquid metal coolants would be used. Minimal pumping distances for high pressure He, multiple barriers between the neutron-activated blanket and the hydrogen product, and modular construction where possible are necessary. A He-Brayton topping cycle, coupled to a steam-Rankine bottoming cycle are selected. Slightly over 1111 MWt and about 720 MWe could be produced by the plant if all low grade waste heat is directed to the Rankine cycle. SO3 is used with water for the splitting process, then recombined. H2 is siphoned off as a fuel and O2 is delivered to a coal reforming plant. A 30 yr plant life is projected, operating at a 70% thermal efficiency for the splitting process and producing H2 at $10-12/GJ. The plant is expected to become economically viable in the year 2030 if debt financing is available at 12.25% per year.

  12. Heat capacity identification via Mahalanobis Taguchi System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arata Suzuki; Kenji Sugimoto

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a heat capacity identification method for cooking household appliances. In such appliances, a cooking flow is selected according to its cooking object capacity, hence identification of the heat capacity is a very important function. However, a conventional heat capacity identification method has been based on one variable using ldquoif-then rulesrdquo, thereby giving inaccurate results. This paper proposes

  13. Heat Capacity Identification Method Using MT System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arata Suzuki; Kenji Sugimoto

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a heat capacity identification method for cooking household appliances. Cooking household appliances select a cooking flow according to a cooking object capacity, hence the heat capacity identification is a very important function. However, a conventional heat capacity identification method has been based on one variable using ``if-then rules'', hence it gives a low accuracy. This paper proposes

  14. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...entire welded surface of any safety appliance bracket or support...welded portion of the involved safety appliance bracket or support...items as mirrors, magnifying glasses, or other location specific...during the initial or periodic safety appliance inspection...

  15. Appliance remanufacturing and life cycle energy and economic savings

    E-print Network

    Boustani, Avid

    In this paper we evaluate the energy and economic consequences of appliance remanufacturing relative to purchasing new. The appliances presented in this report constitute major residential appliances: refrigerator, dishwasher, ...

  16. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  17. California Appliance Efficiency Database for Consumers

    E-print Network

    /6/2012 A Great Resource to Help You Save Energy--and Money The California Energy Commission's online Appliance: · Wouldyouliketocomparetwodishwasherstofindout which one will save you the most money on your energy bills, based on energy efficiency? You can, meaning that with a little shopping you can win both ways. What do you mean by appliances? The law covers

  18. Trismus appliances and indications for use.

    PubMed

    Lund, T W; Cohen, J I

    1993-04-01

    Trismus is a condition that impairs eating, interferes with oral hygiene, restricts access for dental procedures, and may adversely affect speech and facial appearance. The success of treatment depends on recognition of the cause and initiation of appropriate management. Ideally, trismus appliances are used in conjunction with physical therapy and are most effective when the condition is the result of muscle fibrosis or scar tissue that has not yet matured. Trismus appliances act either externally or internally, and the forces they impart can be continuous or intermittent, light or heavy, and elastic or inelastic. Six appliances have been described in the literature. A seventh appliance, a plastic tapered cylinder, is also effective. The tapered cylinder relies on the patient's depressor muscles to separate the jaws, and allows easy appreciation of the progress made. The stretching force applied with this appliance is limited by the strength of the patient's depressor muscles. PMID:8362040

  19. GRI's Gas Appliance Technology Center annual report, January 1989-January 1990 (Activity at A. G. A. laboratories)

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, C.A.

    1990-09-01

    The report describes specific codes and standards support work involved in developing test procedures for (1) flame rollout safety switches, (2) combination space/water heating appliances, (3) gas logs, (4) appliance connectors, and (5) griddles. Technology development activities included (1) gas grill and gas logs compatible with the SMART House, (2) water purification, (3) eliminating or reducing gas appliance venting requirements. Product development activities included (1) flame coloring technology for gas fireplaces and logs and (2) combination broiler/griddle. Assessment studies evaluated (1) emission requirements for gas-fired cooling equipment and (2) commercial kitchen ventilation.

  20. A clean, efficient system for producing Charcoal, Heat and Power (CHaP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Syred; A. J. Griffiths; N. Syred; D. Beedie; D. James

    2006-01-01

    There is a strong domestic and industrial market for charcoal in the UK and is still used in many developing countries for cooking and heating as well as for many industrial applications. It is usually made in small-scale simple kilns that are very damaging to the environment, very inefficient and labour intensive. The Charcoal, Heat and Power (CHaP) process offers

  1. A Texas Study of the Effects of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987

    E-print Network

    Bachmeier, R.

    1987-01-01

    on the amount of energy which can be consumed by major new household appliances. The efficiency standards mandated by the NAECA will be phased in between 1988 and 1993 and will focus on space heating equipment, air conditioners, water heaters, refrigerators...

  2. Impact of domestic woodburning appliances on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Impact of domestic woodburning appliances on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1 , Jacques Ribéron2 on the impact of domestic woodburning on indoor air quality (IAQ) is poor whereas use of such heating systems on indoor air quality in industrialised countries is rather poor. Even if the International Agency

  3. Energy-Harvesting Thermoelectric Sensing for Unobtrusive Water and Appliance Metering

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabal

    Energy-Harvesting Thermoelectric Sensing for Unobtrusive Water and Appliance Metering Bradford address these common pitfalls for water and heat metering by developing a small, energy-harvesting sensor Keywords Water-Sensing, Energy Metering, Wireless Sensing, Energy-Harvesting Permission to make digital

  4. Effects of heating conditions on the glass transition parameters of amorphous sucrose produced by melt-quenching.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Won; Thomas, Leonard C; Schmidt, Shelly J

    2011-04-13

    This research investigates the effects of heating conditions used to produce amorphous sucrose on its glass transition (T(g)) parameters, because the loss of crystalline structure in sucrose is caused by the kinetic process of thermal decomposition. Amorphous sucrose samples were prepared by heating at three different scan rates (1, 10, and 25 °C/min) using a standard differential scanning calorimetry (SDSC) method and by holding at three different isothermal temperatures (120, 132, and 138 °C) using a quasi-isothermal modulated DSC (MDSC) method. In general, the quasi-isothermal MDSC method (lower temperatures for longer times) exhibited lower T(g) values, larger ?C(p) values, and broader glass transition ranges (i.e., T(g end) minus T(g onset)) than the SDSC method (higher temperatures for shorter times), except at a heating rate of 1 °C/min, which exhibited the lowest T(g) values, the highest ?C(p), and the broadest glass transition range. This research showed that, depending on the heating conditions employed, a different amount and variety of sucrose thermal decomposition components may be formed, giving rise to wide variation in the amorphous sucrose T(g) values. Thus, the variation observed in the literature T(g) values for amorphous sucrose produced by thermal methods is, in part, due to differences in the heating conditions employed. PMID:21381719

  5. Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Industrial Technologies Div.

    1995-08-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

  6. Portable Internet Appliance with Virtual SVGA Display

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Al Hildebrand; David Brooks; Jack Morris; Adam Watkins; Don Porter

    An SVGA resolution, liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) microdisplay was embedded into a highly portable, hand-held appliance for uses such as remote internet and information access. The resulting product was brand-named \\

  7. 2009 CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCE SATURATION STUDY

    E-print Network

    data, household energy consumption data and weather information to calculate average annual in early 2010. The study yielded energy consumption estimates for 27 electric and 10 natural gas analysis, CDA, unit energy consumption, UEC, residential, appliance, saturations, degree day normalization

  8. Structural modifications during heating of bulk nanocrystalline FeAl produced by high-pressure torsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Mangler; C. Gammer; H. P. Karnthaler; C. Rentenberger

    2010-01-01

    The deformation-induced nanostructure developed during high-pressure torsion of B2 long-range ordered FeAl is shown to be unstable upon heating. The structural changes were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and microhardness measurements. Heating up to 220°C leads to the recurrence of the chemical long-range order that is destroyed during deformation. It is shown that the transition to the

  9. State Appliance Standards (released in AEO2009)

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    State appliance standards have existed for decades, starting with Californias enforcement of minimum efficiency requirements for refrigerators and several other products in 1979. In 1987, recognizing that different efficiency standards for the same products in different states could create problems for manufacturers, Congress enacted the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA), which initially covered 12 products. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT92), EPACT2005, and EISA2007 added additional residential and commercial products to the 12 products originally specified under NAECA.

  10. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each. 9 figs.

  11. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hart, George W. (Natick, MA); Kern, Jr., Edward C. (Lincoln, MA); Schweppe, Fred C. (Carlisle, MA)

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each.

  12. Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Birdi, Tannaz J; Brijesh, S; Daswani, Poonam G

    2014-05-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [(3)H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

  13. Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo | University Housing Update to Appliance and Electronic Device Guidelines for Residence Halls

    E-print Network

    Sze, Lawrence

    use. Electrical Cooking Appliances: Microwaves Coffee makers Electric kettles or water heaters Rice. Portable Heating Devices: Space heaters are not allowed in rooms. University Housing will provide space heaters should a heating outage occur. Lighting: Desk lamps with compact fluorescent or LED bulbs Task

  14. Heat transfer enhancement due to a longitudinal vortex produced by a single winglet in a pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Oyakawa, Kenyu; Senaha, Izuru; Ishikawa, Shuji; Hokama, Mashashige

    1999-07-01

    Longitudinal vortices were artificially generated by a single winglet vortex generator in a pipe. The purpose of this study is to analyze the motion of longitudinal vortices and their effects on heat transfer enhancement. The flow pattern was visualized by means of both fluorescein and rhodamine B as traces in a water flow. The main vortex was moved spirally along the circumference and the behavior of the other vortices was observed. Streamwise and circumferential heat transfer coefficients on the wall, wall static pressure, and velocity distribution in an overall cross section were also measured for the air flow in a range of Reynolds numbers from 18,800 to 62,400. The distributions of the streamwise heat transfer coefficient had a periodic pattern, and the peaks in the distribution were circumferentially moved due to the spiral motion of the main vortex. Lastly, the relationships between the iso-velocity distribution, wall static pressure, and heat transfer characteristics was shown. In the process of forming the vortex behind the winglet vortex generator, behaviors of both the main vortex and the corner vortex were observed as streak lines. The vortex being raised along the end of the winglet, and the vortex ring being rolled up to the main vortex were newly observed. Both patterns of the streamwise velocity on a cross-section and the static pressure on the wall show good correspondences to phenomena of the main vortex spirally flowing downstream. The increased ratio of the heat transfer is similar to that of the friction factor based on the shear stress on the wall surface of the pipe. The quantitative analogy between the heat transfer and the shear stress is confirmed except for some regions, where the effects of the down-wash or blow-away of the secondary flows is caused due to the main vortex.

  15. Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-Lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1986-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  16. Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Meek, T.T.

    1984-10-10

    A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

  17. Heat-Induced Transfer of Protons from Chitosan to Glycerol Phosphate Produces Chitosan Precipitation and Gelation

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    Precipitation and Gelation Marc Lavertu, Dominic Filion, and Michael D. Buschmann* Institute of Biomedical of gelation in chitosan-GP systems whereby heat induces transfer of protons from chitosan to glycerol in these dilute systems as a surrogate for gelation in concentrated systems. Measured temperatures

  18. On the heat flux and entropy produced by thermal fluctuations S. Ciliberto1

    E-print Network

    variance and a conservation law for the fluctuating entropy, which we justify theoretically. The system, the heat flux, the out-of- equilibrium variance and a conservation law for the fluctuating entropy, which is ruled by the same equations of two Brownian particles kept at different temperatures and coupled

  19. Single Chain Variable Fragments Produced in Escherichia coli against Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Fernanda B.; Nepomuceno, Roberto; Silva, Anderson; Munhoz, Danielle D.; Yamamoto, Bruno B.; Luz, Daniela; Abreu, Patrícia A. E.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Elias, Waldir P.; Ramos, Oscar H. P.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is a prevalent pathological condition frequently associated to the colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, known to be endemic in developing countries. These strains can produce two enterotoxins associated with the manifestation of clinical symptoms that can be used to detect these pathogens. Although several detection tests have been developed, minimally equipped laboratories are still in need of simple and cost-effective methods. With the aim to contribute to the development of such diagnostic approaches, we describe here two mouse hybridoma-derived single chain fragment variable (scFv) that were produced in E. coli against enterotoxins of ETEC strains. Methods and Findings Recombinant scFv were developed against ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (ST), from previously isolated hybridoma clones. This work reports their design, construction, molecular and functional characterization against LT and ST toxins. Both antibody fragments were able to recognize the cell-interacting toxins by immunofluorescence, the purified toxins by ELISA and also LT-, ST- and LT/ST-producing ETEC strains. Conclusion The developed recombinant scFvs against LT and ST constitute promising starting point for simple and cost-effective ETEC diagnosis. PMID:26154103

  20. Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Underdense Plasma for Efficient X-Ray Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, M; Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S; Nagai, K; Iwamae, A; Ohnishi, N; Fournier, K B; Girard, F; Primout, M; Villette, B; Tobin, M; Mima, K

    2008-06-12

    We have observed supersonic heat wave propagation in a low-density aerogel target ({rho} {approx} 3.2 mg/cc) irradiated at the intensity of 4 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The heat wave propagation was measured with a time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics, and the results were compared with simulations made with the two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic code, RAICHO. Propagation velocity of the ionization front gradually decreased as the wave propagates into the target. The reason of decrease is due to increase of laser absorption region as the front propagates and interplay of hydrodynamic motion and reflection of laser propagation. These features are well reported with the simulation.

  1. Structural modifications during heating of bulk nanocrystalline FeAl produced by high-pressure torsion

    PubMed Central

    Mangler, C.; Gammer, C.; Karnthaler, H.P.; Rentenberger, C.

    2010-01-01

    The deformation-induced nanostructure developed during high-pressure torsion of B2 long-range ordered FeAl is shown to be unstable upon heating. The structural changes were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and microhardness measurements. Heating up to 220 °C leads to the recurrence of the chemical long-range order that is destroyed during deformation. It is shown that the transition to the long-range-ordered phase evolves in the form of small ordered domains homogeneously distributed inside the nanosized grains. At temperatures between 220 and 370 °C recovery of dislocations and antiphase boundary faults cause a reduction in the grain size from 77 to 35 nm. Grain growth occurs at temperatures above 370 °C. The evolution of the strength monitored by microhardness is discussed in the framework of grain-size hardening and hardening by defect recovery. PMID:20953414

  2. EyePliances and EyeReason: Using Attention to Drive Interactions with Ubiquitous Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Shell; Roel Vertegaal; Aadil Mamuji; Thanh Pham; Changuk Sohn; Alexander W. Skaburskis

    We present three prototype appliances that detect and respond to human attention. The Attentive Television pauses its feed when nobody is watching, and resumes playback when it receives eye contact; AuraLamp 'listens' and reacts to voice commands only if a person is looking at it; EyeProxy notifies its user of an incoming call by making eye contact, instead of producing

  3. Merchant Shipping: The Merchant Shipping (Fire Appliances) Rules, 1952 

    E-print Network

    Jenkins, Gilmour

    1952-01-01

    These Rules arrange ships into classes, the classification being uniform with that in the Merchant Shipping (Life-Saving Appliances) Rules, 1952 (S.I. 1952/1949). The Rules provide for the fire appliances to be carried in ...

  4. Open Service Platform Providing Services for Home Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiro Ishihara; Naoki Matsuoka

    2007-01-01

    New network services targeting home appliances (e.g. TV, DVR, network camera and sensors) are attracting great attentions. However, these services are provided by appliance vendors for their own appliances. An open platform on which third-parties can provide services to any home appliances is not yet available. We propose an open service platform where a home gateway and center-located servers cooperate.

  5. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  6. Energy conservation opportunities in appliances using energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. T. Lawrence; E. P. Demetri; D. W. Lee

    1978-01-01

    Fuel-fired appliances, electric appliances, and utility load leveling by energy storage on the customer's side of the meter were considered. For each of the appliances treated, various energy storage techniques were evaluated by estimating the energy savings and the cost of the required storage system. An estimate of the commercial feasibility of each system was made based on the years

  7. Appliance Product Flow for the Mercosur Region 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Lind; Sachu Constantine

    As part of an on-going program to spur the design and improve the effectiveness of national appliance labeling and standards programs, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), has begun a global data collection initiative. The first phase of the effort is investigating appliance, lighting and equipment export-import patterns hereafter referred to as product flows, for the six Mercosur

  8. Isochoric heating of reduced mass targets by ultra-intense laser produced relativistic electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, P; Lee, H J; Offerman, D; Shipton, E; Kemp, A; Kritcher, A L; Doppner, T; Back, C A; Glenzer, S H

    2009-02-04

    We present measurements of the chlorine K-alpha emission from reduced mass targets, irradiated with ultra-high intensity laser pulses. Chlorinated plastic targets with diameters down to 50 micrometers and mass of a few 10{sup -8} g were irradiated with up to 7 J of laser energy focused to intensities of several 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The conversion of laser energy to K-alpha radiation is measured, as well as high resolution spectra that allow observation of line shifts, indicating isochoric heating of the target up to 18 eV. A zero-dimensional 2-temperature equilibration model, combined with electron impact K-shell ionization and post processed spectra from collisional radiative calculations reproduces the observed K-alpha yields and line shifts, and shows the importance of target expansion due to the hot electron pressure.

  9. Transient liquid-crystal technique used to produce high-resolution convective heat-transfer-coefficient maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

    1993-08-01

    In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated for the color isothermal pattern produced. Although the test was run transiently, the heat transfer coefficients are for the steady-state case. The upstream thermal boundary condition was considered to be isothermal. This transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique was used in a transient air tunnel in which a square-inlet, 3-to-1 exit transition duct was placed. The duct was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. The resulting isothermal contours on the duct surfaces were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. The duct surfaces were uniformly heated using two heating systems: the first was an automatic temperature-controlled heater blanket completely surrounding the test duct like an oven, and the second was an internal hot-air loop through the inside of the test duct. The hot-air loop path was confined inside the test duct by insulated heat dams located at the inlet and exit ends of the test duct. A recirculating fan moved hot air into the duct inlet, through the duct, out of the duct exit, through the oven, and back to the duct inlet. The temperature nonuniformity of the test duct model wall was held very small. Test results are reported for two inlet Reynolds numbers of 200,000 and 1,150,000 (based on the square-inlet hydraulic diameter) and two free-stream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 20 percent (using a grid), which is typical of real engine conditions.

  10. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930° C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380° C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  11. Producibility of fibrous refractory composite insulation, FRCI 40-20. [for reusable heat shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, E. L.; Johnson, C. W.; Graese, R. W.; Campbell, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (FRCI) is a NASA-developed, second generation, reusable heat-shield material that comprises a mixture of aluminoborosilicate fibers, silica fibers, and silicon carbide. Under NASA contract, a program was conducted to demonstrate the capability for manufacturing FRCI 40-20 billets. A detailed fabrication procedure was written and validated by testing specimens from the first two billets. The material conformed to NASA requirements for density, tensile strength, modulus of rupture, thermal expansion, cristobalite content, and uniformity. Twenty-four billets were prepared to provide 20 deliverable articles. Production billets were checked for density, modulus of rupture, cristobalite content, and uniformity. Billet density ranged from 309.48 to 332.22 kg/cu m (19.32 to 20.74 lb/cu ft) and modulus of rupture from 4690 to 10,140 kPa (680 to 1470 psi). Cristobalite content was less than 1 percent. A Weibull analysis of modulus-of-rupture data indicated a 1.5 percent probability for failure below the specified strength of 4480 kPa (650 psi).

  12. Form ElectApp13 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

    E-print Network

    Applebaum, David

    Form ElectApp13 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES In accordance with the Agreement Terms and Conditions clause 2.10 Safety and security each resident must complete the reverse of this form, sign, date and return to the Residence. Permission to bring personal electrical items will not be unreasonably withheld

  13. Form ElectApp12 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

    E-print Network

    Applebaum, David

    Form ElectApp12 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES In accordance with Residence Regulation 15.2 (see Section Two. Permission to bring personal electrical items will not be unreasonably withheld, but will not be granted · amplifiers · electrical heaters · cooking equipment such as deep fat fryers. (Please note that permitted

  14. Remote control of smart appliances using MPEI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pourya Shamsi; Babak Fahimi

    2011-01-01

    Home automation systems have been utilized for smart homes. In this work, a home automation system based on multi-port power electronic interface is proposed. This system is potentially capable of power management as well as home automation. Remote power management of smart appliances is performed using ZigBee network. A case study is presented to show effectiveness of this system. I.

  15. Controlling Home and Office Appliances with Smartphones

    E-print Network

    Myers, Brad A.

    Media Player on a desktop. In late 2002, NEC introduced a mobile phone in Japan that contains an , mobile devices, Palm Pilots, PocketPC, remote controls, appliances, Pebbles, Personal Universal-enabled smart phone, and RuttenSoft's Media Remote [RuttenSoft 2005] allows a phone to remotely control Windows

  16. Advances in household appliances- A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep K Bansal; Edward Allan Vineyard; Omar Abdelaziz

    2011-01-01

    An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S.

  17. Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii by heat labile bacteriocins produced by probiotic LAB isolated from healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Awaisheh, Saddam S; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Ibrahim, Salam; Holley, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause bacteremia, meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most often in neonates with case-fatality rates that may reach 80%. The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against a wide range of foodborne pathogens is well-established in different types of food products. The objective of the current study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei isolated from feces of healthy infants against different strains of C. sakazakii in agar and a rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF) model. The inhibition zones of C. sakazakii around L. acidophilus or L. casei ranged from 22 to 32 mm on eMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar under aerobic conditions, while a slight reduction in antibacterial activity was noted on modified MRS (0.2% glucose) under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that pH-neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of L. acidophilus or L. casei was inhibitory against tested C. sakazakii strains. The inhibition zones of neutralized CFS were lower than the antibacterial activities of live cultures. The antibacterial activity of CFS was abolished when CFS from L. acidophilus or L. casei was heated at 60 or 80 °C for either 10 min or 2 h, or treated with trypsin or pepsin. This was considered strong evidence that the inhibition was due to the production of bacteriocins by L. casei and L. acidophilus. Both the CFS and active growing cells of L. casei and L. acidophilus were able to reduce the viability of C. sakazakii in the RIMF model. The results may extend the use of natural antimicrobials instead of conventional preservation methods to improve the safety of RIMF. PMID:23924352

  18. Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Pasko, V.P.; Inan, U.S.; Bell, T.F. [STAR Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)] [STAR Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Taranenko, Y.N. [XCM, Computational Science Methods, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)] [XCM, Computational Science Methods, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electron heating (up to {approximately}5eV average energy), ionization of neutrals, and excitation of optical emissions in the mesosphere/lower ionosphere. Model calculations predict the possibility of significant (several orders of magnitude) modification of the lower ionospheric conductivity in the form of depletions of electron density due to dissociative attachment to O{sub 2} molecules and/or in the form of enhancements of electron density due to breakdown ionization. Results indicate that the optical emission intensities of the 1st positive band of N{sub 2} corresponding to fast ({approximately}1ms) removal of 100{endash}300 C of thundercloud charge from 10 km altitude are in good agreement with observations of the upper part ({open_quotes}head{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}hair{close_quotes} [{ital Sentman} {ital et al.}, 1995]) of the sprites. The typical region of brightest optical emission has horizontal and vertical dimensions {approximately}10km, centered at altitudes 70 km and is interpreted as the head of the sprite. The model also shows the formation of low intensity glow ({open_quotes}hair{close_quotes}) above this region due to the excitation of optical emissions at altitudes {approximately}85km during {approximately}500{mu}s at the initial stage of the lightning discharge. Comparison of the optical emission intensities of the 1st and 2nd positive bands of N{sub 2}, Meinel and 1st negative bands of N{sub 2}{sup +}, and 1st negative band of O{sub 2}{sup +} demonstrates that the 1st positive band of N{sub 2} is the dominating optical emission in the altitude range around {approximately}70km, which accounts for the observed red color of sprites, in excellent agreement with recent spectroscopic observations of sprites. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. The validation of an orthodontic expert system rule-base for fixed appliance treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Stephens, C; Mackin, N

    1998-10-01

    A peer review clinical trial was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of the advice produced by an expert system designed to plan orthodontic treatment in which the pre-adjusted bracket appliance was to be used. The results showed that the expert system's treatment plans were as reliable as those produced by a group of orthodontists. Two members of the panel actually ranked the expert system's plans more highly than their own. PMID:9825559

  20. Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.; Taranenko, Y. N.

    1997-03-01

    Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electron heating (up to ~5eV average energy), ionization of neutrals, and excitation of optical emissions in the mesosphere/lower ionosphere. Model calculations predict the possibility of significant (several orders of magnitude) modification of the lower ionospheric conductivity in the form of depletions of electron density due to dissociative attachment to O2 molecules and/or in the form of enhancements of electron density due to breakdown ionization. Results indicate that the optical emission intensities of the 1st positive band of N2 corresponding to fast (~1ms) removal of 100-300 C of thundercloud charge from 10 km altitude are in good agreement with observations of the upper part (``head'' and ``hair'' [Sentman et al., 1995]) of the sprites. The typical region of brightest optical emission has horizontal and vertical dimensions ~10km, centered at altitudes 70 km and is interpreted as the head of the sprite. The model also shows the formation of low intensity glow (``hair'') above this region due to the excitation of optical emissions at altitudes ~85km during ~500?s at the initial stage of the lightning discharge. Comparison of the optical emission intensities of the 1st and 2nd positive bands of N2, Meinel and 1st negative bands of N2+, and 1st negative band of O2+ demonstrates that the 1st positive band of N2 is the dominating optical emission in the altitude range around ~70km, which accounts for the observed red color of sprites, in excellent agreement with recent spectroscopic observations of sprites. Results indicate that the optical emission levels are predominantly defined by the lightning discharge duration and the conductivity properties of the atmosphere/lower ionosphere (i.e., relaxation time of electric field in the conducting medium). The model demonstrates that for low ambient conductivities the lightning discharge duration can be significantly extended with no loss in production of optical emissions. The peak intensity of optical emissions is determined primarily by the value of the removed thundercloud charge and its altitude. The preexisting inhomogeneities in the mesospheric conductivity and the neutral density may contribute to the formation of a vertically striated fine structure of sprites and explain why sprites often repeatedly occur in the same place in the sky as well as their clustering. Comparison of the model results for different types of lightning discharges indicates that positive cloud to ground discharges lead to the largest electric fields and optical emissions at ionospheric altitudes since they are associated with the removal of larger amounts of charge from higher altitudes.

  1. Characterization of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powders produced by water atomization and powder heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Tongsri, Ruangdaj, E-mail: ruangdt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Yotkaew, Thanyaporn, E-mail: thanyy@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Krataitong, Rungtip, E-mail: rungtipk@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Wila, Pongsak, E-mail: pongsakw@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Sir-on, Autcharaporn, E-mail: autchars@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Muthitamongkol, Pennapa, E-mail: pennapm@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Tosangthum, Nattaya, E-mail: nattayt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    Since the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic shows its importance in industrial applications, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic-containing powders, produced by a powder processing route with a high production rate, were characterized. The route consisted of water atomization of an alloy melt (Cu–61 wt.% Sn) and subsequent heat treatment of the water-atomized powders. Characterization of the water-atomized powders and their heated forms was conducted by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Fine water-atomized powder microstructures consisted of primary hexagonal ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites coexisting with interdendritic ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic. Solidification of fine melt droplets was governed by surface nucleation and growth of the primary hexagonal ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites followed by ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid. In coarse melt droplets, nucleation and growth of primary ?-Cu{sub 3}Sn dendrites were followed by peritectic reaction (?-Cu{sub 3}Sn + liquid ? ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5}) or direct crystallization of ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} phase from the undercooled melt. Finally, the ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid occurred. Heating of the water-atomized powders at different temperatures resulted in microstructural homogenization. The water-atomized powders with mixed phases were transformed to powders with single monoclinic ?-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase. - Highlights: • The Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powder production route was proposed. • Single phase Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} powders could be by water atomization and heating. • Water-atomized Cu–Sn powders contained mixed Cu–Sn phases. • Solidification and heat treatment of water-atomized Cu–Sn powders are explained.

  2. Numerical modeling of radiation physics in kinetic plasmas [IV] - Isochoric heating by intense X-ray laser-produced photoelectrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royle, Ryan; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2014-10-01

    An intense, hard X-ray laser such as an XFEL is an attractive light source since it can directly heat solid matter isochorically to a temperature of millions of degrees on a time scale of a few tens of femtoseconds, which is much shorter than the plasma expansion time scale. The X-ray laser interaction with carbon, aluminum, silicon, and copper is studied with a particle-in-cell code that solves the photoionization and X-ray transport self-consistently. Photoionization is the dominant absorption mechanism and non-thermal photoelectrons are produced with energy near the X-ray photon energy. The photoelectrons' stopping range is a few microns and they are quickly thermalized in tens of femtoseconds. As a result, a hot plasma column is formed behind the laser pulse with a temperature of more than 100,000 kelvin (>10 eV) and energy density greater than 1011 J/m3. The heating depth and temperature depend on the material and are also controllable by changing the photon energy of the incident laser light.

  3. Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-04

    According to The Hydronics Institute, the surge in gas-fired boiler shipments brought about 3 years ago by high oil prices and the availability of natural gas after years of curtailment has almost competely subsided. Gas prices continue to escalate and the threat of decontrol by 1985 continues. Likewise, the Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association reports that shipments of gas-fired unit heaters, duct furnaces, and wall furnaces have also dropped as homeowners adopt a wait-and-see attitude toward conversion. However, the market for high- and ultra-high-efficiency furnaces appears to hold potential for expansion. Because of the rebounding home market, a steady replacement market, and increased sales for reasons of efficiency, GAMA expects the total (gas, oil, and electric) central furnace market to increase by 16% in 1983.

  4. 1997 RECS data on consumer usage of appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Latta, R.B.

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) conducted by the Energy Information Administration contained questions on how households use various appliances. This includes the following appliance usage (1) personnel computers, (2) cooking appliances, (3) conventional ovens, (4) microwave ovens, (5) clothes washers, and (6) clothes dryer. Many of these items were first collected in the 1997 RECS. In this paper, appliance usage by household demographic characteristics (household income, age of householder, and number of household members) are examined with an emphasis on results for data items that were first collected in the 1997 RECS.

  5. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance. 160...EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance....

  6. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance. 160...EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance....

  7. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance. 160...EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance....

  8. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance. 160...EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance....

  9. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance. 160...EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance....

  10. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For...

  11. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For...

  12. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For...

  13. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For...

  14. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For...

  15. Contactless Sensing of Appliance State Transitions Through Variations in Electromagnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Rowe, Anthony

    Contactless Sensing of Appliance State Transitions Through Variations in Electromagnetic Fields transitions. In this paper, we present an inexpensive contactless electromagnetic field (EMF) event voltage and/or current transients generated when appliances change their state and identify the appliance

  16. 42 CFR 410.36 - Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. 410...Services § 410.36 Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. (a...for the following medical supplies, appliances and devices: (1)...

  17. 42 CFR 410.36 - Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. 410...Services § 410.36 Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. (a...for the following medical supplies, appliances and devices: (1)...

  18. 42 CFR 410.36 - Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. 410...Services § 410.36 Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. (a...for the following medical supplies, appliances and devices: (1)...

  19. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards...appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars, locomotives...appliance standard for new construction. A petition for special...alternative to for new car construction; (ii)...

  20. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards...appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars, locomotives...appliance standard for new construction. A petition for special...alternative to for new car construction; (ii)...

  1. 77 FR 61385 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...Administration [A-570-941] Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks...antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks...other refrigerating or freezing equipment, cooking stoves, ranges...description, available in Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and...

  2. Therapeutic effects of functional orthodontic appliances on cervical spine posture: a retrospective cephalometric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Interactions between the cervical spine and the stomatognathic system have been discussed in literature. The present study was conducted to investigate whether, and to what extent, orthodontically induced mandibular advancement produces changes in cervical spine posture. Furthermore, possible appliance-specific effects should be distinguished. Material and methods The cephalograms of 64 patients with skeletal class II were analysed before and after mandibular advancement. Linear and angular cephalometric parameters were identified to define the position of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. The total example was divided into two subgroups (comprising 32 individuals each) according to the employed appliance: activator versus bite-jump appliance (BJA). Student's t-test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis. Results Overall, a significant straightening of the cervical spine was observed during the treatment. This conclusion is based on changes of Chamberlain (p?=?0.0055), CVT (p?=?0.0003), OPT (p?Appliance-specific changes were found in the activator subgroup for a number of linear parameters (Chamberlain, McGregor, CVT, OPT, Redlund-Johnell/Petersson). In contrast, only two linear parameters (OPT and Powers ratio) revealed statistically significant changes in the BJA subgroup. Conclusions During skeletal class II treatment the position of upper cervical spine changes. In the activator subgroup the observed effects were more pronounced than those in the BJA subgroup. Further studies including a control group comprised with non-treated class II patients are needed to assess whether these effects may be caused directly by the appliances irrespective of growth. PMID:24661951

  3. Greens, suits, and bureaucrats: A sociological study of dynamic organizational relationships in energy efficient appliance policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwom-Evelich, Rachael Leah

    In this dissertation I develop an approach to understanding dynamic organizational relations and the processes of environmental degradation and reform. To do this, I draw on environmental and organizational sociology to inform an empirical study of interorganizational relationships in defining and promoting energy efficient appliances in the United States (US). The dissertation follows a three paper approach which involves (a) an overall introduction to the substantive issue of appliance energy efficiency in the US; (b) producing three separate and stand alone articles of publishable quality to be submitted to professional journals; and (c) an overall conclusion. The three articles are as follows: (1) a synthetic literature review identifying five lessons that organizational sociology and environmental sociology can learn from each other to advance our sociological understanding of organizations, energy issues, and climate change (2) a qualitative case study of the changing relationships between business, government and environmental and energy advocacy organizations around mandatory appliance efficiency standards supporting the development of a context-dependent theory of ecological modernization and treadmill of production theories in environmental sociology and (3) a network analysis of public government, business and energy efficiency advocate's interorganizational relationships and its influence on subsequent organizational behaviors in the appliance energy efficiency field. The second and third articles are based on extensive archival research on organizational negotiations of public record over defining energy efficient appliances in both regulatory and voluntary settings. Finally I will provide an overall conclusion that brings together the most significant findings of each individual article in anticipation of a synthetic approach to the study of organizations in environmental reform.

  4. Carbon monoxide safety systems for gas appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, M.K.; Anderson, T.G.; Palmer, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the development of a self-powered carbon monoxide safety control system for application to gas appliances is reported. A comparison of the various possible technologies is made, and the relative strengths and weaknesses of each are discussed. Results of an experimental study of a chemioptical sensor, describing its CO sensitivity, dose response time, reusibility, and dependence on temperature and humidity are presented. The effects of four interfering gasses, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, acrolein, and formic acid, are also included. Details are shown for a safety control system now undergoing field tests in gas room heaters.

  5. Networked smart home appliances - enabling real ubiquitous culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kango; P. R. Moore; J. Pu

    2002-01-01

    What are 'networked smart home appliances'? What is a 'ubiquitous culture'? With the rapid advancement in technology and the Internet, the consumer can appreciate the usefulness of connectivity. As connectivity becomes more pervasive the consumer will come to expect even home appliances to be connected to a network within the home. The present TV or PC-centric networks are anticipated to

  6. Towards Security Auto-Configuration for Smart Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Seigneur; Christian Damsgaard Jensen; Stephen Farrell; Elizabeth Gray; Yong Chen

    2003-01-01

    Now that smart home appliances are easily plugged into smart home networks, the question of how to simplify security management, especially of access rights, for such appliances arises. The problem is aggravated by the fact that home users cannot be considered as \\

  7. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5...Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all valves, including cross connecting...

  8. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER...duration, these appliances shall be operated before the vessel leaves port. (b) The date of the test and the condition of...

  9. Introducing a digital library reading appliance into a reading group

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Cathy

    Introducing a digital library reading appliance into a reading group Catherine C. Marshall, Morgan will we read digital library materials? This paper describes the reading practices of an on-going reading group, and how these practices changed when we introduced XLibris, a digital library reading appliance

  10. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting

    E-print Network

    1 Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems V.H. Rapp, B.C. Singer., Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems. LBNL-5798E 3 ABSTRACT In many performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing

  11. Recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hsu; C.-M. Kuo

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a calculation of recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan, for the EPA to amend these rates in order to increase the recycling efficiency. The recycling rate is calculated by a formula according to the statistical results obtained through: (1) an estimation of domestic use of home appliances using time series

  12. Effect of ?-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Y. Z.; Cheng, J. L.; Ren, M.; Yin, L.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05) by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed hens. PMID:26104406

  13. Effect of ?-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y Z; Cheng, J L; Ren, M; Yin, L; Piao, X S

    2015-07-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05) by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed hens. PMID:26104406

  14. Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances

    DOEpatents

    Cliff, P.L. Jr.

    1996-07-09

    A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The device comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a hinged cover plate attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate, the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position. 15 figs.

  15. Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances

    DOEpatents

    Cliff, Jr., Paul L. (Bloomingdale, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The devise comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a cover plate hingedly attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate and the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position.

  16. Load Component Database of Household Appliances and Small Office Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu; Puyleart, Francis; Yang, Steve

    2008-07-24

    This paper discusses the development of a load component database for household appliances and office equipment. To develop more accurate load models at both transmission and distribution level, a better understanding on the individual behaviors of home appliances and office equipment under power system voltage and frequency variations becomes more and more critical. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has begun a series of voltage and frequency tests against home appliances and office equipments since 2005. Since 2006, Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has collaborated with BPA personnel and developed a load component database based on these appliance testing results to facilitate the load model validation work for the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In this paper, the testing procedure and testing results are first presented. The load model parameters are then derived and grouped. Recommendations are given for aggregating the individual appliance models to feeder level, the models of which are used for distribution and transmission level studies.

  17. Quantification of lifetime accumulated ELF-EMF exposure from household appliances in the context of a retrospective epidemiological case-control study.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Thomas; Terschüren, Claudia; Kaune, William T; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2004-03-01

    In Europe household appliances are a major source of indoor 50 Hz magnetic field exposure. A number of epidemiological studies have reported associations between leukemia risk and personal use of household appliances. In the "Norddeutsche Leukämie und Lymphomstudie" (NLL), which was conducted in Northern Germany (Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony) between 1997 and 2001, lifetime use of a preselected array of electric appliances (microwave ovens, hair-dryers, motorized electrical alarm clocks (i.e. that use a motor to move their hands or digits), electric blankets and pillows, heated waterbeds, computers with conventional screens, TVs, and electric sewing machines) was recorded in a standardized, personal, computerized interview. Exposure was assessed on three different levels of precision: ever use, cumulative appliance-years, and average time of daily use. Additional questions referred to exposure modifying factors, including distance from screen while watching TV, position of an alarm clock at the bed etc.). Exposure to ELF-EMF from household appliances was quantified as ever vs. never use, gross and net appliance-years of lifetime use and cumulative microT-hours. Flux densities were based on measurements of appliances from the published literature. These were used as weighting factors to account for the different device-specific contributions to overall ELF-EMF exposure. Resulting distributions (as quartiles) for exposure scores revealed systematic differences for different levels of precision. Our analysis indicates that valid assessment of ELF-EMF exposure from household appliances should be based on the highest possible degree of precision and hence provides a considerable challenge in analytic epidemiology. PMID:15014545

  18. Advances in Household Appliances- A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S. market. The significance and usefulness of each technology was evaluated in order to prioritize the R&D needs to improve energy efficiency of appliances in view of energy savings, cost, and complexity. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Although significant energy savings may be achieved, one of the major barriers in most cases is high first cost. One way of addressing this issue and promoting the introduction of new technologies is to level the playing field for all manufacturers by establishing Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) which are not cost prohibitive and promoting energy efficient products through incentives to both manufacturers and consumers.

  19. The occlusal appliance effect on myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Villalón, Pablo; Arzola, Juan Francisco; Valdivia, José; Fresno, María Javiera; Santander, Hugo; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    There are limited studies about the effects of occlusal appliance (OA) after three months of use. This study aimed to compare myofascial pain (MP) according to RDC/TMD, craniocervical relationships (CR) and masseter and temporalis bilateral electromyographic (EMG) activity, before and after three months of occlusal appliance use. Nineteen patients participated in this study. Cephalometric and RDC/TMD diagnostics were performed previously (baseline) and at the end of the study period (three months). EMG recordings at clinical mandibular rest position (MRP), during swallowing of saliva (SW) and during maximum voluntary clenching (MVC) were performed as follows: after one hour of use of an OA; after three months of using the OA for a minimum of 16 hours each day; and immediately after removal from the mouth. MP was relieved in all patients at the end of the study period. CR did not change significantly between baseline and after removal of the OA at the end of the study period. EMG activity during MRP, SW, and MVC decreased in both muscles after one hour using the OA and maintained the same level for the three-month period. When comparing baseline versus final EMG activity without OA, a significant decrease was only observed in the masseter muscle. The results observed in the present study are relevant to clinicians because they imply that the therapeutic effect of OA does not significantly affect the homeostasis of the craniocervical system. PMID:23795397

  20. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  1. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

  2. Energy-conservation opportunities in appliances using energy storage. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. T. Lawrence; E. P. Demetri; W. D. Lee

    1978-01-01

    During this program, the use of energy storage in conventional appliances to save energy was evaluated. Fuel-fired appliances, electric appliances, and utility load leveling by energy storage on the customer's side of the meter were considered. For each of the appliances treated, various energy-storage techniques were evaluated by estimating the energy savings and the cost of the required storage system.

  3. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel 316L Coatings Produced by Cold Spray for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Mangour, Bandar; Vo, Phuong; Mongrain, Rosaire; Irissou, Eric; Yue, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cold sprayed stainless steel 316L coatings using N2 and He as propellant gases were investigated. Powder and coating characterizations, including coating microhardness, coating porosity, and XRD phase analysis were performed. It was found that heat treatment reduced porosity, improved inter-particle bonding, and increased ductility. XRD results confirmed that no phase transformation occurred during deposition. Significant increase in UTS and ductility was observed for the annealed specimens obtained with nitrogen propellant, whereas little changes were observed for the helium propellant produced specimen.

  4. The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    E-print Network

    Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    " and next at proper home insulation, window coverings, etc. The other electrical appliances in the home use relatively minor amounts of electricity compared to the air conditioning and hot water heating system. This paper will describe the geothermal heat...

  5. Heat Capacity Identification Method Using MT System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Arata; Sugimoto, Kenji

    This paper proposes a heat capacity identification method for cooking household appliances. Cooking household appliances select a cooking flow according to a cooking object capacity, hence the heat capacity identification is a very important function. However, a conventional heat capacity identification method has been based on one variable using “if-then rules”, hence it gives a low accuracy. This paper proposes a new heat capacity identification method that uses Mahalanobis-Taguchi System which is similar to discriminant analysis, and the effectiveness of this method is confirmed by the experiment.

  6. Cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Grimsdottir, M R; Hensten-Pettersen, A

    1993-08-01

    The cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of orthodontic appliances were assessed. Metallic devices used in orthodontics, such as molar bands, brackets, and archwires were tested by the agar overlay cytotoxicity test with mouse fibroblast cells. The same devices were tested for antibacterial effect with Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguis. The multicomponent devices, which are bonded with silver- and copper-based brazing alloys, were more cytotoxic than the single-component devices, probably because copper is more cytotoxic than nickel. The devices had a definite, but low, antibacterial effect, as compared with the 0.05% chlorhexidine positive control. A cytotoxic effect of the devices per se might contribute to a localized gingivitis. It is uncertain whether orthodontic devices have any significant inhibitory effect on dental plaque viability. PMID:8362202

  7. Educational electrical appliance power meter and logger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2013-09-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power device such as an electric kettle. Typical power-versus-time profiles are shown for a kettle, a dishwasher and a fridge-freezer. The components are cheap and the cost may be recouped many times over from the resultant energy saving. Custom software will be made available free of charge to anyone who requests it. It is hoped that students attending poorly resourced schools will be able to make power loggers for educational use.

  8. Using Computer Vision to Access Appliance Displays

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Ladner, Richard E.; Coughlan, James M.

    2014-01-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties accessing a growing array of everyday appliances, needed to perform a variety of daily activities, because they are equipped with electronic displays. We are developing a “Display Reader” smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display, to address this problem. The current prototype analyzes video from the smartphone’s camera, providing real-time feedback to guide the user until a satisfactory image is acquired, based on automatic estimates of image blur and glare. Formative studies were conducted with several blind and visually impaired participants, whose feedback is guiding the development of the user interface. The prototype software has been released as a Free and Open Source (FOSS) project. PMID:25531011

  9. Follow-up problems with fixed appliances in pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Ari, Timucin

    2015-03-01

    Fixed appliances are commonly used in managing early orthodontic problems. Despite their widespread use, they have the potential to impinge on the soft tissues, interfere with the eruption of adjacent teeth and become dislodged or broken. These two case reports present the poor outcomes of fixed appliance treatments if the patient fails to attend follow-up appointments. A successful outcome of treatment with fixed appliances depends upon proper patient selection and the communication skills of the dentist to help patients/parents understand the importance of regular checkups. PMID:25928968

  10. Large deformation analysis of orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Lipsett, A W; Faulkner, M G; el-Rayes, K

    1990-02-01

    The deformations of orthodontic appliances used for space closure are large so that any mathematical analysis will require a nonlinear approach. Existing incremental finite element and finite difference numerical methods suffer from excessive computational effort when analyzing these problems. An accurate segmental technique is proposed to handle these difficulties in an extremely efficient fashion. The segmental technique starts by assuming that an orthodontic appliance is composed of a number of smaller segments, the ends of which undergo small relative rotation. With an appropriate choice of local coordinate system the equilibrium equations for each segment are linearized and solved in a straightforward manner. The segments are then assembled using geometric and force compatibility relations similar to the transfer matrix method. Consequently, the original nonlinear boundary value problem is solved as a sequence of linear initial value problems which converge to the required boundary conditions. As only one segment need be considered at a time, the computations can be performed accurately and efficiently on a PC type computer. Although an iterative solution is used to match the boundary conditions, the time required to solve a given problem ranges from a few seconds to a couple of minutes depending on the initial geometric complexity. The accuracy of the segmental technique is verified by comparison with an exact solution for an initially curved cantilever beam with an end load. In addition, comparisons are made with existing experimental and numerical results as well as with a new set of experimental data. In all cases the segmental technique is in excellent agreement with the results of these other studies. PMID:2308301

  11. A functional antigen in a practical crop: LT-B producing maize protects mice against Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason

    2002-01-01

    We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

  12. A Functional Antigen in a Practical Crop: LT-B Producing Maize Protects Mice against Escherichia coli Heat Labile Enterotoxin (LT) and Cholera Toxin (CT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Chikwamba; Joan Cunnick; Diane Hathaway; Jennifer McMurray; Hugh Mason; Kan Wang

    2002-01-01

    We have produced a functional heat labile enterotoxin (LT-) B subunit of Escherichia coli in maize. LT-B is a multimeric protein that presents an ideal model for an edible vaccine, displaying stability in the gut and inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. Transgenic maize was engineered to synthesize the LT-B polypeptides, which assembled into oligomeric structures with affinity for GM1

  13. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...cross connecting valves where fitted, and other appliances such as port lights, closing mechanism of scuppers, ash chutes, and rubbish chutes, the closing of which is necessary to make a compartment watertight, are operated at least once in every...

  14. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...cross connecting valves where fitted, and other appliances such as port lights, closing mechanism of scuppers, ash chutes, and rubbish chutes, the closing of which is necessary to make a compartment watertight, are operated at least once in every...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...follows: “Warning” This compartment is not to be used as a storage...near any appliance in this compartment may create a fire hazard. Do not store such materials or containers in this compartment. (d) All...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...follows: “Warning” This compartment is not to be used as a storage...near any appliance in this compartment may create a fire hazard. Do not store such materials or containers in this compartment. (d) All...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...follows: “Warning” This compartment is not to be used as a storage...near any appliance in this compartment may create a fire hazard. Do not store such materials or containers in this compartment. (d) All...

  18. 49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (2) As nearly as possible, based upon the design of the equipment, ensure that the standard provides for the same complement of handholds, sill steps, ladders, hand or parking brakes, running boards, and other safety appliances as are...

  19. Improving search quality of the Google search appliance

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Huy, M. Eng (Huy Le). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we describe various experiments on the ranking function of the Google Search Appliance to improve search quality. An evolutionary computation framework is implemented and applied to optimize various parameter ...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Hazard of Various Chemicals.” (4) When a cooling or heat pump coil and air conditioner blower are installed with...nationally recognized testing agency. (5) Cooling or heat pump indoor coils and outdoor sections shall be...

  1. Gas Appliance Technology Center: Annual report, January-December 1986

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haas

    1987-01-01

    The report reviews the activity during the fourth year of Gas Research Institute's Gas Appliance Technology Center program. Work on gas appliances involved a conceptual table-top multi-function oven, development of an indirect-fired conveyor oven, and performance comparisons of smooth cooktops. Performance-evaluation methods for commercial ovens were evaluated. Design improvements were made to a direct-fired conveyor oven and a pulse-combustion deep-fat

  2. An All-Solid-State Digital Control System for Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven B. Sample; Paul R. Scheuer; William H. Yake; Victor H. Zane

    1970-01-01

    A completely solid-state control system for domestic appliances has recently been developed at the D&M Research Laboratories. While this system was developed specifically for dish-washers, it is readily applicable to all appliances that exhibit complex control problems. The heart of the system is a large-scale custom metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuit measuring approximately 0.1 inch on a side. This digital circuit,

  3. Simulation technology for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoliang Ding

    2006-01-01

    Simulation technology has been widely used for performance prediction and optimal design of refrigeration and air conditioning\\u000a appliances. A brief history of simulation technology for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances is reviewed. The models\\u000a for evaporator, condenser, compressor, capillary tube and thermal insulation layer are summarized, and a fast calculation\\u000a method for thermodynamic properties of refrigerant is introduced in this

  4. Synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes for detecting heat-stable enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli by DNA colony hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, W E; Payne, W L; Zon, G; Moseley, S L

    1985-01-01

    DNA colony hybridization was used to identify and enumerate enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains in foods. The cells were identified and enumerated by using synthetic polynucleotide probes for the heat-stable enterotoxin genes. These 22-base oligonucleotides, made from known nucleotide sequences of the genes for the heat-stable enterotoxins of human and porcine strains of E. coli, contain two mismatches between the two heat-stable enterotoxins. Colonies were replicated from agar medium onto paper filters and lysed with alkali followed by steam; probes were end labeled. After overnight hybridization at 40 degrees C and washing at 50 degrees C, autoradiograms were exposed at -70 degrees C. Results were consistent with suckling-mouse tests for heat-stable enterotoxins. A stronger signal was obtained on paper filters than on nitrocellulose filters. Enterotoxigenic E. coli cells were detected when mixed with a 1,000-fold excess of nonenterotoxigenic E. coli cells. This procedure appears to be more acceptable for routine testing than the use of cloned DNA fragments, labeling by nick translation, and lysing colonies on nitrocellulose filters. Images PMID:3911894

  5. ROOFTOP FARMING WITH SWEET POTATO FOR REDUCING URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECTS AND PRODUCING FOOD AND FUEL MATERIALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiaki Kitaya; Masashi Yamamoto; Toshio Shibuya

    Sweet potato was cultured with a lightweight hydroponic system on a rooftop as a cooling equipment for reducing urban heat island effects and also as urban agriculture in a summer season in Osaka, Japan. In the result, The difference in surface temperatures between concrete plates exposed to sun light and under the vegetation coverage were increased with increasing solar radiation

  6. Project Title: Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Thomas M [Principal Investigator; Erlach, Celeste [Communications Mgr.

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  7. Influence of Heat Treatment on Structure and Charge Capacity of Sol-Gel Produced TiO2 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Orhan; Gökdemir, Fatma P?nar; Keskin, Bahad?r; Kutlu, Kubilay

    Titanium dioxide thin films were synthesized by sol-gel route from titanium isopropoxide (TIP) with acetic acid. Prior to the heat treatment, the films were amorphous phase. Above 400 °C, phase transition took place from amorphous into anatase phase. Electrochromic properties of each phase indicated reversible coloration upon Li+ ion intercalation in cyclic voltammetric measurements. Nevertheless, both charge capacity and energy band gap of films begun to decrease with increase in annealing temperature due to the crystallization.

  8. Isochoric heating of hot dense matter by magnetization of fast electrons produced by ultra-intense short pulse irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Sentoku; A. Kemp; M. Bakeman; R. Presura; T. E. Cowan

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-intense short-pulse lasers are important tools for creating short-lived high energy plasmas, however to date, it has not been possible, with this method, to create several hundred eV solid density matter because of the rapid transport of the laser-generated hot electrons throughout the target volume. We propose a new way to isochorically heat matter at solid density to extreme temperatures

  9. Evaluation of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of less polar ginsenosides produced from polar ginsenosides by heat-transformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Yang, Xiushi; Yu, Xiaona; Yao, Yang; Ren, Guixing

    2013-12-18

    Ginsenosides are the major active constituents in both white and red American ginseng (AG), and their pharmacological effects on central nervous, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems have been well elucidated. However, the anti-Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) activity of them is still unknown. In this study, 5 ginsenosides enriched fractions were obtained from the total ginsenosides extract of AG roots (TAG) by resin adsorption and heat-transformation. Resin purification decreased the total polyphenol (TP) content in the fractions. However, heat treatment increased the TP content and induced extensive conversion of the polar ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, and Gyp XVII) to less polar compounds (Rg2, Rg3, Rg6/F4, Rs3, and Rg5/Rk1). Only the heat-treated fraction from 65% methanol elution of the HP-20 column (HPHF) showed antibacterial activity against P. acnes (ATCC11827, MIC, 128 ?g/mL; ATCC6919 MIC, 64 ?g/mL), S. epidermidis (MIC, 4100 ?g/mL) and S. aureus (MIC, 15000 ?g/mL). In the anti-inflammatory activity assay, 10 ?g/mL of HPHF significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that less polar ginsenosides enriched fraction HPHF obtained from AG might be useful to develop new types of antibacterial substances and new skin care cosmetics for acne prevention and therapy. PMID:24289140

  10. Effect of Reservoir-Caprock Interface Dip and Circulation of Produced Fluid on CO2-Based Geothermal Heat Extraction from Saline Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garapati, N.; Randolph, J.; Saar, M. O.

    2014-12-01

    CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) energy utilization involves injection of CO2 as a working fluid to extract heat from naturally high permeability geologic units. The injected CO2 forms a large subsurface CO2 plume that absorbs heat from the geothermal reservoir and eventually buoyantly rises to the surface. The CO2 plume can be "tapped" for thermal and/or electric power production in a geothermal power system. In actual systems, the CO2 plume would likely be skewed opposite any likely dip direction of the reservoir-caprock interface. Here, we numerically analyze the characteristics of CO2 plume formation and geothermal heat extraction from geothermal reservoirs with dip. We find that the heat extraction rate and the total amount of heat extracted over time is the same for symmetric and skewed CO2 plume systems when the circular, horizontal production well is arranged according to the CO2 plume distribution around the injection well. We also conduct simulations of CO2 plume formation within a pre-existing groundwater flow field and find that groundwater flow is not capable of skewing the CO2 plume. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of reinjecting small amounts of brine that are produced with the CO2. Brine has a smaller mobility than supercritical CO2 at a given temperature and thus accumulates near the injection well. Such brine accumulation reduces the relative permeability for the CO2 phase, which in turn increases the pore-fluid pressure around the injection well. For this reason, and as injection of two fluid phases is problematic, we recommend removal of any brine from the produced fluid before the cooled CO2 is reinjected into the reservoir. Separated brine may be reinjected into the formation away from the CO2 plume, providing an additional means of controlling and directing the CO2 plume pressure field and flow direction and avoiding the need to treat and dispose of the CO2 near the land surface. In summary, we show that the geothermal heat extraction characteristics from saline aquifers is minimally affected by details of whether the CO2 is symmetrically distributed around the injection well or skewed, as long as production well geometries take this into account and that reinjection of produced fluid without removal of any brine is not recommended to avoid pressurization of the reservoir.

  11. Two-Stage Soft-Switching High-Frequency Inverter with Simple PFC Function for Consumer IH Cooking Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Yuki; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Sadakata, Hideki; Fujita, Atsushi; Omori, Hideki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    In recent years, consumer induction-heating (IH) cooking appliances have grown increasingly popular because of their easy cleaning, high efficiency, safety, and controllability. IH food cooking system for consumer home use are indispensable to heat various metallic pans, such as aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and iron cast for further diffusing. Furthermore, these appliances have to satisfy the utility AC grid harmonics regulations of IEC61000-3-2. To meet these requirements, this paper proposes a two-stage soft-switching high-frequency inverter with simple PFC function that is suitable for consumer IH cooking appliances. The proposed system comprises a soft-switching chopper based boost PFC converter with passive snubber and phase-shifted PWM controlled ZVZCS high-frequency inverter. In order to satisfy the utility AC grid current harmonic regulations, a simple PFC control technique with discontinuous current mode is introduced. This technique as well as the fundamental operating performances of the proposed IH system is tested. The effectiveness of proposed IH system is substantially proved from a practical point of view on the basis of the experimental results.

  12. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  13. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  14. 7 CFR 3300.13 - Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated...Determination of the efficiency of the thermal appliances as installed in the insulated body. In determining the efficiency of a thermal appliance with respect to maintaining...

  15. 78 FR 21594 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...Administrative Review: Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Oven...Administrative Review: Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Oven...other refrigerating or freezing equipment, cooking stoves, ranges...Administrative Review: Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and...

  16. Controlled oxidation of FeCo magnetic nanoparticles to produce faceted FeCo/ferrite nanocomposites for rf heating applications

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    Controlled oxidation of FeCo magnetic nanoparticles to produce faceted FeCo/ferrite nanocomposites for polydisperse FeCo magnetic nanoparticles MNPs synthesized using an induction plasma torch. X-ray diffraction to promote oxidation and XRD was used to follow the evolution of the FeCo core and the Fe3O4 and FeO oxide

  17. Nonwearable gaze tracking system for controlling home appliance.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hwan; Lee, Jong Man; Jung, Dongwook; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    A novel gaze tracking system for controlling home appliances in 3D space is proposed in this study. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, we propose a nonwearable gaze tracking system containing frontal viewing and eye tracking cameras. Second, our system includes three modes: navigation (for moving the wheelchair depending on the direction of gaze movement), selection (for selecting a specific appliance by gaze estimation), and manipulation (for controlling the selected appliance by gazing at the control panel). The modes can be changed by closing eyes during a specific time period or gazing. Third, in the navigation mode, the signal for moving the wheelchair can be triggered according to the direction of gaze movement. Fourth, after a specific home appliance is selected by gazing at it for more than predetermined time period, a control panel with 3 × 2 menu is displayed on laptop computer below the gaze tracking system for manipulation. The user gazes at one of the menu options for a specific time period, which can be manually adjusted according to the user, and the signal for controlling the home appliance can be triggered. The proposed method is shown to have high detection accuracy through a series of experiments. PMID:25298966

  18. Nonwearable Gaze Tracking System for Controlling Home Appliance

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dongwook

    2014-01-01

    A novel gaze tracking system for controlling home appliances in 3D space is proposed in this study. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, we propose a nonwearable gaze tracking system containing frontal viewing and eye tracking cameras. Second, our system includes three modes: navigation (for moving the wheelchair depending on the direction of gaze movement), selection (for selecting a specific appliance by gaze estimation), and manipulation (for controlling the selected appliance by gazing at the control panel). The modes can be changed by closing eyes during a specific time period or gazing. Third, in the navigation mode, the signal for moving the wheelchair can be triggered according to the direction of gaze movement. Fourth, after a specific home appliance is selected by gazing at it for more than predetermined time period, a control panel with 3 × 2 menu is displayed on laptop computer below the gaze tracking system for manipulation. The user gazes at one of the menu options for a specific time period, which can be manually adjusted according to the user, and the signal for controlling the home appliance can be triggered. The proposed method is shown to have high detection accuracy through a series of experiments. PMID:25298966

  19. Ultrafine powders of TiN and AlN produced by a reactive gas evaporation technique with electron beam heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwama, Saburo; Hayakawa, Kenji; Arizumi, Tetsuya

    1982-01-01

    Ultrafine powders of TiN and AlN are produced by evaporating Ti and Al in a low pressure of NH 3 or N 2 gas by using electron beam heating. Powders produced are studied by means of electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction method. Both powders are confirmed to be pure nitride with cubic crystal structure for TiN and hexagonal for AlN, and to have a particle size less than 10 nm. The formation process of the nitride powder by the present method can be summarized as follows; (1) surface nitridation of the source materials, (2) vaporization of the nitride and (3) condensation into the nitride particles.

  20. Novel behaviour and structure of new glasses of the type Ba-Al-O and Ba-Al-Ti-O produced by aerodynamic levitation and laser heating.

    PubMed

    Skinner, L B; Barnes, A C; Crichton, W

    2006-08-16

    Novel barium aluminate (BaAl(2)O(4)) and barium alumino-titanate (BaAl(2)TiO(6)) glasses have been produced by aerodynamic levitation and laser heating. BaAl(2)O(4) forms a clear and colourless glass under containerless and rapid quenching conditions. Under similar rapid quenching conditions BaAl(2)TiO(6) forms an opaque and black glass, while under slower and controlled quenching conditions it is possible to form a clear and colourless glass. The formation of the opaque or clear glass is reversible and purely dependent on the quench rate used. By slowing the quench rate further, it is possible to produce a milky glass suggestive of liquid-liquid phase separation in the liquid before glassification. High-energy x-ray diffraction experiments confirm the glassy state of these materials and show coordination structures and bond distances similar to their crystalline analogues. PMID:21690853

  1. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES...312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices....

  2. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES...312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices....

  3. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES...312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices....

  4. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES...312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices....

  5. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES...312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices....

  6. 14 CFR 21.617 - Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances...CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Technical...Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances. (a) A letter of TSO design approval may be...

  7. 76 FR 31749 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers and External...Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers and External...Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for battery chargers and...

  8. 77 FR 61396 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (``kitchen racks'') from the People's...refrigerating or freezing equipment, cooking stoves, ranges...Countervailing Duty Order: Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and...

  9. 78 FR 63166 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (kitchen racks) from the People's...other refrigerating or freezing equipment, cooking stoves, ranges...Duty Administrative Review: Kitchen Appliance Shelving and...

  10. 76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ...the ENERGY STAR program regarding smart grid enabled appliances. These stakeholders...ENERGY STAR performance level for smart grid enabled appliances that can provide...product specifications to address smart grid functionality. EPA recently...

  11. A heat shock operon in Coxiella burnetti produces a major antigen homologous to a protein in both mycobacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Vodkin, M H; Williams, J C

    1988-01-01

    A gene library from the DNA of Coxiella burnetii has been constructed in the cosmid vector pHC79. A particular clone, pJB196, reacted strongly with Coxiella-specific antibodies elicited in a number of different species of animals. This clone produced two abundant C. burnetii-specific polypeptides, a 14-kilodalton nonimmunoreactive protein and a 62-kilodalton immunoreactive protein. Sequencing identified two open reading frames, encoding polypeptides of 10.5 and 58.3 kilodaltons. The only transcriptional control element observed on the 5' side of the initiation codon resembled a heat shock promoter. This heat shock promoter was functionally regulated in Escherichia coli, since both proteins were produced by growth conditions at 37 degrees C and neither protein was detected at 23 degrees C. There were four sequences from the literature that were highly homologous (greater than 50%) to the 62-kilodalton protein from C. burnetii. Three were from Mycobacterium species and represent the immunodominant antigen of this genus. The other was from E. coli, detected as a gene that complements or suppresses a temperature-sensitive RNase activity. Since the recombinant protein was immunogenic, it may serve as an efficacious vaccine against C. burnetii and other pathogenic microorganisms that express the conserved antigen. Images PMID:3343219

  12. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The three primary analyses presented in this report are: Nevertheless, it is important to analyze best-on-market products, since data on truly max tech technologies are limited. (1) an analysis of the cross-cutting strategies most promising for reducing appliance and equipment energy use in the U.S.; (2) a macro-analysis of the U.S. energy-saving potential inherent in promising ultra-efficient appliance technologies; and (3) a product-level analysis of the energy-saving potential.

  13. The use of neutral beam heating to produce high performance fusion plasmas, including the injection of tritium beams into the Joint European Torus (JET)

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, E.; Stork, D.; de Esch, H.P.L. (JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon 0X14 3EA (United Kingdom)); the JET Team

    1993-07-01

    The neutral beam injection (NBI) system of the Joint European Torus (JET) [[ital Plasma] [ital Physics] [ital and] [ital Controlled] [ital Nuclear] [ital Fusion] [ital Research] (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), Vol. 1, p. 11] has proved to be an extremely effective and flexible heating method capable of producing high performance plasmas and performing a wide range of related physics experiments. High fusion performance deuterium plasmas have been obtained in the hot-ion (HI) H-mode regime, using the central particle fueling and ion heating capabilities of the NBI system in low target density plasmas, and in the pellet enhanced plasma (PEP) H-mode regime, where the good central confinement properties of pellet fueled plasmas are exploited by additional heating and fueling as well as the transition to H mode. The HI H-mode configuration was used for the First Tritium Experiment (FTE) in JET in which NBI was used to heat the plasma using 14 D[sup 0] beams and, for the first time, to inject T[sup 0] using the two remaining beams. These plasmas had a peak fusion power of 1.7 MW from deuterium--tritium (D--T) fusion reactions. The capability for injection of a variety of beam species (H[sup 0], D[sup 0], [sup 3]He[sup 0], and [sup 4]He[sup 0]) has allowed the study of confinement variation with atomic mass and the simulation of [alpha]-particle transport. Additionally, the use of the NBI system has permitted an investigation of the plasma behavior near the toroidal [beta] limit over a wide range of toroidal field strengths.

  14. Nonserial Dynamic Programming with Applications in Smart Home Appliances Scheduling Part II: Nonserial Dynamic Programming

    E-print Network

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Nonserial Dynamic Programming with Applications in Smart Home Appliances Scheduling ­ Part II) is presented. The problem in this paper generalizes the smart home appliances scheduling problem introduced the following smart home appliances scheduling problem described in the companion paper [3], as the later

  15. Wr@p: A “last-meter” technology for energy-aware networked appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ricci; E. Smargiassi; D. Mancini; I. De Munari; V. Aisa; P. Ciampolini

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of Wr@p 1 technology (Web Ready Appliances Protocol, formerly Power Modulation), an ultra-low-cost powerline communication solution conceived for the electrical appliance market. Wr@p technol- ogy aims at making household appliances capable of network communication without significantly affecting their industrial cost. This may foster the diffusion of \\

  16. Design techniques for sensor appliances: foundations and light compass case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Wong; Seapahn Megerian; Miodrag Potkonjak

    2003-01-01

    We propose the first systematic, sensor-centric approach for quantitative design of sensor network appliances. We demonstrate its use by designing light appliance devices and the associated middleware. We have developed five models which are required to make this problem tractable and to undertake the challenging task of designing light sensor appliances: (i) physical world, (ii) light sensor, (iii) physical phenomenon,

  17. A Novel Innate Response of Human Corneal Epithelium to Heat-killed Candida albicans by Producing Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xia; Yuan, Xiaoyong; Li, Zhijie; Coursey, Terry G.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections of the cornea can be sight-threatening and have a worse prognosis than other types of microbial corneal infections. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGLYRP), which are expressed on the ocular surface, play an important role in the immune response against bacterial corneal infections by activating toll-like receptors (TLRs) or increasing phagocytosis. However, the role of PGLYRPs in innate immune response to fungal pathogens has not been investigated. In this study, we observed a significant induction of three PGLYRPs 2–4 in primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to live or heat-killed Candida albicans (HKCA). The C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 plays a critical role in controlling Candida albicans infections by promoting phagocytic activity and cytokine production in macrophages and dendritic cells. Here, we demonstrate that dectin-1 is expressed by normal human corneal tissue and primary HCECs. HKCA exposure increased expression of dectin-1 on HCECs at mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, dectin-1 neutralizing antibody, I?B-? inhibitor BAY11-7082, and NF-?B activation inhibitor quinazoline blocked NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation, as well as the induction of the PGLYRPs by HKCA in HCECs. Furthermore, rhPGLYRP-2 was found to suppress colony-forming units of Candida albicans in vitro. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that dectin-1 is expressed by human corneal epithelial cells, and dectin-1/NF-?B signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating Candida albicans/HKCA-induced PGLYRP secretion by HCECs. PMID:26039076

  18. A Novel Innate Response of Human Corneal Epithelium to Heat-killed Candida albicans by Producing Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xia; Yuan, Xiaoyong; Li, Zhijie; Coursey, Terry G; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Li, De-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections of the cornea can be sight-threatening and have a worse prognosis than other types of microbial corneal infections. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGLYRP), which are expressed on the ocular surface, play an important role in the immune response against bacterial corneal infections by activating toll-like receptors (TLRs) or increasing phagocytosis. However, the role of PGLYRPs in innate immune response to fungal pathogens has not been investigated. In this study, we observed a significant induction of three PGLYRPs 2-4 in primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to live or heat-killed Candida albicans (HKCA). The C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 plays a critical role in controlling Candida albicans infections by promoting phagocytic activity and cytokine production in macrophages and dendritic cells. Here, we demonstrate that dectin-1 is expressed by normal human corneal tissue and primary HCECs. HKCA exposure increased expression of dectin-1 on HCECs at mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, dectin-1 neutralizing antibody, I?B-? inhibitor BAY11-7082, and NF-?B activation inhibitor quinazoline blocked NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation, as well as the induction of the PGLYRPs by HKCA in HCECs. Furthermore, rhPGLYRP-2 was found to suppress colony-forming units of Candida albicans in vitro. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that dectin-1 is expressed by human corneal epithelial cells, and dectin-1/NF-?B signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating Candida albicans/HKCA-induced PGLYRP secretion by HCECs. PMID:26039076

  19. An investigation into the vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Conein, Emma; Henshaw, Denis L.

    2005-07-01

    Elliptically polarized magnetic fields induce higher currents in the body compared with their plane polarized counterparts. This investigation examines the degree of vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) in the home, with regard to the adverse health effects reportedly associated with ELF-MFs, for instance childhood leukaemia. Tri-axial measurements of the magnitude and phase of the 0-3000 Hz magnetic fields, produced by 226 domestic mains-fed appliances of 32 different types, were carried out in 16 homes in Worcestershire in the summer of 2004. Magnetic field strengths were low, with average (RMS) values of 0.03 ± 0.02 µT across all residences. In contrast, background field ellipticities were high, on average 47 ± 11%. Microwave and electric ovens produced the highest ellipticities: mean respective values of 21 ± 21% and 21 ± 17% were observed 20 cm away from these appliances. There was a negative correlation between field strength and field polarization, which we attribute to the higher relative field contribution close to each individual (single-phase) appliance. The measurements demonstrate that domestic magnetic fields are extremely complex and cannot simply be characterized by traditional measurements such as time-weighted average or peak exposure levels. We conclude that ellipticity should become a relevant metric for future epidemiological studies of health and ELF-MF exposure. This work is supported by the charity CHILDREN with LEUKAEMIA, registered charity number 298405.

  20. An investigation into the vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes.

    PubMed

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Conein, Emma; Henshaw, Denis L

    2005-07-01

    Elliptically polarized magnetic fields induce higher currents in the body compared with their plane polarized counterparts. This investigation examines the degree of vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) in the home, with regard to the adverse health effects reportedly associated with ELF-MFs, for instance childhood leukaemia. Tri-axial measurements of the magnitude and phase of the 0-3000 Hz magnetic fields, produced by 226 domestic mains-fed appliances of 32 different types, were carried out in 16 homes in Worcestershire in the summer of 2004. Magnetic field strengths were low, with average (RMS) values of 0.03 +/- 0.02 microT across all residences. In contrast, background field ellipticities were high, on average 47 +/- 11%. Microwave and electric ovens produced the highest ellipticities: mean respective values of 21 +/- 21% and 21 +/- 17% were observed 20 cm away from these appliances. There was a negative correlation between field strength and field polarization, which we attribute to the higher relative field contribution close to each individual (single-phase) appliance. The measurements demonstrate that domestic magnetic fields are extremely complex and cannot simply be characterized by traditional measurements such as time-weighted average or peak exposure levels. We conclude that ellipticity should become a relevant metric for future epidemiological studies of health and ELF-MF exposure. PMID:15972990

  1. Cyclopentane Blown Foam Systems for Domestic Appliances Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Bazzo; A. Cappella; S. Talbot

    1996-01-01

    During the last year all major European Appliance Manufacturers have chosen the cyclopentane options as blowing agent for polyurethane insulation as the optimum solution for the phase-out of CFCs. The reason for this choice is due to several factors, including: zero-ODP, environmental acceptance, reasonable low initial thermal conductivity, appropriate boiling point and proven availability. These factors outweighed the disadvantage of

  2. Rebound Effect in Energy Efficient Appliance Adopting Households 

    E-print Network

    Glenn, Jacob Matthew

    2014-12-10

    This paper uses data from smart meter technology to estimate the occurrence of energy rebound, a “substitution” and “income’ effect where the price-per-use of an appliance falls relative to its energy efficiency. This causes households to have more...

  3. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Gene; Calvert, King

    This second edition contains teacher and student guides for 14 units of instruction in major appliance repair. Each unit in the teacher edition includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities, answers to assignment sheets, answers to the written test, written test, a unit evaluation form, teacher…

  4. Unusual indelible enamel staining following fixed appliance treatment.

    PubMed

    Hodges, S J; Spencer, R J; Watkins, S J

    2000-12-01

    Two cases are described of indelible enamel staining following fixed appliance therapy. The acquired pigmentation occurred in patients with an identifiable enamel defect prior to treatment. The interaction of factors to cause the staining is discussed and it's prevention in future cases highlighted. Subsequent restoration of the affected teeth is shown. PMID:11099567

  5. 3C intelligent home appliance control system - Example with refrigerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Liang Hsu; Sheng-Yuan Yang; Wei-Bin Wu

    2010-01-01

    This study is a creative and initial work focused on designing an intelligently automatic detecting and sensor system for home appliances being smartly interactive with mankind with speech in the living space. Since the tide of automation flowed over the industry, manufacturing business, even the living space of mankind resulting from shifting and highly developing of computer technique such as

  6. Advanced technologies for residential appliance and lighting market transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Turiel; B. Atkinson; S. Boghosian; P. Chan; J. Jennings; J. Lutz; J. McMahon; S. Pickle; G. Rosenquist

    1997-01-01

    This article describes an assessment of options for and barriers to improved efficiency in four key energy consuming residential products: refrigerator\\/freezers, clothes washers, electric water heaters, and lighting equipment. National energy savings were calculated using the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) Residential Energy Model, which projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. Energy savings are shown for

  7. Automatically Generating High-Quality User Interfaces for Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Nichols

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing pervasiveness of wireless technologies, users will benefit from interacting with appliances in their environment using their mobile device. One of the challenges to supporting such ubiquitous control is the creation of user interfaces for the remote control functions on the mobile device. I propose to examine an approach I call the Personal Universal Controller (PUC) where the

  8. Trade and Industrial Education Course of Study for Appliance Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Frederick G., Ed.

    Designed for use by instructors of appliance repair to help establish a uniform curriculum, this manual presents a basic course of study. Individual instructors can add or delete jobs or lessons to suit their particular teaching situations. Contents include the course philosophy, listing of course objectives and activities to achieve them, plan of…

  9. Modified Nance palatal arch appliance for anterior tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Ntasha; Shanthraj, Srinivas L; Muraleedharan, Manju; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    The following case report presents a new and an innovative technique for the postextraction replacement of maxillary central incisors using the natural teeth as pontics. The novel appliance fabricated fully satisfied the demands of the adolescent patient for a fixed prosthetic, while fulfilling the aesthetic and functional requirements presented by the case. PMID:23749860

  10. Privacy for Smart Meters: Towards Undetectable Appliance Load Signatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios Kalogridis; Costas Efthymiou; Stojan Z. Denic; Tim A. Lewis; Rafael Cepeda

    2010-01-01

    Smart grid privacy encompasses the privacy of information extracted by analysing smart metering data. In this paper, we suggest that home electrical power routing can be used to moderate the home's load signature in order to hide appliance usage information. In particular, (1) we introduce a power management model using a rechargeable battery, (2) we propose a power mixing algorithm,

  11. Dentoalveolar and skeletal changes associated with the pendulum appliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Bussick; James A. McNamara

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the dentoalveolar and skeletal effects of the pendulum appliance in Class II patients at varying stages of dental development and with varying facial patterns (high, neutral, and low mandibular plane angles). Specifically, the amount and nature of the “distalization” of the maxillary first molars and the reciprocal effects on the anchoring maxillary

  12. Domestic Refrigerators; Appliance Repair--Advanced: 9027.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline is presented to provide the major appliance service student with a fundamental knowledge of the procedures necessary to repair a refrigerator using information on electrical circuitry and mechanical functioning components. The course may be taught in 90 or 135 clock hours, depending on the amount of detail presented and the…

  13. Speckled computing: disruptive technology for networked information appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Arvind; K. J. Wong

    2004-01-01

    Speckled Computing is an emerging technology in which data will be sensed in minute (ultimately around one cubic millimetre) semiconductor grains called Specks. Information will be extracted, exchanged and processed in a collaborative fashion in a wireless network of thousands of Specks, called a Specknet. The impact of Speckled Computing on consumer electronics, especially future information appliances, will be disruptive.

  14. Waterheaters and Dishwashers; Appliance Repair--Beginning: 9023.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline provides major appliance repair students with a fundamental knowledge of waterheaters and dishwashers, and is intended to guide their performance of duties as technicians. Covering the complete electrical and mechanical functions of heaters and dishwashers, the course outline includes goals, specific block objectives,…

  15. Modified Nance palatal arch appliance for anterior tooth replacement

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Ntasha; Shanthraj, Srinivas L; Muraleedharan, Manju; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    The following case report presents a new and an innovative technique for the postextraction replacement of maxillary central incisors using the natural teeth as pontics. The novel appliance fabricated fully satisfied the demands of the adolescent patient for a fixed prosthetic, while fulfilling the aesthetic and functional requirements presented by the case. PMID:23749860

  16. Bottom: The PNNL-developed Grid Appliance Controller was

    E-print Network

    with near real-time data and visualization tools, this "smart" grid will allow grid operators to better could give grid operators the cushion they need to balance the system. The Grid-Friendly Appliance. A smart grid, powered by high-speed, real-time information, can play a role in tracking reductions

  17. 16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating and... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN...APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...

  18. 16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating and... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN...APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...

  19. 16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating and... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN...APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...

  20. Study on the Appliances Energy Efficiency Label and MultiDimensional Thinking under Low-Carbon Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tibin Liu; Jiao Lu; Honglian Xie

    2011-01-01

    Most of the household appliance energy efficiency label is considered qualified level of energy efficiency index of how to limit the power consumption of the household appliances, rarely consider reducing the power consumption of competitive advantage for the household appliance. This is the first Low-carbon Economic Development from the perspective given the implementation appliance energy efficiency label of Game Theory

  1. Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prions, infectious agents associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, are primarily composed of the misfolded and pathogenic form (PrPSc) of the host-encoded prion protein. Because PrPSc retains infectivity after undergoing routine sterilizing processes, the cause of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) outbreaks are suspected to be feeding cattle meat and bone meals (MBMs) contaminated with the prion. To assess the validity of prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease, which is produced in the industrial manufacturing process of MBMs, we pooled, homogenized, and heat treated the spinal cords of BSE-infected cows under various experimental conditions. Results Prion inactivation was analyzed quantitatively in terms of the infectivity and PrPSc of the treated samples. Following treatment at 140°C for 1 h, infectivity was reduced to 1/35 of that of the untreated samples. Treatment at 180°C for 3 h was required to reduce infectivity. However, PrPSc was detected in all heat-treated samples by using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique, which amplifies PrPScin vitro. Quantitative analysis of the inactivation efficiency of BSE PrPSc was possible with the introduction of the PMCA50, which is the dilution ratio of 10% homogenate needed to yield 50% positivity for PrPSc in amplified samples. Conclusions Log PMCA50 exhibited a strong linear correlation with the transmission rate in the bioassay; infectivity was no longer detected when the log PMCA50 of the inoculated sample was reduced to 1.75. The quantitative PMCA assay may be useful for safety evaluation for recycling and effective utilization of MBMs as an organic resource. PMID:23835086

  2. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  3. Mechanical Strength and Failure Characteristics of Cast Mg-9 pctAl-1 pctZn Alloys Produced by a Heated-Mold Continuous Casting Process: Tensile Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Shuhei; Ohfuji, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical properties and failure characteristics of a cast Mg alloy (AZ91: Mg-Al8.9-Zn0.6-Mn0.2) produced by a heated-mold continuous casting process (HMC) are investigated. In a modification of the original HMC process, the cooling of the liquid alloy by direct water spray is carried out in an atmosphere of high-purity argon gas. The HMC-AZ91 alloy exhibits excellent mechanical properties (high strength and high ductility) that are about twice as high as those for the same alloy produced by conventional gravity casting. The increased material strength and ductility of the HMC sample are attributed to nanoscale and microscale microstructural characteristics. The fine grains and tiny spherical eutectic structures ( e.g., Mg17Al12 and Al6Mn) distributed randomly in the matrix of the HMC alloy result in resistance to dislocation movement, leading to high tensile strength. Basal slip on (0001) planes in the relatively organized crystal orientation of the HMC alloy, as well as grain boundary sliding through tiny spherical eutectic structures, results in high ductility. Details of the failure mechanism under static loading in the HMC alloy are also discussed using failure models.

  4. Remarks: Highly upgraded condo features granite, stainless steel appliances, hardwood floors, balcony, upgraded baths, and generous room sizes all while being located in a prime Lincoln Park location close to everything. PARKING INCLUDED IN PRICE.

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    : Cluster, Condo, Low Rise (1-3 Stories) Exposure: Exterior: Brick Air Cond: Central Air Heating: Gas, Forced Air Kitchen: Eating Area-Table Space, Island Appliances: Oven/Range, Microwave, Dishwasher Details: Lot Desc: Sewer: Sewer-Public Water: Lake Michigan General Info: None Amenities: HERS Index Score

  5. Intelligent devices for appliances control in home networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Leventis; Th. Antonakopoulos; C. Stavroulopoulos; Th. Luckenbach; V. Makios

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the architecture and functionality of intelligent, reduced-complexity devices used in appliances control for networking applications arc, presented. These devices exploit the Ethernet infrastructure in order to offer network-based control functionality. The devices implement a hard-wired version of the IP-based protocol stack and use an embedded soft processor core for executing the functions of a control-oriented application layer.

  6. RFID Enabled Remote Structural Health Monitoring for Heavy Lifting Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xubing Chen; Fan Zhou

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a To realize remote structural health monitoring for heavy lifting appliances, e.g., 500t gantry cranes, technologies of RFID\\u000a wireless sensor network, LabVIEW virtual instrument and health diagnosis expert system are empoyed to establish an integrated\\u000a system. The system is divided into three layers in logic structures: the data acquisition layer, the network communication\\u000a layer and the system service layer. In the

  7. Energy consumption in UK households: Impact of domestic electrical appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iman Mansouri; Marcus Newborough; Douglas Probert

    1996-01-01

    The social-psychological aspects of energy use in UK households have been reviewed. A major survey, which focused on identifying environmental attitudes and beliefs, energy-use behaviour, ownership levels for certain appliances and their utilisation patterns, was undertaken among householders resident in the south-east of England. The results indicate that members of the general public are (i) interested in receiving information concerning

  8. Long-term sterility of orthodontic-surgical appliances.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Nastri, Natalia; Mosca, Christian O; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term sterility of new dental appliances according to the non rigid wrapping employed and assess the effectiveness of sterilization in a steam autoclave at 134 degrees for 20 minutes using physical, chemical, and biological indicators. All the experimental (E) samples and the control samples (C) were assigned to one of three groups according to the type of packaging: paper bag (E1), paper/plastic pouch (E2), nylon tubing bag (E3). Each bag contained standardized orthodontic wires and brackets and sterility indicators. The samples were evaluated at the following experimental times: immediately, and 6, 12, 24 and 30 months post-sterilization. The samples were analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in keeping with the protocol currently in use at the Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. The group of control, non-sterilized samples (C1, C2, C3) were analyzed prior to the onset of the study, and were found to be contaminated. None of the sterilized samples in any of the three experimental groups evidenced contamination at any of the experimental times. The results showed that, under the present conditions, the packages and orthodontic appliances remained sterile for 30 months. These results show the importance of controlling sterility and the storage conditions over time for all the orthodontic/surgical appliances used in invasive treatments. PMID:15584258

  9. Cast Haas-type RME appliance: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, Mauro; Fontana, Mattia; Cozzani, Paolo; Bertelli, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in the initial stages of occlusal development has become a routine procedure in orthodontic practice. The increase of the transverse dimensions of the maxilla in the mixed dentition can be carried out by a rapid palatal expander that exploits primary teeth as anchorage to minimize any negative effects on permanent teeth. This case report demonstrates the use of a modified Haas-type RME appliance in a Caucasian girl 7 years 6 months of age with a maxillary transverse deficiency, unilateral crossbite, dental midline deviation, and maxillary anterior dental crowding. The patient was treated with a modified Haas-type RME appliance composed of a six-band metal-cast structure with a partial occlusal covering that was bonded to the primary teeth using glass-ionomer cement. Clinicians see advantages in terms of speed of application and patient compliance by taking a single impression. Stability and retention of the appliance improve thanks to custom-made metal casting and the risks of decementation minimize via the use of glass-ionomer cement. Moreover, the fabrication in inert titanium, hypoallergenic resin, and laser soldering means patients with allergies can use it. The results demonstrate that the expansion carried out on primary teeth is followed by permanent molars and remains stable. PMID:22022696

  10. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  11. Heating with Solid Fuels. A Unit of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockel, Edward

    Designed for use in industrial education programs at the secondary school level, this unit focuses on residential space heating although applications can be made to commercial settings. Wood heat is emphasized but coal-fired appliances and other energy sources are considered. Educational objectives with instructional strategies are provided for…

  12. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-01-25

    This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

  13. An extended period of functional appliance therapy: a controlled clinical trial comparing the Twin Block and Dynamax appliances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert T; Barnes, Emma; DiBiase, Andrew; Govender, Ravichandram; Qureshi, Usman

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this clinical trial was to compare the hard- and soft-tissue effects of 15 month full-time functional appliance therapy with Twin Block (TB) and Dynamax (Dx) appliances. The effects on both hard and soft tissue were analysed using cephalograms and three-dimensional optical surface laser scans. One hundred and three subjects with a class II division 1 malocclusion, and a minimum overjet of 7mm were available for analysis following stratified randomization according to gender and age. Data was collected at the start of treatment, 15 month therapy, and after 3 month post-treatment observation. Statistical analysis was conducted using analysis of covariance. The results demonstrated both appliances corrected the overjet with significantly increased skeletal dimensional changes with the TB compared with the Dx with forward movement of pogonion of 5.2mm (TB) and 0.7mm (Dx) P = 0.003. In addition, significant changes occurred particularly in the vertical dimension where there was also an increase in total anterior face height in both groups (TB = 6.4mm, Dx = 5.5mm) and significant (P = 0.003) mandibular length changes were also observed (TB = 7.2mm, Dx = 3.8mm). The cephalometric soft-tissue changes were significantly different between the two appliances at soft-tissue pogonion (TB = 9.8mm, Dx = 4.6mm, P = 0.001). Laser scan three-dimansional changes showed significant difference in the lower labial sulcus region where forward movements were observed (TB = 8.2mm, Dx = 6.2mm; P = 0.04). Overall these changes appear to be greater and more stable than those achieved in a previous 9 month study. PMID:23291502

  14. Power and safety management of electrical appliances in a smart power distribution system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsukasa Noma; Yasuhiko Ookuma

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a low-cost solution to the on\\/off control of home appliances using a new power distribution system, and discusses how the system contributes to the safe and convenient use of the appliances. In the proposed system, with an RFID tag in the plug and newly-designed sockets\\/power strips, the smart meter identifies appliances connected to individual (wall) sockets simply

  15. Research and implementation of intelligent information appliances based on IPV6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-hua Ye; Chun-Lan Wang; Deng-wen Gan

    2009-01-01

    In order to realize network functions of information appliances, after analyzing the feasibility of transplanting LwIP to embedded operating system according to the requirement of information appliances under IPv6 network, we built an information appliance development platform on ARM920T processor and VxWorks, transplant open source network protocol LwIP to the MUX layer of VxWorks to implement IPv6 protocol stack, establish

  16. Frog Appliance- An Innovative Treatment Option for the Replacement of Missing Teeth in An Epileptic Child

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Anita; Reddy, Hanumanth; Sajjnar, Arun B; Jain, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease which may result in various oro-facial injuries among which fracture of crown and avulsion of tooth are commonly reported. Challenges come in growing epileptic children where fixed prosthesis could not be delivered and it demands a fixed semi-permanent prosthesis that needs strength along with esthetics. The present paper reports an innovative appliance which has fulfilled fore mentioned criteria; with the appliance named-frog appliance.

  17. Ultrafine particles from electric appliances and cooking pans: experiments suggesting desorption/nucleation of sorbed organics as the primary source.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L A; Ott, W R; Weschler, C J

    2014-09-24

    Ultrafine particles are observed when metal surfaces, such as heating elements in electric appliances, or even empty cooking pans, are heated. The source of the particles has not been identified. We present evidence that particles >10 nm are not emitted directly from the heating elements or the metal surfaces. Using repeated heating of an electric burner, several types of cooking pans, and a steam iron, the increase in the number of particles (>10 nm) can be reduced to 0. After the devices are exposed to indoor air for several hours or days, subsequent heating results in renewed particle production, suggesting that organic matter has sorbed on their surfaces. Also, after a pan has been heated to the point that no increase in particles is observed, washing with detergent results in copious production of particles the next time the pan is heated. These observations suggest that detergent residue and organics sorbed from indoor air are the sources of the particles. We hypothesize that organic compounds are thermally desorbed from the hot surface as gaseous molecules; as they diffuse from the hot air near the pan into cooler air, selected compounds exceed their saturation concentration and nucleation occurs. PMID:25250820

  18. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE,...

  19. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE,...

  20. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE,...

  1. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE,...

  2. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE,...

  3. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion by RME and modified Tandem appliance.

    PubMed

    Ansar, Juhi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a skeletal Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency can be treated successfully using a combined protraction facemask and alternate rapid maxillary expansions and contractions (Alt-RAMEC). However, due to poor patient compliance during facemask therapy there has been growing interest in intraoral appliances for correcting Class III malocclusion. The tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA) is an intraoral appliance which has been used successfully for the treatment of growing Class III patients. This case report describes the management of a 10-year-old boy with a Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency treated with modified TTBA appliance. PMID:26156283

  4. Eddy current dual packs heater based continuous pipeline fluid heating using soft switching PWM high frequency inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tanaka; M. Kaneda; S. Chandhaket; M. Aubdallah; M. Nakaoka; N. Uchida; T. Ueno

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative prototype of a new conceptual electromagnetic induction eddy-current based fluid heating appliance using voltage-fed quasi resonant zero voltage soft switching PWM high-frequency inverter using IGBTs, which can operate at a constant frequency variable power regulation scheme. The promising simple high-efficient low noise inverter type electromagnetic induction eddy-current based pipeline fluid heating appliance is proposed for

  5. Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. Special technical report: technical feasibility of combustion heated process for producing aluminum-silicon alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troup

    1980-01-01

    As part of a contract to develop a process for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum-silicon alloys, the technical feasibility of an atmospheric combustion-heated reactor was investigated. Potentially, such a reactor could have lower energy and capital requirements than current processes for producing aluminum and silicon. Reduction reactions were modelled using two chemical equilibrium computer programs which predicted the aluminum recovery

  6. Exposure to metals from orthodontic appliances by hair mineral analysis.

    PubMed

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Zieli?ska, Agnieszka; Michalak, Izabela

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure of patients to metals released from orthodontic appliances in situ. The paper reports the results of biocompatibility studies of orthodontic appliances by an in vivo method using hair sampled from the group of patients (N = 28) and a control group (N = 18). The mean content of metals (Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe) in hair that were hypothesized to be systemically absorbed from stainless steel, was provided. The highest difference between the groups was found for Ni (39% higher level in hair of patients), Mn (18%), Fe (4.1%), Cr (2.5%), as calculated by a new dimensionless metal release coefficient (?). The second coefficient defined in the present work (?) corresponded to the difference in the mean content of elements between the groups. The coefficient was the highest for Fe, subsequently Ni, Mn and Cr. None of the differences was statistically significant. For each group and a given element, ranges between 10th and 90th percentile were determined. The upper value of the range differed the mostly between the groups for Ni (82.5%) showing that stainless steel of orthodontic appliance can be the source of exposure to this element. The difference was also identified for Mn (26.5%). For Cr and Fe, the lower value of the range was elevated. It was noted that 22% of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment had elevated levels of Ni in hair. A correlation matrix between the content of the elements in hair was calculated. Statistically significant correlations were found between Cr and Fe, showing similar sources of exposure. Multiple regression analysis showed the dependence of Ni content (dependent variable) on the level of Co and Mg (synergism) and V (antagonism). PMID:21787724

  7. Magnetic field exposure from electric appliances and childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; John, E.M.; Kleckner, R.C. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The effect on childhood cancer of prolonged exposure to 60-H magnetic fields from electric appliances was examined using interview data from a recently completed case-control study. Exposures of children aged 0-14 years whose incident cancers were diagnosed between 1976 and 1983 and who resided in the Denver, Colorado, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared with those of controls selected by random digit dialing, matched on age, sex, and telephone exchange area. Parents of 252 cases and 222 controls were interviewed at home about the use of electric appliances by the mother during pregnancy (prenatal exposure) and by the child (postnatal exposure). After adjustment for income, prenatal electric blanket exposure was associated with a small increase in the incidence of childhood cancers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.2) that was more pronounced for leukemia (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.6) and brain cancer (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5). Postnatal exposure to electric blankets was also weakly associated with childhood cancer (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.6-3.4), with a larger but imprecise association with acute lymphocytic leukemia (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.6-6.5). Water beds and bedside electric clocks were unrelated to childhood cancer incidence. Results are limited by nonresponse and imprecision resulting from the rarity of appliance use, especially for subgroups of cases. Nonetheless, electric blankets, one of the principal sources of prolonged magnetic field exposure, were weakly associated with childhood cancer and warrant a more thorough evaluation.

  8. A State-Queueing Model of Thermostatically Controlled Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Chassin, David P.

    2004-08-01

    This paper develops a new method to analyze the price response of aggregated loads consisting of thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs). Assuming a perfectly diversified load before the price response, we show that TCA setpoint changes in response to the market price will result in a redistribution of TCAs in on/off states and therefore change the probabilities for a unit to reside in each state. A randomly distributed load can be partially synchronized and the aggregated diversity lost. The lost of the load diversity can then create unexpected dynamics in the aggregated load profile. Raising issues such as restoring load diversity and damping the peak loads are also addressed in the paper.

  9. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...modification of an existing industry safety appliance standard...modification of an approved industry standard under paragraph...the FRA Docket Clerk, West Building Third Floor, Office of Chief...modification of an existing industry safety appliance...

  10. 78 FR 37586 - TE Connectivity, CIS-Appliances Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...Administration [TA-W-81,414] TE Connectivity, CIS-Appliances Division, Including...the workers and former workers of TE Connectivity, CIS-Appliances Division, Jonestown...skill level of employees across TE Connectivity. The Department also confirmed...

  11. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar construction. 231.35 Section...standard for new railcar construction. (a) Petitions for...appliance standard for new construction of railroad...

  12. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar construction. 231.35 Section...standard for new railcar construction. (a) Petitions for...appliance standard for new construction of railroad...

  13. 49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar construction. 231.35 Section...standard for new railcar construction. (a) Petitions for...appliance standard for new construction of railroad...

  14. 77 FR 21744 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ...shelving and racks (``Kitchen Racks'') from the People's...notice. \\2\\ See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks...refrigerating or freezing equipment, cooking stoves, ranges, and ovens. Certain kitchen appliance shelving and...

  15. Recently a lot of multimedia applications are emerging on portable appliances. They require both the flexibility of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abstract Recently a lot of multimedia applications are emerging on portable appliances and not only prototypes. Reconfigurable FPGA's are particularly suited for multimedia applications on portable appliances. In fact, tomorrow's multimedia applications will require both the flexibility of upgradeable

  16. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Turiel; B. Atkinson; S. Boghosian; P. Chan; J. Jennings; J. Lutz; J. McMahon; G. Rosenquist

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of

  17. Design Techniques for Sensor Appliances: Foundations and Light Compass Case Study

    E-print Network

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    Design Techniques for Sensor Appliances: Foundations and Light Compass Case Study Jennifer L. Wong the challenging task of designing light sensor appliances: (i) physical world, (ii) light sensor, (iii) physical developed new optimization techniques for both tasks. A portable light sensor system was designed using

  18. Orientation, Shop Tools and Equipment; Appliance Repair--Basic: 9023.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Presented as an introduction to appliance repair, the course is intended as an orientation in the duties, responsibilities, and career opportunities of the major appliances service technician. It also introduces the learner to the various types of tools and equipment used in this trade, and provides him an opportunity for instruction and practice…

  19. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    E-print Network

    Traynor, G.W.

    2011-01-01

    appliances. An extensive literature search was conducted toenergy consumed by the appliance. Methods Literature SearchA literature search was conducted to find all published

  20. Interaction of All IP Mobile Internet Devices with Networked Appliances in a Residential Home

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juhani Latvakoski; Pekka Pääkkönen; Daniel Pakkala; A. Tikkala; J. Remes; P. Välitalo

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the interaction of all IP mobile Internet devices with networked appliances in a residential home. Two novel mechanisms are described and demonstrated: pointing as an indication of user interest, and user interface loading from the home appliance to a mobile Internet device. The user pointing action is used as a source to both collecting the context

  1. Frequency waves, Grid Friendly Appliances and geographic limits in a smart grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanyan Li; Mohammed M. Olama; James J. Nutaro

    2010-01-01

    Grid Friendly Appliances (GFAs) are water heaters, refrigerators, and other domestic electrical appliances that sense and respond to frequency problems in the electric power grid. The controller in a GFA monitors the power signal at its plug and turns the device off when the frequency drops below 59.95 Hz. When the frequency recovers its nominal value of 60 Hz, the

  2. The Demand Reduction Potential of Smart Appliances in U.S. Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-08-14

    The widespread deployment of demand respond (DR) enabled home appliances is expected to have significant reduction in the demand of electricity during peak hours. The work documented in this paper focuses on estimating the energy shift resulting from the installation of DR enabled smart appliances in the U.S. This estimation is based on analyzing the market for smart appliances and calculating the total energy demand that can potentially be shifted by DR control in appliances. Appliance operation is examined by considering their sub components individually to identify their energy consumptions and savings resulting from interrupting and shifting their load, e.g., by delaying the refrigerator defrost cycle. In addition to major residential appliances, residential pool pumps are also included in this study given their energy consumption profiles that make them favorable for DR applications. In the market analysis study documented in this paper, the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) databases are used to examine the expected life of an appliance, the number of appliances installed in homes constructed in 10 year intervals after 1940 and home owner income. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the smart appliances in reducing electrical demand have been drawn and a ranking of appliances in terms of their contribution to load shift is presented. E.g., it was concluded that DR enabled water heaters result in the maximum load shift; whereas, dishwashers have the highest user elasticity and hence the highest potential for load shifting through DR. This work is part of a larger effort to bring novel home energy management concepts and technologies to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak electricity demand, integrate renewables and storage technology, and change homeowner behavior to manage and consume less energy and potentially save consumer energy costs.

  3. 77 FR 25747 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ...of Institution of Formal Enforcement Proceeding AGENCY: U.S. International Trade...has instituted a formal enforcement proceeding relating to the November 13, 2006...Align filed a complaint for enforcement proceedings under Commission Rule 210.75....

  4. 78 FR 2282 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ...Commission Determination To Review and Reverse an Initial Determination of the Presiding...Commission has determined to review and reverse an initial determination (``ID...Commission has determined to review and reverse the subject ID because the subject...

  5. Heating of BDE-209 and BDE-47 in plant oil in presence of o,p'-DDT or iron(III) chloride can produce monochloro-polybromo diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Bendig, Paul; Blumenstein, Marina; Vetter, Walter

    2012-05-01

    Heating processes of food can alter the concentrations and composition of organohalogen compounds. In this study the fate of two polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) was analyzed when heated in plant oil with and without additional compounds. When the PBDEs were heated in pure plant oil, no transformation was observed. Heating of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) together with ortho,para'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p'-DDT) or iron(III) chloride in plant oil resulted in the formation of monochloro-nonabromodiphenyl ethers (Br(9)Cl-DEs). Almost 10% of the initial amount of BDE-209 was transferred into Br(9)Cl-DEs. Heating BDE-47 in the presence of iron(III) chloride produced two monochlorinated transformation products which were tentatively identified as 2,2',4-tribromo-4'-chlorodiphenyl ether (4'-Cl-BDE-17) and 2,4,4'-tribromo-2'-chlorodiphenyl ether (2'-Cl-BDE-28). However, the reactivity was smaller and no Br?Cl exchange was observed with o,p'-DDT. The conditions used in our experiments (200 °C; heating 30 min-3 h) indicate that such reactivity may also occur during cooking of fish, meat and other food samples. PMID:22406329

  6. [Development of a prevention of body movement fixation appliance in leg digital subtraction angiography].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Mitsuyoshi; Kato, Kyouichi; Sakiyama, Koushi; Uchiyama, Yushi; Asanuma, Shinichi; Fujimura, Kazumasa; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2010-01-20

    In the peripheral angiography to evaluate blood flow below the knee levels in patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans, a motion artifact occurs as a result of body movements of a patient in normal fixation. This sometimes makes a correct evaluation difficult. Therefore, we developed a fixed appliance which can restrain body movement without affecting image quality and blood flow in digital subtraction angiography of a leg. The appliance is filled with the styrofoam of 1 mm diameter in a sealed bag, after air is aspirated from inside the bag. The appliance is stiffened to fit the shape of the crus. We measured signal to noise ratio / contrast to noise ratio / a resolution limit by visual evaluation to examine the influence of the image before and after usage of this appliance. In addition, the blood velocity of the dorsalis artery in ultrasound was measured to examine the effect on the blood flow. As a result, the fixed appliance did not affect blood flow in peripheral angiography to evaluate the clinical significance, the usual 5-point evaluate scale was used. The scale was significantly improved (p <0.01) after usage of this appliance. The newly developed fixed appliance for digital subtraction angiography of a leg is useful to avoid motion artifacts in clinical settings. PMID:20145364

  7. Assessment of the effect on the gas industry of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987. Topical report, November 1988

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liljenberg

    1988-01-01

    This report evaluates the effect on the appliance industry, the utility industry, and the consumer of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA). The Act affects residential appliances. Existing state efficiency standards are preempted. Most residential gas-fired appliances are affected by NAECA efficiency standards. Most severely affected (high percentage of models that do not meet efficiency standards) are

  8. Suffer the little children: fixed intraoral habit appliances for treating childhood thumbsucking habits: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicholas L

    2002-11-01

    A critical review of the literature is presented covering the treatment of childhood thumbsucking habits using fixed intraoral habit appliances (hayrake, palatal crib). The habit appliances are classified into type and function. Data is tabulated for key references revealing the fragmented and distorted nature of the literature and its lack of consistency. A chronological approach is presented to confirm the confused and idiosyncratic character of the literature. Information is provided on the early work of Massler and Graber and the paradox of Mack, Korner and Reider. Haryett's seminal studies at the University of Alberta regarding aspects of the treatment used are critically reviewed. Reflections are presented on why Larsson's study, casting doubt on the wisdom of using habit appliances, continues to be ignored. The emergence of the Bluegrass Appliance is discussed in terms of its being a more humane appliance and the seeming reluctance of practitioners to apply it as a kinder form of appliance therapy. Information is reported on the pain and serious injuries inflicted on children by habit appliances. A comparison of the use of appliances in the USA is made with the UK, where fixed habit appliances are not popular. Concludes that fixed intraoral habit appliances are cruel and inflict pain and suffering on children out of all proportion to their necessity. Questions why these appliances continue to be used, implying that it could be a combination of financial inducement, professional insularity and the absence of concerted opposition from behavioural therapists. PMID:12572258

  9. Heat Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students explore heat transfer and energy efficiency using the context of energy efficient houses. They gain a solid understanding of the three types of heat transfer: radiation, convection and conduction, which are explained in detail and related to the real world. They learn about the many ways solar energy is used as a renewable energy source to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses and operating costs. Students also explore ways in which a device can capitalize on the methods of heat transfer to produce a beneficial result. They are given the tools to calculate the heat transferred between a system and its surroundings.

  10. [The pendulis appliance: a palatal miniscrew supported molar distalization device].

    PubMed

    Nappée-Miévilly, Magali; Nappée, François-Joseph; Kerbrat, Jean-Baptiste; Goudot, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    The maxillary molar distalization is a valuable therapeutic option in some clinical cases. Its biomechanics is challenging and difficult to obtain. Historically, various devices have been described offering successful solutions to this problem such as the Hilgers Pendulum Appliance (1992) and variants linked to mini screws which recently have shown interesting clinical potential. This article presents a new Pendulum variant using a miniscrew, the "pendulis". It follows the original concept (titanium-molybdenum alloy distalization springs and polymethyl-methacrylate pellet) but dental support is replaced by a single palatal miniscrew (median adults, para-median in children) to which the device is fixed by means of a metal welded cap easily positioned and removable by the practitioner. This allows for better control of the oral hygiene and completely controlled extraoral activation. Fabrication steps are described and instruction of use is illustrated with clinical documentation. PMID:25158749

  11. Sensors Applications, Volume 5, Sensors in Household Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschulena, Guido; Lahrmann, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    A competent and comprehensive survey of current and future sensors applied in electronic household devices. Engineers and scientists will find here reports of an increase in product safety, efficiency and consumer comfort, coupled with a decrease in power consumption and water/wastewater. The book also looks at the customer appeal of advanced "intelligent" appliances, showing the heightened need for comprehensive information on their potentials and limitations. Taken as a whole, this series covers all major fields of application for commercial sensors, as well as their manufacturing techniques and major types. As such the series does not treat bulk sensors, but rather places strong emphasis on microsensors, microsystems and integrated electronic sensor packages. Each of the individual volumes is tailored to the needs and queries of readers from the relevant branch of industry.

  12. Efficiency of appliance models on the market before and after DOE standards

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen

    2004-06-15

    Energy efficiency standards for appliances mandate that appliance manufacturers not manufacture or import models that have a test energy efficiency below a specified level after the standard effective date. Thus, appliance standards set a floor for energy efficiency. But do they also induce more significant changes in the efficiencies that manufacturers offer after the standard becomes effective? To address this question, we undertook an examination of before-standard and after-standard efficiency of models on the market for three products: (1) Refrigerators (1990, 1993, and 2001 standards); (2) Room air conditioners (1990 and 2000 standards); and (3) Gas furnaces (1992 standard).

  13. Topology of megagauss magnetic fields and of heat-carrying electrons produced in a high-power laser-solid interaction.

    PubMed

    Lancia, L; Albertazzi, B; Boniface, C; Grisollet, A; Riquier, R; Chaland, F; Le Thanh, K-C; Mellor, Ph; Antici, P; Buffechoux, S; Chen, S N; Doria, D; Nakatsutsumi, M; Peth, C; Swantusch, M; Stardubtsev, M; Palumbo, L; Borghesi, M; Willi, O; Pépin, H; Fuchs, J

    2014-12-01

    The intricate spatial and energy distribution of magnetic fields, self-generated during high power laser irradiation (at I?^{2}?10^{13}-10^{14}??W.cm^{-2}.?m^{2}) of a solid target, and of the heat-carrying electron currents, is studied in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) relevant conditions. This is done by comparing proton radiography measurements of the fields to an improved magnetohydrodynamic description that fully takes into account the nonlocality of the heat transport. We show that, in these conditions, magnetic fields are rapidly advected radially along the target surface and compressed over long time scales into the dense parts of the target. As a consequence, the electrons are weakly magnetized in most parts of the plasma flow, and we observe a reemergence of nonlocality which is a crucial effect for a correct description of the energetics of ICF experiments. PMID:25526131

  14. Ketoprofen produces profound inhibition of spinal c-Fos protein expression resulting from an inflammatory stimulus but not from noxious heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaroslava Buritova; Prisca Honore´; Jean-Marie Besson

    1996-01-01

    This study assesses the anti-inflammatory\\/analgesic effects of ketoprofen a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, using the method of c-Fos immunoreactivity at the spinal cord level in two models of noxious stimulation: carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain or acute noxious heat. Ketoprofen was pre-administered intravenously or orally 25 min before an intraplantar injection of carrageenan (6 mg in 150 ?1 of saline) in hindpaw of

  15. Efficacy of Timed Embryo Transfer with Fresh and Frozen In Vitro Produced Embryos to Increase Pregnancy Rates in Heat-Stressed Dairy Cattle1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Ambrose; M. Drost; R. L. Monson; J. J. Rutledge; M. L. Leibfried-Rutledge; M.-J. Thatcher; T. Kassa; M. Binelli; P. J. Hansen; P. J. Chenoweth

    1999-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether pregnancy rates in heat-stressed dairy cattle could be enhanced by timed embryo transfer of fresh (nonfrozen) or frozen- thawed in vitro-derived embryos compared to timed insemination. Ovulation in Holstein cows was synchro- nized by a GnRH injection followed 7 d later by PGF2? and a second treatment with GnRH 48 h later. Control cows

  16. Orthodontic forces generated by a simulated archwire appliance evaluated by the finite element method.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Spyrakos, C C; Bernard, D O

    1990-01-01

    The finite element method has been used to determine the stress distribution generated by the initial placement of a simulated preset bracket-type orthodontic appliance utilizing titanium-nickel alloy archwire. PMID:2256565

  17. 76 FR 14100 - Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ...Major Appliances Division Including On-Site Leased Workers From Per Mar Security and Nussbaum Transportation; Webster City, IA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of...

  18. Estimation of the Energy and Capacity Savings in Texas from Appliance Efficiency Standards

    E-print Network

    Verdict, M.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation will be to assess the technical potential for energy and capacity savings in Texas by the year 2006 by the statewide adoption of minimum appliance efficiency standards equivalent to those recently adopted...

  19. 0 + 0 = 1 : the appliance model of selling software bundled with hardware

    E-print Network

    Hein, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    The business model of selling software bundled with hardware is called the appliance model. As hardware becomes less and less expensive and open source software is being offered for free, the traditional business model of ...

  20. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (ii) Ensures, as nearly as possible, based upon the design of the equipment, that the standard provides for the same complement of handholds, sill steps, ladders, hand or parking brakes, running boards, and other safety appliances as are...

  1. 42 CFR 410.36 - Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (a) Medicare Part B pays for the following medical supplies, appliances and devices: (1) Surgical dressings, and splints, casts, and other devices used for reduction of fractures and dislocations. (2) Prosthetic devices, other than...

  2. 42 CFR 410.36 - Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (a) Medicare Part B pays for the following medical supplies, appliances and devices: (1) Surgical dressings, and splints, casts, and other devices used for reduction of fractures and dislocations. (2) Prosthetic devices, other than...

  3. 77 FR 33337 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ...List of Subjects in 16 CFR Part 305 Advertising, Energy conservation, Household appliances...Lighting Facts labels. All Web sites advertising covered refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers...Lighting Facts labels. All Web sites advertising covered showerheads, faucets,...

  4. 77 FR 15298 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...looking at FTC labels, manufacturer advertising, or DOE certification data.\\43...List of Subjects in 16 CFR Part 305 Advertising, Energy conservation, Household appliances...Lighting Facts labels. All Web sites advertising covered refrigerators,...

  5. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  6. 78 FR 9785 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...identified in this AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd, Maesbury Road,...

  7. 77 FR 64763 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...in this proposed AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd., Maesbury...

  8. Reverse logistics system planning for recycling electrical appliances and computers in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Hsing Shih

    2001-01-01

    Since the disposition of end-of-life home appliances has caused tremendous attention, Taiwan recently promulgated a Scrap Home Appliances and Computers Recycling Regulation that mandates manufacturers and importers to take back their products. Reverse logistics system planning shall become vital as the take-back rate increases and the service area expands in the future. This study utilizes a mixed integer programming model

  9. Share of Energy Used by Appliances and Consumer Electronics Increases in U.S. Homes

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the share of residential electricity used by appliances and electronics in U.S. homes has nearly doubled from 17% to 3% , growing from 1.77 quadrillion Btu (quads) to 3.25 quads. This rise has occurred while federal energy efficiency standards were enacted on every major appliance, overall household energy consumption actually decreased from 10.58 quads to 10.55 quads, and energy use per household fell 31%.

  10. Evolution of treatment mechanics and contemporary appliance design in orthodontics: A 40-year perspective.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Richard P; Bennett, John C

    2015-06-01

    Until the early 1970s, successful treatment with the Begg technique and the Tweed edgewise technique required tedious wire bending. The introduction of Andrews' straight wire appliance changed that, and it was one of the most significant contributions in the history of orthodontics. The straight wire appliance significantly reduced the amount of wire bending and also brought along other options in treatment mechanics. Retraction of the canines with elastic chains and ligature wires became more common. Sliding mechanics in place of closing loops became the method of space closure for a significant number of clinicians. Edgewise force levels were initially used to close spaces; however, it was soon observed that lighter forces were more effective with sliding mechanics. Along with these changes, it became apparent that compensation in the appliance was needed, depending on the type of malocclusion and particularly with varying extraction sequences. Various appliance designs were developed to accommodate changes in mechanics and force levels. These modifications improved tooth positions at the end of treatment as long as the brackets were properly placed. These major changes in appliances, force levels, and treatment mechanics can be traced back to the work of Dr Lawrence Andrews and the straight wire appliances. PMID:26038069

  11. Hybrid cycle power plant with heat accumulator for storing heat exchange fluid transferring heat between cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pacault

    1976-01-01

    An installation for producing motive power, operating on a hybrid cycle of gas and vapor such as steam is described. The installation has a heat accumulator for storing a heat-exchange fluid which can also act as a fluid fuel for a heat source adapted to heat the fluid of the heat accumulator. Heat can be drawn from the accumulator in

  12. Evaluation of combination space-heating\\/water-heating systems. Topical report, October 1989August 1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Talbert; J. G. Murray; R. A. Borgeson; V. P. Kam

    1992-01-01

    The report presents the final results of a study to investigate the transient operating characteristics and combined annual efficiencies of several different types of gas-fired combination space\\/water-heating systems. Transient characteristics were measured under cycling conditions representing both average and peak winter operation. Annual system efficiencies were determined using the proposed ASHRAE Standard 124P procedure for rating these appliances, and then

  13. Estimation and comparison of ostomy appliance costs with tariffs in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Ramaekers, Dirk

    2008-02-01

    This study estimated costs of production and distribution of ostomy appliances, and compared cost estimates with tariffs in Belgium. The cost model took into account manufacturing costs, overhead, R&D, warehousing, profits, and distribution margins. Data were derived from manufacturers, a decomposition of finished products, and interviews with stakeholders. The cost model generated estimated retail prices of euro 2.96 for one-piece appliances, euro 1.62 for two-piece pouches, and euro 2.06 for two-piece flanges. Production and distribution costs accounted for 40 and 60% of retail prices, respectively. Estimated retail prices corresponded well with tariffs for one-piece appliances and for two-piece pouches. For two-piece regular flanges, a substantial difference was observed between the calculated price of euro 2.06 and the tariffs of euro 6.05. In the absence of publicly disclosed information on the cost structure of appliances, estimating ostomy appliance costs is valuable to reimbursement agencies when setting tariffs. PMID:17180385

  14. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    or mineral deposits (scale) on dishes, utensils, and plumbing fixtures. Hard water can also reduce, and cookware. Hard water can also produce a mineral scale on the inside of pipes, cookware, and plumbing fixtures, as well as appliances like water heaters and coffee mak- ers. In pipes, excessive mineral scaling

  15. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  16. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  17. An esthetic appliance for the management of crown-root fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang-Min; Lee, Kang-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic extrusion is usually performed by means of a fixed orthodontic appliance that utilizes arch wire attached to adjacent teeth and transfers the desired force by elastic from the wire to the root. However, clinicians often encounter cases where the bonding required for tooth traction is not possible because the adjacent teeth have been restored with ceramic or veneer. The purpose of this case report is to describe a modified orthodontic extrusion appliance that is useful when conventional orthodontic treatment is not possible. The modified appliance was fabricated using an artificial tooth, clear plastic sheeting, and a braided fiber-reinforced composite strip that covered adjacent teeth without bonding. It satisfied the esthetic and functional needs of the patient and established the optimal biologic width. PMID:25110648

  18. University of Vermont -Surplus Disposal Form Updated: December 2011 This form is only required for: Appliances, Laboratory Equipment & "Movable Equipment"

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    : Appliances, Laboratory Equipment & "Movable Equipment" regardless of its value. (Form not required for furniture or untagged computer equipment.) INSTRUCTIONS: (1) Enter a FAMIS Service Request for surplus for Decontamination of Laboratory Equipment & Appliances Owning Department must certify that item has been properly

  19. Simple estimation of equivalent magnetic dipole moment to characterize ELF magnetic fields generated by electric appliances incorporating harmonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Yamazaki; Tadashi Kawamoto

    2001-01-01

    A simple method of quantifying the ELF (extremely low frequency) magnetic field distribution around electric appliances, which takes the harmonics into account, is newly proposed. The proposed method involves: (1) a simple estimation of the position of an equivalent magnetic dipole moment inside an appliance, using two magnetic field meters; (2) identification of the amplitude of the dipole moment magnetic-field

  20. Building Storage Appliances for the Grid and Beyond John Bent, Andrea ArpaciDusseau, Remzi ArpaciDusseau, Miron Livny

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Building Storage Appliances for the Grid and Beyond John Bent, Andrea Arpaci­Dusseau, Remzi Arpaci,dusseau,remzi,miron@cs.wisc.edu Abstract Current storage appliances have been traditionally de­ signed to meet either the storage demands challenges to storage ap­ pliances that would be used on the grid. NeST is a user­level software­only storage

  1. Building Storage Appliances for the Grid and Beyond John Bent, Andrea Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi Arpaci-Dusseau, Miron Livny

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Building Storage Appliances for the Grid and Beyond John Bent, Andrea Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi Arpaci,dusseau,remzi,miron@cs.wisc.edu Abstract Current storage appliances have been traditionally de- signed to meet either the storage demands challenges to storage ap- pliances that would be used on the grid. NeST is a user-level software-only storage

  2. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Chang, G.-M.

    1996-08-01

    There is a need to reduce air pollutant emissions in some U.S. urban regions to meet federal and state air quality guidelines. Opportunities exist for reducing pollutant emissions from natural gas appliances in the residential sector. A cost-benefit analysis on various pollutant-reducing strategies is needed to evaluate these opportunities. The effectiveness of these pollutant-reducing strategies (e.g., low-emission burners, energy conservation) can then be ranked among themselves and compared with other pollutant-reducing strategies available for the region. A key step towards conducting a cost-benefit analysis is to collect information on pollutant emissions from existing residential natural gas appliances. An extensive literature search was conducted to collect data on residential natural-gas-appliance pollutant emission factors. The literature primarily describes laboratory tests and may not reflect actual emission factor distributions in the field. Pollutant emission factors for appliances operated at over 700 test conditions are summarized for nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter, formaldehyde, and methane. The appliances for which pollutant emissions are summarized include forced-air furnaces; stand-alone space heaters (vented and unvented); water heaters; cooking range burners, ovens, and broilers; and pilot lights. The arithmetic means of the nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter emission factor distributions agree well with the Environmental Protection Agency published emission factor values for domestic gas appliances (in report AP-42). However, the carbon monoxide and methane distribution means are much higher than the relevant AP-42 values. Formaldehyde emission factors are not addressed in AP-42, but the emission factor mean for formaldehyde is comparable to the AP-42 emission factor value for total hydrocarbon emissions.

  3. Household appliance use and residential exposure to 60-hz magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Mezei, G; Kheifets, L I; Nelson, L M; Mills, K M; Iriye, R; Kelsey, J L

    2001-01-01

    We characterized the distribution of exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) during daily activities and during household appliance use, and estimated the relative contribution of various activities and appliances to total daily exposure. One hundred sixty-two subjects provided information on their patterns of appliance use and wore personal monitors for 24 h to collect MF exposure data. Of total exposure, 27% accumulated while subjects were in bed; 41% while at home but not in bed; 9% at work; and 24% elsewhere. Less than 2% of the total MF exposure accumulated during the use of each of the eight individual appliances considered, except computers, during the use of which 9% of the total exposure accumulated. Of the time subjects spent at exposure levels higher than 2 microT, 8% accumulated while they were using microwave ovens, and 4% and 3% while using computers and electric stoves, respectively. Mean MF measurements tended to be lowest when subjects were in bed and highest at work and during the use of microwave ovens, coffee grinders, hair dryers, and electric shavers. Results from questionnaires on household appliance use in the past year were not useful in predicting the total mean exposure level and over-threshold exposures measured by 24-h personal monitors. Significant MF exposure accumulates at home, at work, and elsewhere; therefore, accurate exposure assessment needs to consider residential, occupational, and other sources together. Questionnaire-based information on appliance use has limited value in the assessment of average and over-threshold exposure to MFs. PMID:11246800

  4. Reverse activated hyrax pressure appliance for treatment of a keloid located at auricula helix.

    PubMed

    Yüzba??o?lu, Emir

    2013-08-01

    Keloids are considered aberrations of the wound healing process, and various treatment regimens are described depending on the morphology and size of the lesion. Compression therapy using custom-made pressure clips or splints is widely used for the treatment of keloids. The most common complication of this therapy is ulceration due to excessive soft tissue pressure, resulting in delays and prolonged treatment time. This article describes the fabrication of a custom-made pressure appliance for the treatment of a keloid located at the auricle helix. The pressure appliance can be modified to fit the auricle helix and covers the area needing pressure. PMID:23551793

  5. A high-sensitivity hydraulic load cell for small kitchen appliances.

    PubMed

    Pa?nik, Roman; Novak, Franc

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a hydraulic load cell made from hydroformed metallic bellows. The load cell was designed for a small kitchen appliance with the weighing function integrated into the composite control and protection of the appliance. It is a simple, low-cost solution with small dimensions and represents an alternative to the existing hydraulic load cells in industrial use. A good non-linearity and a small hysteresis were achieved. The influence of temperature leads to an error of 7.5%, which can be compensated for by software to meet the requirements of the target application. PMID:22163665

  6. A modified over-tie for the ligation of Incognito™ lingual fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Peter N

    2013-09-01

    The Incognito lingual appliance has a ribbon-wise slot with vertically inserted wires. Control of tip can be problematic with this appliance and the conventional method to overcome this is to achieve full wire engagement via the use of power-ties. Although effective, these can be very difficult to place and also create very high friction. A method of ligation is described which consists of a modified elastic double over-tie. This is easily placed and very effective at controlling tip in Incognito brackets using a variety of arch wires. This method creates less friction than the power-tie. PMID:24009324

  7. Upper molar distalization on palatal miniscrews: an easy to manage palatal appliance.

    PubMed

    Huanca Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas; Piepoli, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    Upper molar distalization supported by miniscrews has become increasingly popular in the last years. A detailed clinical and lab procedure for the realization of a distalization appliance (fast back or distal jet) connected to miniscrews inserted in the anterior region of the palate is presented. A case report illustrates the use of a fast back appliance supported by miniscrews to correct the mesial shift of the molars and of the premolars as a consequence of an early loss of the maxillary deciduous canines. PMID:22583590

  8. Operations manual for the patient assist device. [to handle electrical appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Quadriplegic patients and multiple amputee patients are almost totally dependent on nursing personnel for any activities or interests in which they participate. A patient assist device is reported which provides patient control over electrical devices in his environment. The patient operates three switches to acquire control over a desired electrical appliance. The type switches employed are chosen to conform to patient capabilities, even when such capabilities are as limited as eye or head movements. The switch operations are sensed and converted into command signals by the patient assist device to control ten electrical appliances simulataneously and independently.

  9. Modified Pendulum Appliance Including Distal Screw and Uprighting Activation for Non-Compliance Therapy of Class-II Malocclusion in Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gero Kinzinger; Robert Fuhrmann; Ulrich Gross; Peter Diedrich

    2000-01-01

    In present-day orthodontics there is an increasing call for therapeutic procedures and appliances allowing those delivering the treatment maximum independence from patient cooperation. This requires both the development of new therapeutic appliances and the optimization of existing ones (via modification). The present study aims to analyze the therapeutic outcomes obtained by using a pendulum appliance (distal screw and integrated molar

  10. Solar heated anaerobic digestor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhoades

    1980-01-01

    A solar heated anaerobic digestor is provided, adapted to utilize organic material capable of decomposing to produce methane gas and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digestor is wrapped with a layer of heat absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat absorptive material to

  11. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...whether the existing industry standard will provide...Docket Clerk, West Building Third Floor, Office...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard...pertains or issued the industry standard that is proposed...Docket Clerk, West Building Third Floor,...

  12. Appliance Service Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 2307.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The graduate of the Appliance Service Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyperson; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) use and maintain hand and power tools to the standards of competency and safety required in the trade; (4) by skill…

  13. Improved Low Thermal Conductivity Fine Cell HCFC141b Appliance Foam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauricio H. Venegas; Herman P. Doerge

    1998-01-01

    The issue of global warming is receiving more attention on the world stage. Carbon dioxide emission from the burning of fossil fuels is suspected of being a major contributor in the phenomena of global warming. In the U.S.A., the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) was passed into law, in part to reduce the demand for electrical power,

  14. Dental appliances for snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea: construction aspects for general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Simon G S; Craik, Nicholas W; Deans, Robert F; Hanning, Chris D

    2003-01-01

    The medical and dental aspects of management for patients diagnosed with snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea are well documented. However, guidance for treatment by the general dental practitioner is lacking. This article reviews aspects of appliance provision and presents the use of a silicone material in an attempt to improve the longevity of a recognized prosthesis. PMID:12619308

  15. Remotely Controlled Mandibular Positioner Predicts Efficacy of Oral Appliances in Sleep Apnea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willis H. Tsai; Juan-Carlos Vazquez; Tsutomu Oshima; Leslie Dort; Brian Roycroft; Alan A. Lowe; Eric Hajduk; John E. Remmers

    2004-01-01

    1 ) with a remotely controlled man- dibular positioner (RCMP), a temporary oral appliance that can advance or retract the mandible in a process analogous to changing the mask pressure during a continuous positive airway pressure titration study. We hypothesized that the elimination of respiratory events and significant nocturnal oxygen desaturation during an RCMP overnight study would predict AMP efficacy,

  16. Low-frequency magnetic fields from electrical appliances and power lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Garrido; Antonio F. Otero; José Cidrás

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between magnetic fields and the health of people is increasingly being investigated. International organizations have proposed bylaws that put limits on the value of the generated magnetic field. In this work, we measure the magnetic field created by electrical appliances and high voltage lines and we analyze the degree of compliance with recent applicable European regulation. The simulation

  17. Projected regional impacts of appliance efficiency standards for the U.S. residential sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Koomey; S. A. Mahler; C. A. Webber; J. E. McMahon

    1998-01-01

    Minimum efficiency standards for residential appliances have been implemented in the US for a large number of residential end-uses. This analysis assesses the potential energy, dollar, and carbon impacts of those standards at the state and national levels. In this assessment, the authors use historical and projected shipments of equipment, a detailed stock accounting model, measured and estimated unit energy

  18. Projected regional impacts of appliance efficiency standards for the US residential sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan G. Koomey; Susan A. Mahler; Carrie A. Webber; James E. McMahon

    1999-01-01

    Minimum efficiency standards for residential appliances have been implemented in the US for a large number of residential end-uses. This analysis assesses the potential energy, dollar, and carbon impacts of those standards at the state and national levels. We explicitly account for improvements in efficiency likely to occur in the absence of standards, but because our method for characterizing these

  19. A Combination Appliance for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Effectiveness of Mandibular Advancement and Tongue Retention

    PubMed Central

    Dort, Leslie; Remmers, John

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea would experience increasing treatment effect when a tongue retention component was added to a mandibular repositioning appliance. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Sleep clinic. Patients: Forty-four sequentially recruited patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. Interventions: Subjects were sleep tested at 4 treatment stages of oral appliance therapy. The 4 stages were: 6-mm mandibular protrusion, 8-mm protrusion, 6-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb, and 8-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb. Measurements and Results: Forty-one of 44 subjects completed the protocol. There was a decrease in mean respiratory disturbance index from 33.5 events/h at baseline to 18.1 events/h at stage 4 (p = 0.001). Mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) decreased from 12.3 at baseline to 9.0 at stage 4 (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: A combined approach utilizing both mandibular protrusion and tongue retention can provide effective treatment for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. The addition of a tongue bulb may provide further treatment effect when mandibular protrusion is limited. Appliance designs that allow for convenient combination therapy need to be developed for this purpose. Citation: Dort L; Remmers J. A combination appliance for obstructive sleep apnea: the effectiveness of mandibular advancement and tongue retention. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):265-269. PMID:22701383

  20. A new USB home appliances based on PC and infrared remote control protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Lv; Zhishu Li; Mingyi Mao; Qingfu Huang; Zhicheng Chen

    2010-01-01

    The infrared remote control devices are used to operate in the most of modern household applications, such as television, DVDs, the conditions. With the development of the society and smart home, there are more and more home appliances and more infrared remote control devices used to match them. But the infrared remote control device can't be used to manipulate the

  1. A Context Menu for the Real World: Controlling Physical Appliances Through Head-Worn Infrared

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, James F.

    home scenario. Author Keywords smart devices; universal remote control; wearable computing; glass ACM for selecting and con- trolling smart appliances in physical spaces through a head-worn computing device, Google Glass, with a narrow-beam IR emitter for this purpose. This config- uration yields a usable beam

  2. EFFECTS OF APPLIANCE TYPE AND OPERATING VARIABLES ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS: VOLUME II. APPENDICIES D-F.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project, in support of the intergared Air Cancer Project (IACP), to provide data on the specific effects of appliance type and operating variables on woodstove emissions. samples of particulate material and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were coll...

  3. Virtual Environments: Easy Modeling of Interdependent Virtual Appliances in the Cloud

    E-print Network

    Sadjadi, S. Masoud

    Virtual Environments: Easy Modeling of Interdependent Virtual Appliances in the Cloud Xabriel J@us.ibm.com Abstract We present our ideas for modeling groups of interdependent virtual machines in the cloud. We call these models virtual environments. This abstraction is built on top of virtual ap- pliances and the services

  4. Business Process Analysis and Implementation Strategies of Greening Logistics in Appliances Retail Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Xuezhong; Jiang Linlin; Wang Chengbo

    2011-01-01

    The whole world ecological environment worsens, and low-carbon economical and sustainable development becomes the general trend. The retail trade as the middle link of the whole economic cycle plays an important role on the relations of each essential factor in the entire economic environment. The concepts of low-carbon economy, and green logistics, and electrical appliances retail trade are discussed and

  5. Carotid cavernous fistula after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with a bone anchored appliance.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, J T; Paschoal, E H A; Carreira, A S D; Real, R P V

    2013-03-01

    Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) is an effective and stable method for treating severe maxillary transverse discrepancies in skeletally mature individuals, but it has potential complications. The authors report the case of a 34-year-old woman who developed carotid cavernous fistula after undergoing SARME with a bone anchored appliance and discuss the possible etiological basis of this condition. PMID:23153788

  6. Dynamic energy-consumption indicators for domestic appliances: environment, behaviour and design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Wood; M. Newborough

    2003-01-01

    The literature concerning the application of information-feedback methods for saving energy in the home is reviewed. Particular attention is given to electronic feedback via smart meters and displays, or “energy-consumption indicators” (ECI). Previous studies have not focused on individual appliances, but this paper presents the findings of a UK field study involving 44 households which considered domestic cooking: it compares

  7. 78 FR 18533 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...That AD applies to certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...Applicability This AD applies to Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded...

  8. Nonserial Dynamic Programming with Applications in Smart Home Appliances Scheduling Part I: Precedence Graph Simplification

    E-print Network

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Nonserial Dynamic Programming with Applications in Smart Home Appliances Scheduling ­ Part I to some time precedence constraints. In general, the system of precedence constraints may contain for reducing the computation effort of the nonserial DP procedure presented in the companion paper (i.e., Part

  9. Heat transfer characteristics of a radical heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminaga, Fumito; Okamoto, Yoshizo; Yotsukura, Terumitsu; Ito, Haruhiko; Saito, Takasi; Amezawa, Hiroo

    1990-03-01

    Heat transfer characteristics of a newly designed heat pipe which transports thermal energy in a radial direction of the heat pipe are examined experimentally, using Freon R-113 working fluid. The heat pipe produces a much higher overall heat transmission than the current heat pipe due to a direct contact condensation instead of a filmwise condensation. An unheated vapor space above a heated section and a higher charge rate over 70 percent are required to use it in a wide range of heat flux. A normal screen wick presents an insufficient capillary force to pump up the working fluid to the heated section against the gravity force.

  10. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the ‘ground truth’ demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16?kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6?Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset. PMID:25984347

  11. Adjustment of the flue gas path in small combustion appliances with regard to particulate matter reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulovcová, Katarína; Janda?ka, Jozef; Nosek, Radovan

    2014-08-01

    Concentration of solid particles in ambient atmosphere is increasing in many countries nowadays. Particulate matter pollution in higher concentration has harmful impact on human and animal health. Source of particulate matter are not only industry and traffic. Small heat sources with biomass combustion, especially during winter heating season, are also significant producer of particulate matter emission. There is a huge importance to decrease quantities of solid particles which are getting into the atmosphere in every region of their production in order to decrease environmental pollution and improve air quality. The ability of flue gas emission elimination can influence future using of biomass combustion. Therefore effective and affordable solutions are searching for. The paper deals with the reduction of particulate matter in small heat source with biomass combustion by modification of geometric parameters in flue gas path.

  12. Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

    2002-08-20

    Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of labeling strategies and promotion in China.

  13. Nickel and chromium levels in the saliva of a Saudi sample treated with fixed orthodontic appliances

    PubMed Central

    Talic, Nabeel F.; Alnahwi, Hasan H.; Al-Faraj, Ali S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to measure the amount of nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) released into the saliva of Saudi patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. Materials and methods Ninety salivary samples were collected in a cross-sectional manner. Forty samples were collected from patients (17 males, 23 females) with fixed orthodontic appliances after different periods of orthodontic treatment ranging from the first month and up to 32 months into treatment. The fixed orthodontic appliance consisted of 4 bands, 20 stainless steel brackets, and upper and lower nickel titanium or stainless-steel arch wires. The other 50 samples were collected from people without appliances (24 males, 26 females). Samples were analyzed using Inductive Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy to measure Ni and Cr levels, respectively. Student’s t-test was used to compare Ni and Cr levels in the treated and untreated control groups. Results The mean Ni level was 4.197 ?g/L in the experimental group and 2.3 ?g/L in the control group (p < 0.05). The mean Cr level was 2.9 ?g/L in the experimental group and 3.3 ?g/L in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Fixed orthodontic appliances resulted in a non-toxic increase in salivary levels of Ni, but no change in Cr levels. Duration of orthodontic treatment did not affect Ni and Cr levels in the saliva. PMID:24371378

  14. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-09-02

    A method for producing a borohydride is described and which includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material which chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature which substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

  15. Anterior Sectional Twin Bracket Appliance – Innovative Use for Correction of Single Tooth Crossbite: A Case Report with Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Raghav, Pradeep; Reddy, Munish C; Kanwal, Ritika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anterior sectional twin bracket appliance (ASTBA) is a sectional mechanism that involves two brackets on upper central incisors. This appliance is previously been used for correction of rotated incisors and midline spacing. But, detail biomechanics for single tooth crossbite correction is not previously explained. Here, in this article, we are presenting a detailed biomechanics of ASTBA for anterior single tooth crossbite correction along with case report. How to cite this article: Verma RK, Raghav P, Reddy MC, Kanwal R. Anterior Sectional Twin Bracket Appliance– Innovative Use for Correction of Single Tooth Crossbite: A Case Report with Biomechanics. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1): 66-69.

  16. Updated Buildings Sector Appliance and Equipment Costs and Efficiency

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) works with technology experts to project the cost and efficiency of future heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and other major end-use equipment rather than developing residential and commercial technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for some of the most important assumptions used for our Annual Energy Outlook projections of buildings energy demand.

  17. Project Produce

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna M. Wolfinger

    2005-01-01

    In this science- and social studies-integrated lesson, students researched the produce found at their local grocery store. The class learned the difference between fruits and vegetables and learned the origins of various "exotic" food items. Students also interviewed local gardeners and prepared ethnic foods in the classroom.

  18. Energy-Efficient Water Heating Program for the Residential Sector.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    During the power surplus period of the late 1980's, Bonneville sponsored market research which provided an understanding of the market environment in the water heating end-use. The major areas of investigation included market trends, consumer purchasing practices, unit price, and availability of energy-efficient models. In 1988, Bonneville conducted a series of meetings with utilities operating water heater programs. Discussions focused on utility program concerns and the appropriate role for Bonneville as the region seeks efficiency in residential water heating. The design of the Program is based to a large degree on the experiences gained by regional utilities operating water heater incentive programs. In addition, an analysis of incentive programs operated outside the region has been helpful in the development of a regional program. Bonneville is a member of the Appliance Efficiency Group (AEG), formerly the Northwest Appliance Efficiency Group, and participates in discussions on water heating issues as they relate to the Pacific Northwest. The work done with the Appliance Efficiency Group has provided additional input in the development of the Program. This Program has been developed using a Public Involvement Process. A draft program strategy was made available to the public for comment during April 1990. The comments received were considered in the development of this document.

  19. Heat simulation via Scilab programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mohammad Khatim; Sulaiman, Jumat; Karim, Samsul Arifin Abdul

    2014-07-01

    This paper discussed the used of an open source sofware called Scilab to develop a heat simulator. In this paper, heat equation was used to simulate heat behavior in an object. The simulator was developed using finite difference method. Numerical experiment output show that Scilab can produce a good heat behavior simulation with marvellous visual output with only developing simple computer code.

  20. [Stabilizing splint versus relaxing appliances in the treatment of myofacial pain. Preliminary results of a prospective randomized study].

    PubMed

    Siegert, R; Gundlach, K K

    1989-11-01

    Both stabilizing splints and relaxing appliances have been recommended for the treatment of myofacial pain. It was the goal of the present study to compare the therapeutic effect of these two types of appliances. 26 patients with myofacial pain, whose symptoms were not overshadowed by arthropathy and in whom previous physiotherapy had failed to bring about sufficient pain relief, were divided into two prospectively randomized groups. They received either a stabilizing splint or a relaxing appliance. The therapeutic effect was assessed with the aid of the patients' subjective reports and the Helkimo indices. In spite of the small number of patients the statistical evaluation of the results showed stabilizing splints to be significantly (p less than 0.03) superior to relaxing appliances in the treatment of myofacial pain. PMID:2700332

  1. What`s new in codes and standards - Office of Building Technologies (OBT): Appliance and lighting standards

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    US homeowners spend $110 billion each year to power such home appliances as refrigerators, freezers, water heaters, furnaces, air conditioners, and lights. These uses account for about 70% of all the primary energy consumed in homes. During its typical 10-15-year lifetime, the appliance`s operating costs may exceed its initial purchase price several times over. Nevertheless, many consumers do not consider energy efficiency when making purchases. And manufacturers are reluctant to invest in more efficient technology that may not be accepted in the highly competitive marketplace. Recognizing the great potential for energy savings, many states began prescribing minimum energy efficiencies for appliances. Anticipating the burden of complying with differing state standards, manufacturers supported developing federal standards that would preempt state standards.

  2. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak-Load Shifting and Spinning Reserves Cost/Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Li, Shun

    2010-12-01

    In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production of smart appliances. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the societal challenges, such as anthropogenic global warming, associated with increased electricity demand, and facilitate increased penetration of renewable sources of power. The appliances we consider include refrigerator/freezers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, room air-conditioners, and dishwashers. The petition requests the recognition that providing an appliance with smart grid capability, i.e., products that meet the definition of a smart appliance, is at least equivalent to a corresponding five percent in operational machine efficiencies. It is then expected that given sufficient incentives and value propositions, and suitable automation capabilities built into smart appliances, residential consumers will be adopting these smart appliances and will be willing participants in addressing the aforementioned societal challenges by more effectively managing their home electricity consumption. The analytical model we utilize in our cost/benefit analysis consists of a set of user-definable assumptions such as the definition of on-peak (hours of day, days of week, months of year), the expected percentage of normal consumer electricity consumption (also referred to as appliance loads) that can shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours, the average power rating of each appliance, etc. Based on these assumptions, we then formulate what the wholesale grid operating-cost savings, or benefits, would be if the smart capabilities of appliances were invoked, and some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads served power-system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. The rationale is that appliance loads can be curtailed for about ten minutes or less in response to a grid contingency without any diminution in the quality of service to the consumer. We then estimate the wholesale grid operating-cost savings based on historical wholesale-market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States. The savings derived from the smart grid capabilities of an appliance are then compared to the savings derived from a five percent increase in traditional operational machine efficiencies, referred to as cost in this report, to determine whether the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as or higher than the operational machine efficiency credit (cost).

  3. Effectiveness of treatment for class II malocclusion with the herbst or twin-block appliances: a randomized, controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin O’Brien; Jean Wright; Frances Conboy; YeWeng Sanjie; Nicky Mandall; Stephen Chadwick; Ivan Connolly; Paul Cook; David Birnie; Mark Hammond; Nigel Harradine; David Lewis; Cathy McDade; Laura Mitchell; Alison Murray; Julian O’Neill; Mike Read; Stephen Robinson; Dai Roberts-Harry; Jonathan Sandler; Ian Shaw

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Herbst and Twin-block appliances for established Class II Division I malocclusion. The study was a multicenter, randomized clinical trial carried out in orthodontic departments in the United Kingdom. A total of 215 patients (aged 11-14 years) were randomized to receive treatment with either the Herbst or the Twin-block appliance.

  4. The influence of different types of fixed orthodontic appliance on the growth and adherence of microorganisms (in vitro study)

    PubMed Central

    Saloom, Hayder F.; Mohammed-Salih, Harraa S.; Rasheed, Shaymaa F.

    2013-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances serve as different impact zones and modify microbial adherence and colonization, acting as foreign reserves and possible sources of infection. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different types of fixed orthodontic appliances on the growth and adherence of microorganisms in oral flora which are Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Candida albicans. Sixty-four of four different fixed orthodontic appliance-samples were used, divided into four groups of sixteen. Type I: Sapphire brackets- Coated wires, type II: Sapphire brackets- Stainless steel wires, type III: Stainless steel brackets- Coated wires and type IV: Stainless steel brackets- Stainless steel wires. Oral strains of S. mutans and Candida albicans were studied in the present study using biochemical test then microbial suspensions were prepared to do the tests of each microorganism including the antimicrobial effects of different appliance-samples on the growth of microorganisms and their adhesion tests. The results showed significant differences between the different appliances in terms of inhibition zone formation (P<0.001). The adhesion test, which is classified into low, medium and high, showed the adhesion of S. mutans, is low with type I and II, medium with type III and high with type IV, whereas the adhesion of Candida albicans is medium with both type I and II and high with both type III and IV with high significant differences (P<0.001). Appliance with high esthetic appearance, sapphire brackets and coated arch wire, showed the least adherence of S. mutans and Candida albicans in comparison to other appliances with less esthetic and more metal components. Key words:Orthodontic appliance, Adherence, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans. PMID:24455049

  5. A Real-time Control System for Home\\/Office appliances automation, from mobile device through GPRS network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Usman Ali; Syed Junaid Nawaz; Nazish Jawad

    2006-01-01

    There are numbers of publications addressing control systems for home\\/office appliance involving infrared remote controls but there is no such publication\\/protocol\\/standard addressing solution for mobile-to-home\\/office appliance controlling through general packet radio services (GPRS) networks without involving any Internet based servers. This paper addresses recent research and development efforts in constructing wireless real-time control system based on server\\/client architecture through GPRS

  6. Heating with waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Beabout, R.W.

    1986-09-02

    Most of the power consumed in the gaseous diffusion process is converted into heat of compression, which is removed from the process gas and rejected into the atmosphere by recirculating cooling water over cooling towers. The water being handled through the X-333 and X-330 Process Buildings can be heated to 140 to 150/sup 0/F for heating use. The Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant is provided with a recirculating heating water (RHW) system which uses X-330 water and wasted heat. The RHW flow is diagrammed. (DLC)

  7. Database Are Not Toasters: A Framework for Comparing Data Warehouse Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajman, Omer; Crolotte, Alain; Steinhoff, David; Nambiar, Raghunath Othayoth; Poess, Meikel

    The success of Business Intelligence (BI) applications depends on two factors, the ability to analyze data ever more quickly and the ability to handle ever increasing volumes of data. Data Warehouse (DW) and Data Mart (DM) installations that support BI applications have historically been built using traditional architectures either designed from the ground up or based on customized reference system designs. The advent of Data Warehouse Appliances (DA) brings packaged software and hardware solutions that address performance and scalability requirements for certain market segments. The differences between DAs and custom installations make direct comparisons between them impractical and suggest the need for a targeted DA benchmark. In this paper we review data warehouse appliances by surveying thirteen products offered today. We assess the common characteristics among them and propose a classification for DA offerings. We hope our results will help define a useful benchmark for DAs.

  8. Evaluation of Spectral and Prosodic Features of Speech Affected by Orthodontic Appliances Using the Gmm Classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P?ibil, Ji?í; P?ibilová, Anna; ?ura?koá, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes our experiment with using the Gaussian mixture models (GMM) for classification of speech uttered by a person wearing orthodontic appliances. For the GMM classification, the input feature vectors comprise the basic and the complementary spectral properties as well as the supra-segmental parameters. Dependence of classification correctness on the number of the parameters in the input feature vector and on the computation complexity is also evaluated. In addition, an influence of the initial setting of the parameters for GMM training process was analyzed. Obtained recognition results are compared visually in the form of graphs as well as numerically in the form of tables and confusion matrices for tested sentences uttered using three configurations of orthodontic appliances.

  9. Scanning electron microscope appearances of fretting in the fixed orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Leszek; Palaty?ska-Ulatowska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Fretting is one of the types of a tribologic wear. It is a process that occurs at a nominally immovable junction of elements. In dentistry, such elements can be brackets and archwires of fixed orthodontic appliances. They meet all the criteria for fretting to occur, i.e., they are nominally immovable, are subjected to initial loadings and they work in aggressive environment. Chrome-nickel stainless steel Elite Opti-Mim brackets (Trachem) working in vivo in oral cavity environment in combination with NiTi and stainless steel archwires were investigated. Scanning electron micrographs of bracket's working surfaces showed the presence of fretting damaged areas. This research also confirmed that there were almost all the types of fretting wear on the elements of the orthodontic appliances under examination. PMID:23140139

  10. Mini-implant-borne Pendulum B appliance for maxillary molar distalisation: design and clinical procedure.

    PubMed

    Wilmes, Benedict; Katyal, Vandana; Drescher, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    A treatment objective of upper molar distalisation may often be required during the correction of a malocclusion. Distalisation is not only indicated for the management of Class II patients, but also for Class III surgery patients who require decompensation in the upper arch if upper incisor retrusion is needed. Unfortunately, most conventional intra-oral devices for non-compliance maxillary molar distalisation experience anchorage loss. A Pendulum type of appliance and a mini-implant-borne distalisation mechanism have been designed which can be inserted at chair-side, without a prior laboratory procedure and immediately after mini-implant placement. For re-activation purposes, a distal screw may be added to the Pendulum B appliance. PMID:25549527

  11. The effect of oral appliance therapy on blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryo Otsuka; Fernanda Ribeiro de Almeida; Alan A. Lowe; Wolfgang Linden; Frank Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of oral appliance (OA) therapy on ambulatory blood pressure in patients\\u000a with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Eleven OSA patients who received OA therapy were prospectively investigated. Ambulatory\\u000a blood pressure was measured for 20 h from 4:00 p.m. to 12:00 noon the next day using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. The Respiratory

  12. RFID based production and distribution management systems for home appliance industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xubing Chen; Yuhui Wang; Zhouping Yin

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to provide RFID based management methodologies for the production and distribution processes in the life cycle management of home appliances. Major hardware components and software functions of the process management systems are described as a combination case of closed-loop and open-loop applications. For the closed-loop application in factories, HF RFID tray tags, workstation readers

  13. GeeAir: a universal multimodal remote control device for home appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Pan; Jiahui Wu; Daqing Zhang; Zhaohui Wu; Yingchun Yang; Shijian Li

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a handheld device called GeeAir for remotely controlling home appliances via a mixed modality of speech, gesture, joystick, button, and light. This solution\\u000a is superior to the existing universal remote controllers in that it can be used by the users with physical and vision impairments\\u000a in a natural manner. By combining diverse interaction techniques in

  14. Usability Test for Cellular Phone Interface Design That Controls Home Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haeinn Lee

    2007-01-01

    The role of interface design is to enable communication between people and the technical product such as a cellular phone,\\u000a computer, or PDA. To use the product successfully, the interface design should be easy to use. The objective of this paper\\u000a is to create a practical and user-friendly interface design for a wireless device to control home appliances. In order

  15. Efficiency of a pendulum appliance for molar distalization related to second and third molar eruption stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gero S. M Kinzinger; Ulrike B Fritz; Franz-Günter Sander; Peter R Diedrich

    2004-01-01

    A modified pendulum appliance, including a distal screw and special preactivated pendulum springs (built-in straightening activation and toe-in bending), was used for bilateral maxillary molar distalization in 36 adolescent patients in various stages of the molar dentition. The patients were divided into 3 groups (PG 1-3) according to the stage of eruption of their second and third molars. In PG

  16. 6 GIVING-A-HAND System: The Development of a Task-Specific Robot Appliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Johnson; E. Guglielmelli; G. A. Di Lauro; C. Laschi; M. C. Carrozza; P. Dario

    The rapidly changing demographics in industrialized nations create a pressing need for effective personal assistive aids that\\u000a appeal to elderly and disabled users. Our goal is to design robotic aids that are not only affordable and commercially viable\\u000a but also have universal appeal and benefit. To do so, we explore the creation of the robot appliance, a personal robotic aid

  17. Small, Embedded Web Server for Home Appliances with Embedded MPU and Real-time Operating System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masato Shimano; Futoshi Okazaki; Yoshihiro Saito; Akiya Fukui; Takako Nonaka; Tomohiro Hase

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a small, power saving, and embeddable Web server for home appliances. The proposed device has an embedded MPU and a real-time operating system to actualize small size and power-saving for consumer use. First, a T-Engine, embedded 32-bit RISC MPU was used as the hardware of the proposed system. Next, a real-time operating system designed for embedded use,

  18. Solar heated anaerobic digestor

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, D.

    1980-09-09

    A solar heated anaerobic digestor is provided, adapted to utilize organic material capable of decomposing to produce methane gas and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digestor is wrapped with a layer of heat absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat absorptive material to solar radiation and may be replaced when the solar radiation diminishes. A layer of transparent material wrapped in outwardly spaced relation around the insulatng panels is capable of transmitting solar radiation while providing protection against environmental elements. Additional heating means extending into the digestor provide auxiliary heat as required.

  19. 30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500 Mineral...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be...

  3. Microwave heating of different commercial categories of olive oil: Part I. Effect on chemical oxidative stability indices and phenolic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Cerretani; Alessandra Bendini; Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada; Elena Vittadini; Emma Chiavaro

    2009-01-01

    The effect of microwave heating of extra virgin olive oil (EVOo), olive oil (Oo) and pomace olive oil (Po) in domestic appliances, was investigated in terms of chemical oxidative indices (peroxide, p-anisidine and Totox values), free acidity, water content, total phenol content and different classes of phenolic compounds.Water content of unheated EVOo was higher as compared to the other two

  4. 1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead evaluation. Volume I - report

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) provides wholesale electric power to over 100 retail distribution utilities in the Pacific Northwest. Bonneville is faced with meeting growing loads from these utilities. It acquires conservation as one means of meeting this load growth. Bonneville has offered a variety of conservation programs since 1980. Efficient showerheads have been a feature in residential conservation programs ever since. Bonneville launched the Residential Appliance Efficiency Program to focus on water-heater energy conservation opportunities in 1992. The Residential Appliance Efficiency Program consists of two parts, a water-heater efficiency program, and a hot-water efficiency program. This report evaluates the savings and costs of the first two years of the showerhead portion of the Residential Appliance Efficiency Program (the showerhead program). Although it is not a formal evaluation of the program limited to implementation or a {open_quotes}process{close_quotes} evaluation, observations about program design and implementation are included as appropriate. Results of this evaluation are limited to program participants within the Bonneville service territory.

  5. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in infants with trisomy 21 using oral appliances.

    PubMed

    Linz, Annette; Urschitz, Michael S; Bacher, Margit; Brockmann, Pablo E; Buchenau, Wolfgang; Poets, Christian F

    2013-11-01

    Objective : To perform a retrospective study to evaluate the effect of oral appliances, aimed at increasing the pharyngeal space, on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in infants with trisomy 21 (TS21). Design and Setting : Retrospective study in a tertiary referral center. Intervention : We analyzed data from 51 consecutive infants (mean age, 2.7 months) who underwent polysomnography (PSG) and were offered our treatment concept. Primary study variable was the mixed-obstructive apnea index (MOAI); OSA was defined as a MOAI ? 1. Results : Twenty-seven infants (53%) had OSA. Their median MOAI improved from 2.3 (1 to 13) to 0 (0 to 0.2; P < .05). Seven of these infants were treated with an appliance that included some type of velar extension to move the tongue base forward. Of the 24 infants without OSA at admission, follow-up PSG results were available for 13. Three infants from this group had developed OSA by the time of a repeat PSG. Conclusion : In patients with TS21, OSA may already develop in infancy. Early treatment may improve OSA. Oral appliances with some type of velar extension may be considered as an alternative to other treatment procedures. PMID:23092363

  6. Dental and skeletal components of Class II open bite treatment with a modified Thurow appliance

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Helder Baldi; dos Santos-Pinto, Ary; Buschang, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Due to the lack of studies that distinguish between dentoalveolar and basal changes caused by the Thurow appliance, this clinical study, carried out by the School of Dentistry - State University of São Paulo/Araraquara, aimed at assessing the dental and skeletal changes induced by modified Thurow appliance. Methods The sample included an experimental group comprising 13 subjects aged between 7 and 10 years old, with Class II malocclusion and anterior open bite, and a control group comprising 22 subjects similar in age, sex and mandibular plane angle. Maxillary/mandibular, horizontal/vertical, dental/skeletal movements (ANS, PNS, U1, U6, Co, Go, Pog, L1, L6) were assessed, based on 14 landmarks, 8 angles (S-N-ANS, SNA, PPA, S-N-Pog, SNB, MPA, PP/MPA, ANB) and 3 linear measures (N-Me, ANS-Me, S-Go). Results Treatment caused significantly greater angle decrease between the palatal and the mandibular plane of the experimental group, primarily due to an increase in the palatal plane angle. ANB, SNA and S-N-ANS angles significantly decreased more in patients from the experimental group. PNS was superiorly remodeled. Lower face height (ANS-Me) decreased in the experimental group and increased in the control group. Conclusions The modified Thurow appliance controlled vertical and horizontal displacements of the maxilla, rotated the maxilla and improved open bite malocclusion, decreasing lower facial height. PMID:24713556

  7. High-Resolution Gas Metering and Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    This thesis deals with design and implementation of a high-resolution metering system for residential natural gas meters. Detailed experimental measurements are performed on the meter to characterize and understand its measurement properties. Results from these experiments are used to develop a simple, fast and accurate technique to non-intrusively monitor the gas consumption of individual appliances in homes by resolving small amounts of gas usage. The technique is applied on an existing meter retrofitted with a module that includes a high-resolution encoder to collect gas flow data and a microprocessor to analyze and identify appliance load profiles. This approach provides a number of appealing features including low cost, easy installation and integration with automated meter reading (AMR) systems. The application of this method to residential gas meters currently deployed is also given. This is done by performing a load simulation on realistic gas loads with the aim of identifying the necessary parameters that minimize the cost and complexity of the mechanical encoder module. The primary benefits of the system are efficiency analysis, appliance health monitoring and real-time customer feedback of gas usage. Additional benefits of include the ability to detect very small leaks and theft. This system has the potential for wide scale market adoption.

  8. An examination of a prototype LED fire-alarm signaling appliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, John W.; Keeney, Shawn P.

    2004-10-01

    Since the introduction of the Americans With Disabilities Act in 1990, the number of visual fire alarm signals installed in the United States has grown exponentially. Virtually all of these fire alarm visual signals consist of the Xenon gas flashtube type. This technology offers high intensity along with moderate cost in a relatively small package. Typical intensities offered range from 15cd (candela) up to 185cd. With the recent advances in solid state LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) the possibility exists to develop visual fire signals using this technology. When used in lower intensity visual appliances, LEDs offer comparable light output with much smaller optical footprints (albeit at somewhat higher estimated costs). This paper will examine the optical performance of a prototype LED visual fire signaling appliance as compared to a more conventional device. It will also evaluate a series of tests, which were run in an office environment to compare the response time of workers for both the conventional Xenon fire signal appliance as well as the prototype LED device. Measurements for each test subject were taken over a two to three day period. Parameters measured included time of day, size of office and general ambient lighting. Results of these experiments indicate that the general response times of the test subjects were similar for the two types of fire signals. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential for LED-type fire signaling devices as well as some of the potential technology obstacles still to be overcome.

  9. Induction Heating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Induction heating technology, a magnetic non-deforming process, was developed by Langley researchers to join plastic and composite components in space. Under NASA license, Inductron Corporation uses the process to produce induction heating systems and equipment for numerous applications. The Torobonder, a portable system, comes with a number of interchangeable heads for aircraft repair. Other developments are the E Heating Head, the Toroid Joining Gun, and the Torobrazer. These products perform bonding applications more quickly, safely and efficiently than previous methods.

  10. DHE (Downhole Heat Exchangers)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Culver

    1990-01-01

    The use of downhole heat exchangers (DHE) for residential or commercial space and domestic water heating and other applications has several desirable features. Systems are nearly or completely passive -- that is, no or very little geothermal water or steam is produced from the well either reducing or completely eliminating surface environmental concerns and the need for disposal systems or

  11. Solar heated anaerobic digester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhoades

    1980-01-01

    The title digester is adapted to utilize organic waste material capable of decomposing to produce CHâ and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digester is wrapped with a layer of heat-absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat-absorptive material to solar radiation and may be

  12. Nanofluid heat capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

    2011-12-01

    Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

  13. Oral Appliance Versus Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A 2-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Doff, Michiel H. J.; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Wijkstra, Peter J.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Huddleston Slater, James J. R.; de Bont, Lambert G. M.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Oral appliance therapy has emerged as an important alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in treating patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In this study we report about the subjective and objective treatment outcome of oral appliance therapy and CPAP in patients with OSAS. Design: Cohort study of a previously conducted randomized clinical trial. Setting: University Medical Center, Groningen, The Netherlands. Patients or Participants: One hundred three patients with OSAS. Interventions: CPAP and oral appliance therapy (Thornton Adjustable Positioner type-1, Airway Management, Inc., Dallas, TX, USA) Measurements and Results: Objective (polysomnography) and subjective (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]) parameters were assessed after 1 and 2 years of treatment. Treatment was considered successful when the apneahypopnea index (AHI) was < 5 or showed substantial reduction, defined as reduction in the index of at least 50% from the baseline value to a value of < 20 in a patient without OSAS symptoms while undergoing therapy. Regarding the proportions of successful treatments, no significant difference was found between oral appliance therapy and CPAP in treating mild to severe OSAS in a 2-year follow-up. More patients (not significant) dropped out under oral appliance therapy (47%) compared with CPAP (33%). Both therapies showed substantial improvements in polysomnographic and neurobehavioral outcomes. However, CPAP was more effective in lowering the AHI and showed higher oxyhemoglobin saturation levels compared to oral appliance therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Oral appliance therapy should be considered as a viable treatment alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In patients with severe OSAS, CPAP remains the treatment of first choice. Clinical Trial Information: The original randomized clinical trial, of which this study is a 2-year follow-up, is registered at ISRCTN.org; identifier: ISRCTN18174167; trial name: Management of the obstructive sleep apneahypopnea syndrome: oral appliance versus continuous positive airway pressure therapy; URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN18174167. Citation: Doff MHJ; Hoekema A; Wijkstra PJ; van der Hoven JH; Slater JJRH; de Bont LGM; Stegenga B. Oral appliance versus continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a 2-year follow-up. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1289-1296. PMID:23997361

  14. Solar heated anaerobic digester

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, D.

    1980-09-09

    The title digester is adapted to utilize organic waste material capable of decomposing to produce CH/sub 4/ and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digester is wrapped with a layer of heat-absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat-absorptive material to solar radiation and may be replaced when the solar radiation diminishes. A layer of transparent material wrapped in outwardly spaced relation around the insulating panels is capable of transmitting solar radiation while providing protection against environmental elements. Additional heating means extending into the digester provide auxiliary heat as required.

  15. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1991-07-08

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchanger. DSI completed a heat exchanger stress analysis of the ten-module heat exchanger bank; and, performed a shell-side flow inhomogeneity analysis of the three-module heat exchanger bank. The company produced 50 tubestrips using an in-house CNC milling machine and began pressing them onto tube arrays. DSI revised some of the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips into the array to improve some of the prototype tooling. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Directionally Solidified Ceramics Produced

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali

    2000-01-01

    Produced Multiphase, interpenetrating structures are an alternative route to obtaining structural ceramic materials with adequate strength, toughness, and stability for high-temperature aerospace applications. The eutectic architecture, a continuous-reinforcing phase within a higher volume phase or matrix, can be described as a naturally occurring, in situ composite. The phases of a eutectic are thermodynamically compatible at high homologous temperatures. Strong and stable materials have been produced. Toughness, however, remains a technical obstacle. The potential for producing materials with enhanced toughness along with adequate strength and stability was demonstrated using the laser-heated float zone (LHFZ) growth method at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. LHFZ growth at Glenn provides a means to efficiently produce and record the underlying growth phenomena associated with two-phase structures. To initiate directional solidification, a seed of single-crystal sapphire (<0001> direction) was lowered onto the molten liquid until wetting occurred and then withdrawn at a constant rate. Neither the crystal nor the source rod was rotated. The materials produced were tested mechanically in tension, and the resulting microstructure was examined with a scanning electron microscope. Both the inherent properties of the constituent phases and the properties of the interface between them affect the mechanical behavior and the fracture surfaces. The following scanning electron micrographs show the microstructures of two different materials that were tested to failure in tension. In the left micrograph, the flat fracture surface is typical of a material that is strong but has low toughness. In the right micrograph, the crack is effectively deflected at the interface between the two phases, achieving higher toughness at moderately lower strength levels. Conducting mechanical tests to determine the high temperature properties of these materials is the next step in determining their eventual suitability.

  17. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  18. Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

  19. EPA ENERGY STAR: Tackling Growth in Home Electronics and Small Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory

    2008-11-17

    Over a decade ago, the electricity consumption associated with home electronics and other small appliances emerged onto the global energy policy landscape as one of the fastest growing residential end uses with the opportunity to deliver significant energy savings. As our knowledge of this end use matures, it is essential to step back and evaluate the degree to which energy efficiency programs have successfully realized energy savings and where savings opportunities have been missed.For the past fifteen years, we have quantified energy, utility bill, and carbon savings for US EPA?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program. In this paper, we present a unique look into the US residential program savings claimed to date for EPA?s ENERGY STAR office equipment, consumer electronics, and other small household appliances as well as EPA?s projected program savings over the next five years. We present a top-level discussion identifying program areas where EPA?s ENERGY STAR efforts have succeeded and program areas where ENERGY STAR efforts did not successfully address underlying market factors, technology issues and/or consumer behavior. We end by presenting the magnitude of ?overlooked? savings.

  20. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Atu? Özcan, Sevil Sema; Ceylan, ?smail; Kurt, Nezahat; Da?suyu, ?lhan Metin; Çanakçi, Cenk Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the levels of interleukine-1 beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in saliva and IL-1?, TNF-?, and NO in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Method. The subject population consisted of 50 volunteers who were in need of orthodontic treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. GCF and saliva samples were obtained from all individuals before treatment, at 1st month of treatment and at 6th month of treatment. Periodontal clinical parameters were measured. Samples were investigated to detect IL-1?, TNF-?, and 8-OHdG levels using ELISA method and NO and MDA levels using spectrophotometric method. Results. Since IL-1? level detected in GCF at the 6th month of orthodontic treatment is statistically significant according to baseline (P < 0.05), all other biochemical parameters detected both in saliva and in GCF did not show any significant change at any measurement periods. Conclusion. Orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontic materials used in orthodontic treatment do not lead to a change above the physiological limits that is suggestive of oxidative damage in both GCF and saliva. PMID:24864131

  1. Aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1986-08-12

    An aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus is described which consists of: an aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator adapted to be located on the leading edge of an airframe of a hypersonic aircraft and being responsive to aerodynamic heating of water by a compression shock airstream to produce steam pressure; an expansion shock air-cooled condensor adapted to be located in the airframe rearward of and operatively coupled to the aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator to receive and condense the steam pressure; and an aerodynamic heated steam injector manifold adapted to distribute heated steam into the airstream flowing through an exterior generating channel of an air-breathing, ducted power plant.

  2. A Novel Soft Switching PWM Power Frequency Converter with Non DC Smoothing Filter Link for Consumer High Frequency Induction Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, Hisayuki; Muraoka, Hidekazu; Hiraki, Eiji; Hirota, Izuo; Yasui, Kenji; Omori, Hideki; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    In this paper, high frequency power converter without DC smoothing electrolytic capacitor filter link which convert the 100V/200Vrms and 60Hz single phase utility frequency AC power into a high frequency AC. This proposed high frequency AC power converter without electrolytic capacitor filter can operate under a principle of soft switching PWM based on a lossless capacitor snubber is proposed and demonstrated for consumer high frequency induction heating (IH). In particular, this high frequency power converter capable of producing a high frequency AC more than 20kHz is developed for consumer IH applications as hot water producer and steamer based on the specially designed spiral type IH-Dual Packs Heater (DPH), which includes the dual mode pulse modulation control scheme based on soft switching PWM for high output power setting and commercial frequency AC zero voltage soft switching pulse density modulation (PDM) for low output power settings. This developed high frequency power frequency converter using trench gate IGBTs is clarified on the basis of experimental and simulation results for its circuit operation of the utility frequency AC to high frequency AC frequency PWM power converter without the electrolytic capacitor bank DC filter link for the IH hot water and IH steamer. These IH appliances are based upon an innovative electromagnetic IH-DPH for fluid heating as heat exchanger in consumer pipeline. Finally, its power regulation characteristics, power conversion efficiency and harmonic current components characteristics including power factor in utility AC grid side are evaluated and discussed from an experimental point of view. The practical effectiveness of this utility frequency AC to high frequency AC soft switching high power frequency converter defined conveniently as high frequency soft switching cyclo-inverter is proved as one of the important products effective for next generation IH application all electricity power utilizations.

  3. Heat Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction, function, and applications of heat pipes. Suggests using the heat pipe to teach principles related to heat transfer and gives sources for obtaining instructional kits for this purpose. (GS)

  4. Coronal heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentzel, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical arguments for coronal heating that take into account coronal structure are reviewed. Heating by the dissipation of electrical currents and heating by dissipation of waves are discussed. Loop structures in the solar corona are described.

  5. Oral Appliances

    MedlinePLUS

    ... suited for your specific needs. A board certified sleep medicine physician must first provide a diagnosis and recommend the most effective treatment approach. A dental sleep medicine specialist may then provide treatment and follow-up. ...

  6. An IT appliance for remote collaborative review of mechanisms of injury to children in motor vehicle crashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahendra Kumar; Richard E. Newman; Dennis R. Durbin; Flaura K. Winston

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and implementation of a Java-based appliance for collaborative review of crashes involving injured children in order to determine mechanisms of injury. The multidisciplinary expertise needed for such reviews is not available at any one institution, resulting in the need for remote collaboration, while the sensitive nature of the information requires secure transmission and controlled access

  7. EFFECTS OF APPLIANCE TYPE AND OPERATING VARIABLES ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS: VOLUME I. REPORT AND APPENDICIES A-C.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project, in support of the intergrated Air Canver Project (IACP) to provide data on the specific effects of appliance type and operating variales on woodstove emissions. Samples of particulate material and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were colle...

  8. Muscle response to the Twin-block appliance: An electromyographic study of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preeti Aggarwal; O. P. Kharbanda; Rashmi Mathur; Ritu Duggal; H. Parkash

    1999-01-01

    An electromyographic study was performed on 10 young growing girls in the age group of 9 to 12 years with Class II Division 1 malocclusion and retruded mandible, who were under treatment with Twin-block appliances. Bilateral EMG activity of elevator muscles of the mandible (ie, anterior temporalis and masseter) was monitored longitudinally with bipolar surface electrodes to determine changes in

  9. The paper discusses features of a new generation of intelligent sensing agents and sensor-based appliances

    E-print Network

    Petriu, Dorina

    them. As all these are buried inside many appliances (vacuum cleaners, microwave ovens, refrigerators integrated communications, computing, navigation, car control and entertainment system. The NCR Microwave Oven/Home Banking Terminal [5] and the Electrolux Internet Connected Screen Fridge [6], allow

  10. Projecting an energy-efficient California. [Effect of postulated program of mandatory conservation standards for buildings and appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Goldstein; A. H. Rosenfeld

    1975-01-01

    The effects on California electricity consumption of a postulated program of mandatory energy conservation standards for building construction and for appliances are calculated. The model sums demands disaggregated by end use in the residential and commercial sectors; for industry a simplified econometric model is used. The potential for growth and conservation is evaluated for each end use, subject to the

  11. 78 FR 41387 - Petition for Waiver and Notice of Granting the Application for Interim Waiver of ASKO Appliances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    This notice announces receipt of and publishes the ASKO Appliances Inc. (ASKO) petition for waiver from specified portions of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for determining the energy consumption of residential clothes dryers. The waiver request pertains to ASKO's specified models of condensing residential clothes dryers. The existing test procedure does not apply to......

  12. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs and on the design of the labels and standards themselves. In addition, it directs the reader to references and other resources likely to be useful in conducting the activities described and includes a chapter on energy policies and programs that complement appliance efficiency labels and standards. This guidebook attempts to reflect the essential framework of labeling and standards programs. It is the intent of the authors and sponsors to distribute copies of this book worldwide at no charge for the general public benefit. The guidebook is also available on the web at www.CLASPonline.org and can be downloaded to be used intact or piecemeal for whatever beneficial purposes readers may conceive.

  13. Heat pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heap

    1983-01-01

    An updated version of the 1979 first edition of this work for designers, specifiers, suppliers, installers, and users of heat pumps. Its aim is to assist in the reassessment of energy costs and cost relativities of the various applications of heat pumps. It presents the development of the heat pump markets, research into advanced heat pump systems, and development of

  14. In vivo assessment of DNA damage induced in oral mucosa cells by fixed and removable metal prosthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Bari?evi?, Marinka; Ratkaj, Ivana; Mladini?, Marin; Zelježi?, Davor; Kraljevi?, Sandra Paveli?; Lon?ar, Božana; Stipeti?, Marinka Mravak

    2012-02-01

    Given long-term effect on oral tissues due to contact with dental appliances, the biocompatibility studies of casting alloys are of great importance. It has been previously documented that metal dental appliances, due to corrosion, might induce genotoxic and mutagenic effects in cells. Therefore, the aim of presented study was to examine the genotoxicity of two dental casting alloys (Co-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr) commonly used in fixed and removable prosthodontic appliances that are in contact with the oral epithelium for 5 years or more. For that purpose, 55 age-matched subjects were included in the study; 30 wearers of prosthodontic appliances and 25 controls. Buccal cells of oral mucosa were collected and processed for further analysis. The cell viability has been assessed by trypan blue exclusion test, while genotoxic effect of metal ions on DNA in oral mucosa cells was studied by use of alkaline comet assay. Results have shown significantly higher comet assay parameters (tail length and percentage DNA in the tail) in the group wearing metal appliances. Both subjects with Co-Cr-Mo alloy and Ni-Cr alloy showed significantly higher comet assay parameters when compared with controls. It has been confirmed that metal ions released by the two base metal dental casting alloys examined in this study, might be responsible for DNA damage of oral mucosa cells. Therefore, the results of this study emphasize the importance of the in vivo evaluation of dental materials with respect to their genotoxicity, which is of major importance to ensure long-term biocompatibility. PMID:21120674

  15. NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed system performance maps that were developed by this testing program will be used to: (1) Target regions of the country that would benefit most from this technology; (2) Identify improvements in current systems to maximize homeowner cost savings; and (3) Explore opportunities for development of advanced hot water heating systems.

  16. TiArA: A Virtual Appliance for the Analysis of Tiling Array Data

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Jason A.; Assarsson, Erika; Chung, Jo L.; Head, Steven; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2010-01-01

    Background Genomic tiling arrays have been described in the scientific literature since 2003, yet there is a shortage of user-friendly applications available for their analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Tiling Array Analyzer (TiArA) is a software program that provides a user-friendly graphical interface for the background subtraction, normalization, and summarization of data acquired through the Affymetrix tiling array platform. The background signal is empirically measured using a group of nonspecific probes with varying levels of GC content and normalization is performed to enforce a common dynamic range. Conclusions/Significance TiArA is implemented as a standalone program for Linux systems and is available as a cross-platform virtual machine that will run under most modern operating systems using virtualization software such as Sun VirtualBox or VMware. The software is available as a Debian package or a virtual appliance at http://purl.org/NET/tiara. PMID:20376318

  17. Emission factors from biomass burning in three types of appliances: fireplace, woodstove and pellet stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Márcio; Vicente, Estela; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luis; Alves, Célia

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, the importance of biomass fuels has increased mainly for two reasons. One of them is the effort to control the emissions of greenhouse gases, and on the other hand, the increasing costs associated with fossil fuels. Besides that, biomass burning is now recognised as one of the major sources contributing to high concentrations of particulate matter, especially during winter time. Southern European countries have a lack of information regarding emission profiles from biomass burning. Because of that, in most source apportionment studies, the information used comes from northern and alpine countries, whose combustion appliances, fuels and habits are different from those in Mediterranean countries. Due to this lack of information, series of tests using different types of equipment, as well as fuels, were carried out in order to obtain emission profiles and emission factors that correspond to the reality in southern European countries. Tests involved three types of biomass appliances used in Portugal, a fireplace, a woodstove and a modern pellet stove. Emission factors (mg.kg-1 fuel, dry basis) for CO, THC and PM10 were obtained. CO emission factors ranged from 38, for pine on the woodstove, to 84 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. THC emissions were between 4 and 24, for pine in the woodstove and eucalyptus in the fireplace, respectively. PM10 emission factors were in the range from 3.99, for pine in the woodstove, to 17.3 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. On average, the emission factors obtained for the fireplace are 1.5 (CO) to 4 (THC) times higher than those of the woodstove. The fireplace has emission factors for CO, THC and PM10 10, 35 and 32 times, respectively, higher than the pellet stove.

  18. Longitudinal changes in microbiology and clinical periodontal parameters after removal of fixed orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    van Gastel, Jan; Quirynen, Marc; Teughels, Wim; Coucke, Wim; Carels, Carine

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to monitor patients' microbiological and clinical parameters from bracket placement up to 3 months post-treatment. Twenty-four patients (10 males and 14 females, aged 14.6 ± 1.0 years) were included in this investigation. Microbiology (sub- and supragingival), periodontal probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) flow were assessed at baseline (T1), at bracket removal (T2), and 3 months post-treatment (T3). A statistical comparison was made over time and between the banded, bonded, and control sites. Repeated measurements on patients were taken into account by modelling the patients as a random factor. Except for PPD and BOP, values were log-transformed before analysis. Corrections for simultaneous hypothesis testing were performed via simulation. The results demonstrated that sub- and supragingival colony-forming units ratio (CFU ratio aerobe/anaerobe) decreased significantly (relatively more anaerobes) at T2 compared with T1. Between T2 and T3 no significant increase in CFU ratio was seen, resulting in a significantly lower CFU ratio at T3 compared with T1 for subgingival plaque. The difference concerning supragingival plaque between T3 and T1 was not significant. Clinical parameters PPD, POB, and GCF flow showed a significant increase between T1 and T2. Between T2 and T3 these variables decreased significantly but remained significantly higher than at T1 [except for BOP values at the bonded sites (P = 0.0646)]. Placement of fixed orthodontic appliances has an influence both on microbial and clinical periodontal parameters, which were only partly normalized, 3 months following the removal of the appliances. PMID:20671070

  19. Esthetic perception of facial profile after treatment with the Thurow Appliance.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Lacerda-Santos, Rogério; Oliveira, Danillo Lyrio de; Alves, Janaína Viana; Britto, Joyce Pereira; Souza, Eduardo da Silva; Alves, Leandro Pereira; Barbosa, George; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Santos, Alex Ferreira Dos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the perception of esthetic changes in the facial profile of bilateral Class II patients treated with the Modified Thurow Appliance for extraoral treatment. Silhouettes were traced of profiles of patients who initially presented a bilateral Class II molar relationship and who, post-treatment, presented molars in a Class I relationship. Three groups were formed: the first composed of patients with maxillary protrusion (SNA >84°), the second with maxillary retrusion (SNA <80°), and the third with a well-positioned maxilla (SNA 80-84°). A panel of 200 lay evaluators judged the profile esthetics by a randomized drawing of the silhouettes. The multiple analysis results showed that the profile esthetic scores for the three positions of the maxilla were greatly influenced by significant interactions with the characteristics (like sex and age) of the evaluators: retrusive maxilla (Score *Age Group, p < 0.001), normal maxilla (Score *Sex, p = 0.024; Score *Age Group, p = 0.050) and protrusive maxilla (Score *Age Group, p < 0.001). It was observed that the profile of Class II patients with protrusion, normal relationship and retrusion of the maxilla, improved in their esthetic post-treatment result; however, the evaluators showed greater satisfaction with the groups of protrusion and normal position of the maxilla. The Modified Thurow Appliance provided significant improvements in the esthetics of the profile of patients who presented protrusion and normal position of the maxilla. However, its use was not the best treatment option for patients with maxillary retrusion. PMID:25715042

  20. Fine particle emissions in three different combustion conditions of a wood chip-fired appliance - Particulate physico-chemical properties and induced cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskinen, J.; Tissari, J.; Uski, O.; Virén, A.; Torvela, T.; Kaivosoja, T.; Lamberg, H.; Nuutinen, I.; Kettunen, T.; Joutsensaari, J.; Jalava, P. I.; Sippula, O.; Hirvonen, M.-R.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2014-04-01

    A biomass combustion reactor with a moving grate was utilised as a model system to produce three different combustion conditions corresponding to efficient, intermediate, and smouldering combustion. The efficient conditions (based on a CO level of approximately 7 mg MJ-1) corresponded to a modern pellet boiler. The intermediate conditions (CO level of approximately 300 mg MJ-1) corresponded to non-optimal settings in a continuously fired biomass combustion appliance. The smouldering conditions (CO level of approximately 2200 mg MJ-1) approached a batch combustion situation. The gaseous and particle emissions were characterised under each condition. Moreover, the ability of fine particles to cause cell death was determined using the particle emissions samples. The physico-chemical properties of the emitted particles and their toxicity were considerably different between the studied combustion conditions. In the efficient combustion, the emitted particles were small in size and large in number. The PM1 emission was low, and it was composed of ash species. In the intermediate and smouldering combustion, the PM1 emission was higher, and the particles were larger in size and smaller in number. In both of these conditions, there were high-emission peaks that produced a significant fraction of the emissions. The PAH emissions were the lowest in the efficient combustion. The smouldering combustion conditions produced the largest PAH emissions. In efficient combustion conditions, the emitted fine particles had the highest potential to cause cell death. This finding was most likely observed because these fine particles were mainly composed of inorganic ash species, and their relative contents of Zn were high. Thus, even the PM1 from optimal biomass combustion might cause health effects, but in these conditions, the particle emissions per energy unit produced were considerably lower.

  1. Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dennehy, G

    1983-04-01

    An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

  2. Tidal Heating in Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jennifer; Wisdom, J.

    2007-07-01

    The heating in Enceladus in an equilibrium resonant configuration with other saturnian satellites can be estimated independently of the physical properties of Enceladus. Our results update the values obtained for the equilibrium tidal heating found by Lissauer et al. (1984) and Peale (2003). We find that equilibrium tidal heating cannot account for the heat that is observed to be coming from Enceladus, and current heating rates are even less for conventional estimates of the Love number for Enceladus. Even allowing for a much larger dynamic Love number, as can occur in viscoelastic models (Ross and Schubert, 1989), the equilibrium tidal heating is less than the heat observed to be coming from Enceladus. One resolution is that the tidal equilibrium is unstable and that the system oscillates about equilibrium. Yoder (1981) suggested that Enceladus might oscillate about equilibrium if the Q of Enceladus is stress dependent. An alternate suggestion was made by Ojakangas and Stevenson (1986), who emphasized the possible temperature dependence of Q. In these models Enceladus would now be releasing heat stored during a recent high eccentricity phase. However, we have shown that the Ojakangas and Stevenson model does not produce oscillations for parameters appropriate for Enceladus. Other low-order resonance configurations are possible for the saturnian satellites in the past. These include the 3:2 Mimas-Enceladus and the 3:4 Enceladus-Tethys resonances. The latter resonance has no equilibrium because the orbits are diverging, and the former has an equilibrium heating rate of only 0.48 GW. So equilibrium heating at past resonances is no more successful at explaining past resurfacing events than equilibrium heating is at explaining the present activity.

  3. Remotely Controlled Mandibular Protrusion during Sleep Predicts Therapeutic Success with Oral Appliances in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Remmers, John; Charkhandeh, Shouresh; Grosse, Joshua; Topor, Zbigniew; Brant, Rollin; Santosham, Peter; Bruehlmann, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: The present study addresses the need for a validated tool that prospectively identifies favorable candidates for oral appliance therapy in treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of a mandibular titration study, performed with a remotely controlled mandibular positioner (RCMP), to predict treatment outcome with a mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) and to predict an effective target protrusive position (ETPP). Design: A prospective, blinded, outcome study. Setting: Standard clinical care with tests performed in the polysomnographic laboratory. Participants: Consecutive patients (n = 67) recruited from a sleep center or a dental practice using broad inclusion criteria (age 21-80 years; AHI > 10/h; BMI < 40 kg/m2). Interventions: Therapeutic outcome with a mandibular protruding oral appliance was predicted following a mandibular protrusive titration study in the polysomnographic laboratory using a remotely controlled positioner and prospectively established predictive rules. An ETPP was also prospectively determined for participants predicted to be therapeutically successful with MRA therapy. All participants were blindly treated with a MRA, at either the predicted ETPP or a sham position, and therapeutic outcome was compared against prediction. Measurements and Results: At the final protrusive position, standard predictive parameters (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values) showed statistically significant predictive accuracy (P < 0.05) in the range of 83% to 94%. The predicted ETPP provided an efficacious protrusive position in 87% of participants predicted to be therapeutically successful with MRA therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Using prospectively established rules for interpreting the polysomnographic data, the mandibular titration study predicted mandibular repositioning appliance therapeutic outcome with significant accuracy, particularly with regard to accurately predicting therapeutic success. As well, among the participants predicted to be therapeutically successful with mandibular repositioning appliance therapy, the effective target protrusive position provided efficacious mandibular protrusion in the majority. Citation: Remmers J; Charkhandeh S; Grosse J; Topor Z; Brant R; Santosham P; Bruehlmann S. Remotely controlled mandibular protrusion during sleep predicts therapeutic success with oral appliances in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1517-1525. PMID:24082311

  4. DHE (downhole heat exchangers). [Downhole Heat Exchangers (DHE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Culver

    1990-01-01

    The use of downhole heat exchangers (DHE) for residential or commercial space and domestic water heating and other applications has several desirable features. Systems are nearly or completely passive -- that is, no or very little geothermal water or steam is produced from the well either reducing or completely eliminating surface environmental concerns and the need for disposal systems or

  5. Quasi-phase-matching induced enhancement of the groups of high-order harmonics generating in various multi-jet plasmas produced using perforated targets and modulated heating pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Yoneya, S.; Kuroda, H.

    2014-11-01

    Quasi-phase-matching (QPM) of the harmonics of ultrashort pulses in the perforated aluminum, indium, and chromium plasma plumes produced by different techniques is analyzed. We extend our recent studies (2014 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47 105401) to other plasma ablations and show the advantages of modulated plasma profiles for the harmonic generation. We demonstrate the 20 × growth of QPM-enhanced harmonics in the plasma produced on the perforated aluminum surface. The calculations of plasma concentrations at different delays and distances from ablating targets are presented. We show the tuning of maximally enhanced harmonics using variable excitation of metallic targets at the conditions of QPM, as well as demonstrate the use of a two-color pump of the four-jet indium plasma for enhancement of the harmonics, which were not present in the spectra obtained from the extended indium plasma.

  6. Heat-transfer thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.; Anderson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal switch maintains temperature of planetary lander, within definite range, by transferring heat. Switch produces relatively large stroke and force, uses minimum electrical power, is lightweight, is vapor pressure actuated, and withstands sterilization temperatures without damage.

  7. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery 

    E-print Network

    Ward, M. E.; Solomon, N. G.; Tabb, E. S.

    1980-01-01

    was that the upper material temperature limit of 1500oF is state-of-the-art for recuperators operating in an oxidizing environment produced by the com-bustion of Diesel No.2. A full size counter axial flow metal heat exchanger test module has successfully completed...

  8. Artificial muscles on heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 ?W when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  9. The design and fabrication of a Stirling engine heat exchanger module with an integral heat pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey G. Schreiber

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a free-piston Stirling Space Engine (SSE) intended for space power applications has been generated. The engine was designed to produce 25 kW of electric power with heat supplied by a nuclear reactor. A novel heat exchanger module was designed to reduce the number of critical joints in the heat exchanger assembly while also incorporating a heat

  10. Enhanced heat transfer using nanofluids

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Stephen U. S. (Lisle, IL); Eastman, Jeffrey A. (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    This invention is directed to a method of and apparatus for enhancing heat transfer in fluids such as deionized water. ethylene glycol, or oil by dispersing nanocrystalline particles of substances such as copper, copper oxide, aluminum oxide, or the like in the fluids. Nanocrystalline particles are produced and dispersed in the fluid by heating the substance to be dispersed in a vacuum while passing a thin film of the fluid near the heated substance. The fluid is cooled to control its vapor pressure.

  11. Waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, N.L.

    1985-07-01

    This is a survey of waste heat recovery in US industry. Future prospects depend on the price of fossil fuels. Fuel and energy consumption in the year 2000 is summarized. Areas of greatest growth in waste heat recovery will be in high-temperature recuperation, heat pumps and cogeneration. (DLC)

  12. Heat pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Heap

    1979-01-01

    With increasing energy costs and changing cost relativities, potential heat pump applications deserve a thorough reassessment. Such a reassessment is the objective of this book. The topics covered include the general, historical, and theoretical background material; vapor compression equipment; general aspects of system design, with particular reference to the design of space heating systems employing heat pumps; domestic, commercial, and

  13. Work, heat, and oxygen cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, P.

    1973-01-01

    Human energy is discussed in terms of the whole man. The physical work a man does, the heat he produces, and the quantity of oxygen he takes from the air to combine with food, the fuel source of his energy, are described. The daily energy exchange, work and heat dissipation, oxygen costs of specific activities, anaerobic work, and working in space suits are summarized.

  14. Heat pipes for space projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kreeb; H. Koch

    1981-01-01

    Heat pipes with a capillary structure consisting of axial grooves are discussed which are intended for use in various space vehicles. The heat pipes are produced from a modular system that has more than 15 pipe geometries for both standard and cryogenic temperatures and is based on the concept of an extruded aluminum profile with longitudinal grooves serving as capillaries.

  15. Air conditioning versus heating: climate control is more energy demanding in Minneapolis than in Miami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivak, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Energy demand for climate control was analyzed for Miami (the warmest large metropolitan area in the US) and Minneapolis (the coldest large metropolitan area). The following relevant parameters were included in the analysis: (1) climatological deviations from the desired indoor temperature as expressed in heating and cooling degree days, (2) efficiencies of heating and cooling appliances, and (3) efficiencies of power-generating plants. The results indicate that climate control in Minneapolis is about 3.5 times as energy demanding as in Miami. This finding suggests that, in the US, living in cold climates is more energy demanding than living in hot climates.

  16. Correction of Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion with a mandibular protraction appliances and multiloop edgewise archwire technique.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Benedito; Freitas, Heloiza; Dos Santos, Pedro César F; Janson, Guilherme

    2014-09-01

    A Brazilian girl aged 14 years and 9 months presented with a chief complaint of protrusive teeth. She had a convex facial profile, extreme overjet, deep bite, lack of passive lip seal, acute nasolabial angle, and retrognathic mandible. Intraorally, she showed maxillary diastemas, slight mandibular incisor crowding, a small maxillary arch, 13-mm overjet, and 4-mm overbite. After the diagnosis of severe Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion, a mandibular protraction appliance was placed to correct the Class II relationships and multiloop edgewise archwires were used for finishing. Follow-up examinations revealed an improved facial profile, normal overjet and overbite, and good intercuspation. The patient was satisfied with her occlusion, smile, and facial appearance. The excellent results suggest that orthodontic camouflage by using a mandibular protraction appliance in combination with the multiloop edgewise archwire technique is an effective option for correcting Class II malocclusions in patients who refuse orthognathic surgery. PMID:25309867

  17. Cooling performance evaluation of a high-efficiency variable-speed electric heat pump in a contemporary research house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagda, N. L.; Trehan, A. K.; Fortmann, R. C.

    1990-12-01

    A 2.5RT high-efficiency variable speed electric heat pump was tested during the cooling season in an unoccupied contemporary research house located near Washington, D.C. The house was moderately furnished to approximate conditions of occupancy for a family of three. The presence of occupants and the use of appliances were simulated. Performance of the unit was evaluated on the basis of indoor comfort, dynamic response to changing indoor/outdoor conditions, and energy consumption.

  18. New conceptual electromagnetic induction fluid heating system using resonant PWM inverter with auto-tuning PID controller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Guo; D. C. Lin; Y. L. Feng; K. G. D. Laknath; M. Syedulhaq; M. Nakaoka

    1996-01-01

    A new concept of a novel prototype electromagnetic induction fluid heating appliance using series capacitor-compensated load resonant high-frequency inverter with a phase-shifted PWM and power factor correction schemes. Its operating characteristics in steady-state are illustrated and evaluated using the computer simulation and experimental results. From a practical point of view, a promising cost effective application of this electromagnetic induction fluid

  19. In vitro immunotoxic and genotoxic activities of particles emitted from two different small-scale wood combustion appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapanainen, Maija; Jalava, Pasi I.; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hakulinen, Pasi; Happo, Mikko S.; Lamberg, Heikki; Ruusunen, Jarno; Tissari, Jarkko; Nuutinen, Kati; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O.; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2011-12-01

    Residential wood combustion appliances emit large quantities of fine particles which are suspected to cause a substantial health burden worldwide. Wood combustion particles contain several potential health-damaging metals and carbon compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which may determine the toxic properties of the emitted particles. The aim of the present study was to characterize in vitro immunotoxicological and chemical properties of PM 1 ( Dp ? 1 ?m) emitted from a pellet boiler and a conventional masonry heater. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed for 24 h to different doses of the emission particles. Cytotoxicity, production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-? and the chemokine MIP-2, apoptosis and phases of the cell cycle as well as genotoxic activity were measured after the exposure. The type of wood combustion appliance had a significant effect on emissions and chemical composition of the particles. All the studied PM 1 samples induced cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses in a dose-dependent manner. The particles emitted from the conventional masonry heater were 3-fold more potent inducers of programmed cell death and DNA damage than those emitted from the pellet boiler. Furthermore, the particulate samples that induced extensive DNA damage contained also large amounts of PAH compounds. Instead, significant differences between the studied appliances were not detected in measurements of inflammatory mediators, although the chemical composition of the combustion particles differed considerably from each other. In conclusion, the present results show that appliances representing different combustion technology have remarkable effects on physicochemical and associated toxicological and properties of wood combustion particles. The present data indicate that the particles emitted from incomplete combustion are toxicologically more potent than those emitted from more complete combustion processes.

  20. 78 FR 38699 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to GE Appliances From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) gives notice of the decision and order (Case No. RF-029) that grants to GE Appliances (GE) a waiver from the DOE electric refrigerator and refrigerator-freezer test procedures for determining the energy consumption of residential refrigerator-freezers for the basic models set forth in its petition for waiver. Under today's decision and order, GE shall be......

  1. Salivary cortisol and IgA levels in patients with myofascial pain treated with occlusal appliances in the short term.

    PubMed

    Doepel, M; Söderling, E; Ekberg, E L; Nilner, M; Le Bell, Y

    2009-03-01

    In many studies, the endocrinological response of individuals to different kinds of stresses has been tested. There seems to be widespread agreement that stress, depression, disability and dysfunctional illness behaviors are critical aspects of patients suffering from symptoms like pain, arising out of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). We aimed to explore treatment-induced changes in salivary cortisol, IgA and flow rate values in TMD patients suffering from myofascial pain. Temporomandibular disorders patients (n = 39) were randomized into two groups and treated with two different occlusal appliances. Perceived stress regarding family, work, economy, relationships, general health and stress in general was evaluated at baseline according to a verbal scale. Paraffin-stimulated saliva samples were collected before treatment and during follow-up at 6 and 10 weeks. Flow rate was measured immediately after the saliva collection while salivary cortisol and IgA were determined from samples stored at -70 degrees C. No clear association between reported stress and cortisol or IgA values could be observed at baseline. At 10 weeks follow-up, 92% of the patients felt 'better, much better, symptom-free' and no difference was found between the two appliance groups. Cortisol, IgA and flow rate values showed no systematic between appliance groups' differences. All salivary parameters showed interindividual differences but stayed intra-individually on a similar level throughout the study and no statistically significant changes could be observed when comparing before and after treatment levels. To conclude, there were no treatment-induced changes in saliva parameters despite successful appliance therapy in myofascial pain patients. PMID:19054288

  2. Fatigue Testing of Heat-Exchanger Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, P.

    1984-01-01

    Acclerated fatigue-life testing of heat-exchanger tubes simplified by technique that substitutes mechanical side load for thermally-generated axisymmetric stress. Load amplitudes adjusted to produce strains equivalent to those produced by anticipated thermal stress.

  3. Heats of mixing and of entropy in porous insertion electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen E. Thomas; John Newman

    2003-01-01

    Heat is produced after interruption of the current because of relaxation of concentration gradients in electrochemical systems. This heat of relaxation is termed heat of mixing. Two methods, one computational and one analytic approximation, for computing the heat of mixing are presented. In general, the magnitude of the heat of mixing will be small in materials with transport properties sufficiently

  4. Development of an Interface System Based on Hand Gesture Recognition for Electrical Appliance Operation in Daily Life Scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, Jun-Ichi; Tozawa, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Akio

    We develop an interface system using hand gestures to operate electrical appliances intuitively in a daily life scene. Hand-waving detected in the image is used as a cue to start the system, to distinguish gestures based on the user's intension of operation from other daily-life motions, and to specify the position of the user's hand. Hand-waving detection is implemented based on combination of dynamic background subtraction method and skin color extraction. In addition, we focus on changes of brightness value in each pixel. The user selects a target appliance to operate by pointing out with a hand under a ceiling camera with fisheye lens. The appliance within the region that the user indicates is decided as target one. A PTZ camera is also used to zoom in the user's hand area and to observe hand gestures. The shape of the hand is basically recognized using HLAC features. We add a size of hand region as a new feature to the HLAC and employ a coarse-to-fine strategy using image pyramid. Robustness and the success rate of gesture recognition, consequently, are improved. In this paper, we prepare seven types of hand shapes to operate the channel of TV. Effectiveness of the proposed system is shown through experiments.

  5. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Apte, Michael G.; Black, Douglas R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Lucas, Donald; Lunden, Melissa M.; Mirer, Anna G.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens, 5 broiler burners, 5 storage water heaters, 4 forced air furnaces, 1 wall furnace, and 6 tankless water heaters. Air-free concentrations and fuel-based emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and the number of (predominantly ultrafine) particles over complete burns?including transient effects (device warm-up and intermittent firing of burners) following ignition--and during more stable end-of-burn conditions. Formaldehyde was measured over multi-burn cycles. The baseline fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number (a measure of fuel energy delivery rate) of 1320-1340; test fuels had Wobbe numbers of roughly 1390 and 1420, and in some cases 1360. No ignition or operational problems were observed during test fuel use. Baseline emissions varied widely across and within burner groups and with burner operational mode. Statistically significant emissions changes were observed for some pollutants on some burners.

  6. Heat transport system

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, Samuel D. (McMurray, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A falling bed of ceramic particles receives neutron irradiation from a neutron-producing plasma and thereby transports energy as heat from the plasma to a heat exchange location where the ceramic particles are cooled by a gas flow. The cooled ceramic particles are elevated to a location from which they may again pass by gravity through the region where they are exposed to neutron radiation. Ceramic particles of alumina, magnesia, silica and combinations of these materials are contemplated as high-temperature materials that will accept energy from neutron irradiation. Separate containers of material incorporating lithium are exposed to the neutron flux for the breeding of tritium that may subsequently be used in neutron-producing reactions. The falling bed of ceramic particles includes velocity partitioning between compartments near to the neutron-producing plasma and compartments away from the plasma to moderate the maximum temperature in the bed.

  7. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, P. V.; Caleb, O. J.; Singh, Z.; Watkins, C. B.; Geyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

  8. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it produces hot water by extracting heat from the air it tends to dehumidify and cool the room in which it is placed. Moreover, it tends to spread the water heating load across utility non-peak periods. Thus, electric utilities with peak load issues could justify internal programs to promote this technology to residential and commercial customers. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to the manner in which water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. Thus, the principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the HPWH, and creating programs that embrace life-cycle cost principles. To supplement this, a product warranty with scrupulous quality control should be implemented; first-price reduction through engineering, perhaps by reducing level of energy efficiency, should be pursued; and niche markets should be courted. The first step toward market penetration is to address the HPWH's performance reliability. Next, the manufacturers could engage select utilities to aggressively market the HPWH. A good approach would be to target distinct segments of the market with the potential for the highest benefits from the technology. Communications media that address performance issues should be developed. When marketing to new home builders, the HPWH could be introduced as part of an energy-efficient package offered as a standard feature by builders of new homes within a community. Conducting focus groups across the United States to gather input on HPWH consumer values will feed useful data back to the manufacturers. ''Renaming'' and ''repackaging'' the HPWH to improve consumer perception, appliance aesthetics, and name recognition should be considered. Once an increased sales volume is achieved, the manufacturers should reinvest in R&D to lower the price of the units. The manufacturers should work with ''do-it-yourself'' (DIY) stores to facilitate introduction of th

  9. A study of forces originating from orthodontic appliances for splinting of teeth.

    PubMed

    Prevost, J; Louis, J P; Vadot, J; Granjon, Y

    1994-08-01

    Management of dental trauma in children sometimes requires the use of a dental splint. This can be constructed with composite materials, kevlar, fiberglass, wire and composite or orthodontic wires and brackets. However, there have been no studies of the control of dental movement when orthodontic materials are used for a dental splint. The purpose of this study was to determine the forces exerted by an orthodontic appliance used as a dental splint. To measure such forces, a transducer with a detection of 0.01 N (+/- 5%) was inserted into a maxillary dental arch model. The results showed that the orthodontic wire was rarely passive and the forces developed ranged from 0 to 27 x 10(-2) N. The force developed was independent of the length of the dental splint (p < 0.05) and wire size (p < 0.05). The mean force developed by nickel-titanium wires (14.27 x 10(-2) N) was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the mean force developed by stainless steel and cobalt-chromium wires. Moreover, the mean force developed by rectangular wires (12.07 x 10(-2) N) was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the mean force developed by square and round wires. The results suggested that stainless steel or cobalt-chromium, square or round wires should be used for construction of a dental splint. PMID:7995249

  10. Remotely controlled mandibular positioner predicts efficacy of oral appliances in sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Willis H; Vazquez, Juan-Carlos; Oshima, Tsutomu; Dort, Leslie; Roycroft, Brian; Lowe, Alan A; Hajduk, Eric; Remmers, John E

    2004-08-15

    Anterior mandibular positioners (AMPs) have become increasingly popular as alternatives to continuous positive airway pressure for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. However, widespread acceptance of AMP is limited by an efficacy rate of 50-80% and an inability to predict which patients will respond to therapy. We evaluated 23 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (respiratory disturbance index [RDI] >/= 15 h(-1)) with a remotely controlled mandibular positioner (RCMP), a temporary oral appliance that can advance or retract the mandible in a process analogous to changing the mask pressure during a continuous positive airway pressure titration study. We hypothesized that the elimination of respiratory events and significant nocturnal oxygen desaturation during an RCMP overnight study would predict AMP efficacy, as defined by an absolute reduction in RDI to less than 15 h(-1), a relative reduction in RDI of more than 30% from baseline, and a subjective improvement in symptoms. AMP compliance was 82%, and therapeutic efficacy was 53%. Among compliant patients, the positive and negative predictive value of an RCMP study in predicting AMP treatment success was 90% and 89%, respectively. An overnight RCMP study is highly predictive of AMP response. PMID:15105166

  11. Evaluation of dental plaque control in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ousehal, Lahcen; Lazrak, Laila; Es-Said, Rabia; Hamdoune, Hind; Elquars, Farid; Khadija, Amine

    2011-03-01

    Multibracket orthodontic appliances increase dental plaque retention and make teethbrushing more difficult for patients. As a result, advice from the orthodontist on oral hygiene along with patient motivation regarding teethbrushing are particularly important. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of electric toothbrushes with that of manual brushing associated with mouth-rinses comprising chlorhexidine (0.12%) and 0% alcohol. To this end, 84 patients receiving current orthodontic treatment were randomly selected from patients treated at the Dento-Facial Orthopedics department in the Casablanca Dental Consultation and Treatment Center. Selected patients were divided into three groups: Group 1: manual teethbrushing; Group 2: electric teethbrushing; Group 3: manual brushing combined with mouth rinse. Oral hygiene was assessed using the Loe-Silness plaque and gingival indices. Measurements were made before and 4 weeks after the observation period. Results were subjected to statistical comparison in order to determine the group showing greatest improvement and to deduce the best means of controlling bacterial plaque. The electric toothbrush and the chlorhexidine mouth rinse appear to control dental plaque more effectively than manual teethbrushing alone. Following this study, patients receiving multibracket treatment were invited to combine manual brushing with short clinical mouth-rinsing sessions or to use an electric toothbrush. PMID:21277846

  12. Release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wo?niak, Barbara; Downarowicz, Patrycja

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an in vitro experiment on the release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances composed of alloys containing iron, chromium, nickel, silicon, and molybdenum into artificial saliva. The concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, calcium, titanium, vanadium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, nickel, and chromium were significantly higher in artificial saliva in which metal brackets, bands, and wires used in orthodontics were incubated. In relation to the maximum acceptable concentrations of metal ions in drinking water and to recommended daily doses, two elements of concern were nickel (573 vs. 15 ?g/l in the controls) and chromium (101 vs. 8 ?g/l in the controls). Three ion release coefficients were defined: ?, a dimensionless multiplication factor; ?, the difference in concentrations (in micrograms per liter); and ?, the ion release coefficient (in percent). The elevated levels of metals in saliva are thought to occur by corrosion of the chemical elements in the alloys or welding materials. The concentrations of some groups of dissolved elements appear to be interrelated. PMID:22011837

  13. Development of an advanced mobile base for personal mobility and manipulation appliance generation II robotic wheelchair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwu; Candiotti, Jorge; Shino, Motoki; Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Grindle, Garrett G.; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development of a mobile base for the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance Generation II (PerMMA Gen II robotic wheelchair), an obstacle-climbing wheelchair able to move in structured and unstructured environments, and to climb over curbs as high as 8 inches. The mechanical, electrical, and software systems of the mobile base are presented in detail, and similar devices such as the iBOT mobility system, TopChair, and 6X6 Explorer are described. Findings The mobile base of PerMMA Gen II has two operating modes: “advanced driving mode” on flat and uneven terrain, and “automatic climbing mode” during stair climbing. The different operating modes are triggered either by local and dynamic conditions or by external commands from users. A step-climbing sequence, up to 0.2 m, is under development and to be evaluated via simulation. The mathematical model of the mobile base is introduced. A feedback and a feed-forward controller have been developed to maintain the posture of the passenger when driving over uneven surfaces or slopes. The effectiveness of the controller has been evaluated by simulation using the open dynamics engine tool. Conclusion Future work for PerMMA Gen II mobile base is implementation of the simulation and control on a real system and evaluation of the system via further experimental tests. PMID:23820149

  14. Impact of Functional Appliances on Muscle Activity: A Surface Electromyography Study in Children

    PubMed Central

    Wo?niak, Krzysztof; Pi?tkowska, Dagmara; Szyszka-Sommerfeld, Liliana; Buczkowska-Radli?ska, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    Background Electromyography (EMG) is the most objective tool for assessing changes in the electrical activity of the masticatory muscles. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the tone of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles in growing children before and after 6 months of treatment with functional removable orthodontic appliances. Material/Methods The sample conisted of 51 patients with a mean age 10.7 years with Class II malocclusion. EMG recordings were performed by using a DAB-Bluetooth instrument (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany). Recordings were performed in mandibular rest position, during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and during maximum effort. Results The results of the study indicated that the electrical activity of the muscles in each of the clinical situations was the same in the group of girls and boys. The factor that determined the activity of the muscles was their type. In mandibular rest position and in MVC, the activity of the temporalis muscles was significantly higher that that of the masseter muscels. The maximum effort test indicated a higher fatigue in masseter than in temporalis muscles. Conclusions Surface electromyography is a useful tool for monitoring muscle activity. A 6-month period of functional therapy resulted in changes in the activity of the masticatory muscles. PMID:25600247

  15. Phase Change Heat Transfer Device for Process Heat Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2010-10-01

    The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to approx.1300 K) and industrial scale power transport (=50MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a thermal device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via ‘pumping a fluid’, a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization/condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e., without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) of vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  16. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  17. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Borella, Henry M. (Santa Barbara, CA); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Turley, W. Dale (Santa Barbara, CA); MacArthur, Charles D. (Clayton, OH); Cala, Gregory C. (Dayton, OH)

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  18. Electrical assembly having heat sink protrusions

    DOEpatents

    Rinehart, Lawrence E. (Lake Oswego, OR); Romero, Guillermo L. (Phoenix, AZ)

    2009-04-21

    An electrical assembly, comprising a heat producing semiconductor device supported on a first major surface of a direct bond metal substrate that has a set of heat sink protrusions supported by its second major surface. In one preferred embodiment the heat sink protrusions are made of the same metal as is used in the direct bond copper.

  19. High frequency-heated air turbojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miron, J. H. D.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of a method to heat air coming from a turbojet compressor to a temperature necessary to produce required expansion without requiring fuel. This is done by high frequency heating, which heats the walls corresponding to the combustion chamber in existing jets, by mounting high frequency coils in them. The current transformer and high frequency generator to be used are discussed.

  20. Work and Heat in a Muscle Twitch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Hill

    1949-01-01

    In a single twitch, when a muscle shortens against a load, doing work, the heat produced is independent of the work done, provided the amount of shortening is kept constant. The total energy liberated may be expressed as (A+W+ax), where A is the heat of activation, W is the work and ax is the heat of shortening. This relation is

  1. Plastic solar panel, heat storage, baseboard heating system for both swimming pool and home

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    A solar energy heating system has been developed which used a $27.50\\/m² plastic panel to supply hot water, space heating, and swimming pool heat for a 150 m² home in Northern California. Panels are 24 m², inclined 50°, covered with a thin Tedlar sheet, produce 55°C water at 90 kg\\/hr. The 55°C solar-heated water is first heat exchanged through the

  2. Heat Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

  3. Heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Leon, Lisa R; Bouchama, Abderrezak

    2015-04-01

    Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition clinically diagnosed as a severe elevation in body temperature with central nervous system dysfunction that often includes combativeness, delirium, seizures, and coma. Classic heat stroke primarily occurs in immunocompromised individuals during annual heat waves. Exertional heat stroke is observed in young fit individuals performing strenuous physical activity in hot or temperature environments. Long-term consequences of heat stroke are thought to be due to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent advances in the identification of risk factors that predispose to heat stroke, the role of endotoxin and cytokines in mediation of multi-organ damage, the incidence of hypothermia and fever during heat stroke recovery, clinical biomarkers of organ damage severity, and protective cooling strategies. Risk factors include environmental factors, medications, drug use, compromised health status, and genetic conditions. The role of endotoxin and cytokines is discussed in the framework of research conducted over 30 years ago that requires reassessment to more clearly identify the role of these factors in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We challenge the notion that hypothalamic damage is responsible for thermoregulatory disturbances during heat stroke recovery and highlight recent advances in our understanding of the regulated nature of these responses. The need for more sensitive clinical biomarkers of organ damage is examined. Conventional and emerging cooling methods are discussed with reference to protection against peripheral organ damage and selective brain cooling. PMID:25880507

  4. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    DOEpatents

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  5. Opportunities for regional harmonization of appliance standards and l abeling program

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2003-09-01

    The South Asian Regional Initiative for Energy (SARI/Energy) calls for a series of activities to promote Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) of end use appliances in the region. In pursuit of this goal, the project supports several seminars and meetings that bring together policymakers and stakeholders from throughout the region. The purpose of these gatherings is to encourage a dialogue among participants as to the benefits and barriers associated with EES&L programs. In addition, it is the role of the program organizers to provide participants with the technical details necessary to make progress towards effective efficiency programs. One component of the initiative is to encourage the harmonization (alignment) of existing program components, and the pursuit of new programs coordinated at the regional level. In support of this goal, the report provides information aimed at motivating and enabling cooperative activities which will provide concrete benefits to programs in each country, whether well developed, or still in the initial planning stage. It should be emphasized that the underlying objective of the harmonization component of the SARI/Energy project is to increase the potential for success of EES&L programs of all countries involved, and to reduce burdens on manufacturers, exporters and importers in each country. Harmonization ''for it's own sake'' is not desirable, nor is it suggested that policymakers should bring their programs in line with international norms if doing so would present a disadvantage to their own efficiency programs, or to commercial interests within their country. If there is no such disadvantage, however, the program encourages alignment of policies and provides a forum at which this alignment can be pursued. The report covers several main topics, with varying emphasis. First, a general discussion of the motivation for an explicit policy of regional harmonization is given. Next, the current status of existing programs in the region are discussed in some detail. The section that follows covers the harmonization of efficiency test procedures. Special attention is given to this component of an EES&L program because it is the most critical element in terms of harmonization--having incompatible test procedures between trade partners can greatly impact the effectiveness of a program, and it can also unduly impact trade. Currently, policymakers in India and Sri Lanka are collaborating with the goal of aligning refrigerator test procedures used in their respective programs. For this reason, the section on test procedures of refrigerators goes into a significant amount of technical detail, in order to provide the clearest possible articulation of issues to be resolved in bringing the procedures into alignment. Following the discussion of test procedures, the report contains a section each on harmonization of efficiency rating levels, development of label designs, and enforcement issues. The report is organized such that the sections covering current programs and test procedures are subdivided by target appliance. These sections are further divided by country, where applicable. Each section is concluded with recommendations.

  6. Producing Turkeys for Show 

    E-print Network

    Thornberry, Fredrick D.

    2005-12-14

    cobs, peanut hulls or rice hulls make good litter. Never place poults on a slick surface such as newspaper, plastic, butcher paper, etc. Construct a cardboard brooder guard (brooder circle) to keep poults near heat, water and feed. The brooder guard... should be 18 inches high and must be a minimum of 5 feet in diameter for 50 poults. When poults are 7 days old, remove the guard and allow them full freedom of the pen. Electric heat lamps (infrared bulbs) are good heat sources for brooding poults. Two...

  7. Realized and Projected Impacts of U.S. Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Commercial Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Stephen P.; McMahon, James; Atkinson, Barbara

    2008-05-08

    This study estimated energy, environmental and consumer economic impacts of U.S. Federal residential energy efficiency standards that became effective in the 1988-2006 period, and of energy efficiency standards for fluorescent lamp ballasts and distribution transformers. These standards have been the subject of in-depth analyses conducted as part of DOE's standards rulemaking process. This study drew on those analyses, but updated certain data and developed a common framework and assumptions for all of the products in order to estimate realized impacts and to update projected impacts. It also performed new analysis for the first (1990) fluorescent ballast standards, which had been introduced in the NAECA legislation without a rulemaking. We estimate that the considered standards will reduce residential/ commercial primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in 2030 by 4percent compared to the levels expected without any standards. The reduction for the residential sector is larger, at 8percent. The estimated cumulative energy savings from the standards amount to 39 quads by 2020, and 63 quads by 2030. The standards will also reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by considerable amounts.The estimated cumulative net present value of consumer benefit amounts to $241 billion by 2030, and grows to $269 billion by 2045. The overall ratio of consumer benefits to costs (in present value terms) in the 1987-2050 period is 2.7 to 1. Although the estimates made in this study are subject to a fair degree of uncertainty, we believe they provide a reasonable approximation of the national benefits resulting from Federal appliance efficiency standards.

  8. SAFE Reactor Brayton Cycle Primary Heat Exchangers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Reid; Michael G. Houts

    2002-01-01

    Gas cooling of power-dense nuclear reactor cores can produce large thermal and stress gradients through sensible temperature changes in the coolant. In-core heat pipes remove heat isothermally and reduce the severity of these gradients. The modular SAFE reactor concept consists of numerous heat pipes that permit core re-assembly during test and preflight integration. The redundancy inherent in the modular heat

  9. Factors Affecting the Formation, Severity and Location of White Spot Lesions during Orthodontic Treatment with Fixed Appliances

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of the present study was to investigate factors affecting the formation, severity and location of white spot lesions in patients completing fixed appliance therapy. Material and Methods A total of 45 patients (19 males and 26 females, mean age 15.81 years, standard deviation 2.89 years) attending consecutively Aberdeen Dental Hospital (ADH) between January and June 2013 to have their fixed appliances removed were given a questionnaire to elicit information regarding their dental care and diet. They were then examined clinically as well as their pre-treatment photographs to record treatment data and white spot lesion (WSL) location and severity using a modified version of Universal Visual Scale for Smooth Surfaces (UniViSS Smooth). Absolute risk (AR) and risk ratios (RR) were also calculated. Results The incidence of at least one WSL observed in patients was 42%, with males displaying a higher incidence than females. The highest incidence of WSLs was recorded on the maxillary canines and lateral incisors, and on the maxillary and mandibular premolars and first molars. The gingival areas of the maxillary and mandibular teeth were the most affected surfaces. Significant (P < 0.05) relationships were found between the presence of WSLs and the following factors: poor oral hygiene (OH), males, increased treatment length, lack of use of fluoride supplements, use of carbonated soft drinks and/or fruit juices and the use of sugary foods. Poor OH posed the highest risk of developing WSL (RR = 8.55). Conclusions 42% of patients have developed white spot lesions during fixed appliance therapy. Various contributing risk factors were identified with the greatest risk posed by a poor oral hygiene. PMID:24800054

  10. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  11. Program documentation: Surface heating rate of thin skin models (THNSKN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbryde, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Program THNSKN computes the mean heating rate at a maximum of 100 locations on the surface of thin skin transient heating rate models. Output is printed in tabular form and consists of time history tabulation of temperatures, average temperatures, heat loss without conduction correction, mean heating rate, least squares heating rate, and the percent standard error of the least squares heating rates. The input tape used is produced by the program EHTS03.

  12. Molar Distalization with Different Pendulum Appliances: In Vitro Registration of Orthodontic Forces and Moments in the Initial Phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gero Kinzinger; Christian Syrée; Ulrike Fritz; Peter Diedrich

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract.\\u000a \\u000a Aim:\\u000a   Registration of the orthodontic forces and moments acting with different types of pendulum appliance for non-compliance upper molar distalization in an in vitro study.\\u000a Material and Methods:\\u000a   The purpose-designed test set-up comprised the following components: artificial maxilla with anchorage unit and two electrothermodynamic (ETD) molars, electronic measuring unit for temperature control and regulation, and a sensor unit with

  13. The effects of water on heat-styling damage.

    PubMed

    Christian, Paul; Winsey, Nigel; Whatmough, Marie; Cornwell, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Heated styling appliances, such as straightening irons, have grown in popularity in recent years, as have hair products such as heat-protection sprays. In this study we investigate whether the water in a heat-protection spray can affect the level of damage caused by heat styling. Tryptophan damage from heat styling was measured using fluorescence spectroscopy, and structural damage was investigated using light microscopy and single-fiber tensile testing. Hair samples were heat treated with straightening irons, following treatment with either a water-based, "wet," heat-protection spray or an ethanol-based, "dry," spray. Results showed that, as expected, tryptophan damage was reduced by repeated applications of both the "wet" and "dry" heat-protection sprays. However, no differences were seen between the "wet" versus the "dry" product. Light microscopy studies showed greater structural damage to hair treated with water and the "wet" spray. Tensile tests confirmed that there was greater damage to hair treated with the "wet" spray. Decreases in Young's modulus were greater in the presence of the "wet" spray. The results of this study suggest that the type of damage caused by heat treatments is different in wet versus dry hair. In dry hair, thermal treatments cause chemical damage and some structural damage. However, in wet hair, thermal treatments cause the same chemical damage, but considerably more structural damage, which causes significant changes in the physical properties of the hair. It is likely that the rapid evaporation of water from the hair is the main causal factor. Our experiments suggest that the effectiveness of commercial heat-protection sprays can be improved by the removal of water and by the use of volatile ingredients, such as ethanol, as base solvents. PMID:21443842

  14. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...included in this program are room and central air conditioners, household refrigerators, home freezers, clothes washers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters, comfort heating equipment, and television...

  15. Absorption heat pump in heating and cooling systems of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, I.

    This report focuses on the operation and applicability of absorption heat pumps (AHP) in building heating and cooling systems. Examples are presented on heating systems of residential buildings and a heating/cooling system of an office building. Despite the limitations of present AHP technology the examples assume AHPs which produce heat at an appropriate temperature level for each application. According to the calculations the primary energy saving potential of AHPs in building specific heat production is 20 to 40 percent. For AHPs coupled with district heating systems the primary energy saving potential can not be unambiguously defined because it is influenced by the production form of district heat, the influence of district heat demand on power generation etc. For the time being economical aspects limit the application potential of AHPs. The profitability of AHP investments is quite poor because of present energy prices, the price ratio of different energy forms and the high investment cost of AHP-systems. The environmental impact of AHPs depend on the fuel used in the generator. Using fuel oil or gas will decrease sulphur and particle emissions but might increase the emissions of NO(x) and hydrocarbons because of the smaller size of combustion units. CFC-emissions will be decreased because AHPs apply alternative refrigerants.

  16. Transverse effect of Haas and Hyrax appliances on the upper dental arch in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Façanha, Anna Júlia de Oliveira; Lara, Tulio Silva; Garib, Daniela Gamba; da Silva Filho, Omar Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the transverse effect of rapid maxillary expansion in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate while comparing the Haas and Hyrax appliances. Methods The sample consisted of 48 patients divided into two groups: Group I - 25 patients treated with modified Haas appliance (mean age: 10 years 8 months); and Group II - 23 patients treated with Hyrax appliance (mean age: 10 years 6 months). Casts were taken during pre-expansion and after removal of the appliance at the end of the retention period. The models were scanned with the aid of the 3 Shape R700 3D scanner. Initial and final transverse distances were measured at cusp tips and cervical-palatal points of maxillary teeth by using the Ortho AnalyzerTM 3D software. Results The mean expansion obtained between cusp tips and cervical-palatal points for inter-canine width was 4.80 mm and 4.35 mm with the Haas appliance and 5.91 mm and 5.91 mm with the Hyrax appliance. As for first premolars or first deciduous molars, the values obtained were 6.46 mm and 5.90 mm in the Haas group and 7.11 mm and 6.65 mm in the Hyrax group. With regard to first molars, values were 6.11 mm and 5.24 mm in the Haas group and 7.55 mm and 6.31 mm in the Hyrax group. Conclusion Rapid maxillary expansion significantly increased the transverse dimensions of the upper dental arch in patients with cleft palate, with no significant differences between the Hass and Hyrax expanders. PMID:24945513

  17. Programming MOFs for water sorption: amino-functionalized MIL-125 and UiO-66 for heat transformation and heat storage applications.

    PubMed

    Jeremias, Felix; Lozan, Vasile; Henninger, Stefan K; Janiak, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    Sorption-based heat transformation and storage appliances are very promising for utilizing solar heat and waste heat in cooling or heating applications. The economic and ecological efficiency of sorption-based heat transformation depends on the availability of suitable hydrophilic and hydrothermally stable sorption materials. We investigated the feasibility of using the metal-organic frameworks UiO-66(Zr), UiO-67(Zr), H2N-UiO-66(Zr) and H2N-MIL-125(Ti) as sorption materials in heat transformations by means of volumetric water adsorption measurements, determination of the heat of adsorption and a 40-cycle ad/desorption stress test. The amino-modified compounds H2N-UiO-66 and H2N-MIL-125 feature high heat of adsorption (89.5 and 56.0 kJ mol(-1), respectively) and a very promising H2O adsorption isotherm due to their enhanced hydrophilicity. For H2N-MIL-125 the very steep rise of the H2O adsorption isotherm in the 0.1 < p/p0 < 0.2 region is especially beneficial for the intended heat pump application. PMID:23864023

  18. Reusable high-temperature heat pipes and heat pipe panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A reusable, durable heat pipe which is capable of operating at temperatures up to about 3000 F in an oxidizing environment and at temperatures above 3000 F in an inert or vacuum environment is produced by embedding a refractory metal pipe within a carbon-carbon composite structure. A reusable, durable heat pipe panel is made from an array of refractory-metal pipes spaced from each other. The reusable, durable, heat-pipe is employed to fabricate a hypersonic vehicle leading edge and nose cap.

  19. Process for producing boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, L.N.; Chase, C.C.

    1988-06-07

    A process for producing boron nitride is described which comprises mixing boron oxide, orthoboric acid and melamine to form a reaction composition which comprises from about 45 to about 50 weight percent, based on the weight of the reaction composition, of melamine and from about 50 to about 55 weight percent, based on the weight of the reaction composition, of a combination of boron oxide and orthoboric acid. The weight ratio of boron oxide to orthoboric acid is from about 3:1 to about 4:1; and heating the composition to temperature of about 700/sup 0/C to about 1200/sup 0/C under a non-oxidizing atmosphere to form boron nitride.

  20. Heat pipe waste heat recovery boilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Littwin; J. McCurley

    1981-01-01

    The use of heat pipes as transport devices in waste heat recovery boilers is examined. Test results show that heat pipes can efficiently extract heat from the hot gas stream and transfer it inside the pressure vessel for the steam generation process. The benefits of incorporating heat pipes into the design of waste heat recovery boilers include a highly compact