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1

24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.  

...73988, Dec. 9, 2013. (a) Heat-producing appliances and...703). (b) Fuel-burning heat-producing appliances and...as follows: § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. (a...specified in 10 CFR part 430, Energy Conservation Program for...

2014-04-01

2

Stirling heat pump external heat systems - An appliance perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major issue facing the Stirling Engine Heat Pump is system cost, and, in particular, the cost of the External Heat System (EHS). The need for high temperature at the heater head (600 C to 700 C) results in low combustion system efficiencies unless efficient heat recovery is employed. The balance between energy efficiency and use of costly high temperature materials is critical to design and cost optimization. Blower power consumption and NO(x) emissions are also important. A new approach to the design and cost optimization of the EHS was taken by viewing the system from a natural gas-fired appliance perspective. To develop a design acceptable to gas industry requirements, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) code considerations were incorporated into the design process and material selections. A parametric engineering design and cost model was developed to perform the analysis, including the impact of design on NO(x) emissions. Analysis results and recommended EHS design and material choices are given.

Vasilakis, Andrew D.; Thomas, John F.

3

Stirling heat pump external heat systems: An appliance perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major issue facing the Stirling Engine Heat Pump is system cost, and, in particular, the cost of the External Heat System (EHS). The need for high temperature at the heater head (600 C to 700 C) results in low combustion system efficiencies unless efficient heat recovery is employed. The balance between energy efficiency and use of costly high temperature materials is critical to design and cost optimization. Blower power consumption and NO(x) emissions are also important. A new approach to the design and cost optimization of the EHS system was taken by viewing the system from a natural gas-fired appliance perspective. To develop a design acceptable to gas industry requirements, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) code considerations were incorporated into the design process and material selections. A parametric engineering design and cost model was developed to perform the analysis, including the impact of design on NO(x) emissions. Analysis results and recommended EHS design and material choices are given.

Vasilakis, A. D.; Thomas, J. F.

1992-08-01

4

Stirling heat pump external heat systems: An appliance perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major issue facing the Stirling Engine Heat Pump is system cost, and, in particular, the cost of the External Heat System (EHS). The need for high temperature at the heater head (600(degree)C to 700(degree)C) results in low combustion system efficiencie...

A. D. Vasilakis, J. F. Thomas

1992-01-01

5

Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the dump valve on these two appliances would have eliminated uncertainty in knowing when waste water was flowing and the recovery system operated. The study also suggested that capture of dryer exhaust heat to heat incoming air to the dryer should be examined as an alternative to using drying exhaust energy for water heating. The study found that over a 6-week test period, the system in each house was able to recover on average approximately 3000 W-h of waste heat daily from these appliance and showers with slightly less on simulated weekdays and slightly more on simulated weekends which were heavy wash/dry days. Most of these energy savings were due to the shower/GFX operation, and the least savings were for the dishwasher/GFX operation. Overall, the value of the 3000 W-h of displaced energy would have been $0.27/day based on an electricity price of $.09/kWh. Although small for today s convention house, these savings are significant for a home designed to approach maximum affordable efficiency where daily operating costs for the whole house are less than a dollar per day. In 2010 the actual measured cost of energy in one of the simulated occupancy houses which waste heat recovery testing was undertaken was $0.77/day.

Tomlinson, John J [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

2012-09-01

6

In-field measurements of PCDD/F emissions from domestic heating appliances for solid fuels.  

PubMed

Within this project the emissions into the atmosphere of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) of 30 domestic heating appliances in Austrian households were tested. The appliances were single stoves (kitchen stove, continuous burning stove and tiled stove) and central heating boilers for solid fuels up to a nominal heat input of 50 kW. A main objective of this survey was to determine the PCDD/F emissions of domestic heating units under routine conditions. Therefore, the habitual combustion conditions used by the operators were not influenced. The original fuels and lightning supports were used and the operation of the units was carried out by the householders according to their usual practice. The data obtained were used to calculate in-field PCDD/F-emission factors. Most of the appliances have shown PCDD/F emissions within a concentration range of 0.01-0.3 ng TEQ/MJ. Modern fan-assisted wood heating boilers with afterburning and units for continuously burning of wood chips and wood pellets had the lowest emissions. High emissions were caused by unsuitable heating habits such as combustion of wastes and inappropriate operation of the appliances. There were only small differences between single stoves and central heating boilers or between wood and coal-fired appliances. The emission factors calculated are higher than those cited in literature, which are mainly derived from trials on test stands under laboratory conditions. PMID:15581939

Hübner, C; Boos, R; Prey, T

2005-01-01

7

24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...provided in the listing. (2) Clearance spaces surrounding heat producing appliances...framed-in or guarded when: (i) A space is designed specifically for a clothes washer or dryer; (ii) Dimensions surrounding the appliance do not...

2011-04-01

8

24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...provided in the listing. (2) Clearance spaces surrounding heat producing appliances...framed-in or guarded when: (i) A space is designed specifically for a clothes washer or dryer; (ii) Dimensions surrounding the appliance do not...

2010-04-01

9

Frequency-dependent resistance in Litzwire planar windings for domestic induction heating appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the frequency-dependent resistance in Litz-wire planar windings for domestic induction heating appliances is analyzed. For these inductors, in which the size is not an essential constraint, an analytical model is developed based on the superposition of different loss effects in the wire. Eddy current losses, including conduction losses and proximity-effect losses, both internal and external, were considered

Jesús Acero; Rafael Alonso; José M. Burdío; Luis A. Barragán; Diego Puyal

2006-01-01

10

A two-output series-resonant inverter for induction-heating cooking appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-burner induction-heating cooking appliances are suitable for using multiple-output inverters. Some common approaches use several single-output inverters or a single-output inverter multiplexing the loads along the time periodically. By specifying a two-output series-resonant high-frequency inverter, a new inverter is obtained fulfilling the requirements. The synthesized converter can be considered as a two-output extension of a full-bridge topology. It allows the

José M. Burdío; Fernando Monterde; José R. García; Luis A. Barragán; Abelardo Martínez

2005-01-01

11

24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...All automatic electric storage water heaters installed in manufactured homes...Automatic Electric Storage Type Water Heaters, ANSI C72.1-1972. (2...oil-fired automatic storage water heaters shall have a recovery...

2013-04-01

12

FPGA Implementation of a Switching Frequency Modulation Circuit for EMI Reduction in Resonant Inverters for Induction Heating Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the use of frequency modulation as a spread spectrum technique to reduce conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the A frequency band (9-150 kHz) caused by resonant inverters used in induction heating home appliances. For sinusoidal, triangular, and sawtooth modulation profiles, the influence of peak period deviation in EMI reduction and in the power delivered to the load

Luis A. Barragan; Denis Navarro; JesÚs Acero; Isidro Urriza; JosÉ M. Burdio

2008-01-01

13

FPGA-Based Power Measuring for Induction Heating Appliances Using Sigma–Delta A\\/D Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a digital circuit that measures in real time the output power of medium-frequency (25-50 kHz) induction-heated cooking appliances. The voltage and current are sensed using first-order sigma-delta (SigmaDelta) analog-to-digital converters. The power-measuring algorithm is very simple while maintaining good accuracy. The algorithm is developed using a hardware description language (VHDL).

Jesús Acero; Denis Navarro; L. A. Barraga; Ignacio Garde; José I. Artigas; José M. Burdío

2007-01-01

14

Induction-heated cooking appliance using new quasi-resonant ZVS-PWM inverter with power factor correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new prototype of a voltage-fed quasi-load resonant inverter with a constant-frequency variable-power (CFVP) regulation scheme, which is developed for the next-generation high-frequency high-power induction-heated (IH) cooking appliances in household applications. This application-specific high-frequency single-ended push-pull inverter using new-generation specially designed insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) can efficiently operate under a principle of zero-voltage switching pulsewidth modulation

Shengpei Wang; Kiyoshi Izaki; Izuo Hirota; Hidekazu Yamashita; Hideki Omori; Mutsuo Nakaoka

1998-01-01

15

Global residential appliance standards  

SciTech Connect

In most countries, residential electricity consumption typically ranges from 20% to 40% of total electricity consumption. This energy is used for heating, cooling, refrigeration and other end-uses. Significant energy savings are possible if new appliance purchases are for models with higher efficiency than that of existing models. There are several ways to ensure or encourage such an outcome, for example, appliance rebates, innovative procurement, and minimum efficiency standards. This paper focuses on the latter approach. At the present time, the US is the only country with comprehensive appliance energy efficiency standards. However, many other countries, such as Australia, Canada, the European Community (EC), Japan and Korea, are considering enacting standards. The greatest potential impact of minimum efficiency standards for appliances is in the developing countries (e.g., China and India), where saturations of household appliances are relatively low but growing rapidly. This paper discusses the potential savings that could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also discusses the impediments to establishing common standards for certain appliance types, such as differing test procedures, characteristics, and fuel prices. A methodology for establishing global efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers is described.

Turiel, I.; McMahon, J.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Lebot, B. (Agence Francaise pour la Maitrise de l'Energie, Valbonne (France))

1993-03-01

16

A STUDY ON THE VOCS EMISSION RATES OF HOME ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home electrical appliances release hazardous chemical substances produced by the effects of heating during their operation. The present study investigated the emission rates of chemical substances on home electrical appliances such as microwave ovens, vacuum cleaners, electric heaters, electric blankets, multimedia players, electronic dictionaries, MD players and notebook PCs. The VOCs emission rates of comparatively small products were measured using

Atsuo Nozaki; Yasunori Narita

17

BIOFLAM PROJECT: APPLICATION OF LIQUID BIOFUELS IN NEW HEATING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DOMESTIC APPLIANCES BASED ON COOL FLAME VAPORIZATION AND POROUS MEDIUM COMBUSTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BIOFLAM project intends to provide solutions to the problem of environmental impact of combustion of liquid fuels for heating purposes. Oil burners show up to date a very poor power modulation especially at low power outputs, as usually needed in domestic appliances. Liquid biofuels like FAME are also not compatible with conventional oil burner technologies. Furthermore, the integration of

T. Brehmer; F. Heger; K. Lucka; J. von Schloss; Y. Abu-Sharekh; D. Trimis; A. Heeb; G. Köb; T. Hayashi; J. C. F. Pereira; M. Founti; D. Kolaitis; M. Molinari; A. Ortona; J.-B. Michel

18

Method for producing micro heat panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flat or curved micro heat pipe panels are fabricated by arranging essentially parallel filaments in the shape of the desired panel. The configuration of the filaments corresponds to the desired configuration of the tubes that will constitute the heat pipes. A thermally conductive material is then deposited on and around the filaments to fill in the desired shape of the panel. The filaments are then removed, leaving tubular passageways of the desired configuration and surface texture in the material. The tubes are then filled with a working fluid and sealed. Composite micro heat pipe laminates are formed by layering individual micro heat pipe panels and bonding them to each other to form a single structure. The layering sequence of the micro heat pipe panels can be tailored to transport heat preferentially in specific directions as desired for a particular application.

Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Peterson, George P. (Inventor); Rummler, Donald R. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

19

Geothermal Heat Pumps Produce Dramatic Savings  

E-print Network

The widespread use of geothermal energy to reduce heating costs has been limited in part by the high initial cost of digging deep wells to obtain moderate temperature water (under 220 F) for direct-use industrial process and space heating...

Niess, R. C.

1983-01-01

20

24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Air Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment and certified...unitary cooling systems with rated capacity...1-1996, Gas Fired, Heat Activated, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Appliances, and...Direct refrigerating systems serving any...

2012-04-01

21

24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Air Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment and certified...unitary cooling systems with rated capacity...1-1996, Gas Fired, Heat Activated, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Appliances, and...Direct refrigerating systems serving any...

2011-04-01

22

24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Air Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment and certified...unitary cooling systems with rated capacity...1-1996, Gas Fired, Heat Activated, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Appliances, and...Direct refrigerating systems serving any...

2010-04-01

23

24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Air Source Unitary Heat Pump Equipment and certified...unitary cooling systems with rated capacity...1-1996, Gas Fired, Heat Activated, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Appliances, and...Direct refrigerating systems serving any...

2013-04-01

24

Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process  

DOEpatents

Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

2013-05-28

25

Heat pump assisted drying of agricultural produce-an overview.  

PubMed

This review paper included the recent progress made in heat pump assisted drying, its principle, mechanism and efficiency, type and its application for drying of agricultural produce. Heat pump assisted drying provides a controllable drying environment (temperature and humidity) for better products quality at low energy consumption. It has remarkable future prospects and revolutionaries ability. The heat pump system consists of an expansion valve, two heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser), and a compressor, which are connected by using copper tubes. In this paper we also provided a review discussion on different type of heat pump assisted drying system ready for remarkable and commercial use in different type of food industries. Here we also have given some major advantage and disadvantage of heat pump assisted drying. PMID:23572837

Patel, Krishna Kumar; Kar, Abhijit

2012-04-01

26

Arnold Schwarzenegger 2009 APPLIANCE  

E-print Network

............72 A-3 Standards for Non-Commercial Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers Manufactured ............................................................................................... 68 1603 Testing: All Appliances............................................................................................. 69 1604 Test Methods for Specific Appliances

27

ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMAN, SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO AID IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING A COURSE FOR TRAINING ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMEN. OUTLINES (ONE PAGE EACH) COVER -- (1) RELATED INSTRUCTION, (2) FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY, (3) BASIC CONTROLS AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, (4) RESISTANCE HEATING APPLIANCES, (5) MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC APPLIANCES, (6) MOTOR DRIVEN…

LOVE, L. CARL; RONEY, MAURICE W.

28

[Orthodontics in general practice. 4. Eruption guidance appliances in orthodontics].  

PubMed

Eruption guidance appliances are recommended for early orthodontic treatment or prevention of malocclusions. The treatment effect of eruption guidance appliances and functional appliances is similar. In addition to dentoalveolar and skeletal effects, eruption guidance appliances would also have myofunctional effects for treating open mouth behaviour and swallowing problems. However, there is no solid evidence for the myofunctional effect claimed. The position of erution guidance appliances in the orthodontic treatment arsenal is limited: early treatment of Angle Class II malocclusion in 2 phases has no advantage over a 2 phase treatment. When eruption guidance is needed, preference is given to an individually produced appliance. PMID:18444500

Reukers, H A J; Bartzela, T

2008-03-01

29

Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor sourcea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe13+ are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

2008-02-01

30

Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source  

SciTech Connect

Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe{sup 13+} are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555, Japan and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama (Japan); Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., Tateyama Kagaku Group, 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama (Japan); Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., Tateyama Kagaku Group, 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2008-02-15

31

Heat production in an Archean crustal profile and implications for heat flow and mobilization of heat-producing elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concentrations of heat producing elements (Th, U, and K) in 58 samples representative of the main lithologies in a 100-km transect of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield have been obtained. The relatively large variation in heat production found among the silicic plutonic rocks is shown to correlate with modal abundances of accessory minerals, and these variations are interpreted as premetamorphic. The present data suggest fundamental differences in crustal radioactivity distributions between granitic and more mafic terrains, and indicate that a previously determined apparently linear heat flow-heat production relationship for the Kapuskasing area does not relate to the distribution of heat production with depth.

Ashwal, L. D.; Morgan, P.; Kelley, S. A.; Percival, J. A.

1987-01-01

32

Arnold Schwarzenegger 2010 APPLIANCE  

E-print Network

: Appliance Efficiency Regulations, appliance standards, refrigerators, air conditioners, space heaters, water, showerheads, spray valves, faucets, tub spout diverters, water closets, urinals, ceiling fans, ceiling fan ..............................................................................................71 1605 Energy Performance, Energy Design, Water Performance, and Water Design Standards: In General

33

Appliance Repair, Tips & Help  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site, visitors can find information about common household appliance parts and repair - categorized by type - including kitchen appliances, laundry equipment, and refrigerators. By clicking on the images of the individual machines, visitors can find more information including parts, how they work, common problems, and maintenance tips. There are also helpfully labeled images for particular brands and models of each appliance, which indicate the different features and parts of those particular machines. While some of the site is commercial (such as the links to appliance accessories), there is plenty of free and handy information for students working toward a career in appliance installation and repair.

2007-02-15

34

Fundamentals of Refrigeration; Air Conditioning and Heating Mechanics 1--Appliance Repair 2: 9013.01 and 9025.05.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing the student with an understanding of the basic refrigeration fundamentals, the course introduces the various types of tools and equipment used in this trade. The course consists of 90 clock hours and is organized into six instructional blocks. The student will gain an understanding of trade terminology, heat and temperature, transfer of…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

35

Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends  

SciTech Connect

Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

2008-07-20

36

Tectonic feedback and the ordering of heat producing elements within the continental lithosphere  

E-print Network

Tectonic feedback and the ordering of heat producing elements within the continental lithosphere Abstract The distribution of the heat producing elements within the lithosphere provides an important control on continental thermal regimes and the mechanical strength of the lithosphere. Moreover

Sandiford, Mike

37

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compartments containing gas-consuming appliances... Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation...compartments containing gas-consuming appliances...fitted with at least two natural ventilator ducts...

2013-10-01

38

Micro heat pipe panels and method for producing same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flat or curved micro heat pipe panels are fabricated by arranging essentially parallel filaments in the shape of the desired panel. The configuration of the filaments corresponds to the desired configuration of the tubes that will constitute the heat pipes. A thermally conductive material is then deposited on and around the filaments to fill in the desired shape of the panel. The filaments are then removed, leaving tubular passageways of the desired configuration and surface texture in the material. The tubes are then filled with a working fluid and sealed. Composite micro heat pipe laminates are formed by layering individual micro heat pipe panels and bonding them to each other to form a single structure. The layering sequence of the micro heat pipe panels can be tailored to transport heat preferentially in specific directions as desired for a particular application.

Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Peterson, George P. (Inventor); Rummler, Donald R. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

39

Controller Design of Power Quality-Improving Appliances  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an innovative solution to power quality problems using power quality-improving (PQI) appliances. PQI appliances conduct currents that supplement and correct the sum of the other load currents within a premise. From the utility side, the premise housing a PQI appliance thus becomes an improved, if not ideal, utility customer. The PQI appliance improves both harmonic power quality and power factor while performing its normal function, such as heating water. In this paper, the water heater PQI appliance is used as an example to demonstrate the control circuit design and function. Both computer simulation results and laboratory experiment results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. The estimated costs of the PQI controller and of harmonic compensating filters are compared to show that the PQI appliance may be an economic way to provide power quality improvement at the building level.

Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Zhou, Ning; Lu, Ning

2007-05-01

40

Localized Joule heating produced by ion current focusing through micron-size holes  

E-print Network

Localized Joule heating produced by ion current focusing through micron-size holes V. Viasnoff,1,a is discussed. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3399315 The creation of local heat sources diffusion of heat in water. Several solutions were proposed, such as heating micro/nanoparticles1

41

Gas appliance and installation quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

British Gas plc only sells and installs domestic gas appliances which conform to the requirements of a third party certification scheme. This involves type testing of appliance prototypes, assessment of the manufacturers quality system and quality auditing of production appliances. This certification is augmented by additional quality auditing of appliances both in the factory and at British Gas warehouses. In

E. W. G. Dance; P. M. Mulholland

1988-01-01

42

Major Appliance Management Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Major appliances (also called 'white goods') have long been managed as part of the traditional municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, with the most common management method being landfill disposal. Over the past several years, it has become increasingly appa...

M. Robertson, K. F. O'Donnell

1990-01-01

43

15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...household refrigerators, home freezers, clothes washers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters, comfort heating equipment, and television receivers. Additional appliances and equipment may be included...

2012-01-01

44

15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...household refrigerators, home freezers, clothes washers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters, comfort heating equipment, and television receivers. Additional appliances and equipment may be included...

2011-01-01

45

15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.  

...household refrigerators, home freezers, clothes washers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters, comfort heating equipment, and television receivers. Additional appliances and equipment may be included...

2014-01-01

46

15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...household refrigerators, home freezers, clothes washers, dishwashers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters, comfort heating equipment, and television receivers. Additional appliances and equipment may be included...

2013-01-01

47

Heat Flux and Entropy Produced by Thermal Fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an experimental and theoretical analysis of the energy exchanged between two conductors kept at different temperature and coupled by the electric thermal noise. Experimentally we determine, as functions of the temperature difference, the heat flux, the out-of-equilibrium variance, and a conservation law for the fluctuating entropy, which we justify theoretically. The system is ruled by the same equations as two Brownian particles kept at different temperatures and coupled by an elastic force. Our results set strong constraints on the energy exchanged between coupled nanosystems held at different temperatures.

Ciliberto, S.; Imparato, A.; Naert, A.; Tanase, M.

2013-05-01

48

Design, development, and demonstration of a promising integrated appliance. Phase I: design. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination or integration of appliances for the economical recovery of energy which is normally wasted during the operation of heating systems, air conditioners, water heaters, stoves, clothes washers and driers, and refrigerators in homes and commercial buildings was studied. The potential energy savings achievable by using waste heat from one appliance as heat input to another, e.g., water heaters,

W. D. Lee; W. T. Lawrence; R. P. Wilson

1977-01-01

49

Crew appliance study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viable crew appliance concepts were identified by means of a thorough literature search. Studies were made of the food management, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and off-duty habitability functions to determine which concepts best satisfy the Space Shuttle Orbiter and Modular Space Station mission requirements. Models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the generalized environmental-thermal control and life support systems computer program were developed and validated. Development plans of selected concepts were generated for future reference. A shuttle freezer conceptual design was developed and a test support activity was provided for regenerative environmental control life support subsystems.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

50

Pressure Loss and Heat Transfer Through Heat Sinks Produced by Selective Laser Melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat removal from electronic packages is often assisted with the use of heat sinks whose heat transfer surfaces come in a variety of forms such as cylindrical pins, flat fins, and corrugated sheet. These conventional designs are manufactured by traditional methods such as forging, machining, casting, stamping and bending, or a combination of processes. This article introduces a novel manufacturing

Matthew Wong; Ieuan Owen; Chris J. Sutcliffe

2009-01-01

51

Heating system for a steam turbine energy producing plant  

SciTech Connect

The system comprises a series of heaters arranged in cascade and fed with steam from drawoffs at pressures which progressively decrease from the steam boiler side to the condenser side of the plant. In order to improve the efficiency of the plant with which the system is associated, the system comprises a plurality of biphase turbines arranged in cascade. The first of the turbines is fed from the drain of the heater at the highest pressure and the following turbines are each fed at least in part with the outlet liquid of the biphase turbine preceding it. These biphase turbines produce mechanical energy by recovery of the kinetic energy of the condensates of the heaters feeding them.

Paquet, A.J.

1983-10-11

52

APPLIANCE SERVICE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS IS AN OUTGROWTH OF A FEASIBILITY STUDY COMPLETED IN THE PREVIOUS YEAR (SEE JC 660 071). IT PROPOSES 1-YEAR AND 2-YEAR APPLIANCE SERVICE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS, BASIC COURSE OUTLINES, AND FACULTY NEEDS AND EQUIPMENT FOR THIS COLLEGE. EACH PROGRAM INCLUDES THE SUBAREAS OF COMMUNICATIONS SKILLS, BUSINESS PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES, WARRANTIES, AND…

SCHAUER, CLARENCE H.

53

Appliance Servicing Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide presents the standard appliance servicing technician curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

54

Heating of domestic water by waste heat recovery from household refrigerating equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat from a 370 l deep freeze was used to heat water in a 250 l boiler. Both units were made from mass produced components. Tests show that the functions of cooling and deep freezing units can be effectively combined with one warm water boiler. The necessary expenditure for the appliance is, however, only economical with deep freezing units because

J. Reil; B. Kaster; M. Wegner

1982-01-01

55

New Insights Into the Heat Sources of Mantle Plumes, or: Where Does all the Heat Come From, Heat Producing Elements, Advective or Conductive Heat Flow?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melting anomalies in the Earth's upper mantle have often been attributed to the presence of mantle plumes that may originate in the lower mantle, possibly from the core-mantle boundary. Globally, mantle plumes exhibit a large range in buoyancy flux that which is proportional to their temperature and volume. Plumes with higher buoyancy fluxes should have higher temperatures and experience higher degrees of partial melting. Excess heat in mantle plumes could reflect either a) an enrichment of the heat producing elements (HPE: U, Th, K) in their mantle source leading to an increase of heat production by radioactive decay or b) advective or conductive heat transport across the core-mantle boundary. The advective transport of heat may result in a physical contribution of material from the core to the lower mantle. If core material is incorporated into the lower mantle, mantle plumes with a higher buoyancy flux should have higher core tracers, e.g. increased 186Os and Fe concentrations. Geophysical and dynamic modelling indicate that at least Afar, Easter, Hawaii, Louisville and Samoa may all originate at the core-mantle boundary. These plumes encompass the whole range of known buoyancy fluxes from 1.2 Mgs -1(Afar) to 6.5 Mgs -1 (Hawaii) providing evidence that the buoyancy flux is largely independent of other geophysical parameters. In an effort to explore whether the heat producing elements are the cause of excess heat we looked for correlations between fractionation corrected concentrations of the HPE and buoyancy flux. Our results suggest that there is no correlation between HPE concentrations and buoyancy flux (with and without an additional correction for variable degrees of partial melting). As anticipated, K, Th and U are positively correlated with each other (e.g. Hawaii, Iceland and Galapagos have significantly lower concentrations than e.g. Tristan da Cunha, the Canary Islands and the Azores). We also find no correlation between currently available Fe concentration data and buoyancy flux. The apparent lack of correlation suggests that excess heat may be a result of conductive heat contribution from the core. Additional precise 186Os and Fe data are needed to further assess these conclusions.

Rushmer, T.; Beier, C.; Turner, S.

2007-12-01

56

Emerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and  

E-print Network

in moving pyrolysis to the field rather than wood to the pyrolysis plant. Gasification uses even higherEmerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and electricity using established technologies of District Energy and Combined Heat and Power plants. Using wood to make

57

Frictional Heating of Pore Fluid Produces Complete Stress Drop in Large Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat generated in a slip zone during an earthquake can raise fluid pressure and thereby reduce frictional resistance to slip. The amount of fluid pressure rise depends on the associated fluid flow. Heat generated at a given time produces fluid pressure which decreases inversely with the square root of hydraulic diffusivity times elapsed time. If the slip velocity function is

D. J. Andrews

2002-01-01

58

Heat treatment of Ti6Al7Nb components produced by selective laser melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe a preliminary investigation into the heat treatment of Ti-6Al-7Nb components that had been produced via selective laser melting (SLM). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Bars of Ti-6Al-7Nb were produced using SLM by MCP-HEK Tooling GmbH in Lubeck, Germany. These bars were then subjected to a range of heat treatments and the resultant microstructure

Tim Sercombe; Noel Jones; Rob Day; Alan Kop

2008-01-01

59

Process for producing an activated carbon adsorbent with integral heat transfer apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for producing an integral adsorbent-heat exchanger apparatus useful in ammonia refrigerant heat pump systems. In one embodiment, the process wets an activated carbon particles-solvent mixture with a binder-solvent mixture, presses the binder wetted activated carbon mixture on a metal tube surface and thereafter pyrolyzes the mixture to form a bonded activated carbon matrix adjoined to the tube surface. The integral apparatus can be easily and inexpensively produced by the process in large quantities.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

60

Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

2011-06-30

61

Energy-efficient appliances  

SciTech Connect

The major issues confronting policy makers in their effort to promote energy-efficiency in the home are: performance testing and ratings, marketing and foreign competition, federal standards and incentives, utility load management and incentives, and consumer education. The report concludes by describing some new directions, some of which are extensions of existing programs. They include taxes on inefficient appliances, utility rebates, programs to replace or to audit and modify equipment, appliance ratings as part of home-efficiency ratings, advertising, and public procurements. A research agenda stresses field performance, analytical work, data gathering, and program evaluation. Economic analyses of return on investment, the cost of conserved energy, and early retirement appear in an appendix. 216 references, 14 figures, 15 tables.

Geller, H.S.

1983-01-01

62

Etruscan Gold Dental Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By 630 BCE Etruscan metallurgists in central Italy had begun to apply their impressive goldworking skills in the production\\u000a of dental bridges (pontics). The achievement of this technological development began with the fabrication of a hollow gold\\u000a tooth mounted on a thin band of gold. The band served to anchor this dental appliance to the healthy teeth adjacent to the

Marshall Joseph Becker

63

On the heat flux and entropy produced by thermal fluctuations S. Ciliberto1  

E-print Network

exchanged between two con- ductors kept at different temperature and coupled by the electric thermal noise-of-equilibrium by a temperature difference and energy exchange is produced only by the thermal noise has been analyzed onlyOn the heat flux and entropy produced by thermal fluctuations S. Ciliberto1 , A.Imparato2 , A

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

On the heat flux and entropy produced by thermal fluctuations S. Ciliberto1  

E-print Network

exchanged between two con- ductors kept at different temperature and coupled by the electric thermal noise and the energy exchanges are produced only by the thermal noise has been analyzed only theoretically on modelOn the heat flux and entropy produced by thermal fluctuations S. Ciliberto1 , A.Imparato2 , A

65

Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

1989-12-12

66

Wood-burning appliances and indoor air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood heating represents an interesting economic alternative to electrical or heating oil and gas systems. However, many people are concerned about poor indoor air quality in homes equipped with wood-burning appliances. We conducted a study in the Quebec City region (Canada) to verify the extent of indoor air contamination, and to examine the frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses among

Benoit Lévesque; Sylvain Allaire; Denis Gauvin; Petros Koutrakis; Suzanne Gingras; Marc Rhainds; Henri Prud'Homme; Jean-François Duchesne

2001-01-01

67

Emission factors from small scale appliances burning wood and pellets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four manually fed (6-11 kW) firewood burning and two automatic wood pellets (8.8-25 kW) residential heating appliances were tested under real-world operating conditions in order to determine emission factors (EFs) of macropollutants, i.e., carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter (PM) and trace pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins. The results were examined for the influence of different factors (i.e., type of wood, appliance and combustion cycle). The experimental EFs were also compared with the values proposed by the European emission inventory guidebook used in the local inventory in order to evaluate their representativeness of real world emissions. The composite macropollutant EFs for manually fed appliances were: for CO 5858 g GJ-1, for NOx 122 g GJ-1, NMHC 542 g GJ-1, PM 254 g GJ-1, whereas emissions were much lower for automatic pellets appliances: CO 219 g GJ-1, for NOx 66 g GJ-1, NMHC 5 g GJ-1, PM 85 g GJ-1. The highest emissions were generally observed for the open fireplace, however traditional and advanced stoves have the highest overall CO EFs. Especially for the advanced stove real-world emissions are far worse than those measured under cycles used for type testing of residential solid fuel appliances. No great difference is observed for different firewood types in batch working appliances, diversely the quality of the pellets is observed to influence directly the emission performance of the automatic appliances. Benzo(b)fluoranthene is the PAH with the highest contribution (110 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 2 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices) followed by benzo(a)pyrene (77 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 0.8 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices).

Ozgen, Senem; Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Giugliano, Michele; Angelino, Elisabetta; Marongiu, Alessandro; Hugony, Francesca; Migliavacca, Gabriele; Morreale, Carmen

2014-09-01

68

Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power  

E-print Network

Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power by Thomas Schmeister B.Sc., University

Victoria, University of

69

Personal Fuel Appliance  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress made in Phase I of Stuart's Personal Fueling Appliance Program. Phase I concluded in March 2002 with the demonstration and deployment of several working models. As proposed in the original project plan, working models of the PFA were built to prove feasibility and technically market the concept. Future follow up phases of the project, Phase II and III, will take the concept through prototyping development to pre-production of commercially viable product. The Phase I program successfully demonstrate a home fueling system capable of running on a household circuit, 220V/40 Amp/single phase or equivalent. Connected to a source of ''drinking water'' the system has all the functions necessary to convert water and electricity to high-pressure hydrogen fuel. Pressures of up to 3600 psig were achieved on demonstration systems and higher pressures up to 5000 psig were achieved in the lab. The development program spanned building 3 series of prototypes: White Box (1 unit built 1998), PFA Series 100 (4 units built 1999-2000), and Series 200 (6 units built 2000-02). Advanced in controls and process learned in the PFA program have been embodied in Stuart's larger fuel appliances.

Stuart Energy

2003-12-30

70

Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

71

New method for producing glass matrices for heat-resistant glass-enamel coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of reducing the energy and materials consumption of the enamel industry, and of increasing the quality of pieces, can be resolved by applying glass-ceramic coatings on the firing instrument and heating elements of annealing furnaces. The practical utilization of these coatings depends on the economy and accessibility of the method for producing their glass matrix. At the present

Oo No Tkacheva; V. E. Gorbatenko; A. G. Tkachev

1990-01-01

72

Rapid test for identification of heat-labile enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli colonies.  

PubMed Central

A latex particle agglutination test is described which is suitable for the recognition of heat-labile enterotoxin-producing colonies of Escherichia coli immediately after primary culture on a variety of commonly used enteric diagnostic media. The test is simple and economical to perform, and the results are available in minutes. PMID:6350351

Finkelstein, R A; Yang, Z

1983-01-01

73

The relation between heat produced and phosphorylcreatine split during isometric contraction of frog's muscle  

PubMed Central

1. Heat production, tension development and phosphorylcreatine (PC) splitting have been measured simultaneously during isometric contractions of iodoacetate-poisoned frogs' sartorii at 0° C. The muscles were stimulated to produce a series of 30 twitches or a 10 sec tetanus or a 30 sec tetanus. 2. Of the several possible methods of calculating PC breakdown the best appears to be the one based on the assumption that PC/(total creatine) was originally the same in the two muscles of a pair. 3. The difficulty of expressing PC break-down, heat production etc. in terms of the muscle's size is demonstrated. 4. Several artifacts are discussed, including the heat produced by the stimulus and the possible role of reactions other than PC splitting. 5. Even when these have been substantially eliminated there remains the rather intractable statistical problem of establishing a functional relationship between heat produced and PC split when both of these variables contain errors, so that ordinary regression analysis is misleading. It is shown that this problem can be dealt with satisfactorily by introducing other instrumental variables that can be determined experimentally. 6. The final conclusion is that the in vivo enthalpy of hydrolysis of PC is about 10·6 kcal/mole, and is the same in twitches and in tetani. PMID:6034112

Carlson, F. D.; Hardy, Donna; Wilkie, D. R.

1967-01-01

74

Heat resistance of histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated tuna loins.  

PubMed

Consumption of foods high in biogenic amines leads to an illness known as histamine, or scombrotoxin, poisoning. The illness is commonly associated with consumption of fish with high levels of histamine ( $ 500 ppm). The objective of this study was to determine and compare the heat resistance of five histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated albacore tuna loins. Heat-resistance parameters (D- and z-values) were determined for Morganella morganii, Raoultella planticola, Hafnia alvei, and Enterobacter aerogenes. D- or z-values were not determined for Photobacterium damselae, which was the most heat-sensitive organism in this study. P. damselae declined > 5.9 log CFU/g after a heat treatment of 50°C for 10 min, 54°C for 3 min, and 56°C for 0.5 min. M. morganii was the most heat-resistant histamine-producing bacteria in albacore tuna loins, followed by E. aerogenes, H. alvei, and R. planticola. M. morganii and E. aerogenes had the highest D(50°C), 49.7 ± 17.57 and 51.8 ± 17.38 min, respectively. In addition, M. morganii had the highest D-values for all other temperatures (54, 56, and 58°C) tested. D- and zvalues were also determined for M. morganii in skipjack tuna. While no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed between D(54°C) and D(56°C) of M. morganii in either albacore or skipjack tuna, the D(58°C) (0.4 ± 0.17 min) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in skipjack than in albacore (0.9 ± 0.24 min). The z-values for all organisms tested were in the range of 3.2 to 3.8°C. This study suggests that heat treatment designed to control M. morganii in tuna loins is sufficient for controlling histamine-producing bacteria in canned-tuna processing environments. PMID:23992506

Enache, Elena; Kataoka, Ai; Black, D Glenn; Weddig, Lisa; Hayman, Melinda; Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin

2013-09-01

75

Heat-producing elements and the thermal and baric patterns of metamorphic belts.  

PubMed

The character of sedimentary basins, before they are deformed and metamorphosed, may strongly influence the thermal and baric patterns of metamorphic belts. Crustal thickening of anoxic sedimentary basins and subsequent thermal reequilibration may produce large areas of high-grade metamorphic rocks and granites because the concentrations of the heat-producing elements are high in such basins. In New England there is a spatial association among granites and high-grade metasedimentary rocks rich in U and Th that now form the Central Maine terrane. The high content of heat-producing elements in these rocks is attributed to fixing of U and Th in highly reduced sediments that were deposited in an anoxic basin that formed in the Silurian. When the basin was thickened during the Devonian Acadian orogeny, the thermal energy generated by the U- and Th-rich sediments produced the observed broad zone of high-grade rocks and anatectic granites. This hypothesis was tested with thermal calculations that reproduce most of the first-order thermal and baric patterns of the Acadian Appalachians, if pretectonic lateral variations in heat production are assumed. PMID:17759969

Chamberlain, C P; Sonder, L J

1990-11-01

76

Energy Star Appliances 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service ENERGY STAR Appliances  

E-print Network

Energy Star® Appliances 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service ENERGY STAR® Appliances ENERGY STAR®-labeled appliances save you money by using less electricity and water than other appliances. Better appliance energy efficiency comes from quality materials and technologically advanced materials. Although energy efficient

77

Fixed lingual orthodontic appliance  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to a fixed lingual orthodontic appliance which, when installed on the patient, rests on the lingual surface of the teeth and the palatine and inferior alveolar mucous membranes, comprising a base and support element (1) destined to be rested on the oral mucous membrane, substantially horseshoe-conformed, a plurality of elastic connecting elements (2) made by the modelling of a steel wire or similar with predetermined elastic characteristics, fixed at an end to the base and support element (1), and at the other of its ends on a respective bracket (3), the bracket or brackets (3) being made in synthetic resin and in a number which is equal to that of the teeth to be treated, and being conformed in such a way as to exhibit a concave face (7) which will be cemented on the equally concave lingual surface of the tooth, the other, convex, face (8) exposed to the oral cavity being superficially perfectly smooth and having a convexity which is equal to the development of the corresponding surface of the tooth.

1994-05-10

78

How can we constrain the amount of heat producing elements in the interior of Mars?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission to be launched in 2016 will study Mars' deep interior and help improving our knowledge about the interior structure and the thermal evolution of the planet - the latter is also directly linked to its volcanic history and atmospheric evolution. Measurements planned with the two main instruments, SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure) and HP3 (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package) aim to constrain the main structure of the planet, i.e. core, mantle and crust as well as the rate at which the planet loses the interior heat over its surface. Since the surface heat flow depends on the amount of radiogenic heat elements (HPE) present in the interior, it offers a measurable quantity which could constrain the heat budget. Being the principal agent regulating the heat budget which in turn influences partial melting in the interior, crustal and atmospheric evolution, the heat producing elements have a major impact on the entire the present temperature thermal history of the planet. To constrain the radiogenic heat elements of the planet from the surface heat flow is possible assuming that the urey number of the planet, which describes the contribution of internal heat production to the surface heat loss, is known. We have tested this assumption by calculating the thermal evolution of the planet with fully dynamical numerical simulations and by comparing the obtained present-day urey number for a set of different models/parameters (Fig. 1). For one-plate planets like Mars, numerical models show - in contrast to models for the Earth, where plate tectonics play a major role adding more complexity to the system - that the urey ratio is mainly sensitive to two effects: the efficiency of cooling due to the temperature-dependence of the viscosity and the mean half-life time of the long lived radiogenic isotopes. The temperature-dependence of the viscosity results in the so-called thermostat effect regulating the interior temperature such that the present-day temperatures are independent of the initial temperature distribution. If the thermostat effect is efficient as we show for the assumed Martian mantle rheology, and if the system is not dominated by radioactive isotopes like Thorium with a half-life much longer than the age of the planet as in the model of [3], all numerical simulations show similar today's values for the urey number (Fig. 1). Knowing the surface heat loss from the upcoming heat flow measurements planned for the InSight mission, one can distinguish then between different radiogenic heat source models [1, 2, 3, 4]. REFERENCES [1] Wänke et al., 94; [2] Lodders & Fegley, 97; [3] Morgan & Anders, 79; [4] Treiman et al., 86 Fig. 1: a) the influence of the reference viscosity and initial upper thermal boundary layer (TBL) on the urey ratio using HPE density from [1]; b) different models for HPE density; c) the urey ratio for different HPE models and 1e22 Pa s reference viscosity.

Grott, M.; Plesa, A.; Breuer, D.

2013-12-01

79

CALIFORNIA STATEWIDE RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCE  

E-print Network

) that was performed on the RASS data. Results are provided for both electric and natural gas end uses. 4. Fuel Shares. Gas continued to be the predominant space heating and water heating fuel in the California marketplace: California Energy Commission Contract Manager: Glen Sharp Sponsors: Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) San Diego

80

15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The appliances and equipment included in this program are room and central air conditioners, household refrigerators, home...clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters, comfort heating equipment, and television receivers....

2010-01-01

81

Detection by a staphylococcal coagglutination test of heat-labile enterotoxin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

For detection of heat-labile enterotoxin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, the staphylococcal coagglutination test reported by Brill et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 9:49-55, 1979) was modified to give better results. Staphylococcal cells were sensitized with anti-heat-labile enterotoxin antiserum and suspended in phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.5% bovine serum albumin, 0.05% Tween 80, 0.01% gelatin, and 0.02% NaN3. The test strain was cultured in 0.25 ml of Biken broth no. 2 in a test tube (12 by 100 mm) stood at an inclination of about 10 degrees to the horizontal. After incubation for 5 h at 37 degrees C, the cells were collected by centrifugation at 2,500 rpm for 15 min and suspended in 50 microliters of polymyxin B solution (20,000 IU/ml). The suspension was then incubated for 1 h at 37 degrees C and centrifuged at 2,500 rpm for 15 min, and 10 microliters of the supernatant was used for the test on a slide. The results of the modified test correlated completely with those obtained by the Biken test. The modifications of the staphylococcal coagglutination test described here allow for detection of heat-labile enterotoxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli within 6 to 7 h after inoculation of a test strain. Images PMID:6343418

Honda, T; Samakoses, R; Sornchai, C; Takeda, Y; Miwatani, T

1983-01-01

82

Equation of state studies of warm dense matter samples heated by laser produced proton beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heating of matter by proton beams produced by short pulse, laser-solid target interaction has been demonstrated over the last ten years by a number of workers. In the work described in this paper heating by a pulse of laser produced protons has been combined with high-resolution soft x-ray radiography to record the expansion of thin wire targets. Analysis of the radiographs yields material properties in the warm dense matter regime. These measurements imply initial temperatures in the experimental samples over a range from 14 eV up to 40 eV; the sample densities varied from solid to a tenth solid density. Assuming an adiabatic expansion after the initial proton heating phase isentropes of the aluminium sample material were inferred and compared to tabulated data from the SESAME equation of state library. The proton spectrum was also measured using calibrated magnetic spectrometers and radiochromic film. The accuracy of the technique used to infer material data is discussed along with possible future development.

Hoarty, D. J.; Guymer, T.; James, S. F.; Gumbrell, E.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M.; Morton, J.; Doyle, H.

2012-03-01

83

Life Cycle Analysis of High Quality Recycled Aggregate Produced byHeating and Rubbing Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of demolished concrete is recycled as road subbase, but its generation is expected to increase rapidly and exceed the demand of road subbase in a near future. To promote the recycling of concrete, the technology to produce high quality recycled aggregate by the heating and rubbing method has been developed. In this method, demolished concrete is heated up to about 300°C in a heater to make cement paste brittle with its dehydration. The heated concrete is then rubbed in two mills to recover the recycled aggregate, while the paste is removed from the surface of aggregate and collected as cement fine powder. In this method, much energy is consumed to heat and rub concrete; however, the cement fine powder is utilized for a soil stabilizer and cement raw materials, so that the environmental load is reduced in cement manufacturing. The life cycle analysis of the recycled aggregate is carried out to evaluate this technology. As a result, the life cycle CO2 is a negative value because the deduction of CO2 emission in cement manufacturing by the powder is much large. This technology is proved to be very effective to reduce CO2.

Shima, Hirokazu; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Tateyashiki, Hisashi

84

Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

Meek, Thomas T. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1987-01-01

85

Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate. 2 figs.

Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1987-09-22

86

Energy Corner: Heat Reclamation Rescues Wasted Heat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heat reclamation systems added to pre-existing central heating systems provide maximum savings at minimum cost. The benefits of a particular appliance marketed under the brand name "Energizer" are discussed. (Author/MLF)

Daugherty, Thomas

1982-01-01

87

Secondary atomisation produced by single drop vertical impacts onto heated surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports an experimental analysis of the secondary atomisation produced by the impact of a single drop on a solid heated surface. Different wall temperatures were used to study different boiling regimes. The size of secondary drops produced by the impact was measured by two techniques, namely the phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and the image analysis technique (IAT); this allowed to extend the measurable size range from 5.5{mu}m up to few mm. Two impacting walls with different surface roughness were used to show the effect of this parameter on different atomisation regimes. The liquid viscosity was also varied in a limited range by using water-glycerol mixtures. Image analysis allowed also to define the details of the morphology of drop spreading and break-up.

Cossali, G.E.; Marengo, M.; Santini, M. [Universita di Bergamo, Facolta di Ingegneria, viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (BG) (Italy)

2005-09-01

88

75 FR 67615 - Appliance Labeling Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 [RIN 3084-AB03] Appliance Labeling Rule...to the Appliance Labeling Rule (16 CFR Part 305). This document republishes the text of Sec. 305.20(f) concerning catalog requirements...

2010-11-03

89

46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...111.77-3 Section 111.77-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3...

2011-10-01

90

[Environmental and health impacts of wood combustion to produce heat and power].  

PubMed

Toxic chemicals such as benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and ultra fine particles were found in the smoke produced by wood combustion. Emission factors confirm that, to produce the same energy amount, many more pollutants are emitted by wood than by natural gas. Biomass burning produces a relevant deterioration of air quality inside and outside houses, notably due to emissions of fine and ultra fine dust (PM10, PM2.5) according to reviewed studies. Important improvements in emission quality are obtained with the use of more efficient household heating systems, both in developed and in developing countries. Numerous studies have assessed the possible health effects produced by wood smoke, providing sufficient evidence that the indoor exposure to wood smoke, even in developed countries, can have adverse effects on human health. In 2010 IARC classified wood smoke as a possible human carcinogen. In Europe, electricity generation from biomass combustion is increasing (12% each year) thanks to incentives provided to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and use of fossil fuels.Today adequate studies to assess the environmental and health effects of emissions from power plants fuelled by solid biomasses are still needed. PMID:22418798

Valerio, Federico

2012-01-01

91

76 FR 79063 - Appliance Labeling Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 RIN 3084-AA74 Appliance Labeling Rule...the Appliance Labeling Rule, 16 CFR part 305 (``Rule'') related to light bulb labeling...its Appliance Labeling Rule (16 CFR part 305) in two separate Federal Register...

2011-12-21

92

Virtual Appliances for Deploying and Maintaining Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to address the complexity of system administration by making the labor of applying soft- ware updates independent of the number of computers on which the software is run. Complete networks of machines are packaged up as data; we refer to them as virtual appliances. The publisher of an appliance con- trols the software installed on the appliance,

Constantine P. Sapuntzakis; David Brumley; Ramesh Chandra; Nickolai Zeldovich; Jim Chow; Monica S. Lam; Mendel Rosenblum

2003-01-01

93

Sensor-based information appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the existing home infrastructure based on open industry standards, we will be able to integrate the home network with external networks to easily manage home devices, both locally and remotely. The advent of pervasive computing marks an urgent need for a new generation of intelligent sensing agents and information appliances. It will also demand environments for resource management of

Emil M. Petriu; Nicolas D. Georganas; Dorina C. Petriu; Dimitrios Makrakis; Voicu Z. Groza

2000-01-01

94

CONSULTANT REPORT APPLIANCE MARKET SURVEY  

E-print Network

CONSULTANT REPORT APPLIANCE MARKET SURVEY APRIL 2011 CEC4002011003 Prepared for for this report: #12;iv Silva, Jeremy, Dania Smith, Lynn Benningfield, Carol Line. (Benningfield Group, Inc(s): Jeremy Silva Dania Smith Lynn Benningfield Carol Line Benningfield Group, Inc. 400 Plaza Drive, Suite 120

95

ELM simulation experiments using transient heat and particle load produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is considered that thermal transient events such as type I edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will limit the lifetime of plasma-facing components (PFCs) in ITER. It is predicted that the heat load onto the PFCs during type I ELMs in ITER is 0.2-2MJ/m2 with pulse length of ˜0.1-1ms. We have investigated interaction between transient heat and particle load and the PFCs by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) at University of Hyogo. In the experiment, a pulsed plasma with duration of ˜0.5ms, incident ion energy of ˜30eV, and surface absorbed energy density of ˜0.3-0.7MJ/m2 was produced by the MCPG. However, no melting occurred on a tungsten surface exposed to a single plasma pulse of ˜0.7MJ/m2, while cracks clearly appeared at the edge part of the W surface. Thus, we have recently started to improve the performance of the MCPG in order to investigate melt layer dynamics of a tungsten surface such as vapor cloud formation. In the modified MCPG, the capacitor bank energy for the plasma discharge is increased from 24.5 kJ to 144 kJ. In the preliminary experiments, the plasmoid with duration of ˜0.6 ms, incident ion energy of ˜ 40 eV, and the surface absorbed energy density of ˜2 MJ/m2 was successfully produced at the gun voltage of 6 kV.

Shoda, K.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

2011-11-01

96

Spotlight on the microbes that produce heat shock protein 90-targeting antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a promising cancer drug target as a molecular chaperone critical for stabilization and activation of several of the oncoproteins that drive cancer progression. Its actions depend upon its essential ATPase, an activity fortuitously inhibited with a very high degree of selectivity by natural antibiotics: notably the actinomycete-derived benzoquinone ansamycins (e.g. geldanamycin) and certain fungal-derived resorcyclic acid lactones (e.g. radicicol). The molecular interactions made by these antibiotics when bound within the ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90 have served as templates for the development of several synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor drugs. Much attention now focuses on the clinical trials of these drugs. However, because microbes have evolved antibiotics to target Hsp90, it is probable that they often exploit Hsp90 inhibition when interacting with each other and with plants. Fungi known to produce Hsp90 inhibitors include mycoparasitic, as well as plant-pathogenic, endophytic and mycorrhizal species. The Hsp90 chaperone may, therefore, be a prominent target in establishing a number of mycoparasitic (interfungal), fungal pathogen–plant and symbiotic fungus–plant relationships. Furthermore the Hsp90 family proteins of the microbes that produce Hsp90 inhibitor antibiotics are able to reveal how drug resistance can arise by amino acid changes in the highly conserved ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90. PMID:23271830

Piper, Peter W.; Millson, Stefan H.

2012-01-01

97

Structure of Ba-Ti-Al-O glasses produced by aerodynamic levitation and laser heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ba0.09Al0.18Ti0.12O0.61 glasses have been produced by aerodynamic levitation and laser heating. Neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, molecular dynamics simulation, and reverse Monte Carlo refinement methods have been used to obtain a detailed atomistic structural model of the glass. This model has been used to investigate its atomic coordination and network structure. It is found that the Al atoms are almost exclusively fourfold tetrahedrally coordinated to oxygen atoms. In contrast, the Ti atoms coordinate to oxygen atoms in approximately equal numbers of four- and fivefold coordinated sites with a small number of sixfold sites. The results show the presence of some tetrahedral TiO4 structural motifs although the dominant O-Ti-O bond angle occurs at 90? . It is found that Al/Ti-O network structure shows strong similarities with other oxide glass forming systems although a first sharp diffraction peak is not observed. The results are used to discuss the unusual properties of the Ba-Al-Ti-O glasses produced under different quenching conditions.

Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Skinner, Lawrie B.; Barnes, Adrian C.; Klysubun, Wantana; Fischer, Henry E.

2014-09-01

98

Spotlight on the microbes that produce heat shock protein 90-targeting antibiotics.  

PubMed

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a promising cancer drug target as a molecular chaperone critical for stabilization and activation of several of the oncoproteins that drive cancer progression. Its actions depend upon its essential ATPase, an activity fortuitously inhibited with a very high degree of selectivity by natural antibiotics: notably the actinomycete-derived benzoquinone ansamycins (e.g. geldanamycin) and certain fungal-derived resorcyclic acid lactones (e.g. radicicol). The molecular interactions made by these antibiotics when bound within the ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90 have served as templates for the development of several synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor drugs. Much attention now focuses on the clinical trials of these drugs. However, because microbes have evolved antibiotics to target Hsp90, it is probable that they often exploit Hsp90 inhibition when interacting with each other and with plants. Fungi known to produce Hsp90 inhibitors include mycoparasitic, as well as plant-pathogenic, endophytic and mycorrhizal species. The Hsp90 chaperone may, therefore, be a prominent target in establishing a number of mycoparasitic (interfungal), fungal pathogen-plant and symbiotic fungus-plant relationships. Furthermore the Hsp90 family proteins of the microbes that produce Hsp90 inhibitor antibiotics are able to reveal how drug resistance can arise by amino acid changes in the highly conserved ADP/ATP-binding site of Hsp90. PMID:23271830

Piper, Peter W; Millson, Stefan H

2012-12-01

99

Temperature fields and thermal stresses produced by unsteady induction heating of hollow cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorrect heating conditions during local induction annealing of welded seams may lead to the appearance of high thermal stresses and to the formation of cracks. A specific characteristic of induction heating of metals is nonuniform distribution of heat sources along the thickness of the object heated, which is especially marked in the case of magnetic materials characterized by a small

Ya. S. Podstrigach; Z. I. Goryacheva; B. I. Kolodii; G. V. Plyatsko; A. N. Komarov

1973-01-01

100

Leaking electricity in domestic appliances  

SciTech Connect

Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost.

Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

1999-05-01

101

Heating of domestic water by waste heat recovery from household refrigerating equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat from a 370 l deep freeze was used to heat water in a 250 l boiler. Both units were made from mass produced components. Tests show that the functions of cooling and deep freezing units can be effectively combined with one warm water boiler. The necessary expenditure for the appliance is, however, only economical with deep freezing units because with normal domestic refrigerators the amount of waste heat is too small. The economy of the unit could be considerably increased by the development of a mass produced motor compressor with a sufficiently large oil cooler to accomplish an optimum thermal insulation of the motor compressor surface area.

Reil, J.; Kaster, B.; Wegner, M.

1982-09-01

102

Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.  

PubMed

Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances. PMID:24583645

Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

2014-01-01

103

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 5, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Housekeeping, off-duty, and medical data concerning the appliances considered for the space station are presented. Appliance functions analyzed include: cleanup, collection, processing and storage of refuse; crew entertainment and physical exercise, and the autoclaves and ergometers.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

104

Dentulous Appliance for Upper Anterior Edentulous Span  

PubMed Central

This article discusses about a fixed dentulous appliance that was constructed to replace the primary upper anterior edentulous span in a four year old girl. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. The appliance was functionally and aesthetically compliant. PMID:24551736

Chalakkal, Paul; Devi, Ramisetty Sabitha; Srinivas, G. Vijay; Venkataramana, Pammi

2013-01-01

105

Top-down process based on electrospinning, twisting, and heating for producing one-dimensional carbon nanotube assembly.  

PubMed

Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, successive twisting and heat treatment. The MWNTs were highly oriented in an electrified thin jet during electrospinning. The heat treatment of the twisted electrospun nanofiber yarns produced the characteristics of the CNT in the composite nanofiber yarns and enhanced their electrical properties, mechanical properties, and thermal properties. The electrical conductivity of the heated yarn was significantly enhanced and showed the maximum value of 154 S cm(-1) for the yarn heated at 400 °C. It is an order of magnitude higher than other electrospun CNT composite materials. These results demonstrated that the novel top-down process based on electrospinning, twisting, and heat treatment provide a promising option for simple and large-scale manufacture of CNT assemblies. PMID:21268647

Imaizumi, Shinji; Matsumoto, Hidetoshi; Konosu, Yuichi; Tsuboi, Kazuma; Minagawa, Mie; Tanioka, Akihiko; Koziol, Krzysztof; Windle, Alan

2011-02-01

106

Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections  

PubMed Central

Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA), designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites. PMID:24198976

Abraham, Reji; Kamath, Geetha; Sodhi, Jasmeet Singh; Sodhi, Sonia; Rita, Chandki; Sai Kalyan, S.

2013-01-01

107

Estimating concentrations of heat producing elements in the crust near the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the concentrations of uranium and thorium in the crust must be determined precisely for the future geoneutrino observations planned at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, we investigate whether airborne radiometric surveys can be used to constrain crustal radioactivity. The regional airborne surveys cover a wide area with high spatial resolution (< 250 m), but are only sensitive to a very thin (25 cm) surficial layer. We calculate crustal heat production in the Sudbury region from airborne radiometric surveys and compare with measurements on outcrop and core samples, and with heat flow data. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium from radiometric surveys are correlated with geology, but heat production estimates are lower than values from rock samples. The radiometric surveys give a mean heat production of 0.8 ± 0.6 (?) ?W m- 3 for more than 176,000 values. The outcrop samples collected along a transect in the Superior Province yield an average heat production of 2.9 ± 2.4 (?) ?W m- 3 and core samples from drill holes yield an average of 2.5 ± 0.8 (?) ?W m- 3. The high heat production in the rock samples is consistent with surface heat flux measurements near Sudbury with a mean value that is 12 mW m- 2 higher than the average Canadian Shield. The study shows that airborne aeromagnetic surveys give useful information on lateral variations in surface heat production but are unlikely to provide the reliable values of heat production needed to calculate the crustal geoneutrino flux. Crustal heat production will be best calculated from heat flux data complemented by heat production measurements on rock samples. The high mean heat production in Sudbury Igneous Complex samples (? 1.5 ?W m- 3) suggests that the main source of the melt sheet was the very radioactive upper crust of the Superior Province or that the melt sheet was extremely enriched relative to a lower crustal source.

Phaneuf, Catherine; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

2014-05-01

108

Facilitation of a nociceptive flexion reflex in man by nonnoxious radiant heat produced by a laser.  

PubMed

Electromyographic recordings were made in healthy volunteers from the knee-flexor biceps femoris muscle of the nociceptive RIII reflex elicited by electrical stimulation of the cutaneous sural nerve. The stimulus intensity was adjusted to produce a moderate pricking-pain sensation. The test responses were conditioned by a nonnoxious thermal (heat with a beam diameter of 20 mm. Its power was 22.7 +/- 4.2 W (7.2 mJ/mm2), and it produced a sensation of warmth. The maximum surface temperature reached at the end of the period of stimulation was calculated to be 7 degrees C above the actual reference temperature of the skin (32 degrees C). The interval between the laser (conditioning) and electrical (test) stimuli was varied from 50 to 3, 000 ms in steps of 50 ms. It was found that the nociceptive flexion reflex was facilitated by the thermal stimulus; this modulation occurred with particular conditioning-test intervals, which peaked at 500 and 1,100 ms with an additional late, long-lasting phase between 1,600 and 2,300 ms. It was calculated that the conduction velocities of the cutaneous afferent fibers responsible for facilitating the RIII reflex, fell into three ranges: one corresponding to A delta fibers (3.2 m/s) and two in the C fiber range (1.3 and 0.7 m/s). It is concluded that information emanating from warm receptors and nociceptors converges. In this respect, the present data show, for the first time, that in man, conditioning nonnociceptive warm thermoreceptive A delta and C fibers results in an interaction at the spinal level with a nociceptive reflex. This interaction may constitute a useful means whereby signals add together to trigger flexion reflexes in defensive reactions and other basic motor behaviors. It also may contribute to hyperalgesia in inflammatory processes. The methodology used in this study appears to be a useful noninvasive tool for exploring the thermoalgesic mechanisms in both experimental and clinical situations. PMID:9582228

Plaghki, L; Bragard, D; Le Bars, D; Willer, J C; Godfraind, J M

1998-05-01

109

Mathematical Modeling Procedures for Airflow, Heat and Mass Transfer During Forced Convection Cooling of Produce: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review paper is to give comprehensive and detailed mathematical modeling procedures for the airflow, heat\\u000a and mass transfer occurred during forced convection cooling of produce in order to optimize the cooling process. First, a\\u000a brief explanation of forced-air precooling process and its importance in improving produce market quality will be given. Then,\\u000a two main modeling procedures

Jalal Dehghannya; Michael Ngadi; Clement Vigneault

2010-01-01

110

How to effectively use a 2 x 4 appliance.  

PubMed

A mixed dentition treatment can efficiently and effectively be provided using a 2 x 4 appliance. The indications for early treatment are discussed and advantages of fixed appliances over traditionally used removable appliances illustrated using four case reports. PMID:15489369

Dowsing, P; Sandler, P J

2004-09-01

111

Environment friendly revolution in home appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In home appliances, electrical energy is optimally controlled by using power electronics technology, creating a comfortable environment in terms of energy saving, low sound generation, and reduced time consumption. At present, this technology has been expanding the range of its applications and leading environment friendly revolution in home appliances. This paper describes an ultra low-noise washing machine with direct drive

Teruya Tanaka

2001-01-01

112

Building appliances out of components using Pebble  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appliances are special purpose systems that offer high processing speed, ease of configuration, safety, fault isolation, and minimal need for administration by human experts. Traditional approaches to building an appliance operating system have been either building it from scratch [CacheOS] or stripping down a monolithic kernel to its basic components [Jaeger99]. The former approach is costly and the resulting product

Kostas Magoutis; José Carlos Brustoloni; Eran Gabber; Wee Teck Ng; Abraham Silberschatz

2000-01-01

113

Influence of natural convection in a porous medium when producing from borehole heat exchangers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convection currents in a porous medium form when the medium is subject to sufficient heating from below (or equivalently, cooling from above) or when cooled or heated from the side. In the context of geothermal energy extraction, we are interested in how the convection currents transport heat when a sealed borehole containing cold fluid extracts heat from the porous medium; also known as a borehole heat exchanger. Using pseudospectral methods together with domain decomposition, we consider two scenarios for heat extraction from a borehole; one system where the porous medium is initialized with constant temperature in the vertical direction and one system initialized with a vertical temperature gradient. We find the convection currents to have a positive effect on the heat extraction for the case with a constant initial temperature in the porous medium, and a negative effect for some of the systems with an initial temperature gradient in the porous medium: Convection gives a negative effect when the borehole temperature is close the initial temperature in the porous medium, but gradually provides a positive effect if the borehole temperature is decreased and the Rayleigh number is larger.

Bringedal, C.; Berre, I.; Nordbotten, J. M.

2013-08-01

114

Comparison of Hyrax and bonded expansion appliances.  

PubMed

The majority of rapid maxillary expansion studies have reported the use of appliances with metal bands attached to the posterior teeth. Tooth extrusion, dental tipping, and an increase in the vertical dimension are often encountered, which may not coincide with treatment objectives. Bonded appliances using interocclusal acrylic may control the vertical dimension and expand the maxillary halves in a more bodily and symmetrical fashion. The purpose of this clinical trial was to determine, by radiographic analysis, the differences between a conventional banded expander (Hyrax) and a bonded acrylic expander. Fourteen patients who exhibited a need for expansion were enrolled in the study. The results suggest that the increase in the vertical dimension often seen with the more conventional Hyrax appliance may be minimized or negated with the bonded appliance. However, there appeared to be no significant difference between the amount of dental tipping or symmetrical expansion between the two appliances, as previously theorized. PMID:9046395

Asanza, S; Cisneros, G J; Nieberg, L G

1997-01-01

115

Heat Capacity Identification Method Using MT System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a heat capacity identification method for cooking household appliances. Cooking household appliances select a cooking flow according to a cooking object capacity, hence the heat capacity identification is a very important function. However, a conventional heat capacity identification method has been based on one variable using ``if-then rules'', hence it gives a low accuracy. This paper proposes

Arata Suzuki; Kenji Sugimoto

2007-01-01

116

Heat capacity identification via Mahalanobis Taguchi System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a heat capacity identification method for cooking household appliances. In such appliances, a cooking flow is selected according to its cooking object capacity, hence identification of the heat capacity is a very important function. However, a conventional heat capacity identification method has been based on one variable using ldquoif-then rulesrdquo, thereby giving inaccurate results. This paper proposes

Arata Suzuki; Kenji Sugimoto

2008-01-01

117

Heat generates oxidized linoleic acid metabolites that activate TRPV1 and produce pain in rodents.  

PubMed

The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is the principal detector of noxious heat in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 is expressed in many nociceptors and is involved in heat-induced hyperalgesia and thermoregulation. The precise mechanism or mechanisms mediating the thermal sensitivity of TRPV1 are unknown. Here, we have shown that the oxidized linoleic acid metabolites 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-HODE) are formed in mouse and rat skin biopsies by exposure to noxious heat. 9- and 13-HODE and their metabolites, 9- and 13-oxoODE, activated TRPV1 and therefore constitute a family of endogenous TRPV1 agonists. Moreover, blocking these substances substantially decreased the heat sensitivity of TRPV1 in rats and mice and reduced nociception. Collectively, our results indicate that HODEs contribute to the heat sensitivity of TRPV1 in rodents. Because oxidized linoleic acid metabolites are released during cell injury, these findings suggest a mechanism for integrating the hyperalgesic and proinflammatory roles of TRPV1 and linoleic acid metabolites and may provide the foundation for investigating new classes of analgesic drugs. PMID:20424317

Patwardhan, Amol M; Akopian, Armen N; Ruparel, Nikita B; Diogenes, Anibal; Weintraub, Susan T; Uhlson, Charis; Murphy, Robert C; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

2010-05-01

118

Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting  

SciTech Connect

Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

1995-01-01

119

Multi-kanban mechanism for appliance disassembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of household appliances continues to rise every year. A significant number of End-Of-Life (EOL) appliances are generated because of the introduction of newer models that are more attractive, efficient and affordable. Others are, of course, generated when they become non-functional. Many regulations encourage recycling of EOL appliances to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills. In addition, EOL appliances offer the appliance manufacturing and remanufacturing industries a source of less expensive raw materials and components. For this reason product recovery has become a subject of interest during the past decade. In this paper, we study the disassembly line for appliance disassembly. We discuss and incorporate some of the complications that are inherent in disassembly line including product arrival, demand arrival, inventory fluctuation and production control mechanisms. We show how to overcome such complications by implementing a multi-kanban system in the appliance disassembly line setting. The multi-kanban system (MKS) relies on dynamic routing of kanbans according to the state of the system. We investigate the multi-kanban mechanism using simulation and explore the effect of product mix on performance of the traditional push system (TPS) and MKS in terms of controlling the system's inventory while attempting to achieve a decent customer service level.

Udomsawat, Gun; Gupta, Surendra M.

2005-11-01

120

Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-Lee (Spring Valley, NY)

1986-01-01

121

Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

1982-01-01

122

Method for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seals by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

Method for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy, and a sealing mixture which comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01

123

Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

Blake, R.D.; Meek, T.T.

1984-10-10

124

Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [3H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

Birdi, Tannaz J.; Brijesh, S.; Daswani, Poonam G.

2014-01-01

125

Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings  

PubMed Central

Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3?-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, “Yongcheon” showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas “Somok” had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the “Cheongil” mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

2013-01-01

126

X-Ray Spectroscopy of Dense Plasmas Produced by Isochoric Heating with Ultrashort Laser Pulses  

SciTech Connect

Hot plasma with temperatures up to 500 eV and densities close to solid state have been generated by focusing intense ultrashort laser pulses on flat solid targets. The heating process is attributed to the energetic electrons, which are created during the laser plasma interaction. They propagate deeply into the target and heat it isochorically. The laser was a frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire laser with an energy of 60 mJ and a pulse duration of 150 fs. It was focused on layered plane solid targets with an incidence angle of 45 deg. and p-polarized. The K-shell spectra emitted from thin Al sample layers embedded in solid carbon show features such as line broadening, line shift and strong satellite emission, which are characteristic of dense plasmas. The typical duration of the x-ray emission is a few ps. Al targets covered by a diamond layer show that the depth (expressed through areal density) up to which the target is heated is close to 1 mg/cm2, which corresponds to the range of 20 keV electrons. This means that a considerable fraction of 20 to 25% of the incident laser energy is deposited by the hot electrons in the target.

Eidmann, K.; Andiel, U.; Pisani, F.; Witte, K. [Max Planck Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Hakel, P.; Abdallah, J.; Junkel-Vives, G.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mancini, R.C. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557-0058 (United States)

2004-10-20

127

75 FR 49818 - APPLIANCE LABELING RULE  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 [RIN 3084-AB03] APPLIANCE LABELING RULE AGENCY: Federal...technical correction to Sample Label 13 in Appendix L in 16 CFR Part 305 published on July 19, 2010 (75 FR 41696). In...

2010-08-16

128

Portable Internet Appliance with Virtual SVGA Display  

Microsoft Academic Search

An SVGA resolution, liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) microdisplay was embedded into a highly portable, hand-held appliance for uses such as remote internet and information access. The resulting product was brand-named \\

Al Hildebrand; David Brooks; Jack Morris; Adam Watkins; Don Porter

129

Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each. 9 figs.

Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.; Schweppe, F.C.

1989-08-15

130

Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each.

Hart, George W. (Natick, MA); Kern, Jr., Edward C. (Lincoln, MA); Schweppe, Fred C. (Carlisle, MA)

1989-08-15

131

Managing Distributed Networked Appliances in Home Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen an exponential growth in the use of home networks, from the Internet-enabled PC to network-enabled home appliances. Ordinary and everyday appliances used in the home will increasingly become integral components of these networks. They are required to join, leave, and self-configure in accordance with their dynamic environment. New platforms and applications are needed to mediate interactions

Madjid Merabti; Paul Fergus; Omar Abuelma'atti; Heather Yu; Charlie Judice

2008-01-01

132

State Appliance Standards (released in AEO2009)  

EIA Publications

State appliance standards have existed for decades, starting with Californias enforcement of minimum efficiency requirements for refrigerators and several other products in 1979. In 1987, recognizing that different efficiency standards for the same products in different states could create problems for manufacturers, Congress enacted the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA), which initially covered 12 products. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT92), EPACT2005, and EISA2007 added additional residential and commercial products to the 12 products originally specified under NAECA.

2009-01-01

133

Development of a Transient Heat and Mass Transfer Model of Residential Attics to Predict Energy Savings Produced by the Use of Radiant Barriers  

E-print Network

A transient heat and mass transfer model was developed to predict ceiling heat gain/loss through the attic space in residences and to accurately estimate savings in cooling and heating loads produced by the use of radiant barriers. The model...

Medina, M. A.

134

Localized Joule heating produced by ion current focusing through micron-size holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide an experimental demonstration that the focusing of ionic currents in a micron size hole connecting two chambers can produce local temperature increases of up to 100 °C with gradients as large as 1°K ?m-1. We find a good agreement between the measured temperature profiles and a finite elements-based numerical calculation. We show how the thermal gradients can be used to measure the full melting profile of DNA duplexes within a region of 40 ?m. The possibility to produce even larger gradients using submicron pores is discussed.

Viasnoff, V.; Bockelmann, U.; Meller, A.; Isambert, H.; Laufer, L.; Tsori, Y.

2010-04-01

135

Localized Joule heating produced by ion current focusing through micron-size holes  

E-print Network

We provide an experimental demonstration that the focusing of ionic currents in a micron size hole connecting two chambers can produce local temperature increases of up to $100^\\circ$ C with gradients as large as $1^\\circ$ K$\\mu m^{-1}$. We find a good agreement between the measured temperature profiles and a finite elements-based numerical calculation. We show how the thermal gradients can be used to measure the full melting profile of DNA duplexes within a region of 40 $\\mu$m. The possibility to produce even larger gradients using sub-micron pores is discussed.

V. Viasnoff; U. Bockelmann; A. Meller; H. Isambert; L. Laufer; Y. Tsori

2010-04-27

136

Producing regenerated gratings in hydrogen-loaded single mode fiber by heat treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is a passive optical fiber component with the refractive index modulated along the fiber length and has been widely applied in fiber sensing systems. High-temperature stable fiber gratings are promising for uses at high temperatures and attract extensive attention. In this paper, FBGs were inscribed in hydrogen loaded standard single mode fibers with the 248-nm excimer laser, and regenerated gratings were obtained through heat treatment. The shift of the central wavelength of the regenerated FBG had a good linearity with temperature, and the reflectivity of the regenerated FBG could almost keep unchanged at 800 °C.

Yu, Haihu; Li, Gengmin; Li, Xiaofu; Guo, Huiyong

2014-06-01

137

Impact of domestic woodburning appliances on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1  

E-print Network

Impact of domestic woodburning appliances on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1 , Jacques Ribéron2 on the impact of domestic woodburning on indoor air quality (IAQ) is poor whereas use of such heating systems on indoor air quality in industrialised countries is rather poor. Even if the International Agency

Boyer, Edmond

138

Hot water service using high-efficiency gas-fired appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smnmary Research on boilers used for heating systems has been extensive but less attention has been paid in the past to hot water appliances. Improved boiler performance, higher insulation of buildings and increased adventitious gains have meant that energy use for the supply of hot water has become more significant. Field and laboratory studies have therefore been carried out to

N. G. Moore; N. M. Gibson; G. F. Wright

1992-01-01

139

A Texas Study of the Effects of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987  

E-print Network

on the amount of energy which can be consumed by major new household appliances. The efficiency standards mandated by the NAECA will be phased in between 1988 and 1993 and will focus on space heating equipment, air conditioners, water heaters, refrigerators...

Bachmeier, R.

1987-01-01

140

Temperature distribution in aluminum billets heated by rotation in static magnetic field produced by superconducting magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To investigate the feasibility of a novel scheme of high-efficiency induction heater for nonmagnetic metal billets which use superconducting coils. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The idea is to force the billet to rotate in a static magnetic field produced by a DC superconducting magnet. Since a static superconducting magnet has no losses, the efficiency of the system is the efficiency

Massimo Fabbri; Antonio Morandi; Francesco Negrini

2005-01-01

141

Localized Joule heating produced by ion current focusing through micron-size holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide an experimental demonstration that the focusing of ionic currents in a micron size hole connecting two chambers can produce local temperature increases of up to 100 °C with gradients as large as 1°K mum-1. We find a good agreement between the measured temperature profiles and a finite elements-based numerical calculation. We show how the thermal gradients can be

V. Viasnoff; U. Bockelmann; A. Meller; H. Isambert; L. Laufer; Y. Tsori

2010-01-01

142

Isochoric heating of reduced mass targets by ultra-intense laser produced relativistic electrons  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the chlorine K-alpha emission from reduced mass targets, irradiated with ultra-high intensity laser pulses. Chlorinated plastic targets with diameters down to 50 micrometers and mass of a few 10{sup -8} g were irradiated with up to 7 J of laser energy focused to intensities of several 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The conversion of laser energy to K-alpha radiation is measured, as well as high resolution spectra that allow observation of line shifts, indicating isochoric heating of the target up to 18 eV. A zero-dimensional 2-temperature equilibration model, combined with electron impact K-shell ionization and post processed spectra from collisional radiative calculations reproduces the observed K-alpha yields and line shifts, and shows the importance of target expansion due to the hot electron pressure.

Neumayer, P; Lee, H J; Offerman, D; Shipton, E; Kemp, A; Kritcher, A L; Doppner, T; Back, C A; Glenzer, S H

2009-02-04

143

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Heater-Type Appliances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum (see CE 027 767), this course covers minor and major heater-type appliances. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Irons, (2) Roasters, (3) Space Heaters, (4) Water Heaters, (5) Electric Ranges, and (6) Gas Ranges. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience…

Ziller, T.

144

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Motor-Operated Appliances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum, this course is designed to prepare students to operate, diagnose malfunctions, repair, and service motor operated appliances. The course is comprised of seven units: (1) Mixers and Blenders, (2) Vacuum Cleaners and Floor Polishers, (3) Washing Machines, (4) Garbage…

Ziller, T.

145

Transient liquid-crystal technique used to produce high-resolution convective heat-transfer-coefficient maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated for the color isothermal pattern produced. Although the test was run transiently, the heat transfer coefficients are for the steady-state case. The upstream thermal boundary condition was considered to be isothermal. This transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique was used in a transient air tunnel in which a square-inlet, 3-to-1 exit transition duct was placed. The duct was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. The resulting isothermal contours on the duct surfaces were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. The duct surfaces were uniformly heated using two heating systems: the first was an automatic temperature-controlled heater blanket completely surrounding the test duct like an oven, and the second was an internal hot-air loop through the inside of the test duct. The hot-air loop path was confined inside the test duct by insulated heat dams located at the inlet and exit ends of the test duct. A recirculating fan moved hot air into the duct inlet, through the duct, out of the duct exit, through the oven, and back to the duct inlet. The temperature nonuniformity of the test duct model wall was held very small. Test results are reported for two inlet Reynolds numbers of 200,000 and 1,150,000 (based on the square-inlet hydraulic diameter) and two free-stream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 20 percent (using a grid), which is typical of real engine conditions.

Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

1993-01-01

146

Method for producing a secondary lithium cell comprising a heat-sensitive protective mechanism  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a secondary lithium cell which has at least one lithium-cycling negative electrode, at least one lithium-intercalating positive electrode, at least one separator disposed between the positive and the negative electrode, and a nonaqueous lithium ion-conducting electrolyte. The method is carried out by the electrodes and/or the separator being coated, by means of electrostatic powder coating, with wax particles which are insoluble in the electrolyte and have a melting temperature of from about 50 to about 150 .degree. C. and a mean particle size of from about 6 to about 20 .mu.m, the amount of wax being between about 0.5 and about 2.5 mg/cm.sup.2 of electrode area.

Ullrich, Matthias (Kelkheim, DE); Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Rabenstein, Heinrich (Frankfurt, DE); Brohm, Thomas (Kelkheim, DE)

2003-01-01

147

Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances  

PubMed Central

The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

Lloret, Jaime; Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

2012-01-01

148

Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances.  

PubMed

The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

2012-01-01

149

Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii by heat labile bacteriocins produced by probiotic LAB isolated from healthy infants.  

PubMed

Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause bacteremia, meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most often in neonates with case-fatality rates that may reach 80%. The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against a wide range of foodborne pathogens is well-established in different types of food products. The objective of the current study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei isolated from feces of healthy infants against different strains of C. sakazakii in agar and a rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF) model. The inhibition zones of C. sakazakii around L. acidophilus or L. casei ranged from 22 to 32 mm on eMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar under aerobic conditions, while a slight reduction in antibacterial activity was noted on modified MRS (0.2% glucose) under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that pH-neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of L. acidophilus or L. casei was inhibitory against tested C. sakazakii strains. The inhibition zones of neutralized CFS were lower than the antibacterial activities of live cultures. The antibacterial activity of CFS was abolished when CFS from L. acidophilus or L. casei was heated at 60 or 80 °C for either 10 min or 2 h, or treated with trypsin or pepsin. This was considered strong evidence that the inhibition was due to the production of bacteriocins by L. casei and L. acidophilus. Both the CFS and active growing cells of L. casei and L. acidophilus were able to reduce the viability of C. sakazakii in the RIMF model. The results may extend the use of natural antimicrobials instead of conventional preservation methods to improve the safety of RIMF. PMID:23924352

Awaisheh, Saddam S; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Ibrahim, Salam; Holley, Richard

2013-09-01

150

GE Appliance Park Louisville, KY Plant Wide Assessment Final Report October 25th, 2007  

SciTech Connect

Used a team of experts to analyze and model major systems at a large industrial appliance manufacturer. During the data gathering stage, the team specifically looked for baselining the efficiency of the systems as well as developing short term and longer term efficiency projects. Electrical distribution, Compressed air generation and thermal heat recovery for the production facility and front office heating and cooling optimization were all baselined during the study.

Chandon Rao; Richard Urschel

2007-10-25

151

Intradermal administration of magnesium sulphate and magnesium chloride produces hypesthesia to mechanical but hyperalgesia to heat stimuli in humans  

PubMed Central

Background Although magnesium ions (Mg2+) are known to display many similar features to other 2+ charged cations, they seem to have quite an important and unique role in biological settings, such as NMDA blocking effect. However, the role of Mg2+ in the neural transmission system has not been studied as sufficiently as calcium ions (Ca2+). To clarify the sensory effects of Mg2+ in peripheral nervous systems, sensory changes after intradermal injection of Mg2+ were studied in humans. Methods Magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride and saline were injected into the skin of the anterior region of forearms in healthy volunteers and injection-induced irritating pain ("irritating pain", for short), tactile sensation, tactile pressure thresholds, pinch-pain changes and intolerable heat pain thresholds of the lesion were monitored. Results Flare formation was observed immediately after magnesium sulphate or magnesium chloride injection. We found that intradermal injections of magnesium sulphate and magnesium chloride transiently caused irritating pain, hypesthesia to noxious and innocuous mechanical stimulations, whereas secondary hyperalgesia due to mechanical stimuli was not observed. In contrast to mechanical stimuli, intolerable heat pain-evoking temperature was significantly decreased at the injection site. In addition to these results, spontaneous pain was immediately attenuated by local cooling. Conclusion Membrane-stabilizing effect and peripheral NMDA-blocking effect possibly produced magnesium-induced mechanical hypesthesia, and extracellular cation-induced sensitization of TRPV1 channels was thought to be the primary mechanism of magnesium-induced heat hyperalgesia. PMID:19715604

Ushida, Takahiro; Iwatsu, Osamu; Shimo, Kazuhiro; Tetsunaga, Tomoko; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Arai, Young-Chang P; Suetomi, Katsutoshi; Nishihara, Makoto

2009-01-01

152

Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LMPF-EA 4106, Rue Saint Dominique, BP 508, 51006, Chalons-en-Champagne, Cedex (France)

2011-01-17

153

A heat treatment procedure to produce fine-grained lamellar microstructures in a P/M titanium aluminide alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process for fabricating advanced aerospace titanium aluminide alloys starting from metal powders (the hot isostatically consolidated P/M process) is presented in this thesis. This process does not suffer the difficulties of chemical inhomogeneities and coarse grain structure of castings. In addition heat treatments which take advantage of the refined structure of HIP processed materials are developed to achieve microstructure control and subsequent mechanical property control. It is shown that a better "property balance" is possible after the heat treatment of HIP consolidated materials than it is with alternative processing. It is well understood that the standard microstructures (near-gamma, duplex, nearly lamellar, and fully lamellar) do not have the balanced mechanical properties (tensile, yield, creep and fatigue strength, ductility and fracture toughness) necessary for optimal performance in aero engine and automotive applications. In this work a fine-grained fully lamellar (FGFL) microstructure is developed for property control and in particular for achieving a much improved property balance. A heat treatment procedure for this purpose which consists of cyclic processing in the alpha transus temperature region to achieve an FGFL structure with grain sizes in the range of 50 mum to 150 mum is presented. Compared with conventional duplex structured materials, the minimum creep rate is an order of magnitude lower with only a 10% loss in tensile yield strength. Moreover, a three-fold increase in tensile elongation is possible by converting to an FGFL structure with only a 30% loss in minimum creep rate. These are attractive trade-offs when considering the use of these alloys for aerospace purposes. A thorough literature review of the mechanisms of formation of standard microstructures and their deformation under mechanical loading is contained in the thesis. In addition, conventional techniques to produce FGFL microstructures in wrought and cast materials are discussed in detail. Beyond the review, the results of experiments are described for determining the alpha transus temperature, the phase transformation kinetics in this region and the effects of heat treatment time and cooling rate on microstructure. Based on this preliminary work, a heat treatment to achieve a FGFL microstructure with grain sizes in the range of 50 mum to 150 mum is proposed and confirmed. The room temperature and high temperature mechanical properties of these materials are compared with those of conventional duplex and fully lamellar structures. The results of this experimentation are discussed in terms of the fundamental mechanisms for controlling microstructure and mechanical properties in these materials. The potential for applying cyclic heat treatments to cast and wrought materials to improve the mechanical property balance in engineering practice is discussed.

Au, Peter

154

2012 APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY REGULATIONS Edmund G. Brown Jr., Governor  

E-print Network

: Appliance Efficiency Regulations, appliance standards, refrigerators, air conditioners, space heaters, water, showerheads, spray valves, faucets, tub spout diverters, water closets, urinals, ceiling fans, ceiling fan ..............................................................................................70 1605 Energy Performance, Energy Design, Water Performance, and Water Design Standards: In General

155

Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of

Alex Lekov; Andy Sturges; Gabrielle Wong-Parodi

2009-01-01

156

Equipment for the emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal boreholes. [Horizontal vs vertical emplacement  

SciTech Connect

Emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal holes may offer several technical and economic advantages over shallow vertical hole emplacement. Less of the host rock suffers damage as a result of drift construction; the heat from the waste can be isolated from the access drifts for long periods of time; and the amount of rock which must be excavated is much less than in traditional disposal scenarios. One of the major reasons that has been used to reject the long hole concept in the past and adhere to the shallow vertical hole concept is the equipment required to drill the holes and to emplace and retrieve the waste. Such equipment does not currently exist. It clearly is more difficult to drill a 600 to 1000 foot horizontal hole, possibly 3 to 4 feet in diameter, and place a canister of waste at the end of it than to drill a 30 foot vertical hole and lower the waste to the bottom. A liner, for emplacement hole stabilization, appears to be feasible by adapting existing technology for concrete slip forming or jacking in a steel liner. The conceptual design of the equipment to drill long horizontal holes, emplace waste and retrieve waste will be discussed. Various options in concept will be presented as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The operating scenario of the selected concept will be described as well as solutions to potential problems encountered.

Young, K.D.; Scully, L.W.; Fisk, A.; deBakker, P.; Friant, J.; Anderson, A.

1983-01-01

157

Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

Nunn, John

2013-01-01

158

Oral Appliance Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

MedlinePLUS

... lower jaw and tongue slightly forward. This opens space in the back of the throat and reduces tissue obstruction, helping keep the patient’s airway open and clear during sleep. Is Oral Appliance Therapy a medical service? Yes. The U.S. Food and ...

159

Controlling Home and Office Appliances with Smartphones  

E-print Network

with appliances through a separate user interface device that they are already carrying. Smart phones are good platform. Keywords: Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), handheld devices, smart phones, mobile phones, and factory equipment, have embedded computers, and often come with remote controls. However, the trend has

Myers, Brad A.

160

Appliance Services. Intermediate Course. Career Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 16 terminal objectives for an intermediate appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) covering the areas of refrigeration, maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting of refrigerators and air…

Killough, Joseph

161

Form ElectApp13 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES  

E-print Network

Form ElectApp13 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES In accordance with the Agreement Terms and Conditions clause 2.10 Safety and security each resident must complete the reverse of this form, sign, date and return to the Residence. Permission to bring personal electrical items will not be unreasonably withheld

Applebaum, David

162

Appliance Services. Basic Course. Career Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 25 terminal objectives for a basic appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (2 hours daily) designed to enable the student to be well-grounded in the fundamentals of electricity as well as applied electricity.…

Killough, Joseph

163

Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of oral appliances compared to ‘no treatment’, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or surgery for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population OSA is characterized by repeated occurrences of upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. The condition leads to excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished quality of life, and increased risks of accidents, cardiovascular disease and death. In the general population, the prevalence of OSA is estimated to be 4% in men and 2% in women. Risk factors for OSA include obesity, male gender, increasing age, alcohol use, sedative use, and a family history of OSA. Description of Oral Appliances Oral appliances for OSA fall into two broad categories: mandibular advancement splints (MAS), also known as mandibular repositioning devices, and tongue repositioning or retaining devices. The aim of MAS devices is to advance the mandible forward slightly to enlarge the upper airway and prevent it from collapsing. Similarly, tongue repositioning devices suction the tongue forward to prevent it from falling back and obstructing the airway during sleep. The alternatives to oral appliances include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, surgery, drug therapy, positional devices, and lifestyle modification. CPAP is the gold standard of treatment, but despite its effectiveness, compliance rates for CPAP have declined because required systems are noisy and because wearing the mask can be uncomfortable, causing claustrophobia in some users. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions Are oral appliances effective in improving sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA compared to alternative treatments? Are there safety concerns with oral appliances? What is the evidence regarding patient preference, quality of life, and compliance for oral appliances? If effective, are oral appliances cost effective? Literature Search A literature search was conducted up to February 2009. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with more than 20 adults with OSA were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcomes of interest were the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), measures of daytime sleepiness, patient preference, compliance, and adverse events. Summary of Findings Five systematic reviews and 16 RCTs that met the inclusion criteria were identified. The systematic reviews consistently concluded that CPAP was more effective than oral appliances at improving sleep disordered breathing, although there may be a niche area for the latter, especially among those with mild OSA as CPAP is difficult to tolerate by some users. Based on the results of the RCTs analyzed for this review, MAS devices are less effective than CPAP when AHI is used as the outcome of interest. MAS devices were shown to decrease AHI levels, but whether this reduction is clinically meaningful is uncertain. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was not able to achieve statistical significance in comparisons of MAS versus CPAP and MAS versus placebo. Nonetheless, after treatment with either MAS or CPAP, patients seem to be able to achieve normal ESS levels. The ESS has substantial limitations including its subjective nature and low construct validity (i.e. it is unclear if the scale is an accurate measure of sleepiness). Adverse events among patients with MAS devices in the RCTs were common, but mostly mild and transient. Jaw discomfort was the most commonly reported adverse event. Based on the results of the RCTs, compliance does not seem to be better or worse with MAS or CPAP. Similarly, there is no clear patient preference for MAS or CPAP among the studies reporting preference and satisfaction. Keywords Obstructive sleep apnea, oral appliances, mandibular advancement splints, tongue repositioning devices PMID:23074535

2009-01-01

164

Mobile based Appliances switching using Bluetooth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How many times do you have to get up from your desk to switch on your Air conditioner or fan when you are completely into your table work? How many times do you feel lazy to get off your comfort to switch on/off your home appliances in different rooms? How much energy do you lose in a day for operating your appliances? The solution is either a large amount of manual work—or the idea that is presented over here: APP-CON (APP-CON stands for appliances control). Here the ordinary cell phone with bluetooth capability acts as remote designed in such a manner that it acts as a helping hand to human by reducing its manual work and therefore saving human energy. The cell phone control of APP-CON units lets you access many of your home appliances situated in different rooms by using just a single remote from distance. Electronics hobbyists would love to make such a remote control themselves. But they find it difficult due to complex circuitry rather than the high cost because of using a number of frequency counting techniques and decade counters. The APP-CON system given here overcomes the aforesaid problems by using a single microcontroller and moreover a simple program or software for bluetooth enabled cell phone and employing simple coding and decoding of remote signals. Here the mobile based remote control is used to operate a number of home appliances basically consists of Bluetooth technology. The unit consists of a transmitter and a receiver consisting of a microcontroller. The importance of bluetooth technology is that the signal to be transmitted from transmitter to the receiver is done without requiring line of sight.

Gupta, Sureshchandra J., Dr; Desai, Kalp; Gaikawad, Deepak; Pawar, Vijay N.; Gangal, Devendranath R.

2008-04-01

165

Greenhouse cooling and heat recovery using fine wire heat exchangers in a closed pot plant greenhouse: design of an energy producing greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse cooling system with heat storage for completely closed greenhouses has been designed, based on the use of a fine wire heat exchanger. The performance of the fine wire heat exchangers was tested under laboratory conditions and in a small greenhouse compartment. The effects of the system on the environmental conditions (temperature and humidity distribution) in the greenhouse were

J. C. Bakker; Zwart de H. F; J. B. Campen

2006-01-01

166

Integrating information appliances into an interactive workspace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a robust, infrastructure-centric, and platform-independent approach to integrating information appliances into the iRoom, an interactive workspace. The Interactive Workspaces Project at Stanford explores new possibilities for people to work together in technology-rich spaces with computing and interaction devices on many different scales. It includes faculty and students from the areas of graphics, human-computer interaction (HCI), networking, ubiquitous

Armando Fox; Brad Johanson; Pat Hanrahan; Terry Winograd

2000-01-01

167

Epidemic of diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae non-O1 that produced heat-stable toxin among Khmers in a camp in Thailand.  

PubMed Central

An epidemic of a cholera-like disease occurred among Khmers in a camp in Aranyaprathet, Thailand, in May 1990. Of 215 patients with diarrhea, Vibrio cholerae O1 was isolated from 25 (12%) and V. cholerae non-O1 was isolated from 15 (7%). Five of 15 (33%) non-O1 V. cholerae isolates hybridized with two different oligonucleotide probes previously used to detect V. cholerae non-O1 that produces a heat-stable toxin. This is the first description of an epidemic of diarrhea caused by V. cholerae non-O1 that produces heat-stable toxin. PMID:8501234

Bagchi, K; Echeverria, P; Arthur, J D; Sethabutr, O; Serichantalergs, O; Hoge, C W

1993-01-01

168

Rapid tooling method for soft customized removable oral appliances.  

PubMed

Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient's dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

2012-01-01

169

Gas dynamics and radiation heat transfer in the vapor plume produced by pulsed laser irradiation of aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of pulsed laser irradiation of nanosecond duration with a metal surface is studied by numerical simulation. The heat transfer in the solid substrate and the melted liquid is modeled as one-dimensional transient heat conduction using the enthalpy formulation for the solution of phase change problems. A discontinuity layer is assumed just above the liquid surface. Mass, momentum, and

J. R. Ho; C. P. Grigoropoulos; J. A. C. Humphrey

1996-01-01

170

Life cycle based analysis of demands and emissions for residential water-using appliances.  

PubMed

Environmental impacts of energy and water demand and greenhouse gas emissions from three residential water-using appliances were analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach in collaboration of economic input-output model. This study especially focused on indirect consumption and environmental impacts from end-use/demand phase of each appliance. Water-related activities such as water supply, water heating and wastewater treatment were included in the analysis. The results showed that environmental impacts from end-use/demand phase are most significant for the water system, particularly for the energy demand for water heating (73% for clothes washer and 93% for showerheads). Reducing water/hot water consumption during the end-use/demand phase is expected to improve the overall water-related energy burden and water use sustainability. In the analysis of optimal lifespan for appliances, the estimated values (8-21 years) using energy consumption balance approach were found to be lower than that using other methods (10-25 years). This implies that earlier replacement with efficiency models is encouraged to minimize the environmental impacts of the product. PMID:22406847

Lee, Mengshan; Tansel, Berrin

2012-06-30

171

7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For...

2013-01-01

172

7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.  

...2014-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For...

2014-01-01

173

7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For...

2011-01-01

174

7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For...

2012-01-01

175

78 FR 35894 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Waiver of Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America Corporation...for waiver from Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America (PAPRSA...corporate name to Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of...

2013-06-14

176

78 FR 57139 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granting a Waiver to Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America Corporation...RF-031) granting Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America (PAPRSA...the Matter of: Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America...

2013-09-17

177

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2014-04-01

178

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2013-04-01

179

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2011-04-01

180

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2012-04-01

181

Therapeutic effects of functional orthodontic appliances on cervical spine posture: a retrospective cephalometric study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Interactions between the cervical spine and the stomatognathic system have been discussed in literature. The present study was conducted to investigate whether, and to what extent, orthodontically induced mandibular advancement produces changes in cervical spine posture. Furthermore, possible appliance-specific effects should be distinguished. Material and methods The cephalograms of 64 patients with skeletal class II were analysed before and after mandibular advancement. Linear and angular cephalometric parameters were identified to define the position of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. The total example was divided into two subgroups (comprising 32 individuals each) according to the employed appliance: activator versus bite-jump appliance (BJA). Student's t-test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis. Results Overall, a significant straightening of the cervical spine was observed during the treatment. This conclusion is based on changes of Chamberlain (p?=?0.0055), CVT (p?=?0.0003), OPT (p?Appliance-specific changes were found in the activator subgroup for a number of linear parameters (Chamberlain, McGregor, CVT, OPT, Redlund-Johnell/Petersson). In contrast, only two linear parameters (OPT and Powers ratio) revealed statistically significant changes in the BJA subgroup. Conclusions During skeletal class II treatment the position of upper cervical spine changes. In the activator subgroup the observed effects were more pronounced than those in the BJA subgroup. Further studies including a control group comprised with non-treated class II patients are needed to assess whether these effects may be caused directly by the appliances irrespective of growth. PMID:24661951

2014-01-01

182

HYDROCARBONS, HEAT PUMP, HOME LAUNDRY DRYER: ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY APPLIANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As consequence of Global Warming concern, the developed nations must reduce the level of green-house gases emissions. Both direct effect of low GWP refrigerant and indirect effect of reduced energy consumption must be taken in account. Isobutane (R600a) is dominating in household european market, while propane (R290) is well consolidated in low temperature commercial application, like ice cream chest freezers.

Paolo VALERO; Marek ZGLICZYNSKI

183

Gypsum scale formation on a heated copper plate under natural convection conditions and produced water remediation technologies review  

E-print Network

Scaling or crystallization fouling of unwanted salts is one of the most challenging and expensive problems encountered in different applications such as heat exchangers and thermal water treatment technologies. Formation ...

Mirhi, Mohamad H. (Mohamad Hussein)

2013-01-01

184

Transient liquid-crystal technique used to produce high-resolution convective heat-transfer-coefficient maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer

Steven A. Hippensteele; Philip E. Poinsatte

1993-01-01

185

Controlled oxidation of FeCo magnetic nanoparticles to produce faceted FeCo/ferrite nanocomposites for rf heating applications  

E-print Network

for rf heating applications K. N. Collier,1,2 N. J. Jones,1 K. J. Miller,1 Y. L. Qin,1 D. E. Laughlin,1 for polydisperse FeCo magnetic nanoparticles MNPs synthesized using an induction plasma torch. X-ray diffraction the FeCo core and oxide shell. We show HRTEM images of MNP chaining and compare the rf heating of samples

Laughlin, David E.

186

Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2011-10-31

187

Advances in Household Appliances- A Review  

SciTech Connect

An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S. market. The significance and usefulness of each technology was evaluated in order to prioritize the R&D needs to improve energy efficiency of appliances in view of energy savings, cost, and complexity. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Although significant energy savings may be achieved, one of the major barriers in most cases is high first cost. One way of addressing this issue and promoting the introduction of new technologies is to level the playing field for all manufacturers by establishing Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) which are not cost prohibitive and promoting energy efficient products through incentives to both manufacturers and consumers.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

2011-01-01

188

Introducing a digital library reading appliance into a reading group  

E-print Network

Introducing a digital library reading appliance into a reading group Catherine C. Marshall, Morgan will we read digital library materials? This paper describes the reading practices of an on-going reading group, and how these practices changed when we introduced XLibris, a digital library reading appliance

Marshall, Cathy

189

Towards Security Auto-Configuration for Smart Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now that smart home appliances are easily plugged into smart home networks, the question of how to simplify security management, especially of access rights, for such appliances arises. The problem is aggravated by the fact that home users cannot be considered as \\

Jean-Marc Seigneur; Christian Damsgaard Jensen; Stephen Farrell; Elizabeth Gray; Yong Chen

2003-01-01

190

Networked smart home appliances - enabling real ubiquitous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are 'networked smart home appliances'? What is a 'ubiquitous culture'? With the rapid advancement in technology and the Internet, the consumer can appreciate the usefulness of connectivity. As connectivity becomes more pervasive the consumer will come to expect even home appliances to be connected to a network within the home. The present TV or PC-centric networks are anticipated to

R. Kango; P. R. Moore; J. Pu

2002-01-01

191

Brand Loyalty and Marketing Strategy: An Application to Home Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the academic literature, the modelling of brand choice and switching behavior has a long history for frequently purchased packaged goods. Comparable efforts with consumer durable goods, however, are generally absent. This paper presents an application of the brand switching model proposed by Colombo and Morrison (1989) to a set of four major home appliances. Appliance brand loyalty, however, is

Barry L. Bayus

1992-01-01

192

Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Denmark as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Danish market. The research also includes an overview of the Danish kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption,

Aurelio Volpe

2005-01-01

193

Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Spain as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Spanish market. The research also includes an overview of the Spanish kitchen furniture market providing data on kitchen furniture production and consumption, international trade, supply

Aurelio Volpe; Mariano Peluso

2008-01-01

194

Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Greece as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Greek market. The research also includes an overview of the Greek kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption,

Aurelio Volpe

2004-01-01

195

Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Belgium as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Belgian market. The research also includes an overview of the Belgian kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption,

Aurelio Volpe

2005-01-01

196

24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.  

...Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment, shall show energy efficiency (EER) values...Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy Conservation Standards...Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy Conservation...

2014-04-01

197

Load Component Database of Household Appliances and Small Office Equipment  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the development of a load component database for household appliances and office equipment. To develop more accurate load models at both transmission and distribution level, a better understanding on the individual behaviors of home appliances and office equipment under power system voltage and frequency variations becomes more and more critical. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has begun a series of voltage and frequency tests against home appliances and office equipments since 2005. Since 2006, Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has collaborated with BPA personnel and developed a load component database based on these appliance testing results to facilitate the load model validation work for the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In this paper, the testing procedure and testing results are first presented. The load model parameters are then derived and grouped. Recommendations are given for aggregating the individual appliance models to feeder level, the models of which are used for distribution and transmission level studies.

Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu; Puyleart, Francis; Yang, Steve

2008-07-24

198

Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances  

DOEpatents

A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The device comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a hinged cover plate attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate, the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position. 15 figs.

Cliff, P.L. Jr.

1996-07-09

199

Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances  

DOEpatents

A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The devise comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a cover plate hingedly attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate and the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position.

Cliff, Jr., Paul L. (Bloomingdale, IL)

1996-01-01

200

Installation and Maintenance of Wood-Burning Appliance  

MedlinePLUS

... Wise Consumers Installation and Maintenance Consumers - Installation and Maintenance Subscribe to BurnWise Information EPA and fire officials ... wood consumption, produce more usable heat, and reduce maintenance from inefficient fires. One of the best ways ...

201

Effects of Regeneration Heat Exchanger on Entropy, Electricity Cost, and Environmental Pollution Produced by Micro Gas Turbine System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method has been employed in this research that optimizes a power generation system by maximizing the first and second law efficiencies and minimizing the entropy generation. Mass flow rates of pollutants and related external social cost of air pollution have been considered in estimating the electricity production cost. The effects of regenerative and CHP heat exchangers on power

A. Mozafari; M. A. Ehyaei

2012-01-01

202

A heat treatment procedure to produce fine-grained lamellar microstructures in a P\\/M titanium aluminide alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for fabricating advanced aerospace titanium aluminide alloys starting from metal powders (the hot isostatically consolidated P\\/M process) is presented in this thesis. This process does not suffer the difficulties of chemical inhomogeneities and coarse grain structure of castings. In addition heat treatments which take advantage of the refined structure of HIP processed materials are developed to achieve microstructure

Peter Au

1997-01-01

203

ROOFTOP FARMING WITH SWEET POTATO FOR REDUCING URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECTS AND PRODUCING FOOD AND FUEL MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet potato was cultured with a lightweight hydroponic system on a rooftop as a cooling equipment for reducing urban heat island effects and also as urban agriculture in a summer season in Osaka, Japan. In the result, The difference in surface temperatures between concrete plates exposed to sun light and under the vegetation coverage were increased with increasing solar radiation

Yoshiaki Kitaya; Masashi Yamamoto; Toshio Shibuya

204

16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 ...REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES...PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump...

2010-01-01

205

16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 ...REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES...PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump...

2011-01-01

206

16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 ...REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES...PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump...

2012-01-01

207

16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 ...REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES...PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump...

2013-01-01

208

The prospects for incineration of municipal solid waste in Russia in order to produce heat and electric power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the results of the low-temperature pyrolysis of the main components of municipal solid waste (MSW): wood, products of wood processing (paper, cardboard, fabrics, etc.), various plastics, rubber, as well as of a representative sample of MSW. A waste-to-energy plant is described, at which municipal solid waste is subjected to the pyrolysis, and then pyrolysis products are incinerated in a slagging-bottom furnace. The paper presents an analysis of the operation of a modern waste-to-energy plant equipped with a wet scrubber, with a high-degree recovery of the heat of exhaust gases by means of a heat pump, and with evaporation cooling of glowing slag in a tank filled with water. Chemical treatment of water circulating in the system makes it possible to convert heavy metals and other hazardous substances into the insoluble form and then to remove them.

Baskakov, A. P.

2014-04-01

209

Appliance electricity consumption in the residential sector: An economic approach  

SciTech Connect

In this article a theoretical framework within which the demand for electricity in the residential sector is studied. The cross-sectional household survey data is analyzed to estimate the consumption of electricity for different end uses by relating the household electricity consumption with the stock of electrical appliances. Using these estimates, appliances elasticities are obtained. It is shown how these elasticities can be used to relate future electricity usage to changes in the stock of appliances for Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka state in southern India.

Reddy, B.S. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Bombay (India)

1995-03-01

210

Influence of heat treatment on the colour of Au and Ag glasses produced by the sol–gel pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, coloured glasses were produced based on the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles by the sol–gel process having in mind their application in art works. Gold and silver were used separately or as a mixture by varying the mole fractions in order to get a range of colours from yellow to red. The gold and silver nanoparticles

M. G. Ventura; A. J. Parola; A. Pires de Matos

2011-01-01

211

Gas dynamics and radiation heat transfer in the vapor plume produced by pulsed laser irradiation of aluminum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of pulsed laser irradiation of nanosecond duration with a metal surface is studied by numerical simulation. The heat transfer in the solid substrate and the melted liquid is modeled as one-dimensional transient heat conduction using the enthalpy formulation for the solution of phase change problems. A discontinuity layer is assumed just above the liquid surface. Mass, momentum, and energy conservation are expressed across this layer, while the vapor across the discontinuity is modeled as an ideal gas. The compressible gas dynamics is computed numerically by solving the system of Euler equations for mass, momentum, and energy, supplemented with an isentropic equation of state in a two-dimensional axisymmetric system of coordinates. The excimer laser-beam absorption and radiation transport in the vapor phase are modeled using the discrete ordinates method. The rates for ionization are computed using the Saha-Eggert equation assuming conditions of local thermal equilibrium. The inverse bremsstrahlung mechanism is considered as the main mechanism of plasma absorption. Results show that a thin, submicron vapor layer is formed above the target surface in the duration of laser pulse while thermal radiation plays the key role for plume cooling during the period of strong absorption by the plasma. The release of a very strong shock wave, propagating with a speed of 104 m/s, is observed in the evaporating plume.

Ho, J. R.; Grigoropoulos, C. P.; Humphrey, J. A. C.

1996-05-01

212

Material Characterization of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by a Sustainable Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selecting a suitable manufacturing process is one way of achieving sustainability of a product by diminishing energy consumption during its production cycle and improving material efficiency. The article attempts to explore the new processing technology for direct manufacturing of lightweight austempered ductile iron (ADI) casting in a permanent mold. The new processing technology is based on the innovative integrated approach toward casting and heat-treatment process. In this technology, the ductile iron samples obtained using the permanent mold are first austenized immediately after solidification process followed by austempering heat treatment in the fluidized bed and then air cooled at room temperature to obtain ADI material. The influence of austempering time on the microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties, and strain-hardening behavior of ADI was studied. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed to correlate the mechanical properties with microstructural characteristics. It was observed that the mechanical properties of resulting ADI samples were influenced by the microstructural transformations and varied retained austenite volume fractions obtained due to different austempering time. The results indicate that the strain-hardening behavior of the ADI material is influenced by the carbon content of retained austenite.

Meena, Anil; El Mansori, Mohamed

2012-12-01

213

49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...which may include smoke and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and Special Provisions...

2012-10-01

214

49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...which may include smoke and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and Special Provisions...

2013-10-01

215

49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.  

...may include smoke and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (life-saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be packed in accordance with § 173.185 and Special Provisions A54 and...

2014-10-01

216

49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...which may include smoke and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and Special Provisions...

2011-10-01

217

Improving search quality of the Google search appliance  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we describe various experiments on the ranking function of the Google Search Appliance to improve search quality. An evolutionary computation framework is implemented and applied to optimize various parameter ...

Nguyen, Huy, M. Eng (Huy Le). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

218

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The...

2011-04-01

219

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The...

2013-04-01

220

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The...

2012-04-01

221

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

...fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The...

2014-04-01

222

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The...

2010-04-01

223

Heat Capacity Identification Method Using MT System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a heat capacity identification method for cooking household appliances. Cooking household appliances select a cooking flow according to a cooking object capacity, hence the heat capacity identification is a very important function. However, a conventional heat capacity identification method has been based on one variable using “if-then rules”, hence it gives a low accuracy. This paper proposes a new heat capacity identification method that uses Mahalanobis-Taguchi System which is similar to discriminant analysis, and the effectiveness of this method is confirmed by the experiment.

Suzuki, Arata; Sugimoto, Kenji

224

Design Considerations for Frequency Responsive Grid FriendlyTM Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses design considerations for frequency responsive grid friendlytrade appliances (FR-GFAs), which can turn on\\/off based on frequency signals and make selective low-frequency load shedding possible at appliance level. FR-GFAs can also be treated as spinning reserve to maintain a load-to-generation balance under power system normal operation states. The paper first presents a statistical analysis on the frequency data

Ning Lu; Donald J. Hammerstrom

2006-01-01

225

Premolar Root Changes Following Treatment with the Banded Herbst Appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:  The aim of this prospective study was to radiographically assess root morphology changes in maxillary and mandibular premolars following Herbst appliance treatment.Patients and Methods:  Twenty-five consecutive adolescents (19 boys and six girls, mean age 13.08 years) with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion were treated with the banded Herbst appliance for a mean period of 13.16 months. Periapical radiographs of the upper

Athanasios T. Nasiopoulos; Athanasios E. Athanasiou; Moschos A. Papadopoulos; George Kolokithas; Ioulia Ioannidou

2006-01-01

226

Magic Wand: an intuitive gesture remote control for home appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mickey Mouse controls several brooms using a magic wand in a Disney movie. Can we control home appliances in a similar way? MagicWand makes this dream comes true. Using MagicWand, we can operate more than one home appliance by intuitive actions. MagicWand has two 3-axis accelerometers to detect a control target by just pointing and to recognize command actions which

K. Ouchi; N. Esaka; Y. Tamura; M. Hirahara; M. Doi

2005-01-01

227

Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

2009-11-22

228

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOEpatents

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

2013-04-02

229

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOEpatents

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2012-04-10

230

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOEpatents

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2011-01-18

231

Effect of drought and combined drought and heat stress on polyamine metabolism in proline-over-producing tobacco plants.  

PubMed

The roles of proline and polyamines (PAs) in the drought stress responses of tobacco plants were investigated by comparing the responses to drought alone and drought in combination with heat in the upper and lower leaves and roots of wild-type tobacco plants and transformants that constitutively over-express a modified gene for the proline biosynthetic enzyme ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CSF129A; EC 2.7.2.11/1.2.1.41). In both genotypes, drought stress coincided with a decrease in relative water content (RWC) that was much less severe in the upper leaves than elsewhere in the plant. The drought also increased proline levels in both genotypes. A brief period of heat stress (2 h at 40 °C) at the end of the drought period did not significantly influence the proline levels in the upper leaves and roots but caused a further increase in the lower leaves of both genotypes. The rate at which these elevated proline levels returned to normal during the post-stress recovery period was slower in the transformants and plants that had been subjected to the combined stress. In both genotypes, drought stress significantly reduced the levels of spermidine (Spd) and putrescine (Put) in the leaves and roots relative to those for controls, and increased the levels of spermine (Spm) and diaminopropane (Dap, formed by the oxidative deamination of Spd and Spm). Spd levels may have declined due to its consumption in Spm biosynthesis and/or oxidation by polyamine oxidase (PAO; EC 1.5.3.11) to form Dap, which became more abundant during drought stress. During the rewatering period, the plants' Put and Spd levels recovered quickly and the activity of the PA biosynthesis enzymes in their leaves and roots increased substantially; this increase was more pronounced in transformants than WT plants. The high levels of Spm observed in drought stressed plants persisted even after the 24 h recovery and rewatering phase. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the lower leaves of WTs increased substantially during the drought stress period; a less pronounced increase occurred in the transformants and after the application of the combined stress. After the post-stress recovery period, the MDA contents in the leaves of both genotypes were higher than those in the corresponding controls. The MDA contents of the upper leaves in plants of both genotypes remained relatively constant throughout, indicating that these leaves are preferentially protected against the adverse effects of oxidative stress and demonstrating the efficiency of the plants' induced antioxidative defense mechanisms. PMID:24029075

Cvikrová, Milena; Gemperlová, Lenka; Martincová, Olga; Vanková, Radomira

2013-12-01

232

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems  

DOEpatents

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

2006-03-07

233

Nonwearable gaze tracking system for controlling home appliance.  

PubMed

A novel gaze tracking system for controlling home appliances in 3D space is proposed in this study. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, we propose a nonwearable gaze tracking system containing frontal viewing and eye tracking cameras. Second, our system includes three modes: navigation (for moving the wheelchair depending on the direction of gaze movement), selection (for selecting a specific appliance by gaze estimation), and manipulation (for controlling the selected appliance by gazing at the control panel). The modes can be changed by closing eyes during a specific time period or gazing. Third, in the navigation mode, the signal for moving the wheelchair can be triggered according to the direction of gaze movement. Fourth, after a specific home appliance is selected by gazing at it for more than predetermined time period, a control panel with 3 × 2 menu is displayed on laptop computer below the gaze tracking system for manipulation. The user gazes at one of the menu options for a specific time period, which can be manually adjusted according to the user, and the signal for controlling the home appliance can be triggered. The proposed method is shown to have high detection accuracy through a series of experiments. PMID:25298966

Heo, Hwan; Lee, Jong Man; Jung, Dongwook; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

2014-01-01

234

Nonwearable Gaze Tracking System for Controlling Home Appliance  

PubMed Central

A novel gaze tracking system for controlling home appliances in 3D space is proposed in this study. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, we propose a nonwearable gaze tracking system containing frontal viewing and eye tracking cameras. Second, our system includes three modes: navigation (for moving the wheelchair depending on the direction of gaze movement), selection (for selecting a specific appliance by gaze estimation), and manipulation (for controlling the selected appliance by gazing at the control panel). The modes can be changed by closing eyes during a specific time period or gazing. Third, in the navigation mode, the signal for moving the wheelchair can be triggered according to the direction of gaze movement. Fourth, after a specific home appliance is selected by gazing at it for more than predetermined time period, a control panel with 3 × 2 menu is displayed on laptop computer below the gaze tracking system for manipulation. The user gazes at one of the menu options for a specific time period, which can be manually adjusted according to the user, and the signal for controlling the home appliance can be triggered. The proposed method is shown to have high detection accuracy through a series of experiments. PMID:25298966

Jung, Dongwook

2014-01-01

235

Lifetime of household appliances: empirical evidence of users behaviour.  

PubMed

The household appliance industry is one of the most important sectors from both the economic and environmental point of view. A greater understanding of the way in which consumers of these items behave would help to better plan the recycling needs as a function of previous purchase figures. This paper presents the findings of a field survey of Spanish consumer habits with respect to different common household appliances as regards replacement time and the reasons for replacing these appliances. The methodology used is based on survival analysis; specifically, a competing risks model. A Cox proportional hazards model is also used for the sake of comparison. Our results show that as the number of people and/or persons under 18 years in the household increases, the lifetimes of some types of appliance decrease significantly. Competing risk model shows that the probability of replacing the refrigerator due to malfunction and technological obsolescence increases with the increase of family members with a higher education. We also provide the cumulative incidence function for different appliances, which can be used to forecast future demands and electrical and electronic waste generation. PMID:20630942

Gutiérrez, Ester; Adenso-Díaz, Belarmino; Lozano, Sebastián; González-Torre, Pilar

2011-06-01

236

The influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on halitosis.  

PubMed

Halitosis is a widely spread condition. There are numerous causes. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on the occurrence of halitosis. 55 patients in an orthodontic practice were monitored at three points in time after application of orthodontic appliance (T1: immediately after application, T2: 4 weeks after application, T3: 3 months after application). Monitoring included patient self-evaluation, plaque index, tongue coating index and organoleptic measurement. The subjective parameters taste, dry mouth and breath odor did not show statistical differences. However, with the presence of fixed orthodontic appliances, confidence when performing dental hygiene decreased statistically significantly (p = 0.003). Additionally, the tongue coating index showed a statistically significant difference between T1 and T2 (p = 0.012) as well as T1 and T3 (p ? 0.001). Analogous results were found for organoleptic measurement (T1 and T2 [p = 0.002]; T1 and T3 [p ? 0.001]) and plaque index (T1 and T2/ T3 [p ? 0.001]). Fixed orthodontic appliances lead to a statistically significant increase of the plaque and tongue coating indices. A statistically significant increase was also observed with organoleptic measurement scores. The suspected positive correlation between halitosis and fixed orthodontic appliances was confirmed. Halitosis can be an important indicator of oral health during orthodontic treatment and can serve as a motivating factor for adequate patient oral health care maintenance. PMID:24554561

Zurfluh, Monika A; van Waes, Hubertus J M; Filippi, Andreas

2013-01-01

237

Two-Stage Soft-Switching High-Frequency Inverter with Simple PFC Function for Consumer IH Cooking Appliances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, consumer induction-heating (IH) cooking appliances have grown increasingly popular because of their easy cleaning, high efficiency, safety, and controllability. IH food cooking system for consumer home use are indispensable to heat various metallic pans, such as aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and iron cast for further diffusing. Furthermore, these appliances have to satisfy the utility AC grid harmonics regulations of IEC61000-3-2. To meet these requirements, this paper proposes a two-stage soft-switching high-frequency inverter with simple PFC function that is suitable for consumer IH cooking appliances. The proposed system comprises a soft-switching chopper based boost PFC converter with passive snubber and phase-shifted PWM controlled ZVZCS high-frequency inverter. In order to satisfy the utility AC grid current harmonic regulations, a simple PFC control technique with discontinuous current mode is introduced. This technique as well as the fundamental operating performances of the proposed IH system is tested. The effectiveness of proposed IH system is substantially proved from a practical point of view on the basis of the experimental results.

Kawaguchi, Yuki; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Sadakata, Hideki; Fujita, Atsushi; Omori, Hideki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

238

Heat shock transcriptional responses in an MC-Producing Cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii) and its MC-deficient mutant under high light conditions.  

PubMed

Microcystins (MCs) are the most commonly-reported hepatotoxins produced by various cyanobacterial taxa in fresh waters to constitute a potential threat to human and animal health. The biological role of MCs in the producer organisms is not known, and it would be very useful to understand the driving force behind the toxin production. Recent studies have suggested that MCs may have a protective function in cells facing environmental stress. Following this starting premise, we speculate that under adverse conditions the expression of stress-related genes coding for Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp) might be different in an MC-producing strain and its MC-deficient mutant. We therefore used RT-qPCR to compare the expression of 13 hsp genes of an MC-producing strain of Planktothrix agardhii (CYA126/8) and its MC-deficient ?mcyD mutant over different periods of exposure to high light stress (HL). Three reference genes (RGs) were selected from six candidates to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Of these three RGs (rsh, rpoD, and gltA), gltA is used here for the first time as an RG in prokaryotes. Under HL stress, five genes were found to be strongly up-regulated in both strains (htpG, dnaK, hspA, groES, and groEL). Unexpectedly, we found that the MC-producing wild type strain accumulated higher levels of htpG and dnaK transcripts in response to HL stress than the MC-deficient mutant. In addition, a significant increase in the mcyE transcript was detected in the mutant, suggesting that MCs are required under HL conditions. We discuss several possible roles of MCs in the response to HL stress through their possible involvement in the protective mechanisms of the cells. PMID:24023831

Tran, Thi Du Chi; Bernard, Cecile; Ammar, Myriam; Chaouch, Soraya; Comte, Katia

2013-01-01

239

Heat Shock Transcriptional Responses in an MC-Producing Cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii) and Its MC-Deficient Mutant under High Light Conditions  

PubMed Central

Microcystins (MCs) are the most commonly-reported hepatotoxins produced by various cyanobacterial taxa in fresh waters to constitute a potential threat to human and animal health. The biological role of MCs in the producer organisms is not known, and it would be very useful to understand the driving force behind the toxin production. Recent studies have suggested that MCs may have a protective function in cells facing environmental stress. Following this starting premise, we speculate that under adverse conditions the expression of stress-related genes coding for Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp) might be different in an MC-producing strain and its MC-deficient mutant. We therefore used RT-qPCR to compare the expression of 13 hsp genes of an MC-producing strain of Planktothrix agardhii (CYA126/8) and its MC-deficient ?mcyD mutant over different periods of exposure to high light stress (HL). Three reference genes (RGs) were selected from six candidates to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Of these three RGs (rsh, rpoD, and gltA), gltA is used here for the first time as an RG in prokaryotes. Under HL stress, five genes were found to be strongly up-regulated in both strains (htpG, dnaK, hspA, groES, and groEL). Unexpectedly, we found that the MC-producing wild type strain accumulated higher levels of htpG and dnaK transcripts in response to HL stress than the MC-deficient mutant. In addition, a significant increase in the mcyE transcript was detected in the mutant, suggesting that MCs are required under HL conditions. We discuss several possible roles of MCs in the response to HL stress through their possible involvement in the protective mechanisms of the cells. PMID:24023831

Tran, Thi Du Chi; Bernard, Cecile; Ammar, Myriam; Chaouch, Soraya; Comte, Katia

2013-01-01

240

49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. 231...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. (a...an existing industry safety appliance...standard for new construction of...

2012-10-01

241

49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. 231...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. (a...an existing industry safety appliance...standard for new construction of...

2011-10-01

242

49 CFR 231.35 - Procedure for modification of an approved industry safety appliance standard for new railcar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. 231...an approved industry safety appliance...new railcar construction. (a...an existing industry safety appliance...standard for new construction of...

2013-10-01

243

The effect of orthodontic appliances on the distribution of Candida and plaque in adolescents.  

PubMed

The site prevalence and intra-oral density of Candidal organisms may be increased by local factors including prostheses. However, whether significant changes in Candidal carriage occurs with denture wearing is not clearly established. This study employed the imprint culture technique to assess the effects of fixed and removable orthodontic appliances on oral carriage, site prevalence and intra-oral density of Candida in adolescents. Moreover, alterations in plaque distribution were measured. Groups of 12-16 year olds without or wearing fixed and removable appliances were studied. Imprint cultures were taken from six intra-oral sites and colony counts recorded after 48 hours incubation on selective media. Plaque scores were recorded from non-appliance and removable appliance wearers. The prevalence of Candidal carriage in the groups was not significantly different being 46 per cent of non-appliance, 51 per cent of fixed appliance and 52 per cent of removable appliance wearers. However, the prevalence of Candidal recovery at some sites and Candidal densities at all sites were significantly increased in both fixed and removable appliance wearers. Thus orthodontic appliances may predispose to Candidal proliferation in oral carriers. However, the results do not permit the conclusion that appliances may change non-carriers of Candida to carriers. Plaque distribution was significantly altered in removable appliance wearers when compared with non-appliance wearers as a result of increases in palatal plaque scores. These findings again emphasize the particular need for oral hygiene instruction in patients wearing appliances or partial prostheses. PMID:6954991

Addy, M; Shaw, W C; Hansford, P; Hopkins, M

1982-07-01

244

77 FR 14008 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...various residential products and commercial equipment, and (5) specific...efficiency, appliance and commercial equipment standards, to include...efficiency and appliance and commercial equipment standards; or as...to represent minorities, women, and persons with...

2012-03-08

245

14 CFR 21.617 - Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances...CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Technical...Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances. (a) A letter of TSO design approval may be...

2010-01-01

246

77 FR 234 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...305 RIN 3084-AB03 Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (``Appliance Labeling Rule'') AGENCY: Federal...

2012-01-04

247

76 FR 72872 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (``Appliance...refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, water heaters, clothes washers, room...

2011-11-28

248

Appliances, Lighting, Electronics, and Miscellaneous Equipment Electricity Use in New Homes  

E-print Network

having energy-efficient hard-wired lighting and ENERGY STAR-energy home metering indicate that efficient appliances and lightingENERGY STAR New Home program, which requires some efficient appliances and lighting.

Brown, Richard E.; Rittelman, William; Parker, Danny; Homan, Gregory

2007-01-01

249

49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312...Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with...

2011-10-01

250

49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312...Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with...

2013-10-01

251

49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312...Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with...

2010-10-01

252

49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312...Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with...

2012-10-01

253

49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction. A petition for special approval of an industry standard for...

2013-10-01

254

49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction. A petition for special approval of an industry standard for...

2012-10-01

255

49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction of railroad cars...approval of an existing industry safety appliance standard for new construction. A petition for special approval of an industry standard for...

2011-10-01

256

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

SciTech Connect

It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The three primary analyses presented in this report are: Nevertheless, it is important to analyze best-on-market products, since data on truly max tech technologies are limited. (1) an analysis of the cross-cutting strategies most promising for reducing appliance and equipment energy use in the U.S.; (2) a macro-analysis of the U.S. energy-saving potential inherent in promising ultra-efficient appliance technologies; and (3) a product-level analysis of the energy-saving potential.

Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

2011-07-20

257

Mechanical Strength and Failure Characteristics of Cast Mg-9 pctAl-1 pctZn Alloys Produced by a Heated-Mold Continuous Casting Process: Tensile Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties and failure characteristics of a cast Mg alloy (AZ91: Mg-Al8.9-Zn0.6-Mn0.2) produced by a heated-mold continuous casting process (HMC) are investigated. In a modification of the original HMC process, the cooling of the liquid alloy by direct water spray is carried out in an atmosphere of high-purity argon gas. The HMC-AZ91 alloy exhibits excellent mechanical properties (high strength and high ductility) that are about twice as high as those for the same alloy produced by conventional gravity casting. The increased material strength and ductility of the HMC sample are attributed to nanoscale and microscale microstructural characteristics. The fine grains and tiny spherical eutectic structures ( e.g., Mg17Al12 and Al6Mn) distributed randomly in the matrix of the HMC alloy result in resistance to dislocation movement, leading to high tensile strength. Basal slip on (0001) planes in the relatively organized crystal orientation of the HMC alloy, as well as grain boundary sliding through tiny spherical eutectic structures, results in high ductility. Details of the failure mechanism under static loading in the HMC alloy are also discussed using failure models.

Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Shuhei; Ohfuji, Hiroaki

2014-11-01

258

Oral Appliances in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This overview summarizes current knowledge of effects, side effects and indications for oral appliances in the treatment of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring. Mandibular repositioning appliances (MRAs) in various designs represent the most evaluated type of oral appliance. MRAs relocate the lower jaw forward and downward in order to prevent sleep-induced pharyngeal collapse. Shortterm success rates with

M. Marklund

2006-01-01

259

A solution for parallel network architectures applied to network defense appliances and sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network defense has more technologies available for purchase today than ever before. As the number of threats increase, organizations are deploying multiple defense technologies to defend their networks. For instance, an enterprise network boundary often implements multiple network defense appliances, some with overlapping capabilities (e.g., firewalls, IDS/IPS, DNS Defense). These appliances are applied in a serial fashion to create a chain of network processing specifically designed to drop bad traffic from the network. In these architectures, once a packet is dropped by an appliance subsequent appliances do not process it. This introduces significant limitations; (1) Stateful appliances will maintain an internal state which differs from network reality; (2) The network manager cannot determine, or unit test, how each appliance would have treated each packet; (3) The appliance "votes" cannot be combined to achieve higherlevel functionality. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel, backwards-compatible Parallel Architecture for Network Defense Appliances (PANDA). Our approach allows every appliance to process all network traffic and cast a vote to drop or allow each packet. This "crowd-sourcing" approach allows the network designer to take full advantage of each appliance, understand how each appliance is behaving, and achieve new collaborative appliance behavior.

Naber, Eric C.; Velez, Paul G.; Johal, Amanpreet S.

2012-06-01

260

Drawing on international experience to reform the Belgian market for ostomy appliances.  

PubMed

This article aims to review the regulatory framework governing the Belgian ostomy appliance market in the light of the experience of Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Ontario (Canada) with regulation of ostomy appliances. Information about the regulatory framework was derived from the international literature, analysis of legal texts and a survey completed by national experts. The comparative analysis revealed that these countries have adopted varying approaches towards regulating their domestic ostomy appliance market. Strategies to keep down prices include public procurement in Denmark, maximum prices in France and exclusion of expensive appliances from reimbursement in the Netherlands. To contain public expenditure on ostomy appliances, consumption patterns are monitored in the Netherlands, the quantity of reimbursed appliances is limited in Belgium and public reimbursement is restricted in Ontario. Ostomy appliances are generally distributed by community pharmacies and medical equipment shops. In countries that emphasise home care delivery such as Denmark, domiciliary distributors dominate the market to the detriment of community pharmacies which do not seem to be able to offer this service at a competitive price. An avenue for reforming the Belgian ostomy appliance market is proposed which valorizes the role of ostomy care nurses in guiding the choice of ostomy appliances. Furthermore, it is recommended that a competitive tendering process determines the price of ostomy appliances, that reimbursement for service provision by distributors is separated from reimbursement of appliances, and that patients receive a fixed grant from the third-party payer to buy ostomy appliances. PMID:16647155

Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Ramaekers, Dirk

2007-02-01

261

Letters Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli O169:H41 in Japan To the Editor: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli  

E-print Network

(ETEC) cause diarrhea by producing either a heatlabile enterotoxin, a heat-stable enterotoxin (ST), or both. Consequently, ETEC can be identified either by detecting the enterotoxin in the culture fluid by immunologic assays or by detecting enterotoxin-coding genes with DNA probes or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. For many clinical laboratories, however, serologic typing is the most common test used to determine if isolates are members of known pathogenic groups. Although E. coli serotype O169:H8 has been recognized as one of the ETEC strains (1), serotype O169:H41 is not established worldwide as one of the diarrheagenic E. coli of the ETEC group. Ando et al. first reported that an outbreak at a school for physiologically handicapped children in Saitama Prefecture was due to ST-producing E. coli serotype O169:H41 (2). We report an outbreak of diarrhea caused by E. coli O169:H41 that predates the outbreak reported by Ando et al. and information about additional outbreaks in Japan since 1991. In June 1991, we isolated toxigenic E. coli from the stool of two of three ill members of an eight-member family during an outbreak of diarrheal illness in Osaka, Japan. An epidemiologic investigation implicated pickles (kimchi) purchased during a visit to Korea; only the three members of the family who ate the pickles became ill. The major symptoms were diarrhea (3/3), abdominal pain (2/3), and fever (2/3) of 38 ° C. The incubation period was estimated at 33 hours. The serotype of these ST-producing E. coli isolates was not recognized immediately because the cultures were non-typable by the lot of E. coli antiserum available when the cultures were first isolated. The cultures were identified as E. coli O169:H41 when a new lot of antiserum became available. In another outbreak investigated by the Osaka

unknown authors

262

[Enhanced activation of T lymphocytes by urease-deficient recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guérin producing heat shock protein 70-major membrane protein-II fusion protein].  

PubMed

To activate naïve T cells convincingly using Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG), rBCG (BCG-D70M) that was deficient in urease, expressed with gene encoding the fusion of BCG-derived heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and Mycobacterium leprae-derived major membrane protein (MMP)-II, one of the immunodominant Ags of M. leprae, was newly constructed. BCG-D70M was more potent in activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets of naïve T cells than rBCGs including urease-deficient BCG and BCG-70M secreting HSP70-MMP-II fusion protein. BCG-D70M efficiently activated dendritic cells (DC) to induce cytokine production and phenotypic changes, and activated CD4+ T cells even when macrophages were used as APCs. The activation of both subsets of T cells was MHC and CD86 dependent. Pre-treatment of DC with chloroquine inhibited both surface expression of MMP-II on DC and the activation of T cells by BCG-D70M-infected APCs. The naïve CD8+ T cell activation was inhibited by treatment of DC with brefeldin A and lactacystin so that the T cells was activated by TAP- and proteosome-dependent cytosolic cross-priming pathway. From naïve CD8+ T cells, effector T cells producing perforin and memory T cells having migration markers, were produced by BCG-D70M stimulation. BCG-D70M primary infection in C57BL/6 mice produced T cells responsive to in vitro secondary stimulation with MMP-II and HSP70, and more efficiently inhibited the multiplication of subsequently challenged M. leprae than vector control BCG. These results indicate that the triple combination of HSP70, MMP-II and urease depletion may provide useful tool for inducing better activation of naïve T cells. PMID:23012848

Makino, Masahiko; Mukai, Tetsu

2012-09-01

263

Electricity savings from residential appliance standards in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained in Sweden by instituting specific standards for five appliances: Refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. At the present time, Sweden has no minimum energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained by instituting specific standards for five product types (refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and dryers) starting in 1995. A methodology similar to that used in analyses for the European Community was employed in this study. In the Swedish study, we used appliance test data developed by the Swedish consumer agency, Konsument Verket, to estimate new unit energy consumption for each product type. Shipments, saturations, energy use, and demographic data were input to a spreadsheet model that sums energy consumption for each product type over the period 1990--2010. Both a base case and a standards case scenario are simulated for each of the five appliance types. It was found that electricity use for these five products can be reduced by 12% over the time period from 1990--2010. Most of the energy savings come from instituting efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. For each product class type, the impact on manufacturer offerings is discussed. For example, for simple refrigerators, eleven 1990 models meet the 1995 standard and six models meet the 2000 standard out of a total of 63 models.

Turiel, I. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Lebot, B. (Agence Francaise pour la Maitrise de l'Energie, 75 - Paris (France))

1993-04-01

264

Teeth Shape Modeling Pipeline for Oral Healthcare Appliances Development  

E-print Network

Teeth Shape Modeling Pipeline for Oral Healthcare Appliances Development (Invited Paper) Jacek teeth and gums geometries. The generated models may be used for various simulations with the end goal- and intra-subject variation of teeth geometry, developing devices that are as efficient as possible in all

Telea, Alexandru C.

265

A FEASIBILITY STUDY AND PROPOSED PROGRAMS ON APPLIANCE SERVICE TECHNOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RESPONSES FROM 60 PERCENT OF 190 APPLIANCE DISTRIBUTORS, RETAILERS, AND SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS SURVEYED BY QUESTIONNAIRE SHOWED THAT THERE WAS A NEED FOR TRAINED TECHNICAL PERSONNEL, WHO SHOULD HAVE SPECIAL SKILLS AND TRAINING AT THE POST-HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL. NEED FOR PRE-EMPLOYMENT AND POST-ENTRY TRAINING PROGRAMS WAS INDICATED. ORGANIZATIONS…

SCHAUER, CLARENCE H.

266

49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...16-inch sheet steel; (ii) The area of the weld is sufficient to ensure a minimum weld strength, based on yield, of three times the...required for attachment of the safety appliance, the weld is continuous around the perimeter of the...

2011-10-01

267

49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...considered part of the car body; (ii) The weld on the safety appliance bracket or support...17(e) if any part or portion of the weld contains a defect. Any repairs...trained and qualified to identify defective weld conditions. At a minimum, these...

2013-10-01

268

49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...16-inch sheet steel; (ii) The area of the weld is sufficient to ensure a minimum weld strength, based on yield, of three times the...required for attachment of the safety appliance, the weld is continuous around the perimeter of the...

2012-10-01

269

49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...considered part of the car body; (ii) The weld on the safety appliance bracket or support...17(e) if any part or portion of the weld contains a defect. Any repairs...trained and qualified to identify defective weld conditions. At a minimum, these...

2010-10-01

270

49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...16-inch sheet steel; (ii) The area of the weld is sufficient to ensure a minimum weld strength, based on yield, of three times the...required for attachment of the safety appliance, the weld is continuous around the perimeter of the...

2013-10-01

271

49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...considered part of the car body; (ii) The weld on the safety appliance bracket or support...17(e) if any part or portion of the weld contains a defect. Any repairs...trained and qualified to identify defective weld conditions. At a minimum, these...

2012-10-01

272

49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...16-inch sheet steel; (ii) The area of the weld is sufficient to ensure a minimum weld strength, based on yield, of three times the...required for attachment of the safety appliance, the weld is continuous around the perimeter of the...

2010-10-01

273

49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...considered part of the car body; (ii) The weld on the safety appliance bracket or support...17(e) if any part or portion of the weld contains a defect. Any repairs...trained and qualified to identify defective weld conditions. At a minimum, these...

2011-10-01

274

Waterheaters and Dishwashers; Appliance Repair--Beginning: 9023.04.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course outline provides major appliance repair students with a fundamental knowledge of waterheaters and dishwashers, and is intended to guide their performance of duties as technicians. Covering the complete electrical and mechanical functions of heaters and dishwashers, the course outline includes goals, specific block objectives,…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

275

Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second edition contains teacher and student guides for 14 units of instruction in major appliance repair. Each unit in the teacher edition includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities, answers to assignment sheets, answers to the written test, written test, a unit evaluation form, teacher…

Smreker, Gene; Calvert, King

276

Robot in Society: Friend or Appliance? Cynthia Breazeal #  

E-print Network

Robot in Society: Friend or Appliance? Cynthia Breazeal # Massachusetts Institute of Technology integrates synthetic emotions and highlight how they influence the internal dy­ namics of the robot and situated in a social environment, enables the robot to socially influence its human caregiver into sat

277

Adverse reactions to orthodontic appliances in nickel-allergic patients.  

PubMed

Nickel allergy (NA) is common and causes more cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) than all other metals combined. Many orthodontic appliances (ODAs) contain nickel but their clinical relevance in nickel-allergic patients is unclear. We aimed to characterize the relationship between NA and ODAs because the medical literature investigating this is controversial. A survey concerning adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA was distributed to members of the Wisconsin Society of Orthodontics. Forty-three surveys were analyzed. The surveyed group was experienced, representing a mean of 21.2 years in practice and averaging 242 appliances placed per year per orthodontist. Most new patients with orthodontia were 10-18 years old. Most wires used were nickel-titanium alloy. Although 76% of orthodontists inquired about NA at initial evaluation, 37% still placed nickel-containing ODAs in known nickel-allergic patients. Fifty percent placed a single intraoral appliance, observing for reactions. Three orthodontists applied ODAs to the skin similar to patch testing. Only 8 patients with reactions to ODAs were described in detail, 6 were female patients and 6 were aged 13-14 years. Intraoral and extraoral reactions were mild; diffuse urticaria was reported in one patient. Treatment included removing the appliances or changing to nonnickel alternatives with favorable outcomes. These cases, which included >33,000 patients, suggest a prevalence of 0.03%. Adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA have been observed but are uncommon. Using suitable alternatives, patients usually can be accommodated. PMID:17883919

Volkman, Kristen K; Inda, Michael J; Reichl, Peter G; Zacharisen, Michael C

2007-01-01

278

A Reliable Natural Language Interface To Household Appliances  

E-print Network

complex feature sets into appliances such as phones, TVs, microwave Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice

Yates, Alexander

279

Securing Mobile Appliances: New Challenges for the System Designer  

Microsoft Academic Search

As intelligent electronic systems pervade all aspects of our lives, capturing, storing, and communicating a wide range of sensitive and personal data, security is emerging as a critical concern that must be addressed in order to enable several current and future applications. Mobile appliances, which will play a critical role in enabling the visions of ubiquitous computing and communications, and

Anand Raghunathan; Srivaths Ravi; Sunil Hattangady; Jean-Jacques Quisquater

2003-01-01

280

Refrigeration Controls: Electrical & Mechanical; Appliance Repair 3: 9027.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet outlines a course designed to equip major appliance service students with the fundamental knowledge and understanding of procedures, basic electrical circuitry, and nomenclatures of components necessary in successfully tracing a circuit and repairing or replacing a malfunctioning component. Course content includes goals, specific…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

281

Dental enamel around fixed orthodontic appliances after fluoride varnish application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor oral hygiene has been considered one of the main problems routinely faced in the orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic appliance creates an environment that provides mineral loss from the dental enamel. Such condition is clinically seen as white spot lesions and cavitations in the most severe cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a fluoride varnish

Leonardo Gontijo; Roberval de Almeida Cruz; Paulo Roberto Gomes Brandão

2007-01-01

282

Remote access and networked appliance control using biometrics features  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of home networks and the proliferation of broadband connectivity to homes, there is an increasing demand for a secure end-to-end mechanism to remotely access home networks and control home appliance from remote sites on the other side of the Internet. We propose an architecture for secure access to home or an organization's networks and control of networked

Mahfuzur Rahman; Prabir Bhattacharya

2003-01-01

283

Embodied data objects: tangible interfaces to information appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the idea of embodied data obje cts. Using this concept, everyday objects can be used to represent bits and bytes of active information. These data objects can be us ed to interact with information-appliance-like devices that provid e specific services as dictated by the context of interaction. The inherent affordances of physical artifacts are leveraged to make

Manas Tungare; Pardha S. Pyla; Pradyut Bafna; Vladimir Glina; Wenjie Zheng; Xiaoyan Yu; Umut Balli; Steve R. Harrison

2006-01-01

284

Utility Rebates for ENERGY STAR Appliances: Are They Effective?  

E-print Network

by utility companies. To estimate the impact of these incentives we use the variation in timing and size to reduce energy demand. Keywords: Eco-labelling; Energy efficiency; Appliances; Utility rebates; Carbon 44 632 06 56. Food and Resource Economics, University of British Columbia, MCML 341

285

User-sensitive Scheduling of Home Appliances Tanuja Bapat  

E-print Network

prices while being sensitive to their context and lifestyle. Yupik combines sensing, analytics, and opti as well as potential lifestyle disruptions. Yupik uses jPlugs, appliance level energy metering devices and/or a fee. GreenNet'11, August 19, 2011, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Copyright 2011 ACM 978

Shihada, Basem

286

Using Computer Vision to Access Appliance Displays Giovanni Fusco1  

E-print Network

. Such appliances include microwave ovens, media players, digital blood pressure monitors, thermostats and vending machines. Available access technology to make printed documents accessible to persons with visual is significantly different in appearance from printed text, and is often obscured by glare, reflections or poor

Coughlan, James M.

287

Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

2012-12-31

288

Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

1993-08-01

289

A System for Smart Home Control of Appliances based on Timer and Speech Interaction  

E-print Network

The main objective of this work is to design and construct a microcomputer based system: to control electric appliances such as light, fan, heater, washing machine, motor, TV, etc. The paper discusses two major approaches to control home appliances. The first involves controlling home appliances using timer option. The second approach is to control home appliances using voice command. Moreover, it is also possible to control appliances using Graphical User Interface. The parallel port is used to transfer data from computer to the particular device to be controlled. An interface box is designed to connect the high power loads to the parallel port. This system will play an important role for the elderly and physically disable people to control their home appliances in intuitive and flexible way. We have developed a system, which is able to control eight electric appliances properly in these three modes.

Haque, S M Anamul; Islam, Md Ashraful

2010-01-01

290

Heights integrated model as instrument for simulation of hydrodynamic, radiation transport, and heat conduction phenomena of laser-produced plasma in EUV applications.  

SciTech Connect

The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.

Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

2007-01-16

291

16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating and... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN...APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...

2010-01-01

292

16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating and... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN...APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...

2011-01-01

293

Design Considerations for Frequency Responsive Grid Friendly Appliances  

SciTech Connect

The paper addresses design considerations for frequency responsive Grid FriendlyTM appliances (FR-GFAs). Case studies have been done based on the frequency data collected in 2003 in Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) systems. An FR-GFA can turn on/off based on frequency signals and make selective low-frequency load shedding possible at appliance level. FR-GFAs can also be treated as an spinning reserve to maintain a load-to-generation balance under power system normal operation states. The triggering frequency and duration of the FR-GFA device with different frequency setting schemes are simulated. Design considerations of the FR-GFA are then discussed based on simulation results.

Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

2006-05-24

294

RFID Enabled Remote Structural Health Monitoring for Heavy Lifting Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To realize remote structural health monitoring for heavy lifting appliances, e.g., 500t gantry cranes, technologies of RFID\\u000a wireless sensor network, LabVIEW virtual instrument and health diagnosis expert system are empoyed to establish an integrated\\u000a system. The system is divided into three layers in logic structures: the data acquisition layer, the network communication\\u000a layer and the system service layer. In the

Xubing Chen; Fan Zhou

2010-01-01

295

Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

2013-10-01

296

An extended period of functional appliance therapy: a controlled clinical trial comparing the Twin Block and Dynamax appliances.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The aim of this clinical trial was to compare the hard- and soft-tissue effects of 15 month full-time functional appliance therapy with Twin Block (TB) and Dynamax (Dx) appliances. The effects on both hard and soft tissue were analysed using cephalograms and three-dimensional optical surface laser scans. One hundred and three subjects with a class II division 1 malocclusion, and a minimum overjet of 7mm were available for analysis following stratified randomization according to gender and age. Data was collected at the start of treatment, 15 month therapy, and after 3 month post-treatment observation. Statistical analysis was conducted using analysis of covariance. The results demonstrated both appliances corrected the overjet with significantly increased skeletal dimensional changes with the TB compared with the Dx with forward movement of pogonion of 5.2mm (TB) and 0.7mm (Dx) P = 0.003. In addition, significant changes occurred particularly in the vertical dimension where there was also an increase in total anterior face height in both groups (TB = 6.4mm, Dx = 5.5mm) and significant (P = 0.003) mandibular length changes were also observed (TB = 7.2mm, Dx = 3.8mm). The cephalometric soft-tissue changes were significantly different between the two appliances at soft-tissue pogonion (TB = 9.8mm, Dx = 4.6mm, P = 0.001). Laser scan three-dimansional changes showed significant difference in the lower labial sulcus region where forward movements were observed (TB = 8.2mm, Dx = 6.2mm; P = 0.04). Overall these changes appear to be greater and more stable than those achieved in a previous 9 month study. PMID:23291502

Lee, Robert T; Barnes, Emma; DiBiase, Andrew; Govender, Ravichandram; Qureshi, Usman

2014-10-01

297

Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project  

SciTech Connect

Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances were installed and monitored for more than a year at residential sites at three locations in Washington and Oregon. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow underfrequency event—an average of one event per day—and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Appliance owners reported that the appliance responses were unnoticed and caused little or no inconvenience for the homes’ occupants.

Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Michie, Preston; Oliver, Terry V.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Eustis, Conrad; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Marek, W.; Munson, Ryan L.; Pratt, Robert G.

2007-10-01

298

An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

2008-01-25

299

Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping.  

PubMed

The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model. PMID:24899895

Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Yong; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim Sunny, Seong-Hun

2014-01-01

300

Advanced heat pump research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Office of Building Energy Research and Development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has been funding R&D in advanced heat pumps and appliances since 1976. Much of that research has been managed for DOE by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the Building Equipment Research (BER) program at ORNL has been to generate new concepts

M. A. Kuliasha

1985-01-01

301

Addressing Computational and Networking Constraints to Enable Video Streaming from Wireless Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enabling real-time video streaming from a wireless appliance requires compute intensive video compression to be performed in real-time on the appliance before transmitting the data upstream. However, the tasks of real-time video encoding and streaming from the wireless appliances are challenging due to a) limited computational and battery resources, and b) limited and time-varying network bandwidth availability. In this paper,

Saumya Chandra; Sujit Dey

2005-01-01

302

Heating with Solid Fuels. A Unit of Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in industrial education programs at the secondary school level, this unit focuses on residential space heating although applications can be made to commercial settings. Wood heat is emphasized but coal-fired appliances and other energy sources are considered. Educational objectives with instructional strategies are provided for…

Rockel, Edward

303

Magnetic field exposure from electric appliances and childhood cancer  

SciTech Connect

The effect on childhood cancer of prolonged exposure to 60-H magnetic fields from electric appliances was examined using interview data from a recently completed case-control study. Exposures of children aged 0-14 years whose incident cancers were diagnosed between 1976 and 1983 and who resided in the Denver, Colorado, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared with those of controls selected by random digit dialing, matched on age, sex, and telephone exchange area. Parents of 252 cases and 222 controls were interviewed at home about the use of electric appliances by the mother during pregnancy (prenatal exposure) and by the child (postnatal exposure). After adjustment for income, prenatal electric blanket exposure was associated with a small increase in the incidence of childhood cancers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.2) that was more pronounced for leukemia (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.6) and brain cancer (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5). Postnatal exposure to electric blankets was also weakly associated with childhood cancer (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.6-3.4), with a larger but imprecise association with acute lymphocytic leukemia (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.6-6.5). Water beds and bedside electric clocks were unrelated to childhood cancer incidence. Results are limited by nonresponse and imprecision resulting from the rarity of appliance use, especially for subgroups of cases. Nonetheless, electric blankets, one of the principal sources of prolonged magnetic field exposure, were weakly associated with childhood cancer and warrant a more thorough evaluation.

Savitz, D.A.; John, E.M.; Kleckner, R.C. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

1990-05-01

304

An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Residential Sized Heat Pumps  

E-print Network

sector. The law requires proposed standards that are both technologically feasible and economically justifiable. One of the appliances for standards consideration is the residential sized (65000 Btu/hr and under) air source heat pump. This report... of suitable baseline heat pump designs, (4) selection of design options that can be used to improve heat pump efficiency, and (5) development of heat pump designs to cover the whole spectrum of efficiencies available today and those that may be technologically...

O'Neal, D. L.; Boecker, C. L.; Murphy, W. E.; Notman, J. R.

1986-01-01

305

Eddy current dual packs heater based continuous pipeline fluid heating using soft switching PWM high frequency inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an innovative prototype of a new conceptual electromagnetic induction eddy-current based fluid heating appliance using voltage-fed quasi resonant zero voltage soft switching PWM high-frequency inverter using IGBTs, which can operate at a constant frequency variable power regulation scheme. The promising simple high-efficient low noise inverter type electromagnetic induction eddy-current based pipeline fluid heating appliance is proposed for

H. Tanaka; M. Kaneda; S. Chandhaket; M. Aubdallah; M. Nakaoka; N. Uchida; T. Ueno

2000-01-01

306

Mandibular asymmetry treated with a modified activator appliance.  

PubMed

Aplasia of the mandibular condyle alone without any other facial malformation and medical history is a very rare condition. This clinical report describes treatment with a functional appliance in a young patient with aplasia of the mandibular condyle alone without any other facial malformation, which is a very rare condition. The patient, a 6(1/2)-year-old girl, was referred for treatment of mandibular asymmetry. There was no relevant family history. The patient showed early mixed dentition with a II molar relationship on the right and II on the left side, 5 mm of overbite and 5 mm of overjet, and a lower midline discrepancy of 3 mm. According to the Pruzansky-Kaban classification of mandibular deformity, the patient was a type IIA; according to Vento and his classification, the mandible of the patient was M2B. The patient was given a Haupl-Andresen activator, which had been modified to reposition the right mandible downward and forward. The functional appliance therapy lasted for approximately 4 years. The affected side showed remarkable condylar growth compared with the normal side. Seven years later, the correction of the mandibular asymmetry was stable and no relapse had occurred. PMID:17667690

Leonardi, Rosalia; Barbato, Ersilia

2007-07-01

307

Periodontal effects with self ligating appliances and laser biostimulation  

PubMed Central

Background: Recently, various biostimulation's effects of low energy laser irradiation have been reported. The present study was designed to examine the effects of low-energy laser irradiation on alveolar bone remodelling during orthodontic tooth movement and finally on formation of new keratinized gingiva. Materials and Methods: 22 patients and 27 teeth in vestibular mucosal without keratinized gingiva were selected. Every patient was treated with self ligating appliances. In every orthodontic session the patient was treated with Diode laser biostimulation. At the moment of debonding, 27 teeth involved in the research were evaluated in terms of quality and quantity of attached gingiva. BOP and CAL loss were investigated. Results: Every tooth considered at the end of orthodontic treatment showed an attached gingiva around the crown: The average of keratinized gingiva at the end of the study was 3.10 mm and the mean increasing at each month was 0,49 mm. Conclusions: The combination between self ligating appliances and laser's biostimulation could improve the differentiation of periodontal ligaments stem cells in fibroblasts, able to promote attached gingiva around the crown of the teeth erupted in oral vestibular mucosa. PMID:23814581

Caccianiga, Gianluigi; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Leonida, Alessandro; Zorzella, Paolo; Squarzoni, Nadia; Carinci, Francesco; Crestale, Claudia

2012-01-01

308

Requirements for Automatically Generating Multi-Modal Interfaces for Complex Appliances  

E-print Network

://www.cs.cmu.edu/~pebbles/puc/ Michael Higgins, Joseph Hughes MAYA Design, Inc. Suite 702 2100 Wharton Street Pittsburgh, PA 15203 remote controls available today, these new controllers download a specification from the appli- ance with the appliance, download a specification of the appliance's functions, and then automatically generate a remote

Myers, Brad A.

309

Smart residential appliances: Will the information superhighway dead end into a dumb house?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing numbers of electric utilities--in partnership with cable companies, controls vendors, and telecommunications providers--are working to develop and deploy interactive home energy management networks capable of communicating with residential appliances. Appliance manufacturers, however, are moving slowly, if at all, to develop and manufacture products designed to interact with networks in the home. The reasons for this are twofold. First, the

Vishwanath

1995-01-01

310

Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to

Jiang Lin; Jeanne Townend; David Fridley; Gary McNeil; Tony Silva; Robin Clark

2002-01-01

311

Using utility DSM programs to spur the development of more efficient appliances  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes utility programs that are designed to encourage manufacturers to develop and commercialize highly efficient refrigerators and clothes washers. Opportunities for improving the efficiency of other types of appliances are also discussed. Presented at the International Appliance Technical Conference.

Nadel, S.

1993-12-31

312

Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in the Netherlands as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Dutch market. The research also includes an overview of the Dutch kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture,

Aurelio Volpe

2005-01-01

313

Current results and future perspectives for Japanese recycling of home electrical appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese system of recycling home electrical appliances has several unique aspects, including (1) a limited number of target appliances, (2) a recycling fee system that requires consumers to pay a recycling fee at the time of disposal, and (3) a direct recycling obligation for manufacturers, who have a physical, rather than a financial, responsibility for their end-of-life products. We

Hirofumi Aizawa; Hideto Yoshida; Shin-ichi Sakai

2008-01-01

314

78 FR 28190 - Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Board [B-7-2013] Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water Heaters); Louisville, Kentucky On January 7, 2013, GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C in Louisville,...

2013-05-14

315

33 CFR 150.504 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...examine launching appliances for lifeboats and rescue boats at intervals of not more than 5 years. Upon completion of the examination, the operator must subject the winch brakes of the launching appliance to a dynamic...

2010-07-01

316

40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart F of... - Method for Testing Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appliances requires entry into the sealed refrigeration system or when those appliances are...removed and captured from a test stand refrigeration system. Captured refrigerant is...recovery operations. The test stand refrigeration system required for this...

2010-07-01

317

Mathematical model and calculation of heating regime of a tunnel furnace to produce a given temperature distribution in the firing zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of combustion and heat and mass transfer occurring in the firing zone have a decisiw~ influence on the quality indices of the products and the technicoeconomic efficiency of operation of a tunnel furnace as a whole. The consumption of fuel at the stations, their distribution along the firing zone, the fuel combustion conditions, and the characteristics of the

V. G. Abbakumov; E. F. Mosin

1981-01-01

318

A Field Study of Lightning Surges Propagating through Low-voltage Electric Appliances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In today's highly information-based society, lightning damage has a significant impact on an increasing number of electric appliances such as personal computers and facsimile machines. Lightning surge protection devices for electric appliances are on the market and concern for lightning protection has been increasing, but there are still many unknown aspects of lightning surges that propagate into residences. To provide effective lightning protection measures, clarification of surge propagation patterns is needed. The Tokyo Electric Power Company has observed the patterns of lightning surge propagation into houses using lightning surge waveform detectors installed at ordinary residences and obtained data on 30 lightning surge current waveforms between 2008 and 2009. This paper discusses various aspects of lightning surge currents propagating into low-voltage appliances, including home electric appliances, based on the lightning surge current waveform data obtained from lightning observations. The result revealed the patterns of lightning surge currents propagating into the ground and lines of low-voltage appliances.

Ishii, Tsunayoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshiki; Oguchi, Shuichi; Okabe, Shigemitsu

319

Integration of the Herbst and Begg appliance in the management of severe Class II malocclusion  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of the Herbst appliance in a normalizing sagittal relationship in patients with a Class II malocclusion is well-documented. This case report describes the treatment of a 14-year-old male patient with severe Class II Division 1 malocclusion due to retrognathic mandible and mildly prognathic maxilla, convex profile, and lip trap. He had severely proclined maxillary incisors and retroclined mandibular incisors, overjet of 13 mm and overbite of 7 mm. Since the patient was in the peak pubertal growth phase, growth modulation was carried out with the Herbst appliance for 8 months, followed by fixed appliance therapy with the Begg appliance for 11 months. Combination of Herbst and Begg appliance led to a very favorable treatment outcome and greatly improved the patient's appearance.

Desai, Asavari L.; Hegde, Manjunath; Dinesh, M. R.; Amarnath, B. C.

2014-01-01

320

Integration of the Herbst and Begg appliance in the management of severe Class II malocclusion.  

PubMed

The efficacy of the Herbst appliance in a normalizing sagittal relationship in patients with a Class II malocclusion is well-documented. This case report describes the treatment of a 14-year-old male patient with severe Class II Division 1 malocclusion due to retrognathic mandible and mildly prognathic maxilla, convex profile, and lip trap. He had severely proclined maxillary incisors and retroclined mandibular incisors, overjet of 13 mm and overbite of 7 mm. Since the patient was in the peak pubertal growth phase, growth modulation was carried out with the Herbst appliance for 8 months, followed by fixed appliance therapy with the Begg appliance for 11 months. Combination of Herbst and Begg appliance led to a very favorable treatment outcome and greatly improved the patient's appearance. PMID:25395773

Desai, Asavari L; Hegde, Manjunath; Dinesh, M R; Amarnath, B C

2014-10-01

321

Influence of pH, Heat and Enzymatic Treatments on the Activity of Antibacterial Substance in MRS and Milk Media Produced by Lactobacillus fermentum F6  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the influence of pH, heat and enzymatic treatments on the activity of antibacterial substance in MRS, skim soy milk and bovine milk media fermented by a potential probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum F6. The antibacterial activity of the culture supernatant of L. fermentum F6 was tested against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including

Yong ZHANG; Yong LIU; Yan BAO; He-ping ZHANG

2010-01-01

322

Observation of extreme ultraviolet hydrogen emission from incandescently heated hydrogen gas with strontium that produced an anomalous optically measured power balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the observation of intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from incandescently heated atomic hydrogen and atomized strontium. It has been reported that intense EUV emission was observed at low temperatures (e.g. ?103K) from atomic hydrogen and certain atomized elements or certain gaseous ions which ionize at integer multiples of the potential energy of atomic hydrogen, 27.2eV[1–5]. Strontium ionizes at

Randell L. Mills; Mark Nansteel; Ying Lu

2001-01-01

323

[The pendulis appliance: a palatal miniscrew supported molar distalization device].  

PubMed

The maxillary molar distalization is a valuable therapeutic option in some clinical cases. Its biomechanics is challenging and difficult to obtain. Historically, various devices have been described offering successful solutions to this problem such as the Hilgers Pendulum Appliance (1992) and variants linked to mini screws which recently have shown interesting clinical potential. This article presents a new Pendulum variant using a miniscrew, the "pendulis". It follows the original concept (titanium-molybdenum alloy distalization springs and polymethyl-methacrylate pellet) but dental support is replaced by a single palatal miniscrew (median adults, para-median in children) to which the device is fixed by means of a metal welded cap easily positioned and removable by the practitioner. This allows for better control of the oral hygiene and completely controlled extraoral activation. Fabrication steps are described and instruction of use is illustrated with clinical documentation. PMID:25158749

Nappée-Miévilly, Magali; Nappée, François-Joseph; Kerbrat, Jean-Baptiste; Goudot, Patrick

2014-09-01

324

Burns and fires from non-electric domestic appliances in low and middle income countries Part I. The scope of the problem.  

PubMed

Severe burn is a major public health issue in developing nations. Although burn and smoke inhalation in 2002 were documented as being responsible for over 322,000 deaths worldwide, this figure is most likely a gross underestimate. The burden of suffering from fire is exceedingly distributed among the poor. A large proportion of burns are related to the nature of domestic appliances that are used for cooking, heating, lighting or all three. We undertook a retrospective review of the literature as well as analyzing our institutional and regional experiences with injuries caused by non-electric domestic appliances. The incidence of injuries is largely associated with the use of stoves and lamps; and from kerosene or petroleum as well as butane, liquid petroleum gas and alcohol. Associated problems include appliance design and construction, fuel combustion and instability, and mechanical inefficiency. Ignorance of safe usage techniques is also contributory. Industry and government regulations and standards are either nonexistent or not adequately enforced. Solving this substantial problem will depend on improved surveillance by means of formal epidemiologic studies, and the contributions and collaboration of international governmental and nongovernmental organizations. PMID:18206314

Peck, Michael D; Kruger, Gerebreg E; van der Merwe, Anna E; Godakumbura, Wijaya; Ahuja, Rajeev B

2008-05-01

325

Oral Appliance Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Update  

PubMed Central

Oral appliances (OA) have emerged as an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment. The most commonly used OA reduces upper airway collapse by advancing the mandible (OAm). There is a strong evidence base demonstrating OAm improve OSA in the majority of patients, including some with more severe disease. However OAm are not efficacious for all, with approximately one-third of patients experiencing no therapeutic benefit. OAm are generally well tolerated, although short-term adverse effects during acclimatization are common. Long-term dental changes do occur, but these are for the most part subclinical and do not preclude continued use. Patients often prefer OAm to gold-standard CPAP treatment. Head-to-head trials confirm CPAP is superior in reducing OSA parameters on polysomnography; however, this greater efficacy does not necessarily translate into better health outcomes in clinical practice. Comparable effectiveness of OAm and CPAP has been attributed to higher reported nightly use of OAm, suggesting that inferiority in reducing apneic events may be counteracted by greater treatment adherence. Recently, significant advances in commercially available OAm technologies have been made. Remotely controlled mandibular positioners have the potential to identify treatment responders and the level of therapeutic advancement required in single night titration polysomnography. Objective monitoring of OAm adherence using small embedded temperature sensing data loggers is now available and will enhance clinical practice and research. These technologies will further enhance efficacy and effectiveness of OAm treatment for OSA. Citation: Sutherland K; Vanderveken OM; Tsuda H; Marklund M; Gagnadoux F; Kushida CA; Cistulli PA; on behalf of the ORANGE-Registry. Oral appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea: an update. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(2):215-227. PMID:24533007

Sutherland, Kate; Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Tsuda, Hiroko; Marklund, Marie; Gagnadoux, Frederic; Kushida, Clete A.; Cistulli, Peter A.

2014-01-01

326

Plantaricin LP84, a broad spectrum heat-stable bacteriocin of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2084 produced in a simple glucose broth medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2084 produced an antibacterial substance when grown at 40°C for 36 h in a laboratory medium. The antibacterial substance was active against a wide range of bacteria comprising Gram positive and negative foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. However, related mesophilic lactobacilli were not inhibited, except for L. amylovorus DSM 20531. The antimicrobial activity was observed between late

K. Suma; M. C. Misra; M. C. Varadaraj

1998-01-01

327

On the heating of the outer radiation belt to produce high fluxes of relativistic electrons: Measured heating rates at geosynchronous orbit for high-speed stream-driven storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heating rate of the outer electron radiation belt at geosynchronous orbit is determined for the interval from 36 to 72 h after the onset of high-speed stream-driven storms. Multisatellite measurements of the radiation belt temperature are used for 93 high-speed stream-driven storms. During the storms, the outer electron radiation belt temperature changes from ?120 keV to ?190 keV. The

Joseph E. Borovsky; Michael H. Denton

2010-01-01

328

On the heating of the outer radiation belt to produce high fluxes of relativistic electrons: Measured heating rates at geosynchronous orbit for high-speed stream-driven storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heating rate of the outer electron radiation belt at geosynchronous orbit is determined for the interval from 36 to 72 h after the onset of high-speed stream-driven storms. Multisatellite measurements of the radiation belt temperature are used for 93 high-speed stream-driven storms. During the storms, the outer electron radiation belt temperature changes from ˜120 keV to ˜190 keV. The

Joseph E. Borovsky; Michael H. Denton

2010-01-01

329

Magnetic Configurations Related to the Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Generation I. Twist and Expansion Profiles of Magnetic Loops Produced by Flux Emergence  

E-print Network

The generation of outflows from the Sun known as solar winds is coupled with the heating of the solar corona, and both processes are operated in magnetic structures formed on the Sun. To study the magnetic configuration responsible for these processes, we use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to reproduce magnetic structures via flux emergence and investigate their configurations. We focus on two key quantities characterizing a magnetic configuration: the force-free parameter alpha and the flux expansion rate fex, the former of which represents how much a magnetic field is twisted while the latter represents how sharply a magnetic field expands. We derive distributions of these quantities in an emerging flux region. Our result shows that an emerging flux region consists of outer part where a magnetic loop takes a large flux expansion rate but a small value of alpha at their photospheric footpoints, and inner part occupied by those loops where a strong electric current flows. We also investigat...

Lee, Hwanhee

2014-01-01

330

SPECIAL ISSUE DEVOTED TO THE 90TH ANNIVERSARY OF A.M. PROKHOROV: Estimate of pressure produced during explosive boiling of a liquid film on a substrate heated by laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental data of Lang and Leiderer [New J. Phys. 8, 14 (2006)] on the movement of a thin liquid film due to its explosive boiling on a substrate heated by a nanosecond laser pulse are analysed. It is shown that the maximum value of the pressure pulse produced in this case without any singularities may be much lower than the estimate obtained by these authors and is in good agreement with the assumption that the explosion is initiated in the vicinity of the spinodal.

Samokhin, A. A.

2006-07-01

331

The Sagnac-configured fiber optic calorimeter: An investigation of an improved non-destructive methodology for determining the thermal power output of heat-producing nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An essential component in an ever-expanding global nuclear economy is the nondestructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials. Accurate accounting of these materials helps to insure the safe handling and disposal of them and the accurate monitoring of these materials can help prevent their diversion. A particularly useful and important NDA technique has proven to be isothermal calorimetry. With state-of-the-art calorimeters, heat rates as low as a few milliwatts can be measured, which correspond to approximately one gram of plutonium or one milligram of tritium; two materials of particular interest. In addition, calorimetry is relatively insensitive to the matrix of the sample. This work reports on the development of a calorimeter technique based on fiber optics, which can greatly increase the sensitivity of the calorimeter compared with present day devices. Specifically, this device uses an optical fiber configuration based on the Sagnac interferometer. Fundamentally, the optical fiber is replacing the resistive wire used in conventional calorimeters. The optical fiber is wrapped around two "thermels;" a reference and a sample thermel; the thermal sample to be measured is placed in the sample thermel. The light within the optical fiber of the sample arm experiences a change in phase due to the change in the index of refraction caused by the thermal load. When this light mixes with the light from the reference arm, a change in the light intensity results. An electro-optic receiver converts the time-varying light intensity to a time-varying voltage output. It is this voltage output that is stored and analyzed. A prototype fiber calorimeter has been built and proved capable of measuring heat loads in the microwatt regime. This sensitivity represents a factor of a one thousand-fold improvement over conventional calorimeters. This would allow plutonium samples as small as one milligram to be measured and microgram quantities of tritium. In addition, gram quantities of 93% enriched uranium could be measured for the first time using calorimetry. This device has not been optimized with respect to background interferences (room thermal loads and acoustics), but indications are that the sensitivity could be improved further with more development.

Bayliss, Stephen Carlton

332

Influence of sire breed (Bos indicus versus Bos taurus) and interval from slaughter to oocyte aspiration on heat stress tolerance of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.  

PubMed

Based on in vitro experiments, Bos indicus embryos were more resistant to heat stress (HS) than Bos taurus embryos. To increase knowledge regarding differences between Bos indicus and Bos taurus in resistance to HS, the primary objective of this study was to determine if tolerance to HS is due to the breed, origin of the oocyte, sperm, or both. Additionally, the influence of the interval between ovary acquisition (in the abattoir) and oocyte aspiration in the laboratory, on early embryo development was ascertained. Oocytes were collected from Nelore and Holstein cows in an abattoir; 4.0 or 6.5 h later, oocytes were aspired in the laboratory, and then matured and fertilized using semen from Nelore (N), Gir (GIR), or Holstein (H) bulls. Ninety-six h post insemination (hpi), embryos with ? 16 cells were divided in two groups: control and HS. In the control group, embryos were cultured at 39°C, whereas in the HS group, embryos were subjected to 41°C for 12 h, and then returned to 39°C. Rates of cleavage, and formation of morula and blastocysts were higher (P < 0.05) for oocytes aspirated at 4.0 versus 6.5 h after ovaries were acquired. Heat stress decreased rates of blastocyst formation for all breeds (N × N; H × H; and H × GIR) and in both time intervals (4.0 and 6.5 h). However, N × N had higher cleavage rate (P < 0.05) in both time intervals when compared with H × H and H × GIR. In addition, Nelore oocytes fertilized with Nelore semen (N × N) had higher blastocyst yields (P < 0.05) in the control and HS group, when compared with the other two breeds (H × H and H × GIR). We concluded that the breed of origin of the oocyte was more important than that of the sperm for development of thermotolerance, because bull breed did not influence embryo development after HS, and in vitro early embryonic development was impaired by increasing (from 4 to 6.5 h) the interval between ovary acquisition and oocyte aspiration. PMID:21783238

Satrapa, R A; Nabhan, T; Silva, C F; Simões, R A L; Razza, E M; Puelker, R Z; Trinca, L A; Barros, C M

2011-10-01

333

Design Techniques for Sensor Appliances: Foundations and Light Compass Case Study  

E-print Network

, and military surveillance [3],[4],[7]. Our goal is to develop a Light Appliance (LA) that is equipped possibilities, from the office or workplace to museums and parking lots. People often have different preferences

Potkonjak, Miodrag

334

7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...calibrated-box method shall be used, as set forth in ARI Standard 1110, Standard for Mechanical Refrigeration Units, of the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. (b) The appliance shall be rated according to the class, or...

2010-01-01

335

14 CFR 21.502 - Approval of materials, parts, and appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...meets those requirements, unless the Administrator finds, based on the technical data submitted under paragraph (b) of this section...request, submit to the Administrator any technical data respecting that material, part, or appliance....

2010-01-01

336

0 + 0 = 1 : the appliance model of selling software bundled with hardware  

E-print Network

The business model of selling software bundled with hardware is called the appliance model. As hardware becomes less and less expensive and open source software is being offered for free, the traditional business model of ...

Hein, Bettina

2007-01-01

337

77 FR 64763 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...in this proposed AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd., Maesbury...

2012-10-23

338

78 FR 9785 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...identified in this AD, contact Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd, Maesbury Road,...

2013-02-12

339

Reverse logistics system planning for recycling electrical appliances and computers in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the disposition of end-of-life home appliances has caused tremendous attention, Taiwan recently promulgated a Scrap Home Appliances and Computers Recycling Regulation that mandates manufacturers and importers to take back their products. Reverse logistics system planning shall become vital as the take-back rate increases and the service area expands in the future. This study utilizes a mixed integer programming model

Li-Hsing Shih

2001-01-01

340

Share of Energy Used by Appliances and Consumer Electronics Increases in U.S. Homes  

EIA Publications

Over the past three decades, the share of residential electricity used by appliances and electronics in U.S. homes has nearly doubled from 17% to 3% , growing from 1.77 quadrillion Btu (quads) to 3.25 quads. This rise has occurred while federal energy efficiency standards were enacted on every major appliance, overall household energy consumption actually decreased from 10.58 quads to 10.55 quads, and energy use per household fell 31%.

2011-01-01

341

Research and implementation of the context-aware middleware for controlling home appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart homes integrated with sensors, actuators, wireless networks and context-aware middleware soon becomes part of our daily life. This paper describes a context-aware middleware providing an automatic home service based on a user's preference inside a smart home. The context-aware middleware includes an appliance controller, a context-aware agent and a scalable browser. The appliance controller takes charge of communication between

Jonghwa Choi; Dongkyoo Shin; Dongil Shin

2005-01-01

342

The Hybrid Aesthetic Functional (HAF) Appliance: A Less Visible Proposal for Functional Orthodontics  

PubMed Central

In modern orthodontics, aesthetics appear to have a decisive influence on orthodontic appliance preferences and acceptability. This paper reports the early application of a newly emerged functional device with enhanced aesthetics in a Class II treatment. Patient perspectives and technical considerations are discussed along with recommendations for further design development. It can be assumed that the use of thermoplastic material-based appliances may meet both the therapeutic and aesthetic demands of young age groups. PMID:23956884

2013-01-01

343

Contactless sensing of appliance state transitions through variations in electromagnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is a promising technique for disaggregating per-appliance energy consumption in buildings from aggregate voltage\\/current measurements. One major limitation of the approach is that it typically requires a training phase during which users must manually label device transitions. In this paper, we present an inexpensive contactless electromagnetic field (EMF) event-detector that can detect appliance state changes within

Anthony Rowe; Mario Berges; Raj Rajkumar

2010-01-01

344

Analytical equivalent impedance for a planar circular induction heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of analytical expressions is derived for the equivalent impedance in a planar circular induction heating system, used for example in home appliances. The induction system consists of an n-turn planar winding loaded by a conductive material. Expressions that describe the frequency dependence of impedance are provided. The influence of load conductivity, load permeability, and geometrical dimensions is also

J. Acero; R. Alonso; J. M. Burdio; L. A. Barragan; D. Puyal

2006-01-01

345

Effect of physiologically relevant heat shock on development, apoptosis and expression of some genes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos produced in vitro.  

PubMed

For investigating the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock, buffalo oocytes/embryos were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or were exposed to 39.5°C (Group II) or 40.5°C (Group III) for 2 h once every day throughout in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC). Percentage of oocytes that developed to 8-cell, 16-cell or blastocyst stage was lower (p < 0.05) and the number of apoptotic nuclei was higher (p < 0.05) for Group III > Group II > controls. At both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages, relative mRNA abundance of stress-related genes HSP 70.1 and HSP 70.2 and pro-apoptotic genes CASPASE-3, BID and BAX was higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls with the exception of stress-related gene HSF1. Expression level of anti-apoptotic genes BCL-XL and MCL-1 was also higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls at both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages. Among the genes related to embryonic development, at 8-16-cell stage, the expression level of GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group III than that in controls, whereas that of GLUT1, ZAR1 and BMP15 was not significantly different among the three groups. At the blastocyst stage, relative mRNA abundance of GLUT1 and GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group II than that in controls, whereas that of ZAR-1 and BMP15 was not affected. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure of buffalo oocytes and embryos to elevated temperatures for duration of time that is physiologically relevant severely compromises their developmental competence, increases apoptosis and affects stress-, apoptosis- and development-related genes. PMID:23581430

Yadav, A; Singh, K P; Singh, M K; Saini, N; Palta, P; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Chauhan, M S

2013-10-01

346

Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively), independently of other variables. Conclusion The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment. PMID:24626247

MARET, Delphine; MARCHAL-SIXOU, Christine; VERGNES, Jean-Noel; HAMEL, Olivier; GEORGELIN-GURGEL, Marie; VAN DER SLUIS, Lucas; SIXOU, Michel

2014-01-01

347

Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

1998-07-01

348

Analysis and design of multiple-beam appliances.  

PubMed

A new approach for the analysis of multiple-beam structures, such as headgear bows, is developed for beams which contain arbitrary curvatures, twists, and material properties. The generalized transfer matrix of a single-beam analysis is converted to a stiffness matrix and inserted into a global matrix which describes the entire system. The effect of inner bow wire size (0.044 inch and 0.051 inch) on the force system is demonstrated. The inner bow with the larger cross section shows only a slight (not clinically significant) reduction in rotational moment and buccal force applied because of its greater ability to resist deformation during the loading process. Small amounts of tooth and/or tube rotations ("play") result in a significant reduction of the crown rotational moment. With increasing rotation of the tube to the inner bow, the high lateral forces and large moments found about the long axis of the teeth are found to reduce. Symmetrical headgears are chosen to illustrate the analysis and to indicate the manner in which this approach may be used to study and design similar orthodontic appliances. PMID:6594061

Koenig, H A; Burstone, C J; Conant, R J; Haberstock, D

1984-11-01

349

The Effectiveness and Clinical Usability of a Handheld Information Appliance  

PubMed Central

Clinical environments are complex, stressful, and safety critical—heightening the demand for technological solutions that will help clinicians manage health information efficiently and safely. The industry has responded by creating numerous, increasingly compact and powerful health IT devices that fit in a pocket, hook to a belt, attach to eyeglasses, or wheel around on a cart. Untethering a provider from a physical “place” with compact, mobile technology while delivering the right information at the right time and at the right location are generally welcomed in clinical environments. These developments however, must be looked at ecumenically. The cognitive load of clinicians who are occupied with managing or operating several different devices during the process of a patient encounter is increased, and we know from decades of research that cognitive overload frequently leads to error. “Technology crowding,” enhanced by the plethora of mobile health IT, can actually become an additional millstone for busy clinicians. This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of clinicians' interactions with a mobile clinical computing appliance (Motion Computing C5) designed to consolidate numerous technological functions into an all-in-one device. Features of usability and comparisons to current methods of documentation and task performance were undertaken and results are described. PMID:22548159

Abbott, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

350

Smaa markedsfoerte solvarmeanlaeg til brugsvandsopvarmning - funktionsafproevning og ydelsesmaalinger. Maalinger paa solvarmeanlaeg fra Dansk Solvarme A/S. (Small, marketed solar heating systems for heating domestic water supply - performance testing and capacity measurements. Measurements taken on solar heating systems produced by Dansk Solvarme A/S).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim was to test the performance and measure the production capacity of solar heating systems for water heating from selected manufacturers under similar conditions. In this way the manufacturers would be made aware of potentials for the development of...

K. Ellehauge

1993-01-01

351

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 1, appendix A: Bibliography. [manned space shuttle orbiter environmental control and life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of crew appliance related literature was made to provide background engineering information for development of conceptual appliance systems for the shuttle orbiter and the modular space station. From this review, a file containing abstracts of 299 appliance-related documents coded according to subject was developed along with a computerized bibliography of 682 references. Trade studies were conducted using information from these references to determine the optimum concepts to satisfy the shuttle and space station mission requirements. An appliance system was devised for each vehicle which has minimum impact to the respective environmental control system with the smallest possible weight, volume, and electrical penalty. Engineering parameters for each appliance concept considered are presented along with the total thermal and electrical loads and weight and volume penalties for each of the optimized appliance systems.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

352

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards  

SciTech Connect

This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

2011-05-06

353

Does the degree of advancement during functional appliance therapy matter?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of varied degrees of mandibular advancement on condylar growth. Three hundred and thirty five 35-day-old female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into 10 experimental groups (n = 10) and five control groups (n = 5) for analysis of new bone formation and 10 experimental groups (n = 14) and five control groups (n = 14) for molecular analysis. The experimental animals were fitted with bite-jumping appliance to advance the mandible 2 and 4 mm. The rats were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 30. A computer-assisted image analysing system was used to assess the quantity of new condylar bone formation. Molecular analysis utilizing real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the different levels of mRNA expression of different growth markers in the condyle. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with a Bonferroni multiple comparison test, showed significantly more newly formed bone in the 4 mm group compared with the 2 mm and control groups on days 21 and 30 (P < 0.05). Most of the examined growth markers demonstrated a significant increase during the 4 mm advancement (P < 0.05). Indian hedgehog (Ihh) mRNA showed a 7- and 5-fold change, parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) a 5.2- and 3-fold change and type II collagen a 9.6- and 3.7-fold change in the 4 and 2 mm advancement groups, respectively. Varied degrees of mandibular advancement result in different quantities of new bone formation and levels of expression of growth members: Ihh, PTHrP, and type II collagen. PMID:18343894

Al-Kalaly, Abdullah

2008-01-01

354

Efficient activation of human T cells of both CD4 and CD8 subsets by urease-deficient recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG that produced a heat shock protein 70-M. tuberculosis-derived major membrane protein II fusion protein.  

PubMed

For the purpose of obtaining Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) capable of activating human naive T cells, urease-deficient BCG expressing a fusion protein composed of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived major membrane protein II (MMP-II) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of BCG (BCG-DHTM) was produced. BCG-DHTM secreted the HSP70-MMP-II fusion protein and effectively activated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) by inducing phenotypic changes and enhanced cytokine production. BCG-DHTM-infected DCs activated naive T cells of both CD4 and naive CD8 subsets, in an antigen (Ag)-dependent manner. The T cell activation induced by BCG-DHTM was inhibited by the pretreatment of DCs with chloroquine. The naive CD8(+) T cell activation was mediated by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP) and the proteosome-dependent cytosolic cross-priming pathway. Memory CD8(+) T cells and perforin-producing effector CD8(+) T cells were efficiently produced from the naive T cell population by BCG-DHTM stimulation. Single primary infection with BCG-DHTM in C57BL/6 mice efficiently produced T cells responsive to in vitro secondary stimulation with HSP70, MMP-II, and M. tuberculosis-derived cytosolic protein and inhibited the multiplication of subsequently aerosol-challenged M. tuberculosis more efficiently than did vector control BCG. These results indicate that the introduction of MMP-II and HSP70 into urease-deficient BCG may be useful for improving BCG for control of tuberculosis. PMID:24152387

Mukai, Tetsu; Tsukamoto, Yumiko; Maeda, Yumi; Tamura, Toshiki; Makino, Masahiko

2014-01-01

355

Material World: Forecasting Household Appliance Ownership in a Growing Global Economy  

SciTech Connect

Over the past years the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed an econometric model that predicts appliance ownership at the household level based on macroeconomic variables such as household income (corrected for purchase power parity), electrification, urbanization and climate variables. Hundreds of data points from around the world were collected in order to understand trends in acquisition of new appliances by households, especially in developing countries. The appliances covered by this model are refrigerators, lighting fixtures, air conditioners, washing machines and televisions. The approach followed allows the modeler to construct a bottom-up analysis based at the end use and the household level. It captures the appliance uptake and the saturation effect which will affect the energy demand growth in the residential sector. With this approach, the modeler can also account for stock changes in technology and efficiency as a function of time. This serves two important functions with regard to evaluation of the impact of energy efficiency policies. First, it provides insight into which end uses will be responsible for the largest share of demand growth, and therefore should be policy priorities. Second, it provides a characterization of the rate at which policies affecting new equipment penetrate the appliance stock. Over the past 3 years, this method has been used to support the development of energy demand forecasts at the country, region or global level.

Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

2009-03-23

356

An esthetic appliance for the management of crown-root fracture: a case report  

PubMed Central

Orthodontic extrusion is usually performed by means of a fixed orthodontic appliance that utilizes arch wire attached to adjacent teeth and transfers the desired force by elastic from the wire to the root. However, clinicians often encounter cases where the bonding required for tooth traction is not possible because the adjacent teeth have been restored with ceramic or veneer. The purpose of this case report is to describe a modified orthodontic extrusion appliance that is useful when conventional orthodontic treatment is not possible. The modified appliance was fabricated using an artificial tooth, clear plastic sheeting, and a braided fiber-reinforced composite strip that covered adjacent teeth without bonding. It satisfied the esthetic and functional needs of the patient and established the optimal biologic width. PMID:25110648

Jeon, Sang-Min; Lee, Kang-Hee

2014-01-01

357

Estimation of Operating Condition of Appliances Using Circuit Current Data on Electric Distribution Boards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Energy management systems (EMS) on demand sides are expected as a method to enhance the capability of supply and demand balancing of a power system under the anticipated penetration of renewable energy generation such as Photovoltaics (PV). Elucidation of energy consumption structure in a building is one of important elements for realization of EMS and contributes to the extraction of potential energy saving. In this paper, we propose the estimation method of operating condition of household appliances using circuit current data on an electric distribution board. Circuit current data are broken down by their shape using a self-organization map method and aggregated by appliance based on customers' information of appliance possessed. Proposed method is verified using residential energy consumption measurement survey data.

Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshie

358

An esthetic appliance for the management of crown-root fracture: a case report.  

PubMed

Orthodontic extrusion is usually performed by means of a fixed orthodontic appliance that utilizes arch wire attached to adjacent teeth and transfers the desired force by elastic from the wire to the root. However, clinicians often encounter cases where the bonding required for tooth traction is not possible because the adjacent teeth have been restored with ceramic or veneer. The purpose of this case report is to describe a modified orthodontic extrusion appliance that is useful when conventional orthodontic treatment is not possible. The modified appliance was fabricated using an artificial tooth, clear plastic sheeting, and a braided fiber-reinforced composite strip that covered adjacent teeth without bonding. It satisfied the esthetic and functional needs of the patient and established the optimal biologic width. PMID:25110648

Jeon, Sang-Min; Lee, Kang-Hee; Jung, Bock-Young

2014-08-01

359

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

1990-01-01

360

Low level laser intensity improves propulsive appliance effects on condylar cartilage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mandibular propulsive appliance (MPA) stimulates cell proliferation and gene expression on mandible condylar cartilage (Marques et al., 2008). However, its association with low level laser therapy (LLLT) is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of LLLT associated to MPA on mandibular condyle. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I received any treatment. Group II was bilaterally irradiated on temporomandibular joint with 10 J/cm2 low level laser (780nm, 40mW and 10s) on alternate days. Group III used the propulsive appliance for ten hours daily and Group IV used the appliance daily and was irradiated on alternate days. After 15 days the animals were killed by lethal doses of anesthetics. The condyles were fixed in Methacarn solution and decalcified in 4.13% EDTA solution for 30 days. Seriate saggital 5 ?m-thick sections were stained by the hematoxilin-eosin method. Morphological and morphometric analyses were performed to measure the length and the height of the mandibular condyle, the thickness of the condilar cartilage and the bone mass. Results were expressed as mean +/- standard deviation (one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post-test.) The appliance increased all measures compared to the control group, except bone mass. Alone, LLLT had no effects on all measures, however, the association of the appliance with the LLLT increased condylar cartilage and bone mass significantly compared to the others groups. These results suggest that LLLT improves the effects of mandibular propulsive appliance in the condylar cartilage growth and formation of bone mass.

Figueiredo, Augusto C. R.; dos Santos, Fernanda C. A.; Capeletti, Lucas R.; Galdino, Marcos V. B.; Araújo, Renan V.; Marques, Mara R.

2012-01-01

361

Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction  

SciTech Connect

The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

2012-04-29

362

Producer Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An article written for children, this reading explains the role of plants as producers. It is written at a grade 4-5 reading level, and it is a good supplement to the evidence that students can observe and record through experimentation with photosynthesis.

Program, The W.

363

Project Produce  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this science- and social studies-integrated lesson, students researched the produce found at their local grocery store. The class learned the difference between fruits and vegetables and learned the origins of various "exotic" food items. Students also interviewed local gardeners and prepared ethnic foods in the classroom.

Wolfinger, Donna M.

2005-01-01

364

Project Produce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

Wolfinger, Donna M.

2005-01-01

365

Upper molar distalization on palatal miniscrews: an easy to manage palatal appliance.  

PubMed

Upper molar distalization supported by miniscrews has become increasingly popular in the last years. A detailed clinical and lab procedure for the realization of a distalization appliance (fast back or distal jet) connected to miniscrews inserted in the anterior region of the palate is presented. A case report illustrates the use of a fast back appliance supported by miniscrews to correct the mesial shift of the molars and of the premolars as a consequence of an early loss of the maxillary deciduous canines. PMID:22583590

Huanca Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas; Piepoli, Claudio

2012-05-01

366

Suggested Curriculum Guide for Developing a Program in Appliance Service and Repair. Bulletin No. 48-174.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outline curriculum guide has been developed to assist in planning, developing, and instructing a program in appliance service and repair. The material consists of a unit outline and suggested exercieses and assignments for 17 areas: shop mathematics, communication skills, safety, orientation to appliance service and repair, blueprint reading,…

Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

367

Sludge, fuel degradation and reducing fouling on heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract to the US Department of Energy, operates an oil heat research primarily to lower energy consumption in the 12 million oil heated homes in the US. The program objectives include: Improve steady state efficiency of oil heating equipment, Improve seasonal efficiencies, Eliminate or minimize factors which tend to degrade system performance. This paper provides an overview of the status of three specific projects which fall under the above objectives. This includes our fuel quality project, oil appliance venting and a project addressing efficiency degradation due to soot fouling of heat exchangers.

Butcher, T.; Litzke, Wai Lin; Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.

1992-02-01

368

Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests  

SciTech Connect

Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

2012-10-01

369

Polyclonal activation of na?ve T cells by urease deficient-recombinant BCG that produced protein complex composed of heat shock protein 70, CysO and major membrane protein-II  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is known to be only partially effective in inhibiting M. tuberculosis (MTB) multiplication in human. A new recombinant (r) urease-deficient BCG (BCG-dHCM) that secretes protein composed of heat shock protein (HSP)70, MTB-derived CysO and major membrane protein (MMP)-II was produced for the efficient production of interferon gamma (IFN-?) which is an essential element for mycobacteriocidal action and inhibition of neutrophil accumulation in lungs. Methods Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages were differentiated from human monocytes, infected with BCG and autologous T cells-stimulating activity of different constructs of BCG was assessed. C57BL/6 mice were used to test the effectiveness of BCG for the production of T cells responsive to MTB-derived antigens (Ags). Results BCG-dHCM intracellularly secreted HSP70-CysO-MMP-II fusion protein, and activated DC by up-regulating Major Histcompatibility Complex (MHC), CD86 and CD83 molecules and enhanced various cytokines production from DC and macrophages. BCG-dHCM activated naïve T cells of both CD4 and CD8 subsets through DC, and memory type CD4+ T cells through macrophages in a manner dependent on MHC and CD86 molecules. These T cell activations were inhibited by the pre-treatment of Ag-presenting cells (APCs) with chloroquine. The single and primary BCG-dHCM-inoculation produced long lasting T cells responsive to in vitro secondarily stimulation with HSP70, CysO, MMP-II and H37Rv-derived cytosolic protein, and partially inhibited the replication of aerosol-challenged MTB. Conclusions The results indicate that introduction of different type of immunogenic molecules into a urease-deficient rBCG is useful for providing polyclonal T cell activating ability to BCG and for production of T cells responsive to secondary stimulation. PMID:24690183

2014-01-01

370

PROJECTED REGIONAL IMPACTS OF APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE U.S. RESIDENTIAL SECTOR  

E-print Network

LBNL-39511 UC-1600 PROJECTED REGIONAL IMPACTS OF APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE U impacts of those standards at the state and national levels. In this assessment, we use historical carbon emission reductions are achieved at negative net cost to society. Minimum efficiency standards

371

An intelligent push system for mobile clients with wireless information appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

With great advances in the mobile technology and wireless communications, users expect to access the Internet anytime anywhere. However, resources on the mobile information appliances and wireless links are obviously inferior to the fixed peers. To save limited resources, actively push updated information from the data sources to the mobile users can be a good choice. However, due to particularities

Yen-Wen Lin; Cheng-Wei Lin

2004-01-01

372

Evaluation of Simultaneous Demands for Water Supply for Domestic Washroom Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the probable maximum simultaneous demands of water supply facilities at an acceptable level of reliability for some high-rise residential buildings in crowded cities. In particular, the probable maximum simultaneous water demands of domestic washrooms are derived for some usage patterns that the appliances in the same washroom would not operate simultaneously. The model parameters including usage patterns

K. W. Mui; L. T. Wong

2007-01-01

373

Ad Hoc Gateway Service for Automatic Package Delivery using Networked Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current networked appliance technologies enable devices to communicate seamlessly with one another; for example, the refrigerator at your home might communicate with your mobile phone when you are visiting the supermarket to prompt you about a shortage of food. The devices can communicate with each other irrespective of their location. A great deal of work has been done in networked

A. Muhammad; M. Merabti; B. Askwith; P. Fergus

2007-01-01

374

Discomfort caused by bonded lingual orthodontic appliances in adult patients as examined by retrospective questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective questionnaire survey of 111 retention-period adult patients was performed to examine discomfort that may be caused by bonded lingual orthodontic appliances. Despite instructions to avoid or relieve the discomfort, 57% to 76% of patients complained of tongue soreness, difficulty in chewing fibrous food, difficulty in pronouncing the s and t sounds, and difficulty in tooth brushing after the

Shouichi Miyawaki; Mika Yasuhara; Yasuhiro Koh

1999-01-01

375

Effects of bite-jumping appliances on mandibular advancement in growing rats: A radiographic study  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effects of the use of mandibular advancement appliances on mandibular growth in growing rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four 8-week-old male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups (12 rats each): Group I was a control group, and Group II was the mandibular advancement appliance group. A functional bite-jumping appliance was used in Group II to promote mandibular advancement. Anatomical changes in the condyle and mandible were evaluated by comparing radiographic results from before and after the study, with angular and linear measurements. Friedman and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used in statistical analysis. Results: According to the radiographic results, the growth of mandibles and condyles in Group II was significantly greater than with the length of the condylar process (A-B) and distance from condyle to menton (A-D) variables (P < 0.05). In addition, Group I showed greater mandibular base growth than did Group II (P < 0.05). Conclusions: We conclude that the use of an intraoral bite-jumping appliance can stimulate condylar growth and increase sagittal mandibular advancement in growing rats.

Oksayan, Ridvan; Sokucu, Oral; Ucuncu, Neslihan

2014-01-01

376

The use of lingual appliances for correction of bimaxillary protrusion (four premolars extraction).  

PubMed

This is the case report of a 30-year-old actress who presented with a Class I bimaxillary protrusion. Because of esthetic concerns related to her public career, she was treated with a lingual appliance. An extraction of four premolars resulted in a greatly improved facial profile. PMID:9345146

Kurz, C

1997-10-01

377

Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

2000-04-01

378

The stoma appliances market in five European countries: a comparative analysis.  

PubMed

This comparative exercise analysed the domestic market for stoma appliances in five European countries--Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. National legislation, prescription procedures, delivery modalities and the market were investigated in each country. The analysis involved reviewing national and international literature on stoma appliances and interviewing a selected expert panel of market operators in each country comprising at least one health authority representative, one distributor of medical devices and one manufacturer. No specific relationship was found between the health care system framework and the stoma market, except for a greater inclination towards home care in national health services. All five countries reimburse stoma bags, but the distribution of these appliances varies widely, ranging from Denmark, where home delivery is mandatory, to Italy, where any channel can be used. The comparative analysis underlined two important features of the stoma bag market: the discretion of enterostomists in directing patients towards a specific brand of bags, and the patients' high brand loyalty. Despite that, the analysis did not identify any single country that could be considered a benchmark for stoma bag regulation. Each country deals with stoma appliances in different ways, making this a very fragmented market. PMID:14618747

Cornago, Dante; Garattini, Livio

2002-01-01

379

Appliance Service Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 2307.1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The graduate of the Appliance Service Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyperson; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) use and maintain hand and power tools to the standards of competency and safety required in the trade; (4) by skill…

Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2007

2007-01-01

380

78 FR 18533 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal...That AD applies to certain Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose...Applicability This AD applies to Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded...

2013-03-27

381

Regaining leeway space and anterior crossbite correction with a modified maxillary molar distalizing appliance.  

PubMed

During the mixed dentition stage, adolescents experience rapid dental and skeletal development. Unfortunately, many of them do not visit the orthodontist early enough and miss out on the opportunity to take advantage of preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatment. This article describes the management of regaining leeway space and correcting anterior crossbite using a modified maxillary molar distalizing appliance. PMID:23855181

Park, J H; Tai, K; Ikeda, M; Kanao, A

2013-01-01

382

Waste input-output analysis of disposal, recycling, and extended life of electric home appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic and emission effects of alternative life-cycle strategies for electric home appliances were analyzed by use of waste input-output (WIO). The strategies consist of (1) landfilling, (2) conventional shredding with iron recovery, (3) integrated recycling with the recovery of metals, glass, and plastics, and (4) extension of products lives without and with increased maintenance and updating activities. It was found

Shinichiro Nakamura; Yasushi Kondo

2001-01-01

383

Methodology for recycling potential evaluation criterion of waste home appliances considering environmental and economic factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation method to assess recycling potential, considering both the environmental and economic aspects, was suggested for the material recovered from waste home appliances. The life cycle assessment (LCA) method was applied to obtain the environmental score (SEnv), and the actual value and a static economic model was used to obtain the economic score (SEco). The SEnv of recycled glass

Junbeum Kim; Yongwoo Hwang; H. Scott Matthews; Kwangho Park

2004-01-01

384

Economic evaluation of optional recycling processes for waste electronic home appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an economic evaluation of three typical recycling processes for the five main types of waste electronic home appliances (EHA) (TV set, refrigerator, washing machine, air conditioner and personal computer) in Beijing, the capital of China. The main purpose is to identify the formal management framework with economic feasibility for the waste EHA generated in large municipalities of

Xianbing Liu; Masaru Tanaka; Yasuhiro Matsui

2009-01-01

385

EFFECTS OF APPLIANCE TYPE AND OPERATING VARIABLES ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS: VOLUME II. APPENDICIES D-F.  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a project, in support of the intergared Air Cancer Project (IACP), to provide data on the specific effects of appliance type and operating variables on woodstove emissions. samples of particulate material and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were coll...

386

76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...standards and qualification as an ENERGY STAR product. DATES: Written comments and...submitted a joint petition to the ENERGY STAR program regarding smart grid enabled appliances...consider a five percent credit to the ENERGY STAR performance level for smart grid...

2011-08-05

387

Updated Buildings Sector Appliance and Equipment Costs and Efficiency  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) works with technology experts to project the cost and efficiency of future heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and other major end-use equipment rather than developing residential and commercial technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for some of the most important assumptions used for our Annual Energy Outlook projections of buildings energy demand.

2013-01-01

388

Development of the lined masonry chimney oil appliance  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development of the lined masonry chimney venting tables form the output of the Oil Heat Analysis Program 9OHVAP. These new tables are different from the prior format, offered in the Proceedings of the 1995 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, paper No. 95-4. Issues expressed by representatives of the oil heat industry at last years conference during the Venting Technology Workshop resulted in subsequent discussions. A full day meeting was held, co-sponsored by BNL and the Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA), to address revision of the format of the venting tables prior to submission to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 31 Technical Committee. The resulting tables and text were submitted to NFPA during the first week of October, 1995. Since then minor changes were made reflecting the addition of data obtained by including intermediate firing rates (0.4, 0.65, and 0.85 gph) not included in the original tables which were developed in increments of 0.25 gph. The new tables address the specific question; {open_quotes}If remediation is required, what is the recommendation for the sizing of a metal liner and the appropriate firing rate range to be used with that liner?{close_quotes}

Krajewski, R.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-07-01

389

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25

390

Nickel and chromium levels in the saliva of a Saudi sample treated with fixed orthodontic appliances  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to measure the amount of nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) released into the saliva of Saudi patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. Materials and methods Ninety salivary samples were collected in a cross-sectional manner. Forty samples were collected from patients (17 males, 23 females) with fixed orthodontic appliances after different periods of orthodontic treatment ranging from the first month and up to 32 months into treatment. The fixed orthodontic appliance consisted of 4 bands, 20 stainless steel brackets, and upper and lower nickel titanium or stainless-steel arch wires. The other 50 samples were collected from people without appliances (24 males, 26 females). Samples were analyzed using Inductive Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy to measure Ni and Cr levels, respectively. Student’s t-test was used to compare Ni and Cr levels in the treated and untreated control groups. Results The mean Ni level was 4.197 ?g/L in the experimental group and 2.3 ?g/L in the control group (p < 0.05). The mean Cr level was 2.9 ?g/L in the experimental group and 3.3 ?g/L in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Fixed orthodontic appliances resulted in a non-toxic increase in salivary levels of Ni, but no change in Cr levels. Duration of orthodontic treatment did not affect Ni and Cr levels in the saliva. PMID:24371378

Talic, Nabeel F.; Alnahwi, Hasan H.; Al-Faraj, Ali S.

2013-01-01

391

Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets  

SciTech Connect

Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of labeling strategies and promotion in China.

Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

2002-08-20

392

Domestic Electricity Usage Regulation Using µCHP Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy saving is a hot topic. People are getting more and more aware of their energy usage because of continuously rising energy prices and awareness of the greenhouse problem. One of the most important causes of the greenhouse effect is the massive emission of carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 is produced when (fossil) fuel is burned, for example by cars, industry

Albert Molderink; Vincent Bakker; Johann L. Hurink; Gerard J. M. Smit; Andre B. J. Kokkeler

2008-01-01

393

The use of Twin Force functional fixed orthopedic appliance in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion.  

PubMed

Fixed protruding appliances are interesting tools for correction of Class II dental malocclusion in adult and growing patients. The appliances most commonly used for this purpose are: Herbst, Forsus and Jasper Jumper. The present clinical case report shows an alternative called Twin Force Bite Corrector which was used for 3 months by a patient aged 10 years and 6 months associated with the Andrews prescription fixed appliance (Abzil 3M). After treatment, malocclusion was found to be adjusted to Class I dental occlusion in a single stage. PMID:24812744

Yamazaki, Marcos Shinao; Rosário, Henrique Damian; El-Haje, Ossam; Alvim-Pereira, Fabiano; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

2014-01-01

394

Heat simulation via Scilab programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discussed the used of an open source sofware called Scilab to develop a heat simulator. In this paper, heat equation was used to simulate heat behavior in an object. The simulator was developed using finite difference method. Numerical experiment output show that Scilab can produce a good heat behavior simulation with marvellous visual output with only developing simple computer code.

Hasan, Mohammad Khatim; Sulaiman, Jumat; Karim, Samsul Arifin Abdul

2014-07-01

395

Database Are Not Toasters: A Framework for Comparing Data Warehouse Appliances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of Business Intelligence (BI) applications depends on two factors, the ability to analyze data ever more quickly and the ability to handle ever increasing volumes of data. Data Warehouse (DW) and Data Mart (DM) installations that support BI applications have historically been built using traditional architectures either designed from the ground up or based on customized reference system designs. The advent of Data Warehouse Appliances (DA) brings packaged software and hardware solutions that address performance and scalability requirements for certain market segments. The differences between DAs and custom installations make direct comparisons between them impractical and suggest the need for a targeted DA benchmark. In this paper we review data warehouse appliances by surveying thirteen products offered today. We assess the common characteristics among them and propose a classification for DA offerings. We hope our results will help define a useful benchmark for DAs.

Trajman, Omer; Crolotte, Alain; Steinhoff, David; Nambiar, Raghunath Othayoth; Poess, Meikel

396

Custom Made Pressure Appliance for Presurgical Sustained Compression of Auricular Keloid  

PubMed Central

Keloid is dermal lesion characterized by nodular fibroblastic proliferation, which is considered an aberration of wound healing process. It is believed to be the confused scar that does not know when to stop growing. Pressure therapy using clips or splints is widely used for the treatment of keloids; however, it is often very difficult to control the amount and direction of pressure applied. Among the most common complications of this therapy is ulceration due to excessive pressure. A case of presurgical size reduction for a large ear keloid with a custom made pressure appliance is presented. This novel design of the appliance allows for better control over the amount and direction of the pressure applied on the scar tissue. PMID:25184083

Rathee, M; Kundu, R; Tamrakar, AK

2014-01-01

397

Evaluation of Spectral and Prosodic Features of Speech Affected by Orthodontic Appliances Using the Gmm Classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes our experiment with using the Gaussian mixture models (GMM) for classification of speech uttered by a person wearing orthodontic appliances. For the GMM classification, the input feature vectors comprise the basic and the complementary spectral properties as well as the supra-segmental parameters. Dependence of classification correctness on the number of the parameters in the input feature vector and on the computation complexity is also evaluated. In addition, an influence of the initial setting of the parameters for GMM training process was analyzed. Obtained recognition results are compared visually in the form of graphs as well as numerically in the form of tables and confusion matrices for tested sentences uttered using three configurations of orthodontic appliances.

P?ibil, Ji?í; P?ibilová, Anna; ?ura?koá, Daniela

2014-01-01

398

Evaluating the reduction in green house gas emissions achieved by the implementation of the household appliance recycling in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  The Home Appliance Recycling Law (hereunder referred to as the Law) for used cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, air conditioners,\\u000a refrigerators and washing machines was enacted in April 2001 in Japan. The Law requires that retailers reclaim, and manufacturers\\u000a and importers recycle such home appliances. Consumers are required to pay collection and recycling fees incurred in disposing

Katsuyuki Nakano; Ryosuke Aoki; Hiroshi Yagita; Nobuhiko Narita

2007-01-01

399

The secure heating reactor  

SciTech Connect

The SECURE heating reactor was designed by ASEA-ATOM as a realistic alternative for district heating in urban areas and for supplying heat to process industries. SECURE has unique safety characteristics, that are based on fundamental laws of physics. The safety does not depend on active components or operator intervention for shutdown and cooling of the reactor. The inherent safety characteristics of the plant cannot be affected by operator errors. Due to its very low environment impact, it can be sited close to heat consumers. The SECURE heating reactor has been shown to be competitive in comparison with other alternatives for heating Helsinki and Seoul. The SECURE heating reactor forms a basis for the power-producing SECURE-P reactor known as PIUS (Process Inherent Ultimate Safety), which is based on the same inherent safety principles. The thermohydraulic function and transient response have been demonstrated in a large electrically heated loop at the ASEA-ATOM laboratories.

Pind, C.

1987-11-01

400

Treating Class II Patients with Removable Plates and Functional Orthopedic Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:  To determine the influence of physiological growth pattern and anterior tooth inclination on the outcome in Class II patients treated with removable orthodontic plates and functional orthodontic appliances.Patients and Methods:  After recruiting 50 patients with an upper anterior proclination of 1-SN ? 107 for this retrospective study, another 50 patients with a retroclination of 1-SN ? 95 were also included. All

Mirjam Hönn; Colette Schneider; Klaus Dietz; Arnim Godt; Gernot Göz

2006-01-01

401

1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead Evaluation Volume II - Appendices  

SciTech Connect

This report included the appendices for 1992-1993 Bonneville appliance efficiency program: showerhead evaluation. It consists of nine appendices, titled: Bonneville documents; overview of research projects; Puget Power and Light persistence study; hot-water flow analyses and assumptions documentation; regional end-use metering program; showerhead and faucet aerator performance assessment; Bonneville showerhead program distribution methods by participating utility; water- and energy-saving measure distribution methods literature review; REMP study load shape results.

Warwick, W.M.

1995-01-01

402

Release of Metal Ions from Orthodontic Appliances by In Vitro Studies: A Systematic Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, a systematic literature review on release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances under in vitro conditions\\u000a is described. Detailed and schematic analysis of used materials and applied methods (immersion media, incubation time, temperature,\\u000a and analytical techniques) is provided. The PubMed search identified 40 studies, among which eight met the selection criteria.\\u000a One additional study was included

Marcin Mikulewicz; Katarzyna Chojnacka

2011-01-01

403

Evaluating alternative life-cycle strategies for electrical appliances by the waste input-output model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  In 2001, a new law on the recycling of end-of-life electric home appliances (EL-EHA) was put into effect in Japan; it was\\u000a the first legislation of its sort in the world, and deserves to be called the ‘Japan model.’ This article is concerned with\\u000a the LCA of alternative life-cycle strategies for EL-EHA, which consist of recycling as

Yasushi Kondo; Shinichiro Nakamura

2004-01-01

404

Efficiency of a pendulum appliance for molar distalization related to second and third molar eruption stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified pendulum appliance, including a distal screw and special preactivated pendulum springs (built-in straightening activation and toe-in bending), was used for bilateral maxillary molar distalization in 36 adolescent patients in various stages of the molar dentition. The patients were divided into 3 groups (PG 1-3) according to the stage of eruption of their second and third molars. In PG

Gero S. M Kinzinger; Ulrike B Fritz; Franz-Günter Sander; Peter R Diedrich

2004-01-01

405

Small, Embedded Web Server for Home Appliances with Embedded MPU and Real-time Operating System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a small, power saving, and embeddable Web server for home appliances. The proposed device has an embedded MPU and a real-time operating system to actualize small size and power-saving for consumer use. First, a T-Engine, embedded 32-bit RISC MPU was used as the hardware of the proposed system. Next, a real-time operating system designed for embedded use,

Masato Shimano; Futoshi Okazaki; Yoshihiro Saito; Akiya Fukui; Takako Nonaka; Tomohiro Hase

2007-01-01

406

A production scheduling system for parallel machines in an electrical appliance plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a production scheduling system for parallel injection molding machines in an electrical appliance company. The architecture and data interface of the system is described. The nuclear scheduling problem is formulated as scheduling N-batch jobs in M-parallel machines to minimize the total tardiness penalties. A rule-based heuristic is proposed to solve it. The test results based

Lin Gao; Chengyao Wang; Dingwei Wang; Zhisong Yin; Shuning Wang

1998-01-01

407

Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in infants with trisomy 21 using oral appliances.  

PubMed

Objective : To perform a retrospective study to evaluate the effect of oral appliances, aimed at increasing the pharyngeal space, on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in infants with trisomy 21 (TS21). Design and Setting : Retrospective study in a tertiary referral center. Intervention : We analyzed data from 51 consecutive infants (mean age, 2.7 months) who underwent polysomnography (PSG) and were offered our treatment concept. Primary study variable was the mixed-obstructive apnea index (MOAI); OSA was defined as a MOAI ? 1. Results : Twenty-seven infants (53%) had OSA. Their median MOAI improved from 2.3 (1 to 13) to 0 (0 to 0.2; P < .05). Seven of these infants were treated with an appliance that included some type of velar extension to move the tongue base forward. Of the 24 infants without OSA at admission, follow-up PSG results were available for 13. Three infants from this group had developed OSA by the time of a repeat PSG. Conclusion : In patients with TS21, OSA may already develop in infancy. Early treatment may improve OSA. Oral appliances with some type of velar extension may be considered as an alternative to other treatment procedures. PMID:23092363

Linz, Annette; Urschitz, Michael S; Bacher, Margit; Brockmann, Pablo E; Buchenau, Wolfgang; Poets, Christian F

2013-11-01

408

Cephalometric comparison of vertical changes between Begg and preadjusted edgewise appliances.  

PubMed

The purpose of this retrospective study was to quantify and compare the vertical dimensional changes in bialveolar dental protrusion patients undergoing extraction of all four first premolars between the preadjusted edgewise appliance (PEA) and the Begg appliance. The cephalometric records of 55 patients (14 males and 41 females) with Class I bimaxillary protrusion were selected and divided into two groups based on the appliance used, i.e Begg or PEA mechanotherapy. To minimize the effects of growth, the subjects were at least in stage VI of skeletal maturation. The mean age was 18.25 ± 3.2 years for the Begg group and 18.03 ± 3.5 years for the PEA group. Skeletal and dental changes were analysed in both groups on lateral cephalograms taken pre- (T1) and post- (T2) treatment. A Student's t-test was used to analyse the treatment changes. Within group results showed a significant increase in face height and extrusion and mesial movement of the upper and lower molars for both groups. However, no significant differences were observed when the groups were compared. A significant correlation was found between the change in lower molar to mandibular plane angle and lower anterior face height for both groups. No significant difference was found when the Begg mechanotherapy was compared to the PEA technique on vertical dimensional changes. It can be speculated that mesial movement of the molars tended to keep pace with their extrusion and negated any bite opening effect with both mechanotherapies. PMID:21436189

Chhibber, Aditya; Upadhyay, Madhur; Shetty, V Surendra; Mogra, Subraya

2011-12-01

409

Service oriented network architecture for control and management of home appliances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in multimedia network systems and mechatronics have led to the development of a new generation of applications that associate the use of various multimedia objects with the behavior of multiple robotic actors. The connection of audio and video devices through high speed multimedia networks is expected to make the system more convenient to use. For example, many home appliances, such as a video camera, a display monitor, a video recorder, an audio system and so on, are being equipped with a communication interface in the near future. Recently some platforms (i.e. UPnP1, HAVi2 and so on) are proposed for constructing home networks; however, there are some issues to be solved to realize various services by connecting different equipment via the pervasive peer-to-peer network. UPnP offers network connectivity of PCs of intelligent home appliances, practically, which means to require a PC in the network to control other devices. Meanwhile, HAVi has been developed for intelligent AV equipments with sophisticated functions using high CPU power and large memory. Considering the targets of home alliances are embedded systems, this situation raises issues of software and hardware complexity, cost, power consumption and so on. In this study, we have proposed and developed the service oriented network architecture for control and management of home appliances, named SONICA (Service Oriented Network Interoperability for Component Adaptation), to address these issues described before.

Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Koita, Takahiro; Sato, Kenya

2005-12-01

410

Appliance of Independent Component Analysis to System Intrusion Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to analyze the output of the intrusion detection system and the firewall, we evaluated the applicability of ICA(independent component analysis). We developed a simulator for evaluation of intrusion analysis method. The simulator consists of the network model of an information system, the service model and the vulnerability model of each server, and the action model performed on client and intruder. We applied the ICA for analyzing the audit trail of simulated information system. We report the evaluation result of the ICA on intrusion analysis. In the simulated case, ICA separated two attacks correctly, and related an attack and the abnormalities of the normal application produced under the influence of the attach.

Ishii, Yoshikazu; Takagi, Tarou; Nakai, Kouji

411

30 CFR 57.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat sources. 57.4500 Section 57.4500...construction/maintenance § 57.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be separated from combustible...

2013-07-01

412

30 CFR 56.4500 - Heat sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Heat sources. 56.4500 Section 56.4500...construction/maintenance § 56.4500 Heat sources. Heat sources capable of producing combustion shall be separated from combustible...

2013-07-01

413

Climate Wisconsin: Extreme Heat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how extreme heat—which is projected to occur more frequently in our changing climate—disproportionately affects the urban elderly and the poor in this multimedia video produced by the Wisconsin Educational Communications Board.

Ecb, Wisconsin

2010-11-30

414

In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes  

SciTech Connect

CARB partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and LAMELs through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and lighting, appliances, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs).

Puttagunta, S.; Shapiro, C.

2012-04-01

415

Selective laser melting of heat transfer devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To fabricate and characterise novel heat sinks manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). The investigation explores features of SLM produced heat sinks that may be exploited to improve their heat transfer capability. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study was conducted on heat sinks manufactured from 316L stainless steel and aluminium 6061. The heat transfer devices' thermal and pressure drop performances

Matthew Wong; Sozon Tsopanos; Chris J. Sutcliffe; Ieuan Owen

2007-01-01

416

Oral Appliance Versus Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A 2-Year Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Oral appliance therapy has emerged as an important alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in treating patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In this study we report about the subjective and objective treatment outcome of oral appliance therapy and CPAP in patients with OSAS. Design: Cohort study of a previously conducted randomized clinical trial. Setting: University Medical Center, Groningen, The Netherlands. Patients or Participants: One hundred three patients with OSAS. Interventions: CPAP and oral appliance therapy (Thornton Adjustable Positioner type-1, Airway Management, Inc., Dallas, TX, USA) Measurements and Results: Objective (polysomnography) and subjective (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]) parameters were assessed after 1 and 2 years of treatment. Treatment was considered successful when the apneahypopnea index (AHI) was < 5 or showed substantial reduction, defined as reduction in the index of at least 50% from the baseline value to a value of < 20 in a patient without OSAS symptoms while undergoing therapy. Regarding the proportions of successful treatments, no significant difference was found between oral appliance therapy and CPAP in treating mild to severe OSAS in a 2-year follow-up. More patients (not significant) dropped out under oral appliance therapy (47%) compared with CPAP (33%). Both therapies showed substantial improvements in polysomnographic and neurobehavioral outcomes. However, CPAP was more effective in lowering the AHI and showed higher oxyhemoglobin saturation levels compared to oral appliance therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Oral appliance therapy should be considered as a viable treatment alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In patients with severe OSAS, CPAP remains the treatment of first choice. Clinical Trial Information: The original randomized clinical trial, of which this study is a 2-year follow-up, is registered at ISRCTN.org; identifier: ISRCTN18174167; trial name: Management of the obstructive sleep apneahypopnea syndrome: oral appliance versus continuous positive airway pressure therapy; URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN18174167. Citation: Doff MHJ; Hoekema A; Wijkstra PJ; van der Hoven JH; Slater JJRH; de Bont LGM; Stegenga B. Oral appliance versus continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a 2-year follow-up. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1289-1296. PMID:23997361

Doff, Michiel H. J.; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Wijkstra, Peter J.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Huddleston Slater, James J. R.; de Bont, Lambert G. M.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

2013-01-01

417

Reclaiming Waste Heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'Air-O-Space' heater, based on spacecraft heat, requires no fuel other than electricity to run fan. Installed in chimney flue, heat pipes transfer heat from waste hot gases (but not the gases themselves) to fresh air blown across the other end of the pipes. It can transport roughly 500 times the heat flux of the best solid conductors with a temperature drop of less than 3 degrees per foot. This instrument has also been used by Kin-Tek Laboratories Inc. to produce an instrument to calibrate gas analyzers for air-pollution monitoring.

1976-01-01

418

Anteroposterior and Vertical Changes in Skeletal Class II Patients Treated With Modified Thurow Appliance.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the post-treatment anteroposterior and vertical alterations in skeletal Class II malocclusion with different maxillary patterns in patients treated with modified Thurow appliance. Forty-five patients (22 girls and 23 boys) with skeletal Class II and angle SN.GoGn ? 35 and different maxillary patterns (n=15), as follows: retrusive (SNA<80°), normal (SNA=80°- 84°) or protrusive (SNA>84°) maxilla; mean age 9 years at pre-treatment (T1) and 9 years and 10 months at post-treatment (T2), were treated with modified Thurow cervical traction appliance, with expander screw and extraoral face bow with 10° to 20° fold in relation to the intraoral arch. Force of 500 gf was applied and use for 12 to 14 h/day, with fortnightly adjustments. Analysis of variance ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney were used (?=5%). In changes obtained from stage T1 to T2, no statistically significant differences were found among the groups Protrusive, normal and retrusive maxilla for the variables SNB, SN.GoGn, 1.NA, overjet, overbite and Class II discrepancy (right and left) (p>0.05). Angular measurements SNA and ANB in the protrusive maxilla group were significantly greater than in the normal and retrusive maxilla groups (p<0.01). However, in the normal maxilla group these values did not differ significantly from those of the retrusive maxilla group (p>0.05). Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that the modified Thurow cervical traction appliance was efficient for the correction of skeletal Class II irrespective of the maxillary pattern. The mandible had no significant rotation during treatment. PMID:25140724

Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Rogério Lacerda Dos; Sampaio, Gêisa Aiane de Morais; Meneses, Izaura Helena Chaves de; Coqueiro, Raildo Silva

2014-04-01

419

Origin of acoustic emission produced during single point machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic emission was monitored during single point, continuous machining of 4340 steel and Ti-6Al-4V as a function of heat treatment. Acoustic emission produced during tensile and compressive deformation of these alloys has been previously characterized as a function of heat treatment. Heat treatments which increase the strength of 4340 steel increase the amount of acoustic emission produced during deformation, while

C. R. Heiple; S. H. Carpenter; D. L. Armentrout

1991-01-01

420

Do functional orthodontic appliances stimulate mandibular growth in class II division 1 patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The effectiveness of functional orthodontic treatment and the resulting skeletal response have always been discussed controversially.\\u000a Therefore a systematic review of the literature was conducted on this subject with special attention to mandibular growth.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Based on Cochrane Collaboration® recommendations a research of the literature was carried out. The meta-analysis examined\\u000a 3 appliances for the period between 1996 and 2008: Herbst

Michael Hans Bertl; Carina Mandl; Adriano Giacomo Crismani

421

Cephalometric Changes in the Treatment of Class III Using the Fränkel Appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:  In this retrospective clinical study, we aimed to evaluate skeletal changes following treatment of Class III malocclusion\\u000a by means of the Function Regulator (FR-3) appliance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and Methods:  The group of patients we treated with the FR-3 exclusively consisted of 56 subjects (20 boys and 36 girls). Fifteen subjects\\u000a (7 boys and 8 girls) of approximately the same age and presenting

Friedrich Falck; Kristina Zimmermann-Menzel

2008-01-01

422

Fixed versus Removable Appliance for Palatal Expansion; A 3D Analysis Using the Finite Element Method  

PubMed Central

Objective: Several appliances have been used for palatal expansion for treatment of posterior cross bite. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress induced in the apical and crestal alveolar bone and the pattern of tooth displacement following expansion via removable expansion plates or fixed-banded palatal expander using the finite element method (FEM) analysis. Materials and Methods: Two 3D FEM models were designed from a mesio-distal slice of the maxilla containing the upper first molars, their periodontium and alveolar bone. Two palatal expanders (removable and fixed) were modeled. The models were designed in SolidWorks 2006 and then transferred to ANSYS Workbench. The appliance halves were displaced 0.1 mm laterally. The von Mises stress in the apical, crestal, and PDL areas and also the vertical displacement of the cusps (palatal and buccal) was were evaluated. Results: The total PDL stress was 0.40003 MPa in the removable appliance (RA) model and 4.88e-2 MPa in the fixed appliance (FA) model and the apical stress was 9.9e-2 and 1.17e-2 MPa, respectively. The crestal stress was 2.99e-1 MPa in RA and 7.62e-2 MPa in the FA. The stress in the cortical bone crest was 0.30327 and 7.9244e-2 MPa for RA and FA, respectively and 3.7271 and 7.4373e-2 MPa in crestal area of spongy bone, respectively. The vertical displacement of the buccal cusp and palatal cusp was 1.64e-2 and 5.90e-2 mm in RA and 1.05e-4 and 1.7e-4 mm in FA, respectively. Conclusion: The overall stress as well as apical and crestal stress in periodontium of anchor teeth was higher in RA than FA; RA elicited higher stress in both cortical and spongy bone. The vertical displacement of molar cusps was more in removable than fixed palatal expander model. PMID:24910679

Geramy, Allahyar; Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar

2014-01-01

423

Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

Cawley, William E. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

424

Heat Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... dangerous levels and you can develop a heat illness. Most heat illnesses occur from staying out in ... Heat-related illnesses include Heatstroke - a life-threatening illness in which body temperature may rise above 106° ...

425

Applying Support Vector Machines and Boosting to a Non-Intrusive Monitoring System for Household Electric Appliances with Inverters  

E-print Network

A non-intrusive load monitoring system has been developed for estimating the behavior of individual electrical appliances from the measurement of the total household load demand curve. The system is useful for monitoring both inverter and non-inverter type appliances that change their mode of operation over time. The total load demand is measured at the entrance of the feeder line into the house and the operating status of household electric appliances can be identified with the help of Support Vector Machines (SVM), Boosting, RBF and neural network techniques by analyzing the characteristic frequency content from the load curve of the household. Load curve measurements of air-conditioners, refrigerators (inverter type and noninverter type), incandescent light, uorescence light and television systems are used as examples for training and test data. So far only a small data set was measured for this feasibility study and our experiments show a great potential for machine learn...

Takashi Onoda; Gunnar Rätsch; Klaus-Robert Müller

426

Oral Appliances  

MedlinePLUS

... CPAP or treatment with behavioral measures such as weight loss or sleep position change. This small plastic device fits in ... candidates for treatment with behavioral measures such as weight loss or sleep-position change. Patients with moderate to severe OSA ...

427

Absorption heat pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

1987-03-01

428

Types of corrosion in removable appliances: annotated cases and preventative measures.  

PubMed

Three different types of electrochemical corrosion cells are discussed - composition, concentration, and stress cells. Annotated cases are presented for each type of corrosion cell in removable appliances using conventional photography, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray elemental analyses. The complexity that corrosion can attain is illustrated via the case of a palatal expansion device. Specific examples of galvanic cells, which are possible in orthodontic practice, are summarized in terms of the anodic and cathodic half-cells. These include material differences, oxygen gradients, presence of debris, changes in pH, induced stress levels, changes in stress states, and variations in as-received history. A galvanic series is constructed from the orthodontist's perspective that includes titanium, nickel-titanium, cobalt-chromium, and stainless steel alloys, as well as glass-fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. Preventative measures are presented from the perspectives of the raw material manufacturers, the dental laboratories, the chair-side practitioner, and the patient. A list of materials is provided, which are known to promote corrosion in the event that stainless steels are sensitized as a consequence of improper handling. In the final analysis, however, retainers and removable appliances are reliable if corrosion cells are conscientiously averted and preventative measures are routinely employed. PMID:11553078

Kusy, R P

2000-11-01

429

EPA ENERGY STAR: Tackling Growth in Home Electronics and Small Appliances  

SciTech Connect

Over a decade ago, the electricity consumption associated with home electronics and other small appliances emerged onto the global energy policy landscape as one of the fastest growing residential end uses with the opportunity to deliver significant energy savings. As our knowledge of this end use matures, it is essential to step back and evaluate the degree to which energy efficiency programs have successfully realized energy savings and where savings opportunities have been missed.For the past fifteen years, we have quantified energy, utility bill, and carbon savings for US EPA?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program. In this paper, we present a unique look into the US residential program savings claimed to date for EPA?s ENERGY STAR office equipment, consumer electronics, and other small household appliances as well as EPA?s projected program savings over the next five years. We present a top-level discussion identifying program areas where EPA?s ENERGY STAR efforts have succeeded and program areas where ENERGY STAR efforts did not successfully address underlying market factors, technology issues and/or consumer behavior. We end by presenting the magnitude of ?overlooked? savings.

Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory

2008-11-17

430

Facial aesthetics following edgewise and Fränkel appliance therapy: the application of Chernoff faces.  

PubMed

This study investigates an application of the graphical technique of multivariate data description, 'Chernoff faces', to orthodontics. This method of pictorial presentation allows the simultaneous examination of several measurements in a single figure. Each variable is represented by a scaled feature of the human face: the size and position of the ears, eyes, eyebrows, nose, and mouth, as well as the face itself, are used to display data in a diagrammatic form. Using this method, the individual post-treatment results of 62 severe Class II division 1 cases treated by either Fränkel or Edgewise appliance therapy were compared. Nine cephalometric variables were chosen, describing the profile and the antero-posterior positions of the lower jaw and teeth, and stylized cartoon faces drawn for each child. These were compared with a control face prepared from untreated children of the same sex and age. Overall, children treated with Fränkel appliances showed a more normal relationship of the lips to Ricketts' aesthetic line and a greater prominence of the lower face. This difference between the two groups was most marked in the soft tissues. In a few cases, however, the appearance of the Edgewise treated children was indistinguishable from that of the controls. It is concluded that Chernoff faces, by portraying several pertinent aspects of data simultaneously, may be a useful adjunct to the presentation of orthodontic findings. PMID:8043562

Battagel, J M; Battagel, N J

1994-05-01

431

The influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on masticatory and swallowing threshold performances.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that treatment with orthodontic appliances disturbs masticatory and swallowing performances. Twenty-seven subjects with malocclusions requiring orthodontic treatment were included in this prospective study. The masticatory and swallowing performances were evaluated at five different times: before bracket placement (T0), immediately after archwire placement (T1), 48 h after archwire placement (T2), 30 days after archwire placement (T3) and 3 months after the initial appointment (T4). Masticatory performance was determined by the median particle sizes for the Optocal test food after 15 chewing strokes, and the swallowing thresholds were registered for both the test food and a natural food (peanuts). Pain during mastication was evaluated using a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Masticatory performance was significantly reduced at T2, at which time patients reported the highest pain values. The time spent to the first swallow was increased at T2 for the natural food but not for the test food. The values for pain, masticatory and swallowing performances at T3 and T4 were similar to those at T0. Orthodontic patient masticatory function is only reduced during the period of higher pain experience, which could also disrupt the deglutition of harder foods. However, neither mastication nor deglutition processes were disturbed by orthodontic appliances in long-term treatment. PMID:25155222

Magalhães, I B; Pereira, L J; Andrade, A S; Gouvea, D B; Gameiro, G H

2014-12-01

432

Use of nasoalveolar molding appliance to direct growth in newborn patient with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.  

PubMed

The alignment of the alveolar segments creates the foundation upon which excellent results of lip and primary nasal surgery are dependent in the repair of the cleft lip and palate patient. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the step-by-step fabrication process of the nasoalveolar molding appliance used to direct growth of the alveolar ridge, lips, and nose in the presurgical treatment of cleft lip and palate. As a result of this appliance, the primary surgical repair of the nose and lip heals under minimal tension, thereby reducing scar formation and improving the esthetic result. PMID:12889702

Yang, Sue; Stelnicki, Eric J; Lee, Misook N

2003-01-01

433

Early treatment of class III Malocclusion with Modified Tandem Traction Bow Appliance and a Brief Literature Review.  

PubMed

The accurate diagnosis and clinical management of class III malocclusion continues to be a challenging task for the pediatric dentist due to the poor compliance of patient and high rate of relapse. Two cases of early treatment of class III malocclusion are presented which were treated by modified tandem traction bow appliance. The correction in the cross bite was achieved in six to seven months. Children's compliance and acceptance for the appliance was good. Follow up of two years and one years showed no relapse. PMID:25284529

Sharma, Akhilesh; Joshi, Sourabh Ramesh; Hegde, Amitha M; Shetty, Rajmohan

2014-09-01

434

Numerical modelling of air supply and air flow pattern of a room that contains a gas appliance with open combustion chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In the last decade, quite a few carbon-monoxide intoxications occurred in Hungary due to the inadequate operation of gas appliances with open combustion chamber, connected to chimneys. These cases emphasized the importance of faultless air supply of the appliances and the safe removal of the incipient flue gases. This problem gave reason for the modelling of air supply, temperature

Lajos Barn; Róbert God

435

Security in Private Networks of Appliance Sensors and Actuators Stu Mesnier, csm1@seas.wustl.edu (A project report written under the guidance of Prof. Raj Jain)  

E-print Network

that are peculiar for private home and small office appliance networks. Keywords: private appliance network, PAN coffee maker that you load with water and fresh grounds then program to brew 10 minutes before you awake to sleep a bit later yet still wake in time for church, so you don't program the coffee maker but only your

Jain, Raj

436

A Heat Pipe Rankine engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Heat Pipe Rankine (HPR) engine is a new concept for small scale power generation that uses heat and mass transport features of a heat pipe. A heat pipe is a heat transfer device in which heat is transferred efficiently from the evaporator section to the condenser section. Mechanical work is produced by a turbine placed in the vapor flowing between the evaporator and the condenser sections. As an external combustion engine, the HPR engine can utilize energy sources at various temperature levels and be adapted to different applications.

Chuah, Y. K.; Kreith, F.

1985-12-01

437

NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger  

SciTech Connect

One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

2008-09-01

438

Heating Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... for heating. • Have a qualified professional install stationary space heating equipment, water heaters or central heating equipment according to the local codes and manufacturer’s instructions. • Maintain heating ... • For fuel burning space heaters, always use the proper fuel as specified ...

439

Heat pumps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What electric heating system is the most efficient in moderate climates? This reading, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the modern heat pump. Students read about the efficiency of heat pumps and the three types currently being used in homes. A simple explanation of how a heat pump works is offered. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

440

Combined particle emission reduction and heat recovery from combustion exhaust—A novel approach for small wood-fired appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing fossil fuels by renewable sources of energy is one approach to address the problem of global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Wood combustion can help to replace fuel oil or gas. It is advisable, however, to use modern technology for combustion and exhaust gas after-treatment in order to achieve best efficiency and avoid air quality problems

A. Messerer; V. Schmatloch; U. Pöschl; R. Niessner

2007-01-01

441

An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

1997-09-01

442

Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting  

SciTech Connect

Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs and on the design of the labels and standards themselves. In addition, it directs the reader to references and other resources likely to be useful in conducting the activities described and includes a chapter on energy policies and programs that complement appliance efficiency labels and standards. This guidebook attempts to reflect the essential framework of labeling and standards programs. It is the intent of the authors and sponsors to distribute copies of this book worldwide at no charge for the general public benefit. The guidebook is also available on the web at www.CLASPonline.org and can be downloaded to be used intact or piecemeal for whatever beneficial purposes readers may conceive.

McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

2001-02-16

443

Multitomographic evaluation of the dental effects of two different rapid palatal expansion appliances.  

PubMed

Rapid palatal expansion (RPE) is widely used in the treatment of transverse maxillary deficiencies. Generally, there are two types of RPE appliances: banded and bonded expanders. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the dental effects of banded and bonded appliances. The study consisted of 23 patients (13 females and 10 males) with a bilateral maxillary deficiency. Twelve patients (seven females and five males) with a mean age of 14.8 +/- 0.3 years were treated with banded RPE and 11 patients (six females and five males) with a mean age of 15.1 +/- 0.7 years with bonded RPE. Multitomographic radiographs were taken before (T0) and at the end (T1) of expansion while the patients were wearing an acrylic mandibular appliance in which ball bearings and bars were embedded. Statistical analyses of the measurements at T0 and T1 were undertaken with a paired t-test, and the difference between the groups assesed with a Student's t-test. In both groups, the angle between the radiographic image of the bar and the axial inclination of the upper first premolar and molar teeth was (5.34 and 2.73 degrees for the right premolars, 5.17 and 2.28 degrees for the left premolars, 11.83 and 3.73 degrees for the right molars, and 9.75 and 5.64 degrees for the left molars in the banded and bonded groups, respectively. The distance from the vestibular cortical plate to the palatal root of these teeth (1.17 and 1.23 mm for the right premolars, 2.46 and 1.09 mm for the left premolars, 2.75 and 0.64 mm for the right molars, 2.23 and 0.96 mm for the left molars in the banded and bonded groups, respectively) increased (both P < 0.01). These increases indicated buccal tipping of the teeth. Comparison of the two groups showed that tipping of the first molar and premolar teeth in the banded group was significantly more than in the bonded group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). PMID:17702798

Olmez, Hüseyin; Akin, Erol; Karaçay, Seniz

2007-08-01

444

Effective assessment of Japanese recycling law for electrical home appliances: four years after the full enforcement of the law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese recycling law for electrical home appliances was fully enforced as of April 2001. Although there have been various disputes and criticisms concerning the law, both before and since the enforcement, the majority was not based on actual data. Now that the recycling law has been active for four years, its effectiveness can be assessed empirically rather than just

Tomohiro Tasaki; Atsushi Terazono; Yuichi Moriguchi

2005-01-01

445

Section 1: Effects of mandibular advancement appliances on the upper airway dimensions Section 2: B. Finkelmeier1  

E-print Network

Section 1: Effects of mandibular advancement appliances on the upper airway dimensions Section 2: B. Finkelmeier1 , K. Kula2 , G. Eckert3 , A. Ghoneima4 Section 3: 1 IU School of Dentistry; 2 Department of Orthodontics, IU School of Dentistry; 3 IU School of Dentistry; 4 Department of Orthodontics, IU School

Zhou, Yaoqi

446

Purchase Frequency And Transaction Profitability: An Empirical Investigation Into The Brazilian Home Appliance eRetailing Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of this paper is to explore the transaction profitability of frequent and sporadic buyers in the Brazilian e-retailing home appliance market. Concepts in relationship marketing literature stressing the impact of purchasing frequency on customer transaction profitability, as well as recent academic research challenging this approach and pointing out the importance of sporadic clients, are analyzed. This paper uses

Luiz Antonio Joia; Paulo Sanz

2004-01-01

447

After-Sales Service and HRM Strategies for Small Appliances Enterprises: Creating a Sustainable Competitive Advantage for SUNHOW in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small appliance industry is a completely mature industry. Its functional products are always with a long life cycle. If a corporation wants to make its brand keep sustainable development, it needs to pursue good After-Sales Service strategies so as to keep the value of its products long or forever. However, conventional After-Sales Service has been a serious financial black

An-Shin Shia; Bau-Jung Chang

2011-01-01

448

Home Safe Home: Appliances, Tools, and Small Equipment. Proceed with Caution: Consumer Safety in the Home, III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many accidents in the home are caused by faulty, defective or improperly designed tools, appliances, and equipment. Government, non-governmental organizations, and industries cooperate to develop and implement standards for the safe design and manufacture of consumer products. This booklet provides information to help consumers select products,…

Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

449

EFFECTS OF APPLIANCE TYPE AND OPERATING VARIABLES ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS: VOLUME I. REPORT AND APPENDICIES A-C.  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a project, in support of the intergrated Air Canver Project (IACP) to provide data on the specific effects of appliance type and operating variales on woodstove emissions. Samples of particulate material and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were colle...

450

Treatment of a skeletal Class II malocclusion using fixed functional appliance with miniplate anchorage.  

PubMed

Based on our literature search, we found that the use of miniplate anchorage with Forsus fatigue-resistance device (FRD) has not yet been reported. Therefore, the aim of the present case report was to present the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class II malocclusion with mandibular retrusion using Forsus FRD with miniplate anchorage. Fixed appliances with 0.022-inch slots were attached to the maxillary teeth and after 8 months of the leveling and alignment of the upper arch, 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire was inserted and cinched back. Two weeks after the placement of the miniplates bilaterally at the symphysis of the mandible, Forsus FRD was adjusted to the miniplates with a 35-mm length of rod chosen. Nine months after the skeletal anchored Forsus worn, Class I canine and molar relations were achieved and overjet was eliminated. PMID:24966783

Celikoglu, Mevlut; Unal, Tuba; Bayram, Mehmet; Candirli, Celal

2014-04-01

451

Review of Maxillary Expansion Appliance Activation Methods: Engineering and Clinical Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Objective. Review the reported activation methods of maxillary expansion devices for midpalatal suture separation from an engineering perspective and suggest areas of improvement. Materials and Methods. A literature search of Scopus and PubMed was used to determine current expansion methods. A U.S. and Canadian patent database search was also conducted using patent classification and keywords. Any paper presenting a new method of expansion was included. Results. Expansion methods in use, or patented, can be classified as either a screw- or spring-type, magnetic, or shape memory alloy expansion appliance. Conclusions. Each activation method presented unique advantages and disadvantages from both clinical and engineering perspectives. Areas for improvement still remain and are identified in the paper. PMID:20948570

Romanyk, D. L.; Lagravere, M. O.; Toogood, R. W.; Major, P. W.; Carey, J. P.

2010-01-01

452

TiArA: A Virtual Appliance for the Analysis of Tiling Array Data  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic tiling arrays have been described in the scientific literature since 2003, yet there is a shortage of user-friendly applications available for their analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Tiling Array Analyzer (TiArA) is a software program that provides a user-friendly graphical interface for the background subtraction, normalization, and summarization of data acquired through the Affymetrix tiling array platform. The background signal is empirically measured using a group of nonspecific probes with varying levels of GC content and normalization is performed to enforce a common dynamic range. Conclusions/Significance TiArA is implemented as a standalone program for Linux systems and is available as a cross-platform virtual machine that will run under most modern operating systems using virtualization software such as Sun VirtualBox or VMware. The software is available as a Debian package or a virtual appliance at http://purl.org/NET/tiara. PMID:20376318

Greenbaum, Jason A.; Assarsson, Erika; Chung, Jo L.; Head, Steven; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

2010-01-01

453

Magic Ring: a finger-worn device for multiple appliances control using static finger gestures.  

PubMed

An ultimate goal for Ubiquitous Computing is to enable people to interact with the surrounding electrical devices using their habitual body gestures as they communicate with each other. The feasibility of such an idea is demonstrated through a wearable gestural device named Magic Ring (MR), which is an original compact wireless sensing mote in a ring shape that can recognize various finger gestures. A scenario of wireless multiple appliances control is selected as a case study to evaluate the usability of such a gestural interface. Experiments comparing the MR and a Remote Controller (RC) were performed to evaluate the usability. From the results, only with 10 minutes practice, the proposed paradigm of gestural-based control can achieve a performance of completing about six tasks per minute, which is in the same level of the RC-based method. PMID:22778612

Jing, Lei; Zhou, Yinghui; Cheng, Zixue; Huang, Tongjun

2012-01-01

454

Profile changes following orthodontic correction of bimaxillary protrusion with a preadjusted edgewise appliance.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the changes in soft tissue and skeletal profiles following orthodontic correction of bimaxillary protrusion in 50 Chinese adult patients. Treatment involved extractions of four premolars and use of the preadjusted edgewise appliance. The average treatment time was 2.2 years. Cephalometric analysis was carried out on pretreatment and posttreatment cephalograms. The result of treatment was a more harmonious soft tissue profile; with a less acute nasolabial angle (following a 10.55-degree change), 2.75- and 2.09-mm reductions in upper and lower lip protrusions, respectively, and a 3.41-mm decrease in interlabial gap. Effects on dental relationships included a 0.90-mm reduction in incisal show, a reduction of overbite, and an improvement in the inclination of maxillary and mandibular incisors. Therefore, orthodontic correction of bimaxillary protrusion achieved favorable soft tissue changes without causing undesirable effects on the underlying hard tissues. PMID:9456627

Tan, T J

1996-01-01

455

Magic Ring: A Finger-Worn Device for Multiple Appliances Control Using Static Finger Gestures  

PubMed Central

An ultimate goal for Ubiquitous Computing is to enable people to interact with the surrounding electrical devices using their habitual body gestures as they communicate with each other. The feasibility of such an idea is demonstrated through a wearable gestural device named Magic Ring (MR), which is an original compact wireless sensing mote in a ring shape that can recognize various finger gestures. A scenario of wireless multiple appliances control is selected as a case study to evaluate the usability of such a gestural interface. Experiments comparing the MR and a Remote Controller (RC) were performed to evaluate the usability. From the results, only with 10 minutes practice, the proposed paradigm of gestural-based control can achieve a performance of completing about six tasks per minute, which is in the same level of the RC-based method. PMID:22778612

Jing, Lei; Zhou, Yinghui; Cheng, Zixue; Huang, Tongjun

2012-01-01

456

CAD/CAM/AM applications in the manufacture of dental appliances.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to apply the latest developments in additive manufacturing (AM) construction and to evaluate the effectiveness of these computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the production of dental appliances. In addition, a new method of incorporating wire into a single build was developed. A scanner was used to capture 3-dimensional images of Class II Division 1 dental models that were translated onto a 2-dimensional computer screen. Andresen and sleep-apnea devices were designed in 3 dimensions by using FreeForm software (version 11; Geo Magics SensAble Group, Wilmington, Mass) and a phantom arm. The design was then exported and transferred to an AM machine for building. PMID:23116514

Al Mortadi, Noor; Eggbeer, Dominic; Lewis, Jeffrey; Williams, Robert J

2012-11-01

457

Setting maximum emission rates from ozone emitting consumer appliances in the United States and Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Monte Carlo analysis of indoor ozone levels in four cities was applied to provide guidance to regulatory agencies on setting maximum ozone emission rates from consumer appliances. Measured distributions of air exchange rates, ozone decay rates and outdoor ozone levels at monitoring stations were combined with a steady-state indoor air quality model resulting in emission rate distributions (mg h -1) as a function of % of building hours protected from exceeding a target maximum indoor concentration of 20 ppb. Whole-year, summer and winter results for Elizabeth, NJ, Houston, TX, Windsor, ON, and Los Angeles, CA exhibited strong regional differences, primarily due to differences in air exchange rates. Infiltration of ambient ozone at higher average air exchange rates significantly reduces allowable emission rates, even though air exchange also dilutes emissions from appliances. For Houston, TX and Windsor, ON, which have lower average residential air exchange rates, emission rates ranged from -1.1 to 2.3 mg h -1 for scenarios that protect 80% or more of building hours from experiencing ozone concentrations greater than 20 ppb in summer. For Los Angeles, CA and Elizabeth, NJ, with higher air exchange rates, only negative emission rates were allowable to provide the same level of protection. For the 80th percentile residence, we estimate that an 8-h average limit concentration of 20 ppb would be exceeded, even in the absence of an indoor ozone source, 40 or more days per year in any of the cities analyzed. The negative emission rates emerging from the analysis suggest that only a zero-emission rate standard is prudent for Los Angeles, Elizabeth, NJ and other regions with higher summertime air exchange rates. For regions such as Houston with lower summertime air exchange rates, the higher emission rates would likely increase occupant exposure to the undesirable products of ozone reactions, thus reinforcing the need for zero-emission rate standard.

Morrison, Glenn; Shaughnessy, Richard; Shu, Shi

2011-02-01

458

Longitudinal changes in microbiology and clinical periodontal parameters after removal of fixed orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

The aim of this longitudinal study was to monitor patients' microbiological and clinical parameters from bracket placement up to 3 months post-treatment. Twenty-four patients (10 males and 14 females, aged 14.6 ± 1.0 years) were included in this investigation. Microbiology (sub- and supragingival), periodontal probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) flow were assessed at baseline (T1), at bracket removal (T2), and 3 months post-treatment (T3). A statistical comparison was made over time and between the banded, bonded, and control sites. Repeated measurements on patients were taken into account by modelling the patients as a random factor. Except for PPD and BOP, values were log-transformed before analysis. Corrections for simultaneous hypothesis testing were performed via simulation. The results demonstrated that sub- and supragingival colony-forming units ratio (CFU ratio aerobe/anaerobe) decreased significantly (relatively more anaerobes) at T2 compared with T1. Between T2 and T3 no significant increase in CFU ratio was seen, resulting in a significantly lower CFU ratio at T3 compared with T1 for subgingival plaque. The difference concerning supragingival plaque between T3 and T1 was not significant. Clinical parameters PPD, POB, and GCF flow showed a significant increase between T1 and T2. Between T2 and T3 these variables decreased significantly but remained significantly higher than at T1 [except for BOP values at the bonded sites (P = 0.0646)]. Placement of fixed orthodontic appliances has an influence both on microbial and clinical periodontal parameters, which were only partly normalized, 3 months following the removal of the appliances. PMID:20671070

van Gastel, Jan; Quirynen, Marc; Teughels, Wim; Coucke, Wim; Carels, Carine

2011-02-01

459

COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

Cooking of food and use of natural gas cooking burners generate pollutants that can have substantial impacts on residential indoor air quality. The extent of these impacts depends on cooking frequency, duration and specific food preparation activities in addition to the extent to which exhaust fans or other ventilation measures (e.g. windows) are used during cooking. With the intent of improving our understanding of indoor air quality impacts of cooking-related pollutants, we created, posted and advertised a web-based survey about cooking activities in residences. The survey included questions similar to those in California's Residential Appliance Saturation Survey (RASS), relating to home, household and cooking appliance characteristics and weekly patterns of meals cooked. Other questions targeted the following information not captured in the RASS: (1) oven vs. cooktop use, the number of cooktop burners used and the duration of burner use when cooking occurs, (2) specific cooking activities, (3) the use of range hood or window to increase ventilation during cooking, and (4) occupancy during cooking. Specific cooking activity questions were asked about the prior 24 hours with the assumption that most people are able to recollect activities over this time period. We examined inter-relationships among cooking activities and patterns and relationships of cooking activities to household demographics. We did not seek to obtain a sample of respondents that is demographically representative of the California population but rather to inexpensively gather information from homes spanning ranges of relevant characteristics including the number of residents and presence or absence of children. This report presents the survey, the responses obtained, and limited analysis of the results.

Klug, Victoria; Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett

2011-08-01

460

Principle of a multi-load\\/single converter system for low power induction heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction heating appliances used for cooking generally include two or four inductors and in the most common solution, a converter is connected to each inductor. The main aim of this paper is to suggest a way of building a multi-load\\/single converter system, based on the use of a series-resonant ZVS inverter supplying several resonant loads. The principle can be

F. Forest; E. Laboure; F. Costa; J. Y. Gaspard

2000-01-01

461

Designer heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the use of hydronic radiant heat as wall units and as systems installed in floors. Described are radiators made in Europe that are said to be superior to convective hydronic heat (the heating principal traditional baseboard units use). The new panel radiators are stocked by only a few US distributors and may cost 20 to 90 percent

1989-01-01

462

Heat hugger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fireplace insert is disclosed which will efficiently heat the interior of a structure, enable control of fuel burn rate and temperature of heated air directed into the interior structure, and facilitate circulation of the heated air through the interior rooms of the structure via pressure differential created by the forced-air flow through the insert. The unit includes an airtight

Ruegg

1981-01-01

463

The quest to be "modern": The adoption of electric light, heat, and power technology in small-town America, 1883-1929  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is a social, business, and technological history of electrification in the United States. It examines the origins of the electric utility industry, the development of light, heat and power technology, the marketing of electric service, and the adoption of electricity and domestic appliances in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in two communities: Harrisburg and West Chester, Pennsylvania. Beginning in the 1880s, manufactured gas and electric utilities waged an intense and lengthy battle for the urban energy marketplace. Many villages, small towns and big cities had multiple gas and electric companies, driving technological change as they worked to increase reliability, lower costs, and improve lamps, lighting fixtures, and appliances. Producers as well as consumers grappled with these new sources of energy, looking for profitable and practical ways to incorporate them into everyday life. Gas and utility executives, locked in head-to-head competition, realized that marketing their invisible product was an uncertain process. Utilities redefined the concepts of "tradition" and "modernity" to attract investors and offer appliances and installation in addition to selling energy. Upper and middle class households seeking a modern comfortable home could use gas or electricity (and often both), while working classes made do with kerosene, coal and wood. Mixed technologies, based on consumer preference, access, product availability, price, and service greatly influenced the creation of "modern" America. Initially, Pennsylvania law mandated local energy systems-electricity and gas had to be consumed within the same town. Only in the early twentieth century were these laws amended to permit inter-connections, allowing merger and consolidation of utilities to serve a wider geographic area. By the 1910s, law, technology, and capital made it possible to abandon local central stations. In only a few decades, the industry shifted from locally-owned small scale generation plants to larger regional systems capable of long distance transmission and directed by a cadre of engineering, financial, and managerial experts. In 1928, Harrisburg's electric utility merged into the Pennsylvania Power & Light Company and the next year West Chester's electric and gas companies became part of the Philadelphia Electric Company, marking the beginning of a new era.

Hellrigel, Mary Ann

464

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

1991-01-01

465

Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

None

2010-09-01

466

NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed system performance maps that were developed by this testing program will be used to: (1) Target regions of the country that would benefit most from this technology; (2) Identify improvements in current systems to maximize homeowner cost savings; and (3) Explore opportunities for development of advanced hot water heating systems.

Not Available

2012-01-01

467

78 FR 41867 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Teleconference/Webinar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...HVAC), Water Heating (WH), and Refrigeration Certification Working Group (Commercial...requirements for commercial HVAC, WH, and refrigeration equipment, as authorized by the Energy...Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute) Timothy Ballo...

2013-07-12

468

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-print Network

a special induction disk may be used as a heating elementInduction cooktops utilize rapidly oscillating magnetic fields that induce miniature electric currents in a pot (with corresponding electric resistance heating).

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01

469

Preliminary analysis of heat pipe heat exchangers for heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary analysis of fin tube heat pipe heat exchangers for air-to-air heat recovery was conducted. The analysis uses conventional heat exchanger design techniques and a new heat pipe design technique which includes probabilistic design of artery wick heat pipes. The heat transfer capability of the heat pipes may be matched with that of the finned tubes in order to

J. O. Amode; K. T. Feldman

1975-01-01

470

Enhanced heat transfer using nanofluids  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a method of and apparatus for enhancing heat transfer in fluids such as deionized water. ethylene glycol, or oil by dispersing nanocrystalline particles of substances such as copper, copper oxide, aluminum oxide, or the like in the fluids. Nanocrystalline particles are produced and dispersed in the fluid by heating the substance to be dispersed in a vacuum while passing a thin film of the fluid near the heated substance. The fluid is cooled to control its vapor pressure.

Choi, Stephen U. S. (Lisle, IL); Eastman, Jeffrey A. (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01

471

Capacitively-Heated Fluidized Bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluidized-bed chamber in which particles in bed are capacitively heated produces high yields of polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor devices. Deposition of unrecoverable silicon on chamber wall is reduced, and amount of recoverable silicon depositing on seed particles in bed is increased. Particles also have a size and density suitable for direct handling without consolidation, unlike silicon dust produced in heated-wall chambers.

Mchale, E. J.

1982-01-01

472

Post-treatment occlusal changes in Class II division 2 subjects treated with the Herbst appliance.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse and compare the post-treatment occlusal changes of Class II division 2 treatment with the Herbst appliance in early adolescent, late adolescent, and adult subjects. The subjects were 37 Class II division 2 patients (19 females and 18 males) treated at the Orthodontic Department, University of Giessen, Germany. All were in the late mixed or permanent dentition and exhibited a Class II molar relationship > or =0.5 cusp width (CW) bilaterally or > or =1.0 CW unilaterally, an overbite (OB) >3.0 mm, and two upper central incisors retroclined. The subjects were divided into three skeletal maturity groups based on evaluation of hand wrist radiographs: early adolescent (n = 10, stages MP3-E to MP3-FG at start of treatment, age range: 11.3-13.2 years), late adolescent (n = 14, stages MP3-G to MP3-I at start of treatment, age range: 14.1-16.4 years), and adult (n = 13, stages R-I to R-J at the start of treatment, age range: 16.3-25.6 years). Study casts from before treatment (T1), after Herbst-Tip-Edge-Multibracket appliance treatment (T2), and after an average retention time of 27 months (T3) were analysed. Statistical analysis was undertaken using t-tests for paired and unpaired samples. For the whole sample, the molar relationship at T3 was stable in 82.4 per cent, the canine relationship in 82.9 per cent, and OB in 75.7 per cent of the cases. In the different skeletal maturity groups, the stability of the molars, canines, and overbite was as follows: early adolescents: 95.0, 100.0, and 70.0 per cent, respectively; late adolescents: 92.9, 74.1, and 85.7 per cent, respectively; and adults 61.5, 80.8, 69.2 per cent, respectively. Occlusal correction of Class II division 2 malocclusions with Herbst treatment was relatively stable 2 years post-treatment. The outcome of treatment of adolescents was more stable than that of adults. PMID:19054814

Bock, Niko; Ruf, Sabine

2008-12-01

473

Correction of Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion with a mandibular protraction appliances and multiloop edgewise archwire technique  

PubMed Central

A Brazilian girl aged 14 years and 9 months presented with a chief complaint of protrusive teeth. She had a convex facial profile, extreme overjet, deep bite, lack of passive lip seal, acute nasolabial angle, and retrognathic mandible. Intraorally, she showed maxillary diastemas, slight mandibular incisor crowding, a small maxillary arch, 13-mm overjet, and 4-mm overbite. After the diagnosis of severe Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion, a mandibular protraction appliance was placed to correct the Class II relationships and multiloop edgewise archwires were used for finishing. Follow-up examinations revealed an improved facial profile, normal overjet and overbite, and good intercuspation. The patient was satisfied with her occlusion, smile, and facial appearance. The excellent results suggest that orthodontic camouflage by using a mandibular protraction appliance in combination with the multiloop edgewise archwire technique is an effective option for correcting Class II malocclusions in patients who refuse orthognathic surgery.

Freitas, Heloiza; dos Santos, Pedro Cesar F; Janson, Guilherme

2014-01-01

474

Designer heating  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the use of hydronic radiant heat as wall units and as systems installed in floors. Described are radiators made in Europe that are said to be superior to convective hydronic heat (the heating principal traditional baseboard units use). The new panel radiators are stocked by only a few US distributors and may cost 20 to 90 percent more than for American-style units of equal heating capacity. Because of their attractiveness and custom sizes the units may be mounted on open walls. Also described are advances in radiant floor heating. New systems have improved plastic tubing, more installation options, smarter controls and better edge insulation. The disadvantage in radiant floor heating is that floors may not be covered by heavy carpets or rugs.

Flower, R.G.

1989-03-01

475

Non-fire related carbon monoxide incidents: Morbidity and mortality related to the use of household appliances (for microcomputers). Data file  

SciTech Connect

This data file contains information about carbon monoxide deaths and injuries and the products associated with the incidents. For more than a decade, CPSC has been concerned over the number of nonfire-related deaths attributed to carbon monoxide poisoning associated with the use of household appliances, averaging 250 per year. Gas space heaters and furnaces have been associated with the largest number of CO deaths, excluding fatalities from automotive exhaust and fires. These deaths and injuries are preventable. CPSC reviewed information from in-depth investigations associated in fiscal 1992 to respond to such questions as: (1) How many CO deaths and injuries occur in permanent residences as opposed to temporary residences such as tents, recreational vehicles, etc; (2) Which products are responsible for the highest mortality and morbidity; (3) In what types of homes or enclosures are CO incidents most frequently occuring; (4) In what rooms or areas of the home are the products producing CO located; and (5) What is the age and sex distribution of deaths and injuries. This product answers these questions and gives an overview of the problem of CO in residences.

NONE

1995-08-01

476

NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES  

SciTech Connect

The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens, 5 broiler burners, 5 storage water heaters, 4 forced air furnaces, 1 wall furnace, and 6 tankless water heaters. Air-free concentrations and fuel-based emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and the number of (predominantly ultrafine) particles over complete burns?including transient effects (device warm-up and intermittent firing of burners) following ignition--and during more stable end-of-burn conditions. Formaldehyde was measured over multi-burn cycles. The baseline fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number (a measure of fuel energy delivery rate) of 1320-1340; test fuels had Wobbe numbers of roughly 1390 and 1420, and in some cases 1360. No ignition or operational problems were observed during test fuel use. Baseline emissions varied widely across and within burner groups and with burner operational mode. Statistically significant emissions changes were observed for some pollutants on some burners.

Singer, Brett C.; Apte, Michael G.; Black, Douglas R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Lucas, Donald; Lunden, Melissa M.; Mirer, Anna G.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2009-12-01

477

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

SciTech Connect

China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

2011-04-01

478

Use of palatal miniscrew anchorage and lingual multi-bracket appliances to enhance efficiency of molar scissors-bite correction.  

PubMed

This article reports the successful treatment method of scissors-bite correction using miniscrew anchorage and a lingual multi-bracket appliance. A female patient, 17 years and 4 months old, had a chief complaint of crowding of anterior teeth. The patient was given the diagnosis of Angle Class I malocclusion with bimaxillary protrusion and incisor crowding. She also showed a scissors-bite of the second molar on the right side. Miniscrews were inserted into the palatal region of the upper second molar to reinforce the anchorage, and a lingual multi-bracket appliance was placed into the maxilla. Miniscrews inserted palatally were used to correct the scissors-bite in the first 3 months; afterward, they were used to retract the six anterior teeth. The total active treatment period was 26 months. Because of the bite-plane effect, the upper and lower molars were separated in occlusion, and the scissors-bite was corrected effectively within a short time. The combined use of palatal miniscrew anchorage and lingual multi-bracket appliances enhances efficiency of molar scissors-bite correction. PMID:19413381

Tamamura, Nagato; Kuroda, Shingo; Sugawara, Yasuyo; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

2009-05-01

479

Methods of producing compounds from plant materials  

DOEpatents

The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Schmidt, Andrew J. (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA), Franz; James A. (Kennewick, WA), Alnajjar; Mikhail S. (Richland, WA), Neuenschwander; Gary G. (Burbank, WA), Alderson; Eric V. (Kennewick, WA), Orth; Rick J. (Kennewick, WA), Abbas; Charles A. (Champaign, IL), Beery; Kyle E. (Decatur, IL), Rammelsberg; Anne M. (Decatur, IL), Kim; Catherine J. (Decatur, IL)

2010-01-26

480