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Sample records for heat shock-induced three-dimensional-like

  1. Mechanical analysis of a heat-shock induced developmental defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Sarah M.; McCleery, W. Tyler; Hutson, M. Shane

    2014-03-01

    Embryonic development in Drosophila is a complex process involving coordinated movements of mechanically interacting tissues. Perturbing this system with a transient heat shock can result in a number of developmental defects. In particular, a heat shock applied during the earliest morphogenetic movements of gastrulation can lead to apparent recovery, but then subsequent morphogenetic failure 5-6 hours later during germ band retraction. The process of germ band retraction requires an intact amnioserosa - a single layered extra-embryonic epithelial tissue - and heat shock at gastrulation can induce the later opening of holes in the amnioserosa. These holes are highly correlated with failures of germ band retraction. These holes could be caused by a combination of mechanical weakness in the amnioserosa or local increases in mechanical stress. Here, we assess the role of mechanical stress using confocal imaging to compare cell and tissue morphology in the amnioserosa of normal and heat-shocked embryos and laser hole drilling to map the stress field around the times and locations at which heat-shock induced holes open.

  2. Chromosome behavior of heat shock induced triploid in Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2003-09-01

    Triploidy was induced in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis by 30±0.5°C heat shock treatment (initiated at 20 min after fertilization) for 10 min to inhibit the release of PB2 at 18.0°C. The highest triploid rate obtained was 84.5% in nauplius stage. The effect of heat shock treatment on meiosis and cleavage of eggs was investigated in this work aimed to establish efficient procedures for triploid induction and to gain understanding of the mechanism of triploid production. Three pronuclei that could be observed in the treated eggs under fluorescence microscope developed into triploid embryos. Some abnormal chromosome behavior was observed in heat shocked eggs.

  3. Heat-shock-induced cellular responses to temperature elevations occurring during orthopaedic cutting.

    PubMed

    Dolan, E B; Haugh, M G; Tallon, D; Casey, C; McNamara, L M

    2012-12-01

    Severe heat-shock to bone cells caused during orthopaedic procedures can result in thermal damage, leading to cell death and initiating bone resorption. By contrast, mild heat-shock has been proposed to induce bone regeneration. In this study, bone cells are exposed to heat-shock for short durations occurring during surgical cutting. Cellular viability, necrosis and apoptosis are investigated immediately after heat-shock and following recovery of 12, 24 h and 4 days, in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, using flow cytometry. The regeneration capacity of heat-shocked Balb/c mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MC3T3-E1s has been investigated following 7 and 14 day's recovery, by quantifying proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. An immediate necrotic response to heat-shock was shown in cells exposed to elevated temperatures (45°C, 47°C and most severe at 60°C). A longer-term apoptotic response is induced in MLO-Y4s and, to a lesser extent, in MC3T3-E1s. Heat-shock-induced differentiation and mineralization by MSCs. These findings indicate that heat-shock is more likely to induce apoptosis in osteocytes than osteoblasts, which might reflect their role as sensors detecting and communicating damage within bone. Furthermore, it is shown for the first time that mild heat-shock (less than equal to 47°C) for durations occurring during surgical cutting can positively enhance osseointegration by osteoprogenitors. PMID:22915633

  4. Development of a heat-shock inducible gene expression system in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Sumiya, Nobuko; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Misumi, Osami; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2014-01-01

    The cell of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae contains a single chloroplast and mitochondrion, the division of which is tightly synchronized by a light/dark cycle. The genome content is extremely simple, with a low level of genetic redundancy, in photosynthetic eukaryotes. In addition, transient transformation and stable transformation by homologous recombination have been reported. However, for molecular genetic analyses of phenomena that are essential for cellular growth and survival, inducible gene expression/suppression systems are needed. Here, we report the development of a heat-shock inducible gene expression system in C. merolae. CMJ101C, encoding a small heat shock protein, is transcribed only when cells are exposed to an elevated temperature. Using a superfolder GFP as a reporter protein, the 200-bp upstream region of CMJ101C orf was determined to be the optimal promoter for heat-shock induction. The optimal temperature to induce expression is 50°C, at which C. merolae cells are able to proliferate. At least a 30-min heat shock is required for the expression of a protein of interest and a 60-min heat shock yields the maximum level of protein expression. After the heat shock, the mRNA level decreases rapidly. As an example of the system, the expression of a dominant negative form of chloroplast division DRP5B protein, which has a mutation in the GTPase domain, was induced. Expression of the dominant negative DRP5B resulted in the appearance of aberrant-shaped cells in which two daughter chloroplasts and the cells are still connected by a small DRP5B positive tube-like structure. This result suggests that the dominant negative DRP5B inhibited the final scission of the chloroplast division site, but not the earlier stages of division site constriction. It is also suggested that cell cycle progression is not arrested by the impairment of chloroplast division at the final stage. PMID:25337786

  5. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant’s defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis. PMID:26902148

  6. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant's defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis. PMID:26902148

  7. Effect of meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid from Machilus thunbergii Sieb et Zucc on MMP-1 expression in heat shock-induced cultured primary human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-In; Moon, Hyungin; Jung, Jae-Chul

    2006-08-01

    Ethanol and aqueous extracts of Machilus thunbergii Sieb et Zucc (Lauraceae) used traditionally for the treatment of a variety of diseases were screened in vitro for MMP-1 inhibitory actions. Meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDGA) from the stem bark of M. thunbergii showed a significant inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 in primary human fibroblasts by heat shock-induced. This study investigated the effect of MDGA isolated from M. thunbergii on heat shock-induced premature skin aging. MDGA reduced the expression of MMP-1 at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner in heat shock-induced cultured primary human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results show that MDGA can prevent the harmful effects of heat (and/or IR) that lead to skin aging. PMID:16775809

  8. Prediction and measurement of heat transfer rates for the shock-induced unsteady laminar boundary layer on a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The unsteady laminar boundary layer induced by the flow-initiating shock wave passing over a flat plate mounted in a shock tube was theoretically and experimentally studied in terms of heat transfer rates to the plate for shock speeds ranging from 1.695 to 7.34 km/sec. The theory presented by Cook and Chapman for the shock-induced unsteady boundary layer on a plate is reviewed with emphasis on unsteady heat transfer. A method of measuring time-dependent heat-transfer rates using thin-film heat-flux gages and an associated data reduction technique are outlined in detail. Particular consideration is given to heat-flux measurement in short-duration ionized shocktube flows. Experimental unsteady plate heat transfer rates obtained in both air and nitrogen using thin-film heat-flux gages generally agree well with theoretical predictions. The experimental results indicate that the theory continues to predict the unsteady boundary layer behavior after the shock wave leaves the trailing edge of the plate even though the theory is strictly applicable only for the time interval in which the shock remains on the plate.

  9. Effect of patchouli alcohol on the regulation of heat shock-induced oxidative stress in IEC-6 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Jiang, Linshu; Liu, Fenghua; Chen, Yuping; Xu, Lei; Li, Deyin; Ma, Yunfei; Li, Huanrong; Xu, Jianqin

    2016-08-01

    Purpose Patchouli alcohol (PA) is used to treat gastrointestinal dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the function of PA in the regulated process of oxidative stress in rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). Materials and methods Oxidative stress was stimulated by exposing IEC-6 cells to heat shock (42 °C for 3 h). IEC-6 cells in treatment groups were pretreated with various concentrations of PA (10, 40, and 80 ng/mL) for 3 h before heat shock. Results Heat shock caused damage to the morphology of IEC-6 cells, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Moreover, mRNA and protein expression by target genes related to oxidative stress in heat shock were also altered. Specifically, the mRNA expression by HSP70, HSP90, GSH-px, NRF2 nd HO-1were all increased, and Nrf2 and Keap1 protein expression were increased after heat shock. However, pretreatment with PA weakened the level of damage to the cellular morphology, and decreased the MDA content caused by heat shock, indicating PA had cytoprotective activities. Pretreatment with PA at high dose significantly increased generation of intracellular ROS. Compared with the heat shock group alone, PA pretreatment significantly decreased the mRNA expression by HSP70, HSP90, SOD, CAT, GSH-px, KEAP1 and HO-1. Furthermore, the high dose of PA significantly increased Nrf2 protein expression, while both the intermediate and high dose of PA significantly increased HO-1 protein expression. Conclusion Heat-shock-induced oxidative stress in IEC-6 cells, and PA could alleviate the Nrf2-Keap1 cellular oxidative stress responses. PMID:27056378

  10. Heat shock-induced interactions among nuclear HSFs detected by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pack, Chan-Gi; Ahn, Sang-Gun

    2015-07-31

    The cellular response to stress is primarily controlled in cells via transcriptional activation by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 is well-known to form homotrimers for activation upon heat shock and subsequently bind to target DNAs, such as heat-shock elements, by forming stress granules. A previous study demonstrated that nuclear HSF1 and HSF2 molecules in live cells interacted with target DNAs on the stress granules. However, the process underlying the binding interactions of HSF family in cells upon heat shock remains unclear. This study demonstrate for the first time that the interaction kinetics among nuclear HSF1, HSF2, and HSF4 upon heat shock can be detected directly in live cells using dual color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). FCCS analyses indicated that the binding between HSFs was dramatically changed by heat shock. Interestingly, the recovery kinetics of interaction between HSF1 molecules after heat shock could be represented by changes in the relative interaction amplitude and mobility. - Highlights: • The binding interactions among nuclear HSFs were successfully detected. • The binding kinetics between HSF1s during recovery was quantified. • HSF2 and HSF4 strongly formed hetero-complex, even before heat shock. • Nuclear HSF2 and HSF4 bound to HSF1 only after heat shock.

  11. Effects of several factors on the heat-shock-induced thermotolerance of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Pagán, R; Condón, S; Sala, F J

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the temperature at which Listeria monocytogenes had been grown (4 or 37 degrees C) on the response to heat shocks of different durations at different temperatures was investigated. For cells grown at 4 degrees C, the effect of storage, prior to and after heat shock, on the induced thermotolerance was also studied. Death kinetics of heat-shocked cells is also discussed. For L. monocytogenes grown at 37 degrees C, the greatest response to heat shock was a fourfold increase in thermotolerance. For L. monocytogenes grown at 4 degrees C, the greatest response to heat shock was a sevenfold increase in thermotolerance. The only survival curves of cells to have shoulders were those for cells that had been heat shocked. A 3% concentration of sodium chloride added to the recovery medium made these shoulders disappear and decreased decimal reduction times. The percentage of cells for which thermotolerance increased after a heat shock was smaller the milder the heat shock and the longer the prior storage. PMID:9251209

  12. Heat shock induces a loss of rRNA-encoding DNA repeats in Brassica nigra.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, E R; Schaal, B A

    1996-01-01

    Stress-induced mutations may play an important role in the evolution of plants. Plants do not sequester a germ line, and thus any stress-induced mutations could be passed on to future generations. We report a study of the effects of heat shock on genomic components of Brassica nigra Brassicaceae. Plants were submitted to heat stress, and the copy number of two nuclear-encoded single-copy genes, rRNA-encoding DNA (rDNA) and a chloroplast DNA gene, was determined and compared to a nonstressed control group. We determined whether genomic changes were inherited by examining copy number in the selfed progeny of control and heat-treated individuals. No effects of heat shock on copy number of the single-copy nuclear genes or on chloroplast DNA are found. However, heat shock did cause a statistically significant reduction in rDNA copies inherited by the F1 generation. In addition, we propose a DNA damage-reppair hypothesis to explain the reduction in rDNA caused by heat shock. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8643652

  13. FTSJ2, a Heat Shock-Inducible Mitochondrial Protein, Suppresses Cell Invasion and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ken-Yo; Liu, Fang-Chueh; Chong, Kowit-Yu; Cheng, Winston T. K.; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA large subunit methyltransferase J (RrmJ), an Escherichia coli heat shock protein, is responsible for 2′-O-ribose methylation in 23S rRNA. In mammals, three close homologs of RrmJ have been identified and have been designated as FTSJ1, FTSJ2 and FTSJ3; however, little is known about these genes. In this study, we characterized the mammalian FTSJ2, which was the most related protein to RrmJ in a phylogenetic analysis that had similar amino acid sequence features and tertiary protein structures of RrmJ. FTSJ2 was first identified in this study as a nucleus encoded mitochondrial protein that preserves the heat shock protein character in mammals in which the mRNA expressions was increased in porcine lung tissues and A549 cells after heat shock treatment. In addition, a recent study in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) suggested that the FTSJ2 gene is located in a novel oncogenic locus. However, our results demonstrate that the expression of FTSJ2 mRNA was decreased in the more invasive subline (CL1-5) of the lung adenocarcinoma cells (CL1) compared with the less invasive subline (CL1-0), and overexpression of FTSJ2 resulted in the inhibition of cell invasion and migration in the rhabdomyosarcoma cell (TE671). In conclusion, our findings indicate that mammalian FTSJ2 is a mitochondrial ortholog of E. coli RrmJ and conserves the heat shock protein properties. Moreover, FTSJ2 possesses suppressive effects on the invasion and migration of cancer cells. PMID:24595062

  14. Differential heat shock tolerance and expression of heat shock inducible proteins in two stored-product psocids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent recognition of psocid infestations as a major concern in stored products, where their management with fumigants and conventional insecticides has proven difficult, and also the recent reemergence of heat treatment as a potential tactic for control of stored-product insects led to the pres...

  15. Heat-shock-induced refolding entails rapid degradation of bsrG toxin mRNA by RNases Y and J1.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Natalie; Brantl, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    Gene regulation accomplished by alternative folding of an mRNA is a widely used mechanism. Classical examples are the various transcriptional attenuation mechanisms that employ, for example, leader peptide translation, or binding of a modified protein, an uncharged tRNA or an antisense RNA to the 5' untranslated region of an mRNA. With the discovery of transcriptional and translational riboswitches, it became clear that small metabolites or even metal ions can also alter RNA secondary structures and, hence, gene expression. In addition, biophysical factors like temperature can affect RNA folding, as exemplified by RNA thermometers. We have investigated in detail the type I toxin-antitoxin system bsrG/SR4 from Bacillus subtilis. The antitoxin SR4 is a cis-encoded regulatory RNA that neutralizes BsrG toxin action. SR4 prevents toxin expression by promoting degradation of the toxin mRNA and inhibiting its translation. In addition, upon temperature shock the amount of toxin mRNA decreases significantly. Here, we demonstrate that heat shock induces a refolding in the central region of the toxin mRNA that makes it more accessible to degradation by RNases Y and J1. Furthermore, we show that BsrG might play a role at the onset of stationary phase, when the antitoxin SR4 can no longer prevent toxin synthesis. PMID:26802042

  16. Shock-induced heating and millisecond boiling in gels and tissue due to high intensity focused ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Canney, Michael S.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Bessonova, Olga V.; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear propagation causes high intensity ultrasound waves to distort and generate higher harmonics, which are more readily absorbed and converted to heat than the fundamental frequency. Although such nonlinear effects have previously been investigated and found not to significantly alter high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments, two results reported here change this paradigm. One is that at clinically relevant intensity levels, HIFU waves not only become distorted but form shock waves in tissue. The other is that the generated shock waves heat the tissue to boiling in much less time than predicted for undistorted or weakly distorted waves. In this study, a 2-MHz HIFU source operating at peak intensities up to 25,000 W/cm2 was used to heat transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver samples. Initiation of boiling was detected using high-speed photography, a 20-MHz passive cavitation detector, and fluctuation of the drive voltage at the HIFU source. The time to boil obtained experimentally was used to quantify heating rates and was compared to calculations using weak shock theory and the shock amplitudes obtained from nonlinear modeling and from measurements with a fiber optic hydrophone. As observed experimentally and predicted by calculations, shocked focal waveforms produced boiling in as little as 3 ms and the time to initiate boiling was sensitive to small changes in HIFU output. Nonlinear heating due to shock waves is therefore important to HIFU and clinicians should be aware of the potential for very rapid boiling since it alters treatments. PMID:20018433

  17. Shock-induced heating and millisecond boiling in gels and tissue due to high intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Canney, Michael S; Khokhlova, Vera A; Bessonova, Olga V; Bailey, Michael R; Crum, Lawrence A

    2010-02-01

    Nonlinear propagation causes high-intensity ultrasound waves to distort and generate higher harmonics, which are more readily absorbed and converted to heat than the fundamental frequency. Although such nonlinear effects have been investigated previously and found to not significantly alter high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments, two results reported here change this paradigm. One is that at clinically relevant intensity levels, HIFU waves not only become distorted but form shock waves in tissue. The other is that the generated shock waves heat the tissue to boiling in much less time than predicted for undistorted or weakly distorted waves. In this study, a 2-MHz HIFU source operating at peak intensities up to 25,000 W/cm(2) was used to heat transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver samples. Initiation of boiling was detected using high-speed photography, a 20-MHz passive cavitation detector and fluctuation of the drive voltage at the HIFU source. The time to boil obtained experimentally was used to quantify heating rates and was compared with calculations using weak shock theory and the shock amplitudes obtained from nonlinear modeling and measurements with a fiber optic hydrophone. As observed experimentally and predicted by calculations, shocked focal waveforms produced boiling in as little as 3 ms and the time to initiate boiling was sensitive to small changes in HIFU output. Nonlinear heating as a result of shock waves is therefore important to HIFU, and clinicians should be aware of the potential for very rapid boiling because it alters treatments. PMID:20018433

  18. Effect of heat-shock induced oxidative stress is suppressed in BcZAT12 expressing drought tolerant tomato.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kavita; Singh, Major; Rai, Avinash Chandra

    2013-11-01

    The transcription factor ZAT12 is a member of stress-responsive C2H2 type zinc finger protein (ZFP) reported to control the expression of stress-activated genes mediated via ROS in plants. BcZAT12-transformed tomato cv. H-86, var. Kashi vishesh (lines ZT1-ZT6) over-expressing the gene product is demonstrated herein to be tolerant to heat-shock (HS)-induced oxidative stress. Results reveal that the relative expression of ZAT12 as well as heat induced Hsp17.4 and Hsp21 gene transcripts increased in transgenic upon exposure to HS. The transformed tomato lines ZT1 and ZT5 had significantly lowered free radical formation, improved electrolyte leakage, relative water content and chlorophyll levels with an enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase when exposed to HS. HS-induced oxidative stress by over-expression of the BcZAT12 gene transcripts in tomato as well as by largely enhancing the ROS-scavenging capacity and up regulation of Hsp transcripts. This enables the transgenic tomato plants to acquire a greater ability to counteract HS-induced oxidative stress, being endowed with more reduced antioxidant pools. The use of these HS-tolerant tomato lines could possibly be used for tomato cultivation in the areas affected by sudden temperature changes. PMID:23962802

  19. Shock Induced Separating Flows in Scramjet Intakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yufeng; Rincon, Daniel; Zheng, Yao

    Shock induced separating flows in a scramjet intake has been studied by using a computational fluid dynamics approach. A configuration of scramjet intake geometry consisting of two exterior compression ramps, followed by a subsequent inlet and interior isolator/diffuser assembly, is chosen. The flow conditions are incoming Mach 7 with free-stream static temperature of 46.3K and wall temperature of 300K, respectively. Consequently, oblique shock wave will be formed and its interaction with viscous boundary layers will lead to flow separation that is responsible for the loss of mass flow, total pressure and several other effects. Simulations confirmed that it is necessary to include the cowl wedge in order to predict wall pressure distributions along the lower surface of the intake walls. It is also shown that mesh topology has some influences on prediction results with structured mesh gives better predictions than that of hybrid mesh. A total of eight turbulence models have been applied and results have shown reasonably good agreement with the experimental measurements and other numerical predictions, with small differences occur in localized regions particularly after shock reflection inside the intake channel. Not surprisingly, shock induced flow separation occurs and it correlates well with higher wall pressure and heating downstream. This phenomenon will have significant impact on deteriorating boundary layer property and consequently the engine performance.

  20. Heat shock induced excision of selectable marker genes in transgenic banana by the Cre-lox site-specific recombination system.

    PubMed

    Chong-Pérez, Borys; Kosky, Rafael G; Reyes, Maritza; Rojas, Luis; Ocaña, Bárbara; Tejeda, Marisol; Pérez, Blanca; Angenon, Geert

    2012-06-30

    Selectable marker genes are indispensable for efficient production of transgenic events, but are no longer needed after the selection process and may cause public concern and technological problems. Although several gene excision systems exist, few have been optimized for vegetatively propagated crops. Using a Cre-loxP auto-excision strategy, we obtained transgenic banana plants cv. Grande Naine (Musa AAA) devoid of the marker gene used for selection. We used T-DNA vectors with the cre recombinase gene under control of a heat shock promoter and selectable marker gene cassettes placed between two loxP sites in direct orientation, and a gene of interest inserted outside of the loxP sites. Heat shock promoters pGmHSP17.6-L and pHSP18.2, from soybean and Arabidopsis respectively, were tested. A transient heat shock treatment of primary transgenic embryos was sufficient for inducing cre and excising cre and the marker genes. Excision efficiency, as determined by PCR and Southern hybridization was 59.7 and 40.0% for the GmHSP17.6-L and HSP18.2 promoters, respectively. Spontaneous excision was not observed in 50 plants derived from untreated transgenic embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report describing an efficient marker gene removal system for banana. The method described is simple and might be generally applicable for the production of marker-free transgenic plants of many crop species. PMID:21839123

  1. Benjamin Franklin and Shock-Induced Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Stanley; Zaromb, Franklin

    2006-01-01

    Shock-induced amnesia received considerable attention after Cerletti popularized electroconvulsive shock therapy in the late 1930s. Yet, often overlooked is the fact that Benjamin Franklin recognized that passing electricity through the head could affect memory for the traumatic event. Franklin described his findings on himself and others in…

  2. Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dattelbaum, Dana M; Sheffield, Steve; Engelke, Ray; Manner, Virginia; Chellappa, Raja; Yoo, Choong - Shik

    2011-01-20

    The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

  3. Shock-induced defects in bulk materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T.

    1998-03-01

    In this paper examples of the shock-induced defects produced during shock compression which correlate with microstructure/mechanical property changes induced in materials due to shock prestraining are discussed. The characteristics of the shock impulse(peak shock pressure, pulse duration, and rarefaction rate) imparted to the material under investigation and the shock-induced defects produced in numerous metals and alloys are compared with their deformation behavior at ordinary rates of deformation. Examples of the range of defects observed in shock-recovered metals and alloys, include: dislocations, deformation twins, point defects, and residual metastable remnants from pressure-induced phase transformations. Results concerning the influence of interstitial content on the propensity of {omega}-phase formation and its structure in high-purity and A-7O Ti are presented. The influence of shock-wave deformation on the phase stability and substructure evolution of high-purity (low-interstitial) titanium and A-7O (3,700 ppm oxygen) titanium were probed utilizing real-time velocity interferometry (VISAR) and soft shock-recovery techniques. Suppression of the {alpha}-{omega} pressure-induced phase transformation in A-70 Ti, containing a high interstitial oxygen content, is seen to simultaneously correspond with the suppression of deformation twinning.

  4. Heat shock protein 70 negatively regulates the heat-shock-induced suppression of the I{kappa}B/NF-{kappa}B cascade by facilitating I{kappa}B kinase renaturation and blocking its further denaturation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Choon-Taek; Kim, Young Whan ||; Han, Sung Koo ||; Shim, Young-Soo ||; Yoo, Chul-Gyu ||. E-mail: cgyoo@snu.ac.kr

    2005-07-01

    Heat shock (HS) treatment has been previously shown to suppress the I{kappa}B/nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) cascade by denaturing, and thus inactivating I{kappa}B kinase (IKK). HS is characterized by the induction of a group of heat shock proteins (HSPs). However, their role in the HS-induced suppression of the I{kappa}B/NF-{kappa}B cascade is unclear. Adenovirus-mediated HSP70 overexpression was found not to suppress the TNF-{alpha}-induced activation of the I{kappa}B/NF-{kappa}B pathway, thus suggesting that HSP70 is unlikely to suppress this pathway. When TNF-{alpha}-induced activation of the I{kappa}B/NF-{kappa}B pathway was regained 24 h after HS, HSP70 was found to be highly up-regulated. Moreover, blocking HSP70 induction delayed TNF-{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation and the resolubilization of IKK. In addition, HSP70 associated physically with IKK, suggesting that HSP70 is involved in the recovery process via molecular chaperone effect. Adenovirus-mediated HSP70 overexpression prior to HS blocked the I{kappa}B{alpha} stabilizing effect of HS by suppressing IKK insolubilization. Moreover, the up-regulation of endogenous HSP70 by preheating, suppressed this subsequent HS-induced IKK insolubilization, and this effect was abrogated by blocking HSP70 induction. These findings indicate that HSP70 accumulates during HS and negatively regulates the HS-induced suppression of the I{kappa}B/NF-{kappa}B cascade by facilitating the renaturation of IKK and blocking its further denaturation.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Shock Induced Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomar, Vikas; Zhou, Min

    2004-07-01

    This research focuses on molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of shock induced detonation in Fe2O3+Al thermite mixtures. A MD model is developed to simulate non-equilibrium stress-induced reactions. The focus is on establishing a criterion for reaction initiation, energy content and rate of energy release as functions of mixture and reinforcement characteristics. A cluster functional potential is proposed for this purpose. The potential uses the electronegativity equalization to account for changes in the charge of different species according to local environment. Parameters in the potential are derived to fit to the properties of Fe, Al, Fe2O3, and Al2O3. NPT MD simulations are carried out to qualitatively check the energetics of the forward (Fe2O3+Al) as well as backward (Al2O3+Fe) thermite reactions. The results show that the potential can account for the energetics of thermite reactions.

  6. Multiple-shocks induced nanocrystallization in iron

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Tomoki; Hirose, Akio; Sano, Tomokazu; Arakawa, Kazuto

    2014-07-14

    We found that multiple shots of femtosecond laser-driven shock pulses changed coarse crystalline iron grains with a size of 140 μm into nanocrystals with a high density of dislocations, which had never been observed in conventional shock processes. We performed metallurgical microstructure observations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness measurements using nanoindentation on cross-sections of shocked iron. TEM images showed that grains with sizes from 10 nm through 1 μm exist within 2 μm of the surface, where the dislocation density reached 2 × 10{sup 15 }m{sup −2}. Results of the hardness measurements showed a significant increase in hardness in the nanocrystallized region. We suggest that the formation of a high density of dislocations, which is produced by a single shock, induces local three-dimensional pile-up by the multiple-shocks, which causes grain refinement at the nanoscale.

  7. Shock induced crystallization of amorphous Nickel powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukara, Mathew; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    Recent experimental work has shown the efficacy of amorphous Ni/crystalline Al composites as energetic materials, with flame velocities twice that of a comparable crystalline Ni/crystalline Al system. Of further interest is the recrystallization mechanisms in the pure amorphous Ni powders, both thermally induced and mechanically induced. We present large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of shock-induced recrystallization in loosely packed amorphous Nickel powders. We study the time dependent nucleation and growth processes by holding the shocked samples at the induced pressures and temperatures for extended periods following the passage of the shock (up to 6 ns). We find that the nanostructure of the recrystallized Ni and time scales of recrystallization are dependent on the piston velocity. At low piston velocities, nucleation events are rare, leading to long incubation times and a relatively coarse nanostructure. At higher piston velocities, local variations in temperature due to jetting phenomena and void collapse, give rise to multiple nucleation events on time scales comparable to the passage of the shock wave, leading to the formation of a fine-grained nanostructure. Interestingly, we observe that the nucleation and growth process occurs in two steps, with the first nuclei crystallizing into the BCC structure, before evolving over time into the expected FCC structure. U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency, HDTRA1-10-1-0119 (Program Manager Suhithi Peiris).

  8. Benjamin Franklin and shock-induced amnesia.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Zaromb, Franklin

    2006-04-01

    Shock-induced amnesia received considerable attention after Cerletti popularized electroconvulsive shock therapy in the late 1930s. Yet, often overlooked is the fact that Benjamin Franklin recognized that passing electricity through the head could affect memory for the traumatic event. Franklin described his findings on himself and others in several letters from the mid-1700s, 2 of which were published in his lifetime. What he observed was confirmed in 1783 by physician Jan Ingenhousz, who was one of his correspondents. Although Ingenhousz had lost his memory for his electrical accident and was confused immediately afterward, he felt strangely elated and unusually sharp the next morning. Hence, he called for clinical trials with patients with melancholia who were not responding to more conventional therapies. After Franklin received Ingenhousz's letter, he also called for clinical trials. Neither man, however, tied the possible new cure for melancholia to the memory loss--nor did the operators that began to treat some patients with melancholia successfully with cranial shocks. Only much later would the amnesia be thought to be associated with the cure. PMID:16594840

  9. Shock-induced arrhythmogenesis in the myocardium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trayanova, Natalia; Eason, James

    2002-09-01

    The focus of this article is the investigation of the electrical behavior of the normal myocardium following the delivery of high-strength defibrillation shocks. To achieve its goal, the study employs a complex three-dimensional defibrillation model of a slice of the canine heart characterized with realistic geometry and fiber architecture. Defibrillation shocks of various strengths and electrode configurations are delivered to the model preparation in which a sustained ventricular tachycardia is induced. Instead of analyzing the post-shock electrical events as progressions of transmembrane potential maps, the study examines the evolution of the postshock phase singularities (PSs) which represent the organizing centers of reentry. The simulation results demonstrate that the shock induces numerous PSs the majority of which vanish before the reentrant wavefronts associated with them complete half of a single rotation. Failed shocks are characterized with one or more PSs that survive the initial period of PS annihilation to establish a new postshock arrhythmia. The increase in shock strength results in an overall decrease of the number of PSs that survive over 200 ms after the end of the shock; however, the exact behavior of the PSs is strongly dependent on the shock electrode configuration.

  10. Shock induced chemistry in granular Ni/Al nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukara, Mathew; Germann, Timothy; Kober, Edward; Strachan, Alejandro

    Intermolecular reactive composites find diverse applications in defense, microelectronics and medicine, where strong, localized sources of heat are required. However, fundamental questions of the initiation and propagation mechanisms on the nanoscale remain to be addressed, which is a roadblock to their widespread application. Motivated by experimental work which has shown that high-energy ball milling can significantly improve the reactivity as well as the ease of ignition of Ni/Al inter-metallic composites, we present large scale (~ 41 million atom) molecular dynamics simulations of shock-induced chemistry in granular Ni/Al nano-composites, which are designed to capture the microstructure that is obtained post milling. Shock propagation in these granular composites is observed to be extremely diffuse at low piston velocities, leading to a large inhomogeneity in the local stress states of the material. At higher piston velocities, the shock front is more homogeneous as a consequence of a change in the compaction mechanism; from plastic deformation mediated pore collapse at low piston velocities, to fluid filling of the pores at higher impact velocities. The flow of molten ejecta into the pores subsequently leads to the formation of vortices, where the reaction progresses much faster than in the bulk.

  11. Study of Unsteady, Sphere-Driven, Shock-Induced Combustion for Application to Hypervelocity Airbreathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axdahl, Erik; Kumar, Ajay; Wilhite, Alan

    2011-01-01

    A premixed, shock-induced combustion engine has been proposed in the past as a viable option for operating in the Mach 10 to 15 range in a single stage to orbit vehicle. In this approach, a shock is used to initiate combustion in a premixed fuel/air mixture. Apparent advantages over a conventional scramjet engine include a shorter combustor that, in turn, results in reduced weight and heating loads. There are a number of technical challenges that must be understood and resolved for a practical system: premixing of fuel and air upstream of the combustor without premature combustion, understanding and control of instabilities of the shock-induced combustion front, ability to produce sufficient thrust, and the ability to operate over a range of Mach numbers. This study evaluated the stability of the shock-induced combustion front in a model problem of a sphere traveling in a fuel/air mixture at high Mach numbers. A new, rapid analysis method was developed and applied to study such flows. In this method the axisymmetric, body-centric Navier-Stokes equations were expanded about the stagnation streamline of a sphere using the local similarity hypothesis in order to reduce the axisymmetric equations to a quasi-1D set of equations. These reduced sets of equations were solved in the stagnation region for a number of flow conditions in a premixed, hydrogen/air mixture. Predictions from the quasi-1D analysis showed very similar stable or unstable behavior of the shock-induced combustion front as compared to experimental studies and higher-fidelity computational results. This rapid analysis tool could be used in parametric studies to investigate effects of fuel rich/lean mixtures, non-uniformity in mixing, contaminants in the mixture, and different chemistry models.

  12. Cytochrome c Is Released in a Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Manner and Is Degraded via Caspase-Like Proteases in Tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 Cells en Route to Heat Shock-Induced Cell Death1

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Rosa Anna; Valenti, Daniela; Bobba, Antonella; Merafina, Riccardo Sandro; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia

    2006-01-01

    To gain some insight into the mechanism of plant programmed cell death, certain features of cytochrome c (cyt c) release were investigated in heat-shocked tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright-Yellow 2 cells in the 2- to 6-h time range. We found that 2 h after heat shock, cyt c is released from intact mitochondria into the cytoplasm as a functionally active protein. Such a release did not occur in the presence of superoxide anion dismutase and catalase, thus showing that it depends on reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, ROS production due to xanthine plus xanthine oxidase results in cyt c release in sister control cultures. Maximal cyt c release was found 2 h after heat shock; later, activation of caspase-3-like protease was found to increase with time. Activation of this protease did not occur in the presence of ROS scavenger enzymes. The released cyt c was found to be progressively degraded in a manner prevented by either the broad-range caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk) or the specific inhibitor of caspase-3 (AC-DEVD-CHO), which have no effect on cyt c release. In the presence of these inhibitors, a significant increase in survival of the cells undergoing programmed cell death was found. We conclude that ROS can trigger release of cyt c, but do not cause cell death, which requires caspase-like activation. PMID:16531480

  13. Production of Reactive Oxygen Species, Alteration of Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase, and Impairment of Mitochondrial Metabolism Are Early Events in Heat Shock-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Rosa Anna; de Pinto, Maria Concetta; Valenti, Daniela; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia; De Gara, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To gain some insight into the mechanisms by which plant cells die as a result of abiotic stress, we exposed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright-Yellow 2 cells to heat shock and investigated cell survival as a function of time after heat shock induction. Heat treatment at 55°C triggered processes leading to programmed cell death (PCD) that was complete after 72 h. In the early phase, cells undergoing PCD showed an immediate burst in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2·-) anion production. Consistently, death was prevented by the antioxidants ascorbate (ASC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Actinomycin D and cycloheximide, inhibitors of transcription and translation, respectively, also prevented cell death, but with a lower efficiency. Induction of PCD resulted in gradual oxidation of endogenous ASC; this was accompanied by a decrease in both the amount and the specific activity of the cytosolic ASC peroxidase (cAPX). A reduction in cAPX gene expression was also found in the late PCD phase. Moreover, changes of cAPX kinetic properties were found in PCD cells. Production of ROS in PCD cells was accompanied by early inhibition of glucose (Glc) oxidation, with a strong impairment of mitochondrial function as shown by an increase in cellular NAD(P)H fluorescence, and by failure of mitochondria isolated from cells undergoing PCD to generate membrane potential and to oxidize succinate in a manner controlled by ADP. Thus, we propose that in the early phase of tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 cell PCD, ROS production occurs, perhaps because of damage of the cell antioxidant system, with impairment of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:15020761

  14. Investigation of shock-induced combustion past blunt projectiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, J. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1996-01-01

    A numerical study is conducted to simulate shock-induced combustion in premixed hydrogen-air mixtures at various free-stream conditions and parameters. Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock-induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A seven-species, seven reactions finite rate hydrogen-air chemical reaction mechanism is used combined with a finite-difference, shock-fitting method to solve the complete set of Navier-Stokes and species conservation equations. The study has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one-dimensional wave-interaction model.

  15. Intermittency and Topology of Shock Induced Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez, Jackson; Redondo, Jose M.; Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Malik, Nadeem; Vila, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The advance of a Rayleigh-Taylor front is described in Linden & Redondo (1991),[1-3] and may be shown to follow a quadratic law in time where the width of the growing region of instability depends on the local mixing efficiency of the different density fluids that accelerate against each other g is the acceleration and A is the Atwood number defined as the diference of densities divided by their sum. This results show the independence of the large amplitude structures on the initial conditions the width of the mixing region depends also on the intermittency of the turbulence. Then dimensional analysis may also depend on the relevant reduced acceleration driven time and the molecular reactive time akin to Damkholer number and the fractal structure of the contact zone [2,4]. Detailed experiments and simulations on RT and RM shock induced fronts analized with respect to structure functions are able to determine which mechanisms are most effective in local mixing which increase the effective fractal dimension, as well as the effect of higher order geometrical parameters, such as the structure functions, in non-homogeneous fluids (Mahjoub et al 1998)[5]. The structure of a Mixing blob shows a relatively sharp head with most of the mixing taking place at the sides due to what seems to be shear instability very similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but with sideways accelerations. The formation of the blobs and spikes with their secondary instabilities produces a turbulent cascade, evident just after about 1 non-dimensional time unit, from a virtual time origin that takes into account the linear growth phase, as can be seen by the growth of the fractal dimension for different volume fractions. Two-dimensional cuts of the 3D flow also show that vortex flows have closed or spiral streamlines around their core. Examples of such flows can be also seen in the laboratory, for example at the interface of atwo-layer stratified fluid in a tank in which case streamlines

  16. Intermittency and Topology of Shock Induced Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez, Jackson; Redondo, Jose M.; Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Malik, Nadeem; Vila, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The advance of a Rayleigh-Taylor front is described in Linden & Redondo (1991),[1-3] and may be shown to follow a quadratic law in time where the width of the growing region of instability depends on the local mixing efficiency of the different density fluids that accelerate against each other g is the acceleration and A is the Atwood number defined as the diference of densities divided by their sum. This results show the independence of the large amplitude structures on the initial conditions the width of the mixing region depends also on the intermittency of the turbulence. Then dimensional analysis may also depend on the relevant reduced acceleration driven time and the molecular reactive time akin to Damkholer number and the fractal structure of the contact zone [2,4]. Detailed experiments and simulations on RT and RM shock induced fronts analized with respect to structure functions are able to determine which mechanisms are most effective in local mixing which increase the effective fractal dimension, as well as the effect of higher order geometrical parameters, such as the structure functions, in non-homogeneous fluids (Mahjoub et al 1998)[5]. The structure of a Mixing blob shows a relatively sharp head with most of the mixing taking place at the sides due to what seems to be shear instability very similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but with sideways accelerations. The formation of the blobs and spikes with their secondary instabilities produces a turbulent cascade, evident just after about 1 non-dimensional time unit, from a virtual time origin that takes into account the linear growth phase, as can be seen by the growth of the fractal dimension for different volume fractions. Two-dimensional cuts of the 3D flow also show that vortex flows have closed or spiral streamlines around their core. Examples of such flows can be also seen in the laboratory, for example at the interface of atwo-layer stratified fluid in a tank in which case streamlines

  17. Shock-induced nanobubble collapse and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedadi, Mohammad Hossein

    The shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles in water is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations based on a reactive force field. Monitoring the collapse of a cavitation nanobubble, we observe a focused nanojet at the onset of bubble shrinkage and a water hammer shock wave upon bubble collapse. The nanojet length scales linearly with the nanobubble radius, as observed in experiments on micron-to-millimeter size bubbles. The shock induces dramatic structural changes, including an ice-VII-like structural motif at a particle velocity of approximately 1 km/s. The incipient ice VII formation and the calculated Hugoniot curve are in good agreement with experimental results. Moreover, a substantial number of positive and negative ions appear when the nanojet hits the distal side of the nanobubble and the water hammer shock forms. Furthermore, two promising applications of shock-induced nanobubble collapse have been explored. Our simulations of poration in lipid bilayers due to shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles reveal penetration of nanojets into lipid bilayers. The nanojet impact generates shear flow of water on bilayer leaflets and pressure gradients across them, which transiently enhance the bilayer permeability by creating nanopores through which water molecules translocate across the bilayer. The effects of nanobubble size and temperature on the porosity of lipid bilayers are examined. Finally, the shock-induced collapse of CO2-filled nanobubbles in water is investigated. The energetic nanojet and high-pressure water hammer shock formed during and after collapse of the nanobubble trigger mechano-chemical H2O-CO2 reactions, some of which lead to splitting of water molecules. The dominant pathways through which splitting of water molecules occur are identified.

  18. Shock induced magnetic effects in fine particle iron dispersions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic effects associated with shock induced transformation of fcc antiferromagnetic iron precipitates in polycrystalline copper disks at levels up to 5 GPa in weak magnetic fields (H not greater than 0.5 Oe) were investigated. The demagnetization and anisotropy associated with second order transition, the effects of plastic deformation in imparting magnetic anisotropy and magnetic hardening, and the influence of post shock thermal transients on magnetization associated with recovery, recrystallization and grain growth were studied. It was found that on the microsecond time scale of the shock induced first order transformation, the field sense is recorded in the transformed iron particles. For a given particle size the degree of transformation of fcc iron depends on the level of the shock. For a given shock level the resultant magnetic properties depend on the particle size distribution, with maximum effects noted in specimens with 400 to 600 A particles.

  19. Shock-induced reaction synthesis (SRS) of nickel aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Thadhani, N.N.; Work, S. , New Mexico Tech, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 ); Graham, R.A.; Hammetter, W.F. )

    1992-05-01

    Shock-induced chemical reactions between nickel and aluminum powders (mixed in Ni{sub 3}Al stoichiometry) are used for the synthesis of nickel aluminides. It is shown that the extent of shock-induced chemical reactions and the nature of the shock-synthesized products are influenced by the morphology of the starting powders. Irregular (flaky type) and fine morphologies of the powders undergo complete reactions in contrast to partial reactions occurring in coarse and uniform morphology powders under identical shock loading conditions. Furthermore, irregular morphology powders result in the formation of the equiatomic (B2 phase) NiAl compound while the Ni{sub 3}Al (L1{sub 2} phase) compound is the reaction product with coarse and regular morphology powders. Shock-induced reaction synthesis can be characterized as a bulk reaction process involving an intense mechanochemical'' mechanism. It is a process in which shock compression induces fluid-like plastic flow and mixing, and enhances the reactivity due to the introduction of defects and cleansing of particle surfaces, which strongly influence the synthesis process.

  20. Shock-induced formation mechanism of seifertite in shergottites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bläß, Ulrich W.

    2013-05-01

    The Martian meteorites Shergotty, Zagami and Dhofar 378 have been re-investigated in order to elucidate the shock-induced formation of seifertite. The occurrence of orthorhombic seifertite (α-PbO2 structured SiO2) has been confirmed for the mesostasis of Shergotty and Zagami by transmission electron microscopy with lattice parameters of a = 4.05(1) Å, b = 5.05(1) Å and c = 4.45(1) Å. Seifertite crystals are interpreted as shock-induced transformation products occurring together with maskelynite of both plagioclase and alkali-feldspar composition in a largely preserved eutectic crystallisation texture. Shock-induced microstructures in accessory minerals demonstrate that these regions cannot have been completely re-molten. No further features indicating shock-pressures above ~30 GPa are detected. Hence, seifertite must have been formed below its stability field by a fast solid-state process. Significantly higher shock-pressures of Dhofar 378 indicate an inhibition of a potential seifertite crystallisation by resulting high post-shock temperatures. Crystallographic considerations reveal that a direct formation of seifertite from a high-pressure derivate of cristobalite is possible without breaking any silicon-oxygen bonds. Important implications arise from the existence of such a non-equilibrium pathway. Inferring shock-pressures from metastably formed phases appears implausible, and the transition pressure could be even below 30 GPa. Furthermore, the transformation product is determined by the precursor phase. Epitaxial intergrowth with other silica high-pressure polymorphs should be induced by certain features of the precursor, for example, planar defects, or heterogeneous strain conditions. Due to symmetrical considerations, seifertite will get amorphous during a potential back-transformation, which provides an explanation for the formation of numerous amorphous lamellae.

  1. Poration of lipid bilayers by shock-induced nanobubble collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Amit; Vedadi, Mohammad; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2011-01-01

    We investigate molecular mechanisms of poration in lipid bilayers due to shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles. Our multimillion-atom molecular dynamics simulations reveal dynamics of nanobubble shrinkage and collapse, leading to the formation and penetration of nanojets into lipid bilayers. The nanojet impact generates shear flow of water on bilayer leaflets and pressure gradients across them, which transiently enhance the bilayer permeability by creating nanopores through which water molecules translocate rapidly across the bilayer. Effects of nanobubble size and temperature on the porosity of lipid bilayers are examined.

  2. Atomistic modeling of shock-induced void collapse in copper

    SciTech Connect

    Davila, L P; Erhart, P; Bringa, E M; Meyers, M A; Lubarda, V A; Schneider, M S; Becker, R; Kumar, M

    2005-03-09

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that shock-induced void collapse in copper occurs by emission of shear loops. These loops carry away the vacancies which comprise the void. The growth of the loops continues even after they collide and form sessile junctions, creating a hardened region around the collapsing void. The scenario seen in our simulations differs from current models that assume that prismatic loop emission is responsible for void collapse. We propose a new dislocation-based model that gives excellent agreement with the stress threshold found in the MD simulations for void collapse as a function of void radius.

  3. Shock-induced changes in HgO powder

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, E.L.; Newcomer, P.P.; Morosin, B.; Holman, G.T.; Dunn, R.G.; Graham, R.A.

    1995-10-01

    Powder compacts of HgO were subjected to explosively-generated shock-wave loading in Sandia Bear fixtures and recovered for analysis. Although XRD powder spectra show only the orthorhombic form of HgO in both the as-received and recovered samples, XRD line profiles and TEM indicate up to an order of magnitude increase in crystallite size. Magnetic data reveal a superconducting transition below 4.2 K that is attributed to metallic {alpha}-Hg formed by a partial, shock-induced decomposition of the HgO, consistent with TEM identification of {alpha}-Hg particles using a cold stage. In addition, paramagnetic impurities present in the as-received HgO powder appear to be partially converted to a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic phase that dominates the magnetic properties of the recovered powder. The amounts of both the superconducting and ferromagnetic phases vary strongly with position within the shock recovery capsules.

  4. Shock-induced luminescence from Z-cut lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, P.J.; Morris, R.W.; Asay, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    Shock-induced luminescence from lithium niobate has been studied in the stress range 1.6--21.0 GPa. Both fast-framing photography and five-channel optical pyrometry were used to observe the luminescence. The framing photography showed that the emission pattern is heterogeneous for stresses just above the dynamic yield point. A further increase of the stress resulted in a pattern which was essentially homogeneous to within the experimental spatial resolution of about 30 ..mu..m. Narrowband filters and photomultiplier tubes were used in the optical pyrometry experiments. A broadband spectrum with a peak near 700 nm was observed. A plot of the energy dissipated by the shock versus shock stress correlates very well with a plot of the 700-nm intensity versus shock stress. The mechanism for light emission in lithium niobate appears to be closely related to the dynamic yielding process.

  5. Shock induced phase transition of water: Molecular dynamics investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out using numerous force potentials to investigate the shock induced phenomenon of pure bulk liquid water. Partial phase transition was observed at single shock velocity of 4.0 km/s without requirement of any external nucleators. Change in thermodynamic variables along with radial distribution function plots and spectral analysis revealed for the first time in the literature, within the context of molecular dynamic simulations, the thermodynamic pathway leading to formation of ice VII from liquid water on shock loading. The study also revealed information for the first time in the literature about the statistical time-frame after passage of shock in which ice VII formation can be observed and variations in degree of crystallinity of the sample over the entire simulation time of 100 ns.

  6. Shock-induced synthesis of high temperature superconducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, D.S.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.

    1987-06-18

    It has now been determined that the unique features of the high pressure shock method, especially the shock-induced chemical synthesis technique, are fully applicable to high temperature superconducting materials. Extraordinarily high yields are achievable in accordance with this invention, e.g., generally in the range from about 20% to about 99%, often in the range from about 50% to about 90%, lower and higher yields, of course, also being possible. The method of this invention involves the application of a controlled high pressure shock compression pulse which can be produced in any conventional manner, e.g., by detonation of a high explosive material, the impact of a high speed projectile or the effect of intense pulsed radiation sources such as lasers or electron beams. Examples and a discussion are presented.

  7. Shock-induced deformation phenomena in magnetite and their consequences on magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznik, Boris; Kontny, Agnes; Fritz, Jörg; Gerhards, Uta

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of shock waves on magnetic and microstructural behavior of multidomain magnetite from a magnetite-bearing ore, experimentally shocked to pressures of 5, 10, 20, and 30 GPa. Changes in apparent crystallite size and lattice parameter were determined by X-ray diffraction, and grain fragmentation and defect accumulation were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic properties were characterized by low-temperature saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), susceptibility measurements around the Verwey transition as well as by hysteresis parameters at room temperature. It is established that the shock-induced refinement of magnetic domains from MD to SD-PSD range is a result of cooperative processes including brittle fragmentation of magnetite grains, plastic deformation with shear bands and twins as well as structural disordering in form of molten grains and amorphous nanoclusters. Up to 10 GPa, a decrease of coherent crystallite size, lattice parameter, saturation magnetization (Ms), and magnetic susceptibility and an increase in coercivity, SIRM, and width of Verwey transition are mostly associated with brittle grain fragmentation. Starting from 20 GPa, a slight recovery is documented in all magnetic and nonmagnetic parameters. In particular, the recovery in SIRM is correlated with an increase of the lattice constant. The recovery effect is associated with the increasing influence of shock heating/annealing at high shock pressures. The strong decrease of Ms at 30 GPa is interpreted as a result of strong lattice damage and distortion. Our results unravel the microstructural mechanisms behind the loss of magnetization and the modification of magnetic properties of magnetite and contribute to our understanding of shock-induced magnetic phenomena in impacted rocks on earth and in meteorites.

  8. Shock-induced chemistry in simple organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattelbaum, Dana

    2011-06-01

    Interrogating chemical reactions behind a shock front is immensely difficult, and as a result, the details of shock-induced chemistry remain poorly understood. Shock compression creates transient distorted structures from which molecular reactions initiate. Previous works have reported that dimerizations, polymerizations, ring-opening and decomposition reactions occur under shock compression, depending on molecular structure. Certainly for explosives, exothermic decomposition reactions ultimately drive self-supported detonation. Questions regarding the thresholds for incipient reaction for different chemical functional groups, the nature of first and subsequent reaction steps, and the influence of shock input conditions on reaction kinetics remain to be answered. Evidence of reaction can be discerned from discontinuities in the mechanical variables for reactions with a change in density along the reaction coordinate, similar to first-order phase transformations. Here, we have applied in-situ electromagnetic gauging at multiple Lagrangian positions to elucidate the evolution of multiple-wave structures associated with shock-induced reactions. We have applied in-situ gauging, in concert with reactive molecular dynamic simulations, to investigate shock-reactivity of several simple functional groups: carbon-carbon double (-C=C-) and triple bonds, and nitriles (e.g. phenylacetylene and acrylonitrile), and aromatic ring structures (benzene), all building blocks for explosives. From measurements of the reactive flow, we have obtained detailed information about the temporal evolution of the waves, and global kinetics associated with transformation(s) between partially- and fully-reacted states. Near the reactive threshold, evolution in particle velocities point to reaction timescales on the order of several hundred nanoseconds. We have defined the reactive cusp Hugoniot states, and established the relative order of group reactivity under single shock conditions. These

  9. Prediction of Shock-Induced Cavitation in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundage, Aaron

    2013-06-01

    Fluid-structure interaction problems that require estimating the response of thin structures within fluids to shock loading has wide applicability. For example, these problems may include underwater explosions and the dynamic response of ships and submarines; and biological applications such as Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and wound ballistics. In all of these applications the process of cavitation, where small cavities with dissolved gases or vapor are formed as the local pressure drops below the vapor pressure due to shock hydrodynamics, can cause significant damage to the surrounding thin structures or membranes if these bubbles collapse, generating additional shock loading. Hence, a two-phase equation of state (EOS) with three distinct regions of compression, expansion, and tension was developed to model shock-induced cavitation. This EOS was evaluated by comparing data from pressure and temperature shock Hugoniot measurements for water up to 400 kbar, and data from ultrasonic pressure measurements in tension to -0.3 kbar, to simulated responses from CTH, an Eulerian, finite volume shock code. The new EOS model showed significant improvement over pre-existing CTH models such as the SESAME EOS for capturing cavitation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy/NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Prediction of shock-induced cavitation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundage, A.

    2014-05-01

    Fluid-structure interaction problems that require estimating the response of thin structures within fluids to shock loading have wide applicability. For example, these problems may include underwater explosions and the dynamic response of ships and submarines; and biological applications such as Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and wound ballistics. In all of these applications the process of cavitation, where small cavities with dissolved gases or vapor are formed as the local pressure drops below the vapor pressure due to shock hydrodynamics, can cause significant damage to the surrounding thin structures or membranes if these bubbles collapse, generating additional shock loading. Hence, a two-phase equation of state (EOS) with three distinct regions of compression, expansion, and tension was developed to model shock-induced cavitation. This EOS was evaluated by comparing data from pressure and temperature shock Hugoniot measurements for water up to 400 kbar, and data from ultrasonic pressure measurements in tension to -0.3 kbar, to simulated responses from CTH, an Eulerian, finite volume shock code. The new EOS model showed significant improvement over preexisting CTH models such as the SESAME EOS for capturing cavitation.

  11. Unraveling shock-induced chemistry using ultrafast lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2010-12-06

    The exquisite time synchronicity between shock and diagnostics needed to unravel chemical events occurring in picoseconds has been achieved using a shaped ultrafast laser pulse to both drive the shocks and interrogate the sample via a multiplicity of optical diagnostics. The shaped laser drive pulse can produce well-controlled shock states of sub-ns duration with sub-10 ps risetimes, sufficient for investigation offast reactions or phase transformations in a thin layer with picosecond time resolution. The shock state is characterized using ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) in either planar or Gaussian spatial geometries, the latter allowing measurements of the equation of state of materials at a range of stresses in a single laser pulse. Time-resolved processes in materials are being interrogated using UDE, ultrafast infrared absorption, ultrafast UV/visible absorption, and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy. Using these tools we showed that chemistry in an energetic thin film starts only after an induction time of a few tens of ps, an observation that allows differentiation between proposed shock-induced reaction mechanisms. These tools are presently being applied to a variety of energetic and reactive sample systems, from nitromethane and carbon disulfide, to microengineered interfaces in tunable energetic mixtures. Recent results will be presented, and future trends outlined.

  12. Unraveling Shock-Induced Chemistry Using Ultrafast Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    The exquisite time synchronicity between shock and diagnostics needed to unravel chemical events occurring in picoseconds has been achieved using a shaped ultrafast laser pulse to both drive the shocks and interrogate the sample via a multiplicity of optical diagnostics. The shaped laser drive pulse can produce well-controlled shock states of sub-ns duration with sub-10 ps rise times, sufficient for investigation of fast reactions or phase transformations in a thin layer with picosecond time resolution. The shock state is characterized using ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) in either planar or Gaussian spatial geometries, the latter allowing measurements of the equation of state of materials at a range of stresses in a single laser pulse. Time-resolved processes in materials are being interrogated using UDE, ultrafast infrared absorption, ultrafast UV/visible absorption, and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy. Using these tools we showed that chemistry in an energetic thin film starts only after an induction time of a few tens of ps, an observation that allows differentiation between proposed shock-induced reaction mechanisms. These tools are presently being applied to a variety of energetic and reactive sample systems, from nitromethane and carbon disulfide, to micro-engineered interfaces in tunable energetic mixtures.

  13. Unraveling shock-induced chemistry using ultrafast lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David S

    2009-01-01

    The exquisite time synchronicity between shock and diagnostics needed to unravel chemical events occurring in picoseconds has been achieved using a shaped ultrafast laser pulse to both drive the shocks and interrogate the sample via a multiplicity of optical diagnostics. The shaped laser drive pulse can produce well-controlled shock states of sub-ns duration with sub-10 ps risetimes, sufficient for investigation of fast reactions or phase transformations in a thin layer with picosecond time resolution. The shock state is characterized using ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) in either planar or Gaussian spatial geometries, the latter allowing measurements of the equation of state of materials at a range of stresses in a single laser pulse. Time-resolved processes in materials are being interrogated using UDE, ultrafast infrared absorption, ultrafast UV/visible absorption, and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy. Using these tools we showed that chemistry in an energetic thin film starts only after an induction time of a few tens of ps, an observation that allows differentiation between proposed shock-induced reaction mechanisms. These tools are presently being applied to a variety of energetic and reactive sample systems, from nitromethane and carbon disulfide, to micro-engineered interfaces in tunable energetic mixtures.

  14. Heterogeneous shock-induced thermal radiation in minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, K.-I.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    A 500-channel optical imaging intensifying and spectral digital recording system is used for recording the shock-induced radiation emitted from 406 to 821 nm from transparent minerals during the time interval that a shock wave propagates through the sample. The initial results obtained for single crystals of gypsum, calcite and halite in the 30 to 40 GPa (300 to 400 kbar) pressure range reveal grey-body emission spectra corresponding to temperatures in the 3000 to 4000 K range and emissivities ranging from 0.003 to 0.02. With gypsum and calcite, distinctive line spectra are superimposed on the thermal radiation. The observed color temperatures are greater than the Hugoniot temperature by a factor of 2 to 10; this is calculable on the basis of continuum thermodynamics and equation of state models for the shock states achieved in the three minerals. These observed high temperatures are thought to be real. It is concluded that a large number of closed spaced high temperature shear-band regions are being detected immediately behind the shock front.

  15. Multiscale Modeling of Shock-Induced Phase Transitions in Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Emily; Caspersen, Kyle; Lew, Adrian; Ortiz, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Multiscale Modeling of Shock-Induced Phase Transitions in Iron Emily Carter, Kyle Caspersen, Adrian Lew and Michael Ortiz We investigate the bcc to hcp phase transition in iron under both pressure and shear. We use DFT to map out the energy landscape of uniformly deformed iron, including its equation of state and its elastic moduli as a function of volume. >From these data we construct a nonlinear-elastic energy density which gives the energy density for arbitrary - not necessarily small - deformations. The energy density contains two wells corresponding to the bcc and hcp phases. We take this multi-well energy density as a basis for the investigation of the effect of shear on the phase diagram of iron. We allow for mixed states consisting alternating lamellae of bcc and hcp phases, and, for each macroscopic deformation, we determine the optimal microstructure of the mixed state by energy minimization using a sequential-lamination algorithm. We find that the superposition of shearing deformation on a volume change has the effect of inducing mixed states of varying spatial complexity, and of markedly lowering the critical transformation pressure. Indeed, we find that shear must be taken into consideration in order to obtain agreement with measured transformation pressures. Finally, we demonstrate how the microstructure model can be integrated into large-scale finite element calculations of shocked iron.

  16. A numerical study of shock induced cavity collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozlem, Melih

    Motivated by the need for an improved understanding of a prominent mechanism of the generation of hot spots, a model of shock-induced void collapse in a solid material is examined numerically. The problem arises in the context of a solid explosive, where hot spots are the discrete sites of preferential reaction, and play a crucial role in the ignition of a shocked heterogeneous explosive. Specifically, an axisymmetric configuration consisting of a single gas cavity in a solid matrix is considered. The mathematical model is a system of hyperbolic PDEs, the Euler equations of gas dynamics, supplemented by nonideal equation of state for the solid and ideal equation of state for the gas constituent. A mixture formulation is introduced, and the interface is treated as an artificial zone of finite thickness extending over a few computational cells. A finite-volume numerical strategy is employed; it incorporates adaptive mesh refinement and is based on a variant of the Godunov scheme modified to suppress nonphysical instabilities in the vicinity of shocks and interfaces. Complete histories of cavity collapse induced by an incident shock are presented for a variety of cavity shapes and configurations. Hydrodynamic features produced by the shock-cavity interaction are carefully followed, and special attention is paid to mechanisms leading to the evolution of regions of high temperature or pressure. In the case of a spherical shaped cavity the on-axis collapse mechanism is examined as the cause of hot spot formation, and in the case of a tall elliptical cavity and some multiple bubble configurations an off-axis collapse mechanism is discovered. Off-axis collapse mechanisms are found to yield higher temperature and pressure peaks during hot-spot generation.

  17. Parametric study of shock-induced combustion in a hydrogen air system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, J. K.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical parametric study is conducted to simulate shock-induced combustion under various free-stream conditions and varying blunt body diameter. A steady combustion front is established if the free-stream Mach number is above the Chapman-Jouguet speed of the mixture, whereas an unsteady reaction front is established if the free-stream Mach number is below or at the Chapman-Jouguet speed of the mixture. The above two cases have been simulated for Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 with a projectile diameter of 15 mm. Mach 5.11, which is an underdriven case, shows an unsteady reaction front, whereas Mach 6.46, which is an overdriven case, shows a steady reaction front. Next for Mach 5. 11 reducing the diameter to 2.5 mm causes the instabilities to disappear, whereas, for Mach 6.46 increasing the diameter of the projectile to 225 mm causes the instabilities to reappear, indicating that Chapman-Jouguet speed is not the only deciding factor for these instabilities to trigger. The other key parameters are the projectile diameter, induction time, activation energy and the heat release. The appearance and disappearance of the instabilities have been explained by the one-dimensional wave interaction model.

  18. Reproducing Experiment in the Shock-Induced Removal of CO2 From the Atmosphere on the Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, K.; Isobe, H.

    2005-12-01

    The evolution of the Mars is one of the most important problems on the environmental issues of terrestrial planets. The early Martian atmosphere was formed by degassing and it consisted thick CO2. Most of the CO2 must have been removed from the early Martian atmosphere in order to change to the present thin atmosphere. Heavy bombardment of planetesimals had been one of the important high energy processes on the primitive Mars. In this study, we experiment to reproduce the reaction between the early Martian atmosphere and the minerals in the high temperature condition caused by the shock-induced heating and discuss its effect of CO2 removal from the atmosphere. Reaction experiments were carried out with CO2 or CO2- H2O fluid at the pressure of 100MPa or 50MPa. A range of the temperature is 200-650°C and run duration is 7 days. Starting materials was the mixture of olivine, orthopyroxene, diopside, and plagioclase represented the main mineral phases of the early Mars. After the experiment, the reacted CO2 was weighed by CO2 mass remained in the experimental capsule. CO2 reactivity increased with decreasing temperature. If removed CO2 fixed as carbonate minerals in the run products, abundance of the carbonate minerals may be as much as 10% of the run products. Presence of H2O has no remarkable effect on CO2 reactivity. A Martian meteorite, ALH84001 includes approximately 1% of carbonate. Large-scale impact on the Martian surface brought shock-induced heating up to several hundred degrees C at several kilometers in depth. Accessory carbonate minerals in Martian rocks may be formed by reactions of CO2 atmosphere and brecciated rocks under craters. A layer of 1% carbonate-bearing rocks with 5km in thickness at Martian surface can settle 0.5MPa of CO2 (1MPa equivalent at the terrestrial gravity) from the Martian atmosphere. Carbonate formation by the shock-induced heating may have played a significant role in the evolution of the primitive Martian atmosphere.

  19. Mechanochemistry of shock-induced nanobubble collapse near silica in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Kalia, R. K.; Nakano, A.; Vashishta, P.; van Duin, A. C. T.

    2012-08-01

    We have performed million-atom reactive molecular dynamics simulations to study shock-induced bubble collapse near an amorphous silica surface. We observe the formation of water jet during the bubble collapse, which collides on to the silica surface causing a hemispherical pit. Fragment analysis reveals substantial ionization activities in water followed by rapid increase in H3O+ population during the pit formation. We have identified a shock-induced H3O+ ion formation mechanism, in which transient five-coordinated silicon atoms play a pivotal role.

  20. Numerical study of shock-induced combustion in methane-air mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Yungster, S.; Rabinowitz, M.J. )

    1993-06-01

    The shock-induced combustion of methane-air mixtures in hypersonic flows is investigated using a new reaction mechanism consisting of 19 reacting species and 52 elementary reactions. This reduced model is derived from a full kinetic mechanism via the Detailed Reduction technique. Zero-dimensional computations of several shock-tube experiments are presented first. The reaction mechanism is then combined with a fully implicit Navier-Stokes CFD code to conduct numerical simulations of two-dimensional and axisymmetric shock-induced combustion experiments of stoichiometric methane-air mixtures at a Mach number of M = 6.61. Applications to the ram accelerator concept are also presented. 19 refs.

  1. Large-Amplitude Deformation and Bond Breakage in Shock-Induced Reactions of Explosive Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Jeffrey

    The response of explosive molecules to large-amplitude mechanical deformation plays an important role in shock-induced reactions and the initiation of detonation in explosive materials. In this presentation, the response of a series of explosive molecules (nitromethane, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene [TNT], and 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene [TATB]) to a variety of large-amplitude deformations are examined using ab initio quantum chemical calculations. Large-amplitude motions that result in bond breakage are described, and the insights these results provide into both previous experimental observations and previous theoretical predictions of shock-induced reactions are discussed.

  2. Combining Observations of Shock-induced Minerals with Calculations to Constrain the Shock History of Meteorites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carli, P. S.; Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.

    2007-12-01

    All available evidence from shock Hugoniot and release adiabat measurements and from shock recovery experiments supports the hypothesis that the conditions for shock-induced phase transitions are similar to the conditions under which quasistatic phase transitions are observed. Transitions that require high temperatures under quasistatic pressures require high temperatures under shock pressures. The high-pressure phases found in shocked meteorites are almost invariably associated with shock melt veins. A shock melt vein is analogous to a pseudotachylite, a sheet of locally melted material that was quenched by conduction to surrounding cooler material. The mechanism by which shock melt veins form is not known; possible mechanisms include shock collisions, shock interactions with cracks and pores, and adiabatic shear. If one assumes that the phases within the vein crystallized in their stability fields, then available static high-pressure data constrain the shock pressure range over which the vein solidified. Since the veins have a sheet-like geometry, one may use one-dimensional heat flow calculations to constrain the cooling and crystallization history of the veins (Langenhorst and Poirier, 2000). Although the formation mechanism of a melt vein may involve transient pressure excursions, pressure equilibration of a mm-wide vein will be complete within about a microsecond, whereas thermal equilibration will require seconds. Some of our melt vein studies have indicated that the highly-shocked L chondrite meteorites were exposed to a narrow range of shock pressures, e.g., 18-25 GPa, over a minimum duration of the order of a second. We have used the Autodyn(TM) wave propagation code to calculate details of plausible impacts on the L-chondrite parent body for a variety of possible parent body stratigraphies. We infer that some meteorites probably represent material that was shocked at a depth of >10 km in their parent bodies.

  3. Cholinergic Modulation of the Hippocampus during Encoding and Retrieval of Tone/Shock-Induced Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jason L.; Kesner, Raymond P.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the role of acetylcholine (ACh) during encoding and retrieval of tone/shock-induced fear conditioning with the aim of testing Hasselmo's cholinergic modulation model of encoding and retrieval using a task sensitive to hippocampal disruption. Lesions of the hippocampus impair acquisition and retention of contextual conditioning with…

  4. Numerical study of shock-induced combustion in methane-air mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, Shaye; Rabinowitz, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    The shock-induced combustion of methane-air mixtures in hypersonic flows is investigated using a new reaction mechanism consisting of 19 reacting species and 52 elementary reactions. This reduced model is derived from a full kinetic mechanism via the Detailed Reduction technique. Zero-dimensional computations of several shock-tube experiments are presented first. The reaction mechanism is then combined with a fully implicit Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to conduct numerical simulations of two-dimensional and axisymmetric shock-induced combustion experiments of stoichiometric methane-air mixtures at a Mach number of M = 6.61. Applications to the ram accelerator concept are also presented.

  5. Hypersonic shock-induced combustion in a hydrogen-air system

    SciTech Connect

    Ahuja, J.K.; Tiwari, S.N.; Singh, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical study was carried out to investigate the shock-induced combustion in premixed hydrogen-air mixture. The calculations have been carried out for Mach 5.11 and 6.46. The Mach 5.11 case was found to be unsteady with periodic oscillations. The frequency of oscillations was calculated and was found to be in good agreement with the experimentally observed frequency. The Mach 6.46 case was found to be of a very high frequency and very low-amplitude phenomena. Thus it can be considered as macroscopically stable. This supports the existing view that it is possible to stabilize the shock-induced combustion phenomena with sufficient level of overdrive. 16 refs.

  6. Numerical study of shock-induced combustion in methane-air mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Yungster, S.; Rabinowitz, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    The shock-induced combustion of methane-air mixtures in hypersonic flows is investigated using a new reaction mechanism consisting of 19 reacting species and 52 elementary reactions. This reduced model is derived from a full kinetic mechanism via the Detailed Reduction technique. Zero-dimensional computations of several shock-tube experiments are presented first. The reaction mechanism is then combined with a fully implicit Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to conduct numerical simulations of two-dimensional and axisymmetric shock-induced combustion experiments of stoichiometric methane-air mixtures at a Mach number of M = 6.61. Applications to the ram accelerator concept are also presented.

  7. Particle-Based Simulation of Shock-Induced Deformation of Elastic Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamura, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Nakayama, K.

    Shock-induced deformations of solid bodies are of practical interest to those who are concerned with explosive processing of materials, demolition of buildings, precautions against accidental explosions, etc. In order to simulate the shock-induced deformations of solid bodies, a large number of numerical codes based on continuum mechanics, which are called hydrocodes, have been developed so far [1, 2]. When the amount of deformation is relatively small, Lagrangian hydrocodes have been used to simulate the dynamic response of shock-loaded materials. When the deformation is large, Eulerian hydrocodes have been utilized instead. This is because the computational grids distorted along with the deformation of materials in the Lagrangian approach make the simulations either inaccurate or unstable, while the Eulerian approach where grids are fixed in space can handle such large deformations of materials. On the contrary, material interfaces that are precisely defined in the Lagrangian approach are not traced exactly in the Eulerian one.

  8. Shock-induced spall in copper: the effects of anisotropy, temperature, loading pulse and defect

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Shengnian; Germann, Timothy C; An, Qi; Han, Li - Bo

    2009-07-28

    Shock-induced spall in Cu is investigated with molecular dynamics simulations. We examine spallation in initially perfect crystals and defective solids with grain boundaries (columnar bicrystals), stacking faults or vacancies, as well as the effect of temperature and loading pulses. Spall in single crystal Cu is anisotropic, and defects and high temperature may reduce the spall strength. Taylor-wave (triangular shock-release wave) loading is explored in comparison with square wave shock loading.

  9. Control of Shock-Induced Boundary Layer Separation by using Pulsed Plasma Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Benton R.; Clemens, Noel T.; Micka, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation can have many detrimental effects in supersonic flow including flow instability, fatigue of structural panels, and unstart in supersonic inlets. Pulsed plasma jets (or ``spark jets''), which are characterized by high bandwidth and the ability to direct momentum into the flow, are one promising method of reducing shock-induced separation. The current study is focused on investigating the efficacy of plasma jets to reduce the separated flow induced by a compression ramp in a Mach 3 flow. Three different 3-jet actuator configurations are tested: 20° pitched, 45° pitched, and 22° pitched and 45° skewed. The jets are pulsed at frequencies between 2 kHz and 4 kHz with duty cycles between 5 and 15%. The shock wave is generated using a 20° compression ramp, and the location of the shock-induced separation is visualized using surface oil streak visualization as well as particle image velocimetry. The results of the study show that of the three configurations, the plasma jets pitched at 20° from the streamwise direction cause the greatest reduction in separation, and when pulsed at a frequency of 3.2 kHz and 12% duty cycle can reduce the size of the separation region by up to 40%. This work is supported by AFRL under SBIR contract.

  10. Structure and Dynamics of Shock-Induced Nanobubble Collapse in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedadi, Mohammad; Choubey, Amit; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; van Duin, Adri

    2011-03-01

    Structure of water under shock and shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles in water are investigated with molecular dynamics simulations based on a reactive force field. Shock induces dramatic structural changes, including an ice-VII-like structural motif at a particle velocity of 1 km/s. The incipient ice VII formation and the calculated Hugoniot curve are in good agreement with experimental results. In the presence of a nanobubble, we observe a focused nanojet at the onset of nanobubble shrinkage and a secondary shock wave upon nanobubble collapse. The secondary shock wave propagates spherically backwards and induces high pressure as it propagates. Both the propagation velocity and the induced pressure are larger than those of the primary shock. We explored effects of nanobubble radius and shock amplitude on nanojet formation. The nanojet size increases by increasing particle velocity but the effect of increasing radius is more significant. The jet length scales linearly with the nanobubble radius, as observed in experiments on micron-to-millimeter size bubbles. Shock-induced collapse of a nanobubble in the vicinity of a cell membrane creates a transient nanopore when the nanojet impacts the membrane. Transient cell poration has potential applications in drug delivery.

  11. A review of the use of vortex generators for mitigating shock-induced separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titchener, Neil; Babinsky, Holger

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews research into the potential of vortex generators to mitigate shock-induced separation. Studies ranging from those conducted in the early post-war era to those performed recently are discussed. On the basis of the investigations described in this report, it is clear that vortex generators can alleviate shock-induced boundary layer separation. Yet, it will be shown that their potential and efficiency varies considerably in practical applications. Much more success is reported in transonic test cases compared to separation induced in purely supersonic interactions. Under a variety of flow conditions, the best performance is achieved with vortex generators with a height of roughly half the boundary layer thickness and a shape similar to a swept vane. Notwithstanding this, vortex generator performance is not as consistent as it is in low-speed applications. Further work is required before vortex generators can be implemented into the design process for eliminating shock-induced separation on transonic wings and in supersonic inlets.

  12. Shock-induced decomposition of high energy materials: A ReaxFF molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Subodh; Mishra, Ankit; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    Atomistic simulations of shock-induced detonation provide critical information about high-energy (HE) materials such as sensitivity, crystallographic anisotropy, detonation velocity, and reaction pathways. However, first principles methods are unable to handle systems large enough to describe shock appropriately. We report reactive-force-field ReaxFF simulations of shock-induced decomposition of 1, 3, 5-triamino-2, 3, 6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,1-diamino 2-2-dinitroethane (FOX-7) crystal. A flyer acts as mechanical stimuli to introduce a shock, which in turn initiated chemical reactions. Our simulation showed a shock speed of 9.8 km/s and 8.23 km/s for TATB and FOX-7, respectively. Reactivity analysis proves that FOX-7 is more reactive than TATB. Chemical reaction pathways analysis revealed similar pathways for the formation of N2 and H2O in both TATB and FOX-7. However, abundance of NH3 formation is specific to FOX-7. Large clusters formed during the reactions also shows different compositions between TATB and FOX-7. Carbon soot formation is much more pronounced in TATB. Overall, this study provides a detailed comparison between shock induced reaction pathway between FOX-7 and TATB. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research Grant No. N000014-12-1-0555.

  13. Shock-induced luminescence from X-cut quartz and Z-cut lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, P.J.; Morris, R.W.; Asay, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The spectral and spatial properties of shock-induced luminescence from X-cut quartz and Z-cut lithium niobate are observed using optical pyrometry and fast framing photography. In both cases the spatial emission patterns are heterogeneous for stresses just above dynamic yielding; the pattern becomes homogeneous to within the spatial resolution of the experiment as the stress is increased further. In addition, the luminescence in both cases increases abruptly after dynamic yielding. The emission spectrum from both samples is bank-like rather than blackbody and in the case of X-cut quartz is similar to the photoluminescence from structural defects.

  14. Impact-shocked zircons: discovery of shock-induced textures reflecting increasing degrees of shock metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohor, B.F.; Betterton, W.J.; Krogh, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Textural effects specifically characteristic of shock metamorphism in zircons from impact environments have not been reported previously. However, planar deformation features (PDF) due to shock metamorphism are well documented in quartz and other mineral grains from these same environments. An etching technique was developed that allows SEM visualization of PDF and other probable shock-induced textural features, such as granular (polycrystalline) texture, in zircons from a variety of impact shock environments. These textural features in shocked zircons from K/T boundary distal ejecta form a series related to increasing degrees of shock that should correlate with proportionate resetting of the UPb isotopic system. ?? 1993.

  15. Molecular dissociation and shock-induced cooling in fluid nitrogen at high densities and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radousky, H. B.; Nellis, W. J.; Ross, M.; Hamilton, D. C.; Mitchell, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Radiative temperatures and electrical conductivities were measured for fluid nitrogen compressed dynamically to pressures of 18-90 GPa, temperatures of 4000-14,000 K, and densities of 2-3 g/cu cm. The data show a continuous phase transition above 30 GPa shock pressure and confirm that (delta-P/delta-T)v is less than 0, as indicated previously by Hugoniot equation-of-state experiments. The first observation of shock-induced cooling is also reported. The data are interpreted in terms of molecular dissociation, and the concentration of dissociated molecules is calculated as a function of density and temperature.

  16. Impact-shocked zircons: Discovery of shock-induced textures reflecting increasing degrees of shock metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, B. F.; Betterton, W. J.; Krogh, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Textural effects specifically characteristic of shock metamorphism in zircons from impact environments have not been reported previously. However, planar deformation features (PDF) due to shock metamorphism are well documented in quartz and other mineral grains from these same environments. An etching technique was developed that allows scanning electron microscope (SEM) visualization of PDF and other probable shock-induced textural features, such as granular (polycrystalline) texture, in zircons from a variety of impact shock environments. These textural features in shocked zircons from K/T boundary distal ejecta form a series related to increasing degrees of shock that should correlate with proportionate resetting of the U-Pb isotopic system.

  17. Shock-induced separation of adiabatic turbulent boundary layers in supersonic axially symmetric internal flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, R. J.; Childs, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation at Mach 4 of shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation at the walls of axially symmetric flow passages is discussed, with particular emphasis placed on determining the shock strengths required for incipient separation. The shock waves were produced by interchangeable sting-mounted cones placed on the axes of the flow passages and aligned with the freestream flow. The interactions under study simulate those encountered in axially symmetric engine inlets of supersonic aircraft. Knowledges of the shock strengths required for boundary layer separation in inlets is important since for shocks of somewhat greater strength rather drastic alterations in the inlet flow field may occur.

  18. A Study of Premixed, Shock-Induced Combustion With Application to Hypervelocity Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axdahl, Erik L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the current goals of research in hypersonic, airbreathing propulsion is access to higher Mach numbers. A strong driver of this goal is the desire to integrate a scramjet engine into a transatmospheric vehicle airframe in order to improve performance to low Earth orbit (LEO) or the performance of a semiglobal transport. An engine concept designed to access hypervelocity speeds in excess of Mach 10 is the shock-induced combustion ramjet (i.e. shcramjet). This dissertation presents numerical studies simulating the physics of a shcramjet vehicle traveling at hypervelocity speeds with the goal of understanding the physics of fuel injection, wall autoignition mitigation, and combustion instability in this flow regime.

  19. Shock Induced Shear Strength in Two HMX Based Polymer Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millett, Jeremy; Taylor, Peter; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth

    2015-06-01

    The response of energetic materials to shock loading has largely concentrated on their detonation behaviour. However, they can also be considered to be structural materials in their own right, and hence their response to a purely mechanical shock loading is also of interest. Therefore we present results from two HMX based polymer bonded explosives, EDC37 and EDC32, where we investigate the shock induced shear strength behind the shock front. Results are discussed in terms of microstructure and differences of the binder phases.

  20. Temperature Dependence of Shock-Induced Plasticity: A Molecular Dynamics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Takahiro

    2004-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation on a fcc perfect crystal with the Lennard-Jones potential is performed in order to investigate temperature dependence of shock-induced plasticity. It is found that the critical piston velocity above which stacking faults emerge shifts downwards once the temperature exceeds approximately half the melting temperature. Also Hugoniot elastic limit is found to be a decreasing function of temperature, whereas the corresponding critical strain is insensitive to temperature. The discrepancy between the simulation and the experiments where Hugoniot elastic limit is a increasing function of temperature is discussed.

  1. Accelerated electronic structure-based molecular dynamics simulations of shock-induced chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawkwell, Marc

    2015-06-01

    The initiation and progression of shock-induced chemistry in organic materials at moderate temperatures and pressures are slow on the time scales available to regular molecular dynamics simulations. Accessing the requisite time scales is particularly challenging if the interatomic bonding is modeled using accurate yet expensive methods based explicitly on electronic structure. We have combined fast, energy conserving extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics with the parallel replica accelerated molecular dynamics formalism to study the relatively sluggish shock-induced chemistry of benzene around 13-20 GPa. We model interatomic bonding in hydrocarbons using self-consistent tight binding theory with an accurate and transferable parameterization. Shock compression and its associated transient, non-equilibrium effects are captured explicitly by combining the universal liquid Hugoniot with a simple shrinking-cell boundary condition. A number of novel methods for improving the performance of reactive electronic structure-based molecular dynamics by adapting the self-consistent field procedure on-the-fly will also be discussed. The use of accelerated molecular dynamics has enabled us to follow the initial stages of the nucleation and growth of carbon clusters in benzene under thermodynamic conditions pertinent to experiments.

  2. Shock induced ignition and DDT in the presence of mechanically driven fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentian; McDonald, James G.; Radulescu, Matei I.

    2015-11-01

    The present study addresses the problem of shock induced ignition and transition to detonation in the presence of mechanical and thermal fluctuations. These departures from a homogeneous medium are of significant importance in practical situations, where such fluctuations may promote hot-spot ignition and favor the flame transition to detonation. The problem is studied in 1D, where a piston-induced shock ignites the gas. The fluctuations in the shock-compressed medium are controlled by allowing the piston's speed to oscillate around a mean, with controllable frequency and amplitude. A Lagrangian numerical formulation is used, which allows to treat exactly the transient boundary condition at the piston head. The hydrodynamic solver is coupled with the reactive dynamics of the gas using Cantera. The code was verified by comparison with steady state ZND solutions and previous shock induced ignition results in homogeneous media. Results obtained for different fuels illustrate the strong relation of the DDT amplification length to mechanical fluctuations in systems with a high effective activation energy and fast rate of energy deposition, consistent with experiments performed on fast flame acceleration in the presence of strong mechanical perturbations. Financial support from NSERC and Shell, with A. Pekalski and M. Levin as technical monitors, are greatly acknowledged.

  3. Numerical simulation of shock-induced combustion past blunt bodies using shock-fitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, J. K.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock-induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier-Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one-dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

  4. Effects of porosity on shock-induced melting of honeycomb-shaped Cu nanofoams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fengpeng

    Metallic foams are of fundamental and applied interests in various areas, including structure engineering (e.g., lightweight structural members and energy absorbers), and shock physics (e.g., as laser ablators involving shock-induced melting and vaporization).Honeycomb-shaped metallic foams consist of regular array of hexagonal cells in two dimensions and have extensive applications and represent a unique, simple yet useful model structure for exploring mechanisms and making quantitative assessment. We investigate shock-induced melting in honeycomb-shaped Cu nanofoams with extensive molecular dynamics simulations. A total of ten porosities (phi) are explored, ranging from 0 to 0.9 at an increment of 0.1. Upon shock compression, void collapse induces local melting followed by supercooling for sufficiently high porosity at low shock strengths. While superheating of solid remnants occurs for sufficiently strong shocks at phi<0.1. Both supercooling of melts and superheating of solid remnants are transient, and the equilibrated shock states eventually fall on the equilibrium melting curve for partial melting. However, phase equilibrium has not been achieved on the time scale of simulations in supercooled Cu liquid (from completely melted nanofoams). The temperatures for incipient and complete melting are related to porosity via a power law and approach the melting temperature at zero pressure as phi tends to 1.

  5. Temperatures of shock-induced shear instabilities and their relationship to fusion curves. [emission from glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, D. R.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    New emission spectra for MgO and CaAl2Si2O8 (glass) are observed from 430 to 820 nm. Taken with previous data, it is suggested that transparent solids display three regimes of light emission upon shock compression to successively higher pressures: (1) characteristic radiation such as observed in MgO and previously in other minerals, (2) heterogeneous hot spot (greybody) radiation observed in CaAl2Si2O8 and previously in all transparent solids undergoing shock-induced phase transformations, and (3) blackbody emission observed in the high pressure phase regime in NaCl, SiO2, CaO, CaAl2Si2O8, and Mg2SiO4. The onset of the second regime may delineate the onset of shock-induced polymorphism whereas the onset of the third regime delineates the Hugoniot pressure required to achieve local thermal equilibrium in the shocked solid. It is also proposed that the hot spot temperatures and corresponding shock pressures determined in the second regime delineate points on the fusion curves of the high pressure phase.

  6. Ursolic Acid Inhibits Superoxide Production in Activated Neutrophils and Attenuates Trauma-Hemorrhage Shock-Induced Organ Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Shen, Hsin-I; Liu, Fu-Chao; Tsai, Hsin-I; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil activation is associated with the development of organ injury after trauma–hemorrhagic shock. In the present study, ursolic acid inhibited the superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils. Administration of ursolic acid attenuated trauma–hemorrhagic shock-induced hepatic and lung injuries in rats. In addition, administration of ursolic acid attenuated the hepatic malondialdehyde levels and reduced the plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels after trauma–hemorrhagic shock. In conclusion, ursolic acid, a bioactive natural compound, inhibits superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils and ameliorates trauma–hemorrhagic shock-induced organ injury in rats. PMID:25360589

  7. Injection slot location for boundary-layer control in shock-induced separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanath, P. R.; Sankaran, L.; Sagdeo, P. M.; Narasimha, R.; Prabhu, A.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effect of tangential air injection, when the injection slot is located inside of what would otherwise have been the dead air zone in a separated flow, in controlling shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation is presented. The experiments were carried out at a free-stream Mach number of 2.5 in the separated flow induced by a compression corner with a 20 deg angle. The observations made were wall static pressures, pitot profiles, and schlieren visualizations of the flow. The results show that the present location for injection is more effective in suppressing boundary-layer separation than the more conventional one, where the slot is located upstream of where separation would occur in the absence of injection.

  8. Shock-induced CO2 loss from CaCO3: Implications for early planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Recovered samples from shock recovery experiments on single crystal calcite were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis to determine the amount of post-shock CO2, the decarbonization interval and the activation energy, for the removal of remaining CO2 in shock-loaded calcite. Comparison of post-shock CO2 with that initially present determines shock-induced CO2 loss as a function of shock pressure. Incipient to complete CO2 loss occurs over a pressure range of approximately 10 to approximately 70 GPa. Optical and scanning electron microscopy reveal structural changes, which are related to the shock-loading. The occurrence of dark, diffuse areas, which can be resolved as highly vesicular areas as observed with a scanning electron microscope are interpreted as representing quenched partial melts, into which shock-released CO2 was injected. The experimental results are used to constrain models of shock-produced, primary CO2 atmospheres on the accreting terrestrial planets.

  9. Towards the role of interfacial shear in shock-induced intermetallic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, Mark; Chapman, David; Williamson, David; Burchell, Mark; Eakins, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Shock-induced intermetallic reactions have previously been shown to occur on a nanosecond timescale, within the rise time of the applied shock wave. Work in this area to date has however concentrated on continuum scale measurements, raising questions as to the processes occurring at micro and meso scales. Mass transfer due to inter-facial shear at material interfaces has been suggested as a possible explanation. We will present initial work examining the role of friction on this mass mixing process across a binary interface. This work includes plate impact experiments on an inert stainless steel - aluminum friction pair, employing spatially resolved interferometry. Results from a series of metal ball-on-angled plate impact experiments at 1-2 km/s will also be presented, supported by high-speed imaging and target recovery.

  10. Shock-induced reaction behavior of Ti-Si and Ti-B powder mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Royal, T.E.; Thadhani, N.N.; Graham, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Mechanistic processes controlling the shock-induced chemical reaction behavior of highly reactive Ti-Si and Ti-B powder-mixtures were investigated. Recovery experiments were performed, using Sandia Bear fixtures, to determine the reaction initiation thresholds for the respective systems, and to produce compacts of unreacted states to characterize the shock-compressed configuration of reactants at conditions below the reaction threshold. X-ray diffraction line broadening and scanning electron microscopy analysis were used to determine the response of individual reactants during shock-compression. It was observed that the deformation and/or fracture response of reactants during shock-compression influences the threshold conditions for, reaction initiation and the overall reaction propensity.

  11. Shock-induced CO2 loss from CaCO3 - Implications for early planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Recovered samples from shock recovery experiments on single crystal calcite were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis to determine the amount of post-shock CO2, the decarbonization interval and the activation energy, for the removal of remaining CO2 in shock-loaded calcite. Comparison of post-shock CO2 with that initially present determines shock-induced CO2 loss as a function of shock pressure. Incipient to complete CO2 loss occurs over a pressure range of approximately 10 to approximately 70 GPa. Optical and scanning electron microscopy reveal structural changes which are related to the shock-loading. The occurrence of dark, diffuse areas, which can be resolved as highly vesticular areas as observed with a scanning electron microscope are interpreted as representing quenched partial melts, into which shock-released CO2 was injected. The experimental results are used to constrain models of shock-produced, primary CO2 atmospheres on the accreting terrestrial planets.

  12. A study of shock-induced reactivity in a porous pyrotechnic powder mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindfors, A. J.; Finnegan, S. A.; Boteler, J. M.

    1996-05-01

    Shock and reactive properties of a pressed pyrotechnic powder mixture were examined using gun-launched planar impact techniques. The pyrotechnic powder consisted of a mixture of potassium perchlorate, magnesium-aluminum alloy, and inert binder pressed to approximately 84% theoretical maximum density (TMD). Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric polymer film shock-pressure gages were used to track the progress of the shock wave through the mixture and establish the shock Hugoniot and pressure-time trends. A comparison of experimental pressure-time trends with those obtained using a one-dimensional hydrocode shows good agreement for input pressures below 2 GPa, but increasing differences for pressures above 2.6 GPa. These differences, in the form of rising pressure levels in the region immediately behind the shock front for the experimental data, are tentatively attributed to shock-induced chemical reaction.

  13. Mineralogy and Microstructures of Shock-Induced Melt Veins in Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    The applicability of phase equilibrium data to the interpretation of shock-induced melt veins can only be tested by a detailed study of melt- vein mineralogy to see how high-pressure assemblages vary as a function of shock conditions inferred from other indicators. We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM), analytical electron microscopy (AEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EMA) and optical petrography to characterize the mineralogy, microstructures, and compositions of melt veins and associated high-pressure minerals in shocked chondrites and SNC meteorites. In the processes, we have gained a better understanding of what melt veining can tell us about shock conditions and we have discovered new mineral phases in chondritic and SNC meteorites.

  14. Microstructural examination of the α- ω Two-Phase Shock-Induced Microstructure in Zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Benjamin M.; Escobedo, J. Pablo; Field, Robert D.; Dickerson, Robert M.; Dickerson, Patricia O.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.

    2015-06-01

    Omega phase can be formed in alpha-phase Zr during shock loading. Interestingly, the high pressure phase can be retained upon release allowing for post-mortem study of the omega phase. Currently, the transformation pathway is not well understood. To provide more insight into this pathway during dynamic loading, shocked-induced microstructures of Zr have been studied. Soft recovered, plate impact specimens have been examined via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the orientation relationships (OR) and habit planes (HP) between phases. This enables a better understanding of transformation path that is then compared to Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Based on key microstructural features observed in the post-mortem microstructures, a significant amount of the observed alpha phase appears to have originated from the reverse transformation upon release. Results of microstructural analysis will be discussed, along with implications toward phase transformation pathways.

  15. Shock induced vaporization of anhydrite CaSO4 and calcite CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Satish C.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Yang, Wenbo

    2000-04-01

    Discovery of abundant anhydrite (CaSO4) and gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) in the otherwise carbonate sediments comprising the upper portion of the rocks contained within the Chicxulub impact crater has prompted research on the shock-induced vaporization of these minerals. We use a vaporization criterion determined by shock-induced entropy. We reanalyze the shock wave experiments of Yang [1]. He shocked 30% porous anhydrite and 46% porous calcite. Post-shock adiabatic expansion of the sample across a 5 mm-thick gap and then impact upon an aluminum witness plate backed by LiF window that is monitored with a VISAR. Reanalysis uses Herrman's P-α model [2] for porous materials, and a realistic interpolation gas equation-of-state for vaporization products. Derived values of the entropies for incipient and complete vaporization for anhydrite are 1.65±0.12 and 3.17±0.12 kJ(kg.K)-1, and for calcite these are 0.99±0.11 and 1.93±0.11 kJ(kg.K)-1. Corresponding pressures for incipient and complete vaporization along the Hugoniot of non-porous anhydrite are 32.5±2.5 and 122±13 GPa and for non-porous calcite are 17.8±2.9 and 54.1±5.3 GPa, respectively. These pressures are a factor of 2-3 lower than reported earlier by Yang.

  16. Investigation of Shock-Induced Chemical Reactions in Mo-Si Powder Mixtures Using Instrumented Experiments with PVDF Stress Gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Vandersall, K S; Thadhani, N N

    2001-05-29

    Shock-induced chemical reactions in {approx}58% dense Mo+2Si powder mixtures were investigated using time-resolved instrumented experiments, employing PVDF-piezoelectric stress gauges placed at the front and rear surfaces of the powders to measure the input and propagated stresses, and wave speed through the powder mixture. Experiments performed on the powders at input stresses less than 4 GPa, showed characteristics of powder densification and dispersed propagated wave stress profiles with rise time > {approx}40 nanoseconds. At input stress between 4-6 GPa, the powder mixtures showed a sharp rise time (<{approx}10 ns) of propagated wave profile and an expanded state of products revealing evidence of shock-induced chemical reaction. At input stresses greater than 6 GPa, the powder mixtures showed a slower propagated-stress-wave rise time and transition to a low-compressibility (melt) state indicating lack of shock-induced reaction. The results illustrate that premature melting of Si, at input stresses less than the crush-strength of the powder mixtures, restricts mixing between reactants and inhibits ''shock-induced'' reaction initiation.

  17. On the fundamental unsteady fluid dynamics of shock-induced flows through ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Nicole Renee

    Unsteady shock wave propagation through ducts has many applications, ranging from blast wave shelter design to advanced high-speed propulsion systems. The research objective of this study was improved fundamental understanding of the transient flow structures during unsteady shock wave propagation through rectangular ducts with varying cross-sectional area. This research focused on the fluid dynamics of the unsteady shock-induced flow fields, with an emphasis placed on understanding and characterizing the mechanisms behind flow compression (wave structures), flow induction (via shock waves), and enhanced mixing (via shock-induced viscous shear layers). A theoretical and numerical (CFD) parametric study was performed, in which the effects of these parameters on the unsteady flow fields were examined: incident shock strength, area ratio, and viscous mode (inviscid, laminar, and turbulent). Two geometries were considered: the backward-facing step (BFS) geometry, which provided a benchmark and conceptual framework, and the splitter plate (SP) geometry, which was a canonical representation of the engine flow path. The theoretical analysis was inviscid, quasi-1 D and quasi-steady; and the computational analysis was fully 2D, time-accurate, and VISCOUS. The theory provided the wave patterns and primary wave strengths for the BFS geometry, and the simulations verified the wave pattems and quantified the effects of geometry and viscosity. It was shown that the theoretical wave patterns on the BFS geometry can be used to systematically analyze the transient, 20, viscous flows on the SP geometry. This work also highlighted the importance and the role of oscillating shock and expansion waves in the development of these unsteady flows. The potential for both upstream and downstream flow induction was addressed. Positive upstream flow induction was not found in this study due to the persistent formation of an upstream-moving shock wave. Enhanced mixing was addressed by examining

  18. Observations of shock-induced reaction in liquid bromoform up to 11 GPA

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, S.A.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Alcon, R.R.

    1995-09-01

    Shock measurements on bromoform (CHBr{sub 3}) over the past 33 years at Los Alamos have led to speculation that this material undergoes a shock-induced reaction. Ramsay observed that it became opaque after a 1 to 2 {micro}s induction time when shocked to pressures above 6 GPa. McQueen and Isaak observed that it is a strong light emitter above 25 GPa. Hugoniot data start to deviate from the anticipated liquid Hugoniot at pressures above 10 GPa. The authors have used electromagnetic particle velocity gauging to measure wave profiles in shocked liquid bromoform. At pressures below 9 GPa, there is no mechanical evidence of reaction. At a pressure slightly above 10 GPa, the observed wave profiles are similar to those observed in initiating liquid explosives such as nitromethane. Their characteristics are completely different from the two-wave structures observed in shocked liquids where the products are more dense than the reactants. As with explosives, a reaction producing products which are less dense than the reactants is indicated. BKW calculations also indicate that a detonation type reaction may be possible.

  19. Shock-induced phase transition on Y2O3:Eu3+ studied by photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimura, Hiroaki; Hamada, Sho; Aruga, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    A series of shock-recovery experiments on Y2O3:Eu3+ powder was carried out by the impact of a flyer plate accelerated by a single-stage powder-propellant gun. 5.038-g of samples were pressed into copper capsules at 63% of the theoretical maximum density (TMD) of the powder. The recovered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The XRD, Raman, and PL results of samples shocked at pressures of 13 GPa indicated that a phase transition from a cubic phase (C-type) to a monoclinic phase (B-type) occurred. The recovered samples shocked at 21 and 25 GPa consisted of Y2O3:Eu3+ with the C-type and the B-type. Although the sample shocked at pressures of 35 GPa was consisted of the C-type and the B-type, proportion of the B-type derived from the XRD peaks decreased and no PL peaks from the B-type were observed. For recovered samples shocked at pressures of 48 GPa and above, no signatures of the B-type were obtained. These results indicated that the shock-induced phase transition were the partial completion of the phase transition.

  20. Shock-induced deformation features in terrestrial peridot and lunar dunite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snee, L. W.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    Single crystals of terrestrial olivine were experimentally shock-loaded along the 010 line to peak pressures 280, 330, and 440 kbar, and the resulting deformation features were compared to those in olivine from lunar dunite 72415. Recovered fragments were examined to determine the orientation of the planar fractures. With increasing pressure the percentage of pinacoids and prisms decreases, whereas the percentage of bipyramids increases. The complexity of the distribution of bipyramids also increases with increasing pressure. Other shock-induced deformation features, including varying degrees of recrystallization, are found to depend on pressure, as observed by others. Lunar dunite 72415 was examined and found to contain olivine with well-developed shock-deformation features. The relative proportion of pinacoid, prism, and bipyramid planar fractures measured for olivine from 72415 indicates that this rock appears to have undergone shock pressure in the range 330-440 kbar. If this dunite was brought to the surface of the moon as a result of excavation of an Imbrium event-sized impact crater, the shock-pressure range experienced by the sample and the results of cratering calculations suggest that it could have originated no deeper than 50-150 km.

  1. Ab Initio Studies of Shock-Induced Chemical Reactions of Inter-Metallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharieva, Roussislava; Hanagud, Sathya

    2009-06-01

    Shock-induced and shock assisted chemical reactions of intermetallic mixtures are studied by many researchers, using both experimental and theoretical techniques. The theoretical studies are primarily at continuum scales. The model frameworks include mixture theories and meso-scale models of grains of porous mixtures. The reaction models vary from equilibrium thermodynamic model to several non-equilibrium thermodynamic models. The shock-effects are primarily studied using appropriate conservation equations and numerical techniques to integrate the equations. All these models require material constants from experiments and estimates of transition states. Thus, the objective of this paper is to present studies based on ab initio techniques. The ab inito studies, to date, use ab inito molecular dynamics. This paper presents a study that uses shock pressures, and associated temperatures as starting variables. Then intermetallic mixtures are modeled as slabs. The required shock stresses are created by straining the lattice. Then, ab initio binding energy calculations are used to examine the stability of the reactions. Binding energies are obtained for different strain components super imposed on uniform compression and finite temperatures. Then, vibrational frequencies and nudge elastic band techniques are used to study reactivity and transition states. Examples include Ni and Al.

  2. The role of shock induced trailing-edge separation in limit cycle oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Atlee M., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The potential role of shock induced trailing edge separation (SITES) in limit cycle oscillations (LCO) was established. It was shown that the flip-flop characteristics of transition to and from SITES as well as its hysteresis could couple with wing modes with torsional motion and low damping. This connection led to the formulation of a very simple nonlinear math model using the linear equations of motion with a nonlinear step forcing function with hysteresis. A finite difference solution with time was developed and calculations were made for the F-111 TACT were used to determine the step forcing function due to SITES transition. Since no data were available for the hysteresis, a parameter study was conducted allowing the hysteresis effect to vary. Very small hysteresis effects, which were within expected bounds, were required to obtain reasonable response levels that essentially agreed with flight test results. Also in agreement with wind tunnel tests, LCO calculations for the 1/6 scale F-111 model showed that the model should have not experienced LCO.

  3. Phase-field modeling of shock-induced α- γ phase transformation of RDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahul, -; de, Suvranu

    2015-06-01

    A thermodynamically consistent continuum phase field model has been developed to investigate the role of shock-induced α- γ phase transition in the sensitivity of RDX. Dislocations and phase transformations are distinguished and modeled within a crystal plasticity framework. The Landau potential is derived for the finite elastic deformation analysis. The response of the shock loaded RDX crystal is obtained by solving the continuum momentum equation along with phase evolution equation using a Helmholtz free energy functional, which consists of elastic potential energy and local interfacial energy that follows from the Cahn-Hilliard formalism. We observe that the orientations for which there is a resolved shear stress along the slip direction, the material absorbs large shear strain through plastic deformation, allowing it to be less sensitive as less mechanical work is available for temperature rise. Therefore, plastic slip should be associated with greater shear relaxation and, hence, decreased sensitivity. For elastic orientations, large shear stress arises from steric hindrance that may provides much more mechanical work to increase the temperature and hence more sensitive to detonation. Our simulations suggest that the α- γ phase transformation in RDX may be associated with the increased temperature rise and hence the shock sensitivity. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of this work through Office of Naval Research (ONR) Grants N000140810462 and N000141210527 with Dr. Clifford Bedford as the cognizant Program Manager.

  4. The shock-induced star formation sequence resulting from a constant spiral pattern speed

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; Puerari, Ivânio E-mail: puerari@inaoep.mx

    2014-08-01

    We utilize a suite of multiwavelength data of nine nearby spirals to analyze the shock-induced star formation sequence that may result from a constant spiral pattern speed. The sequence involves tracers as the H I, CO 24 μm, and FUV, where the spiral arms were analyzed with Fourier techniques in order to obtain their azimuthal phases as a function of radius. It was found that only two of the objects, NGC 628 and NGC 5194, present coherent phases resembling the theoretical expectations, as indicated by the phase shifts of CO- 24 μm. The evidence is more clear for NGC 5194 and moderate for NGC 628. It was also found that the phase shifts are different for the two spiral arms. With the exception on NGC 3627, a two-dimensional Fourier analysis showed that the rest of the objects do not exhibit bi-symmetric spiral structures of stellar mass, i.e., grand-design spirals. A phase order inversion indicates a corotation radius of ∼89'' for NGC 628 and ∼202'' for NGC 5194. For these two objects, the CO-Hα phase shifts corroborate the CO-24 μm azimuthal offsets. Also for NGC 5194, the CO-70 μm, CO-140 μm, and CO-250 μm phase shifts indicate a corotation region.

  5. Septic Shock Induced by Bacterial Prostatitis with Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a Posttransplantation Patient

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofan; Chen, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection is a common complication after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Morganella morganii is ubiquitous Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, which may cause many kinds of opportunistic infection. Herein we report a case of a 55-year-old man who presented with frequent urination, urgency, and mild pain that comes and goes low in the abdomen and around the anus. The patient had a medical history of chronic prostatitis for 4 years. He received HLA-matched sibling allo-HSCT because of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma 29 months ago. The routine examination of prostatic fluid showed increased leukocytes and the culture of prostatic fluid showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient developed chills and fever 18 hours after examination. Both urine culture and blood culture showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and septic shock management. Taken together, Morganella morganii should be considered a possible pathogen when immunocompromised patients develop prostatitis. Also, prostatic massage could be a possible trigger of septic shock induced by Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a posttransplantation patient. PMID:26798544

  6. Solution and shock-induced exsolution of argon in vitreous carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, Carey; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    To add to the knowledge of noble gas solution and exsolution in carbonaceus material, experiments were performed on vitreous carbon. Ar-rich vitreous carbon samples were prepared under vapor-saturated conditions using argon as the pressurizing medium. Solubility data were obtained for temperatures of 773 to 973 K and pressures of 250 to 1500 bars. Up to 7 wt pct Ar was dissolved in the carbon. The solubility data were compared to a thermodynamic model of argon atoms dissolving into a fixed population of 'holes' in the carbon. Two variations of the model yielded estimates of the enthalpy of solution of Ar in vitreous carbon equal to about -4700 cal/mole. Preliminary shock experiments showed that 28 percent of the total argon was released by driving 4 GPa shocks into the argon-rich carbon. It was demonstrated that shock-induced argon loss is not simply caused by the impact-induced diminution of grain size. The present value of shock pressure required for partial impact devolatilization of Ar from carbon is below the range (5-30 GPa) at which H2O is released from phyllosilicates.

  7. Septic Shock Induced by Bacterial Prostatitis with Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a Posttransplantation Patient.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofan; Chen, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection is a common complication after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Morganella morganii is ubiquitous Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, which may cause many kinds of opportunistic infection. Herein we report a case of a 55-year-old man who presented with frequent urination, urgency, and mild pain that comes and goes low in the abdomen and around the anus. The patient had a medical history of chronic prostatitis for 4 years. He received HLA-matched sibling allo-HSCT because of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma 29 months ago. The routine examination of prostatic fluid showed increased leukocytes and the culture of prostatic fluid showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient developed chills and fever 18 hours after examination. Both urine culture and blood culture showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and septic shock management. Taken together, Morganella morganii should be considered a possible pathogen when immunocompromised patients develop prostatitis. Also, prostatic massage could be a possible trigger of septic shock induced by Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a posttransplantation patient. PMID:26798544

  8. Flash X-Ray measurements on the shock-induced dispersal of a dense particle curtain

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wagner, Justin L.; Kearney, Sean P.; Beresh, Steven J.; DeMauro, Edward Paisley; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-11-23

    The interaction of a Mach 1.67 shock wave with a dense particle curtain is quantified using flash radiography. These new data provide a view of particle transport inside a compressible, dense gas–solid flow of high optical opacity. The curtain, composed of 115-µm glass spheres, initially spans 87 % of the test section width and has a streamwise thickness of about 2 mm. Radiograph intensities are converted to particle volume fraction distributions using the Beer–Lambert law. The mass in the particle curtain, as determined from the X-ray data, is in reasonable agreement with that given from a simpler method using amore » load cell and particle imaging. Following shock impingement, the curtain propagates downstream and the peak volume fraction decreases from about 23 to about 4 % over a time of 340 µs. The propagation occurs asymmetrically, with the downstream side of the particle curtain experiencing a greater volume fraction gradient than the upstream side, attributable to the dependence of particle drag on volume fraction. Bulk particle transport is quantified from the time-dependent center of mass of the curtain. Furthermore, the bulk acceleration of the curtain is shown to be greater than that predicted for a single 115-µm particle in a Mach 1.67 shock-induced flow.« less

  9. Shock-induced devolatilization of calcium sulfate and implications for K-T extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Guangqing; Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    The devolatilization of calcium sulfate, which is present in the target rock of the Chicxulub, Mexico impact structure, and dispersal in the stratosphere of the resultant sulfuric acid aerosol have been suggested as a possible mechanism for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions. We measured the amount of SO2 produced from two shock-induced devolatilization reactions of calcium sulfate up to 42 GPa in the laboratory. We found both to proceed to a much lower extent than calculated by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations. Reaction products are found to be approx. 10(exp -2) times those calculated for equilibrium. Upon modeling the quantity of sulfur oxides degassed into the atmosphere from shock devolatilization of CaSO4 in the Chicxulub lithographic section, the resulting 9 x 10(exp 16) to 6 x 10(exp 17) g (in sulfur mass) is lower by a factor of 10-100 than previous upper limit estimates, the related environmental stress arising from the resultant global cooling and fallout of acid rain is insufficient to explain the widespread K-T extinctions.

  10. Shock-induced devolatization of calcium sulfate and implications for K-T extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Guangqing; Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Calcium sulfate devolatization during the impact at Chicxulub, Mexico and dispersal in the stratosphere of the resultant sulfuric acid aerosol have been suggested as a possible mechanism for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions. In this paper, we investigated two shock-induced devolatization reactions of calcium sulfate up to 42 GPa in the laboratory: CaSO4 + SiO2 yields CaSiO3 + SO3(degassed) and CaSO4 yields CaO + SO2(degassed) + 1/2 O2(degassed). We found both to proceed to a much less extent than calculated by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations. Reaction products are found to be 10(exp -2) times those calculated for equilibrium. Consequently our estimate of the amount of sulfur oxides degassed into the atmosphere from shock devolatization of CaS04 in the Chicxulub lithographic section (6x10(exp 15)-2x10(exp 16)g in sulfur mass) is lower by a factor of 70 to 400 than previous estimates; the related environmental stress arising from the resultant global cooling of approximately 4 K and fallout of acid rain does not appear to suffice to explain the widespread K-T extinctions.

  11. Simulation of shock-induced bubble collapse with application to vascular injury in shockwave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coralic, Vedran

    Shockwave lithotripsy is a noninvasive medical procedure wherein shockwaves are repeatedly focused at the location of kidney stones in order to pulverize them. Stone comminution is thought to be the product of two mechanisms: the propagation of stress waves within the stone and cavitation erosion. However, the latter mechanism has also been implicated in vascular injury. In the present work, shock-induced bubble collapse is studied in order to understand the role that it might play in inducing vascular injury. A high-order accurate, shock- and interface-capturing numerical scheme is developed to simulate the three-dimensional collapse of the bubble in both the free-field and inside a vessel phantom. The primary contributions of the numerical study are the characterization of the shock-bubble and shock-bubble-vessel interactions across a large parameter space that includes clinical shockwave lithotripsy pressure amplitudes, problem geometry and tissue viscoelasticity, and the subsequent correlation of these interactions to vascular injury. Specifically, measurements of the vessel wall pressures and displacements, as well as the finite strains in the fluid surrounding the bubble, are utilized with available experiments in tissue to evaluate damage potential. Estimates are made of the smallest injurious bubbles in the microvasculature during both the collapse and jetting phases of the bubble's life cycle. The present results suggest that bubbles larger than one micrometer in diameter could rupture blood vessels under clinical SWL conditions.

  12. Shock-induced deformation of nanocrystalline Al: Characterization with orientation mapping and selected area electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; E, J. C.; Cai, Y.; Zhao, F.; Fan, D.; Luo, S. N.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate shock-induced deformation of columnar nanocrystalline Al with large-scale molecular dynamics simulations and implement orientation mapping (OM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) for microstructural analysis. Deformation mechanisms include stacking fault formation, pronounced twinning, dislocation slip, grain boundary (GB) sliding and migration, and lattice or partial grain rotation. GBs and GB triple junctions serve as the nucleation sites for crystal plasticity including twinning and dislocations, due to GB weakening, and stress concentrations. Grains with different orientations exhibit different densities of twins or stacking faults nucleated from GBs. GB migration occurs as a result of differential deformation between two grains across the GB. High strain rates, appropriate grain orientation and GBs contribute to deformation twinning. Upon shock compression, intra-grain dislocation and twinning nucleated from GBs lead to partial grain rotation and the formation of subgrains, while whole grain rotation is not observed. During tension, stress gradients associated with the tensile pulse give rise to intra-grain plasticity and then partial grain rotation. The simulated OM and SAED are useful to describe lattice/grain rotation, the formation of subgrains, GB migration and other microstructures.

  13. Flash X-Ray measurements on the shock-induced dispersal of a dense particle curtain

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Justin L.; Kearney, Sean P.; Beresh, Steven J.; DeMauro, Edward Paisley; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-11-23

    The interaction of a Mach 1.67 shock wave with a dense particle curtain is quantified using flash radiography. These new data provide a view of particle transport inside a compressible, dense gas–solid flow of high optical opacity. The curtain, composed of 115-µm glass spheres, initially spans 87 % of the test section width and has a streamwise thickness of about 2 mm. Radiograph intensities are converted to particle volume fraction distributions using the Beer–Lambert law. The mass in the particle curtain, as determined from the X-ray data, is in reasonable agreement with that given from a simpler method using a load cell and particle imaging. Following shock impingement, the curtain propagates downstream and the peak volume fraction decreases from about 23 to about 4 % over a time of 340 µs. The propagation occurs asymmetrically, with the downstream side of the particle curtain experiencing a greater volume fraction gradient than the upstream side, attributable to the dependence of particle drag on volume fraction. Bulk particle transport is quantified from the time-dependent center of mass of the curtain. Furthermore, the bulk acceleration of the curtain is shown to be greater than that predicted for a single 115-µm particle in a Mach 1.67 shock-induced flow.

  14. Flash X-ray measurements on the shock-induced dispersal of a dense particle curtain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Justin L.; Kearney, Sean P.; Beresh, Steven J.; DeMauro, Edward P.; Pruett, Brian O.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of a Mach 1.67 shock wave with a dense particle curtain is quantified using flash radiography. These new data provide a view of particle transport inside a compressible, dense gas-solid flow of high optical opacity. The curtain, composed of 115-µm glass spheres, initially spans 87 % of the test section width and has a streamwise thickness of about 2 mm. Radiograph intensities are converted to particle volume fraction distributions using the Beer-Lambert law. The mass in the particle curtain, as determined from the X-ray data, is in reasonable agreement with that given from a simpler method using a load cell and particle imaging. Following shock impingement, the curtain propagates downstream and the peak volume fraction decreases from about 23 to about 4 % over a time of 340 µs. The propagation occurs asymmetrically, with the downstream side of the particle curtain experiencing a greater volume fraction gradient than the upstream side, attributable to the dependence of particle drag on volume fraction. Bulk particle transport is quantified from the time-dependent center of mass of the curtain. The bulk acceleration of the curtain is shown to be greater than that predicted for a single 115-µm particle in a Mach 1.67 shock-induced flow.

  15. Shock-induced bubble collapse in a vessel: Implications for vascular injury in shockwave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coralic, Vedran; Colonius, Tim

    2014-11-01

    In shockwave lithotripsy, shocks are repeatedly focused on kidney stones so to break them. The process leads to cavitation in tissue, which leads to hemorrhage. We hypothesize that shock-induced collapse (SIC) of preexisting bubbles is a potential mechanism for vascular injury. We study it numerically with an idealized problem consisting of the three-dimensional SIC of an air bubble immersed in a cylindrical water column embedded in gelatin. The gelatin is a tissue simulant and can be treated as a fluid due to fast time scales and small spatial scales of collapse. We thus model the problem as a compressible multicomponent flow and simulate it with a shock- and interface-capturing numerical method. The method is high-order, conservative and non-oscillatory. Fifth-order WENO is used for spatial reconstruction and an HLLC Riemann solver upwinds the fluxes. A third-order TVD-RK scheme evolves the solution. We evaluate the potential for injury in SIC for a range of pressures, bubble and vessel sizes, and tissue properties. We assess the potential for injury by comparing the finite strains in tissue, obtained by particle tracking, to ultimate strains from experiments. We conclude that SIC may contribute to vascular rupture and discuss the smallest bubble sizes needed for injury. This research was supported by NIH Grant No. 2PO1DK043881 and utilized XSEDE, which is supported by NSF Grant No. OCI-1053575.

  16. Computation of unsteady shock-induced combustion using logarithmic species conservation equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory J.; Sussman, Myles A.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations are used to investigate periodic combustion instabilities observed in ballistic-range experiments of blunt bodies flying at supersonic speeds through hydrogen-air mixtures. The computations are validated by comparing experimental shadowgraphs with shadowgraphs created from the computed flowfields and by comparing the experimentally measured instability frequencies with computed frequencies. The numerical simulations use a logarithmic transformation of the species conservation equations as a way to reduce the grid requirements for computing shock-induced combustion. The transformation is applied to the Euler equations coupled to a detailed hydrogen-air chemical reaction mechanism with 13 species and 33 reactions. The resulting differential equations are solved using a finite volume formulation and a two-step predictor-corrector scheme to advance the solution in time. Results are presented and compared for both a flux-vector splitting scheme and an upwind TVD scheme. The computations add insight to the physical processes observed in the experiments and the numerical methods needed to simulate them. The usefulness of the ballistic-range experiments for the validation of numerical techniques and chemical kinetic models is also demonstrated.

  17. Shock-Induced Melting of Martian Basalts: Insights on Subducting Oceanic Crust Melting Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, P.; Gillet, P.; Barrat, J.-A.; Gautron, L.; Daniel, I.; El Goresy, A.

    2003-04-01

    Experiments carried out on rocks at upper and lower mantle P-T conditions have produced series of candidate minerals for the Earth mantle mineralogical model. Basaltic compositions can also suffer ultra high-pressure and temperature when subducting in the mantle. The phase diagram of basalts has been studied to characterize potential chemical and mineralogical heterogeneities produced by partial melting and phase transformations of the oceanic crust. Shergottites that represent the most important sub-class of Martian meteorite have compositions close to terrestrial basalts and gabbros. During their extraction from Mars, they were severely shocked with pressures up to 50 GPa. These shocks induced partial melting. These melt pocket are an opportunity to study melting phenomena of basaltic compositions (i.e. oceanic crust) under high-pressure. We have performed a Raman spectroscopy investigation to determine the mineralogy of the melt pockets. Four shergottites were studied, NWA 480, NWA 856, NWA 1068 and Zagami. In each meteorite, abundant "large" minerals in melt pockets are hollandite (both Ca-Na and K-Na hollandite), stishovite, amorphous pyroxene and high-pressure phosphate. Meltpocket matrix seems to have a similar mineralogy as "megacrysts". In NWA 856 we observed at a melt pocket rim that maskelynite successively transforms into hollandite, and a polycrystalline aggregate. This aggregate was identified as a mixture of stishovite and a calcium aluminosilicate phase (CAS), a phase previously described in high-pressure experiments, but never observed in natural samples. The Raman spectra identifies unambiguously this silicate of composition CaAl_4Si_2O11 and of Ba-ferrite type structure. Such a phase is supposed to be present in basalt subsolidus melting experiments for pressures above 25 GPa and temperatures between 2500 and 2700 K. Its discovery reinforces the proposition that this CAS phase is a valuable candidate for hosting Al in subducting oceanic crust.

  18. Cold/menthol TRPM8 receptors initiate the cold-shock response and protect germ cells from cold-shock-induced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Borowiec, Anne-Sophie; Sion, Benoit; Chalmel, Frédéric; D Rolland, Antoine; Lemonnier, Loïc; De Clerck, Tatiana; Bokhobza, Alexandre; Derouiche, Sandra; Dewailly, Etienne; Slomianny, Christian; Mauduit, Claire; Benahmed, Mohamed; Roudbaraki, Morad; Jégou, Bernard; Prevarskaya, Natalia; Bidaux, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Testes of most male mammals present the particularity of being externalized from the body and are consequently slightly cooler than core body temperature (4-8°C below). Although, hypothermia of the testis is known to increase germ cells apoptosis, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms, including cold sensors, transduction pathways, and apoptosis triggers. In this study, using a functional knockout mouse model of the cold and menthol receptors, dubbed transient receptor potential melastatine 8 (TRPM8) channels, we found that TRPM8 initiated the cold-shock response by differentially modulating cold- and heat-shock proteins. Besides, apoptosis of germ cells increased in proportion to the cooling level in control mice but was independent of temperature in knockout mice. We also observed that the rate of germ cell death correlated positively with the reactive oxygen species level and negatively with the expression of the detoxifying enzymes. This result suggests that the TRPM8 sensor is a key determinant of germ cell fate under hypothermic stimulation.-Borowiec, A.-S., Sion, B., Chalmel, F., Rolland, A. D., Lemonnier, L., De Clerck, T., Bokhobza, A., Derouiche, S., Dewailly, E., Slomianny, C., Mauduit, C., Benahmed, M., Roudbaraki, M., Jégou, B., Prevarskaya, N., Bidaux, G. Cold/menthol TRPM8 receptors initiate the cold-shock response and protect germ cells from cold-shock-induced oxidation. PMID:27317670

  19. Large-Scale Reactive Atomistic Simulation of Shock-induced Initiation Processes in Energetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Aidan

    2013-06-01

    Initiation in energetic materials is fundamentally dependent on the interaction between a host of complex chemical and mechanical processes, occurring on scales ranging from intramolecular vibrations through molecular crystal plasticity up to hydrodynamic phenomena at the mesoscale. A variety of methods (e.g. quantum electronic structure methods (QM), non-reactive classical molecular dynamics (MD), mesoscopic continuum mechanics) exist to study processes occurring on each of these scales in isolation, but cannot describe how these processes interact with each other. In contrast, the ReaxFF reactive force field, implemented in the LAMMPS parallel MD code, allows us to routinely perform multimillion-atom reactive MD simulations of shock-induced initiation in a variety of energetic materials. This is done either by explicitly driving a shock-wave through the structure (NEMD) or by imposing thermodynamic constraints on the collective dynamics of the simulation cell e.g. using the Multiscale Shock Technique (MSST). These MD simulations allow us to directly observe how energy is transferred from the shockwave into other processes, including intramolecular vibrational modes, plastic deformation of the crystal, and hydrodynamic jetting at interfaces. These processes in turn cause thermal excitation of chemical bonds leading to initial chemical reactions, and ultimately to exothermic formation of product species. Results will be presented on the application of this approach to several important energetic materials, including pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO). In both cases, we validate the ReaxFF parameterizations against QM and experimental data. For PETN, we observe initiation occurring via different chemical pathways, depending on the shock direction. For PETN containing spherical voids, we observe enhanced sensitivity due to jetting, void collapse, and hotspot formation, with sensitivity increasing with void size. For ANFO, we

  20. Effect of methylguanidine in a model of septic shock induced by LPS.

    PubMed

    Marzocco, Stefania; Di Paola, Rosanna; Ribecco, Maria Teresa; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Domenico, Britti; Genesio, Massimini; Pinto, Aldo; Autore, Giuseppina; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2004-11-01

    Septic shock, a severe form of sepsis, is characterized by cardiovascular collapse following microbial invasion of the body. The progressive hypotension, hyporeactivity to vasopressor agents and vascular leak leads to circulatory failure with multiple organ dysfunction and death. Many inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6) are involved in the pathogenesis of shock and, among them, nitric oxide (NO). The overproduction of NO during septic shock has been demonstrated to contribute to circulatory failure, myocardial dysfunction, organ injury and multiple organ failure. We have previously demonstrated with in vitro and in vivo studies that methylguanidine (MG), a guanidine compound deriving from protein catabolism, significantly inhibits iNOS activity, TNF-alpha release and carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-inflammatory activity of MG in a model of septic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. MG was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at the dose of 30 mg/kg 1 h before and at 1 and 6 h after LPS-induced shock. LPS injection (10 mg/kg in 0.9% NaCl; 0.1 ml/mouse; i.p.) in mouse developed a shock syndrome with enhanced NO release and liver, kidney and pancreatic damage 18 h later. NOx levels, evaluated as nitrite/nitrate serum levels, was significantly reduced in MG-treated rats (78.6%, p < 0.0001; n = 10). Immunohistochemistry revealed, in the lung tissue of LPS-treated group, a positive staining for nitrotyrosine and poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP] ribose) synthase, both of which were reduced in MG-treated mice. Furthermore, enzymatic evaluation revealed a significant reduction in liver, renal and pancreatic tissue damage and MG treatment also improved significantly the survival rate. This study provides evidence that MG attenuates the degree of inflammation and tissue damage associated with endotoxic shock in mice. The mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect

  1. Regulation of salmonid fish sperm motility by osmotic shock-induced water influx across the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Takei, Gen Leon; Mukai, Chinatsu; Okuno, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    The motility of salmonid fish sperm is initiated by a decrease in the extracellular K(+) concentration. However, our previous studies revealed that salmonid fish sperm motility could be initiated in the presence of an inhibitory concentration of K(+) by drastic osmotic shock induced by suspension in a hypertonic glycerol solution and subsequent dilution in a hypotonic solution (glycerol-treatment). In the present study, we examined if an osmotic shock-induced water influx is involved in the regulation of salmonid fish sperm motility. HgCl2, a common inhibitor of aquaporins (AQPs), decreased the duration of salmonid fish sperm motility. Dilution of sperm cells in a hypotonic solution increased the cellular volume, whereas HgCl2 inhibited such an increase in cellular volume. Furthermore, the expression of AQP 1a and 10 in rainbow trout testes was confirmed. In contrast, HgCl2 did not affect glycerol-treated sperm motility, indicating that AQPs are not involved in glycerol-treated sperm motility. We also explored the possibility of aquaporin-independent water influx in glycerol-treated sperm by assessing the sperm membrane permeability using propidium iodide. The plasma membrane of glycerol-treated sperm was considerably permeabilized. The cellular volume was decreased in a hypertonic glycerol solution and increased upon subsequent hypoosmotic shock, indicating an AQP-independent water flux across the plasma membrane upon glycerol-treatment. Taken together, these results showed that water influx across the plasma membrane via AQP is crucial for the maintenance of salmonid fish sperm motility under normal conditions, whereas water influx by osmotic shock-induced membrane permeation is critical for the initiation of glycerol-treated sperm motility. PMID:25522712

  2. A shock-induced polymorph of anatase and rutile from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, J.C.; Horton, J.W., Jr.; Chou, I.-Ming; Belkin, H.E.

    2006-01-01

    A shock-induced polymorph (TiO2II) of anatase and rutile has been identified in breccias from the late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure. The breccia samples are from a recent, partially cored test hole in the central uplift at Cape Charles, Virginia. The drill cores from 744 to 823 m depth consist of suevitic crystalline-clast breccia and brecciated cataclastic gneiss in which the TiO2 phases anatase and rutile are common accessory minerals. Electron-microprobe imaging and laser Raman spectroscopy of TiO2 crystals, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) of mineral concentrates, confirm that a high-pressure, ??-PbO2 structured polymorph of TiO2 (TiO2II) coexists with anatase and rutile in matrix-hosted crystals and in inclusions within chlorite. Raman spectra of this polymorph include strong bands at wavenumbers (cm-1) 175, 281, 315, 342, 356, 425, 531, 571, and 604; they appear with anatase bands at 397, 515, and 634 cm-1, and rutile bands at 441 and 608 cm-1. XRD patterns reveal 12 lines from the polymorph that do not significantly interfere with those of anatase or rutile, and are consistent with the TiO2II that was first reported to occur naturally as a shock-induced phase in rutile from the Ries crater in Germany. The recognition here of a second natural shock-induced occurrence of TiO2II suggests that its presence in rocks that have not been subjected to ultrahigh-pressure regional metamorphism can be a diagnostic indicator for confirmation of suspected impact structures.

  3. Evidence for inhibition by beta-endorphin of vasopressin release during foot shock-induced stress in the rat.

    PubMed

    Knepel, W; Nutto, D; Hertting, G

    1982-01-01

    This study was to ascertain the effect of naloxone and dexamethasone on vasopressin and beta-endorphin release in the rat during inescapable electric foot shock stress. Plasma vasopressin concentrations were not affected by electric foot shock in vehicle-treated rats, but were raised significantly by the stress in animals pretreated with naloxone. The stress-induced increase in plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-EI) was similar whether the rats had received naloxone or not. Plasma beta-EI consisted of equal amounts of beta-endorphin-like and beta-lipotropin-like material as revealed by gel filtration. Dexamethasone almost abolished the foot shock-induced increase in plasma beta-EI and, in the presence of dexamethasone, stress was now effective in elevating plasma vasopressin concentrations. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that beta-endorphin, released from the anterior pituitary, inhibits the release of vasopressin from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland during foot shock-induced stress. PMID:6281677

  4. Numerical Simulation of Shock-Induced Combustion Past Blunt Bodies Using Shock-Fitting Technique. Appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, J. K.; Kumar, A.; Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric, reacting viscous flow over blunt projectiles is computed to study shock induced combustion at Mach 5.11 and Mach 6.46 in hydrogen-air mixture. A finite-difference, shock-fitting method is used to solve the complete set of Navier Stokes and species conservation equations. In this approach, the bow shock represents a boundary of the computational domain and is treated as a discontinuity across which Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are applied. All interior details of the flow such as compression waves, reaction front, and the wall boundary layer are captured automatically in the solution. Since shock-fitting approach reduces the amount of artificial dissipation, all the intricate details of the flow are captured much more clearly than has been possible with the shock-capturing approach. This has allowed an improved understanding of the physics of shock-induced combustion over blunt projectiles and the numerical results can now be explained more readily with one dimensional wave-interaction model than before.

  5. Shock temperatures in silica glass - Implications for modes of shock-induced deformation, phase transformation, and melting with pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Douglas R.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of shock-induced radiative thermal emissions are used to determine the gray body temperatures and emittances of silica glass under shock compression between 10 and 30 GPa. The results suggest that fused quartz deforms heterogeneously in this shock pressure range. It is shown that the 10-16 GPa range coincides with the permanent densification region, while the 16-30 GPa range coincides with the inferred mixed phase region along the silica glass Hugoniot. Low emittances in the mixed phase region are thought to represent the melting temperature of the high-pressure phase, stishovite. Also, consideration is given to the effects of pressure on melting relations for the system SiO2-Mg2SiO4.

  6. High-pressure phases in shock-induced melt of the unique highly shocked LL6 chondrite Northwest Africa 757

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinping; Sharp, Thomas G.

    2016-06-01

    Northwest Africa 757 is unique in the LL chondrite group because of its abundant shock-induced melt and high-pressure minerals. Olivine fragments entrained in the melt transform partially and completely into ringwoodite. Plagioclase and Ca-phosphate transform to maskelynite, lingunite, and tuite. Two distinct shock-melt crystallization assemblages were studied by FIB-TEM analysis. The first melt assemblage, which includes majoritic garnet, ringwoodite plus magnetite-magnesiowüstite, crystallized at pressures of 20-25 GPa. The other melt assemblage, which consists of clinopyroxene and wadsleyite, solidified at ~15 GPa, suggesting a second veining event under lower pressure conditions. These shock features are similar to those in S6 L chondrites and indicate that NWA 757 experienced an intense impact event, comparable to the impact event that disrupted the L chondrite parent body at 470 Ma.

  7. High-pressure phases in shock-induced melt of the unique highly shocked LL6 chondrite Northwest Africa 757

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinping; Sharp, Thomas G.

    2016-07-01

    Northwest Africa 757 is unique in the LL chondrite group because of its abundant shock-induced melt and high-pressure minerals. Olivine fragments entrained in the melt transform partially and completely into ringwoodite. Plagioclase and Ca-phosphate transform to maskelynite, lingunite, and tuite. Two distinct shock-melt crystallization assemblages were studied by FIB-TEM analysis. The first melt assemblage, which includes majoritic garnet, ringwoodite plus magnetite-magnesiowüstite, crystallized at pressures of 20-25 GPa. The other melt assemblage, which consists of clinopyroxene and wadsleyite, solidified at ~15 GPa, suggesting a second veining event under lower pressure conditions. These shock features are similar to those in S6 L chondrites and indicate that NWA 757 experienced an intense impact event, comparable to the impact event that disrupted the L chondrite parent body at 470 Ma.

  8. Vortex generators for control of shock-induced separation. Part 3: Examples of applications of vortex generators to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    ESDU 93026 illustrates by case studies the use of the information in Parts 1 and 2 on the use of vortex generators to control shock-induced separation. The examples are the control of internal noise by the application of vortex generators on the forward cabin roof of a business aircraft (Gulfstream III), the control of separation associated with a three-shock pattern near the tip of a highly swept and tapered model wing in a wind-tunnel, and the improvement of the buffet maneuver boundary on a straight wing interceptor aircraft of the fifties. In each case the geometric details of the arrays of vortex generators tested are provided, the results obtained are described, and the aerodynamic principles involved that influence those results are assessed.

  9. Shock-Induced Melting and Vaporization of MgO by Multi-Mbar Shock and Release Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, R. G.; Root, S.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Stewart, S. T.; Shulenburger, L.; Knudson, M. D.; Lemke, R.; Dolan, D. H.; Seagle, C. T.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Flicker, D. G.; Mattsson, T.

    2012-12-01

    The thermal state of the Earth after the final giant impact event is uncertain due to the lack of accurate wide-ranging equations of state for mantle minerals. In particular, current models for shock-induced melting and vaporization of the refractory phases within the Earth's mantle are poorly constrained due to the difficulty in reaching and measuring states in the relevant regions of the phase diagram. Using the Z-machine at Sandia National Laboratory, we performed high velocity (15-25 km/s) planar impact experiments onto MgO. We use a novel shock, release, and stagnation technique to determine the density of MgO along the liquid branch of the liquid-vapor dome. This region of the phase diagram is inaccessible to most static techniques and these experiments represent the first measurements of their kind. We will present our measurements of the temperature and density along the liquid-vapor dome of MgO and discuss the utility of these measurements in developing wide-ranging multi-phase equation of state models. We will also present a new model for the entropy along the principal Hugoniot of MgO, which we use to derive the criteria for shock-induced melting and vaporization and to address the commonly made assumption that the Moon-forming impact event melted Earth's entire mantle. We acknowledge support from NNSA SSGF, NNSA HEDLP, and the Z Fundamental Science User Program. We also thank the Z facility staff and technicians. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Heat-shock induction of ultraviolet light resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchel, R.E.J.; Morrison, D.P.

    1983-10-01

    When exponentially growing diploid wild type Saccharomyces cervisiae cells were subjected to a sudden rise in temperature (heat shock) they responded by increasing their resistance to the lethal effects of ultraviolet light. We have previously reported heat shock-induced increases in heat and ionizing radiation resistance. The shock-induced rise in resistance to uv light reported here was examined in terms of DNA repair capacity, and we find that the increase is due to induction of the recombinational repair system with no significant response from the uv-excision repair process.

  11. Laser shock-induced mechanical and microstructural modification of welded maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Banas, G. ); Elsayed-Ali, H.E. ); Lawrence, F.V. Jr. ); Rigsbee, J.M. )

    1990-03-01

    The effect of laser-induced high-intensity stress waves on the hardness, fatigue resistance, and microstructure in the heat affected zone of welded 18 Ni(250) maraging steel was investigated. Laser-shock processing increased the hardness and fatigue strength of the weldments. Some melting of the surface was involved during laser-shock hardening which produced the reverted austenite phase. Microscopic analyses showed an increased dislocation density in the laser-shocked area.

  12. Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations of the shock-induced chemistry of phenylacetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Cawkwell, M. J. Niklasson, Anders M. N.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.

    2015-02-14

    The initial chemical events that occur during the shock compression of liquid phenylacetylene have been investigated using self-consistent tight binding molecular dynamics simulations. The extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics formalism enabled us to compute microcanonical trajectories with precise conservation of the total energy. Our simulations revealed that the first density-increasing step under shock compression arises from the polymerization of phenylacetylene molecules at the acetylene moiety. The application of electronic structure-based molecular dynamics with long-term conservation of the total energy enabled us to identify electronic signatures of reactivity via monitoring changes in the HOMO-LUMO gap, and to capture directly adiabatic shock heating, transient non-equilibrium states, and changes in temperature arising from exothermic chemistry in classical molecular dynamics trajectories.

  13. Optical characterization of shock-induced chemistry in the explosive nitromethane using DFT and time-dependent DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellouchoud, Lenson; Reed, Evan

    2014-03-01

    With continual improvements in ultrafast optical spectroscopy and new multi-scale methods for simulating chemistry for hundreds of picoseconds, the opportunity is beginning to exist to connect experiments with simulations on the same timescale. We compute the optical properties of the liquid phase energetic material nitromethane (CH3NO2) for the first 100 picoseconds behind the front of a simulated shock at 6.5km/s, close to the experimentally observed detonation shock speed. We utilize molecular dynamics trajectories computed using the multi-scale shock technique (MSST) for time-resolved optical spectrum calculations based on both linear response time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) and the Kubo-Greenwood (KG) formula within Kohn-Sham DFT. We find that TDDFT predicts optical conductivities 25-35% lower than KG-based values and provides better agreement with the experimentally measured index of refraction of unreacted nitromethane. We investigate the influence of electronic temperature on the KG spectra and find no significant effect at optical wavelengths. With all methods, the spectra evolve non-monotonically in time as shock-induced chemistry takes place. We attribute the time-resolved absorption at optical wavelengths to time-dependent populations of molecular decomposition products, including NO, CNO, CNOH, H2O, and larger molecules. Supported by NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship (NSTRF) #NNX12AM48H.

  14. A patient with refractory shock induced by several factors, including obstruction because of a posterior mediastinal hematoma.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Osaka, Hiromichi; Mishima, Kentaro; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2015-06-01

    A 44-year-old man who drove a motorcycle experienced a collision with the side of another motorcycle. Because he had sustained a high-energy injury to the spinal cord, he was transferred to our hospital. His circulation was unstable, and received tracheal intubation in addition to thoracostomy for the hemothorax. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple fractures, right hemopneumothorax with pulmonary contusion, and minor liver injury. After infusing 5000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution and 10 units of blood, his circulation remained unstable. On a repeat CT examination, the left atrium was found to be compressed by a posterior mediastinal hematoma induced by the fracture of the thoracic spine, and a diagnosis of shock induced by multiple factors, including hemorrhagic, neurogenic, and obstructive mechanisms, was made. After obtaining stable circulation and respirations, internal fixation of the extremities and extubation were performed on the 12th hospital day. Chest CT performed on the 27th day showed the disappearance of compression of the left atrium by the hematoma. PMID:25572646

  15. The Effect of Shock Stress and Field Strength on Shock-Induced Depoling of Normally Poled PZT 95/5

    SciTech Connect

    CHHABILDAS,LALIT C.; FURNISH,MICHAEL D.; MONTGOMERY,STEPHEN T.; SETCHELL,ROBERT E.

    1999-09-01

    Shock-induced depoling of the ferroelectric ceramic PZT 95/5 is utilized in a number of pulsed power devices. Several experimental and theoretical efforts are in progress in order to improve numerical simulations of these devices. In this study we have examined the shock response of normally poled PZT 95/5 under uniaxial strain conditions. On each experiment the current produced in an external circuit and the transmitted waveform at a window interface were recorded. The peak electrical field generated within the PZT sample was varied through the choice of external circuit resistance. Shock pressures were varied from 0.6 to 4.6 GPa, and peak electrical fields were varied from 0.2 to 37 kV/cm. For a 2.4 GPa shock and the lowest peak field, a nearly constant current governed simply by the remanent polarization and the shock velocity was recorded. Both decreasing the shock pressure and increasing the electrical field resulted in reduced current generation, indicating a retardation of the depoling kinetics.

  16. Hypo-osmotic shock-induced subclinical inflammation of skin in a rat model of disrupted skin barrier function.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Chihiro; Minematsu, Takeo; Huang, Lijuan; Mugita, Yuko; Kitamura, Aya; Nakagami, Gojiro; Yamane, Takumi; Yoshida, Mikako; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Funakubo, Megumi; Mori, Taketoshi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-03-01

    Aging disrupts skin barrier function and induces xerosis accompanied by pruritus. In many cases, elderly patients complain of pruritus during skin hygiene care, a condition called aquagenic pruritus of the elderly (APE). To date, the pathophysiology and mechanism of action of APE have not been elucidated. We conducted the present study to test the hypothesis that hypo-osmotic shock of epidermal cells induces skin inflammation and elongation of C-fibers by nerve growth factor β (NGFβ) as a basic mechanism of APE. The dorsal skin of HWY rats, which are a model for disrupted skin barrier function, was treated with distilled water (hypotonic treatment [Hypo] group) or normal saline (isotonic treatment [Iso] group) by applying soaked gauze for 7 days. Untreated rats were used as a control (no-treatment [NT] group). Histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses revealed inflammatory responses in the epidermis and the dermal papillary layer in the Hypo group, while no alterations were observed in the Iso or NT groups. Induction of expression and secretion of NGFβ and elongation of C-fibers into the epidermis were found in the Hypo group. In contrast, secretion of NGFβ was significantly lower and elongation of C-fibers was not observed in the Iso group. These results suggest that hypo-osmotic shock-induced inflammatory reactions promote hypersensitivity to pruritus in skin with disrupted barrier function. PMID:25681269

  17. Observation of Shock-Induced Phases of Nb2O5 Single Crystal under High-Resolution Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masae; Kusaba, Keiji; Bannai, Eisuke; Fukuoka, Kiyoto; Syono, Yasuhiko; Hiraga, Kenji

    1985-12-01

    Shock-loading experiments on Nb2O5 single crystals were carried out up to 54 GPa by the gun method. The shock-loaded materials are recovered by using both closed and open recovery fixtures and were examined by powder X-ray diffraction analysis and high-resolution electron microscopy. Complete conversion to T-Nb2O5 of μm size, denser by 12% than H-Nb2O5, was found in the pressure range from 20-40 GPa. When single-crystal H-Nb2O5 was shocked perpendicular to the b-axis using the open-system recovery fixture, an unidentified phase referred to as the X-phase, besides T-Nb2O5 and shock-reduced NbxO2 with the rutile structure, was observed. The high-resolution image of the X-phase is interpreted as two-dimensionally disordered H-Nb2O5. The X-phase is probably formed in the rapid decompression process from the shock-induced high-pressure phase.

  18. Shock-Induced Magnetic and Structural Changes in Magnetite: New Insights Towards Strain Memory Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, A. M.; Reznik, B.; Lied, P.; Holzwarth, A.; Göttlicher, J.; Boubnov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Shock recovery experiments using an air gun (5 GPa) and high-explosive set-up (10, 20, 30 GPa) were done from natural stoichiometric magnetite ore samples consisting mainly of multidomain magnetite and quartz. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of changes in magnetic transition temperatures in magnetite as a geobarometer for extreme conditions like those observed in a meteorite impact on Earth material or in meteorites. We used the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility along with XANES and X-ray diffraction for monitoring magnetic and structural changes. We will demonstrate that the shocked samples show a shift in the Verwey transition temperature (Fig. 1a and b) compared to the unshocked magnetite. Although the Curie temperature itself is very similar for all investigated samples, the shape as well as the amplitude of the heating and cooling curves are nearly reversible for the unshocked "0 GPa" sample but irreversible for the shocked samples. While the amplitude changes before the Curie temperature and above the Verwey transition temperature (Fig. 1a and c) are related to reduction in magnetic domain sizes due to fragmentation, the shift in the Verwey transition temperature and the irreversibility of Curie temperature cannot be explained by this mechanism and we suspect that chemical (Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio in Fe3O4) or structural (lattice distortion) changes occur. These findings help to constrain data for a possible strain memory of magnetic transition temperatures in magnetite and help to explore the potential use of changes in magnetic transition temperatures as a strain memory as earlier suggested by Carporzen and Gilder (2010). Carporzen, L., Gilder, S.A., 2010: Strain memory of the Verwey transition, J. Geophys. Res., 115, B05103, doi: 10.1029/2009JB006813.

  19. Hyperosmotic shock induces the sigma32 and sigmaE stress regulons of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, A A; Baneyx, F

    1999-12-01

    The rise in the levels of sigmaS that accompanies hyperosmotic shock plays an important role in Escherichia coli survival by increasing the transcription of genes involved in the synthesis and transport of osmoprotectants. To determine if other stress regulons collaborate with sigmaS in dealing with high osmolality, we used single copy fusions of lacZ to representative promoters induced by protein misfolding in the cytoplasm (dnaK and ibp ), extracytoplasmic stress [P3rpoH and htrA(degP )] and cold shock (cspA). Both the sigma32-dependent, dnaK and ibp, promoters, and the sigmaE-dependent, P3rpoH and htrA, promoters were rapidly but transiently induced when mid-exponential phase cells were treated with 0.464 M sucrose. The cspA promoter, however, did not respond to the same treatment. Overproduction of the cytoplasmic domain of the sigmaE anti-sigma factor, RseA, reduced the magnitude of osmotic induction in lambdaphi(P3rpoH:lacZ ) lysogens, but had no effect on the activation of the dnaK and ibp promoters. Similarly, induction of the dnaK:lacZ and ibp:lacZ fusions was not altered in either rpoS or ompR genetic backgrounds. Osmotic upshift led to a twofold increase in the enzymatic activity of the lambdaTLF247 rpoH:lacZ translational fusion whether or not the cells were treated with rifampicin, indicating that both heat shock and exposure to high osmolality trigger a transient increase in rpoH translation. Our results suggest that the sigma32, sigmaE and sigmaS regulons closely co-operate in the managment of hyperosmotic stress. Induction of the sigma32 and sigmaE regulons appears to be an emergency response required to repair protein misfolding and facilitate the proper folding of proteins that are rapidly synthesized following loss of turgor, while providing a mechanism to increase the activity of sigmaS, the primary stress factor in osmoadaptation. PMID:10594827

  20. Hemorrhagic shock-induced cerebral bioenergetic imbalance is corrected by pharmacologic treatment with EF24 in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Rao, Geeta; Xie, Jun; Hedrick, Andria; Awasthi, Vibhudutta

    2015-12-01

    Maintenance of cerebral viability and function is an important goal of critical care in victims of injury due to ischemia and hypovolemia. As part of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, the brain function after trauma is influenced by the systemic inflammatory response. We investigated the effect of EF24, an anti-inflammatory bis-chalcone, on cerebral bioenergetics in a rat model of 45% hemorrhagic shock. The rats were treated with EF24 (0.4 mg/kg) or EF24 with an artificial oxygen carrier liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH). The volume of LEH administered was equal to the shed blood. The brain was collected after 6 h of shock for biochemical assays. EF24 treatment showed significant recovery of ATP, phosphocreatine, and NAD/NADH ratio. It also increased citrate synthase activity and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV expression which were reduced in shock brain. Furthermore, it reduced the shock-induced accumulation of pyruvate and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 expression, suggesting that EF24 treatment improves cerebral energetics by restoring perturbed pyruvate metabolism in the mitochondria. These effects of EF24 were associated with reduced poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and a significant improvement in the levels of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in shock brain. Co-administration of LEH with EF24 was only marginally more effective as compared to the treatment with EF24 alone. These results show that EF24 treatment sets up a pro-survival phenotype in shock by resurrecting cerebral bioenergetics. Since EF24 was effective in the absence of accompanying fluid resuscitation, it has potential utility as a pre-hospital pharmacotherapy in shock due to accidental blood loss. PMID:26232641

  1. Numerical modelling of shock-induced chemical reactions (SICR) in reactive powder mixtures using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Siva Prasad A. V.; Basu, Sumit

    2015-10-01

    Shock compaction of reactive powder mixtures to synthesize new materials is one of the oldest material processing techniques and has been studied extensively by several researchers over the past few decades. The quantitative connection between the shock energy imparted and the extent of reaction that can be completed in the small time window associated with the passage of the shock wave is complicated and depends on a large variety of parameters. In particular, our understanding of the complex interplay between the thermo-elasto-viscoplastic behaviour of the granular constituents and their temperature dependent, diffusion-limited reaction mechanism may be enriched through careful numerical simulations. A robust numerical model should be able to handle extremely large deformations coupled with diffusion mediated fast reaction kinetics. In this work, a meshfree discrete particle numerical method based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate shock-induced chemical reactions (SICR) in reactive powder mixtures is proposed. We present a numerical strategy to carry out reactions between reactant powder particles and partition the obtained products between the particles in a manner that accounts for the requirement that the total mass of the entire system remains constant as the reactions occur. Instead of solving the reaction-diffusion problem, we propose a ‘pseudo-diffusion’ model in which a distance dependent reaction rate constant is defined to carry out chemical reaction kinetics. This approach mimics the actual reaction-diffusion process at short times. Our numerical model is demonstrated for the well-studied reaction system Nb  +  2Si \\rightleftharpoons NbSi 2 . The predicted mass fractions of the product obtained from the simulations are in agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the effects of impact speed, particle arrangement and mixing ratio on the predicted product mass fractions are discussed.

  2. Simple scaling laws for the role of pre-existing and shock-induced microstructure on spall strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Justin; Ramesh, Kt

    2015-06-01

    Failure of ductile metals has long been attributed to void nucleation, growth, and finally coalescence leading to fracture. Under extreme loading conditions, a number of experimental investigations have demonstrated a strong rate-dependence in the dynamic tensile strength of such metals, which may be attributed to the fact that voids are constrained to grow at finite rates. Here we show that bounds on these void growth rates may be derived analytically by considering the constraints imposed by micro-inertia as well as relativistic dislocation drag. We then make use of these bounds to derive simple scaling laws for predicting the rate-dependence of spall strength. Though simple, the derived scaling laws compare well with experimental measurements and prove useful in shedding light on some of the more perplexing observations associated with spall failure. In particular, the scaling laws are helpful in understanding the role of pre-existing microstructure, e.g. second-phase particle spacing and grain size, on the spall strength of metals. Under typical loading conditions, we find that the spall strength is governed by this pre-existing microstructure with void growth governed primarily by micro-inertia. However, under the most extreme loading conditions, we find that the spall strength is governed instead by the shock-induced microstructure with growth mediated by dislocation emission. Lastly, we demonstrate how the scaling laws may be utilized to optimize the pre-existing microstructure, e.g. grain size considering the Hall-Petch effect, of a material for a particular application.

  3. Computational study of inlet injection for a Pre-Mixed, Shock-Induced Combustion (PM/SIC) engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computational simulation of reacting 2-D and 3-D flowfields in a model inlet section of a Pre-Mixed, Shock-Induced Combustion (PM/SIC) engine concept was performed. LARCK, a multi-dimensional Navier-Stokes code with finite-rate kinetics chemistry developed at NASA LaRC by J.A. White, was adapted for this simulation. The flow conditions in the simulation match those envisioned for the PM/SIC engine experiments currently planned at LaRC. The reacting flowfields were Mach 6.3 freestream air and Mach 2 hydrogen at various pressure and temperature conditions injected through a slot injector at the base of the inlet section. In the PM/SIC engine, fuel is injected at the inlet section upstream of the combustor, and reaction is initiated by the shock wave at the inlet which increases the gas temperature and pressure beyond the kinetic limits for reaction. Many challenges exist prior to establishing shock-controlled combustion as a practical engine concept. These challenges include fuel injection schemes that can provide proper fuel-air mixing without creating large losses in the inlet section, and control of the combustion process so that early ignition or combustion propagation through the inlet boundary layer does not occur. For this project, a parametrics study was carried out to model the fuel injection of hydrogen at different flow conditions. It was found that, as the fuel temperature and pressure were increased, the potential for pre-ignition was high at a short distance downstream of the slot injector. The next stage of this work will investigate injection techniques for enhancing mixing of fuel and air in a manner that prevents or reduces the potential for premature ignition observed numerically.

  4. Osthol attenuates neutrophilic oxidative stress and hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury via inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yung-Fong; Yu, Huang-Ping; Chung, Pei-Jen; Leu, Yann-Lii; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Chen, Chun-Yu; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress caused by neutrophils is an important pathogenic factor in trauma/hemorrhagic (T/H)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Osthol, a natural coumarin found in traditional medicinal plants, has therapeutic potential in various diseases. However, the pharmacological effects of osthol in human neutrophils and its molecular mechanism of action remain elusive. In this study, our data showed that osthol potently inhibited the production of superoxide anion (O2(•-)) and reactive oxidants derived therefrom as well as expression of CD11b in N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP)-activated human neutrophils. However, osthol inhibited neutrophil degranulation only slightly and it failed to inhibit the activity of subcellular NADPH oxidase. FMLP-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt) was inhibited by osthol. Notably, osthol increased the cAMP concentration and protein kinase A (PKA) activity in activated neutrophils. PKA inhibitors reversed the inhibitory effects of osthol, suggesting that these are mediated through cAMP/PKA-dependent inhibition of ERK and Akt activation. Furthermore, the activity of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4, but not PDE3 or PDE7, was significantly reduced by osthol. In addition, osthol reduced myeloperoxidase activity and pulmonary edema in rats subjected to T/H shock. In conclusion, our data suggest that osthol has effective anti-inflammatory activity in human neutrophils through the suppression of PDE4 and protects significantly against T/H shock-induced ALI in rats. Osthol may have potential for future clinical application as a novel adjunct therapy to treat lung inflammation caused by adverse circulatory conditions. PMID:26432981

  5. Shock-induced microdeformations in quartz and other mineralogical indications of an impact event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohor, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    The event terminating the Cretaceous period and the Mesozoic era caused massive extinctions of flora and fauna worldwide. Theories of the nature of this event can be classed as endogenic (volcanic, climatic, etc.) or exogenic (extraterrestrial causes). Mineralogical evidence from the boundary clays and claystones strongly favor the impact of an extraterrestrial body as the cause of this event. Nonmarine KT boundary claystones are comprised of two separate layers-an upper layer composed of high-angle ejecta material (shocked quartz, altered glass and spinel) and a basal kaolinitic layer containing spherules, clasts, and altered glass, together with some shocked grains. Recognition of this dual-layered nature of the boundary clay is important for the determination of the timing and processes involved in the impact event and in the assignment and interpretation of geochemical signatures. Multiple sets of shock-induced microdeformations (planar features) in quartz grains separated from KT boundary clays provide compelling evidence of an impact event. This mineralogical manifestation of shock metamorphism is associated worldwide with a large positive anomaly of iridium in these boundary clays, which has also been considered indicative of the impact of a large extraterrestrial body. Global distributions of maximum sizes of shocked quartz grains from the boundary clays and the mineralogy of the ejecta components favor an impact on or near the North American continent. Spinel crystals (magnesioferrite) occur in the boundary clays as micrometer-sized octahedra or skeletal forms. Their composition differs from that of spinels found in terrestrial oceanic basalts. Magnesioferrite crystals are restricted to the high-angle ejecta layer of the boundary clays and their small size and skeletal morphology suggest that they are condensation products of a vaporized bolide. Hollow spherules ranging up to 1 mm in size are ubiquitously associated with the boundary clays. In nonmarine

  6. High Reynolds number tests of a C-141A aircraft semispan model to investigate shock-induced separation. [boundary layer separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackerby, W. T.; Cahill, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Results from a high Reynolds number transonic wind tunnel investigation are presented. Wing chordwise pressure distributions were measured over a matrix of Mach numbers and angles-of-attack for which shock-induced separations are known to exist. The range of Reynolds number covered by these data nearly spanned the gap between previously available wind tunnel and flight test data. The results are compared with both flight and low Reynolds number data, and show that use of the semispan test technique produced good correlation with the prior data at both ends of the Reynolds number range, but indicated strong sensitivity to details of the test setup.

  7. Direct measurements of chemical composition of shock-induced gases from calcite: an intense global warming after the Chicxulub impact due to the indirect greenhouse effect of carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaragi, Ko; Sekine, Yasuhito; Kadono, Toshihiko; Sugita, Seiji; Ohno, Sohsuke; Ishibashi, Ko; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Matsui, Takafumi; Ikeda, Susumu

    2009-05-01

    Shock-induced devolatilization in hypervelocity impacts has been considered to play important roles in the atmospheric evolution and mass extinctions in Earth's history. Although the chemical composition of shock-induced gas species from carbonate rocks has been considered as a key to understand the environmental change after the Chicxulub impact, it has not been investigated extensively before. Here, we conduct direct measurements of the chemical composition (CO/CO 2) of shock-induced gas species from calcite (CaCO 3) using both a laser gun system and an isotopic labeling technique. The CO/CO 2 ratio of the shock-induced gas species from calcite is measured to be 2.02 ± 0.41, suggesting that gaseous CO has been dominant in the shock-induced gases in the Chicxulub impact. In order to evaluate the environmental effects of the injection of CO gas, we investigated the post-impact atmospheric chemistry by incorporating our experimental results into a tropospheric photochemical model. The results suggest that an intense (2-5 °C) global warming would have lasted for several years after a Chicxulub-size impact mainly due to the greenhouse effect of tropospheric O 3, which is produced via photochemical reactions associated with CO gas. Such an intense global warming could have damaged the biosphere in the mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-P) boundary.

  8. Shock-Induced Melting of Maskelynite and the High-pressure Mineral Inventory of Shergottites: Implications to Evaluation of the Shock History of Martian Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Goresy, A.

    2009-12-01

    Maskelynite [1-2] and the shock-induced melt pockets in shergottites are diagnostic features evidencing a major dynamic event on their parent body, Mars. Several models have been proposed for the origin of maskelynite: shock-induced solid-state vitrification of labradorite [3-4], metastable melting and quenching at high-pressure (high-P) [5], or ductile mobilization [4, 6]. Similarly, the origin and relevance of shock-melt pockets and veins as the main locations of high-P minerals in shergottites are controversial: localized formation by P-temperature (T) spikes in excess of 70-80 GPa [3, 4] or equilibrium assemblages evidencing peak-shock-P in the range of 25-35 GPa are discussed [7-10]. Crystallization ages are also controversial, with peaks at 160-190 Ma [11] and ≥ 4.1 Ga [12]: shock-induced age resetting may have been misinterpreted as igneous ages. We present ample evidence that maskelynite formed by metastable melting of plagioclase and quenching to glass at high-pressures as a result of the sluggishness of its inversion to lingunite. The direct consequence of our findings is the irrelevance of the refractive indices (RIs) of maskelynite as pressure indicators [3-4], since RIs were first established after decompression and quenching of maskelynite at its closure temperature of relaxation. We investigated the phase assemblages in Shergotty, Zagami, DAG 476, SAU 005, NWA 480, and NWA 856. Maskelynite contains the dense silica polymorph seifertite and the very dense monoclinic polymorph [8 -10]. Lingunite, CAS polymorph and Stishovite are present in shock-melt pockets [7-10]. Akimotoite, and silicate titanite were reported in shock-melt veins [13, 14]. The silicate liquids in which these dense minerals crystallized were perfect P-transmitting media, hence, contrary to [3-4], the dense minerals formed in equilibrium. The shock-induced events could be sequentially delineated commencing with the solid-state inversion to seifertite followed by pervasive melting of

  9. Suppressor of sable [Su(s)] and Wdr82 down-regulate RNA from heat-shock-inducible repetitive elements by a mechanism that involves transcription termination.

    PubMed

    Brewer-Jensen, Paul; Wilson, Carrie B; Abernethy, John; Mollison, Lonna; Card, Samantha; Searles, Lillie L

    2016-01-01

    Although RNA polymerase II (Pol II) productively transcribes very long genes in vivo, transcription through extragenic sequences often terminates in the promoter-proximal region and the nascent RNA is degraded. Mechanisms that induce early termination and RNA degradation are not well understood in multicellular organisms. Here, we present evidence that the suppressor of sable [su(s)] regulatory pathway of Drosophila melanogaster plays a role in this process. We previously showed that Su(s) promotes exosome-mediated degradation of transcripts from endogenous repeated elements at an Hsp70 locus (Hsp70-αβ elements). In this report, we identify Wdr82 as a component of this process and show that it works with Su(s) to inhibit Pol II elongation through Hsp70-αβ elements. Furthermore, we show that the unstable transcripts produced during this process are polyadenylated at heterogeneous sites that lack canonical polyadenylation signals. We define two distinct regions that mediate this regulation. These results indicate that the Su(s) pathway promotes RNA degradation and transcription termination through a novel mechanism. PMID:26577379

  10. Shock-induced poration, cholesterol flip-flop and small interfering RNA transfection in a phospholipid membrane: Multimillion atom, microsecond molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Amit

    Biological cell membranes provide mechanical stability to cells and understanding their structure, dynamics and mechanics are important biophysics problems. Experiments coupled with computational methods such as molecular dynamics (MD) have provided insight into the physics of membranes. We use long-time and large-scale MD simulations to study the structure, dynamics and mechanical behavior of membranes. We investigate shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles in water using MD simulations based on a reactive force field. We observe a focused jet at the onset of bubble shrinkage and a secondary shock wave upon bubble collapse. The jet length scales linearly with the nanobubble radius, as observed in experiments on micron-to-millimeter size bubbles. Shock induces dramatic structural changes, including an ice-VII-like structural motif at a particle velocity of 1 km/s. The incipient ice VII formation and the calculated Hugoniot curve are in good agreement with experimental results. We also investigate molecular mechanisms of poration in lipid bilayers due to shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles. Our multimillion-atom MD simulations reveal that the jet impact generates shear flow of water on bilayer leaflets and pressure gradients across them. This transiently enhances the bilayer permeability by creating nanopores through which water molecules translocate rapidly across the bilayer. Effects of nanobubble size and temperature on the porosity of lipid bilayers are examined. The second research project focuses on cholesterol (CHOL) dynamics in phospholipid bilayers. Several experimental and computational studies have been performed on lipid bilayers consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and CHOL molecules. CHOL interleaflet transport (flip-flop) plays an important role in interleaflet coupling and determining CHOL flip-flop rate has been elusive. Various studies report that the rate ranges between milliseconds to seconds. We calculate CHOL flip-flop rates by

  11. Effects of shock-induced tensile failure on mb-Ms discrimination: Contrasts between historic nuclear explosions and the North Korean test of 9 October 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Howard J.; Taylor, Steven R.

    2008-07-01

    Rayleigh wave excitation is studied for an explosion source model consisting of a superposition of isotropic (monopole), tensile failure, and tectonic release point sources. The body-force representation for shock-induced, deep-seated tensile failure is a compensated linear vector dipole CLVD, where the relative strength of the CLVD is given by an index K. Rayleigh wave amplitudes are reduced owing to destructive interference between an explosive monopole and a CLVD source with vertical axis of symmetry in extension (K > 1). The effect of tensile failure on M s is to enhance the explosion-like characteristics on a plot of m b -M s . This model suggests that the success of the m b -M s discriminant results from the fact that nuclear tests were conducted under containment practices for which tensile failure is ubiquitous, while the North Korean nuclear test of 9 October 2006 is a harbinger of poor m b -M s performance when tensile failure is completely suppressed.

  12. Shock induced reaction in Chicxulub target materials (CaSO4 and SiO2) and their relation to extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Guangqing; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    The global platinum element rich layer, the presence of shocked quartz grains (in some cases with stishovite), and the observation of a tektite-rich layer, precisely at the K-T boundary, are the three major arguments for the extinction bolide impact hypothesis of Alvarez et al. Tektites (spherules) from Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico received particular interest because of their geological proximity to the Chicxulub impact structure, which is a leading candidate for at least one of the K-T impact craters. Although in most localities the original glass has weathered to clay minerals, some shock-induced glass is found in outcrops and drill cores which is used for Ar-38/Ar-39 dating. The glassy tektites were found to be chemically similar and coeval at 65.0 Ma with Chicxulub melt rock. Two kinds of K-T spherules were discovered: (1) a silic black glass; and (2) a yellow glass, enriched in Ca, Mg, and S. The high sulfur content of the glass and the abundance of anhydrite (CaSO4) in the carbonate-evaporite sequence observed in Drill Holes Y-1 and Y-2 at Chicxulub prompted studies of calcium sulfate devolatization. Further discussion of our experiments is presented.

  13. A study of the effects of Reynolds number and Mach number on constant pressure coefficient jump for shock-induced trailing-edge separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Atlee M., Jr.; Spragle, Gregory S.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of Mach and Reynolds numbers as well as airfoil and planform geometry on the phenomenon of constant shock jump pressure coefficient for conditions of shock induced trailing edge separation (SITES) was studied. It was demonstrated that the phenomenon does exist for a wide variety of two and three dimensional flow cases and that the influence of free stream Mach number was not significant. The influence of Reynolds number was found to be important but was not strong. Airfoil and planform geometric characteristics were found to be very important where the pressure coefficient jump was shown to vary with the sum of: (1) airfoil curvature at the upper surface crest, and (2) camber surface slope at the trailing edge. It was also determined that the onset of SITES could be defined as a function of airfoil geometric parameters and Mach number normal to the leading edge. This onset prediction was shown to predict the angle of onset to within + or - 1 deg accuracy or better for about 90% of the cases studied.

  14. Ringwoodite rim around olivine core in shock-induced melt veins of Antarctic chondrite : Mechanisms of transformation and Fe-Mg diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Z.; Li, X.; Sharp, T. G.; de Carli, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Introduction: High-pressure minerals, produced by shock metamorphism, are common in and around melt veins in highly shocked chondrites. The shock duration can be constrained by using transformation kinetics, such as the crystallization rate of the melt-vein matrix[1-2], or growth rate of the high-pressure minerals [3-4], or using elements diffusion rate between two minerals [5]. Using transformation kinetics to constrain shock duration de-pend on the details of the transformation mechanism. For example, growth of topotaxial ringwoodite in olivine with coherent interfaces is slower than growth of inclusions with incoherent interfaces [4-5]. Similarly, diffusion-controlled growth, where rates are determined by long-range diffusion, is generally much slower than interface-controlled growth, which is only dependent on diffusion across the interface [6-8]. The occurrences of the high-pressure mineral rims were recently reported in shock-induced melt veins in several heavily shocked (S6) chondrites, ALH78003, Peace River and GRV052049 [9-11]. Here we report EMAP and Raman results of the ringwoodite rims around olivine cores in shock veins of the Antarctic chondrites GRV 022321, and to elucidate the mechanisms of transformation and Mg-Fe diffusion of the olivine to ringwoodite. Results: GRV022321 has a network of black veins which enclose abundant host-rock fragments. The enclosed fragments have sizes ranging from 5 µm to 30 µm, with a brighter rim up to several µm wide and a dark core in reflected light and BSE image. The Raman data reveal that the rim mineral is ringwoodite signature, and the core minerals are dominated by olivine and mixed minor ringwoodite. EMAP data confirm that the ringwoodite in rim is richer in faylite (Fa) than the olivine core. The Fa values range from 50 to 10 with the outer rim having highest Fa value, and the inside darker area with a lower value. Discussion: The occurrence of the rounded shape grains with smooth edges embedded in the fine

  15. Shock-induced crystalline instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo, Ramon; Holian, Brad Lee; Germann, Timothy C.

    2007-03-01

    Uniaxial deformations of single crystals such as those produced under planar shock loading can produce structural instabilities which compete with defect nucleation mechanisms. In fcc single crystals under (110) shock loading, the resulting body-centered orthorhombic crystal structure develops a long-wavelength dynamical instability associated with tetragonal shear distortions, which occurs at lower strains (pressures) than those predicted by the vanishing of the elastic constants at finite pressure (stiffness coefficients). The criterion for these instabilities is derived and verified by equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations [2]J. Wang, S. Yip, S.R. Phillpot, D. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4182 (1993)

  16. Stimulation of glycogen synthesis by heat shock in L6 skeletal-muscle cells: regulatory role of site-specific phosphorylation of glycogen-associated protein phosphatase 1.

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Byoung; Duddy, Noreen; Ragolia, Louis; Begum, Najma

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that glycogen-associated protein phosphatase 1 (PP-1(G)) is essential for basal and exercise-induced glycogen synthesis, which is mediated in part by dephosphorylation and activation of glycogen synthase (GS). In the present study, we examined the potential role of site-specific phosphorylation of PP-1(G) in heat-shock-induced glycogen synthesis. L6 rat skeletal-muscle cells were stably transfected with wild-type PP-1(G) or with PP-1(G) mutants in which site-1 (S1) Ser(48) and site-2 (S2) Ser(67) residues were substituted with Ala. Cells expressing wild-type and PP-1(G) mutants, S1, S2 and S1/S2, were examined for potential alterations in glycogen synthesis after a 60 min heat shock at 45 degrees C, followed by analysis of [(14)C]glucose incorporation into glycogen at 37 degrees C. PP-1(G) S1 mutation caused a 90% increase in glycogen synthesis on heat-shock treatment, whereas the PP-1(G) S2 mutant was not sensitive to heat stress. The S1/S2 double mutant was comparable with wild-type, which showed a 30% increase over basal. Heat-shock-induced glycogen synthesis was accompanied by increased PP-1 and GS activities. The highest activation was observed in S1 mutant. Heat shock also resulted in a rapid and sustained Akt/ glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3 beta) phosphorylation. Wortmannin blocked heat-shock-induced Akt/GSK-3 beta phosphorylation, prevented 2-deoxyglucose uptake and abolished the heat-shock-induced glycogen synthesis. Muscle glycogen levels regulate GS activity and glycogen synthesis and were found to be markedly depleted in S1 mutant on heat-shock treatment, suggesting that PP-1(G) S1 Ser phosphorylation may inhibit glycogen degradation during thermal stimulation, as S1 mutation resulted in excessive glycogen synthesis on heat-shock treatment. In contrast, PP-1(G) S2 Ser phosphorylation may promote glycogen breakdown under stressful conditions. Heat-shock-induced glycogenesis appears to be mediated via phosphoinositide 3

  17. Fever, hyperthermia and the heat shock response.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ishwar S; Hasday, Jeffrey D

    2013-08-01

    The heat shock response is a highly conserved primitive response that is essential for survival against a wide range of stresses, including extremes of temperature. Fever is a more recently evolved response, during which organisms raise their core body temperature and temporarily subject themselves to thermal stress in the face of infections. The present review documents studies showing the potential overlap between the febrile response and the heat shock response and how both activate the same common transcriptional programme (although with different magnitudes) including the stress-activated transcription factor, heat shock factor-1, to modify host defences in the context of infection, inflammation and injury. The review focuses primarily on how hyperthermia within the febrile range that often accompanies infections and inflammation acts as a biological response modifier and modifies innate immune responses. The characteristic 2-3 °C increase in core body temperature during fever activates and utilises elements of the heat shock response pathway to modify cytokine and chemokine gene expression, cellular signalling and immune cell mobilisation to sites of inflammation, infection and injury. Interestingly, typical proinflammatory agonists such as Toll-like receptor agonists modify the heat shock-induced transcriptional programme and expression of HSP genes following co-exposure to febrile range hyperthermia or heat shock, suggesting a complex reciprocal regulation between the inflammatory pathway and the heat shock response pathway. PMID:23863046

  18. The Effects of Calcitonin on the Development of and Ca2+ Levels in Heat-shocked Bovine Preimplantation Embryos In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    KAMANO, Shumpei; IKEDA, Shuntaro; SUGIMOTO, Miki; KUME, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular calcium homeostasis is essential for proper cell function. We investigated the effects of heat shock on the development of and the intracellular Ca2+ levels in bovine preimplantation embryos in vitro and the effects of calcitonin (CT), a receptor-mediated Ca2+ regulator, on heat shock-induced events. Heat shock (40.5 C for 10 h between 20 and 30 h postinsemination) of in vitro-produced bovine embryos did not affect the cleavage rate; however, it significantly decreased the rates of development to the 5- to 8-cell and blastocyst stages as compared with those of the control cultured for the entire period at 38.5 C (P < 0.05). The relative intracellular Ca2+ levels at the 1-cell stage (5 h after the start of heat shock), as assessed by Fluo-8 AM, a fluorescent probe for Ca2+, indicated that heat shock significantly lowered the Ca2+ level as compared with the control level. Semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR and western blot analyses revealed the expression of CT receptor in bovine preimplantation embryos. The addition of CT (10 nM) to the culture medium ameliorated the heat shock-induced impairment of embryonic development beyond the 5- to 8-cell stage. The Ca2+ level in the heat-shocked embryos cultured with CT was similar to that of the control embryos, suggesting that heat shock lowers the Ca2+ level in fertilized embryos in vitro and that a lower Ca2+ level is implicated in heat shock-induced impairment of embryonic development. Intracellular Ca2+-mobilizing agents, e.g., CT, may effectively circumvent the detrimental effects of heat shock on early embryonic development. PMID:24899099

  19. Influence of heat shock on glycerol production in alcohol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Berovic, Marin; Pivec, Aleksandra; Kosmerl, Tatjana; Wondra, Mojmir; Celan, Stefan

    2007-02-01

    The influence of single and double heat shocks induced during the exponential growth phase of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of cultivar Sauvignon Blanc grape must was examined. Rapid temperature changes from 18 degrees C to 34 degrees C have been applied. The effect of the duration of exposure to a high temperature has been analyzed. By the applications of a single heat shock and a double heat shock, up to 8.2 g l(-1) and 11.0 g l(-1) glycerol have been produced, respectively. To prevent the evaporation of fine wine bouquet compounds during the temperature changes, reflux coolers on the top of bioreactors have been employed. By using this method, glycerol production was increased by up to 65%. PMID:17368395

  20. PARP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by sumoylation upon heat shock.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nadine; Schwamborn, Klaus; Schreiber, Valérie; Werner, Andreas; Guillier, Christelle; Zhang, Xiang-Dong; Bischof, Oliver; Seeler, Jacob-S; Dejean, Anne

    2009-11-18

    Heat shock and other environmental stresses rapidly induce transcriptional responses subject to regulation by a variety of post-translational modifications. Among these, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and sumoylation have received growing attention. Here we show that the SUMO E3 ligase PIASy interacts with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP-1, and that PIASy mediates heat shock-induced poly-sumoylation of PARP-1. Furthermore, PIASy, and hence sumoylation, appears indispensable for full activation of the inducible HSP70.1 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that PIASy, SUMO and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 are rapidly recruited to the HSP70.1 promoter upon heat shock, and that they are subsequently released with kinetics similar to PARP-1. Finally, we provide evidence that the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 mediates heat-shock-inducible ubiquitination of PARP-1, regulates the stability of PARP-1, and, like PIASy, is a positive regulator of HSP70.1 gene activity. These results, thus, point to a novel mechanism for regulating PARP-1 transcription function, and suggest crosstalk between sumoylation and RNF4-mediated ubiquitination in regulating gene expression in response to heat shock. PMID:19779455

  1. Heat Shock Partially Dissociates the Overlapping Modules of the Yeast Protein-Protein Interaction Network: A Systems Level Model of Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Mihalik, Ágoston; Csermely, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Network analysis became a powerful tool giving new insights to the understanding of cellular behavior. Heat shock, the archetype of stress responses, is a well-characterized and simple model of cellular dynamics. S. cerevisiae is an appropriate model organism, since both its protein-protein interaction network (interactome) and stress response at the gene expression level have been well characterized. However, the analysis of the reorganization of the yeast interactome during stress has not been investigated yet. We calculated the changes of the interaction-weights of the yeast interactome from the changes of mRNA expression levels upon heat shock. The major finding of our study is that heat shock induced a significant decrease in both the overlaps and connections of yeast interactome modules. In agreement with this the weighted diameter of the yeast interactome had a 4.9-fold increase in heat shock. Several key proteins of the heat shock response became centers of heat shock-induced local communities, as well as bridges providing a residual connection of modules after heat shock. The observed changes resemble to a ‘stratus-cumulus’ type transition of the interactome structure, since the unstressed yeast interactome had a globally connected organization, similar to that of stratus clouds, whereas the heat shocked interactome had a multifocal organization, similar to that of cumulus clouds. Our results showed that heat shock induces a partial disintegration of the global organization of the yeast interactome. This change may be rather general occurring in many types of stresses. Moreover, other complex systems, such as single proteins, social networks and ecosystems may also decrease their inter-modular links, thus develop more compact modules, and display a partial disintegration of their global structure in the initial phase of crisis. Thus, our work may provide a model of a general, system-level adaptation mechanism to environmental changes. PMID:22022244

  2. Lipoic Acid Exerts Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects in Response to Heat Shock in C2C12 Myotubes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Tse; Chang, Li-Ching; Wu, Pei-Fung

    2016-06-01

    This study explored that lipoic acid treatment for 24 h significantly upregulated and promoted heat shock-induced catalase expression and downregulated GPx1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, indicating that lipoic acid exhibits antioxidant activity in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by upregulating catalase expression. Moreover, lipoic acid treatment for 3 h increased and promoted heat shock-induced interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA and protein levels and that for 24 h downregulated IL-6 mRNA expression, suggesting a dual effect of lipoic acid on IL-6 regulation. Lipoic acid alone failed to increase or reduce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA and protein levels, whereas heat shock alone downregulated TNF-α mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that lipoic acid does not have a proinflammatory role and that heat shock acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by downregulating TNF-α expression in C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, lipoic acid or heat shock alone upregulated the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R-α) and glycoprotein 130 (gp130) mRNA expression followed by IL-6 expression; these data indicate that the regulation of lipoic acid or heat shock is mediated by IL-6R signaling, thus suggesting that C2C12 myotubes possesses a mechanism for regulating IL-6R and gp130 expression following lipoic acid treatment or heat shock. PMID:27086282

  3. Cytoprotective effects of cerium and selenium nanoparticles on heat-shocked human dermal fibroblasts: an in vitro evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Bo; Webster, Thomas J; Roy, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    It is a widely accepted fact that environmental factors affect cells by modulating the components of subcellular compartments and altering metabolic enzymes. Factors (such as oxidative stress and heat-shock-induced proteins and heat shock factors, which upregulate stress-response related genes to protect affected cells) are commonly altered during changes in environmental conditions. Studies by our group and others have shown that nanoparticles (NPs) are able to efficiently attenuate oxidative stress by penetrating into specific tissues or organs. Such findings warrant further investigation on the effects of NPs on heat-shock-induced stress, specifically in cells in the presence or absence (pretreated) of NPs. Here, we examined the cytoprotective effects of two different NPs (cerium and selenium) on heat-induced cell death for a model cell using dermal fibroblasts. We report for the first time that both ceria and selenium NPs (at 500 µg/mL) possess stress-relieving behavior on fibroblasts undergoing heat shock. Such results indicate the need to further develop these NPs as a novel treatment for heat shock. PMID:27103800

  4. The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) protects cells against cold-shock-induced apoptosis by maintaining phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT).

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Dale; Hsiang, Chinhui; Jiang, Xianzhi; Osorio, Nelson; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Jones, Clinton; Wechsler, Steven L

    2015-10-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) blocks apoptosis and inhibits caspase-3 activation. We previously showed that serum starvation (removal of serum from tissue culture media), which takes several days to induce apoptosis, results in decreased levels of both AKT (protein kinase B) and phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) in cells not expressing LAT. In contrast in mouse neuroblastoma cells expressing LAT, AKT, and pAKT levels remained high. AKT is a serine/threonine protein kinase that promotes cell survival. To examine the effect of LAT on AKT-pAKT using a different and more rapid method of inducing apoptosis, a stable cell line expressing LAT was compared to non-LAT expressing cells as soon as 15 min following recovery from cold-shock-induced apoptosis. Expression of LAT appeared to inhibit dephosphorylation of pAKT. This protection correlated with blocking numerous pro-apoptotic events that are inhibited by pAKT. These results support the hypothesis that inhibiting dephosphorylation of pAKT may be one of the pathways by which LAT protects cells against apoptosis. PMID:26071090

  5. Shock-induced growth and metastability of stishovite and coesite in lithic clasts from suevite of the Ries impact crater (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stähle, Volker; Altherr, Rainer; Koch, Mario; Nasdala, Lutz

    2008-04-01

    The microtextures of stishovite and coesite in shocked non-porous lithic clasts from suevite of the Ries impact structure were studied in transmitted light and under the scanning electron microscope. Both high-pressure silica phases were identified in situ by laser-Raman spectroscopy. They formed from silica melt as well as by solid-state transformation. In weakly shocked rocks (stage I), fine-grained stishovite (≤1.8 μm) occurs in thin pseudotachylite veins of quartz-rich rocks, where it obviously nucleated from high-pressure frictional melts. Generally no stishovite was found in planar deformation features (PDFs) within grains of rock-forming quartz. The single exception is a highly shocked quartz grain, trapped between a pseudotachylite vein and a large ilmenite grain, in which stishovite occurs within two sets of lamellae. It is assumed that in this case the small stishovite grains formed by the interplay of conductive heating and shock reverberation. In strongly shocked rocks (stages Ib-III, above ˜30 GPa), grains of former quartz typically contain abundant and variably sized stishovite (<6 μm) embedded within a dense amorphous silica phase in the interstices between PDFs. The formation of transparent diaplectic glass in adjacent domains results from the breakdown of stishovite and the transformation of the dense amorphous phase and PDFs to diaplectic glass in the solid state. Coesite formed during unloading occurs in two textural varieties. Granular micrometre-sized coesite occurs embedded in silica melt glass along former fractures and grain boundaries. These former high-pressure melt pockets are surrounded by diaplectic glass or by domains consisting of microcrystalline coesite and earlier formed stishovite. The latter is mostly replaced by amorphous silica.

  6. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  7. Optical emission, shock-induced opacity, temperatures, and melting of Gd3Ga5O12 single crystals shock-compressed from 41 to 290 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianming; Nellis, William J.; Li, Jiabo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Wanguang; Liu, Xun; Cao, Xiuxia; Liu, Qiancheng; Xue, Tao; Wu, Qiang; Mashimo, T.

    2015-08-01

    Strong oxides at high shock pressures have broad crossovers from elastic solids at ambient to failure by plastic deformation, to heterogeneous deformation to weak solids, to fluid-like solids that equilibrate thermally in a few ns, to melting and, at sufficiently high shock pressures and temperatures, to metallic fluid oxides. This sequence of crossovers in single-crystal cubic Gd3Ga5O12 (Gd-Ga Garnet-GGG) has been diagnosed by fast emission spectroscopy using a 16-channel optical pyrometer in the spectral range 400-800 nm with bandwidths per channel of 10 nm, a writing time of ˜1000 ns and time resolution of 3 ns. Spectra were measured at shock pressures from 40 to 290 GPa (100 GPa = 1 Mbar) with corresponding gray-body temperatures from 3000 to 8000 K. Experimental lifetimes were a few 100 ns. Below 130 GPa, emission is heterogeneous and measured temperatures are indicative of melting temperatures in grain boundary regions rather than bulk temperatures. At 130 GPa and 2200 K, GGG equilibrates thermally and homogeneously in a thin opaque shock front. This crossover has a characteristic spectral signature in going from partially transmitting shock-heated material behind the shock front to an opaque shock front. Opacity is caused by optical scattering and absorption of light generated by fast compression. GGG melts at ˜5000 K in a two-phase region at shock pressures in the range 200 GPa to 217 GPa. Hugoniot equation-of-state data were measured by a Doppler Pin SystemDPS with ps time resolution and are generally consistent with previous data. Extrapolation of previous electrical conductivity measurements indicates that GGG becomes a poor metal at a shock pressure above ˜400 GPa. Because the shock impedance of GGG is higher than that of Al2O3 used previously to make metallic fluid H (MFH), the use of GGG to make MFH will achieve higher pressures and lower temperatures than use of Al2O3. However, maximum dynamic pressures at which emission temperatures of fluid

  8. Discovery of Ahrensite γ-Fe2SiO4 and Tissintite (Ca,Na,[])AlSi2O6, Two New Shock-induced Minerals from the Tissint Martian Meteorite: a Nanomineralogy Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Tschauner, O. D.; Liu, Y.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Zhuravlev, K. K.; Prakapenka, V.; Dera, P. K.; Taylor, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The recent Martian meteorite fall, Tissint, is a fresh olivine-phyric shergottite, with strong shock features. During our nano-mineralogy investigation of the Tissint meteorite with a combined analytical scanning electron microscope and synchrotron diffraction approach, two new shock-induced minerals have been discovered; these provide new insights into understanding shock conditions and impact processes on Mars. Ahrensite (IMA 2013-028), the Fe-analogue (γ-Fe2SiO4) of ringwoodite, is a new high-pressure mineral identified in Tissint. Both ahrensite and ringwoodite occur in Tissint as fine-grained polycrystalline aggregates in the rims of olivines around some shock-melt pockets. The morphology and texture of these silicate-spinels suggest formation by a solid-state transformation from Fe-rich olivine. Associated with the ahrensite and ringwoodite, inside melt pockets, often resides a thin layer of vitrified silicate-perovskite and magnesio-wüstite or wüstite. Such transitions represent a unique pressure and temperature gradient. Tissintite (IMA 2013-027), (Ca,Na,[])AlSi2O6 with the C2/c clinopyroxene structure, is a new jadeite-like mineral in Tissint. It appears as fine-grained aggregates within plagioclase glass, inside many shock-melt pockets. Both ahrensite and tissintite are high-pressure minerals formed by shock during the impact event(s) on Mars that excavated and ejected the rock off Mars. We will discuss the path of structure analysis for both new-mineral cases. Such novel methodology be utilized for many cases of mineralogical phase identification or structure analysis; this demonstrates how nano-mineralogy can be addressed and how it may play a unique role in meteorite and Mars rock research, in general.

  9. Rac1 Participates in Thermally Induced Alterations of the Cytoskeleton, Cell Morphology and Lipid Rafts, and Regulates the Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in B16F10 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gungor, Burcin; Gombos, Imre; Crul, Tim; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Szabó, László; Török, Zsolt; Mátés, Lajos; Vígh, László; Horváth, Ibolya

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells exhibit a characteristic response to hyperthermic treatment, involving morphological and cytoskeletal alterations and the induction of heat shock protein synthesis. Small GTPases of the Ras superfamily are known to serve as molecular switches which mediate responses to extracellular stimuli. We addressed here how small GTPase Rac1 integrates signals from heat stress and simultaneously induces various cellular changes in mammalian cells. As evidence that Rac1 is implicated in the heat shock response, we first demonstrated that both mild (41.5°C) and severe (43°C) heat shock induced membrane translocation of Rac1. Following inhibition of the activation or palmitoylation of Rac1, the size of its plasma membrane-bound pool was significantly decreased while the heat shock-induced alterations in the cytoskeleton and cell morphology were prevented. We earlier documented that the size distribution pattern of cholesterol-rich rafts is temperature dependent and hypothesized that this is coupled to the triggering mechanism of stress sensing and signaling. Interestingly, when plasma membrane localization of Rac1 was inhibited, a different and temperature independent average domain size was detected. In addition, inhibition of the activation or palmitoylation of Rac1 resulted in a strongly decreased expression of the genes of major heat shock proteins hsp25 and hsp70 under both mild and severe heat stress conditions. PMID:24586549

  10. A molecular dynamics study of the early-time mechanical heating in shock-loaded octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine-based explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2014-07-01

    We study the shock-induced hot spot formation mechanism of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine-based explosives by molecular dynamics, compare different kinds of desensitizers and different shock velocities. A set of programs is written to calculate the physical picture of shock loading. Based on the simulations and analyses, the hot spots are found at the interface and are heated by plastic work in three ways: the interface intrinsic dissipation, the pore collapse, and the coating layer deformation. The work/heat transition rate is proved to be increasing with a loading speed.

  11. Shock Induced Birefringence in Lithium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, N C

    2001-06-01

    We have used an ellipsometer to measure the birefringence of lithium fluoride in shock compression experiments. In previous x-ray diffraction experiments, single crystal [100] LiF has been reported to remain cubic at moderate pressures.

  12. Heat Waves

    MedlinePlus

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  13. Heat emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Heat emergencies or illnesses are caused by exposure to extreme heat and sun. Heat illnesses can be prevented by ... to regulate the temperature, and make a heat emergency more likely: Drinking alcohol before or during exposure ...

  14. Heat shock up-regulates expression of Toll-like receptor-2 and Toll-like receptor-4 in human monocytes via p38 kinase signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; An, Huazhang; Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Shuxun; Cao, Xuetao

    2005-01-01

    Heat stress can alert innate immunity by inducing stress proteins such as heat-shock proteins (HSPs). However, it remains unclear whether heat stress affects the activation of antigen-presenting cell (APC) in response to pathogen-associated molecule patterns (PAMPs) by directly regulating pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). As an important kind of PRRs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in the activation of immune system. In this study, we demonstrated that heat shock up-regulated the expression of HSP70 as well as TLR2 and TLR4 in monocytes. The induction of TLRs was prior to that of HSP70, which suggesting the up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 might be independent of the induction of HSP70. Heat shock activated p38 kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathways in monocytes. Pretreatment with specific inhibitor of p38 kinase, but not those of ERK and NF-κB, inhibited heat shock-induced up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4. This indicates that p38 pathway takes part in heat shock-induced up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4. Heat shock also increased lipoteichoic acid- or lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6 production by monocytes. These results suggest that the p38 kinase-mediated up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 might be involved in the enhanced response to PAMP in human monocytes induced by heat shock. PMID:15804289

  15. Heat Without Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkin, Elihu

    1997-04-01

    Logic of the Second Law of Thermodynamics demands acquisition of naked entropy. Accordingly, the leanest liaison between systems is not a diathermic membrane, it is a purely informational tickler, leaking no appreciable energy. The subsystem here is a thermodynamic universe, which gets `heated' entropically, yet without gaining calories. Quantum Mechanics graciously supports that(Lubkin, E. and Lubkin, T., International Journal of Theoretical Physics,32), 933-943 (1993) (at a cost of about 1 bit) through entanglement---across this least permeable of membranes---with what is beyond that universe. Heat without heat(Also v. forthcoming Proceedings of the 4th Drexel University Conference of September 1994) is the aspirin for Boltzmann's headache, conserving entropy in mechanical isolation, even while increasing entropy in thermodynamic isolation.

  16. Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Consequences of Heat Stress Are Dependent on the Presence of Oxygen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, John F.; Schiestl, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    Lethal heat stress generates oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and anaerobic cells are several orders of magnitude more resistant than aerobic cells to a 50°C heat shock. Here we characterize the oxidative effects of this heat stress. The thermoprotective effect in anaerobic cells was not due to expression of HSP104 or any other heat shock gene, raising the possibility that the toxicity of lethal heat shock is due mainly to oxidative stress. Aerobic but not anaerobic heat stress caused elevated frequencies of forward mutations and interchromosomal DNA recombination. Oxidative DNA repair glycosylase-deficient strains under aerobic conditions showed a powerful induction of forward mutation frequencies compared to wild-type cells, which was completely abolished under anaerobiosis. We also investigated potential causes for this oxygen-dependent heat shock-induced genetic instability. Levels of sulfhydryl groups, dominated mainly by the high levels of the antioxidant glutathione (reduced form) and levels of vitamin E, decreased after aerobic heat stress but not after anaerobic heat stress. Aerobic heat stress also led to an increase in mitochondrial membrane disruption of several hundredfold, which was 100-fold reduced under anaerobic conditions. PMID:11443093

  17. Metabolite changes associated with heat shocked avian fibroblast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, M J; Ryan, C; Chi, M M; Carter, J G; Pusateri, M E; Lowry, O H

    1997-03-01

    A previous report from our laboratory (Collier et al 1993) showed that the elongated tubules of mitochondria in the cytoplasm of cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts collapsed to irregularly shaped structures surrounding the nuclear membrane after a 1 h heat shock treatment. The normal mitochondrial morphology reappeared upon removal of the thermal stress. We have now determined that several changes occurred in mitochondrial-related metabolites under these same heat shock and recovery conditions. Among these were significant decreases in the levels of fumarate and malate and increases in the amounts of aspartate and glutamate. In contrast, other intermediates of the tri-carboxylic acid cycle were unaltered as were levels of ATP and phosphocreatine. The changes observed might result from heat shock-induced changes in enzyme activities of the mitochondria, from alterations in the membrane-embedded specialized carrier proteins that transport metabolites between cytosol and mitochondria or from a disorganization of the electron-transport system normally coupled to oxidative metabolism. The rapid recovery, however, suggested that these changes were transient and readily reversible. PMID:9250392

  18. Heating Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... from heating equipment, such as the furnace, fireplace, wood stove, or portable heater. • Only use heating equipment ... into the room and burn only dry, seasoned wood. Allow ashes to cool before disposing in a ...

  19. Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stress Learn some tips to protect workers including: acclimatization, rest breaks, and fluid recommendations. NIOSH Workplace Solution: ... Blog: Adjusting to Work in the Heat: Why Acclimatization Matters The natural adaptation to the heat takes ...

  20. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  1. Mammalian Heat Shock Response and Mechanisms Underlying Its Genome-wide Transcriptional Regulation.

    PubMed

    Mahat, Dig B; Salamanca, H Hans; Duarte, Fabiana M; Danko, Charles G; Lis, John T

    2016-04-01

    The heat shock response (HSR) is critical for survival of all organisms. However, its scope, extent, and the molecular mechanism of regulation are poorly understood. Here we show that the genome-wide transcriptional response to heat shock in mammals is rapid and dynamic and results in induction of several hundred and repression of several thousand genes. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), the "master regulator" of the HSR, controls only a fraction of heat shock-induced genes and does so by increasing RNA polymerase II release from promoter-proximal pause. Notably, HSF2 does not compensate for the lack of HSF1. However, serum response factor appears to transiently induce cytoskeletal genes independently of HSF1. The pervasive repression of transcription is predominantly HSF1-independent and is mediated through reduction of RNA polymerase II pause release. Overall, mammalian cells orchestrate rapid, dynamic, and extensive changes in transcription upon heat shock that are largely modulated at pause release, and HSF1 plays a limited and specialized role. PMID:27052732

  2. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

  3. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  4. Heated Goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The electrically heated ski goggles shown incorporate technology similar to that once used in Apollo astronauts' helmet visors, and for the same reason-providing fogfree sight in an activity that demands total vision. Defogging is accomplished by applying heat to prevent moisture condensation. Electric heat is supplied by a small battery built into the h goggles' headband. Heat is spread across the lenses by means of an invisible coating of electrically conductive metallic film. The goggles were introduced to the market last fall. They were designed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California, specialists in the field of heated transparent materials. The company produces heated windshields for military planes and for such civil aircraft as the Boeing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar.

  5. Studies of dynamic contact of ceramics and alloys for advanced heat engines: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dufrane, K.F.; Glaeser, W.A.; Rosenfield, A.R.

    1988-03-01

    In support of the efforts to apply ceramics in advanced heat engines, a study was made of the sliding performance of ceramics at the ring/cylinder interface of low heat rejection engines. The objective was to understand the basic mechanisms controlling the wear of candidate ceramics and thereby identify means for applying these ceramics effectively. Attempts to operate three different zirconias, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, and several plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings without lubrication were unsuccessful because of high friction and high wear rates. Experiments using a polyalphaolefin lubricant at temperatures to 260 C identified several combinations having wear rates in the general range likely to be acceptable for engines. Plasma-sprayed coatings of chromium oxide and hypersonic powder flame sprayed coatings of cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide performed particularly well as ring coatings. Similar performance was obtained with these ring coatings operating against silicon carbide, silicon nitride, silicon carbide whisker-reinforced alumina, and chromium oxide coatings. Zirconia experienced high wear rates because of thermal-shock-induced surface cracking. Low thermal conductivity of zirconia allows local areas to heat excessively from friction. Periodic heating induces thermal shock cracking and subsequent spalling. The study demonstrated the importance of lubrication to successful sliding of ceramics and the need for lubricants capable of operating at temperatures in the range of 250 to 650 C. 42 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. The central role of heat shock factor 1 in synaptic fidelity and memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Philip L; Durham, Heather D; Török, Zsolt; Hooper, Paul L; Crul, Tim; Vígh, László

    2016-09-01

    Networks of neuronal synapses are the fundamental basis for making and retaining memory. Reduced synapse number and quality correlates with loss of memory in dementia. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), the major transcription factor regulating expression of heat shock genes, plays a central role in proteostasis, in establishing and sustaining synaptic fidelity and function, and in memory consolidation. Support for this thesis is based on these observations: (1) heat shock induces improvements in synapse integrity and memory consolidation; (2) synaptic depolarization activates HSF1; (3) activation of HSF1 alone (independent of the canonical heat shock response) augments formation of essential synaptic elements-neuroligands, vesicle transport, synaptic scaffolding proteins, lipid rafts, synaptic spines, and axodendritic synapses; (4) HSF1 coalesces and activates memory receptors in the post-synaptic dendritic spine; (5) huntingtin or α-synuclein accumulation lowers HSF1 while HSF1 lowers huntingtin and α-synuclein aggregation-a potential vicious cycle; and (6) HSF1 agonists (including physical activity) can improve cognitive function in dementia models. Thus, via direct gene expression of synaptic elements, production of HSPs that assure high protein fidelity, and activation of other neuroprotective signaling pathways, HSF1 agonists could provide breakthrough therapy for dementia-associated disease. PMID:27283588

  7. Heat Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

  8. Heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Leon, Lisa R; Bouchama, Abderrezak

    2015-04-01

    Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition clinically diagnosed as a severe elevation in body temperature with central nervous system dysfunction that often includes combativeness, delirium, seizures, and coma. Classic heat stroke primarily occurs in immunocompromised individuals during annual heat waves. Exertional heat stroke is observed in young fit individuals performing strenuous physical activity in hot or temperature environments. Long-term consequences of heat stroke are thought to be due to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent advances in the identification of risk factors that predispose to heat stroke, the role of endotoxin and cytokines in mediation of multi-organ damage, the incidence of hypothermia and fever during heat stroke recovery, clinical biomarkers of organ damage severity, and protective cooling strategies. Risk factors include environmental factors, medications, drug use, compromised health status, and genetic conditions. The role of endotoxin and cytokines is discussed in the framework of research conducted over 30 years ago that requires reassessment to more clearly identify the role of these factors in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We challenge the notion that hypothalamic damage is responsible for thermoregulatory disturbances during heat stroke recovery and highlight recent advances in our understanding of the regulated nature of these responses. The need for more sensitive clinical biomarkers of organ damage is examined. Conventional and emerging cooling methods are discussed with reference to protection against peripheral organ damage and selective brain cooling. PMID:25880507

  9. Heat shock factor 1 binds to and transcribes satellite II and III sequences at several pericentromeric regions in heat-shocked cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eymery, Angeline; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 ; Souchier, Catherine; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 ; Vourc'h, Claire; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 ; Jolly, Caroline; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700

    2010-07-01

    Cells respond to stress by activating the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) which protect the cells against the deleterious effects of stress. This mechanism is controlled by the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). In parallel to HSP gene transcription, in human cells, HSF1 also binds to and transcribes satellite III repeated sequences present in numerous copies in the 9q12 pericentromeric region of chromosome 9. These HSF1 accumulation sites are termed nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). In tumor cells, however, the number of nSBs is higher than the number of 9q12 copies, suggesting the existence of other HSF1 targets. In this paper, we were interested in characterizing these other HSF1 binding sites. We show that HSF1 indeed binds to the pericentromeric region of 14 chromosomes, thereby directing the formation of 'secondary nSBs'. The appearance of secondary nSBs depends on the number of satellite sequences present in the target locus, and on the cellular amount of HSF1 protein. Moreover, secondary nSBs also correspond to transcription sites, thus demonstrating that heat shock induces a genome-wide transcription of satellite sequences. Finally, by analyzing published transcriptomic data, we show that the derepression of these large heterochromatic blocks does not significantly affect the transcription of neighboring genes.

  10. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  11. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  12. Heat intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003094.htm Heat intolerance To use the sharing features on this ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  13. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOEpatents

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  14. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  15. Isolation of a novel inducible rat heat-shock protein (HSP70) gene and its expression during ischaemia/hypoxia and heat shock.

    PubMed Central

    Mestril, R; Chi, S H; Sayen, M R; Dillmann, W H

    1994-01-01

    Most of the members of the mammalian heat-shock protein (HSP) gene family have been studied and isolated from human and mouse cells. Few studies have concentrated on the HSPs of rat, a commonly used experimental animal. We have isolated and characterized a novel inducible rat HSP70 gene using an HSP70 cDNA sequence obtained from an ischaemic rat heart cDNA library. The isolated rat HSP70 gene was found to be a functional gene, as indicated by RNAase-protection and Northern-blot analysis. The deduced amino acid sequence of the inducible rat HSP70 exhibits a high degree of similarity to previously isolated mammalian inducible HSP70 gene products. Expression of the inducible HSP70 gene in rat myogenic cells (H9c2) is markedly increased after relatively short periods of hypoxia as well as by heat shock. Two heat-shock elements (HSE) are present in the rat HSP70 promoter. Transient transfection of rat HSP70 promoter/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs into H9c2 cells shows that the presence of either of the two HSEs is sufficient for heat-shock inducibility. In contrast, induction of the rat HSP70/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs by hypoxia is only detectable when both HSEs are present. This leads us to conclude that the induction of HSP70 by hypoxia and heat shock occurs through the same regulatory HSEs but the activation of the inducible HSP70 gene by heat shock is several-fold higher than by hypoxia. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:8141767

  16. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  17. HEAT GENERATION

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1963-12-01

    Heat is generated by the utilization of high energy neutrons produced as by nuclear reactions between hydrogen isotopes in a blanket zone containing lithium, a neutron moderator, and uranium and/or thorium effective to achieve multtplicatton of the high energy neutron. The rnultiplied and moderated neutrons produced react further with lithium-6 to produce tritium in the blanket. Thermal neutron fissionable materials are also produced and consumed in situ in the blanket zone. The heat produced by the aggregate of the various nuclear reactions is then withdrawn from the blanket zone to be used or otherwise disposed externally. (AEC)

  18. Heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-02-02

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections.

  19. Tissue-specific induction of Hsp90 mRNA and plasma cortisol response in chinook salmon following heat shock, seawater challenge, and handling challenge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Winton, J.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2000-01-01

    In studying the whole-body response of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to various stressors, we found that 5-hour exposure to elevated temperature (mean 21.6??C; + 10.6??C over ambient) induced a marked increase in Hsp90 messenger RNA accumulation in heart, brain, gill, muscle, liver, kidney, and tail fin tissues. The most vital tissues (heart, brain, gill, and muscle) showed the greatest Hsp90-mRNA response, with heart tissue increasing approximately 35-fold, Heat shock induced no increase in plasma cortisol. In contrast, a standard handling challenge induced high plasma cortisol levels, but no elevation in Hsp90 mRNA in any tissue, clearly separating the physiological and cellular stress responses. We saw no increase either in tissue Hsp90 mRNA levels or in plasma cortisol concentrations after exposing the fish to seawater overnight.

  20. Infrared Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IR heating was first industrially used in the 1930s for automotive curing applications and rapidly became a widely applied technology in the manufacturing industry. Contrarily, a slower pace in the development of IR technologies for processing foods and agricultural products was observed, due to lim...

  1. Repression of hsp70 heat shock gene transcription by the suppressor of hairy-wing protein of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, C.; Dorsett, D. )

    1991-04-01

    The suppressor of hairy-wing [su(Hw)] locus of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a zinc finger protein that binds a repeated motif in the gypsy retroposon. Mutations of su(Hw) suppress the phenotypes associated with mutations caused by gypsy insertions. To examine the mechanisms by which su(Hw) alters gene expression, a fragment of gypsy containing multiple su(Hw) protein-binding sites was inserted into various locations in the well-characterized Drosophila hsp70 heat shock gene promoter. The authors found no evidence for activation of basal hsp70 transcription by su(Hw) protein in cultured Drosophila cells but observed that it can repress heat shock-induced transcription. Repression occurred only when su(Hw) protein-binding sites were positioned between binding sites for proteins required for heat shock transcription. They propose that su(Hw) protein interferes nonspecifically with protein-protein interactions required for heat shock transcription, perhaps sterically, or by altering the ability of DNA to bend or twist.

  2. The inactivation of RNase G reduces the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia susceptibility to quinolones by triggering the heat shock response.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Alejandra; Corona, Fernando; Dias, Ricardo; Sánchez, Maria B; Martínez, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    Quinolone resistance is usually due to mutations in the genes encoding bacterial topoisomerases. However, different reports have shown that neither clinical quinolone resistant isolates nor in vitro obtained Stenotrophomonas maltophilia mutants present mutations in such genes. The mechanisms so far described consist on efflux pumps' overexpression. Our objective is to get information on novel mechanisms of S. maltophilia quinolone resistance. For this purpose, a transposon-insertion mutant library was obtained in S. maltophilia D457. One mutant presenting reduced susceptibility to nalidixic acid was selected. Inverse PCR showed that the inactivated gene encodes RNase G. Complementation of the mutant with wild-type RNase G allele restored the susceptibility to quinolones. Transcriptomic and real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that several genes encoding heat-shock response proteins were expressed at higher levels in the RNase defective mutant than in the wild-type strain. In agreement with this situation, heat-shock reduces the S. maltophilia susceptibility to quinolone. We can then conclude that the inactivation of the RNase G reduces the susceptibility of S. maltophilia to quinolones, most likely by regulating the expression of heat-shock response genes. Heat-shock induces a transient phenotype of quinolone resistance in S. maltophilia. PMID:26539164

  3. The inactivation of RNase G reduces the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia susceptibility to quinolones by triggering the heat shock response

    PubMed Central

    Bernardini, Alejandra; Corona, Fernando; Dias, Ricardo; Sánchez, Maria B.; Martínez, Jose L.

    2015-01-01

    Quinolone resistance is usually due to mutations in the genes encoding bacterial topoisomerases. However, different reports have shown that neither clinical quinolone resistant isolates nor in vitro obtained Stenotrophomonas maltophilia mutants present mutations in such genes. The mechanisms so far described consist on efflux pumps’ overexpression. Our objective is to get information on novel mechanisms of S. maltophilia quinolone resistance. For this purpose, a transposon-insertion mutant library was obtained in S. maltophilia D457. One mutant presenting reduced susceptibility to nalidixic acid was selected. Inverse PCR showed that the inactivated gene encodes RNase G. Complementation of the mutant with wild-type RNase G allele restored the susceptibility to quinolones. Transcriptomic and real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that several genes encoding heat-shock response proteins were expressed at higher levels in the RNase defective mutant than in the wild-type strain. In agreement with this situation, heat-shock reduces the S. maltophilia susceptibility to quinolone. We can then conclude that the inactivation of the RNase G reduces the susceptibility of S. maltophilia to quinolones, most likely by regulating the expression of heat-shock response genes. Heat-shock induces a transient phenotype of quinolone resistance in S. maltophilia. PMID:26539164

  4. A novel conditional gene silencing method using a tumor-specific and heat-inducible siRNA system.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jing; Wang, Xiaoyu; Liao, Yi; Feng, Jianguo; Tang, Liling

    2016-06-01

    RNAi technology is an invaluable tool for investigating gene function. However, the non-temporal and non-spatial control is the primary limitation, which leads to siRNA leakiness and off-target effects. In this study, we inserted three kinds of HSE into tumor specific promoter hTERT, which aims to construct a temperature-inducible and tumor-specific RNAi plasmid vector. In our system, the expression of mature siRNA is tightly controlled by the heat shock-inducible and tumor-specific promoters. From the expression level of RNA and protein, we determined the efficiency of the inducible siRNA system by targeting SNCG gene in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. Results showed that the controllable siRNA system could be induced to initiate siRNA expression by heat-induce. The silencing effect of SNCG is on a relative low level (10 %) at 37 °C, while it is significantly increased to 50 or 60 % after heat inducing at 43 °C. This new conditional siRNA system provides a novel approach to drive the siRNA expression by heat-inducible and tumor-specific promoter. PMID:27033537

  5. Towards Understanding the Fluid Dynamic Phenomenon of Interest to Rocket Base Heating: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, E.; Park, C.; Palmer, G.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    capture such phenomenon as shock induced base separation and base-burning phenomenon. A survey of experimental, theoretical and computational work that details the fluid dynamics of the base flow environment will be presented in the proposed paper. CFD simulations of rocket base flows using standard CFD codes such as OVERFLOW or GASP will be explored to capture these phenomenon accurately. Merits and limitations of these codes for base flow environment predictions will be explored.

  6. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  7. Heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lilley, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    Analytical and numerical methods, including both finite difference and finite element techniques, are presented with applications to heat conduction problems. Numerical and analytical methods are integrated throughout the text and a variety of complexities are thoroughly treated with many problems, solutions and computer programs. This book is presented as a fundamental course suitable for senior undergraduate and first year graduate students, with end-of-chapter problems and answers included. Sample case studies and suggested projects are included.

  8. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  9. Integrative analysis of the heat shock response in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    upstream of some heat shock induced genes. Until now, this factor has only been found in vertebrates. Conclusions Our newly established DIGE data analysis workflow yields improved data quality and is widely applicable for other DIGE datasets. Our findings suggest that the heat shock response in A. fumigatus differs from already well-studied yeasts and other filamentous fungi. PMID:20074381

  10. 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160028.html 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States Much of the country to be under ... As a massive "heat dome" stretches across the United States this week, sending temperatures and humidity levels ...

  11. Small Heat Shock Proteins Can Release Light Dependence of Tobacco Seed during Germination1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun Jo; Park, Soo Min; Kim, Keun Pill; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Mi Ok; Lee, Seong-Kon; Xinli, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) function as ATP-independent molecular chaperones, and although the production and function of sHSPs have often been described under heat stress, the expression and function of sHSPs in fundamental developmental processes, such as pollen and seed development, have also been confirmed. Seed germination involves the breaking of dormancy and the resumption of embryo growth that accompany global changes in transcription, translation, and metabolism. In many plants, germination is triggered simply by imbibition of water; however, different seeds require different conditions in addition to water. For small-seeded plants, like Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), light is an important regulator of seed germination. The facts that sHSPs accumulate during seed development, sHSPs interact with various client proteins, and seed germination accompanies synthesis and/or activation of diverse proteins led us to investigate the role of sHSPs in seed germination, especially in the context of light dependence. In this study, we have built transgenic tobacco plants that ectopically express sHSP, and the effect was germination of the seeds in the dark. Administering heat shock to the seeds also resulted in the alleviation of light dependence during seed germination. Subcellular localization of ectopically expressed sHSP was mainly observed in the cytoplasm, whereas heat shock-induced sHSPs were transported to the nucleus. We hypothesize that ectopically expressed sHSPs in the cytoplasm led the status of cytoplasmic proteins involved in seed germination to function during germination without additional stimulus and that heat shock can be another signal that induces seed germination. PMID:25604531

  12. Meta-analysis of heat- and chemically upregulated chaperone genes in plant and human cells

    PubMed Central

    Finka, Andrija; Mattoo, Rayees U. H.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are central to cellular protein homeostasis. In mammals, protein misfolding diseases and aging cause inflammation and progressive tissue loss, in correlation with the accumulation of toxic protein aggregates and the defective expression of chaperone genes. Bacteria and non-diseased, non-aged eukaryotic cells effectively respond to heat shock by inducing the accumulation of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), many of which molecular chaperones involved in protein homeostasis, in reducing stress damages and promoting cellular recovery and thermotolerance. We performed a meta-analysis of published microarray data and compared expression profiles of HSP genes from mammalian and plant cells in response to heat or isothermal treatments with drugs. The differences and overlaps between HSP and chaperone genes were analyzed, and expression patterns were clustered and organized in a network. HSPs and chaperones only partly overlapped. Heat-shock induced a subset of chaperones primarily targeted to the cytoplasm and organelles but not to the endoplasmic reticulum, which organized into a network with a central core of Hsp90s, Hsp70s, and sHSPs. Heat was best mimicked by isothermal treatments with Hsp90 inhibitors, whereas less toxic drugs, some of which non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, weakly expressed different subsets of Hsp chaperones. This type of analysis may uncover new HSP-inducing drugs to improve protein homeostasis in misfolding and aging diseases. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-010-0216-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20694844

  13. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1979-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  14. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  15. Induction of apoptosis in sea bream fibroblasts by Vibrio harveyi haemolysin and evidence for an anti-apoptotic role of heat shock protein 70.

    PubMed

    Deane, E E; Jia, A; Qu, Z; Chen, J-X; Zhang, X-H; Woo, N Y S

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we exposed black sea bream, Mylio macrocephalus (Basilewsky), fibroblast (BSF) and silver sea bream, Sparus sarba Forsskål, fibroblast (SSF) cell lines to a recombinant Vibrio harveyi haemolysin (VHH) and investigated mechanisms involved in apoptosis. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, followed by an increase in caspase 3 activity, occurred within 2-8 h of VHH exposure, in both cell lines; however, VHH did not alter cellular levels of reactive oxygen species. As heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is known to prevent the onset of apoptosis in certain mammalian cells, we aimed to test whether such a protective effect is operative in VHH-exposed fibroblasts. The amounts of HSP70 were elevated in SSF and BSF via an acute heat shock or an acute heat shock followed by a 6 h recovery. It was found that the VHH-mediated reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential was suppressed in cells that had a 6 h post-heat shock recovery, and the protective effect of heat shock-induced HSP70 was attenuated following treatment of cells with the HSP70 inhibitor, quercetin. This study demonstrates how haemolysin causes cell death via induction of apoptosis and provides evidence as to the role of HSP70 as an anti-apoptotic factor. PMID:27081923

  16. Heat-Transfer Coupling For Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesmith, Bill J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed welded heat-transfer coupling joins set of heat pipes to thermoelectric converter. Design avoids difficult brazing operation. Includes pair of mating flanged cups. Upper cup integral part of housing of thermoelectric converter, while lower cup integral part of plate supporting filled heat pipes. Heat pipes prefilled. Heat of welding applied around periphery of coupling, far enough from heat pipes so it would not degrade working fluid or create excessive vapor pressure in the pipes.

  17. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  18. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  19. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-04-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  20. Impact on the deuterium retention of simultaneous exposure of tungsten to a steady state plasma and transient heat cycling loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, A.; Sergienko, G.; Wirtz, M.; Steudel, I.; Arakcheev, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Burdakov, A.; Dittmar, T.; Esser, H. G.; Kreter, A.; Linke, J.; Linsmeier, Ch; Mertens, Ph; Möller, S.; Philipps, V.; Pintsuk, G.; Reinhart, M.; Schweer, B.; Shoshin, A.; Terra, A.; Unterberg, B.

    2016-02-01

    The impact on the deuterium retention of simultaneous exposure of tungsten to a steady-state plasma and transient cyclic heat loads has been studied in the linear PSI-2 facility with the main objective of qualifying tungsten (W) as plasma-facing material. The transient heat loads were applied by a high-energy laser, a Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) with an energy per pulse of up to 32 J and a duration of 1 ms. A pronounced increase in the D retention by a factor of 13 has been observed during the simultaneous transient heat loads and plasma exposure. These data indicate that the hydrogen clustering is enhanced by the thermal shock exposures, as seen on the increased blister size due to mobilization and thermal production of defects during transients. In addition, the significant increase of the D retention during the simultaneous loads could be explained by an increased diffusion of D atoms into the W material due to strong temperature gradients during the laser pulse exposure and to an increased mobility of D atoms along the shock-induced cracks. Only 24% of the retained deuterium is located inside the near-surface layer (d<4 μm). Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions at power densities close to the threshold for damaging. Blisters are not mainly responsible for the pronounced increase of the D retention.

  1. Sodium hydrosulfide induces systemic thermotolerance to strawberry plants through transcriptional regulation of heat shock proteins and aquaporin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Temperature extremes represent an important limiting factor to plant growth and productivity. The present study evaluated the effect of hydroponic pretreatment of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. ‘Camarosa’) roots with an H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; 100 μM for 48 h), on the response of plants to acute heat shock treatment (42°C, 8 h). Results Heat stress-induced phenotypic damage was ameliorated in NaHS-pretreated plants, which managed to preserve higher maximum photochemical PSII quantum yields than stressed plants. Apparent mitigating effects of H2S pretreatment were registered regarding oxidative and nitrosative secondary stress, since malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) were quantified in lower amounts than in heat-stressed plants. In addition, NaHS pretreatment preserved ascorbate/glutathione homeostasis, as evidenced by lower ASC and GSH pool redox disturbances and enhanced transcription of ASC (GDH) and GSH biosynthetic enzymes (GS, GCS), 8 h after heat stress imposition. Furthermore, NaHS root pretreatment resulted in induction of gene expression levels of an array of protective molecules, such as enzymatic antioxidants (cAPX, CAT, MnSOD, GR), heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSP80, HSP90) and aquaporins (PIP). Conclusion Overall, we propose that H2S root pretreatment activates a coordinated network of heat shock defense-related pathways at a transcriptional level and systemically protects strawberry plants from heat shock-induced damage. PMID:24499299

  2. Direct simulation of shock-induced mixing layer

    SciTech Connect

    Greenough, J.A.; Bell, J.B.

    1993-03-01

    The interaction of a shock wave with a dense fluid layer in three dimensions is investigated using direct numerical simulations. The underlying numerical method is a second-order Godunov scheme. This is coupled to an implementation of Adaptive Mesh Refinement which is used to manage the hierarchical grid structure. An anomalous shock refraction is formed as the initiating shock wave impinges on a quiescent thin dense gas layer. One of the two resulting centered waves from the refraction, the contact surface, serves as the site for initial deposition of primarily spanwise vorticity and represents the primary mixing layer instability. The other wave, the transmitted shock wave, through repeated interactions with the free-surface, forms a cellular structure within the dense layer. The initial interaction introduces three dimensional perturbations onto the slip surface. These perturbations are selectively enhanced, due to favorable velocity gradients over part of the cellular structures, and form large-scale counter-rotating streamwise vertical structures. The structures characterize the secondary instability of this mixing layer. These vortices are quite unstable and transition to small-scales within a distance spanned by two of the cellular structures behind the initiating shock. The transition location has been verified in physical experiments. The fine-scale structure contains evidence of hairpin vortices. The evolution of a conserved scalar is used to monitor mixing progress. Increases in the rate of mixing are directly tied to intensification events associated with the streamwise vortices. Overall the large-scale streamwise structures provide an efficient mechanism for mixing the light and dense fluids. Analysis of time-series data from the calculation shows evidence of what are termed energetic smallscales. This is the characteristic signature of the hairpin vortices undergoing intensification.

  3. Shock induced multi-mode damage in depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Koller, Darcie D; Cerreta, Ellen K; Gray, Ill, George T

    2009-01-01

    Recent dynamic damage studies on depleted uranium samples have revealed mixed mode failure mechanisms leading to incipient cracking as well as ductile failure processes. Results show that delamination of inclusions upon compression may provide nucleation sites for damage initiation in the form of crack tip production. However, under tension the material propagates cracks in a mixed shear localization and mode-I ductile tearing and cracking. Cracks tips appear to link up through regions of severe, shear dominated plastic flow. Shock recovery experiments were conducted on a 50 mm single stage light gas gun. Serial metallographic sectioning was conducted on the recovered samples to characterize the bulk response of the sample. Experiments show delaminated inclusions due to uniaxial compression without damage propagation. Further results show the propagation of the damage through tensile loading to the incipient state, illustrating ductile processes coupled with mixed mode-I tensile ductile tearing, shear localization, and mode-I cracking in depleted uranium.

  4. Shock-induced turbulent flow in baffle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.; Reichenbach, H.

    1993-07-01

    Experiments are described on shock propagation through 2-D aligned and staggered baffle systems. Flow visualization was provided by shadow and schlieren photography, recorded by the Cranz-Schardin camera. Also single-frame, infinite-fringe, color interferograms were used. Intuition suggests that this is a rather simple 2-D shock diffraction problem. However, flow visualization reveals that the flow rapidly evolved into a complex 3-D turbulent mixing problem. Mushroom-shaped mixing regions blocked the flow into the next baffle orifice. Thus energy was transferred from the directed kinetic energy (induced by the shock) to rotational energy of turbulent mixing, and then dissipated by molecular effects. These processes dramatically dissipate the strength of the shock wave. The experiments provide an excellent test case that could be used to assess the accuracy of computer code calculations of such problems.

  5. Jadeite: Shock-induced formation from oligoclase, Ries crater, Germany

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, O.B.

    1969-01-01

    Jadeite (high-pressure sodium aluminum pyroxene) has been identified in a shock-phase assemblage of oligoclase. The shock assemblage consists of minute particles with high refractive indices that contain at least two phases: one (identified by x-ray) is a jadeite that is nearly pure NaAlSi2O 6; the other has the chemical composition of oligoclase minus jadeite and appears to be largely amorphous.

  6. Shock induced reaction of Ni/Al nanopowder mixture.

    PubMed

    Meng, C M; Wei, J J; Chen, Q Y

    2012-11-01

    Nanopowder Ni/Al mixture (mixed in Al:Ni = 2:1 stoichiometry) was shock compressed by employing single and two-stage light gas gun. The particle size of Al and Ni are 100-200 nm and 50-70 nm respectively, morphologies of Al and Ni are sphere like either. Recovered product was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. According to the XRD spectrum, the mixed powder undergo complete reaction under shock compression, reaction product consist of Ni2Al3, NiAl and corundum structure Al2O3 compound. Grain size of Ni-Al compound is less than 100 nm. With the shock pressure increasing, the ratio of Ni2Al3 decreased obviously. The corundum crystal size is 400-500 nm according to the SEM observation. The results of shock recovery experiments and analysis show that the threshold pressure for reaction of nano size powder Ni/Al mixture is much less than that of micro size powder. PMID:23421276

  7. Computational considerations for the simulation of shock-induced sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay; Carpenter, Mark H.

    1996-01-01

    The numerical study of aeroacoustic problems places stringent demands on the choice of a computational algorithm, because it requires the ability to propagate disturbances of small amplitude and short wavelength. The demands are particularly high when shock waves are involved, because the chosen algorithm must also resolve discontinuities in the solution. The extent to which a high-order-accurate shock-capturing method can be relied upon for aeroacoustics applications that involve the interaction of shocks with other waves has not been previously quantified. Such a study is initiated in this work. A fourth-order-accurate essentially nonoscillatory (ENO) method is used to investigate the solutions of inviscid, compressible flows with shocks in a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle flow. The design order of accuracy is achieved in the smooth regions of a steady-state test case. However, in an unsteady test case, only first-order results are obtained downstream of a sound-shock interaction. The difficulty in obtaining a globally high-order-accurate solution in such a case with a shock-capturing method is demonstrated through the study of a simplified, linear model problem. Some of the difficult issues and ramifications for aeroacoustics simulations of flows with shocks that are raised by these results are discussed.

  8. Role of plastic deformation in shock-induced phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Punam; Germann, T. C.; Ravelo, R.

    2015-06-01

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations of shock-wave propagation in fcc single crystals exhibit high elastic limits and large anisotropies in the yield strength. They can be used to explore the role of plastic deformation in the morphology and kinetics of solid-solid phase transformations. We report on large-scale atomistic simulations of defect-mediated phase transformations under shock and quasi-isentropic compression (QIC). An analytical embedded atom method (EAM) description is used to model a fcc-bcc phase transition (PT) boundary fitted to occur below or above the elastic-plastic threshold in order to model systems undergoing a PT with and without plasticity. For cases where plastic deformation precedes the phase transformation, the defect-mediated PT proceeds at faster rates than the defect-free ones. The bcc fraction growth rate can be correlated with a sharp decrease in the dislocation densities originally present in the parent phase. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under AFOSR Award FA9550-12-1-0476. Work at Los Alamos was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  9. Shock-induced cation disorder in magnesium aluminate spinel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. Y.; Meng, C. M.; Lu, T. C.; Xu, M.; Qi, J. Q.; Tan, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    An increase in lattice constants and an order-disorder phase transition were observed in the magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) powders after shock compression. Theoretical calculations on the basis of density functional theory confirm that the remarkable volume expansion in shocked MgAl2O4 powders is closely related to the substantial site disorder in the MgAl2O4 lattice. The calculations also show that the partially inverse MgAl2O4 spinel with an inversion index of 0.7 represents the greatest disordered metastable phase and the most unstable structure.

  10. Shock-induced polarized hydrogen emission lines in omicron Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabas, N.; Lèbre, A.; Gillet, D.

    2012-05-01

    Hydrogen emission lines in Mira variable stars are a well-known phenomenon whose origin has been established as related to the propagation of radiative hypersonic shock waves throughout the stellar atmosphere. A polarimetric observation by McLean and Coyne [1] made on omicron Ceti (the prototype of Mira variable stars) has revealed the existence of linear polarization signatures associated with Balmer emission lines. However, the polarizing mechanism has never been properly explained so far. The study presented here is the first of its kind since it displays the results of a spectropolarimetric survey of omicron Ceti in the Balmer lines. The survey was made with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter (Telescope Bernard Lyot, France) in full Stokes mode. We did not just confirm the appearance of this polarization but we also and above all showed the temporal variation of the linear polarization in the lines. We conclude that the polarizing mechanism is definitely intrinsic to the shock wave propagation throughout the stellar atmosphere of Mira and give some leads about the nature of this mechanism.

  11. Shock-induced behavior in micron-sized water aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Thomas C.; Davidson, David F.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2007-05-01

    We have developed a suite of tools for studying aerosols behind shock waves. A Mie-extinction particle sizing diagnostic and a computational model, along with a specially designed square-section shock tube were developed to study the time-history of micrometer-sized aerosols behind shock waves. These tools are critically needed to pursue the use of shock tubes to study the combustion behavior of low-vapor-pressure fuels. While the facility is designed to study reactive systems, we began by measuring the behavior of water aerosols in the range of 1-10μm behind shock waves with temperatures between 450 and 600K and pressures between 0.64 and 1.1atm. From these data we determined evaporation rates and found a correlation that provides the noncontinuum evaporation rate in terms of the d2 evaporation rate and a correction function.

  12. Survival of fossils under extreme shocks induced by hypervelocity impacts.

    PubMed

    Burchell, M J; McDermott, K H; Price, M C; Yolland, L J

    2014-08-28

    Experimental data are shown for survival of fossilized diatoms undergoing shocks in the GPa range. The results were obtained from hypervelocity impact experiments which fired fossilized diatoms frozen in ice into water targets. After the shots, the material recovered from the target water was inspected for diatom fossils. Nine shots were carried out, at speeds from 0.388 to 5.34 km s(-1), corresponding to mean peak pressures of 0.2-19 GPa. In all cases, fragmented fossilized diatoms were recovered, but both the mean and the maximum fragment size decreased with increasing impact speed and hence peak pressure. Examples of intact diatoms were found after the impacts, even in some of the higher speed shots, but their frequency and size decreased significantly at the higher speeds. This is the first demonstration that fossils can survive and be transferred from projectile to target in hypervelocity impacts, implying that it is possible that, as suggested by other authors, terrestrial rocks ejected from the Earth by giant impacts from space, and which then strike the Moon, may successfully transfer terrestrial fossils to the Moon. PMID:25071234

  13. The Shock Induced Equation of State of Two Ferroelectric Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Deas, D.; Millett, J. C. F.; Bourne, N. K.

    2006-07-28

    Manganin stress gauges have been used to determine the Hugoniots of two ferroelectric ceramics, lead zirconium titanate (PZT) and a similar material modified with tin (PSZT). Comparison with previously published data shows close agreement between our results for PZT and earlier work. The Hugoniot Elastic Limit has been determined, and also agrees with previous data. In the case of PSZT, the Hugoniot in terms of stress and particle velocity is similar to PZT. In terms of elastic wave velocity - particle velocity, results show an overall increase, in contrast to PZT, where wave speed was observed to decrease with increasing particle velocity.

  14. Shock induced deformation substructures in a copper bicrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Fang; Beyerlein, Irene J; Cerreta, Ellen K; Trujillo, Carl P; Gray Ill, George T; Sencer, Bulent H

    2008-01-01

    Controlled shock recovery experiments have been conducted to assess the role of shock pressure and orientation dependence on the substructure evolution of a [100]/[01{ovr 1}] copper bicrystal. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were utilized to characterize orientation variation and substructure evolution of the post-shock specimens. Well defined dislocation cell structures were displayed in both grains and the average cell size was observed to decrease with increasing shock pressure. Twinning was occasionally observed in the 5 GPa shocked [100] grain and became the dominant substructure at higher shock pressure. The stress and directional dependence of twinning in the bicrystal was analyzed with consideration of the energetically favorable dissociation of dislocations into Shockley partials and the stress-orientation effect on the partial width. Moreover, a critical 'tear apart' stress is proposed and a good agreement is obtained between the calculated value and the experimental observations.

  15. Numerical investigation of shock induced bubble collapse in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apazidis, N.

    2016-04-01

    A semi-conservative, stable, interphase-capturing numerical scheme for shock propagation in heterogeneous systems is applied to the problem of shock propagation in liquid-gas systems. The scheme is based on the volume-fraction formulation of the equations of motion for liquid and gas phases with separate equations of state. The semi-conservative formulation of the governing equations ensures the absence of spurious pressure oscillations at the material interphases between liquid and gas. Interaction of a planar shock in water with a single spherical bubble as well as twin adjacent bubbles is investigated. Several stages of the interaction process are considered, including focusing of the transmitted shock within the deformed bubble, creation of a water-hammer shock as well as generation of high-speed liquid jet in the later stages of the process.

  16. Survival of fossils under extreme shocks induced by hypervelocity impacts

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, M. J.; McDermott, K. H.; Price, M. C.; Yolland, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data are shown for survival of fossilized diatoms undergoing shocks in the GPa range. The results were obtained from hypervelocity impact experiments which fired fossilized diatoms frozen in ice into water targets. After the shots, the material recovered from the target water was inspected for diatom fossils. Nine shots were carried out, at speeds from 0.388 to 5.34 km s−1, corresponding to mean peak pressures of 0.2–19 GPa. In all cases, fragmented fossilized diatoms were recovered, but both the mean and the maximum fragment size decreased with increasing impact speed and hence peak pressure. Examples of intact diatoms were found after the impacts, even in some of the higher speed shots, but their frequency and size decreased significantly at the higher speeds. This is the first demonstration that fossils can survive and be transferred from projectile to target in hypervelocity impacts, implying that it is possible that, as suggested by other authors, terrestrial rocks ejected from the Earth by giant impacts from space, and which then strike the Moon, may successfully transfer terrestrial fossils to the Moon. PMID:25071234

  17. Shock-induced effects in calcite from Cactus Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vizgirda, J.; Ahrens, T. J.; Tsay, F.-D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses shock metamorphism of calcite from coralline limestone samples retrieved from a borehole drilled into rocks beneath Cactus Crater, a nuclear explosion crater at Eniwetok Atoll. The metamorphism was detected and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR); the ESR spectra of Mn(+) present as a trace constituent in the coral samples, show a consistent decrease in hyperfine peak splitting with decreasing depth of sample. It is suggested that the decrease in hyperfine peak splitting reflects a decrease in crystal field splitting, and therefore, small increases on cation-anion distances produced by mechanical energy input during the shock process. Two alternative crater models suggested by the ESR results are a depiction of a steady decay of the shock wave, and a delineation of a breccia lens with a breccia-bedrock interface at 20 plus or minus 5 m.

  18. Shock induced polymorphic transition in quartz, carbon, and boron nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Hua; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    The model proposed by Ahrens (1988) to explain the mechanism of the polymorphism in silicates is revised, and the revised model is applied to the quartz/stishovite, graphite/diamond, and graphite-boron nitride (g-BN) phase transformations. In this model, a key assumption is that transformation to a high-density amorphous or possibly liquid phase which rapidly crystallized to the high-pressure phase is triggered by the high temperatures in the shear band and upon crossing the metastable extension of a melting curve. Good agreement between the calcualted results and published data is obtained. The present theory predicts the standard entropy for cubic BN to be 0.4-0.5 J/g K.

  19. Shock-induced explosive chemistry in a deterministic sample configuration.

    SciTech Connect

    Stuecker, John Nicholas; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Trott, Wayne Merle; Baer, Melvin R.; Tappan, Alexander Smith

    2005-10-01

    Explosive initiation and energy release have been studied in two sample geometries designed to minimize stochastic behavior in shock-loading experiments. These sample concepts include a design with explosive material occupying the hole locations of a close-packed bed of inert spheres and a design that utilizes infiltration of a liquid explosive into a well-defined inert matrix. Wave profiles transmitted by these samples in gas-gun impact experiments have been characterized by both velocity interferometry diagnostics and three-dimensional numerical simulations. Highly organized wave structures associated with the characteristic length scales of the deterministic samples have been observed. Initiation and reaction growth in an inert matrix filled with sensitized nitromethane (a homogeneous explosive material) result in wave profiles similar to those observed with heterogeneous explosives. Comparison of experimental and numerical results indicates that energetic material studies in deterministic sample geometries can provide an important new tool for validation of models of energy release in numerical simulations of explosive initiation and performance.

  20. Shock-induced perturbation evolution in planar laser targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Kessler, T. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Metzler, N.; Oh, J.

    2013-10-01

    Experimental studies of hydrodynamic perturbation evolution triggered by a laser-driven shock wave in a planar target done on the KrF Nike laser facility are reported. The targets were made of solid plastic and/or plastic foam with single mode sinusoidal perturbation on the front or back surface or plastic/foam interface. Two specific cases are discussed. When a planar solid plastic target rippled at the front side is irradiated with a 350 ps long laser pulse, ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) oscillation of its areal mass modulation amplitude is detected while the laser is on, followed by observed strong oscillations of the areal mass in the unsupported shock flow after the laser pulse ends. When the target is rippled at the rear side, the nature of the perturbation evolution after the shock breakout is determined by the strength of the laser-driven shock wave. At pressure below 1 Mbar shock interaction with rear-surface ripples produces planar collimated jets manifesting the development of a classical RM instability in a weakly compressible shocked fluid. At shock pressure ~ 8 Mbar sufficient for vaporizing the shocked target material we observed instead the strong areal mass oscillations characteristic of a rippled centered rarefaction wave. Work supported by US DOE, Defense Programs.

  1. Shock induced chemical reactions in energetic structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reding, Derek J.

    Energetic structural materials (ESMs) constitute a new class of materials that provide dual functions of strength and energetic characteristics. ESMs are typically composed of micron-scale or nano-scale intermetallic mixtures or mixtures of metals and metal oxides, polymer binders, and structural reinforcements. Voids are included to produce a composite with favorable chemical reaction characteristics. In this thesis, a continuum approach is used to simulate gas-gun or explosive loading experiments where a strong shock is induced in the ESM by an impacting plate. Algorithms are developed to obtain equations of state of mixtures. It is usually assumed that the shock loading increases the energy of the ESM and causes the ESM to reach the transition state. It is also assumed that the activation energy needed to reach the transition state is a function of the temperature of the mixture. In this thesis, it is proposed that the activation energy is a function of temperature and the stress state of the mixture. The incorporation of such an activation energy is selected in this thesis. Then, a multi-scale chemical reaction model for a heterogeneous mixture is introduced. This model incorporates reaction initiation, propagation, and extent of completed reaction in spatially heterogeneous distributions of reactants. A new model is proposed for the pore collapse of mixtures. This model is formulated by modifying the Carol, Holt, and Nesterenko spherically symmetric model to include mixtures and compressibility effects. Uncertainties in the model result from assumptions in formulating the models for continuum relationships and chemical reactions in mixtures that are distributed heterogeneously in space and in numerical integration of the resulting equations. It is important to quantify these uncertainties. In this thesis, such an uncertainty quantification is investigated by systematically identifying the physical processes that occur during shock compression of ESMs which are then used to construct a hierarchical framework for uncertainty quantification.

  2. Shock-Induced Localized Amorphization in Boron Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingwei; McCauley, James W.; Hemker, Kevin J.

    2003-03-01

    High-resolution electron microscope observations of shock-loaded boron carbide have revealed the formation of nanoscale intragranular amorphous bands that occur parallel to specific crystallographic planes and contiguously with apparent cleaved fracture surfaces. This damage mechanism explains the measured, but not previously understood, decrease in the ballistic performance of boron carbide at high impact rates and pressures. The formation of these amorphous bands is also an example of how shock loading can result in the synthesis of novel structures and materials with substantially altered properties.

  3. Spallation in starphire under normal shock and shock induced shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandekar, Dattatraya

    2013-06-01

    Starphire is a brand name used by PPG Industries for their clear glass. Its composition primarily differs from that of soda lime glass /float glass in terms of low MgO and Fe2O3 content. The densities of soda lime glass and starphire are identical i.e., 2.49 Mg/m3. Their elastic constants similarly are also identical: Young's and shear modulus of soda lime glass and starphire are 73 GPa, and 29 GPa, respectively. Current work was undertaken to investigate the effect of normal shock compression and simultaneous shock compression and shear on the spall strength of starphire. Simultaneous compression-shear was generated at an obliquity of 14 degrees. Starphire was shocked to a maximum stress of 6 GPa. The preliminary results of experiments performed on starphire indicate that: (a) spall strength of starphire is not altered significantly when it is subjected to normal shock compression or simultaneous compression shear, and (b) spall strengths of starphire at a given stress is strongly dependent on compression pulse width.

  4. Numerical calculation of shock-induced initiation of detonations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cort, G. E.; Fu, J. H. M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of numerical calculations of the impact of steel cylinders and spheres on the plastic bonded high explosive PBX 9501 are described. The calculations were carried out by a reactive, multicomponent, two dimensional, Eulerian hydrodynamic computer code, 2DE. The 2DE computer code is a finite difference code that uses the donor acceptor cell method to compute mixed cell fluxes. The parameters in the Forest Fire burn model are developed from experiments where the induced shock approximates a plane wave and are applied, in this case, to a situation where the induced shock is a divergent wave with curvature that depends on the size and shape of the projectile. The calculated results are compared with results from experiments involving instrumented mock and live high explosives, with projectiles of varying size, shapes, and velocities.

  5. Studies of shock induced flows in strengthless materials on Pegasus

    SciTech Connect

    Oro, D.M.; Fulton, R.D.; Stokes, J.; Guzik, J.A.; Adams, P.J.; Morgan, D.; Platts, D.; Obst, A.W.; Fell, M.

    1998-12-31

    Experiments on the Pegasus II pulsed power facility at Los Alamos are being conducted to study the evolution and flow of strengthless materials as a result of being shocked. Of particular interest is vorticity and mixing that is induced in the materials by a shock-wave passing through a non-uniform boundary. The experiments provide an important benchmark for hydrodynamic codes, and are a precursor to experiments planned on Atlas in which the materials will be pre-ionized before being shocked. For these experiments, flash radiography is used to image the position of the target boundaries at specific times. In these experiments 3 radiographs along target radii and 2 radiographs along the target axis are taken at independent times. The central cavity of the target is imaged with visible framing cameras. The Xe in this cavity radiates when shocked, and therefore the shape and timing of the shock front in the Xe can be determined from the images. Other diagnostics employed for this work include electric and magnetic field probes that are used to determine the current through the liner and when the liner impacts the target. Both the 1-d magnetohydrodynamics code RAVEN, and the 2-d/3-d adaptive grid eulerian code RAGE are used for pre-shot calculations. In this talk the authors will discuss the motivation for these experiments, compare calculations with radiographs and visible images and discuss future experiments on Pegasus and Atlas.

  6. Shock-Induced Separated Structures in Symmetric Corner Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAmbrosio, Domenic; Marsilio, Roberto

    1995-01-01

    Three-dimensional supersonic viscous laminar flows over symmetric corners are considered in this paper. The characteristic features of such configurations are discussed and an historical survey on the past research work is presented. A new contribution based on a numerical technique that solves the parabolized form of the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. Such a method makes it possible to obtain very detailed descriptions of the flowfield with relatively modest CPU time and memory storage requirements. The numerical approach is based on a space-marching technique, uses a finite volume discretization and an upwind flux-difference splitting scheme (developed for the steady flow equations) for the evaluation of the inviscid fluxes. Second order accuracy is reached following the guidelines of the ENO schemes. Different free-stream conditions and geometrical configurations are considered. Primary and secondary streamwise vortical structures embedded in the boundary layer and originated by the interaction of the latter with shock waves are detected and studied. Computed results are compared with experimental data taken from literature.

  7. Characterization of Surfaces and the Estimation of Shock Induced Vorticity

    SciTech Connect

    Jameson, L; Ray, J; Peyser, T

    2002-09-17

    When shocks impinge on a surface separating fluids of two different densities, one observes the development and growth of various vortical structures. The flow induced by this Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability depends on a variety of factors such as the shock strength, the density ratio of the fluids and the exact form of the surface perturbation. The most common way to model the form of the surface perturbation is through Fourier analysis which is suitable for large-scale sinusoidal structures and is straightforward mathematically. In surfaces of practical interest, however, to a wide range of application, there may also be a broad spectrum of high frequency modes in addition to the lower frequency modes described by Fourier methods. We propose here that these high frequency modes can be efficiently quantified in terms of wavelet analysis. From a numerical point of view, the scale that the roughness occurs at is far to small to numerically resolve and thus we propose that our new methodology can be used to model the subgrid scale generation of vorticity. Thus the combination of wavelet analysis and Fourier analysis will be used to model the generation of vorticity for the RM instability.

  8. Shock-induced defects in HgO

    SciTech Connect

    Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.; Holman, G.T.; Newcomer, P.N.; Dunn, R.G.; Graham, R.A.

    1995-09-01

    Powder compacts of HgO have been subjected to shock-loading and preserved for postshock analysis to understand its reactivity and stability under transient temperature-pressure excursions. Recovered samples indicate several solid state reactions which are dependent on shock conditions. Metallic Hg is recovered in small amounts in the HgO compact as well as an as-yet unidentified ferromagnetic impurity not present in the as-received HgO powder. Further, there is evidence of reaction with the Cu capsule, forming an intermetallic alloy.

  9. Orientation dependence of shock induced dislocations in Tantalum single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Bo; Jones, I.; Chiu, Yulung; Millett, J.; Whiteman, Glenn; Bourne, N.

    2013-06-01

    Shock wave deformation of monocrystalline tantalum to a pressure of 6.2 GPa and duration of 1.7 μs generates profuse dislocations. Three orientations (100),(110),(111) were tested to examine the orientation dependence of the dislocation generation. The dislocations were characterised by transmission electron microscopy. The difference in the Burgers vectors of the primary dislocations in the specimens with different orientations showed a distinct anisotropy and will be discussed in light of the models of slip behaviour in one-dimensional strain (Smith 1958) and (Meyers 1978). The front and rear surfaces of the specimens were both investigated to examine the effects of wave duration.

  10. Heat pipe methanator

    DOEpatents

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.