The behavior of the wake behind a heated circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khashehchi, Morteza; Hooman, Kamel; Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence (QGECE) Team
2013-11-01
The thermal effects on the characteristics of the wake behind a circular cylinder operating in the mixed convection regime are considered at relatively high Reynolds number using Particle Image Velocimetry. The experiments were conducted in a horizontal wind tunnel with the heated cylinder placed horizontally. With such assumptions, the direction of the thermally induced buoyancy force acting on the fluid surrounding the heated cylinder would be perpendicular to the flow direction. Experiments were conducted for three Reynolds numbers 1000, 2000 and 4000, where each of them were run at three different temperatures 25, 50 and 75°C. By adjusting different temperatures in different Reynolds numbers, the corresponding Richardson number (RiD = Gr/Re2) was varied between 0.0 (unheated) and 10, resulting in a change in the heat transfer process from forced convection to mixed convection. With increasing temperature of the heated cylinder, significant modifications of the wake flow pattern and wake vortex shedding process were clearly revealed. In low Richardson number, the size of the wake and the vortex shedding process in the wake was found to be quite similar to that of an unheated cylinder. As the Richardson number increased, the wake vortex shedding process was found to be altered and the relative position of the first detached vortices respect to the second one is changed. It was also found that the shedding frequency of the wake vortex structures and the wake closure length decreased with increasing Richardson number.
Convective heat transfer from circular cylinders located within perforated cylindrical shrouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daryabeigi, K.; Ash, R. L.
1986-01-01
The influence of perforated cylindrical shrouds on the convective heat transfer to circular cylinders in transverse flow has been studied experimentally. Geometries studied were similar to those used in industrial platinum resistance thermometers. The influence of Reynolds number, ventilation factor (ratio of the open area to the total surface area of shroud), radius ratio (ratio of shroud's inside radius to bare cylinder's radius), and shroud orientation with respect to flow were studied. The experiments showed that perforated shrouds with ventilation factors in the range 0.1 to 0.4 and radius ratios in the range 1.1 to 2.1 could enhance the convective heat transfer to bare cylinders up to 50%. The maximum enhancement occurred for a radius ratio of 1.4 and ventilation factors between 0.2 and 0.3. It was found that shroud orientation influenced the heat transfer, with maximum heat transfer generally occurring when the shroud's holes were centered on either side of the stagnation line. However, the hole orientation effect is of second order compared to the influence of ventilation factor and radius ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouakkaz, R.; Talbi, K.; Khelil, Y.; Salhi, F.; Belghar, N.; Ouazizi, M.
2014-01-01
The heat transfer and air flow around an unconfined heated rotating circular cylinder is investigated numerically for varying rotation rates ( α = 0-6) in the Reynolds number range of 20-200. The numerical calculations are carried out by using a finite volume method based commercial computational fluid dynamics solver FLUENT. The successive changes in the flow pattern are studied as a function of the rotation rate. Suppression of vortex shedding occurs as the rotation rate increases ( α > 2). A second kind of instability appears for higher rotation speed where a series of counter-clockwise vortices is shed in the upper shear layer. The rotation attenuates the secondary instability and increases the critical Reynolds number for the appearance of this instability. Besides, time-averaged (lift and drag coefficients and Nusselt number) results are obtained and compared with the literature data. A good agreement has been obtained for both the local and averaged values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansour, M. A.; El-Hakiem, M. A.; El Kabeir, S. M.
2000-10-01
Steady laminar boundary layer analysis of heat and mass transfer characteristics in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a micropolar fluid on a circular cylinder maintained at uniform heat and mass flux has been conducted. The solution of the energy equation inside the boundary layer is obtained as a power series of the distance measured along the surface from the front stagnation point of the cylinder. The results of dimensionless temperature, Nusselt number, wall shear stress, wall couple stress and Sherwood number have been presented graphically for various values of the material parameters. The results indicate that the micropolar fluids display a reduction in drag as well as heat transfer rate when compared with Newtonian fluids.
Effect of a rotor wake on heat transfer from a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simoneau, R. J.; Morehouse, K. A.; Vanfossen, G. J.; Behning, F. P.
1984-01-01
The effect of a rotor wake on heat transfer to a downstream stator was investigated. The rotor was modeled with a spoked wheel of 24 circular pins 1.59 mm in diameter. One of the stator pins was electrically heated in the midspan region and circumferentially averaged heat transfer coefficients were obtained. The experiment was run in an annular flow wind tunnel using air at ambient temperature and pressure. Reynolds numbers based on stator cylinder diameter ranged from .001 to .00001. Rotor blade passing frequencies ranged from zero to 2500 Hz. Stationary grids were used to vary the rotor inlet turbulence from one to four percent. The rotor-stator spacings were one and two stator pin diameters. In addition to the heat transfer coefficients, turbulence spectra and ensemble averaged wake profiles were measured. At the higher Reynolds numbers, which is the primary range of interest for turbulent heat transfer, the rotor wakes increased Nusselt number from 10 to 45 percent depending on conditions. At lower Reynolds numbers the effect was as much as a factor of two.
Analytical study of heat transfer from circular cylinder in liquid metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, W. A.; Culham, J. R.; Yovanovich, M. M.
2006-09-01
In this study the influence of a thin hydrodynamic boundary layer on the heat transfer from a single circular cylinder in liquid metals having low Prandtl number (0.004 0.03) is investigated under isothermal and isoflux boundary conditions. Two separate analytical heat transfer models, viscous and inviscid, are developed to clarify the discrepancy between previous results. For both models, integral approach of the boundary layer analysis is employed to derive closed form expressions for the calculation of the average heat transfer coefficients. For an inviscid model, the energy equation is solved using potential flow velocity only whereas for a viscous model, a fourth-order velocity profile is used in the hydrodynamic boundary layer and potential flow velocity is used outside the boundary layer. The third-order temperature profile is used inside the thermal boundary layer for both models. It is shown that the inviscid model gives higher heat transfer coefficients whereas viscous flow model gives heat transfer results in a fairly good agreement with the previous experimental/numerical results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mabood, F.; Shateyi, S.; Khan, W. A.
2015-09-01
This paper deals with a theoretical investigation of flow and heat transfer of a Casson fluid from a horizontal circular cylinder in a non-Darcy porous medium under the action of slips and thermal radiation parameters. A model of Casson fluid flow for a circular cylinder has been developed to simulate the transport phenomena. The numerical solution has been obtained for the dimensionless velocity and temperature of the Casson fluid. The effects of various important parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature as well as on the skin friction and the dimensionless heat transfer rates are investigated and presented graphically. A comparison with previous published data has been done and we found a good agreement with them.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagamatsu, H. T.; Hinckel, J. N.
1984-12-01
External heat-transfer rates were measured on a flat plate in the junction region of a circular cylinder mounted normal to the plate at a location 90 deg from the stagnation point. This configuration simulates the junction of the shroud with gas-turbine vanes. Heat-transfer results are presented for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers for a Mach number of 0.14 with gas temperatures of approximately 750 deg R over a flat plate at room temperature. The measurements were made in air for a unit Reynolds number, Re/cm, range of 11,000 to 58,000. Heat-transfer measurements were conducted in the 70-ft long, 4-in. diameter shock tube. A shock-wave reflection technique was used to produce a flow Mach number of 0.14. Thin-film platinum heat gages were mounted on the flat plate and along the line of the stagnation point of the cylinder to measure the local heat flux in the junction region. The experimental heat-transfer data were correlated with the laminar and turbulent boundary-layer theories for the flat plate. With the cylinder the heat fluxes on the flat plate were greatly increased in the junction region compared to the heat flux for the plate alone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harimi, Iman; Saghafian, Mohsen
2012-01-01
Forced convection heat transfer from two and three isothermal circular cylinders in tandem arrangement is studied numerically. In addition, the flow field and the vortex shedding behavior in the wake of the cylinders are investigated. The governing equations consist of continuity, momentum and energy equations are solved for laminar unsteady flow regime. The numerical simulations are performed with a developed finite volume code using the overset grid method. A general orthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system is used for the grid generation. This simulation is performed for the Prandtl numbers of 0.7 and 7 at the Reynolds numbers of 100 and 200. The spacing ratio L/D is set at 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 10. In order to analyze the heat transfer from isothermal cylinders, the mean and local Nusselt numbers and isotherm plots are presented and discussed for different values of the problem parameters. In addition, the mean and instantaneous drag and lift coefficients and Strouhal numbers are computed to elucidate the role of the Reynolds number and spacing ratio. Furthermore, two new correlations for the calculation of the mean Nusselt number, in terms of the spacing ratio and the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers, is proposed. In order to validate the solution, the obtained results are compared with available results in the published literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohd Kasim, Abdul Rahman; Mohammad, Nurul Farahain; Shafie, Sharidan
2012-05-01
Effect of heat generation on free convection boundary layer flow of a viscoelastic fluid past a horizontal circular cylinder with constant surface heat flux has been investigated. The boundary layer equations are an order higher than those for the Newtonian (viscous) fluid and the adherence boundary conditions are insufficient to determine the solution of these equations completely. The governing equations are transformed into dimensionless non-similar equations by using a set of suitable transformations and solved numerically by the finite difference method along with Newton's linearization approximation. Computations are performed numerically by using Keller-box method by augmenting an extra boundary condition at infinity. We have focused our attention on the evaluation of velocity profiles, temperature profiles, shear stress in terms of local skin friction and the rate of heat transfer in terms of local Nusselt number for different values of heat generation parameter, viscoelastic parameter and the Prandlt number and the numerical results have been shown graphically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellappan, Prabu
Wake formation is an important problem in engineering due to its effect on phenomena such as vortex induced vibrations and heat transfer. While prior work has focused on the wake formation due to vortex shedding from stationary, stream-wise, and transversely oscillating cylinders, limited information is available on the effect of rotary oscillations on wake formation. The relationship between wake formation and heat transfer is also not fully understood. Therefore, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of rotationally oscillating cylinders on wake formation and its relationship with heat transfer. Experiments were carried out at Re = 150 and 750 in a water tunnel for oscillation frequencies from 0.67 to 3.5 times the natural shedding frequency and peak-to-peak oscillation amplitudes up to 320°. Experiments were performed at the lower Re using an unheated cylinder. Two sets of experiments were performed at the higher Re, one with the cylinder unheated and the other with the cylinder heated. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) was used to identify and map wake modes (coherent vortical structures in the wake) to various regions of the parameter space. Previously unknown wake modes that are synchronized over two and three times the forcing frequency were also discovered. Experiments were also performed at Re = 750 to measure the heat transfer rate for a large number of cases in the parameter space. Significant heat transfer enhancement was observed under certain forcing conditions and the regions of the parameter space where this occurs was found to correspond to locked-on wake mode regions. Other factors, such as the tangential velocity and the formation length were also found to affect the heat transfer under certain conditions.
Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foeppl, L.
1983-01-01
Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder moving through water is discussed. It is shown that a pair of vortices form behind a moving cylinder and that their centers will move along a predictable curve. This curve represents an equilibrium condition which, however, is subject to perturbation. The stability of the vortex pair is investigated. Movement of the vortex pair away from the cylinder is calculated as an explanation of the resistance of the cylinder. Finally, the principles elaborated are applied to the flow around a flat plate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Han G.
An experimental investigation is carried out on the processes of heat transfer associated with a heated circular cylinder in crossflow. Two studies are made. First, a study of the transport of heat in the near wake (x/D<5) of a stationary and transversely oscillated cylinder is made at Reynolds number of 610. Second, a study is made of the surface heat transfer from a cylinder which is undergoing forced oscillations in the transverse direction.The studies are made using the technique of Digital Particle Image Velocimetry/Thermometry (DPIV/T) which allows simultaneous measurements of both the velocity and temperature fields of the flow. The temperature is measured by seeding the flow with thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC) particles which change their reflected wavelength as function of temperature. By calibrating reflected wavelength versus temperature using a color multi-CCD camera, the local temperature of the flow may be deduced. The velocity is measured by using the same particles as Lagrangian flow tracers, and local velocity or displacement of the flow may be measured by cross-correlating two sequential images. A limitation of DPIV/T, which is the low level of precision (5% - 20% of the temperature span of TLC particles), may be overcome by a process in which the temperature at a given location is computed by averaging the temperatures of the particles within a specified sampling window. This process increases the precision to 2% - 10%.In the study of the heat transport in the near wake, the velocity and temperature measurements obtained from DPIV/T are decomposed into their mean, coherent, and incoherent components using the triple decomposition. It is found that the heat from the cylinder is transported down the wake mostly by the mean heat flux and is laterally transported out of the wake by the coherent and the incoherent heat fluxes. In examining the direction of the turbulent heat flux vectors, the vectors are found not to be co-linear with the gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nagamatsu, H. T.; Duffy, R. E.
1984-01-01
Low and high pressure shock tubes were designed and constructed for the purpose of obtaining heat transfer data over a temperature range of 390 to 2500 K, pressures of 0.3 to 42 atm, and Mach numbers of 0.15 to 1.5 with and without pressure gradient. A square test section with adjustable top and bottom walls was constructed to produce the favorable and adverse pressure gradient over the flat plate with heat gages. A water cooled gas turbine nozzle cascade which is attached to the high pressure shock tube was obtained to measuse the heat flux over pressure and suction surfaces. Thin-film platinum heat gages with a response time of a few microseconds were developed and used to measure the heat flux for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers. The laminar boundary heat flux on the shock tube wall agreed with Mirel's flat plate theory. Stagnation point heat transfer for circular cylinders at low temperature compared with the theoretical prediction, but for a gas temperature of 922 K the heat fluxes were higher than the predicted values. Preliminary flat plate heat transfer data were measured for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers with and without pressure gradients for free-stream temperatures of 350 to 2575 K and flow Mach numbers of 0.11 to 1.9. The experimental heat flux data were correlated with the laminar and turbulent theories and the agreement was good at low temperatures which was not the case for higher temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tham, Leony; Nazar, Roslinda; Pop, Ioan
2015-11-01
The steady laminar mixed convection boundary layer flow from a horizontal circular cylinder in a nanofluid embedded in a porous medium, which is maintained at a constant surface heat flux, has been studied by using the Buongiorno-Darcy nanofluid model for both cases of a heated and cooled cylinder. The resulting system of nonlinear partial differential equations is solved numerically using an implicit finite-difference scheme known as the Keller box method. The solutions for the flow and heat transfer characteristics are evaluated numerically and studied for various values of the governing parameters, namely the Lewis number, Brownian number, mixed convection parameter, buoyancy ratio parameter and thermophoresis parameter. It is also found that the boundary layer separation occurs at the opposing fluid flow, that is when the mixed convection parameter is negative. It is also observed that increasing the mixed convection parameter delays the boundary layer separation and the separation can be completely suppressed for sufficiently large values of the mixed convection parameter. The Brownian and buoyancy ratio parameters appear to affect the fluid flow and heat transfer profiles.
Dynamic polarizability tensor for circular cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickland, Diana; Ayón, Arturo; Alù, Andrea
2015-02-01
Based on Mie scattering theory, we derive the complete dynamic polarizability tensor for circular, azimuthally symmetric cylinders excited by an arbitrary field distribution, and provide compact expressions for all of its elements. Our results comprise fully dynamic cylinder polarizabilities, improving existing approximate models that use averaged electric or magnetic current lines to describe the scattering response of moderately thin cylinders. We show that the derived polarizability tensor satisfies reciprocity and passivity relations, and analyze its response under different conditions, varying the excitation angle, material properties, and cylinder radius. Interestingly, magnetoelectric effects are shown to arise at oblique incidence, even in the case of centrosymmetric achiral thin cylinders, associated with a weak form of spatial dispersion. This finding is particularly relevant for the proper modeling of individual cylinders and arrays of them, as in the case of metamaterials. We expect this work to find applications in antenna and metamaterial design, and to improve the physical understanding of the wave interaction and spatial dispersion in artificial materials composed of elongated inclusions such as wire media.
Failure of Non-Circular Composite Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hyer, M. W.
2004-01-01
In this study, a progressive failure analysis is used to investigate leakage in internally pressurized non-circular composite cylinders. This type of approach accounts for the localized loss of stiffness when material failure occurs at some location in a structure by degrading the local material elastic properties by a certain factor. The manner in which this degradation of material properties takes place depends on the failure modes, which are determined by the application of a failure criterion. The finite-element code STAGS, which has the capability to perform progressive failure analysis using different degradation schemes and failure criteria, is utilized to analyze laboratory scale, graphite-epoxy, elliptical cylinders with quasi-isotropic, circumferentially-stiff, and axially-stiff material orthotropies. The results are divided into two parts. The first part shows that leakage, which is assumed to develop if there is material failure in every layer at some axial and circumferential location within the cylinder, does not occur without failure of fibers. Moreover before fibers begin to fail, only matrix tensile failures, or matrix cracking, takes place, and at least one layer in all three cylinders studied remain uncracked, preventing the formation of a leakage path. That determination is corroborated by the use of different degradation schemes and various failure criteria. Among the degradation schemes investigated are the degradation of different engineering properties, the use of various degradation factors, the recursive or non-recursive degradation of the engineering properties, and the degradation of material properties using different computational approaches. The failure criteria used in the analysis include the noninteractive maximum stress criterion and the interactive Hashin and Tsai-Wu criteria. The second part of the results shows that leakage occurs due to a combination of matrix tensile and compressive, fiber tensile and compressive, and inplane
Circular cylinder wakes and vortex-induced vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bearman, P. W.
2011-07-01
This paper presents a selective review of recent research on vortex-induced vibrations of isolated circular cylinders and the flow and vibration of circular cylinders in a tandem arrangement; a common thread being that the topics raised are of particular interest to the author. The influence of Reynolds number on the response of isolated cylinders is presented and recent developments using forced vibration are discussed. The response of a cylinder free to respond in the in-line and transverse directions is contrasted with that of a cylinder responding in only one direction. The interference between two circular cylinders is discussed and prominence given to the case of cylinders in a tandem arrangement. The origin of the time-mean lift force on the downstream cylinder is considered together with the cause of the large amplitude transverse vibration experienced by the cylinder above vortex resonance. This wake-induced vibration is shown to be a form of vortex-induced vibration.
Numerical simulation for flow around two circular cylinders in tandem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Norio; Matsukuma, Daisuke
2005-05-01
We use a third-order upwind finite element scheme in order to perform numerical stabilization of solutions of the Navier Stokes equations and present numerical results of flow around two circular cylinders in tandem arrangement by two- and three-dimensional computations. The two circular cylinders are arranged with some spacings between the cylinders. It is well known from experimental data that the flow around two circular cylinders denotes very complicated phenomena with the variation of spacing between two cylinders. In addition, the time-averaged drag coefficients of two circular cylinders suddenly change at a certain spacing between the cylinders. We, therefore, make an investigation of such phenomena at the Reynolds number of 1000 by the use of a numerical approach, and the obtained numerical results are also qualitatively compared with experimental data.
Torsion Tests of Stiffened Circular Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, R L; Wescoat, C
1944-01-01
The design of curved sheet panels to resist shear involves a consideration of several factors: the buckling resistance of the sheet, the stress at which buckling becomes permanent, and the strength which may be developed beyond the buckling limit by tension-field action. Although some experimental as well as theoretical work has been done on the buckling and tension-field phases of this problem, neither of these types of action appears to be very well understood. The problem is of sufficient importance from the standpoint of aircraft design, it is believed, to warrant further experimental investigation. This report presents the results of the first series of torsion tests of stiffened circular cylinders to be completed in connection with this study at Aluminum Research Laboratories. (author)
Magnetic resonance of slotted circular cylinder resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Junjie; Liu, Shiyang; Lin, Zhifang; Chui, S. T.
2008-07-01
By a rigorous full-wave approach, a systemic study is made on the magnetic resonance of slotted circular cylinder resonators (SCCRs) made of a perfect conductor for the lossless case. This is a two-dimensional analog of the split-ring resonator and may serve as an alternative type of essential constituent of electromagnetic metamaterials. It is found that the resonance frequency can be modulated by changing the geometrical parameters and the dielectrics filling in the cavity and the slot. An approximate empirical expression is presented for magnetic resonance frequency of SCCRs from the viewpoint of an L-C circuit system. Finally, it is demonstrated that the SCCR structure can be miniaturized to less than 1/150 resonant wavelength in size with the dielectrics available currently.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Norio
2014-07-01
It is well known from a lot of experimental data that fluid forces acting on two tandem circular cylinders are quite different from those acting on a single circular cylinder. Therefore, we first present numerical results for fluid forces acting on two tandem circular cylinders, which are mounted at various spacings in a smooth flow, and second we present numerical results for flow-induced vibrations of the upstream circular cylinder in the tandem arrangement. The two circular cylinders are arranged at close spacing in a flow field. The upstream circular cylinder is elastically placed by damper-spring systems and moves in both the in-line and cross-flow directions. In such models, each circular cylinder is assumed as a rigid body. On the other hand, we do not introduce a turbulent model such as the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) or Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models into the numerical scheme to compute the fluid flow. Our numerical procedure to capture the flow-induced vibration phenomena of the upstream circular cylinder is treated as a fluid-structure interaction problem in which the ideas of weak coupling is taken into consideration.
Motion Response of 2 DOF Circular Cylinder in Bundle Arrangment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hans, Hendik; Nguyen, Vinh Tan
2014-11-01
This study focuses on the motion response of a freely vibrating in streamwise and crossflow circular cylinder in the wake of two leading stationary circular cylinders. Studies on the effects of spatial positioning of the trailing circular cylinder to its amplitude and frequency response are conducted. In order to explain the effects of mass ratio and phase angle on the motion response of the structure, analytical model based on tandem cylinder arrangement are presented. For almost all reduced velocities, the results indicated larger crossflow amplitude of oscillation as the trailing cylinder is aligned to the centerline of one of the leading circular cylinder. Two dominant response frequencies are found on the trailing circular cylinder. Switching between the two response frequencies as the dominant response frequency is found to be strongly related to the natural frequency of the system. Additionally, the mass ratio played a significant role in determining the intermittent domination of the Vortex-Induced Vibrating (VIV) frequency of the structure. For low mass ratio, larger mass ratio is found to increase its amplitude of oscillation.
Fluid forces on two circular cylinders in crossflow
Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Chen, S.S.
1986-01-01
Fluid excitation forces are measured in a water loop for two circular cylinders arranged in tandem and normal to flow. The Strouhal number and fluctuating drag and lift coefficients for both cylinders are presented for various spacings and incoming flow conditions. The results show the effects of Reynolds number, pitch ratio, and upstream turbulence on the fluid excitation forces.
Fluid forces on two circular cylinders in crossflow
Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Chen, S.S.
1985-06-01
Fluid excitation forces are measured in a water loop for two circular cylinders arranged in tandem and normal to flow. The Strouhal number and fluctuating drag and lift coefficients for both cylinders are presented for various spacings and incoming flow conditions. Results show the effects of Reynolds number, pitch ratio, and upstream turbulence on the fluid excitation forces.
Wake instability issues: From circular cylinders to stalled airfoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meneghini, J. R.; Carmo, B. S.; Tsiloufas, S. P.; Gioria, R. S.; Aranha, J. A. P.
2011-07-01
Some recent results regarding the global dynamical behaviour of the wake of circular cylinders and airfoils with massive separation are reviewed in this paper. In order to investigate the effect of interference, the three-dimensional instability modes are analysed for the flow around two circular cylinders in tandem. In the same way, the flow around a stalled airfoil is investigated in order to provide a better understanding of the three-dimensional characteristics of wakes forming downstream of a lifting body with massive separation. These results are compared with those found for an isolated cylinder. Some fundamental differences among these flows are discussed.
Separation of Creeping Flow past Two Circular Cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyazaki, Takeshi; Hasimoto, Hidenori
1980-10-01
The steady two-dimensional Stokes flow past two circular cylinders of equal radii is considered, where the direction of the flow is parallel to the line joining the centers. Separation of the flow from the cylinders occurs if the parameter t{=}(distance between two cylinders)/(diameter of the cylinders) is less than 1.57. If t is less than 1.07 the twin eddies attached to both cylinders coalesce to form two separation lines joining two cylinders. As t decreases, the number of the separation lines increases, and Moffatt vortices are formed at t{=}0 (i.e. in contact). These results are in accordance with the experiments given by Taneda.
Two circular cylinders in cross-flow: A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sumner, D.
2010-08-01
Pairs of circular cylinders immersed in a steady cross-flow are encountered in many engineering applications. The cylinders may be arranged in tandem, side-by-side, or staggered configurations. Wake and proximity interference effects, which are determined primarily by the longitudinal and transverse spacing between the cylinders, and also by the Reynolds number, have a strong influence on the flow patterns, aerodynamic forces, vortex shedding, and other parameters. This paper reviews the current understanding of the flow around two “infinite” circular cylinders of equal diameter immersed in a steady cross-flow, with a focus on the near-wake flow patterns, Reynolds number effects, intermediate wake structure and behaviour, and the general trends in the measurements of the aerodynamic force coefficients and Strouhal numbers. A primary focus is on the key experimental and numerical studies that have appeared since the last major review of this subject more than 20 years ago.
Flow Interference between a Circular (Upstream) and a Square Cylinder: Flow Pattern Identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohan, Jayalakshmi; R, Ajith Kumar; Kumar, Nithin S.
2014-11-01
In this paper, flow interference between an upstream circular cylinder and a square cylinder of equal size is studied in tandem arrangement. The main objective of this invesigation is to identify the possible flow patterns at different spacing ratios, L/B where L is the centre-to-centre distance between the cylinders and B is the characteristic dimension of the bodies. All the experiments are conducted in a water channel and the test Reynolds number is 2100 (based on B). L/B is varied from 1.0 to 5.0. The flow visualization experiments are videographed and then analyzed frame-by-frame to capture the finer details of the flow patterns. Flow over single square and circular cylinders is analyzed first. Then, flow interference between two circular cylinders is investigated. Subsequently, flow over a circular-square configuration is investigated. No such studies are reported so far. Different flow patterns are observed for the circular-square configuration. Additionally, the time of persistence of each flow pattern have been recorded over a sufficiently long period of time to see the most dominant flow pattern. The schedule of occurrence of flow patterns have also been studied during this investigation. This study is very much relevant in the context of possible interference effects occuring in engineering structures such as buildings, heat exchanger tubes etc.
Natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novomestský, Marcel; Smatanová, Helena; Kapjor, Andrej
2016-06-01
This article is concerned with natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder mounted on a plane adiabatic base, the cylinders having an exposed cylinder surface according to different horizontal angle. The cylinder receives heat from a radiating heater which results in a buoyant flow. There are many industrial applications, including refrigeration, ventilation and the cooling of electrical components, for which the present study may be applicable
Influence of non-adiabatic wall conditions on the cross-flow around a circular cylinder
Macha, J.M.; Shafa, K.S.
1984-02-01
The drag and heat transfer of a finite length circular cylinder in a cross-flow have been investigated in a wind tunnel at surface-to-freestream temperature ratios from 1.0 to 2.1 for freestream Reynolds numbers of 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ and 4.4 x 10/sup 5/. The measured surface pressures were integrated to determine the effect of cylinder temperature on the drag coefficient, and the average Nusselt number was calculated from the electrical power required to heat the cylinder. For the freestream Reynolds number of 4.4 x 10/sup 5/, the experimental data show that increasing the cylinder temperature caused a reverse-transition from supercritical to subcritical flow. As a result of the increased size of the low-velocity wake region, C /SUB D/ increased by 21 percent and Nu /SUB d/ decreased by 26 percent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishi, Yoshiki; Ueno, Yuta; Nishio, Masachika; Quadrante, Luis Antonio Rodrigues; Kokubun, Kentaroh
2014-05-01
We conducted an experiment in a towing tank to investigate the performance of an energy extraction system using the flow-induced vibration of a circular cylinder. This experiment tested three different cases involving the following arrangements of cylinder(s) of identical diameter: the upstream fixed-downstream movable arrangement (case F); the upstream movable-downstream fixed arrangement (case R); and a movable isolated cylinder (case I). In cases F and R, the separation distance (ratio of the distance between the centers of the two cylinders to their diameters) is fixed at 1.30. Measurement results show that while cases F and I generate vortex-induced vibration (VIV) resonance responses, case R yields wake-induced vibration (WIV) at reduced velocity over 9.0, which is significantly larger than that of the VIV response, leading to the induction of higher electronic power in a generator. Accordingly, primary energy conversion efficiency is higher in the case involving WIV.
Design guide for single circular cylinder in turbulent crossflow. [LMFBR
Mulcahy, T.M.
1982-03-01
A design procedure is proposed for predicting the dynamic structural response of a circular cylinder in turbulent crossflow. The procedure is based on recently obtained data for a stationary, rigid cylinder and on existing information. The procedure is not applicable to conditions where the wake vortex shedding frequency locks into a structural natural frequency. This report is self-contained in that all the information and structural analysis methods employed in the procedure are reviewed and developed. Also, an example is given to illustrate the use of the method for a typical reactor component. The calculated responses are found to be very small.
Fluid dynamic effects of grooves on circular cylinder surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, Takeyoshi; Tsutahara, Michihisa
1991-12-01
It is shown that a groove on the surface of a circular cylinder affects movement of the separation point backward and reduces drag even at Reynolds numbers of about a few thousand. Several types of circular-arc cross-section grooves are studied using flow visualizations and numerical simulations. Whether these grooves are effective depends strongly on their positions, and the most effective positions are about 80 deg, measured from the foremost point. When they are effective, cavity flows are developed inside the grooves. This effect corresponds to that of dimples on golf balls and will explain unique characteristics of the drag curve.
Progress on LES of Flow Past a Circular Cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mittal, R.
1996-01-01
The objective of the present research is to assess the usefulness of large-eddy simulation (LES) methodology for flows in complex geometries. Flow past a circular cylinder has been calculated using a central-difference based solver, and the results have been compared to those obtained by a solver that employs higher-order upwind biased schemes (Beaudan & Moin, 1994). This comparison allows us to assess the suitability of these schemes for LES in complex geometry flows.
Patterns of vortex shedding from an oscillating circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Keun-Shik; Sa, Jong-Youb
1990-01-01
Vortex shedding from an oscillating circular cylinder was numerically investigated at Re = 100 with the Navier-Stokes equations and the new boundary conditions. The detailed shedding patterns are characterized by means of streakline plotting and lift-coefficient curves. A parameter map is presented which distinguishes the synchronized shedding from the asynchronous and the double vortices shedding from the single vortex shedding. The computational result is in good agreement with earlier experimental results.
Transient response of a circular cylinder to an electromagnetic pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, J.; Ciric, I. R.
1992-10-01
The transient response of a perfectly conducting circular cylinder to an electromagnetic pulse of a double exponential type has been investigated, and a new analytical expression has been derived for the induced current density on the cylinder surface. The analysis performed in this paper is based on the frequency domain eigenfunction solution of the surface current density and yields an analytical expression which is theoretically valid for both the shadow and illuminated regions and for all the time ranges. Numerical calculations show that results for the entire time range after the instant the initial incident wave front has passed the cylinder axis can easily be obtained from this single analytical expression. For very large time values, only the first few terms in the expression are needed to give a satisfactory accuracy.
Numerical Simulation of Flow Interference Between Two Circular Cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, F.; Mingham, C. G.; Causon, D. M.
2011-09-01
Viscous flow past two circular cylinders in tandem and side-by-side arrangements is investigated numerically. The solution to the Navier-Stokes equations is obtained by means of a cell-centred finite volume method (FVM) based on a structured Cartesian grid with collocated variable arrangement. The pressure-velocity coupling is evaluated by using the SIMPLE algorithm. The 2D Cartesian cut cell mesh is generated on the horizontal plane, which is extended vertically to form the 3D grid. The simulations are based on the Reynolds number of 200, and the gap between the two cylinders are 1.5-3D for side-by-side arrangement and 3-4D for tandem. Instantaneous velocity contours of the flow around the cylinders and time histories of force coefficients are presented.
Vortex shedding from a circular cylinder near a moving ground
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishino, Takafumi; Roberts, Graham T.; Zhang, Xin
2007-02-01
The flow and force characteristics have been experimentally investigated of a circular cylinder with an aspect ratio of 8.33, with and without end-plates, placed near and parallel to a moving ground, on which substantially no boundary layer developed to interfere with the cylinder. Mean drag and lift measurements, surface oil flow visualization, and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out at two upper-subcritical Reynolds numbers of 0.4 and 1.0×105 (based on the cylinder diameter d) to investigate the mechanisms of the ground effect, i.e., the effect of the gap-to-diameter ratio h /d, where h is the gap between the cylinder and the ground. For the cylinder with end-plates, on which the oil flow patterns were observed to be essentially two-dimensional, the drag rapidly decreased as h /d decreased to less than 0.5 but became constant for h /d of less than 0.35, unlike that usually observed near a fixed ground. This critical drag behavior was found to be directly related to a global change in the near wake structure of the cylinder; as h /d decreased the Kármán-type vortex shedding became intermittent at h /d=0.4, and then totally ceased and instead two nearly parallel shear layers were formed behind the cylinder at h /d=0.3 and below. For the cylinder without end-plates, however, no such critical change in drag was observed as the Kármán-type vortices were not generated in the near wake region at all h /d investigated. Based on the experimental results obtained, further discussions are also given to the essential cause of the cessation of the Kármán vortex shedding in the ground effect.
Passive jet control of flow around a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wen-Li; Gao, Dong-Lai; Yuan, Wen-Yong; Li, Hui; Hu, Hui
2015-11-01
In the present study, a passive flow control method, which is featured by passive windward suction combined with leeward jet over a circular cylinder for drag reduction and dynamic wind loading suppression, was experimentally investigated to manipulate unsteady wake vortex shedding from a circular cylinder. Four perforated pipe designs with different numbers of suction/jet holes (i.e., from 2 to 24 suction/jet holes) were used to create flow communicating channels between the windward and leeward stagnation points of a cylindrical test model. The experimental study was performed in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of Re = 4.16 × 104 based on the cylinder diameter and oncoming airflow speed. In addition to measuring surface pressure distributions to determine the dynamic wind loads acting on the test model, a digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was also used to quantify the wake flow characteristics in order to assess the effectiveness of the passive jet control method with different perforated pipe designs, in comparison with a baseline case without passive jet control. It was found that the passive jet control method is very effective in manipulating the wake vortex shedding process from the circular cylinder. The perforated pipe designs with more suction/jet holes were found to be more effective in reducing drag and suppressing fluctuating amplitude of the dynamic wind loads acting on the test model. With 24 suction/jet holes evenly distributed over the cylindrical test model (i.e., the N13 design of the present study), the passive jet control method was found to be able to achieve up to 33.7 % in drag reduction and 90.6 % in fluctuating wind loading suppression, in comparison with the baseline case. The PIV measurement results revealed clearly that the passive jet control method would cause airflow jets into the cylinder wake and change the shedding modes of the wake vortex structures from the cylindrical test model. Because of the dynamic
Effect of plasma actuator and splitter plate on drag coefficient of a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbıyık, Hürrem; Erkan Akansu, Yahya; Yavuz, Hakan; Ertuğrul Bay, Ahmet
2016-03-01
In this paper, an experimental study on flow control around a circular cylinder with splitter plate and plasma actuator is investigated. The study is performed in wind tunnel for Reynolds numbers at 4000 and 8000. The wake region of circular cylinder with a splitter plate is analyzed at different angles between 0 and 180 degrees. In this the study, not only plasma actuators are activated but also splitter plate is placed behind the cylinder. A couple electrodes are mounted on circular cylinder at ±90 degrees. Also, flow visualization is achieved by using smoke wire method. Drag coefficient of the circular cylinder with splitter plate and the plasma actuator are obtained for different angles and compared with the plain circular cylinder. While attack angle is 0 degree, drag coefficient is decreased about 20% by using the splitter plate behind the circular cylinder. However, when the plasma actuators are activated, the improvement of the drag reduction is measured to be 50%.
Scattering matrix of infrared radiation by ice finite circular cylinders.
Xu, Lisheng; Ding, Jilie; Cheng, Andrew Y S
2002-04-20
Scattering matrix characteristics of polydisperse, randomly oriented, small ice crystals modeled by finite circular cylinders with various ratios of the length to diameter (L/D) ratio are calculated by use of the exact T-matrix approach, with emphasis on the thermal infrared spectral region that extends from the atmospheric short-wave IR window to the far-IR wavelengths to as large as 30 microm. The observed ice crystal size distribution and the well-known power-law distribution are considered. The results of the extensive calculations show that the characteristics of scattering matrix elements of small ice circular cylinders depend strongly on wavelengths and refractive indices, particle size distributions, and the L/D ratios. The applicability of the power-law distribution and particle shapes for light scattering calculations for small ice crystals is discussed. The effects of the effective variance of size distribution on light scattering characteristics are addressed. It seems from the behavior of scattering matrix elements of small ice crystals that the combination of 25 and 3.979 microm has some advantages and potential applications for remote sensing of cirrus and other ice clouds. PMID:12003228
Spanwise plumes in wakes behind heated cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, S. Ajith; Lal, S. Anil; Sameen, A.
2013-11-01
3D wake transition in flow past cylinder is interesting theoretically and industrially. A three dimensional Finite volume computation has been performed on an incompressible flow past heated cylinder to understand the wake behavior behind the cylinder, under the Boussinesq assumption. We study the heat transfer characteristics and the coherent structures behind the cylinder at different Prandtl numbers. In forced convection, the 3D transition occurs above Reynolds number, Re = 180-190 (Re is based on the cylinder diameter). However, the present 3D computational analyses show that in mixed convection, the so called ``mode-E'' instability (3D transition of wake behind the cylinder caused by the heating of the cylinder) happens at a much lower Reynolds number. The co-existence of mushroom like coherent structures called the plumes along with the shed vortices is observed for a range of heating conditions. These plumes originates from the core of the upper vortex rows at a definite span wise wavelengths. The dependence of Prandtl number on the span wise wavenumber of these plumes is also analyzed.
Effect of location in an array on heat transfer to a cylinder in crossflow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simoneau, R. J.; Vanfossen, G. J., Jr.
1982-01-01
An experiment was conducted to measure the heat transfer from a heated cylinder in crossflow in an array of circular cylinders. All cylinders had a length-to-diameter ratio of 3.0. Both in-line and staggered array patterns were studied. The cylinders were spaced 2.67 diameters apart center-to-center in both the axial and transverse directions to the flow. The row containing the heated cylinder remained in a fixed position in the channel and the relative location of this row within the array was changed by adding up to five upstream rows. The working fluid was nitrogen gas at pressures from 100 to 600 kPa. The Reynolds number ranged based on cylinder diameter and average unobstructed channel velocity was from 5,000 to 125,000. Turbulence intensity: profiles were measured for each case at a point one half space upstream of the row containing the heated cylinder. The basis of comparison for all the heat transfer data was the single row with the heated cylinder. For the in-line cases the addition of a single row of cylinders upstream of the row containing the heated cylinder increased the heat transfer by an average of 50 percent above the base case. Adding up to five more rows caused no increase or decrease in heat transfer. Adding rows in the staggered array cases resulted in average increases in heat transfer of 21, 64, 58, 46, and 46 percent for one to five upstream rows, respectively.
Diffraction of dust acoustic waves by a circular cylinder
Kim, S.-H.; Heinrich, J. R.; Merlino, R. L.
2008-09-15
The diffraction of dust acoustic (DA) waves around a long dielectric rod is observed using video imaging methods. The DA waves are spontaneously excited in a dusty plasma produced in a direct current glow discharge plasma. The rod acquires a negative charge that produces a coaxial dust void around it. The diameter of the void is the effective size of the 'obstacle' encountered by the waves. The wavelength of the DA waves is approximately the size of the void. The observations are considered in relation to the classical problem of the diffraction of sound waves from a circular cylinder, a problem first analyzed by Lord Rayleigh [Theory of Sound, 2nd ed. (MacMillan, London, 1896)].
Circular cylinders with soft porous cover for flow noise reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geyer, Thomas F.; Sarradj, Ennes
2016-03-01
The use of porous materials is one of several approaches to passively control or minimize the generation of flow noise. In order to investigate the possible reduction of noise from struts and other protruding parts (for example components of the landing gear or pantographs), acoustic measurements were taken in a small aeroacoustic wind tunnel on a set of circular cylinders with a soft porous cover. The aim of this study was to identify those materials that result in the best noise reduction, which refers to both tonal noise and broadband noise. The porous covers were characterized by their air flow resistivity, a parameter describing the permeability of an open-porous material. The results show that materials with low air flow resistivities lead to a noticeable flow noise reduction. Thereby, the main effect of the porous cylinder covers is that the spectral peak of the aeolian tone due to vortex shedding appears much narrower, but is not suppressed completely. Based on the measurement results, a basic model for the estimation of the total peak level of the aeolian tone was derived. In addition to the minimization of the vortex shedding noise, a reduction of broadband noise can be observed, especially at higher Reynolds numbers. The noise reduction increases with decreasing air flow resistivity of the porous covers, which means that materials that are highly permeable to air result in the best noise reduction.
Instability and transition of flow past two tandem circular cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizushima, Jiro; Suehiro, Norihisa
2005-10-01
The instability and transition of flow past two circular cylinders arranged in tandem are investigated numerically. A steady symmetric flow is realized at small Reynolds numbers, but the flow becomes unstable above a critical Reynolds number and makes a transition to an oscillatory flow. We obtained the symmetric flow numerically and analyze its stability by applying linear stability theory. The nonlinear oscillatory flow arising from the instability is obtained not only by numerical simulation but also by direct numerical calculation of the equilibrium solution, and the bifurcation diagram for the nonlinear equilibrium solution is depicted. We focused our attention on the effect of the gap spacing between the two cylinders on the stability and transition of the flow. The transition of the flow from a steady state to an oscillatory state is clarified to occur due to a supercritical or subcritical Hopf bifurcation depending upon the gap spacing. We found that there is a certain range of the gap spacing where physical quantities such as the drag and lift coefficients and the Strouhal number show an abrupt change when the gap spacing is continuously changed. We identified the origin of the abrupt change as the existence of multiple stable solutions for the flow.
Suppression of vortex-induced vibration of a circular cylinder using suction-based flow control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wen-Li; Xin, Da-Bo; Xu, Feng; Li, Hui; Ou, Jin-Ping; Hu, Hui
2013-10-01
In the present study, a flow control method is employed to mitigate vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cylinder by using a suction flow method. The VIV of a circular cylinder was first reproduced in a wind tunnel by using a spring-mass system. The time evolution of the cylinder oscillation and the time histograms of the surface pressures of 119 taps in four sections of the circular cylinder model were measured during the wind tunnel experiments. Four steady suction flow rates were used to investigate the effectiveness of the suction control method to suppress VIV of the circular cylinder. The vibration responses, the mean and fluctuating pressure coefficients, and the resultant aerodynamic force coefficients of the circular cylinder under the suction flow control are analyzed. The measurement results indicate clearly that the steady suction flow control method exhibits excellent control effectiveness and can distinctly suppress the VIV by dramatically reducing the amplitudes of cylinder vibrations, fluctuating pressure coefficients and lift coefficients of the circular cylinder model. By comparing the test cases with different suction flow rates, it is found that there exists an optimal suction flow rate for the maximum VIV control. The cases with higher suction flow rates do not necessarily behave better than those with lower suction flow rates. With the experimental setting used in the present study, the suction flow control method is found to behave better for VIV suppression when the ratio of the suction flow velocity to the oncoming flow velocity is less than one.
Standing Torsional Waves in Fluid-Saturated Porous Circular Cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solorza, S.; Sahay, P. N.
2002-12-01
For dynamic measurement of elastic constants of a porous material saturated with viscous fluid when resonance-bar technique is applied, one also observes attenuation of the wave field. The current practice is to interpret it in terms of solid-viscosity by assuming a viscoelastic rheology for porous material. The likely mechanisms of attenuation in a fluid saturated porous material are: 1) motion of the fluid with respect to the solid frame and 2) viscous loss within the pore fluid. Therefore, it is appropriate to assume a poroelastic rheology and link the observed attenuation value to fluid properties and permeability. In the framework of poroelastic theory, the explicit formula linking attenuation to the properties of solid and fluid constituents and permeability are not worked out yet. In order to established such a link one has to workout solutions of appropriate boundary value problems in such a framework. Here, we have carried out the solution of boundary value problem associated with torsional oscillation of a finite poroelastic circular cylinder, casted in the framework of volume-averaged theory of poroelasticity. Analysing this solution by a perturbative approach we are able to develop explicit expressions for resonance frequency and attenuation for this mode of vibration. It shows how the attenuation is controlled by the permeability and the fluid properties, and how the resonance frequency drops over its value for the dry porous frame due to the effect of the fluid-mass.
Dynamics in the turbulent wake of a curved circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallardo, José P.; Pettersen, Bjørnar; Andersson, Helge I.
2011-12-01
Understanding the physics of turbulent wakes is an essential, yet complex task in the study of turbulent flows. In the present paper we investigate the flow past a curved body of circular cross-section. The inflow velocity is aligned with the curvature of the cylinder and directed towards its convex face. We conduct direct numerical simulations at a Reynolds number of 3900 in order to obtain a fully turbulent wake. The instantaneous vortical structures reveal that the primary vortices are roughly aligned with the curved axis. Despite the presence of isolated splitting events in the frequency of the vortex shedding, there is one single shedding frequency that dominates this process. Velocity time-traces confirm that the shear layers exhibit intermittency, which is manifested as large amplitude fluctuations. The intensity of these instabilities is increased by the secondary flow along the recirculation region, thereby influencing the dynamics of the near wake. Several spots of zero mean velocity reside next to the baseline within the recirculation region, displacing the back-flow region further downstream. It is suggested that this displacement is induced by the secondary flow, in combination with the symmetry boundary condition imposed at the top plane.
Stability of inviscid vortices behind a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elcrat, Alan; Fornberg, Bengt; Miller, Ken
2005-11-01
In a previous work (JFM 409(2000), 13-27 famillies of vortex patches in equilibrium with flow past a circular cylinder which is uniform at infinity were found using iterations for a nonlinear Poisson equation. These included desingularizations of the Foppl pairs. In this work we study the stability of these vortices with respect to two dimensional perturbations. In order to do this we have formulated a curve perturbation algorithm, based on the ideas of contour dynamics, which sets the normal component of velocity at a point on the boundary of the vortex patch equal to zero. The discretization is solved by a version of Newton's method; the Jacobean is factored using the singular value decomposition and a generalized inverse with the smallest singular value removed is used in the Newton iteration. This is necessary because there is always a small singular value due to the fact that there is always a nearby solution vortex in the familly. The Foppl familly is always neutrally stable with respect to symmetric perturbations in nthe sense that all of the eigenvalues are on the imaginary axis. When non symmetric perturbations are allowed there is exactly one unstable mode. A perturbation in the direction of this eigenvector implies a roll suggestive of Karman vortex shedding.
Large-eddy simulation of flow past a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mittal, R.
1995-01-01
Some of the most challenging applications of large-eddy simulation are those in complex geometries where spectral methods are of limited use. For such applications more conventional methods such as finite difference or finite element have to be used. However, it has become clear in recent years that dissipative numerical schemes which are routinely used in viscous flow simulations are not good candidates for use in LES of turbulent flows. Except in cases where the flow is extremely well resolved, it has been found that upwind schemes tend to damp out a significant portion of the small scales that can be resolved on the grid. Furthermore, it has been found that even specially designed higher-order upwind schemes that have been used successfully in the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows produce too much dissipation when used in conjunction with large-eddy simulation. The objective of the current study is to perform a LES of incompressible flow past a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number of 3900 using a solver which employs an energy-conservative second-order central difference scheme for spatial discretization and compare the results obtained with those of Beaudan & Moin (1994) and with the experiments in order to assess the performance of the central scheme for this relatively complex geometry.
Mass transfer from a circular cylinder: Effects of flow unsteadiness and slight nonuniformities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marziale, M. L.; Mayle, R. E.
1984-01-01
Experiments were performed to determine the effect of periodic variations in the angle of the flow incident to a turbine blade on its leading edge heat load. To model this situation, measurements were made on a circular cylinder oscillating rotationally in a uniform steady flow. A naphthalene mass transfer technique was developed and used in the experiments and heat transfer rates are inferred from the results. The investigation consisted of two parts. In the first, a stationary cylinder was used and the transfer rate was measured for Re = 75,000 to 110,000 and turbulence levels from .34 percent to 4.9 percent. Comparisons with both theory and the results of others demonstrate that the accuracy and repeatability of the developed mass transfer technique is about + or - 2 percent, a large improvement over similar methods. In the second part identical flow conditions were used but the cylinder was oscillated. A Strouhal number range from .0071 to .1406 was covered. Comparisons of the unsteady and steady results indicate that the magnitude of the effect of oscillation is small and dependent on the incident turbulence conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitagawa, T.; Ohta, H.
2008-07-01
Three-dimensional fluid computations have been performed to investigate the flows around two circular cylinders in tandem arrangements at a subcritical Reynolds number, Re=2.2×104. The center-to-center space between the cylinders was varied from twice the cylinder diameter to five times that, and the flows and fluid-dynamic forces obtained from the simulations are compared with the experimental results reported in the literature. Special attention is paid to the characteristics of the vortices shed from the upstream cylinder such as the convection, the impingement onto the downstream cylinder and the interaction with the vortices from the downstream cylinder. The effects of the vortices from the upstream cylinder on the fluid-dynamic forces acting on the downstream cylinder are discussed.
Water wave scattering by a nearly circular cylinder submerged beneath an ice-cover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Rumpa; Mandal, Birendra Nath
2015-03-01
Assuming linear theory, the two-dimensional problem of water wave scattering by a horizontal nearly circular cylinder submerged in infinitely deep water with an ice cover modeled as a thin-elastic plate floating on water, is investigated here. The cross-section of the nearly circular cylinder is taken as r= a( 1+δC( θ)), where a is the radius of the corresponding circular cross-section of the cylinder, δ is a measure of small departure of the cross-section of the cylinder from its circularity and C( θ) is the shape function. Using a simplified perturbation technique the problem is reduced to two independent boundary value problems up to first order in δ. The first one corresponds to water wave scattering by a circular cylinder submerged in water with an ice-cover, while the second problem describes wave radiation by a submerged circular cylinder and involves first order correction to the reflection and transmission coefficients. The corrections are obtained in terms of integrals involving the shape function. Assuming a general Fourier expansion of the shape function, these corrections are evaluated approximately. It is well known that normally incident wave trains experience no reflection by a circular cylinder submerged in infinitely deep water with an ice cover. It is shown here that the reflection coefficient also vanishes up to first order for some particular choice of the shape function representing a nearly circular cylinder. For these cases, full transmission occurs, only change is in its phase which is depicted graphically against the wave number in a number of figures and appropriate conclusions are drawn.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, XiuYing; Su, YanPing
2012-10-01
Cross-flows around two, three and four circular cylinders in tandem, side-by-side, isosceles triangle and square arrangements are simulated using the incompressible lattice Boltzmann method with a second-order accurate curved boundary condition at Reynolds number 200 and the cylinder center-to-center transverse or/and longitudinal spacing 1.5 D, where D is the identical circular cylinder diameter. The wake patterns, pressure and force distributions on the cylinders and mechanism of flow dynamics are investigated and compared among the four cases. The results also show that flows around the three or four cylinders significantly differ from those of the two cylinders in the tandem and side-by-side arrangements although there are some common features among the four cases due to their similarity of structures, which are interesting, complex and useful for practical applications. This study provides a useful database to validate the simplicity, accuracy and robustness of the Lattice Boltzmann method.
Velocity Measurements of Turbulent Wake Flow Over a Circular Cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shih, Chang-Lung; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Keh-Chin; Wang, Muh-Rong
2016-06-01
There are two general concerns in the velocity measurements of turbulence. One is the temporal characteristics which governs the turbulent mixing process. Turbulence is rotational and is characterized by high levels of fluctuating vorticity. In order to obtain the information of vorticity dynamics, the spatial characteristics is the other concern. These varying needs can be satisfied by using a variety of diagnostic techniques such as invasive physical probes and non-invasive optical instruments. Probe techniques for the turbulent measurements are inherently simple and less expensive than optical methods. However, the presence of a physical probe may alter the flow field, and velocity measurements usually become questionable when probing recirculation zones. The non-invasive optical methods are mostly made of the foreign particles (or seeding) instead of the fluid flow and are, thus, of indirect method. The difference between the velocities of fluid and foreign particles is always an issue to be discussed particularly in the measurements of complicated turbulent flows. Velocity measurements of the turbulent wake flow over a circular cylinder will be made by using two invasive instruments, namely, a cross-type hot-wire anemometry (HWA) and a split-fiber hot-film anemometry (HFA), and a non-invasive optical instrument, namely, particle image velocimetry (PIV) in this study. Comparison results show that all three employed diagnostic techniques yield similar measurements in the mean velocity while somewhat deviated results in the root-mean-squared velocity, particularly for the PIV measurements. It is demonstrated that HFA possesses more capability than HWA in the flow measurements of wake flow. Wake width is determined in terms of either the flatness factor or shear-induced vorticity. It is demonstrated that flow data obtained with the three employed diagnostic techniques are capable of yielding accurate determination of wake width.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdul Rehman, Nidhil Mohamed; Shukla, Ratnesh
2015-11-01
Introduction of a slip in the tangential surface velocity suppresses vorticity production in a typical bluff body flow while simultaneously enhancing vorticity convection downstream and into the wake region. As a result the flow characteristics are altered significantly and the hydrodynamic loads are reduced considerably. In this work we investigate the effect of the hydrodynamic slip on the convective heat transfer from the surface of a heated isothermal circular cylinder placed in the uniform cross flow of a viscous incompressible fluid through numerical simulations. We find that for fixed Reynolds and Prandtl numbers an increase in the Knudsen number or equivalently the hydrodynamic slip length results in a substantial augmentation of the heat transfer coefficient. We establish the dependence of the Nusselt number on the Knudsen, Reynolds and Prandtl numbers over a wide range of these parameters. We find that for given Reynolds and Prandtl numbers the Nusselt number undergoes a sharp transition between the low and high asymptotic limits that correspond to zero (no-slip) and infinite (shear-free perfect slip) Knudsen numbers. We establish that the high asymptotic limit corresponding to the shear-free perfect slip cylinder boundary scales as Nu ~ Re 0 . 5 Pr 0 . 5 .
Vortex-induced vibration of two circular cylinders at low Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasanth, T. K.; Mittal, Sanjay
2009-05-01
Vortex-induced vibration of a pair of equal-sized circular cylinders in tandem and staggered arrangements in laminar flow regime is investigated. A stabilized finite element method is utilized to carry out the computations in two dimensions. Both cylinders are free to oscillate in transverse as well as in-line directions. The Reynolds number, based on the free-stream speed, U, and the diameter, D, of the cylinders is 100. To encourage high amplitude of oscillation the structural damping is set to zero and cylinders of low nondimensional mass are considered (m=10). The computations are carried out for various values of reduced speed of the oscillator (2⩽U⩽15). The cylinders are separated by 5.5D in the streamwise direction. They are separated by 0.7D in the cross-flow direction to study the effect of stagger. The downstream cylinder lies in the wake of the upstream one and experiences an unsteady inflow. The upstream cylinder in both tandem and staggered arrangement responds qualitatively similarly to a single cylinder. Compared to an isolated cylinder, a small increase in transverse oscillation amplitude of the upstream cylinder is observed due to the presence of the downstream cylinder. In both arrangements, the downstream cylinder shows very large amplitude transverse oscillations comparable to that of a single cylinder at higher Re. In the staggered arrangement, very large streamwise oscillations of the downstream cylinder are observed. Compared to an isolated cylinder, the synchronization range for the two-cylinder arrangement is larger. The downstream cylinder in the staggered arrangement undergoes two types of motion: an orbital motion at most of the U studied, and figure-of-eight motion for a small range of U. In the tandem arrangement, only the figure-of-eight motion is observed. The stagger in the arrangement of the two cylinders is found to have a significant effect on the flow.
Poiseuille flow-induced vibrations of two tandem circular cylinders with different mass ratios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Ren-Jie; Lin, Jian-Zhong
2016-06-01
Flow-induced vibrations of two tandem circular cylinders with different mass ratios confined between two parallel walls are numerically studied via a lattice Boltzmann method. With fixed Reynolds number Re = 100 and blockage ratio β = 1/4, the effects of mass ratio m* = [0.0625, 16] and streamwise separation between two cylinders S/D = [1.125, 10] on the cylinder motions and vortex wake modes are investigated. A variety of distinct cylinder motion regimes involving the symmetric periodic vibration, biased quasi-periodic vibration, beating vibration, and steady regimes, with the corresponding wake structures, e.g., two rows of alternately rotating vortices, a single row of same-sign vortices, and steady wake, are observed. For each current case, the cylinder motion type is exclusive and in the binary oscillation regime, both cylinders always vibrate at a common primary frequency. The lighter cylinder usually oscillates at a larger amplitude than the heavier one, while the heavier cylinder undergoes larger lift force than the lighter one. The lift force and cylinder displacement always behave as an out-of-phase state. In the gap-interference region, large-amplitude oscillations could be produced extensively and in the wake-interference region, the cylinder motions and fluid flows are mainly dependent on the upstream cylinder. When the separation is large enough, both cylinders behave as two isolated ones. The mechanisms for the excitations of cylinder vibrations have also been analysed.
The three-dimensional flow past a rapidly rotating circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denier, James P.; Duck, Peter W.
1993-01-01
The high Reynolds number (Re) flow past a rapidly rotating circular cylinder is investigated. The rotation rate of the cylinder is allowed to vary (slightly) along the axis of the cylinder, thereby provoking three-dimensional flow disturbances, which are shown to involve relatively massive (O(Re)) velocity perturbations to the flow away from the cylinder surface. Additionally, three integral conditions, analogous to the single condition determined in two dimensions by Batchelor, are derived, based on the condition of periodicity in the azimuthal direction.
Wave run-up on a coaxial perforated circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Da-Tong
2011-06-01
This paper describes a plane regular wave interaction with a combined cylinder which consists of a solid inner column and a coaxial perforated outer cylinder. The outer perforated surface is a thin porous cylinder with an annular gap between it and the inner cylinder. The non-linear boundary condition at the perforated wall is a prime focus in the study; energy dissipation at the perforated wall occurs through the resistance to the fluid across the perforated wall. Explicit analytical formulae are presented to calculate the wave run-up on the outer and inner surfaces of the perforated cylinder and the surface of the inner column. The theoretical results of the wave run-up are compared with previous experimental data. Numerical results have also been obtained: when the ratio of the annular gap between the two cylinders to incident wavelength ( b- a)/ L≤0.1, the wave run-up on the inner surface of the perforated cylinder and the surface of inner column can partially or completely exceed the incident wave height.
Flow-induced oscillation of two circular cylinders in tandem arrangement at low Re
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasanth, T. K.; Mittal, S.
2009-08-01
Results are presented for flow-induced vibrations of a pair of equal-sized circular cylinders of low nondimensional mass (m=10) in a tandem arrangement. The cylinders are free to oscillate both in streamwise and transverse directions. The Reynolds number, based on the free-stream speed and the diameter of the cylinders, D is 100 and the centre-to-centre distance between the cylinders is 5.5D. The computations are carried out for reduced velocities in the range 2≤U≤15. The structural damping is set to zero for enabling maximum amplitudes of oscillation. A stabilized finite element method is utilized to carry out the computations in two dimensions. Even though the response of the upstream cylinder is found to be qualitatively similar to that of an isolated cylinder, the presence of a downstream cylinder is found to have significant effect on the behaviour of the upstream cylinder. The downstream cylinder undergoes very large amplitude of oscillations in both transverse and streamwise directions. The maximum amplitude of transverse response of the downstream cylinder is quite similar to that of a single cylinder at higher Re beyond the laminar regime. Lock-in and hysteresis are observed for both upstream and downstream cylinders. The downstream cylinder undergoes large amplitude oscillations even beyond the lock-in state. The phase between transverse oscillations and lift force suffers a 180 jump for both the cylinders almost in the middle of the synchronization regime. The phase between the transverse response of the two cylinders is also studied. Complex flow patterns are observed in the wake of the freely vibrating cylinders. Based on the phase difference and the flow patterns, the entire flow range is divided into five sub-regions.
Heat transfer measurements for Stirling machine cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kornhauser, Alan A.; Kafka, B. C.; Finkbeiner, D. L.; Cantelmi, F. C.
1994-01-01
The primary purpose of this study was to measure the effects of inflow-produced heat turbulence on heat transfer in Stirling machine cylinders. A secondary purpose was to provide new experimental information on heat transfer in gas springs without inflow. The apparatus for the experiment consisted of a varying-volume piston-cylinder space connected to a fixed volume space by an orifice. The orifice size could be varied to adjust the level of inflow-produced turbulence, or the orifice plate could be removed completely so as to merge the two spaces into a single gas spring space. Speed, cycle mean pressure, overall volume ratio, and varying volume space clearance ratio could also be adjusted. Volume, pressure in both spaces, and local heat flux at two locations were measured. The pressure and volume measurements were used to calculate area averaged heat flux, heat transfer hysteresis loss, and other heat transfer-related effects. Experiments in the one space arrangement extended the range of previous gas spring tests to lower volume ratio and higher nondimensional speed. The tests corroborated previous results and showed that analytic models for heat transfer and loss based on volume ratio approaching 1 were valid for volume ratios ranging from 1 to 2, a range covering most gas springs in Stirling machines. Data from experiments in the two space arrangement were first analyzed based on lumping the two spaces together and examining total loss and averaged heat transfer as a function of overall nondimensional parameter. Heat transfer and loss were found to be significantly increased by inflow-produced turbulence. These increases could be modeled by appropriate adjustment of empirical coefficients in an existing semi-analytic model. An attempt was made to use an inverse, parameter optimization procedure to find the heat transfer in each of the two spaces. This procedure was successful in retrieving this information from simulated pressure-volume data with artificially
The transient response of finite open circular cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eftimiu, C.; Huddleston, P. L.
1984-04-01
An eigenmode expansion formulation of the singularity expansion method based on the electric field integral equation is developed for the transient response of conducting finite open cylinders. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the impedance operator are calculated by the Galerkin method using entire domain expansion functions. The transient surface current density and backscattered far field in response to an incident electromagnetic pulse are calculated for cylinders of various aspect ratios.
Slow motion of a circular cylinder in a plane Poiseuille flow in a microchannel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Jae-Tack; Jang, Chul-Soo
2014-12-01
The slow motion of a circular cylinder in a plane Poiseuille flow in a microchannel is analyzed for a wide range of cylinder radii and positions across the channel. The cylinder translates parallel to the channel walls and rotates about its axis. The Stokes approximation is used and the problem is solved analytically using the Papkovich-Fadle eigenfunction expansion and the least-squares method. The stream function and the pressure distribution of the flow field are obtained as results. The force and moment exerted on the cylinder, and the pressure change far from the cylinder, are calculated and shown as functions of the size and location of the cylinder. The results confirm some reciprocal relations exactly. In particular, the translational and rotational velocities of the drifting cylinder in the existing Poiseuille flow are determined. The induced pressure change, when the cylinder drifts in the Poiseuille flow, is also calculated. Some typical streamline patterns, depending on the size and location of the cylinder, are shown and discussed. When the cylinder translates and/or rotates in the channel blocked at infinity, a series of Moffatt eddies appears far from the cylinder in the channel, as expected.
Flow-induced vibrations of two tandem circular cylinders in a parallel-wall channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Ren-Jie; Lin, Jian-Zhong; Ku, Xiao-Ke
2014-10-01
Flow-induced vibrations of one and two tandem circular cylinders in the flow around cylinders in a parallel-wall channel are numerically studied by the lattice Boltzmann method. Within a range of Reynolds number Re = [1, 160], the effects of streamwise separation between two cylinders S/D = [1.25, 3], mass ratio M = [0.05, 5], and blockage ratio β = [1/2, 1/8] on the motions of cylinders and fluids are investigated, respectively. For the case of an isolated cylinder, as the mass ratio is 1, no large-amplitude oscillation is observed, and as the mass ratio is 0.1, the cylinder motion translates from the steady regime to the biased periodic vibration with a large oscillation amplitude gradually as Reynolds number is increased from 1 to 160. For the case of two cylinders in tandem, two steady regimes and a variety of distinct oscillation regimes with the corresponding flow structures are observed. The critical mass ratio of the two tandem cylinders in the strong coupling regime is about an order of magnitude larger than that of an isolated cylinder. For blockage ratio is more than 1/5, the vibration type of the cylinders is exclusive, while for blockage ratio is less than 1/6, the cylinder oscillation state is bistable. The mechanisms of the observed phenomena are also discussed.
Forces on surface-piercing vertical circular cylinder groups on flooding staircase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Li-jie; Shao, Wei-yun; Zhu, David Z.; Sun, Zhi-lin
2014-04-01
Flooding into underground spaces has become a common threat and caused significant damages and casualties in the past decades. To improve the understanding of people walking through the flooding staircase, a 1:2-scale physical model of a staircase with rest platform was assembled. An instrument was developed to measure the hydrodynamic forces acting on individual vertical circular cylinders, as well as cylinder groups arranged side-by-side, in tandem and staggered cylinder arrays on the flooding staircase. The results show that the horizontal hydrodynamic force on a cylinder increases rapidly with the increasing of the inundated depth on the entrance of the staircase. With a side-by-side tight cylinder array, the force on the central cylinder is always larger than an isolated one. The force on the downstream cylinder in tandem cylinder array is always smaller. However, the drag coefficients of both cases are much larger than the corresponding ones in a horizontal bed channel. For the case of staggered cylinder array, the force on the downstream cylinder varies with the change of the transverse spacing and the longitudinal distance between cylinders.
Streamwise forced oscillations of circular and square cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tudball-Smith, Daniel; Leontini, Justin S.; Sheridan, John; Jacono, David Lo
2012-11-01
The modification of a cylinder wake by streamwise oscillation of the cylinder at the vortex shedding frequency of the unperturbed cylinder is reported. Recent numerical simulations [J. S. Leontini, D. Lo Jacono, and M. C. Thompson, "A numerical study of an inline oscillating cylinder in a free stream," J. Fluid Mech. 688, 551-568 (2011), 10.1017/jfm.2011.403] showed that this forcing results in the primary frequency decreasing proportionally to the square of the forcing amplitude, before locking to a subharmonic at higher amplitudes. The experimental results presented here show that this behavior continues at higher Reynolds numbers, although the flow is three-dimensional. In addition, it is shown that this behavior persists when the body is a square cross section, and when the frequency of forcing is detuned from the unperturbed cylinder shedding frequency. The similarity of the results across Reynolds number, geometry, and frequency suggests that the physical mechanism is applicable to periodic forcing of the classic von Kármán vortex street, regardless of the details of the body which forms the street.
Vortex-induced vibration of a circular cylinder of finite length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ming; Cheng, Liang
2014-01-01
Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a rigid circular cylinder of finite length subject to uniform steady flow is investigated numerically. The study is focused on the effect of the free end on the response of the cylinder. The vibration of the cylinder is confined only in the cross-flow direction. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the Petrov-Galerkin finite element method and the equation of the motion is solved for the cylinder displacement. Simulations are conducted for a constant mass ratio of 2, a constant Reynolds number of 300 and cylinder length to diameter ratios of L/D = 1, 2, 5 10, and 20. It is found that the vortex shedding in the wake of a fixed cylinder is suppressed if the cylinder length is less than 2 cylinder diameters. However, if the cylinder is allowed to vibrate, VIV happens at L/D = 1 and 2 and the response amplitudes at these two cylinder lengths are comparable with that of a 2D-cylinder. The vortices that are shed from a short cylinder of L/D = 1 and 2 are found to be generated from the free-end of the cylinder and convected toward the top end of the cylinder by the upwash velocity. They are found to be nearly perpendicular to the cylinder span. The wake flow in a vibrating cylinder with L/D greater than 5 includes the vortex shedding flow at the top part of the cylinder and the end-induced vortex shedding near the free-end of the cylinder. The phase difference between the sectional lift coefficient and the vibration displacement near the free-end of the cylinder changes from 0° to 180° at higher reduced velocity than that near the top end. Strong variation of the flow along the cylinder span occurs at reduced velocities where the lift coefficient near the free-end and that near the top end are in anti-phase with each other.
A wind tunnel investigation of circular and straked cylinders in transonic cross flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macha, J.
1976-01-01
Pressure distributions around circular and circular/strake cylinders were measured in a wind tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.2 with Reynolds number independently variable from 10,000 to 100,000. The local pressures are integrated over the cylinder surface to determine the variation of drag coefficient with both Mach number and Reynolds number. Effects of tunnel blockage are evaluated by comparing results from circular cylinders of various diameters at common Mach and Reynolds number conditions. Compressibility effects are concluded to be responsible for a flight reduction of the drag coefficient near Mach 0.7. Drag increases with strake height, presumably approaching a maximum drag corresponding to a flat plate configuration.
Flow structure, momentum and heat transport in a two-tandem-cylinder wake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Y.; Yiu, M. W.
2006-02-01
Flow structure, momentum and heat transport in the wake of two tandem circular cylinders have been experimentally investigated. Measurements were conducted at x/d = 10, 20 and 30 (d is the cylinder diameter) at a Reynolds number of 7000 using a three-wire (one cross-wire plus a cold wire) probe, in conjunction with a cross-wire. The upstream cylinder was slightly heated. The flow behind two tandem cylinders is conventionally divided into three regimes based on whether the shear layers separated from the upstream cylinder overshoot or reattach on the downstream cylinder before forming a vortex street, or form vortices between the cylinders. The present investigation uncovers two remarkably different flow structures in the reattachment regime, depending on whether the shear layers from the upstream cylinder reattach on the downstream or upstream side of the downstream cylinder. As such, four cylinder centre-to-centre spacing ratios, i.e. L/d = 1.3, 2.5, 4.0 and 6.0, were examined, each representing one distinct flow structure. The phase-averaged sectional streamlines and vorticity contours display a single vortex street, irrespective of different regimes. However, the detailed flow structure, in particular, the vortex strength, and its downstream development depend upon L/d. The cross-stream distributions of the Reynolds stresses and heat fluxes at a given x/d vary from one to another. Such variation is also evident in the coherent contributions to the Reynolds stresses and heat fluxes. The results are connected to different initial conditions for the four flow structures. The momentum and heat transport characteristics are summarized for each flow structure.
Investigation of drag reduction through a flapping mechanism on circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asif, Md. Asafuddoula; Gupta, Avijit Das; Rana, M. D. Juwel; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan
2016-07-01
During flapping wing, a bird develops sufficient lift force as well as counteracts drag and increases its speed through different orientations of feathers on the flapping wings. Differently oriented feathers play a significant role in drag reduction during flying of a bird. With an objective to investigate the effect of installation of such flapping mechanism as a mean of drag reduction in case of flow over circular cylinder, this concept has been implemented through installation of continuous and mini flaps, made of MS sheet metal, where flaps are oriented at different angles as like feathers of flapping wings. The experiments are carried out in a subsonic wind tunnel. After validation and comparison with conventional result of drag analysis of a single cylinder, effects of flapping with Reynolds number variation, implementation of different orientations of mini flaps and variation of different interspacing distance between mini flaps are studied to find the most effective angle of attack of drag reduction on the body of circular cylinder. This research show that, installation of continuous flap reduces value of drag co-efficient, CD up to 66%, where as mini flaps are found more effective by reducing it up to 73%. Mini flaps of L/s=6.25, all angled at 30O, at the 30O angular position on the body of circular cylinder has been found the most effective angle of attack for drag reduction in case of flow over circular cylinder.
Effect of mass ratio on fluid induced motions of a circular cylinder with strips
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinod, Ashwin; Banerjee, Arindam
2014-11-01
The objective of the current experimental work is to investigate the effects of mass ratio on Fluid Induced Motions, such as vortex induced vibration (VIV) and galloping, of elastically mounted circular cylinders attached with strips to their outer surface. Although the effect of mass ratio on VIV of a smooth circular cylinder is well documented in literature, however, their effects on circular cylinders with strips, capable of inciting galloping oscillations haven't been investigated and could have potential applications in the domain of vibration based energy harvesters. In the current work, three different mass ratios were tested, out of which, one falls below the critical mass in vortex induced vibration of a circular cylinder. The strips used for the experiments included sandpaper strips of prescribed roughness and smooth strips with no roughness, both of which served as surface protrusion based mechanisms of altering the flow around the cylinder. Interesting variations were observed in the amplitude, frequency response and the power spectrum, depending on the mass ratio of the oscillating system tested. The authors acknowledge support of the Office of Naval Research (Grant # ONR-000141210495 - Dr. Ron Joslin).
Flow Interference between a Square (Upstream) and a Circular Cylinder: Flow Pattern Identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Nithin S.; R, Ajith Kumar; Mohan, Jayalakshmi
2014-11-01
In this paper, flow interference between an upstream square cylinder and a circular cylinder of equal size is studied in tandem arrangement. The main objective of this invesigation is to identify the possible flow patterns at different spacing ratios, L/B where L is the centre-to-centre distance between the cylinders and B is the characteristic dimension of the bodies. All the experiments are conducted in a water channel and the test Reynolds number is 2100 (based on B). L/B is varied from 1.0 to 5.0. The flow visualization experiments are videographed and then analyzed frame-by-frame to capture the finer details of the flow patterns. Flow over single square and circular cylinders is analyzed first. Then, flow interference between two square cylinders is investigated. Subsequently, flow over a square-circular configuration is investigated. No such systematic studies are reported so far. Different flow patterns are observed for the square-circular configuration. Additionally, the time of persistence of each flow pattern have been recorded over a sufficiently long period of time to see the most dominant flow pattern. The schedule of occurrence of flow patterns have also been studied during this investigation. This study bears considerable practical relevance in the context of possible interference effects occurring in engineering structures such as buildings, bridges etc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Pramode K.; Mathew, Sam; Shaiju, A. J.; Patnaik, B. S. V.
2016-02-01
The control of vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder is a precursor to a wide range of external shear flow problems in engineering, in particular the flow-induced vibrations. In the present study, numerical simulation of an energetically efficient active flow control strategy is proposed, for the control of wake vortices behind a circular cylinder at a low Reynolds number of 100. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and Newtonian with negligible variation in properties. Reflectionally symmetric controllers are designed such that, they are located on a small sector of the cylinder over which, tangential sliding mode control is imparted. In the field of modern controls, proportional (P), integral (I) and differential (D) control strategies and their numerous combinations are extremely popular in industrial practice. To impart suitable control actuation, the vertically varying lift force on the circular cylinder, is synthesised for the construction of an error term. Four different types of controllers considered in the present study are, P, I, PI and PID. These controllers are evaluated for their energetic efficiency and performance. A linear quadratic optimal control problem is formulated, to minimise the cost functional. By performing detailed simulations, it was observed that, the system is energetically efficient, even when the twin eddies are still persisting behind the circular cylinder. To assess the adaptability of the controllers, the actuators were switched on and off to study their dynamic response.
Pressure Distribution at Subsonic Speeds over the Forepart of Two Blunt Circular Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockwood, V. E.
1975-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation was made at subsonic speeds to determine the pressure distribution over the forward part of a circular cylinder. The cylinder was equipped with interchangeable faces, one having a flat face and one having a dome shaped face. The investigation was made over angle of attack range from -1 deg to 26 deg and a Mach number range from 0.30 to 0.89. Pressure coefficients are presented in tabular form and plotted data are presented for some selected angles of attack about the surface of the cylinder.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmo, Bruno S.; Assi, Gustavo R. S.; Meneghini, Julio R.
2013-08-01
In this work, we considered the flow around two circular cylinders of equal diameter placed in tandem with respect to the incident uniform flow. The upstream cylinder was fixed and the downstream cylinder was completely free to move in the cross-stream direction, with no spring or damper attached to it. The centre-to-centre distance between the cylinders was four diameters, and the Reynolds number was varied from 100 to 645. We performed two- and three-dimensional simulations of this flow using a Spectral/hp element method to discretise the flow equations, coupled to a simple Newmark integration routine that solves the equation of the dynamics of the cylinder. The differences of the behaviours observed in the two- and three-dimensional simulations are highlighted and the data is analysed under the light of previously published experimental results obtained for higher Reynolds numbers.
Re-examination of laminar flow over twin circular cylinders in tandem arrangement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Ming-Ming; Lu, Lin; Teng, Bin; Zhao, Ming; Tang, Guo-Qiang
2014-04-01
Viscous fluid flow past two identical circular cylinders in a tandem arrangement is numerically investigated at a typical Reynolds number of 200. By considering a large span of spacing ratio (0.1 ⩽ G/D ⩽ 6.0) with a fine interval of 0.1 or less, the dependences on the spacing ratio of the drag force, lift force, lift fluctuation frequency, torque on the cylinder pair and phase difference between the lift fluctuations of the two cylinders are investigated in detail, where D is the diameter of the cylinder and G the surface-to-surface distance between the cylinders. The phase difference between the lift fluctuations of the two cylinders is addressed based on correlation analysis together with the phase diagram, which has received scarce attention before. The phase difference provides further understanding to the dependence of the wake evolutions behind the twin circular cylinders. The numerical investigations show that diverse regimes can be identified according to the dependence of the hydrodynamics on the spacing ratio. The hydrodynamic discontinuities at G/D = 0.9, which have previously been ignored, are reported in this work. The physical correlations between the hydrodynamic discontinuities and the wake patterns are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosono, Hiroyuki
1995-11-01
Transient response from a cylinder with longitudinal slots is more complicated than that from a perfect cylinder because the electromagnetic waves are reflected from various parts of the slotted cylinder: exterior surfaces, interior surfaces, and edges. We gave the numerical analysis for E-polarized and H-polarized cases by combining the modified point matching method (MPMM) with the fast inversion of Laplace transform method (FILT). Numerical results for the inner field are presented and discussed. The physical meaning of the transient waveform is discussed in detail. Also, the precision of the analysis is checked carefully.
Improvement of finite element meshes - Heat transfer in an infinite cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kittur, Madan G.; Huston, Ronald L.; Oswald, Fred B.
1989-01-01
An extension of a structural finite element mesh improvement technique to heat conduction analysis is presented. The mesh improvement concept was originally presented by Prager in studying tapered, axially loaded bars. It was further shown that an improved mesh can be obtained by minimizing the trace of the stiffnes matrix. These procedures are extended and applied to the analysis of heat conduction in an infinitely long hollow circular cylinder.
Improvement in finite element meshes: Heat transfer in an infinite cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kittur, Madan G.; Huston, Ronald L.; Oswald, Fred B.
1988-01-01
An extension of a structural finite element mesh improvement technique to heat conduction analysis is presented. The mesh improvement concept was originally presented by Prager in studying tapered, axially loaded bars. It was further shown that an improved mesh can be obtained by minimizing the trace of the stiffness matrix. These procedures are extended and applied to the analysis of heat conduction in an infinitely long hollow circular cylinder.
Experimental study of noise emitted by circular cylinders with large roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alomar, Antoni; Angland, David; Zhang, Xin; Molin, Nicolas
2014-12-01
The aerodynamic noise generated by high Reynolds number flow around a bluff body with large surface roughness was investigated. This is a relevant problem in many applications, in particular aircraft landing gear noise. A circular cylinder in cross-flow and a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer with various types of roughness was tested in a series of wind tunnel experiments. It has been shown that distributed roughness covering a circular cylinder affects the spectra over the entire frequency range. Roughness noise is dominant at high frequencies, and the peak frequency is well described by Howe's roughness noise model when scaled with the maximum outer velocity. There are differences between hemispherical and cylindrical roughness elements for both the circular cylinder and the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer cases, indicating a dependence on roughness shape, not described by the considered roughness noise models. Cylindrical roughness generates higher noise levels at the highest frequencies, especially for the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer case. Cable-type roughness aligned with the mean flow does not generate roughness noise, and its spectrum has been found to collapse with the smooth cylinder at medium and high frequencies. At low and medium frequencies the noise spectra have the same features as the smooth cylinder, but with higher shedding peak levels and fall-off levels, despite the decrease in spanwise correlation length. Roughness induces early separation, and thus a shift of the spectra to lower frequencies.
Proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of vortex shedding behind a rotating circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sham Dol, Sharul
2016-03-01
Turbulence studies were made in the wake of a rotating circular cylinder in a uniform free stream with the objective of describing the patterns of the vortex shedding up to suppression of the periodic vortex street at high velocity ratios, λ. The results obtained in the present study establish that shedding of Kármán vortices in a rotating circular cylinder-generated wake is modified by rotation of the cylinder. Alternate vortex shedding is highly visible when λ < 2.0 although the strength of the separated shear layers differ due to the rotation of the cylinder. The spectral density in the wakes indicate significant changes at λ = 2.0. The results indicate that the rotation of the cylinder causes significant disruption in the structure of the flow. Alternate vortex shedding is weak, distorted and close to being suppressed at λ = 2.0. It is clear that flow asymmetries will weaken vortex shedding, and when the asymmetries are significant enough, total suppression of a periodic street occurs. Particular attention was paid to the decomposition of the flow using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). By analyzing this decomposition with the help of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV )data, it was found that large scales contribute to the coherent motion. Vorticity structures in the modes become increasingly irregular with downstream distance, suggesting turbulent interactions are occurring at the more downstream locations, especially when the cylinder rotates.
RANS-VOF solver for solitary wave run-up on a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Hong-jian; Wan, De-cheng
2015-04-01
Simulation of solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder is carried out in a viscous numerical wave tank developed based on the open source codes OpenFOAM. An incompressible two-phase flow solver naoe-FOAM-SJTU is used to solve the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the SST k- ω turbulence model. The PISO algorithm is utilized for the pressure-velocity coupling. The air-water interface is captured via Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique. The present numerical model is validated by simulating the solitary wave run-up and reflected against a vertical wall, and solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder. Comparisons between numerical results and available experimental data show satisfactory agreement. Furthermore, simulations are carried out to study the solitary wave run-up on the cylinder with different incident wave height H and different cylinder radius a. The relationships of the wave run-up height with the incident wave height H, cylinder radius a are analyzed. The evolutions of the scattering free surface and vortex shedding are also presented to give a better understanding of the process of nonlinear wave-cylinder interaction.
The flow around circular cylinders partially coated with porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruck, Bodo; Klausmann, Katharina; Wacker, Tobias
2012-05-01
There are indications that the flow resistance of bodies can be reduced by a porous coating or porous sheath. A few numerical investigations exists in this field, however, experimental evidence is lacking. In order to investigate this phenomenon, the drag resistance of cylinders with porous coating has been investigated qualitatively and quantitatively in wind tunnel experiments. The Reynolds number was systematically varied in the range from 104 to 1.3*105. The results show that the boundary layer over the porous surface is turbulent right from the beginning and thickens faster because of the possible vertical momentum exchange at the interface. The region of flow detachment is widened resulting in a broader area with almost vanishing low flow velocities. All in all, the measurements show that a full porous coating of the cylinders increase the flow resistance. However, the measurements show that a partial coating only on the leeward side can decrease the flow resistance of the body. This effect seems due to the fact that the recirculating velocity and the underpressure in the wake is reduced significantly through a leeward porous coating. Thus, combining a smooth non-permeable windward side with a porous-coated leeward side can lead to a reduction of the body's flow resistance. These findings can be applied advantageously in many technical areas, such as energy saving of moving bodies (cars/trains/planes) or in reducing fluid loads on submersed bodies.
Experimental study on the wake behind tapered circular cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visscher, Jan; Pettersen, Bjørnar; Andersson, Helge I.
2011-11-01
The flow around tapered cylinders can act as basic models for numerous bluff body flows with a spanwise variation of either the body shape or the inflow conditions. The well-known vortex street is influenced by strong three-dimensional effects from the spanwise variation of the shedding frequency, namely oblique vortex shedding and vortex dislocations. Stereo-PIV was chosen to study these phenomena, since it allows analyzing planes with the full three-component, instantaneous velocity fields and local, time-dependent variations in the same setting. Hence, detailed aspects of the vortex dislocation phenomenon are presented. Single vortex dislocation events are presented through the local variation of the three measured velocity components u, v and w. Longer time-series reveal both period and location of these dislocation events, as well as quantity and sizes of the cells of constant shedding velocity in between them. The influence of the Reynolds number and the cylinder aspect ratio on the vortex cells could be shown. The analysis of the vortex shedding behavior shows good agreement with previously published results. At the same time, the applied PIV technique provides more spatial information than point-based measurements and offers insight into a Reynolds number range that is currently out of reach of Direct Numerical Simulations.
Influence of a pulsating flow on the transfer of heat from cylinders and finned tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perwaiz, J.; Base, T. E.
The effect of pulsations in the flow on forced convective heat transfer coefficients around a circular cylinder and a finned tube is studied. Convection measurement experiments were performed to determine the rate of heat transfer (average Nusselt numbers) from a circular cylinder and a finned tube in a pulsating crossflow. The experiments were performed using the unsteady flow inducer wind tunnel, which had facility for generating time-dependent flow. The forced convective heat transfer in steady crossflows was checked for both the circular cylinder and the finned tube to validate the experimental techniques and apparatus. The findings indicate the dependence of heat transfer on the dimensionless frequency of the crossflow. Specifically, at higher mean flows there is considerable discrepancy between the Nusselt number for steady flows and the Nusselt number for unsteady flows with the same mean flow value. The effects on the variation in the heat transfer must be carefully taken into account in the design and analysis of thermal systems exposed to pulsating flows.
Scattering by cavity-backed antennas on a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.
1994-01-01
Conformal arrays are popular antennas for aircraft, spacecraft, and land vehicle platforms due to their inherent low weight and drag properties. However, to date there has been a dearth of rigorous analytical or numerical solutions to aid the designer. In fact, it has been common practice to use limited measurements and planar approximations in designing such non-planar antennas. The finite element-boundary integral method is extended to scattering by cavity-backed structures in an infinite, metallic cylinder. In particular, the formulation specifics such as weight functions, dyadic Green's function, implementation details and particular difficulties inherent to cylindrical structures are discussed. Special care is taken to ensure that the resulting computer program has low memory demand and minimal computational requirements. Scattering results are presented and validated as much as possible.
Enhancing Vortex Induced Vibration of a Circular Cylinder by Using Roughness Strips
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinod, Ashwin; Banerjee, Arindam
2012-11-01
The current experimental work focuses on studying the effects of surface roughness on vortex induced vibration (VIV) of an elastically mounted circular cylinder which is free to vibrate in a direction transverse to the flow. Our objective is to identify configurations which lead to high amplitudes of vibrations and a greater range of synchronization that can be successfully used for energy harvesting. Different configurations such as smooth cylinders, cylinder with zero roughness strips, and prescribed roughness (using sand paper) were used. Experiments were also conducted with the zero roughness strips at different angles around the cylinder to verify the effect of the position of the strip. All results were also found to be dependent on the spring stiffness. Variations were observed in the amplitude and frequency response profiles for the different cases investigated. The authors acknowledge support of the Office of Naval Research (Grant # ONR-N000141210495, Program Manager: Ronald Joslin).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishimatsu, Takuto; Morishita, Etsuo; Okunuki, Takeo; Koyama, Hisao
Flows over two circular cylinders in tandem, side-by-side, and staggered arrangements were analyzed using the overset grid method, which is capable of handling a variety of sizes and arrangements. The Reynolds number was 100 based on the cylinder diameter. The present computation code was validated by comparison with benchmark solutions for flow around a single cylinder. Wind-tunnel experiments were conducted for the side-by-side cylinder flow for comparison with numerical simulations. Calculation showed two critical spacings in the tandem arrangement where the aerodynamic forces and Strouhal number change discontinuously. Three critical spacings and four distinct flow patterns were found numerically in the side-by-side arrangement. Similar critical spacings were found in the staggered arrangement calculation and formed critical lines. Furthermore, a pocket region was found for a staggered arrangement surrounded by the critical line.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stallings, R. L., Jr.; Lamb, M.; Howell, D. T.
1973-01-01
Drag measurements were obtained with circular cylinders attached to a flat-plate surface with their longitudinal axes perpendicular to the plate surface. When more than one cylinder was tested, they were alined in a spanwise row perpendicular to the free-stream velocity vector. The drag measurements were obtained through a range of Mach numbers from 2.3 to 4.6, cylinder heights ranging from approximately 0.4 to 3 times the undisturbed laminar boundary-layer thickness, and cylinder height-to-diameter ratios of 1.0 and approximately 2. Included in the paper is a complete presentation in figure form of the experimental results and a discussion of the more significant findings. An attempt is made to select the most appropriate parameters for correlating the experimental results and, where possible, these results are compared with theoretical calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Lin; Qin, Jian-Min; Teng, Bin; Li, Yu-Cheng
2011-03-01
This article describes a strategy of active flow control for lift force reduction of circular cylinder subjected to uniform flow at low Reynolds numbers. The flow control is realized by rotationally oscillating the circular cylinder about its axis with ω(t )=-λCL(t), where ω(t ) is the dimensionless angular speed of rotation cylinder, λ is the control parameter and CL(t) is the feedback signal of lift coefficient. The study focuses on seeking optimum λ for the low Reynolds numbers of 60, 80, 100, 150, and 200. The effectiveness of the proposed flow control in suppressing lift force is examined comprehensively by a numerical model based on the finite element solution of two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The dependence of lift reduction on the control parameter λ is investigated. The threshold of λ, denoted by λc, is identified for the Reynolds numbers considered in this work. The numerical results show that the present active rotary oscillation of circular cylinder is able to reduce the amplitude of lift force significantly as long as λ ≤λc, at least 50% for the laminar flow regime. Meanwhile, the present active flow control does not result in the undesirable increase in the drag force. The Strouhal number is observed to decrease slightly with the increase of λ. As for a specific Reynolds number, the larger λ gives rise to the larger amount of lift reduction. The lift reduction reaches the maximum at λ =λc. The mechanism behind the present lift reduction method is revealed by comparing the flow patterns and pressure distributions near the active rotationally oscillating circular cylinder and the stationary circular cylinder. It is found that the critical value λc generally increases with Reynolds number. Two types of lift shift are observed in the numerical results for the cases with λ >λc. The first is characterized by the regular fluctuation of lift coefficient but with nonzero mean value, while the second is associated with the
Wake Modes and Heat Transfer from Rotationally Oscillating Cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellappan, Prabu; Pottebaum, Tait
2012-11-01
Wake formation is an important problem in engineering due to its effect on phenomena such as vortex induced vibrations and heat transfer. While prior work has focused on the wake formation due to vortex shedding from stationary and oscillating cylinders, limited information is available on the relationship between wake modes and heat transfer from rotationally oscillating cylinders. Experiments were carried out at Re=150 and 750, using an electrically heated cylinder, in a water tunnel for oscillation frequencies from 0.67 to 3.5 times the natural shedding frequency and peak-to-peak oscillation amplitudes up to 320. DPIV was used to identify and map wake modes to various regions of the parameter space. Temperature data from a thermocouple embedded in the cylinder was used to calculate heat transfer rates. Correlation between heat transfer enhancement and certain wake mode regions were observed in the parameter space. The relationship between wake formation and heat transfer enhancement will be described.
Flow-induced vibration of a circular cylinder subjected to wake interference at low Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmo, B. S.; Sherwin, S. J.; Bearman, P. W.; Willden, R. H. J.
2011-05-01
Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flow around two circular cylinders in tandem arrangements are performed. The upstream cylinder is fixed and the downstream cylinder is free to oscillate in the transverse direction, in response to the fluid loads. The Reynolds number is kept constant at 150 for the two-dimensional simulations and at 300 for the three-dimensional simulations, and the reduced velocity is varied by changing the structural stiffness. The in-line centre-to-centre distance is varied from 1.5 to 8.0 diameters, and the results are compared to that of a single isolated flexible cylinder with the same structural characteristics, m*=2.0 and ζ=0.007. The calculations show that significant changes occur in the dynamic behaviour of the cylinders, when comparing the flow around the tandem arrangements to that around an isolated cylinder: for the tandem arrangements, the lock-in boundaries are wider, the maximum displacement amplitudes are greater and the amplitudes of vibration for high reduced velocities, outside the lock-in, are very significant. The main responsible for these changes appears to be the oscillatory flow in the gap between the cylinders.
Experimental investigation of flow-induced vibration interference between two circular cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assi, G. R. S.; Meneghini, J. R.; Aranha, J. A. P.; Bearman, P. W.; Casaprima, E.
2006-08-01
This paper presents experimental results concerning flow-induced oscillations of circular cylinders arranged in tandem. New measurements on the dynamic response oscillations of an isolated cylinder and flow interference of two cylinders are shown. Preliminary flow visualization employing a PIV system is also shown. The models are mounted on an elastic base fitted with flexor blades and instrumented with strain gauges. The base is fixed on the test-section of a water channel facility. The flexor blades possess a low-damping characteristic (ζ≃0.008 0.0109) and they are free to oscillate only in the cross-flow direction. The Reynolds number of the experiments is from 3000 to 13000, and reduced velocities, based on natural frequency in still water, vary up to 12. The interference phenomenon on VIV is investigated by conducting experiments in which the upstream cylinder is maintained fixed and the downstream one is mounted on the elastic base. The results for an isolated cylinder are in accordance with other measurements found in the literature for m≃2 and 8. For the tandem arrangement and m≃2, the trailing cylinder oscillation presents what previous researchers have termed interference galloping behaviour for a centre-to-centre gap spacing ranging from 2D to 5.6D. These initial results validate the experimental set-up and lead the way for future work, including tandem, staggered and side-by-side arrangements with the two cylinders free to move.
An Experiment in Heat Conduction Using Hollow Cylinders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ortuno, M.; Marquez, A.; Gallego, S.; Neipp, C.; Belendez, A.
2011-01-01
An experimental apparatus was designed and built to allow students to carry out heat conduction experiments in hollow cylinders made of different materials, as well as to determine the thermal conductivity of these materials. The evolution of the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of the cylinder as a function of time is…
Simulation of Planar Shear Flow Passing Two Equal-Sized Circular Cylinders in Tandem Arrangement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fallah, Keivan; Fardad, Abas Ali; Fattahi, Ehsan; Zadeh, Nima Sedaghati
2011-12-01
Two dimensional laminar shear flow pass two equal-sized circular cylinders in tandem arrangement are investigated numerically. Lattice Boltzman method via single-relaxation-time (SRT) collision model is applied to simulate the flow field. Simulations are performed for Reynolds number (Re = 200) while the nondimensional shear rate (K) and gap spacing range as 0≤K≤0.2 and 0.5≤g*≤6. Results show that all these parameters have significant effects on flow pattern. Quantitative information about the flow variables such as drag and lift coefficients and vorticity distributions on the cylinders is highlighted.
Hysteretic mode exchange in the wake of two circular cylinders in tandem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tasaka, Yuji; Kon, Seiji; Schouveiler, Lionel; Le Gal, Patrice
2006-08-01
Our experimental study is devoted to the analysis of the flow past two tandem circular cylinders near the vortex shedding threshold. A recent bidimensional numerical analysis of this flow [Mizushima and Suehiro, Phys. Fluids 17, 104107 (2005)] has predicted that the bifurcation diagram should become complex in the vicinity of the instability threshold. Subcritical and saddle node bifurcations that lead to hysteretic exchanges between two different modes of vortex shedding were detected for particular distances of separation of the cylinders. We present here visualizations and velocity measurements of this flow in a water channel that prove the robustness of the complexity of the bifurcation diagram in real flows.
a Numerical Simulation of Vortex Shedding from AN Oscillating Circular Cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guilmineau, E.; Queutey, P.
2002-08-01
Vortex shedding from an oscillating circular cylinder is studied by numerical solutions of the two-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. A physically consistent method is used for the reconstruction of velocity fluxes which arise from discrete equations for the mass and momentum balances. This method ensures a second-order accuracy. Two phenomena are investigated and, in both cases, the cylinder oscillation is forced. The first is the flow induced by the harmonic in-line oscillation of cylinder in water at rest. The Reynolds number is equal to 100 and the Keulegan-Carpenter number is equal to 5. A comparison of phase-averaged velocity vectors between measurements and predictions is presented. Applying the widely used model of Morison to the computed in-line force history, the drag and the inertia coefficients are calculated and compared for different grid levels. Using these to reproduce the force functions, deviations from those originally computed are revealed. The second problem is an investigation of a transversely oscillating cylinder in a uniform flow at fixed Reynolds number equal to 185. The cylinder oscillation frequency ranges between 0.80 and 1.20 of the natural vortex-shedding frequency, and the oscillation amplitude is 20% of the cylinder diameter. As the frequency of excitation of the cylinder increases relative to the inherent vortex formation frequency, the initially formed concentration of vorticity moves closer to the cylinder until a limiting position is reached. At this point, the vorticity concentration abruptly switches to the opposite side of the cylinder. This process induces distinct changes of the topology of the corresponding streamline patterns.
Measurement of convective heat transfer to solid cylinders inside ventilated shrouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daryabeigi, K.; Germain, E. F.; Ash, R. L.
1984-01-01
The influence of ventilated cylindrical shrouds on the convective heat transfer to circular cylinders has been studied experimentally. Geometries studied were similar to those used in commercially available platinum resistance thermometers. Experiments showed that thermal response (convection) was enhanced when the shroud ventilation factor was approximately 20 percent (80 percent solid), and that maximum enhancement occurred when the ventilation holes were located symmetrically on either side of the stagnation lines.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krzywoblocki, M. Z. V.
1974-01-01
The application of the elements of quantum (wave) mechanics to some special problems in the field of macroscopic fluid dynamics is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the flow of a viscous, incompressible fluid around a circular cylinder. The following subjects are considered: (1) the flow of a nonviscous fluid around a circular cylinder, (2) the restrictions imposed the stream function by the number of dimensions of space, and (3) the flow past three dimensional bodies in a viscous fluid, particularly past a circular cylinder in the symmetrical case.
Numerical study of turbulent flow separation over a wall mounted circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Taejong; You, Donghyun
2015-11-01
Flow over a wall-mounted circular cylinder with a finite span and a free end is numerically studied at a range of Reynolds numbers. Separated flow behind a wall-mounted cylinder is characterized by dominant vortical structures developed around and behind the cylinder: i.e., Karman vortices and tip-shedding vortices. The formation and interaction among the vortices are found to be distinct depending on the aspect ratio of the span length to the diameter of the cylinder as well as the Reynolds number. It is also found that drag and lift forces on the cylinder show different dominance of Karman vortices and tip vortices for different span-to-diameter ratios. A detailed analysis of the mean and fluctuating velocity, pressure fields, and spectral characteristics of separated flow is presented for laminar-to-transitional flows over cylinders with different aspect ratios. Supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning Grant NRF-2014R1A2A1A11049599.
Diffusion model for Knudsen-type compressor composed of periodic arrays of circular cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taguchi, Satoshi
2010-10-01
A rarefied gas flow in a long porous channel having a periodic structure that is consisting of alternately arranged porous media and gaps, the former of which contains a periodic array of parallel circular cylinders, is considered for the case in which the channel is infinitely wide. The cylinder arrays have a periodic temperature distribution with the same period as the structure. Under the assumption that the length of each cylinder array and that of each gap are much larger than the period of the cylinders in the array, a fluid-dynamic system describing the overall behavior of the gas in the channel is derived from the kinetic system composed of the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation and the diffuse reflection boundary condition. The derived system is composed of a diffusion model for each cylinder array, whose isothermal version has been reported previously [S. Taguchi and P. Charrier, Phys. Fluids 20, 067103 (2008)], a set of fluid-dynamic equations for each gap, and the macroscopic connection conditions at each junction between an array and a gap. Then, the fluid-dynamic system is applied to a long channel consisting of many cylinder arrays and gaps. Some numerical results demonstrating the pumping effect of the flow are presented.
Yagyu, Sumio; Fujishima, Ichiro; Corey, J.; Isshiki, Naotsugu
1996-12-31
This paper describes a method for analysis and optimization of multi-cylinder regenerative machines. The authors have devised this method in a project at KUBOTA to develop an improved gas engine-driven heat pump using both shaft power and exhaust heat sources. Based on combinations of included Stirling cycles, this analytical approach allows use of well-established and validated Stirling simulation models to optimize partial systems. The technique further provides a method of integrating such optimal partial-system Stirling cycles into a complex combination system. It is shown that this remains an optimum solution for the three-cylinder heat-assisted heat pump case. Results from hardware tests of the main Stirling heat pump cycle (2-cylinders) are given and compared with analytical expectations using Sage simulation code. This is extended to validate Sage modeling of 3-cylinder machines.
Heat-transfer processes in air-cooled engine cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinkel, Benjamin
1938-01-01
From a consideration of heat-transfer theory, semi-empirical expressions are set up for the transfer of heat from the combustion gases to the cylinder of an air-cooled engine and from the cylinder to the cooling air. Simple equations for the average head and barrel temperatures as functions of the important engine and cooling variables are obtained from these expressions. The expressions involve a few empirical constants, which may be readily determined from engine tests. Numerical values for these constants were obtained from single-cylinder engine tests for cylinders of the Pratt & Whitney 1535 and 1340-h engines. The equations provide a means of calculating the effect of the various engine and cooling variables on the cylinder temperatures and also of correlating the results of engine cooling tests. An example is given of the application of the equations to the correlation of cooling-test data obtained in flight.
Heat storage capability of a rolling cylinder using Glauber's salt
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrick, C. S.; Zarnoch, K. P.
1980-01-01
The rolling cylinder phase change heat storage concept was developed to the point where a prototype design is completed and a cost analysis is prepared. A series of experimental and analytical tasks are defined to establish the thermal, mechanical, and materials behavior of rolling cylinder devices. These tasks include: analyses of internal and external heat transfer; performance and lifetime testing of the phase change materials; corrosion evaluation; development of a mathematical model; and design of a prototype and associated test equipment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korkischko, I.; Meneghini, J. R.
2010-05-01
The effect of varying the geometric parameters of helical strakes on vortex-induced vibration (VIV) is investigated in this paper. The degree of oscillation attenuation or even suppression is analysed for isolated circular cylinder cases. How a cylinder fitted with strakes behaves when immersed in the wake of another cylinder in tandem arrangement is also investigated and these results are compared to those with a single straked cylinder. The experimental tests are conducted at a circulating water channel facility and the cylindrical models are mounted on a low-damping air bearing elastic base with one degree-of-freedom, restricted to oscillate in the transverse direction to the channel flow. Three strake pitches (p) and heights (h) are tested: p=5, 10, 15d, and h=0.1, 0.2, 0.25d. The mass ratio is 1.8 for all models. The Reynolds number range is from 1000 to 10 000, and the reduced velocity varies up to 21. The cases with h=0.1d strakes reduce the amplitude response when compared to the isolated plain cylinder, however the oscillation still persists. On the other hand, the cases with h=0.2, 0.25d strakes almost completely suppress VIV. Spanwise vorticity fields, obtained through stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry (SDPIV), show an alternating vortex wake for the p=10d and h=0.1d straked cylinder. The p=10d and h=0.2d cylinder wake has separated shear layers with constant width and no roll-up close to the body. The strakes do not increase the magnitude of the out-of-plane velocity compared to the isolated plain cylinder. However, they deflect the flow in the out-of-plane direction in a controlled way, which can prevent the vortex shedding correlation along the span. In order to investigate the wake interference effect on the strake efficiency, an experimental arrangement with two cylinders in tandem is employed. The centre-to-centre distance for the tandem arrangement varies from 2 to 6. When the downstream p=10d and h=0.2d cylinder is immersed in the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, C. C. H.
1981-01-01
In response to the inconsistency seen in Geogevic (1973) with respect to the solution for solar radiation pressure in the case of a circular cylinder, a succinct derivation of the correct solution is presented. Numerical comparisons of the two sets of results confirm that the new formulation yields physically reasonable results for both general and special cases. A detailed graphic representation of the mathematical model used is included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccomb, Harvey G , Jr
1954-01-01
Equations are derived for the stress distributions caused by three types of loading on infinitely long circular, semimonocoque cylinders with flexible rings. The results are given as formula for the stringer loads and shear flows in the shell due to each type of loading. For each loading case these formulas can be used to construct tables of influence coefficients giving stringer loads and shear flows in the neighborhood of the load due to a unit magnitude of the load. (author)
Wave multiple scattering by a finite number of unclosed circular cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veliyev, E. I.; Veremey, V. V.
1984-01-01
The boundary value problem of plane H-polarized electromagnetic wave multiple scattering by a finite number of unclosed circular cylinders is solved. The solution is obtained by two different methods: the method of successive scattering and the method of partial matrix inversion for simultaneous dual equations. The advantages of the successive scattering method are shown. Computer calculations of the suface currents and the total cross section are presented for the structure of two screens.
Bending Tests of Circular Cylinders of Corrugated Aluminum-alloy Sheet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buckwalter, John C; Reed, Warren D; Niles, Alfred S
1937-01-01
Bending tests were made of two circular cylinders of corrugated aluminum-alloy sheet. In each test failure occurred by bending of the corrugations in a plane normal to the skin. It was found, after analysis of the effect of short end bays, that the computed stress on the extreme fiber of a corrugated cylinder is in excess of that for a flat panel of the same basic pattern and panel length tested as a pin-ended column. It is concluded that this increased strength was due to the effects of curvature of the pitch line. It is also concluded from the tests that light bulkheads closely spaced strengthen corrugated cylinders very materially.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.
2014-01-01
Nonlinear and bifurcation buckling equations for elastic, stiffened, geometrically perfect, right-circular cylindrical, anisotropic shells subjected to combined loads are presented that are based on Sanders' shell theory. Based on these equations, a three-parameter approximate Rayleigh-Ritz solution and a classical solution to the buckling problem are presented for cylinders with simply supported edges. Extensive comparisons of results obtained from these solutions with published results are also presented for a wide range of cylinder constructions. These comparisons include laminated-composite cylinders with a wide variety of shell-wall orthotropies and anisotropies. Numerous results are also given that show the discrepancies between the results obtained by using Donnell's equations and variants of Sanders' equations. For some cases, nondimensional parameters are identified and "master" curves are presented that facilitate the concise representation of results.
Oscillating flow about circular cylinders at low keulegan-carpenter numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuen, N. Q. S.
1985-09-01
The in-line force and the resulting drag and inertia coefficients for smooth and rough circular cylinders immersed in a sinusoidally oscillating flow at low Keulegan-Carpenter numbers (K) have been determine experimentally and compared with those obtained theoretically by Stokes and Wang. In addition, flow visualization experiments were carried out with oscillating cylinders in a water table and the stability of the flow was investigated. The results have shown that for very low values of K, the flow about the cylinder is laminar, attached, and stable and the drag coefficient is nearly identical to that predicted theoretically. At a critical K, the flow becomes unstable to Taylor-Gortler vortices and the drag coefficient jumps to a higher value. Subsequently, the flow separates, becomes turbulent and results in a minimum drag coefficient. The subsequent increases in drag are attributed to vortex shedding. The inertia coefficient agrees with that obtained theoretically in the range where the flow is laminar.
Streamwise Oscillations of Freely Vibrating Circular Cylinder in the Vicinity of a Stationary Wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaiman, Rajeev; Tham, Daniel; Zhong, Li; Gurugubelli, Pardha
2015-11-01
We present a numerical study on vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a freely vibrating two degree-of-freedom circular cylinder in close proximity to a stationary plane wall. Fully implicit combined field scheme based on Petrov-Galerkin formulation has been employed to analyze the nonlinear effects of wall proximity on the vibrational amplitudes and hydrodynamic forces. Two-dimensional simulations are performed as function of decreasing gap to cylinder diameter ratio e / D ∈ [ 0 . 5 , 10 ] for reduced velocities U* ∈ [ 2 , 10 ] at ReD = 100 and ReL = 2900 , where ReD and ReL denote the Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter and the upstream distance, respectively. We investigate the origin of enhanced streamwise oscillation of freely vibrating near-wall cylinder as compared to the isolated cylinder counterpart. For that purpose, detailed analysis of the amplitudes, frequency characteristics and the phase relations has been performed for the isolated and near-wall configurations. Initial and lower branches in the amplitude response are found from the gap ratios of 0.75 to 10, similar in nature to the isolated cylinder laminar VIV. For near-wall cases, phase relation between drag force and streamwise displacement varies from close to 0° to 180°. Effects of mass-ratio, thickness of wall boundary layer and cylinder depth from the top surface are further investigated. Finally, we introduce new correlations for characterizing peak amplitudes and forces as a function of the gap ratio for a cylinder vibrating in the vicinity of a stationary plane wall.
Power loss minimizing blowing and suction profiles for drag reduction on a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giri, Pritam; Shukla, Ratnesh
2015-11-01
Active and passive flow control strategies that facilitate drag reduction at low energetic costs are of considerable fundamental and practical relevance. Here, we investigate the efficacy of a zero net mass transpiration blowing and suction flow control strategy based on intake and expulsion of fluid from the boundary of a circular cylinder placed in a uniform cross flow of a viscous incompressible fluid. We find this control strategy to be most effective when the blowing and suction profile is such that the fluid intake and expulsion occur over upstream and downstream portions of the circular cylinder, respectively. With increasingly strong intake and expulsion, the vorticity production at the cylinder surface diminishes significantly and the unsteady vortex shedding is suppressed entirely. We find that for sufficiently strong blowing and suction strengths the net power consumption attains a minimum for a significantly reduced net drag force. At a Reynolds number of 1000 the drag is reduced by a factor of over 15 from its base value for a stationary cylinder with zero mass transpiration. We show that a self-propelling state with zero drag force is achieved for a configuration that corresponds to an irrotational flow with vanishing tangential but finite normal surface velocity.
Separation of sheet flow on the surface of a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isshiki, Hiroshi; Yoon, Bum-Sang; Yum, Deuk-Joon
2009-08-01
The shape of a spout of a pot is very important for the liquid to flow smoothly from the pot. This is known as the "teapot effect." Separation of flow must take place at the tip of the spout. Separation of sheet flow on the surface of a circular cylinder may provide an explanation as to why pot spouts have such a unique shape. As can be easily observed by a simple experiment, separation of sheet flow from the surface of a circular cylinder is a very interesting phenomenon beyond intuition. In the nonviscous case, the flow released at the top of the surface may proceed completely around the surface and come back to the flow start point without separation. In the present paper, effects of gravity and viscosity on sheet flow are theoretically explained and the theory is verified by experiments. The results of the theoretical model proposed in the present study were very similar to the experimental measurements. In the present study, the effects of viscosity on sheet flow on a circular cylinder, the location of flow separation, and other associated responses were investigated.
UF{sub 6} pressure excursions during cylinder heating
Brown, P.G.
1991-12-31
As liquid UF{sub 6} inside a cylinder changes from a liquid to a solid, it forms a porous solid which occupies approximately the same volume as that of the liquid before cooling. Simultaneously as the liquid cools, UF{sub 6} vapor in the cylinder ullage above the liquid desublimes on the upper region of the inner cylinder wall. This solid is a dense, glass-like material which can accumulate to a significant thickness. The thickness of the solid coating on the upper cylinder wall and directly behind the cylinder valve area will vary depending on the conditions during the cooling stage. The amount of time lapsed between UF{sub 6} solidification and UF{sub 6} liquefaction can also affect the UF{sub 6} coating. This is due to the daily ambient heat cycle causing the coating to sublime from the cylinder wall to cooler areas, thus decreasing the thickness. Structural weakening of the dense UF{sub 6} layer also occurs due to cylinder transport vibration and thermal expansion. During cylinder heating, the UF{sub 6} nearest the cylinder wall will liquefy first. As the solid coating behind the cylinder valve begins to liquefy, it results in increased pressure depending upon the available volume for expansion. At the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) during the liquefaction of the UF{sub 6} in cylinders in the UF{sub 6} feed and sampling autoclaves, this pressure increase has resulted in the activation of the systems rupture discs which are rated at 100 pounds per square inch differential.
Shock interference studies on a circular cylinder at Mach 16
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prabhu, Ramadas K.; Thareja, Rajiv R.; Stewart, James R.
1990-01-01
This paper presents the results of a computational study on the shock interference problems on a cylindrical body typical of an engine inlet cowl leading edge at a nominal Mach number of 16. The two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved assuming the flow to be in chemical and thermal equilibrium and using a finite element method. The algorithm employs a cell-centered fully implicit upwind scheme. Adaptively generated unstructured meshes of triangles and quadrilaterals are employed. Under certain conditions the finite element code resulted in oscillatory solutions for shock interference at Mach 16. Some of the causes of the unsteady behavior are identified, and to the extent possible, such situations are avoided in the present application. Two shock interference conditions involving a Type IV (supersonic jet) and a Type III (attaching shear layer) are solved. The results are compared with available experimental data and reasonable agreement is observed. A semi-empirical method is also used to estimate the maximum surface heat flux and static pressure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoi, Yoshifumi
2016-06-01
In order to investigate the generating mechanism of the Karman vortex, the flow visualization experiment of the around of a circular cylinder with splitter plate was performed. Six kinds of circular cylinders with splitter plate were prepared. The main flow velocity was set as 0.04 m.s-1 (corresponding Reynolds number is 560), the oscillating amplitude ratio and the oscillation frequency ratio were varied about each circular cylinder with splitter plate, and the visualization experiment was performed. The dye oozing streak method was used as the technique of visualization. As a result, ten kinds of typical flow patterns of the oscillating circular cylinder with splitter plate were obtained. It was a simultaneous vortex shedding type lock-in in most cases of carrying out a lock-in. In order to discharge vortices alternately, it was found that the information on the mutual vortex flow of a wake is required.
Vortex-induced vibrations of a neutrally buoyant circular cylinder near a plane wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, X. K.; Hao, Z.; Tan, S. K.
2013-05-01
This paper presents an experimental study of the motions, drag force and vortex shedding patterns of an elastically mounted circular cylinder, which is held at various heights above a plane wall and is subject to vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in the transverse direction. The cylinder is neutrally buoyant with a mass ratio m=1.0 and has a low damping ratio ζ=0.0173. Effects of the gap ratio (S/D) ranged from 0.05 to 2.5 and the free-stream velocity (U) ranged from 0.15 to 0.65m/s (corresponding to 3000≤Re≤13 000, and 1.53≤U≤6.62) are examined. The flow around the cylinder has been measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV), in conjunction with direct measurements of the dynamic drag force on the cylinder using a piezoelectric load cell. Results of the vibrating cylinder under unbounded (or free-standing) condition, as well as those of a near-wall stationary cylinder at the same gap ratios, are also provided. For the free-standing cylinder, the transition from the initial branch to the upper branch is characterized by a switch of vortex pattern from the classical 2S mode to the newly-discovered 2PO mode by Morse and Williamson (2009). The nearby wall not only affects the amplitude and frequency of vibration, but also leads to non-linearities in the cylinder response as evidenced by the presence of super-harmonics in the drag force spectrum. In contrast to the case of a stationary cylinder that vortex shedding is suppressed below a critical gap ratio (S/D≈0.3), the elastically mounted cylinder always vibrates even at the smallest gap ratio S/D=0.05. Due to the proximity of the plane wall, the vortices shed from the vibrating cylinder that would otherwise be in a double-sided vortex street pattern (either 2S or 2PO mode) under free-standing condition are arranged into a single-sided pattern.
Secondary instability in the wake of the flow around two circular cylinders in tandem arrangements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmo, Bruno; Meneghini, Julio; Sherwin, Spencer
2008-11-01
The stability of three-dimensional perturbations about two-dimensional time-periodic vortex wakes of the flow around two identical circular cylinders in tandem arrangements is investigated. The centre-to-centre separation is varied from 1.5 to 5 cylinder diameters. Direct linear stability analysis is employed to determine the shape, wavelength and onset of unstable three-dimensional perturbations. In addition the non-linear character of the bifurcations is identified through three-dimensional direct numerical simulations performed in the vicinity of the critical points. It is found that, for configurations with large cylinder separations, the first stages of the wake transition are similar to those observed in the flow around an isolated cylinder, although the onset of the secondary instability occurs at a lower Reynolds number. In contrast, for small separations the transition route is significantly different, resembling that of the flow in a periodically driven cavity. For these configurations the onset of the first instability arises at a higher Reynolds number than in the case of an isolated cylinder.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higuchi, Hiroshi; Sawada, Hideo; Kato, Hiroyuki
The flow over cylinders of varying fineness ratio (length to diameter) aligned with the free stream was examined using a magnetic suspension and balance system in order to avoid model support interference. The drag coefficient variation of a right circular cylinder was obtained for a wide range of fineness ratios. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to examine the flow field, particularly the behaviour of the leading-edge separation shear layer and its effect on the wake. Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter ranged from 5105, while the major portion of the experiment was conducted at ReD=1.0×105. For moderately large fineness ratio, the shear layer reattaches with subsequent growth of the boundary layer, whereas over shorter cylinders, the shear layer remains detached. Differences in the wake recirculation region and the immediate wake patterns are clarified in terms of both the mean velocity and turbulent flow fields, including longitudinal vortical structures in the cross-flow plane of the wake. The minimum drag corresponded to the fineness ratio for which the separated shear layer reattached at the trailing edge of the cylinder. The base pressure was obtained with a telemetry technique. Pressure fields and aerodynamic force fluctuations are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rais-Rohani, Masoud
2001-01-01
This report describes the preliminary results of an investigation on component reliability analysis and reliability-based design optimization of thin-walled circular composite cylinders with average diameter and average length of 15 inches. Structural reliability is based on axial buckling strength of the cylinder. Both Monte Carlo simulation and First Order Reliability Method are considered for reliability analysis with the latter incorporated into the reliability-based structural optimization problem. To improve the efficiency of reliability sensitivity analysis and design optimization solution, the buckling strength of the cylinder is estimated using a second-order response surface model. The sensitivity of the reliability index with respect to the mean and standard deviation of each random variable is calculated and compared. The reliability index is found to be extremely sensitive to the applied load and elastic modulus of the material in the fiber direction. The cylinder diameter was found to have the third highest impact on the reliability index. Also the uncertainty in the applied load, captured by examining different values for its coefficient of variation, is found to have a large influence on cylinder reliability. The optimization problem for minimum weight is solved subject to a design constraint on element reliability index. The methodology, solution procedure and optimization results are included in this report.
Effects of an upstream tetrahedron on the circular cylinder-flat plate juncture flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, R. F.; Hsu, C. M.; Chen, C.
2015-07-01
A technique of installing a tetrahedron at the upstream corner of the circular cylinder-flat plate juncture is developed to control the characteristic horseshoe vortices appearing in the natural juncture flow. The Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter are within the range of 500-2900. The flow patterns and time-averaged velocity fields in the vertical symmetry plane and a horizontal plane near the flat plate of the natural and tetrahedron-controlled juncture flows are examined by using the laser-assisted particle flow visualization method and particle image velocimetry in a towing water tank. The flow approaching the circular cylinder-flat plate juncture can induce a characteristic horseshoe vortical flow consisting of a single vortex, dual vortex, or triple vortex. These horseshoe vortices appearing in the natural case may be changed to a characteristic mode of vortical flow, reverse flow, or forward flow when a tetrahedron is installed at the upstream corner of the juncture. The appearance of the vortical flow, reverse flow, or forward flow mode depends on the geometric parameters of normalized axial length, expansion angle, and tilt angle as well as the flow parameter of the Reynolds number. The vortical flow mode appears at small axial length of tetrahedron. The forward flow mode appears at the large axial length of tetrahedron. When the forward flow mode appears, the boundary-layer upstream of the circular cylinder does not separate. Therefore, the horseshoe vortices induced in the natural juncture flow disappear. The data bank consists of the design parameters of axial length, tilt angle, and expansion angle of the tetrahedron, which is provided as a figure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, K. M.; Liu, P.; Hu, J. C.
2010-07-01
This paper attempts to study the roles of lateral cylinder oscillations and a uniform cross-flow in the vortex formation and wake modes of an oscillating circular cylinder. A circular cylinder is given lateral oscillations of varying amplitudes (between 0.28 and 1.42 cylinder-diameters) in a slow uniform flow stream (Reynolds number=284) to produce the 2S, 2P and P+S wake modes. Detailed flow information is obtained with time-resolved particle-image velocimetry and the phase-locked averaging techniques. In the 2S and 2P mode, the flow speeds relative to the cylinder movement are less than the uniform flow velocity and it is found that initial formation of a vortex is caused by shear-layer separation of the uniform flow on the cylinder. Subsequent development of the shear-layer vortices is affected by the lateral cylinder movement. At small cylinder oscillation amplitudes, vortices are shed in synchronization with the cylinder movement, resulting in the 2S mode. The 2P mode occurs at larger cylinder oscillation amplitudes at which each shear-layer vortex is found to undergo intense stretching and eventual bifurcation into two separate vortices. The P+S mode occurs when the cylinder moving speeds are, for most of the time, higher than the speed of the uniform flow. These situations are found at fast and large-amplitude cylinder oscillations in which the flow relative to the cylinder movement takes over the uniform flow in governing the initial vortex formation. The formation stages of vortices from the cylinder are found to bear close resemblance to those of a vortex street pattern of a cylinder oscillating in an otherwise quiescent fluid at Keulegan-Carpenter numbers around 16. Vortices in the inclined vortex street pattern so formed are then convected downstream by the uniform flow as the vortex pairs in the 2P mode.
Li, Qiuxiang; Chai, Zhenhua; Shi, Baochang; Liang, Hong
2014-10-01
In this paper, we present a numerical study on the deformation and breakup behavior of liquid droplet past a solid circular cylinder by using an improved interparticle-potential lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of the eccentric ratio β, viscosity ratio λ between the droplet and the surrounding fluid, surface wettability, and Bond number (Bo) on the dynamic behavior of the liquid droplet are considered. The parameter β represents the degree that the solid cylinder deviates from the center line, and Bo is the ratio between the inertial force and capillary force. Numerical results show that there are two typical patterns, i.e., breakup and no breakup, which are greatly influenced by the aforementioned parameters. When β increases to a critical value βc, the droplet can pass the circular cylinder without a breakup, otherwise, the breakup phenomenon occurs. The critical eccentric ratio βc increases significantly with increasing Bo for case with λ>1, while for the case with λ<1, the viscosity effects on the βc is not obvious when Bo is large. For the breakup case, the amount of deposited liquid on the tip of the circular cylinder is almost unaffected by β. In addition, the results also show that the viscosity ratio and wettability affect the deformation and breakup process of the droplet. For case with λ<1, the viscosity ratio plays a minor role in the thickness variations of the deposited liquid, which decreases to a nonzero constant eventually; while for λ>1, the increase of the viscosity ratio significantly accelerates the decrease of the deposited liquid, and finally no fluid deposits on the cylinder. In term of the wettability, there occurs continuous gas phase trapped by the wetting droplet, but this does not happen for nonwetting droplet. Besides, for λ<1, the time required to pass the cylinder (tp) decreases monotonically with decreasing contact angle, while a nonmonotonic decrease appears for λ>1. It is also found that tp decreases
Control of flow around a circular cylinder by bleed near the separation points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Xu-Dong; Feng, Li-Hao
2015-12-01
The flow around a circular cylinder under bleed control is experimentally investigated in a water tunnel. The bleed jets are issued from the narrow slots directed from the front stagnation point to the positions near the upper and lower separation points. The Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter are Re = 400, 780, and 1470, while the widths of the bleed slot are selected as w/D = 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2. The bleed jet interacts with the boundary layer, postponing the separation point to be near the downstream edge of the slot. It further modifies the wake shear layer, which moves away from the centerline. Thus, the recirculation bubble downstream of the circular cylinder is enlarged and the near wake width are increased, resulting in an increased vortex formation length and a decreased vortex shedding frequency. Such changes of the flow field increase with the bleed width. The vortex dynamics is also analyzed, showing that the wake pattern could be modified by the bleed control. The wake vortex is converted into a bistable mode at w/D = 0.1 and 0.2, Re = 780 and 1470, where the symmetric and asymmetric modes are both observed, while all the control cases at Re = 400 still show the asymmetric mode.
Energetically efficient Proportional-Integral control of flow past a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kesavadas, Pramode; Anand, Vijay; Patnaik, B. S. V.; Shaiju, A. J.
2015-11-01
In this numerical study, we present an energetically efficient Proportional (P) and Integral (I) control strategy for the cessation of vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder. Reflectionally symmetric controllers are designed such that, they are located on a small sector of the cylinder over which, tangential sliding mode control is imparted. Energetically efficient optimal parameters for the P, I and PI controls have been numerically assessed. An estimation of the time-averaged kinetic energy of different flow regimes using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is also carried out. These values are obtained with and without the optimal controllers. The Navier-Stokes equations along with an evolution equation for the PI controller, is numerically solved using finite volume method. The optimization procedure is formulated as a standard Linear Quadratic (LQ) problem and the time-averaged kinetic energy is obtained by summation of POD eigenvalues. The energetic efficiency for the, I controller was observed to be superior compared to the other two classes of controllers. By performing detailed fluid flow simulations, it was observed that, the system is energetically efficient, even when the twin eddies are still persisting behind the circular cylinder. The first author wishes to acknowledge the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, F.; Wang, J. S.; Qiao, X. Q.; Huang, Z.
2012-01-01
Previous studies on the flow around a circular cylinder with fixed splitter plates have shown that the drag and lift can be reduced, and the primary vortex shedding can be suppressed obviously. In this study, a wind tunnel experiment on the flow around a circular cylinder with diameter D (40 mm) attached with ten splitter plates freely rotatable around the cylinder axis has been carried out with different ratios of length to cylinder diameter (L/D) from 0.5 to 6.0, in a range of Reynolds number from 3×104 to 6×104. The influences of the attachment of these rotatable splitter plates on the pressure distribution, fluctuating drag and lift forces and vortex shedding behavior were investigated. It is found that the splitter plates rotate to an off-axis equilibrium angle δ (on either side of the wake with equal probability) rather than align themselves with free stream due to the integrated effect of the pressure difference along the sides of the splitter plates. The plate length L/D is crucial in determining the equilibrium angle δ. Longer splitter plate causes smaller angle; δ remains zero, i.e., parallel to the flow direction, for L/D≥4. The mean pressures in the wake near the cylinder are higher than that of a bare cylinder. Further, the mean drag coefficients and the root-mean-square fluctuating lift coefficients, which are also largely determined by δ, are less than those of the corresponding bare cylinder, with a reduction up to about 30% and 90%, respectively. However, freely rotatable splitter plate develops a mean lift force towards the side the plate has deflected. In addition, the Strouhal number of fluctuating forces and correlation analysis are presented. The visualized flow structures show that the freely rotatable splitter plates elongate the vortex formation region, and the communication between the two shear layers on either side of the body is inhibited. For comparison, experiments of attaching fixed splitter plates with the same size were
On the power required to control the circular cylinder wake by rotary oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmann, Michel; Cordier, Laurent; Brancher, Jean-Pierre
2006-08-01
In this Brief Communication, we determine an approximate relation that gives the mean time power required to control the wake flow downstream from a circular cylinder. The control law is the sinusoidal tangential velocity imposed on whole or part of the cylinder surface. The mean control power thus depends on four parameters: the amplitude and the Strouhal number of forcing, the control angle that defines the controlled upstream part of the cylinder, and the Reynolds number. This relation indicates that the control power grows like the square of the forcing amplitude, like the square root of the forcing Strouhal number, linearly with the control angle and varies like the inverse of the square root of the Reynolds number. We show that the values obtained with this approximate relation are in very good agreement with the corresponding values given numerically. Finally, the energetic efficiency of the control is discussed. We claimed that the most energetically efficient control law corresponds a priori to low forcing amplitudes applied to a restricted upstream part of the cylinder for relatively high values of the Reynolds number.
A numerical study of shock wave diffraction by a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, J.-Y.; Liu, Y.; Lomax, H.
1986-01-01
The nonstationary shock wave diffraction patterns generated by a blast wave impinging on a circular cylinder are numerically simulated using a second-order hybrid upwind method for solving the two-dimensional inviscid compressible Euler equations of gasdynamics. The complete diffraction patterns, including the transition from regular to Mach reflection, trajectory of the Mach triple point and the complex shock-on-shock interaction at the wake region resulting from the Mach shocks collision behind the cylinder are reported in detail. Pressure-time history and various contour plots are also included. Comparison between the work of Bryson and Gross (1961) which included both experimental schlieren pictures and theoretical calculations using Whitham's ray-shock theory and results of the present finite difference computation indicate good agreement in every aspect except for some nonideal gas and viscous effects which are not accounted for by the Euler equations.
Reynolds and froude number effect on the flow past an interface-piercing circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koo, Bonguk; Yang, Jianming; Yeon, Seong Mo; Stern, Frederick
2014-09-01
The two-phase turbulent flow past an interface-piercing circular cylinder is studied using a high-fidelity orthogonal curvilinear grid solver with a Lagrangian dynamic subgrid-scale model for large-eddy simulation and a coupled level set and volume of fluid method for air-water interface tracking. The simulations cover the sub-critical and critical and post critical regimes of the Reynolds and sub and super-critical Froude numbers in order to investigate the effect of both dimensionless parameters on the flow. Significant changes in flow features near the air-water interface were observed as the Reynolds number was increased from the sub-critical to the critical regime. The interface makes the separation point near the interface much delayed for all Reynolds numbers. The separation region at intermediate depths is remarkably reduced for the critical Reynolds number regime. The deep flow resembles the single-phase turbulent flow past a circular cylinder, but includes the effect of the free-surface and the limited span length for sub-critical Reynolds numbers. At different Froude numbers, the air-water interface exhibits significantly changed structures, including breaking bow waves with splashes and bubbles at high Froude numbers. Instantaneous and mean flow features such as interface structures, vortex shedding, Reynolds stresses, and vorticity transport are also analyzed. The results are compared with reference experimental data available in the literature. The deep flow is also compared with the single-phase turbulent flow past a circular cylinder in the similar ranges of Reynolds numbers. Discussion is provided concerning the limitations of the current simulations and available experimental data along with future research
Modelling of fully separated flow past a circular cylinder: Problems and best practice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kojouharova, J.; Weisweiler, H.
2015-10-01
This paper gives a draft overview of the elaborated strategy for a reliable simulation of a subcritical incompressible viscous flow past a circular cylinder by the means of the commercial Software ANSYS CFX. It is motivated by its relevance to serve as a general flow prototype past a bluff body, which is an issue of considerable engineering interest, and is focused on the computational specifics of the topic. The flow separation is investigated by the means available in the ANSYS CFX Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations (RANS) method as the Shear Stress Transport model is employed.
Computation of flow around a circular cylinder in a supercritical regime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ishii, K.; Kuwahara, K.; Kawamura, T.; Ogawa, S.; Chyu, W. J.
1985-01-01
Compressible flows around a circular cylinder in a supercritical regime at Mach number 0.3 have been calculated by using the Beam-Warming-Steger scheme based on the full Navier-Stokes equations with improved accuracy. The flow patterns are visualized extensively to observe the characteristics in this regime. The computations show that the flow at certain Reynolds numbers in a supercritical regime becomes rather steady and irregular with small drag coefficients. This may correspond to the experimental observations that the Strouhal number can not be measured clearly at a certain Reynolds number range in the supercritical regime.
Three-dimensional stability analysis of the periodic flow around a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noack, Bernd R.; König, Michael; Eckelmann, Helmut
1993-06-01
The onset of three-dimensionality in the von Kármán vortex street behind a circular cylinder is investigated by carrying out the first global, nonparallel, three-dimensional stability analysis of the periodic flow. This flow is found to become unstable at a Reynolds number of 170 by a critical, three-dimensional Floquet mode with a spanwise wavelength of 1.8 diam. The spatial structure of this mode indicates that the onset of three-dimensionality is due to a near-wake instability and not caused by a stagnation-line or a boundary-layer instability.
An experimental investigation of jet plume simulation with solid circular cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reubush, D. E.
1974-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the effectiveness of utilizing solid circular cylinders to simulate the jet exhaust plume for a series of four isolated circular arc afterbodies with little or no flow separation. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.30 at 0 deg angle of attack. Plume simulators with simulator diameter to nozzle exit diameter ratios of 0.82, 0.88, 0.98, and 1.00 were investigated with one of the four configurations while the 0.82 and 1.00 simulators were investigated with the other three. Reynolds number based on maximum model diameter varied from approximately 1.50 to 2.14 million.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Raymond; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2005-11-01
Previously published exprimental data of the flow around two circular cylinders arranged in tandem have shown that for small spacings between the cylinders, the shear layer from the upstream cylinder reattaches to the downstream cylinder, hence creating a recirculation region in between the two cylinders. The experimental data was obtained at Re=65,000 and it was found that beyond a critical spacing (L/D ˜ 4.0), the upstream shear layer ceases to attach to the downstream cylinder, resulting in a dramatic change in the flow mechanisms. Previous numerical studies using two-dimensional RANS and URANS were unsatisfactory at predicting the length of the recirculation region of the upstream cylinder and consequently badly predicted the hydrodynamic forces between the two cylinders. In this study, Large Eddy Simulation with a dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model was used to investigate the flow around two circular cylinders arranged in tandem. Results from high Reynolds numbers simulations will be presented and practical considerations in using LES in such a flow configuration will be discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Chi R.
1988-01-01
Boundary layer flow and turbulence transport analyses to study the influence of the free-stream turbulence on the surface heat transfer rate and the skin friction around the stagnation point of a circular cylinder in a turbulent flow are presented. The analyses are formulated with the turbulent boundary layer equations, the Reynolds stress transport equations and the k - epsilon two-equation turbulence modeling. The analyses are used to calculate the time-averaged turbulence double correlations, the mean flow properties, the surface heat transfer rate and the skin friction with an isotropic turbulence in the freestream. The analytical results are described and compared with the existing experimental measurements. Depending on the free-stream turbulence properties, the turbulence kinetic energy can increase or decrease as the flow moves toward the surface. However, the turbulence kinetic energy induces large Reynolds normal stresses at the boundary layer edge. The Reynolds normal stresses change the boundary layer profiles of the time-averaged double correlations of the velocity and temperature fluctuations, the surface heat transfer rate and the skin friction. The free-stream turbulence dissipation rate can affect the stagnation-point heat transfer rate but the influence of the free-stream temperature fluctuation on the heat transfer rate is insignificant.
Mechanism of tonal noise generation from circular cylinder with spiral fin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamashita, Ryo; Hayashi, Hidechito; Okumura, Tetsuya; Hamakawa, Hiromitsu
2014-12-01
The pitch of the spiral finned tube influences seriously to the acoustic resonance in the heat exchanger. In this research, the flow characteristics in relating to the aeolian tone from the finned cylinder are studied by the numerical simulation. It is observed that the tonal noise generated from the finned tube at two pitch spaces. The ratio of the fin pitch to the cylinder diameter is changed at 0.11 and 0.27. The tone level increases and the frequency decreases with the pitch shorter. The separation flow from the cylinder generates the span-wise vortices, Karman vortices, and the separation flow from the fin generates the stream-wise vortices. When the fin pitch ratio is small, the stream-wise vortices line up to span-wise and become weak rapidly. Only the Karman vortices are remained and integrate in span. So the Karman vortex became large. This causes the low frequency and the large aeolian tone.
Control of vortex shedding on a circular cylinder using self-adaptive hairy-flaps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunze, Sebastian; Brücker, Christoph
2012-01-01
Experiments on separation control using flexible self-adaptive hairy-flaps are presented herein. The wake-flow behind a circular cylinder is investigated without and with flexible hairy-flaps at the aft-part of the cylinder. Flow dynamics and hair motion were measured by particle image velocimetry and image processing in a range of Reynolds number 5000
Heat Transfer to Longitudinal Laminar Flow Between Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sparrow, Ephraim M.; Loeffler, Albert L. Jr.; Hubbard, H. A.
1960-01-01
Consideration is given to the fully developed heat transfer characteristics for longitudinal laminar flow between cylinders arranged in an equilateral triangular array. The analysis is carried out for the condition of uniform heat transfer per unit length. Solutions are obtained for the temperature distribution, and from these, Nusselt numbers are derived for a wide range of spacing-to-diameter ratios. It is found that as the spacing ratio increases, so also does the wall-to-bulk temperature difference for a fixed heat transfer per unit length. Corresponding to a uniform surface temperature around the circumference of a cylinder, the circumferential variation of the local heat flux is computed. For spacing ratios of 1.5 - 2.0 and greater, uniform peripheral wall temperature and uniform peripheral heat flux are simultaneously achieved. A simplified analysis which neglects circumferential variations is also carried out, and the results are compared with those from the more exact formulation.
Heat transfer from cylinders having closely spaced fins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biermann, Arnold E
1937-01-01
The heat-transfer coefficients have been determined for five steel cylinders having fins 1.22 inches wide and the spacing between the fins ranging from 0.022 to 0.131 inch. The cylinders were tested with and without baffles in a wind tunnel; they were also tested enclosed in jackets with the cooling air supplied by a blower. A maximum heat transfer was reached at a fin space of about 0.45 inch for the cylinders tested with each of the three methods of cooling investigated. The rise in temperature of the air passing between the fins and the change in flow pattern were found to be important factors limiting the heat transfer that may be obtained by decreasing the fin space. The use of baffles for directing the air around the cylinders with closely spaced fins proved very effective in increasing the over-all heat-transfer coefficient, provided that the spacing was not appreciably less than that for maximum heat transfer.
Control of the near wake behind a circular cylinder using superhydrophobic surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Hyunseok; Park, Hyungmin
2014-11-01
In the present study, the effect of superhydrophobic (SHPo) surface on turbulent wake behind a circular cylinder is studied. Using 2D particle image velocimetry, velocity fields are measured in a water tunnel at ReD = 0 . 7 - 2 . 5 ×104 . For SHPo surfaces, spray-coating of hydrophobic nanoparticles and roughened Teflon (with a sandpaper) are applied. The griding direction of a Teflon surface is varied as streamwise and spanwise ones, respectively, to see the effect of slip direction as well. It is found that the surface slip increases the turbulence in the flows above the circular cylinder and along the separating shear layers, which result in the delay of flow separation and early vortex roll-up in the wake. As a result, the recirculation bubble in the wake is reduced by up to 50%, and the wake survey estimates the drag reduction of about 10%. On the other hand, the spanwise slip is found to be more effective than streamwise one in flow control, supporting the suggested mechanism. Finally, the SHPo surfaces are applied locally by varying its installation angle and SHPo surface applied around the separation point was most effective, indicating that the surface slip directly controls the flow separation. Supported by the NRF Programs (NRF-2012M2A8A4055647, NRF-2013R1A1A1008373) of Korean government.
Flow around circular cylinder oscillating at low Keulegan-Carpenter number
Sunahara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Takeshi
1994-12-31
This paper shows experimental results of hydrodynamic forces acting on a vertical circular cylinder oscillating sinusoidally at low frequencies in the still water and results of the flow visualization, to examine the flow around a circular cylinder, particularly the lift forces at low Keulegan-Carpenter number Kc. The instability of streaked flow of which section is mushroom shape is observed by flow visualization, and the flows are asymmetrical in some cases. The asymmetrical streaked flow may have a close relationship to the lift force at low Kc, Kc {le} 4 or 5. Asymmetrical mushroom vortex ring is visible for Kc {le} 1. The mushroom vortex ring is symmetrical, or the streaks of the rings arrange themselves alternately for 1 {le} Kc {le} 1.5. A clear ring of mushroom vortices is not formed due to diffusion of dye sheets, though a flow streaked with mushroom vortices is visible for 1.5 {le} Kc {le} 2.5 and for Kc {ge} 2.5 the flow is almost turbulent.
The velocity and vorticity fields of the turbulent near wake of a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, James; Ong, Lawrence; Moin, Parviz
1995-01-01
The purpose of this research is to provide a detailed experimental database of velocity and vorticity statistics in the very near wake (x/d less than 10) of a circular cylinder at Reynolds number of 3900. This study has determined that estimations of the streamwise velocity component in flow fields with large nonzero cross-stream components are not accurate. Similarly, X-wire measurements of the u and v velocity components in flows containing large w are also subject to the errors due to binormal cooling. Using the look-up table (LUT) technique, and by calibrating the X-wire probe used here to include the range of expected angles of attack (+/- 40 deg), accurate X-wire measurements of instantaneous u and v velocity components in the very near wake region of a circular cylinder has been accomplished. The approximate two-dimensionality of the present flow field was verified with four-wire probe measurements, and to some extent the spanwise correlation measurements with the multisensor rake. Hence, binormal cooling errors in the present X-wire measurements are small.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morton, Chris; Saeedi, Mohammad; Martinuzzi, Robert
2015-11-01
The flow development over a cantilevered circular cylinder of aspect ratio 4 at Re = 300 has been investigated numerically by employing a laminar flow solution to the Navier-Stokes equations. The results show that two distinct wake modulation frequencies are detectable downstream of the cylinder, differing from higher Reynolds number turbulent flow cases where only one dominant frequency is present. In particular, there is a low frequency modulation with a well-defined narrow-band peak (fm) , and a high frequency contribution from the shedding of vortices (fv) . The fluctuating loading on the cylinder in the streamwise direction is tightly coupled with the low frequency modulation, while the transverse direction forces show only a weak correlation with the vortex shedding frequency. Coherent flow structures have been analyzed using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to provide insight into the nature of vortex formation and associated coupling with the detected low frequency modulation. The temporal coefficients obtained from the POD analysis have been used to construct a low order model for the investigation of the overall flow development. While the high frequency component is known to be related to the formation and shedding of vortices, the low frequency component is shown to be associated with a modulation in upwash and downwash intensity.
Details of the computed flowfield over a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 1200
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, C. L.
1987-01-01
The application of an upwind-biased implicit approximate factorization Navier-Stokes algorithm to the unsteady impulsive start-up flow over a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 1200 is described. The complete form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is used, and the algorithm is second-order accurate in both space and time. The development with time of the shape and size of the separated vortical flow region is computed, as well as the time-variation of several boundary layer parameters and profile shapes. Computations, in general, show excellent agreement with experiment, although the present method predicts a more rapid onset of reversed flow on the cylinder than evidenced in experiment. The changes that the vortical region behind the cylinder undergoes as the symmetric flow transitions to periodic vortex shedding are discussed. The flow becomes periodic with a Strouhal frequency of 0.222, which compares well with the experimental value of approximately 0.21. The effect of grid density on the development of the unsteady flow is also shown.
Axial flow over a blunt circular cylinder with and without shear layer reattachment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higuchi, H.; van Langen, P.; Sawada, H.; Tinney, C. E.
2006-08-01
Flow over a circular cylinder with its axis aligned with the free stream was investigated experimentally. Both upstream and downstream faces of the cylinder are sharply truncated. The fineness ratio (length to diameter ratio) was varied and the behavior of the leading-edge separating shear layer and its effect on the wake were studied in water using both flow visualization and PIV techniques. For the moderately large fineness ratio, the shear layer reattaches with subsequent boundary layer growth, whereas over a shorter cylinder the shear layer remains detached. This causes differences in the wake recirculation region and the immediate wake patterns. The shear layer structure was analyzed using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The model in the water channel was sting-mounted and in some cases the effect of model support was detected in the wake measurements. To avoid such disturbance from the model support, an experiment was initiated in air using a magnetic model support and balance system. The drag variation with fineness ratio is presented and discussed in light of the flowfield measurements.
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of a vortex ring impinging on a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Heng; Zhang, Genxuan; Guan, Hongshan
2015-04-01
A vortex ring impinging on a three-dimensional circular cylinder is studied using large eddy simulation for a Reynolds number \\operatorname{Re}=4× {{10}4} based on the initial translational speed and diameter of the vortex ring. We have investigated the evolution of vortical structures and identified three typical evolution phases. When the primary vortex approaches the cylinder closely, a secondary vortex is generated and its segment parts move inward to the primary vortex ring. Then two large-scale loop-like vortices are formed, which evolve in opposite directions. Thirdly, the two loop-like vortices collide with each other, forming complicated small-scale vortical structures. Moreover, a series of hairpin vortices are generated due to the deformation and stretching of the tertiary vortex. The trajectories of the primary and secondary vortices and the relevant speeds of evolution are discussed. The total kinetic energy and enstrophy are investigated with the purpose of revealing the properties that are relevant to the three evolution phases. The boundary vorticity flux is further studied with the aim of analyzing the generation of vorticity and the connection with the pressure gradient on the cylinder surface.
Heat-Flux Sensor For Hot Engine Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Walter S.; Barrows, Richard F.; Smith, Floyd A.; Koch, John
1989-01-01
Heat-flux sensor includes buried wire thermocouple and thin-film surface thermocouple, made of platinum and platinum with 13 percent rhodium. Sensor intended for use in ceramic-insulated, low-heat-rejection diesel engine at temperatures of about 1,000 K. Thermocouple junction resists environment in cylinder of advanced high-temperature diesel engine created by depositing overlapping films of Pt and 0.87 Pt/0.13 Rh on iron plug. Plug also contains internal thermocouple.
Asymmetric turbulent boundary layers along long thin circular cylinders at low-Re
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Stephen A.
2015-09-01
Notable deviations of the asymmetric turbulent boundary layer (TBL) statistics from their axisymmetric counterpart along long thin circular cylinders are vitally important to the naval and oceanographic jurisdictions. Although the available experimental evidence backs their concern, the realm of parametric variability (both geometric and kinematic) is extremely limited to draw solid conclusions. We know that only small misalignments which quantify less than one degree of incidence between the freestream and the straight cylinder axis can substantially alter the boundary layer thicknesses, mean axial velocity, and Reynolds stresses. But the statistical database is plainly inadequate to justify modifying the design tools that were founded solely for axisymmetric flow conditions. Herein, we begin rectifying this drawback by numerical means. The investigation centers on low turbulent Reynolds numbers (500 ≤ Rea ≤ 2500) and small angles-of-incidence (0° < α < 9°) to validate and complement the lions-share of the present database (Rea = aUo/ν, where a, Uo, and ν are the cylinder radius, freestream velocity, and kinematic viscosity, respectively). In particular, we numerically resolved the statistical responses of the TBL, mean axial velocity, Reynolds stresses, and skin friction under angles-of-incidence up to the earliest signs of Strouhal-type shedding. Clearly, the first prominent response was the thinning and thickening of the TBL along the respective windward and leeward sides to only a minor misalignment. Tilting the straight cylinder to slightly higher yaw angles transformed the TBL to a transitional boundary layer along the windward side for all simulated Reynolds numbers. For yaw angles α > 2°, all turbulent statistics of the asymmetric boundary layer were measurably dissimilar to those of the axisymmetric state.
Vortex induced vibrations of a rotating circular cylinder at low Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ming; Cheng, Liang; Lu, Lin
2014-07-01
Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a rotating circular cylinder at a low Reynolds number of 150 and a low mass ratio of 2 is studied numerically. Simulations are conducted at three rotation rates of α = 0, 0.5, and 1 and reduced velocities in the range of 1-13 with an interval of 0.2. The numerical results show that the rotation of the cylinder increases the response amplitude and widens the lock-in regime for the one-degree-of-freedom (1-dof) VIV in the cross-flow direction. The two-degree-of-freedom (2-dof) responses of the cylinder at α = 0.5 and 1 are significantly different from that at α = 0. For the 2-dof VIV, the response amplitude in the inline direction, which is much smaller than that in the cross-flow direction at α = 0, is increased significantly at α = 0.5 and 1. One initial branch is found at α = 0.5 and two initial branches are found at α = 1. In the initial branches, the response frequency locks onto a frequency that is smaller than the natural frequency of the cylinder and the response amplitude increases with the reduced velocity. The vortex shedding is found to be in the P+S mode for reduced velocities near the higher boundary of the initial branches and 2S mode in all other reduced velocity ranges for the 2-dof VIV. Simulations are conducted under both the increasing and decreasing reduced velocity conditions. A hysteresis region is found near the higher boundary of the lower branch for α = 0, 0.5, and 1 in the 1-dof of VIV and for α = 0 in the 2-dof VIV. The hysteresis region occurs near the higher boundary of the initial branches for α = 0.5 and 1 in the 2-dof VIV. By analysing the component of the force coefficient that is in phase with the velocity of the cylinder, it is found that pressure force excites the vibration and the viscous force damps the vibration in both the inline and the cross-flow directions in the 2-dof VIV. The magnitude of the time averaged pressure and viscous force coefficients that are in phase with the
Transient temperature distributions in a cylinder heated by microwaves
Jackson, H.W.; Barmatz, M.; Wagner, P.
1996-12-31
Transient temperature distributions were calculated for a lossy dielectric cylinder coaxially aligned in a cylindrical microwave cavity excited in a single mode. Results were obtained for sample sizes that range from fibers to large cylinders. Realistic values for temperature dependent complex dielectric constants and thermophysical properties of the samples were used. Losses in cavity walls were taken into account as were realistic thermal emissivities at all surfaces. For a fine mesh of points in time, normal mode properties and microwave power absorption profiles were evaluated using analytic expressions. Those expressions correspond to exact solutions of Maxwell`s equations within the framework of a cylindrical shell model. Heating produced by the microwave absorption was included in self-consistent numerical solutions of thermal equations. In this model, both direct microwave heating and radiant heating of the sample (hybrid heating) were studied by including a lossy dielectric tube surrounding the sample. Calculated results are discussed within the context of two parametric studies. One is concerned with relative merits of microwave and hybrid heating of fibers, rods, and larger cylinders. The other is concerned with thermal runaway.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamla, Ernst
1942-01-01
The two-dimensional symmetrical potential flow of compressible fluid past a circular cylinder placed in the center line of a straight tunnel is analyzed in second approximation according to the Jansen-Rayleigh method. The departure of the profile from the exact circular shape can be kept to the same magnitude as for the incompressible flow. The velocities in the narrowest section of the tunnel wall and at the profile edge are discussed in detail.
Adaptive individual-cylinder thermal state control using intake air heating for a GDCI engine
Roth, Gregory T.; Sellnau, Mark C.
2016-08-09
A system for a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine includes a plurality of heaters, at least one heater per cylinder, with each heater configured to heat air introduced into a cylinder. Independent control of the heaters is provided on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis. A combustion parameter is determined for combustion in each cylinder of the engine, and control of the heater for that cylinder is based on the value of the combustion parameter for combustion in that cylinder. A method for influencing combustion in a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine, including determining a combustion parameter for combustion taking place in a cylinder of the engine and controlling a heater configured to heat air introduced into that cylinder, is also provided.
Thermal runaway in microwave heated isothermal slabs, cylinders, and spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vriezinga, C. A.
1998-01-01
The absorption of electromagnetic energy within a microwave heated isothermal slab, cylinder, and sphere is analyzed and compared to each other. It is shown that the absorbed heat oscillates as a function of temperature, regardless of the geometry of the irradiated object. It is possible to formulate this behavior in a simple mathematical equation, which proves that the oscillation is basically caused by resonance of the electromagnetic waves within the object. This oscillation, combined with the heat loss, is found to be responsible for thermal runaway phenomenon in isothermal objects. Based on such an observation, a general rule to prevent thermal runaway has been developed.
A numerical study of a viscous flow past a right circular cylinder on a -plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuura, Tomonori; Yamagata, Toshio
The viscous flow past a right circular cylinder on a -plane is numerically studied. The basic flow, unbounded laterally, is assumed to be uniform. The explored parameter space is Ro
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Budz, Collin; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya
2015-09-01
Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a curved circular cylinder (a quarter of a ring, with no extension added to either end) free to oscillate in the crossflow direction was studied experimentally. Both the concave and the convex orientations (with respect to the oncoming flow direction) were considered. As expected, the amplitude of oscillations in both configurations was decreased compared to a vertical cylinder with the same mass ratio. Flow visualizations showed that the vortices were shed in parallel to the curved cylinder, when the cylinder was free to oscillate. The sudden jump in the phase difference between the flow forces and the cylinder displacement observed in the VIV of vertical cylinders was not observed in the curved cylinders. Higher harmonic force components at frequencies twice and three times the frequency of oscillations were observed in flow forces acting on the vertical cylinder, as well as the curved cylinder. Asymmetry in the wake was responsible for the 2nd harmonic force component and the relative velocity of the structure with respect to the oncoming flow was responsible for the 3rd harmonic force component. The lock-in occurred over the same range of reduced velocities for the curved cylinder in the convex orientation as for a vertical cylinder, but it was extended to higher reduced velocities for a curved cylinder in the concave orientation. Higher harmonic force components were found to be responsible for the extended lock-in range in the concave orientation. Within this range, the higher harmonic forces were even larger than the first harmonic force and the structure was being excited mainly by these higher harmonic forces.
The inviscid axisymmetric stability of the supersonic flow along a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.
1990-01-01
The supersonic flow past a thin straight circular cylinder is investigated. The associated boundary-layer flow (i.e. the velocity and temperature field) is computed; the asymptotic, far downstream solution is obtained, and compared with the full numerical results. The inviscid, linear, axisymmetric (temporal) stability of this boundary layer is also studied. A so-called 'doubly generalized' inflexion condition is derived, which is a condition for the existence of so-called 'subsonic' neutral modes. The eigenvalue problem (for the complex wavespeed) is computed for two free-stream Mach numbers (2.8 and 3.8), and this reveals that curvature has a profound effect on the stability of the flow. The first unstable inviscid mode is seen to disappear rapidly as curvature is introduced, while the second (and generally the most important) mode suffers a substantially reduced amplification rate.
The inviscid axisymmetric stability of the supersonic flow along a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.
1989-01-01
The supersonic flow past a thin straight circular cylinder is investigated. The associated boundary layer flow (i.e., the velocity and temperature field) is computed; the asymptotic, far downstream solution is obtained, and compared with the full numerical results. The inviscid, linear, axisymmetric (temporal) stability of this boundary layer is also studied. A so called doubly generalized inflexion condition is derived, which is a condition for the existence of so called subsonic neutral modes. The eigenvalue problem (for the complex wavespeed) is computed for two freestream Mach numbers (2.8 and 3.8), and this reveals that curvature has a profound effect on the stability of the flow. The first unstable inviscid mode is seen to rapidly disappear as curvature is introduced, while the second (and generally the most important) mode suffers a substantially reduced amplification rate.
A visual investigation of turbulence in stagnation flow about a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.
1978-01-01
A visual investigation of turbulence in stagnation flow around a circular cylinder was carried out in order to gain a physical insight into the model advocated by the corticity-amplification theory. Motion pictures were taken from three different viewpoints, and a frame by frame examination of selected movie strips was conducted. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the flow events focused on tracing the temporal and spatial evolution of a cross-vortex tube outlined by the entrained smoke filaments. The visualization supplied evidence verifying: (1) the selective stretching of cross-vortex tubes which is responsible for the amplification of cross vorticity and, hence, of streamwise turbulence; (2) the streamwise tilting of stretched cross-vortex tubes; (3) the existence of a coherent array of vortices near the stagnation zone; (4) the interaction of the amplified vorticity with the body laminar boundary layer; and, (5) the growth of a turbulent boundary layer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.
1977-01-01
A series of wind-tunnel tests covering a range of Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers in subsonic and transonic flows was conducted on a circular cylinder placed normal to the flow. Form drag coefficients were determined from surface-pressure measurements and displayed as a function of Mach number to show the drag rise phenomenon. Buried wire gages arranged on the model surface were used to measure skin-friction distributions and vortex-shedding frequencies at different flow conditions. It was found that detectable periodic shedding ceases above M = 0.9. The measured skin-friction distributions indicate the positions of mean separation points clearly; these values are documented for the different flow conditions.
Control of flow around a circular cylinder wrapped with a porous layer by magnetohydrodynamic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bovand, M.; Rashidi, S.; Esfahani, J. A.; Saha, S. C.; Gu, Y. T.; Dehesht, M.
2016-03-01
The present study focuses on the analysis of two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow past a circular cylinder wrapped with a porous layer in different laminar flow regimes. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model has been used for simulating flow in porous medium using finite volume based software, Fluent 6.3. In order to analyze the MHD flow, the mean and instantaneous drag and lift coefficients and stream patterns are computed to elucidate the role of Stuart number, N and Darcy number, Da. It is revealed that the magnetic fields are capable to stabilize flow and suppress the vortex shedding of vortices. The N-Re plane shows the curves for separating steady and periodic flow regimes, Ncr and disappearing of vortex, Ndiss. For validate the solution, the obtained CD and St are compared with available results of literature.
Piezoelectric energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehmood, A.; Abdelkefi, A.; Hajj, M. R.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Akhtar, I.; Nuhait, A. O.
2013-09-01
The concept of harvesting energy from a circular cylinder undergoing vortex-induced vibrations is investigated. The energy is harvested by attaching a piezoelectric transducer to the transverse degree of freedom. Numerical simulations are performed for Reynolds numbers (Re) in the range 96≤Re≤118, which covers the pre-synchronization, synchronization, and post-synchronization regimes. Load resistances (R) in the range 500 Ω≤R≤5 MΩ are considered. The results show that the load resistance has a significant effect on the oscillation amplitude, lift coefficient, voltage output, and harvested power. The results also show that the synchronization region widens when the load resistance increases. It is also found that there is an optimum value of the load resistance for which the harvested power is maximum. This optimum value does not correspond to the case of largest oscillations, which points to the need for a coupled analysis as performed here.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cho, Y. C.
1983-01-01
Rigorous solutions are presented for sound diffraction in a circular cylinder with axial discontinuities of the wall admittance (or impedance). Analytical expressions are derived for the reflection and the transmission coefficients for duct modes. The results are discussed quantitatively in the limits of small admittance shifts (delta) and of low frequencies (ka). One of the results is the low frequency behavior of the reflection coefficient R(o) sub 00 of the fundamental mode. For the mode of a hardwall duct reflected from the junction with a softwall duct, (R(o) sub oo yields - (1-square root of (ka) square root of (2/i delta)); this result is in contrast to the frequency dependence of the reflection from the open end of a hardwall duct, for which R(o) sub oo yields - 1-(ka) squared/2 .
Numerical studies of flow over a circular cylinder at ReD=3900
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravchenko, Arthur G.; Moin, Parviz
2000-02-01
Flow over a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 3900 is studied numerically using the technique of large eddy simulation. The computations are carried out with a high-order accurate numerical method based on B-splines and compared with previous upwind-biased and central finite-difference simulations and with the existing experimental data. In the very near wake, all three simulations are in agreement with each other. Farther downstream, the results of the B-spline computations are in better agreement with the hot-wire experiment of Ong and Wallace [Exp. Fluids 20, 441-453 (1996)] than those obtained in the finite-difference simulations. In particular, the power spectra of velocity fluctuations are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The impact of numerical resolution on the shear layer transition is investigated.
Harvesting energy in the wake of a circular cylinder using piezoelectric materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akaydin, Dogus H.; Elvin, Niell; Andreopoulos, Yiannis
2009-11-01
The voltage generated by short, flexible piezoelectric cantilever beams placed inside turbulent wakes of circular cylinders at Reynolds numbers of 10,000 is investigated experimentally and computationally. The coherent vortical structures present in this flow generate a periodic forcing on the beam which when tuned to its resonant frequency produces maximum output voltage. There are two mechanisms which contribute to the driving forcing of the beam. The first mechanism is the impingement of induced flow by the passing vortices on one side of the beam and second is the low pressure core region of the vortices which is present at the opposite side of the beam. The sequence of these two mechanisms combined with the resonating conditions of the beam generated maximum energy output which was also found to vary with the location in the wake. The maximum power output was measured at about two diameters downstream of the cylinder. This power drops off the center line of the wake and decays with downstream distance as (x/D)-3/2. A three-way coupled interaction simulation that takes into account the aerodynamics, structural vibration and electrical response of the piezoelectric generator has been developed.
Computation of Sound Generated by Viscous Flow Over a Circular Cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cox, Jared S.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Younis, Bassam A.
1997-01-01
The Lighthill acoustic analogy approach combined with Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes is used to predict the sound generated by unsteady viscous flow past a circular cylinder assuming a correlation length of 10 cylinder diameters. The two-dimensional unsteady flow field is computed using two Navier-Stokes codes at a low Mach number over a range of Reynolds numbers from 100 to 5 million. Both laminar flow as well as turbulent flow with a variety of eddy viscosity turbulence models are employed. Mean drag and Strouhal number are examined, and trends similar to experiments are observed. Computing the noise within the Reynolds number regime where transition to turbulence occurs near the separation point is problematic: laminar flow exhibits chaotic behavior and turbulent flow exhibits strong dependence on the turbulence model employed. Comparisons of far-field noise with experiment at a Reynolds number of 90,000, therefore, vary significantly, depending on the turbulence model. At a high Reynolds number outside this regime, three different turbulence models yield self-consistent results.
Rarefied gas flow over an in-line array of circular cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taguchi, Satoshi; Charrier, Pierre
2008-06-01
A steady rarefied gas flow through periodic porous media kept at a uniform temperature is considered on the basis of the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation and the diffuse reflection condition on the solid boundary. Under the assumption that the period is much smaller than the length scale of variation of the global pressure distribution, a macroscopic fluid model describing the pressure distribution and the mass flux of the gas in the medium is derived by the homogenization previously proposed by Charrier and Dubroca [Multiscale Model. Simul. 2, 124 (2003)]. The effective diffusion coefficient contained in the model is constructed numerically as a function of the Knudsen number, in the case of the medium consisting of an in-line array of circular cylinders, with the help of the numerical analysis of a rarefied gas flow in an infinite expanse of the cylinder array driven by a uniform small pressure gradient. An application of the model to an isothermal flow in a porous slab induced by a pressure difference is presented.
Secondary vortex street in the wake of two tandem circular cylinders at low Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Si-Ying; Tian, Fang-Bao; Jia, Lai-Bing; Lu, Xi-Yun; Yin, Xie-Zhen
2010-03-01
The experiments on two tandem circular cylinders were conducted in a horizontal soap film tunnel for the Reynolds number Re=60 , 80, and 100 and the nondimensional center-to-center spacing Γ ranging in 1˜12 . The flow patterns were recorded by a high-speed camera and the vortex shedding frequency was obtained by a spatiotemporal evolution method. The secondary vortex formation (SVF) mode characterized by the formation of a secondary vortex street in the wake of the downstream cylinder was found at large Γ . Moreover, some typical modes predicted by previous investigations, including the single bluff-body, shear layer reattachment, and synchronization of vortex shedding modes, were also revisited in our experiments. Further, numerical simulations were carried out using a space-time finite-element method and the results confirmed the existence of the SVF mode. The mechanism of SVF mode was analyzed in terms of the numerical results. The dependence of the Strouhal number Sr on Γ was given and the flow characteristics relevant to the critical spacing values and the hysteretic mode transitions were investigated.
Three-dimensional flow around two circular cylinders in tandem arrangement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Jian; Ren, An-Lu; Zou, Jian-Feng; Shao, Xue-Ming
2006-06-01
The spatial evolutions of vortices and transition to three dimensionality in the wake of two tandem circular cylinders are numerically studied. The virtual body method developed from virtual boundary method is applied to model the no-slip boundary condition of the cylinders. Two different aspects of this problem are considered. Firstly, the spacing ratio L/D is varied from 1.5 to 8 and the Reynolds number is set unchanged at Re=220. It is shown that three dimensionality appears in the wake for L/D⩾4, whereas the flow wake keeps a two-dimensional state for L/D⩽3.5. The critical spacing for the appearance of three-dimensional instability is deduced at the range of 3.5
Numerical investigation of the flow around two circular cylinders in tandem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmo, B. S.; Meneghini, J. R.
2006-08-01
The incompressible flow around pairs of circular cylinders in tandem arrangements is investigated in this paper. The spectral element method is employed to carry out two- and three-dimensional simulations of the flow. The centre-to-centre distance (l) of the investigated configurations varies from 1.5 to 8 diameters (D), and results thus obtained are compared to the isolated cylinder case. The simulations are in the Reynolds number (Re) range from 160 to 320, covering the transition in the wake. Our analysis focuses on the small-scale instabilities of vortex shedding, which occurs in the Re range investigated. With the aid of Strouhal data and vorticity contours, we propose mechanisms to explain the interference phenomenon and its interaction with the three-dimensional vortical structures present in the flow field. It is found that, for Re>190, when three-dimensional structures are present in the flow field, two-dimensional simulations are not sufficient to predict the (Re,l) pair of drag inversion.
Open-loop and closed-loop excitation of the wake behind a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, David; Cohen, Kelly; Siegel, Stefan; McLaughlin, Tom
2006-11-01
Both open loop and closed loop control were used to modify the flow around a circular cylinder at Re = 20,000. Independent plasma actuators were installed on the sides of the cylinder at +/- 90^o from the forward stagnation line. The actuators could be excited in-phase or 180^o out of phase with one another. In the case of open-loop forcing, in-phase excitation at twice the von Karman vortex shedding frequency produced large changes in the wake structure, similar to the experiments done by Williams, Mansy & Amato (JFM, 1992.) Negligible changes in wake structure occurred when the out-of-phase actuation was used, although the lock-on phenomenon was observed, suggesting that the wake structure modification resulting from the interaction between the forcing field and near wake is independent of Reynolds number. Closed-loop excitation using a proportional-derivative controller was done using a hot-film probe positioned at x/D=1.5, y/D = 1.5. The amplitude of the wake oscillation was shown to be sensitive to both the gain and phase of the controller. The amplitude of oscillations at a fixed controller gain are enhanced or suppressed relative to the non-forced level, depending on the controller phase. The vortex shedding frequency is changed when the PD controller is in a region of suppression. The expert assistance of SSgt. Mary S. Church is gratefully acknowledged.
Scattering of acoustic evanescent waves by circular cylinders: Partial wave series solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marston, Philip L.
2002-05-01
Evanescent acoustical waves occur in a variety of situations such as when sound is incident on a fluid interface beyond the critical angle and when flexural waves on a plate are subsonic with respect to the surrounding fluid. The scattering by circular cylinders at normal incidence was calculated to give insight into the consequences on the scattering of the evanescence of the incident wave. To analyze the scattering, it is necessary to express the incident wave using a modified expansion involving cylindrical functions. For plane evanescent waves, the expansion becomes a double summation with products of modified and ordinary Bessel functions. The resulting modified series is found for the scattering by a fluid cylinder in an unbounded medium. The perfectly soft and rigid cases are also examined. Unlike the case of an ordinary incident wave, the counterpropagating partial waves of the same angular order have unequal magnitudes when the incident wave is evanescent. This is a consequence of the exponential dependence of the incident wave amplitude on the transverse coordinate. The associated exponential dependence of the scattering on the location of a scatterer was previously demonstrated [T. J. Matula and P. L. Marston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 93, 1192-1195 (1993)].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Guo-Ping; Shih, Tsi-Min
1999-01-01
A hybrid finite difference and vortex method (HFDV), based on the domain decomposition method (DDM), is used for calculating the flow around a rotating circular cylinder at Reynolds number Re=1000, 200 and the angular-to-rectilinear speed ratio (0.5, 3.25) respectively. A fully implicit third-order eccentric finite difference scheme is adopted in the finite difference method, and the deduced large broad band sparse matrix equations are solved by a highly efficient modified incomplete LU decomposition conjugate gradient method (MILU-CG). The long-time, fully developed features about the variations of the vortex patterns in the wake, as well as the drag and lift forces on the cylinder, are given. The calculated streamline contours are in good agreement with the experimentally visualized flow pictures. The existence of the critical state is confirmed again, and the single side shed vortex pattern at the critical state is shown for the first time. Also, the optimized lift-to-drag force ratio is obtained near the critical state. Copyright
Gau, C.; Wu, J.M.; Liang, C.Y.
1999-11-01
Experiments are performed to study the flow structure and heat transfer over a heated oscillating cylinder. Both flow visualization using a smoke wire and local heat transfer measurements around the cylinder were made. The excitation frequencies of the cylinder are selected at F{sub e}/F{sub n} = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3. These include excitations at harmonic, subharmonic, superharmonic, and non harmonic frequencies. Synchronization of vortex shedding with the cylinder excitation occurs not only at F{sub e}/F{sub n} = 1 but also at F{sub e}/F{sub n} = 3, which can greatly enhance the heat transfer. The simultaneous enhancement of heat transfer at the stagnation point, its downstream region, and the wake region of the flow suggests that different modes of instabilities occurring in the shear layer of the near wake are actually initiated and amplified far upstream in the stagnation point, which were suppressed in the accelerated flow region and re-amplified in the decelerated flow region. As long as the dominant mode of the instability is amplified by the excitation of cylinder, enhancement of heat transfer can be obtained. During the experiments, the Reynolds numbers vary from 1,600 to 4,800, the ratios of oscillation amplitude to diameter of the cylinder from 0.064 to 0.016.
Heat transfer to air from a yawed cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraabel, J. S.; McKillop, A. A.; Baughn, J. W.
1982-03-01
An experimental study designed to investigate heat transfer to air from a yawed cylinder is described. Measurements were made at Reynolds numbers of 34,000 and 106,000, and yaws varied from cross flow (beta = 0 deg) to 60 deg. The independence principle is found to be valid for heat transfer at the stagnation line and in the laminar boundary layer. Although this principle would not be expected to extend to the wake, the local heat transfer to the wake is not greatly affected by yaw for beta not greater than 40 deg. The heat transfer results can be explained in terms of a secondary vortex located downstream of an initial separation point and followed by a primary eddy. For high yaws and high normal Reynolds numbers, the heat transfer is similar to that which occurs in cross flow approaching critical flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghazanfarian, Jafar; Saghatchi, Roozbeh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid
2015-12-01
This paper studies the two-dimensional (2D) water-entry and exit of a rotating circular cylinder using the Sub-Particle Scale (SPS) turbulence model of a Lagrangian particle-based Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations along with the continuity have been solved as the governing equations of the problem. The accuracy of the numerical code is verified using the case of water-entry and exit of a nonrotating circular cylinder. The numerical simulations of water-entry and exit of the rotating circular cylinder are performed at Froude numbers of 2, 5, 8, and specific gravities of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.75, rotating at the dimensionless rates of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75. The effect of governing parameters and vortex shedding behind the cylinder on the trajectory curves, velocity components in the flow field, and the deformation of free surface for both cases have been investigated in detail. It is seen that the rotation has a great effect on the curvature of the trajectory path and velocity components in water-entry and exit cases due to the interaction of imposed lift and drag forces with the inertia force.
Phenomenology of a flow around a circular cylinder at sub-critical and critical Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capone, Alessandro; Klein, Christian; Di Felice, Fabio; Miozzi, Massimo
2016-07-01
In this work, the flow around a circular cylinder is investigated at Reynolds numbers ranging from 79 000 up to 238 000 by means of a combined acquisition system based on Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP) and particle velocimetry. The proposed setup allows simultaneous and time-resolved measurement of absolute temperature and relative skin friction fields onto the cylinder surface and near-wake velocity field. Combination of time-resolved surface measurements and planar near-field velocity data allows the investigation of the profound modifications undergone by the wall shear stress topology and its connections to the near-field structure as the flow regime travels from the sub-critical to the critical regime. Laminar boundary-layer separation, transition, and re-attachment are analyzed in the light of temperature, relative skin friction maps, and Reynolds stress fields bringing about a new perspective on the relationship between boundary layer development and shear layer evolution. The fast-responding TSP employed allows high acquisition frequency and calculation of power spectral density from surface data. Correlation maps of surface and near-wake data provide insight into the relationship between boundary-layer evolution and vortex shedding. We find that as the Reynolds number approaches the critical state, the separation line oscillations feature an increasingly weaker spectrum peak compared to the near-wake velocity spectrum. In the critical regime, separation line oscillations are strongly reduced and the correlation to the local vorticity undergoes an overall decrease giving evidence of modifications in the vortex shedding mechanism.
Heat Transfer Over the Circumference of a Heated Cylinder in Transverse Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidt, Ernst; Wenner, Karl
1943-01-01
A method for recording the local heat-transfer coefficients on bodies in flow was developed. The cylinder surface was kept at constant temperature by the condensation of vapor except for a narrow strip which is heated separately to the same temperature by electricity. The heat-transfer coefficient at each point was determined from the electric heat output and the temperature increase. The distribution of the heat transfer along the circumference of cylinders was recorded over a range of Reynolds numbers of from 5000 to 426,000. The pressure distribution was measured at the same time. At Reynolds numbers up to around 100,000 high maximums of the heat transfer occurred in the forward stagnation point at and on the rear side at 180C, while at around 80 the heat-transfer coefficient on both sides of the cylinder behind the forward stagnation point manifested distinct minimums. Two other maximums occurred at around 115 C behind the forward stagnation point between 170,000 and 426,000. At 426,000 the heat transfer at the location of those maximums was almost twice as great as in the forward stagnation point, and the rear half of the cylinder diffused about 60 percent of the entire heat, The tests are compared with the results of other experimental and theoretical investigations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ayoub, A.; Karamcheti, K.
1982-01-01
The complicated flow in the tip region of a finite circular cylinder in uniform cross flow has been examined at the Reynolds numbers 85,000, 180,000, and 770,000. Simultaneous measurements of the surface-pressure and wake-velocity fluctuations have revealed the existence of a shedding regime in the tip region that is distinct from the one prevailing on the main body of the cylinder. In particular, this regime can be unstable and intermittent, can have a cellular structure in the wake, or can be subcritical when the main flow is supercritical.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Osamu
2006-11-01
Effects of forced rotary oscillation on the generation of the sound from a circular cylinder in a uniform flow are investigated by direct solution of the two-dimensional, unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results show that the effect on the sound generation of rotary oscillation with frequency f is equivalent to that of periodic blowing and suction with frequency 2f; the sound field is determined by the interaction between the monopole generated by rotary oscillation and the dipole generated by vortex shedding from the cylinder. Results also show that, depending on initial conditions, different sound fields as well as flow fields can be generated for same flow parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirkil, Gokhan; Constantinescu, George
2015-07-01
The turbulent horseshoe vortex (HV) system and the near-wake flow past a circular cylinder mounted on a flat bed in an open channel are investigated based on the results of eddy-resolving simulations and supporting flow visualizations. Of particular interest are the changes in the mean flow and turbulence statistics within the HV region as the necklace vortices wrap around the cylinder's base and the variation of the mean flow and turbulence statistics in the near wake, in between the channel bed and the free surface. While it is well known that the drag crisis induces important changes in the flow past infinitely long circular cylinders, the changes are less understood and more complex for the case of flow past a surface-mounted cylinder. This is because even at very high cylinder Reynolds numbers, ReD, the flow regime remains subcritical in the vicinity of the bed surface due to the reduction of the incoming flow velocity within the bottom boundary layer. The paper provides a detailed discussion of the changes in the flow physics between cylinder Reynolds numbers at which the flow in the upstream part of the separated shear layers (SSLs) is laminar (ReD = 16 000, subcritical flow regime) and Reynolds numbers at which the transition occurs inside the attached boundary layers away from the bed and the flow within the SSLs is turbulent (ReD = 5 ∗ 105, supercritical flow regime). The changes between the two regimes in the dynamics and level of coherence of the large-scale coherent structures (necklace vortices, vortex tubes shed in the SSLs and roller vortices shed in the wake) and their capacity to induce high-magnitude bed friction velocities in the mean and instantaneous flow fields and to amplify the near-bed turbulence are analyzed. Being able to quantitatively and qualitatively describe these changes is critical to understand Reynolds-number-induced scale effects on sediment erosion mechanisms around cylinders mounted on a loose bed, which is a problem of
Seal whisker-inspired circular cylinders reduce vortex-induced vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beem, Heather; Triantafyllou, Michael
2012-11-01
Recent work shows that the undulatory, asymmetric geometry of harbor seal whiskers passively reduces vortex-induced vibration (VIV) amplitudes to less than 0.1 times the whisker diameter. This reduction holds in frontal flows, but due to the elliptical cross-section of the whisker, flows that approach from large angles of attack generate significant vibrational response. The present study investigates the possibility of extending the vibration reduction to unidirectional bodies, such that flows from all angles cause reduced VIV. A method for developing a new geometry that incorporates the ``whisker'' features into bodies with uniform, circular cross-section is presented. This geometry and multiple variations on it are fabricated into rigid models. Forces are measured on the models while they undergo imposed oscillations and are towed down a water tank. Contour plots of CL , v show peak VIV amplitudes to decrease as much as 28% from that of a standard cylinder. This result holds promise for applications where vibration reduction is desired, regardless of the angle of oncoming flow.
Turbulence effect on crossflow around a circular cylinder at subcritical Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadeh, W. Z.; Saharon, D. B.
1982-01-01
An investigation of the effect of freestream turbulence on the flow around a smooth circular cylinder at subcritical Reynolds numbers from 5.2 x 10 to the 4th power to 2.09 x 10 to the 5th power was conducted. Measurements show that the interaction of incident turbulence with the initial laminar boundary layer: (1) modifies the characteristics of the mean surface pressure distribution; (2) induces an aft shift in the separation point ranging from 5 to 50 beyond the laminar separation angle of 80 degrees; and, (3) reduces the mean drag coefficient to values between 97 and 46% of its nearly constant laminar counterpart. The extent of these changes depends on the particular Reynolds number background turbulence combination. These results demonstrate that a boundary-layer flow similar to that found in critical, supercritical and/or transcritical flow regimes is induced by turbulence at subcritical Reynolds numbers and, hence, the effect of turbulence is equivalent to an effective increase in the Reynolds number. The change in the nature and properties of the boundary layer in the subcritical regime, consequent upon the penetration of turbulence into it, is in agreement with the model proposed by the vorticity-amplification theory.
An experimental study of entrainment and transport in the turbulent near wake of a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cantwell, B.; Coles, D.
1983-01-01
Attention is given to an experimental investigation of transport processes in the near wake of a circular cylinder, for a Reynolds number of 140,000, in which an X-array of hot wire probes mounted on a pair of whirling arms was used for flow measurement. Rotation of the arms in a uniform flow applies a wide range of relative flow angles to these X-arrays, making them inherently self-calibrating in pitch. A phase signal synchronized with the vortex-shedding process allowed a sorting of the velocity data into 16 populations, each having essentially constant phase. An ensemble average for each population yielded a sequence of pictures of the instantaneous mean flow field in which the vortices are frozen, as they would be on a photograph. The measurements also yield nonsteady mean data for velocity, intermittency, vorticity, stress, and turbulent energy production, as a function of phase. Emphasis is given in a discussion of study results to the nonsteady mean flow, which emerges as a pattern of centers and saddles in a frame of reference that moves with the eddies. The kinematics of the vortex formation process are described in terms of the formation and evolution of saddle points between vortices in the first few diameters of the near wake.
Acoustic scattering by circular cylinders of various aspect ratios. [pressure gradient microphones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maciulaitis, A.
1979-01-01
The effects of acoustic scattering on the useful frequency range of pressure gradient microphones were investigated experimentally between ka values of 0.407 and 4.232 using two circular cylindrical models (L/D = 0.5 and 0.25) having a 25 cm outside diameter. Small condenser microphones, attached to preamplifiers by flexible connectors, were installed from inside the cylindrical bodies, and flush mounted on the exterior surface of the cylinders. A 38 cm diameter woofer in a large speaker enclosure was used as the sound source. Surface pressure augmentation and phase differences were computed from measured data for various sound wave incidence angles. Results are graphically compared with theoretical predictions supplied by NASA for ka = 0.407, 2.288, and 4.232. All other results are tabulated in the appendices. With minor exceptions, the experimentally determined pressure augmentations agreed within 0.75 dB with theoretical predictions. The agreement for relative phase angles was within 5 percent without any exceptions. Scattering parameter variations with ka and L/D ratio, as computed from experimental data, are also presented.
Turbulence statistics of flow over scoured cohesive sediment bed around circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debnath, K.; Manik, M. K.; Mazumder, B. S.
2012-06-01
The effect of clay content on the mean flow, turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stress and conditional statistics of the Reynolds shear stress was investigated within and above the equilibrium scour hole around circular cylinder embedded in cohesive sediment bed having clay fractions 0.1 and 0.2. Detailed three dimensional velocity components were measured at three different cross-sections: upstream, sideward and downstream of the pier covering flow regions within and above the scour hole using 3D Micro acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). It is observed that within the scour hole region the sweeping events play a dominant role at both the side and the front of the pier while the ejection events play a dominant role in the outer flow region. At the scour hole surface a thin layer of ejection dominant pocket is seen both at the pier front and the side. This resulted in kolk-boils phenomenon at the interface layer of sweep and ejection dominance which probably instigated the scouring process. In addition, the mean time interval of the turbulent bursting events within and above the scour hole is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tumkur, Ravi Kumar R.; Domany, Elad; Gendelman, Oleg V.; Masud, Arif; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.
2013-07-01
The nonlinear interaction of a laminar flow and a sprung rigid circular cylinder results in vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of the cylinder. Passive suppression of the VIV by attaching an internal nonlinear vibration absorber that acts, in essence, as a nonlinear energy sink (NES) to the cylinder has been observed in finite-element computations involving thousands of degrees of freedom (DOF). A single-DOF self-excited oscillator is developed to approximate the limit-cycle oscillation (LCO) of the cylinder undergoing VIV. This self-excited oscillator models the interaction of the flow and the cylinder. Then, a two-DOF reduced-order model for the system with the internal NES is constructed by coupling the single-DOF NES to the single-DOF self-excited oscillator. Hence, the complicated high-dimensional system of flow-cylinder-NES involving thousands of DOF is reduced to a two-DOF model. The two targeted energy transfer mechanisms responsible for passive VIV suppression that are observed in the finite-element computations are fully reproduced using the two-DOF reduced-order model. This reduction of the dynamics to an easily tractable low-dimensional reduced-order model facilitates the approximate analysis of the underlying dynamics. Moreover, the underlying assumptions of the order reduction, and the parameter ranges of validity of the reduced-order model are formulated and systematically studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tumkur, Ravi Kumar R.; Calderer, Ramon; Masud, Arif; Pearlstein, Arne J.; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.
2013-07-01
For a Reynolds number (Re) based on cylinder diameter of 100, and a ratio of cylinder density to fluid density of 10, we investigate the effect of a strongly nonlinear internal attachment on the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a rigid circular cylinder restrained by a linear spring, and constrained to move perpendicularly to the mean flow. The variational multiscale residual-based stabilized finite-element method used to compute approximate solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations about the moving cylinder is coupled to a simple model of a "nonlinear energy sink" (NES), an essentially nonlinear oscillator consisting of a mass, a linear damper, and a strongly nonlinear spring. The NES promotes nearly one-way transfer of energy to itself from the primary structure (the cylinder), resulting in reduction of the amplitude of the limit-cycle oscillation by as much as 75%, depending on the parameters characterizing the NES. Various mechanisms of nonlinear interaction of the NES with the cylinder undergoing VIV are discussed. Although no optimization of the NES is performed in this work, we demonstrate capacity for passive suppression of VIV and compare the performance of the NES to the tuned linear absorber of equal mass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sone, Yoshio; Doi, Toshiyuki
2000-10-01
Time-independent behavior of a gas between two coaxial circular cylinders made of the condensed phase of the gas, where the cylinders are rotating around their common axis and evaporation or condensation is taking place, is considered with special attention given to bifurcation of the flow. The problem is studied analytically for small values of the speeds of rotation of the cylinders and the Knudsen number on the basis of the Boltzmann equation, and the solution is obtained explicitly. The bifurcation of flow occurs even in a simple case where the gas is axially symmetric and uniform (or the flow field depends only on the radial coordinate). The comprehensive feature of the bifurcation of flow is clarified with the explicit forms of solutions and the bifurcation diagram.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, H.; Shu, C.; Yeo, K. S.; Xu, D.
2007-01-01
In this paper, the mesh-free least square-based finite difference (MLSFD) method is applied to numerically study the flow field around two circular cylinders arranged in side-by-side and tandem configurations. For each configuration, various geometrical arrangements are considered, in order to reveal the different flow regimes characterized by the gap between the two cylinders. In this work, the flow simulations are carried out in the low Reynolds number range, that is, Re=100 and 200. Instantaneous vorticity contours and streamlines around the two cylinders are used as the visualization aids. Some flow parameters such as Strouhal number, drag and lift coefficients calculated from the solution are provided and quantitatively compared with those provided by other researchers.
Baran, Anthony J
2003-05-20
The scalar optical properties (extinction coefficient, mass extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter) of a distribution of randomly oriented ice aggregates are simulated generally to well within 4% accuracy by use of a size-shape distribution of randomly oriented circular ice cylinders at wavelengths in the terrestrial window region. The single-scattering properties of the ice aggregates are calculated over the whole size distribution function by the finite-difference time-domain and improved geometric optics methods. The single-scattering properties of the size-shape distribution of circular ice cylinders are calculated by the T-matrix method supplemented by scattering solutions obtained from complex-angular-momentum theory. Moreover, radiative-transfer studies demonstrate that the maximum error in brightness temperature space when the size-shape distribution of circular ice cylinders is used to represent scattering from ice aggregates is only approximately 0.4 K The methodology presented should find wide applicability in remote sensing of ice cloud and parameterization of cirrus cloud scalar optical properties in climate models. PMID:12777019
Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Circular Pipes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tosun, Ismail
2007-01-01
One of the pitfalls of engineering education is to lose the physical insight of the problem while tackling the mathematical part. Forced convection heat transfer (the Graetz-Nusselt problem) certainly falls into this category. The equation of energy together with the equation of motion leads to a partial differential equation subject to various…
CFD approach to flow-induced vibrations of tandemly placed circular cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikawa, Naoki; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji
2012-03-01
In the present study, we numerically examined the vibration characteristics of two cylinders which were placed tandemly in close vicinity of each other. The center-to-center pitch between the cylinders was four times the diameter of the cylinders. The cylinders were modeled as rigid bodies with two degrees-of-freedom in the simulation. The vibration frequencies of the cylinders were calculated, with the reduced velocity being varied. The vortex formation process was observed with regard to reduced velocity and structural damping. Also, the effects of the reduced velocity of the flow, the eigenfrequency of the cylinder, and the structural damping of the cylinder on the vibration response were discussed. A comparison was made between numerical results and the experimental ones obtained by means of the high-speed particle image velocimetry (Dynamic PIV) measurement.
Interaction theory of hypersonic laminar near-wake flow behind an adiabatic circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinman, W. Schuyler; Johansen, C. T.
2015-12-01
The separation and shock wave formation on the aft-body of a hypersonic adiabatic circular cylinder were studied numerically using the open source software OpenFOAM. The simulations of laminar flow were performed over a range of Reynolds numbers (8× 10^3 < Re < 8× 10^4 ) at a free-stream Mach number of 5.9. Off-body viscous forces were isolated by controlling the wall boundary condition. It was observed that the off-body viscous forces play a dominant role compared to the boundary layer in displacement of the interaction onset in response to a change in Reynolds number. A modified free-interaction equation and correlation parameter has been presented which accounts for wall curvature effects on the interaction. The free-interaction equation was manipulated to isolate the contribution of the viscous-inviscid interaction to the overall pressure rise and shock formation. Using these equations coupled with high-quality simulation data, the underlying mechanisms resulting in Reynolds number dependence of the lip-shock formation were investigated. A constant value for the interaction parameter representing the part of the pressure rise due to viscous-inviscid interaction has been observed at separation over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The effect of curvature has been shown to be the primary contributor to the Reynolds number dependence of the free-interaction mechanism at separation. The observations in this work have been discussed here to create a thorough analysis of the Reynolds number-dependent nature of the lip-shock.
Control of flow around a circular cylinder for minimizing energy dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naito, Hiroshi; Fukagata, Koji
2014-11-01
Control of flow around a circular cylinder is studied numerically aiming at minimization of the energy dissipation. First, we derive a mathematical relationship (i.e., identity) between the energy dissipation in an infinitely large volume and the surface quantities, so that the cost function can be expressed by the surface quantities only. Subsequently a control law to minimize the energy dissipation is derived by using the suboptimal control procedure [J. Fluid Mech. 401, 123 (1999), 10.1017/S002211209900659X]. The performance of the present suboptimal control law is evaluated by a parametric study by varying the value of the arbitrary parameter contained. Two Reynolds numbers, Re =100 and 1000, are investigated by two-dimensional simulations. Although no improvement is obtained at Re =100 , the present suboptimal control shows better results at Re =1000 than the suboptimal controls previously proposed. With the present suboptimal control, the dissipation and the drag are reduced by 58% and 44% as compared to the uncontrolled case, respectively. The suction around the front stagnation point and the blowing in the rear half are found to be weakened as compared to those in the previous suboptimal control targeting at pressure drag reduction. A predetermined control based on the control input profile obtained by the suboptimal control is also performed. The energy dissipation and the drag are found to be reduced as much as those in the present suboptimal control. It is also found that the present suboptimal and predetermined controls have better energy efficiencies than the suboptimal control previously proposed. Investigation at different control amplitudes reveals an advantage of the present control at higher amplitude. Toward its practical implementation, a localized version of the predetermined control is also examined, and it is found to work as effectively as the continuous case. Finally, the present predetermined control is confirmed to work well in a three
Flow control around a circular cylinder using pulsed dielectric barrier discharge surface plasma
Jukes, Timothy N.; Choi, Kwing-So
2009-08-15
Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators have been used to control the flow around a circular cylinder at Re=15 000, where the near-wake structure was studied using time-resolved particle image velocimetry with simultaneous measurements of the dynamic lift and drag forces. It was shown that the vortex shedding was suppressed when the surface plasma placed near the natural separation point was activated in a pulsed mode at nondimensional frequency, f{sub p}{sup +}, above 0.6 with a force coefficient, C{sub p}, greater than 0.05%. Plasma actuator performance on flow control was summarized by mapping the changes in drag and lift fluctuations as a function of the forcing frequency and the force coefficient. They showed that more than 70% reduction in lift fluctuations was obtained with up to 32% drag reduction at f{sub p}{sup +}=2.0 and C{sub p}=0.32%. Here, narrowing of the wake was observed as the plasma promoted shear-layer roll-ups at the forcing frequency. This, however, did not affect the shear layer on the opposite side of the wake. At nondimensional forcing frequencies less than 0.6, the vortex shedding locked onto a multiple of the plasma frequency to amplify the wake oscillations. This caused more than 85% increase in lift fluctuations with 8% drag increase at f{sub p}{sup +}=0.2 and C{sub p}=0.01%. The efficiency of flow control using DBD plasma was found to be 1%-2% for drag reduction while around 6% for drag increase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ming; Yan, Guirong
2013-08-01
Two-degree-of-freedom Vortex-Induced Vibration (VIV) of two rigidly coupled circular cylinders of different diameters at a low Reynolds number of 250 is investigated numerically. While the diameter ratio and the mass ratio are kept constant, the study is focused on the effect of the position angle of the small cylinder on the lock-in regime of the VIV. Simulations are carried out for position angles α of the small cylinder ranging from 0° to 180° with an interval of 22.5° and the reduced velocities ranging from 1 to 15 with an increment of 1. In order to find the effect of the gap between the two cylinders on the vibration, two gap-to-diameter ratios (0 and 0.2) are considered. It is found that compared with a single cylinder case, the lock-in regime of the reduced velocity is widened significantly when the position angle of the small cylinder is α = 0°, 22.5°, 90°, or 112.5°. Pulsed beating phenomenon characterized by regular vibration with occasional high-amplitude disturbances at regular or irregular intervals is observed at G = 0 and α = 90°. At α = 135°, more than one lock-in regimes are observed in the computed range of reduced velocity for both gaps (G = 0 and 0.2). Setting a small gap (gap-to-diameter ratio of 0.2) between the two cylinders mitigates the vibration by narrowing the lock-in regime and reducing the vibration amplitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Stephen A.
2016-05-01
Long thin circular cylinders commonly serve as towed sonar tracking devices, where the radius-of-curvature along the longitudinal axis is quite low [ρr = O(10-4)]. Because no understanding presently exists about the direct impact of longitudinal curvature on the turbulent statistics, the long cylinder is simply viewed as a chain of straight segments at various (increasing then decreasing) small inclinations to the freestream direction. Realistically, even our statistical evidence along straight thin cylinders at low incidence angles is inadequate to build solid evidence towards forming reliable empirical models. In the present study, we address these shortcomings by executing Large-Eddy Simulations (LESs) of straight and longitudinally curved thin cylinders at low to moderate turbulent radius-based Reynolds numbers (500 ≤ Rea ≤ 3500) and small angles-of-incidence (α = 0° → 9°). Coupled with the previous experimental measurements and numerical results, the new expanded database (311 ≤ Rea ≤ 56 500) delivered sufficient means to propose power-law expressions for the longitudinal evolution of the skin friction, normal drag, and turbulent boundary layer (TBL) length scales. Surprisingly, the LES computations of the curved cylinders at analogous geometric and kinematic conditions as the straight cylinder showed similar character in terms of the longitudinal skin friction. Beyond incidence 1°-3° (upper end corresponds to the highest simulated Rea), the skin friction was directly proportional to the yaw angle and monotonically shifted downward with higher Rea. Conversely, the flow structure, normal drag, TBL length scales, Reynolds stresses, and the separation state of the transverse shear layers towards regular vortex shedding for the curved cylinder were highly dissimilar than the straight one at equivalent incidence angles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huera-Huarte, F. J.; Bearman, P. W.
2011-02-01
Results showing the dynamic response of a tandem arrangement of two vertical high aspect ratio (length over diameter) and low mass ratio (mass over mass of displaced fluid) flexible cylinders vibrating at low mode number are presented in this paper. Two circular cylinder models were aligned with the flow, so the downstream or trailing cylinder was immersed in the wake of the leading one. Centre-to-centre distances from 2 to 4 diameters were studied. The models were very similar in design, with external diameters of 16 mm and a total length of 1.5 m. Reynolds numbers up to 12 000 were achieved with reduced velocities, based on the fundamental natural frequency of the downstream cylinder in still water, up to 16. The trailing model had a mass ratio of 1.8 with a combined mass-damping parameter of 0.049, whilst the corresponding figures for the leading cylinder were 1.45 and 0.043, respectively. The dynamic response of the trailing model has been analysed by studying cross-flow and in-line amplitudes, dominant frequencies and modal amplitudes. The dynamic response of the leading one is analysed by means of its cross-flow amplitudes and dominant frequencies and it is also related to the motion of the trailing cylinder by studying the synchronisation between their instantaneous cross-flow motions. Planar digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) was used to visualise the wake. Different response regimes have been identified based on the type of oscillations exhibited by the cylinders: vortex-induced (VIV), wake-induced (WIV) or combinations of both.
Heat Transfer from a Horizontal Cylinder Rotating in Oil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seban, R. A.; Johnson, H. A.
1959-01-01
Measurements of the heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder rotating about its axis have been made with oil as the surrounding fluid to provide an addition to the heat-transfer results for this system heretofore available only for air. The results embrace a Prandtl number range from about 130 to 660, with Reynolds numbers up to 3 x 10(exp 4), and show an increasing dependence of free-convection heat transfer on rotation as the Prandtl number is increased by reducing the oil temperature. Some correlation of this effect, which agrees with the prior results for air, has been achieved. At higher rotative speeds the flow becomes turbulent, the free- convection effect vanishes, and the results with oil can be correlated generally with those for air and with mass-transfer results for even higher Prandtl numbers. For this system, however, the analogy calculations which have successfully related the heat transfer to the friction for pipe flows at high Prandtl numbers fail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machynia, Adam
Analytic solutions to the static and stationary boundary value field problems relative to an arbitrary configuration of parallel cylinders are obtained by using translational addition theorems for scalar Laplacian polar functions, to express the field due to one cylinder in terms of the polar coordinates of the other cylinders such that the boundary conditions can be imposed at all the cylinder surfaces. The constants of integration in the field expressions of all the cylinders are obtained from a truncated infinite matrix equation. Translational addition theorems are available for scalar cylindrical and spherical wave functions but such theorems are not directly available for the general solution of the Laplace equation in polar coordinates. The purpose of deriving these addition theorems and applying them to field problems involving systems of cylinders is to obtain exact analytic solutions with controllable accuracies, thereby, yielding benchmark solutions to validate other approximate numerical methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Tiezhi; Ganesh, Harish; Ceccio, Steven
2015-11-01
At sufficiently low cavitation number, the wake vortices behind bluff objects will cavitate. The presence of developed cavitation can alter the underlying vortical flow. In this study, cavitation dynamics in the wake of a circular cylinder is examined in order to determine the relationship between the void fraction in the cavity wake and the resulting modification to the flow compared to the non-cavitating flow. Cavitation in the wake of a cylinder is investigated using high-speed video cameras and cinematographic X-ray densitometry. Using synchronized top and side views from high-speed video cameras, the morphology and extent of the cavities forming on the wake of the circular cylinder is studied for a range of cavitation numbers, at a Reynolds number of 1x10-5, which lies at the transition region between sub-critical to critical regime of wake transitions. The time resolved and mean X-ray densitometry based void fraction of the spanwise and plan view averaged flow field will be related to the vortex dynamics in an attempt to understand the role of vapor production in the observed dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaev, S. A.; Sudakov, A. G.; Zhukova, Yu. V.; Usachovd, A. E.
2014-07-01
An analysis of the physical processes in unsteady fl ow past a circular cylinder surrounded by a sheath with ports for bleeding of the medium has been made by a factorized fi nite-volume method on the basis of numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations closed with the Menter sheer-stress-transfer model. It has been shown that such arrangement of a circular cylinder ensures stabilization of the wake of the cylinder, and also the reduction in its drag and cessation of the action of an alternating transverse force at Reynolds numbers higher than 105.
Natural convection heat transfer on two horizontal cylinders in liquid sodium
Hata, K.; Shiotsu, M.; Takeuchi, Y.
1995-09-01
Natural convection heat transfer on two horizontal 7.6 mm diameter test cylinders assembled with the ratio of the distance between each cylinder axis to the cylinder diameter, S/D, of 2 in liquid sodium was studied experimentally and theoretically. The heat transfer coefficients on the cylinder surface due to the same heat inputs ranging from 1.0 X 10{sup 7} to 1.0 x 10{sup 9} W/m{sup 3} were obtained experimentally for various setting angeles, {gamma}, between vertical direction and the plane including both of these cylinder axis over the range of zero to 90{degrees}. Theoretical equations for laminar natural convection heat transfer from the two horizontal cylinders were numerically solved for the same conditions as the experimental ones considering the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties concerned. The average Nusselt numbers, Nu, values on the Nu versus modified Rayleigh number, R{sub f}, graph. The experimental values of Nu for the upper cylinder are about 20% lower than those for the lower cylinder at {gamma} = 0{degrees} for the range of R{sub f} tested here. The value of Nu for the upper cylinder becomes higher and approaches that for the lower cylinder with the increase in {gamma} over range of 0 to 90{degrees}. The values of Nu for the lower cylinder at each {gamma} are almost in agreement with those for a single cylinder. The theoretical values of Nu on two cylinders except those for R{sub f}<4 at {gamma} = 0{degrees} are in agreement with the experimental data at each {gamma} with the deviations less than 15%. Correlations for Nu on the upper and lower cylinders were obtained as functions of S/D and {gamma} based n the theoretical solutions for the S/D ranged over 1.5 to 4.0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singha, Sintu; Nagarajan, Kaushik Kumar; Sinhamahapatra, K. P.
2016-05-01
Incompressible flows at low Reynolds numbers over two identical side-by-side circular cylinders have been investigated numerically using unstructured finite volume method. The gap between the cylinders (g) and Reynolds number (Re) considered in the study lies respectively in the range of 0.2 ≤ g/D ≤ 4.0 (D being the diameter of the cylinder) and 20 ≤ Re ≤ 160. Low Reynolds number steady flows are given considerable importance. Two types of wakes are observed in the steady flow regime; the first type is characterized by attached vortices as in the case of an isolated cylinder and the other type is identified by detached standing vortices in the downstream. Reynolds number at which flow turns unsteady is quantified for each gap width. Five different types of wake patterns are observed in the unsteady flow regime: single bluff body wake, deflected wake, flip-flopping wake, in-phase synchronized, and anti-phase synchronized wakes. Present simulations of the evolution of single bluff-body wake demonstrate presence of vortices in the gap side too. The very long time simulations show that below a limiting Re depending on the gap, there is a transition of fully developed initial anti-phase flow to the in-phase flow at a later time. The limiting Reynolds number for this phase bifurcation phenomenon is evaluated in the (Re, g/D) space. A properly calibrated reduced order model based stability analysis is carried out to investigate the phase transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gunnoo, Hans; Abcha, Nizar; Ezersky, Alexander
2016-02-01
The influence of harmonic surface wave on non-regular Karman Vortex Street is investigated. In our experiments, Karman Street arises behind a vertical circular cylinder in a water flow and harmonic surface waves propagating upstream. It is found that surface waves can modify regimes of shedding in Karman Street: frequency lock-in and synchronization of vortex shedding can arise. Intensive surface waves can excite symmetric vortex street instead of chess-like street, and completely suppress shedding behind the cylinder. It is shown experimentally that such effects occur if frequency of harmonic surface wave is approximately twice higher than the frequency of vortex shedding. Region of frequency lock-in is found on the plane amplitude-frequency of surface wave.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, Veer N.; Singer, Bart A.
2003-01-01
We evaluate the applicability of a production computational fluid dynamics code for conducting detached eddy simulation for unsteady flows. A second-order accurate Navier-Stokes code developed at NASA Langley Research Center, known as TLNS3D, is used for these simulations. We focus our attention on high Reynolds number flow (Re = 5 x 10(sup 4) - 1.4 x 10(sup 5)) past a circular cylinder to simulate flows with large-scale separations. We consider two types of flow situations: one in which the flow at the separation point is laminar, and the other in which the flow is already turbulent when it detaches from the surface of the cylinder. Solutions are presented for two- and three-dimensional calculations using both the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes paradigm and the detached eddy simulation treatment. All calculations use the standard Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model as the base model.
Pepper, D.W.; Douglass, R.W.; Heinrich, J.C.
1996-12-31
The first two sections as listed in the title contain 7 papers. The third section on thermal analysis contains 18 papers arranged into the following topical areas: Thermal treatment and municipal wastes; Thermal hydraulics in hazardous and nuclear waste processing and disposal; and Waste processing. Heat transfer in fire and combustion systems contains 17 papers arranged into the following topical sections: Soot/radiation; Combustion systems; Multiphase combustion; and Flames and fires. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Hyunseok; Park, Hyungmin
2015-08-01
The present study investigates the effect that rough hydrophobic (or superhydrophobic) surfaces have on the flow separation and subsequent vortex structures in a turbulent wake behind a circular cylinder. The velocity fields were measured using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry in a water tunnel with Reynolds numbers of 0.7-2.3 × 104. The spray-coating of hydrophobic nanoparticles and roughened Teflon was used to produce the rough hydrophobic surfaces, and sandpapers with two different grit sizes were used to sand the Teflon into streamwise and spanwise directions, respectively, in order to examine the effect of the slip direction. The rough hydrophobic surface was found to enhance the turbulence in the flows above the circular cylinder and along the separating shear layers, resulting in a delay of the flow separation and early vortex roll-up in the wake. As a result, the size of the recirculation bubble in the wake was reduced by up to 40%, while the drag reduction of less than 10% is estimated from a wake survey. However, these effects are reversed as the Reynolds number increases. The surface texture normal to the flow direction (spanwise slip) was found to be more effective than that aligned to the flow (streamwise slip), supporting the suggested mechanism. In addition, the superhydrophobic surface is locally applied by varying the installation angle and that applied around the separation point is most effective, indicating that the rough hydrophobic surface directly affects the boundary layer at flow separation. In order to control the flow around a circular cylinder using rough hydrophobic surfaces, it is suggested to have a smaller roughness width, which can stably retain air pockets. In addition, a higher gas fraction and a more uniform distribution of the roughness size are helpful to enhance the performance such as the separation delay and drag reduction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alam, Muntasir; Kamruzzaman, Ahsan, Faraz; Hasan, Mohammad Nasim
2016-07-01
A numerical study of mixed convection heat transfer phenomena in a square cavity containing a heat conducting rotating cylinder has been investigated. A discrete isoflux heater is placed at the bottom wall of the enclosure while the top wall is kept adiabatic. Left and right sidewalls of the enclosure are assumed to be maintained at constant low temperature. A two-dimensional solution for steady laminar mixed convection flow is obtained by using the finite element scheme based on the Galerkin method of weighted residuals for different rotating speeds of the cylinder varying over the range of 0-1000 keeping the Rayleigh number fixed at 5×104 and the Prandtl number at 0.7. The effects of rotating speeds of the cylinder, its radius and conductivity ratio of the rotating cylinder and working fluid on the streamlines, isotherms, local Nusselt number, average Nusselt number and other heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena are investigated. The results indicate that the flow field, temperature distribution and heat transfer rate are dependent on rotating speeds and cylinder size. However, it has been observed that the effect of conductivity ratio is not so prominent.
Chen, S.S.
1981-05-01
A mathematical model is presented for a group of circular cylinders subject to crossflow. The fluid-force coefficients in the model are determined from available experimental data. It is found that there are three dynamic instability mechanisms: galloping controlled by fluid damping, flutter controlled by fluidelastic force, and coupled galloping-flutter instability controlled by both fluid damping and fluidelastic force. Closed-form solutions of the critical flow velocity for galloping and flutter are obtained based on constrained modes. Experimental data are found to be in good agreement with the analytical results.
Hau-Riege, S
2005-04-12
We have developed an algorithm that extends the possible size-parameter range for the calculation of plane-wave light scattering from infinite homogeneous circular cylinders using a Mie-type analysis. Our algorithm is based on the calculation of the ratios of Bessel functions instead of calculating the Bessel functions or their logarithmic derivatives directly. We have found that this algorithm agrees with existing methods (when those methods converge). We have also found that our algorithm converges in cases of very large size parameters, in which case other algorithms often do not.
A simple model of axisymmetric turbulent boundary layers along long thin circular cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Stephen A.
2014-08-01
Useful empirical and semi-empirical models of the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and skin friction evolution along planar geometries are not applicable for axisymmetric thin cylinder flows. Their dissimilarity is readily detectable once the TBL thickness exceeds the cylinder radius (a). Although several recent empirically based axisymmetric models recognize this fact, their acceptable fidelity is either restrictive or deficient for general applicability. Herein, we correct this deficit by building a simple model for the specific canonical class of axisymmetric turbulent flows along long thin cylinders with a zero streamwise pressure gradient. Streamwise growth of the TBL thickness (δ/a), integral scales [displacement (δ*/a) and momentum thicknesses (θ/a)] and skin friction coefficient (Cf) can be estimated along the cylinder length via the respective axial mean velocity profile in wall units. This profile is given by Spalding's formula with algebraic expressions for the two input parameters (κ, κβ) that cover all turbulent Reynolds numbers. The necessary database for empirically tuning Spalding's parameters entails both experimental measurements and new numerical computations. Our present-day understanding of the axisymmetric TBL is replicated by the simple model where δ/a, δ*/a, and θ/a grow slower than the planar-type flow with Cf comparatively elevating once δ/a > O(1). These differences manifest themselves in the radial impact imposed by the thin cylinder transverse curvature. Interestingly, the axial-based Reynolds numbers Rea ≈ 7500 and a+ ≈ 350 at δ/a ≈ 21 mark earliest signs of a homogeneous streamwise state (constant Cf) near the cylinder wall. Owning a simple model of axisymmetric turbulent flows along thin cylinders eliminates expensive and timely experiments and/or computations. Its practicality targets both the Naval and oceanographic communities.
Microwave heating and joining of ceramic cylinders: A mathematical model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Booty, Michael R.; Kriegsmann, Gregory A.
1994-01-01
A thin cylindrical ceramic sample is placed in a single mode microwave applicator in such a way that the electric field strength is allowed to vary along its axis. The sample can either be a single rod or two rods butted together. We present a simple mathematical model which describes the microwave heating process. It is built on the assumption that the Biot number of the material is small, and that the electric field is known and uniform throughout the cylinder's cross-section. The model takes the form of a nonlinear parabolic equation of reaction-diffusion type, with a spatially varying reaction term that corresponds to the spatial variation of the electromagnetic field strength in the waveguide. The equation is analyzed and a solution is found which develops a hot spot near the center of the cylindrical sample and which then propagates outwards until it stabilizes. The propagation and stabilization phenomenon concentrates the microwave energy in a localized region about the center where elevated temperatures may be desirable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schey, Oscar W; Rollin, Vern G
1936-01-01
This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of baffles on the temperature distribution and the heat-transfer coefficient of finned cylinders. The tests were conducted in a 30-inch wind tunnel on electrically heated cylinders with fins of 0.25 and 0.31 inch pitch. The results of these tests showed that the use of integral baffles gave a reduction of 31.9 percent in the rear wall temperatures and an increase of 54.2 percent in the heat transfer coefficient as compared with a cylinder without baffles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaunky, N.; Ambur, D. R.; Knight, N. F., Jr.
1998-01-01
A design strategy for optimal design of composite grid-stiffened cylinders subjected to global and local buckling constraints and strength constraints was developed using a discrete optimizer based on a genetic algorithm. An improved smeared stiffener theory was used for the global analysis. Local buckling of skin segments were assessed using a Rayleigh-Ritz method that accounts for material anisotropy. The local buckling of stiffener segments were also assessed. Constraints on the axial membrane strain in the skin and stiffener segments were imposed to include strength criteria in the grid-stiffened cylinder design. Design variables used in this study were the axial and transverse stiffener spacings, stiffener height and thickness, skin laminate stacking sequence and stiffening configuration, where stiffening configuration is a design variable that indicates the combination of axial, transverse and diagonal stiffener in the grid-stiffened cylinder. The design optimization process was adapted to identify the best suited stiffening configurations and stiffener spacings for grid-stiffened composite cylinder with the length and radius of the cylinder, the design in-plane loads and material properties as inputs. The effect of having axial membrane strain constraints in the skin and stiffener segments in the optimization process is also studied for selected stiffening configurations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.
1998-01-01
A design strategy for optimal design of composite grid-stiffened cylinders subjected to global and local buckling constraints and, strength constraints is developed using a discrete optimizer based on a genetic algorithm. An improved smeared stiffener theory is used for the global analysis. Local buckling of skin segments are assessed using a Rayleigh-Ritz method that accounts for material anisotropy. The local buckling of stiffener segments are also assessed. Constraints on the axial membrane strain in the skin and stiffener segments are imposed to include strength criteria in the grid-stiffened cylinder design. Design variables used in this study are the axial and transverse stiffener spacings, stiffener height and thickness, skin laminate stacking sequence, and stiffening configuration, where herein stiffening configuration is a design variable that indicates the combination of axial, transverse, and diagonal stiffener in the grid-stiffened cylinder. The design optimization process is adapted to identify the best suited stiffening configurations and stiffener spacings for grid-stiffened composite cylinder with the length and radius of the cylinder, the design in-plane loads, and material properties as inputs. The effect of having axial membrane strain constraints in the skin and stiffener segments in the optimization process is also studied for selected stiffening configuration.
Suppression of vortex shedding for flow around a circular cylinder using optimal control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Homescu, C.; Navon, I. M.; Li, Z.
2002-01-01
Adjoint formulation is employed for the optimal control of flow around a rotating cylinder, governed by the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The main objective consists of suppressing Karman vortex shedding in the wake of the cylinder by controlling the angular velocity of the rotating body, which can be constant in time or time-dependent. Since the numerical control problem is ill-posed, regularization is employed. An empirical logarithmic law relating the regularization coefficient to the Reynolds number was derived for 60Re140. Optimal values of the angular velocity of the cylinder are obtained for Reynolds numbers ranging from Re=60 to Re=1000. The results obtained by the computational optimal control method agree with previously obtained experimental and numerical observations. A significant reduction of the amplitude of the variation of the drag coefficient is obtained for the optimized values of the rotation rate. Copyright
Effect of surface expansion on transient heat transfer from a cylinder in cross flow
Youssef, F.A.
1996-12-31
Use is made of a certain transformation that fixes the integration domain with time in order to numerically solve the problem of forced convection beat transfer from an impulsively started translating, rotating and expanding circular cylinder. A previously derived stability condition for the expanding cylinder surface is also used. This condition assists in using the classical explicit forward in time-centered space scheme to solve the vorticity and the energy equation with a reasonable time step. The Fast Fourier Transform is used to solve the Poisson equation for the stream function. The time development of the temperature field is obtained and discussed. The progress of the local Nusselt number over the circular cylinder surface with time is explored. The effects of different parameters related to the flow field, surface expansion and rotation are investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Fossen, G. J.; Simoneau, R. J.; Olsen, W. A.; Shaw, R. J.
1984-01-01
Local heat transfer coefficients were obtained on irregular cylindrical shapes which typify the accretion of ice on circular cylinders in cross flow. The shapes were 2, 5, and 15 min accumulations of glaze ice and 15 min accumulation of rime ice. These icing shapes were averaged axially to obtain a nominal shape of constant cross section for the heat transfer tests. Heat transfer coefficients were also measured around the cylinder with no ice accretion. The models were run in a 15.2 x 68.6 cm (6 x 27 in.) wind tunnel at several velocities. The models were also run with a turbulence producing grid which gave about 3.5 percent turbulence. The effect of roughness was also simulated with sand grains glued to the surface. Results are presented as Nusselt number versus angle from the stagnation line for the smooth and rough models for both high and low levels of free stream turbulence. Roughness of the surface in the region prior to flow separation plays a major role in determining the heat transfer distribution. Free stream turbulence does not affect the distribution of heat transfer in this region but raises the level by a nearly uniform amount. For the rime shape, roughness had a larger effect in the near wedge shaped region past the initial separation point.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumert, Brandon Max; Muller, Susan J.
1997-03-01
Flow visualization of two highly elastic, nonshear-thinning polyisobutylene/polybutene fluids in the gap between concentric cylinders was performed over a range of shear rates and choices of relative cylinder rotations. The observed secondary flows are discussed in terms of destabilizing elastic and centrifugal forces. In the more viscous, more elastic fluid, instabilities are found to be independent of the choice of rotating cylinder and due entirely to elasticity. At the lowest shear rates examined, the first detectable secondary flows are steady counter-rotating vortices forming after a shearing time more than five orders of magnitude greater than the characteristic relaxation time of the fluid. At somewhat higher shear rates, a much more rapidly appearing oscillatory flow is observed to evolve into the steady vortex structure. In the less elastic fluid, the structure first detectable at the lowest shear rates is again steady vortices regardless of the choice of driving cylinder. At all shear rates examined, only elastic stationary vortices are observed in the absence of centrifugal destabilization (outer cylinder rotating). Secondary flows are significantly stronger in the presence of the centrifugal destabilization due to a rotating inner cylinder. Interaction of elasticity and centrifugal forces is found to generate a number of axially translating vortex structures, many of which are described here for the first time. At a shear rate more than five times the critical, another family of instability is observed which closely resembles a purely elastic instability observed by Baumert and Muller (1995). These experimental results are expected to provide a challenging test of numerical simulations of these viscoelastic flows.
Baumert, B.M.; Muller, S.J.
1997-03-01
Flow visualization of two highly elastic, nonshear-thinning polyisobutylene/polybutene fluids in the gap between concentric cylinders was performed over a range of shear rates and choices of relative cylinder rotations. The observed secondary flows are discussed in terms of destabilizing elastic and centrifugal forces. In the more viscous, more elastic fluid, instabilities are found to be independent of the choice of rotating cylinder and due entirely to elasticity. At the lowest shear rates examined, the first detectable secondary flows are steady counter-rotating vortices forming after a shearing time more than five orders of magnitude greater than the characteristic relaxation time of the fluid. At somewhat higher shear rates, a much more rapidly appearing oscillatory flow is observed to evolve into the steady vortex structure. In the less elastic fluid, the structure first detectable at the lowest shear rates is again steady vortices regardless of the choice of driving cylinder. At all shear rates examined, only elastic stationary vortices are observed in the absence of centrifugal destabilization (outer cylinder rotating). Secondary flows are significantly stronger in the presence of the centrifugal destabilization due to a rotating inner cylinder. Interaction of elasticity and centrifugal forces is found to generate a number of axially translating vortex structures, many of which are described here for the first time. At a shear rate more than five times the critical, another family of instability is observed which closely resembles a purely elastic instability observed by Baumert and Muller (1995). These experimental results are expected to provide a challenging test of numerical simulations of these viscoelastic flows. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Triplett, C.E.
1996-12-01
This thesis presents the results of an experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in a staggered array of heated cylinders, oriented horizontally within a rectangular enclosure. The main purpose of this research was to extend the knowledge of heat transfer within enclosed bundles of spent nuclear fuel rods sealed within a shipping or storage container. This research extends Canaan`s investigation of an aligned array of heated cylinders that thermally simulated a boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel assembly sealed within a shipping or storage cask. The results are presented in terms of piecewise Nusselt-Rayleigh number correlations of the form Nu = C(Ra){sup n}, where C and n are constants. Correlations are presented both for individual rods within the array and for the array as a whole. The correlations are based only on the convective component of the heat transfer. The radiative component was calculated with a finite-element code that used measured surface temperatures, rod array geometry, and measured surface emissivities as inputs. The correlation results are compared to Canaan`s aligned array results and to other studies of natural convection in horizontal tube arrays.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanfossen, G. J.; Simoneau, R. J.; Olsen, W. A.; Shaw, R. J.
1984-01-01
Local heat transfer coefficients were obtained on irregular cylindrical shapes which typify the accretion of ice on circular cylinders in cross flow. The ice shapes were grown on a 5.1 cm (2.0 in.) diameter cylinder in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. The shapes were 2, 5, and 15 min accumulations of glaze ice and 15 min accumulation of rime ice. Heat transfer coefficients were also measured around the cylinder with no ice accretion. These icing shapes were averaged axially to obtain a nominal shape of constant cross section for the heat transfer tests. Heat transfer coefficients around the perimeter of each shape were measured with electrically heated copper strips embedded in the surface of the model which was cast from polyurethane foam. Each strip contained a thermocouple to measure the local surface temperature. The models were run in a 15.2 x 68.6 cm (6 x 27 in.) wind tunnel at several velocities. Background turbulence in the wind tunnel was less than 0.5 percent. The models were also run with a turbulence producing grid which gave about 3.5 percent turbulence at the model location with the model removed. The effect of roughness was also simulated with sand grains glued to the surface. Results are presented as Nusselt number versus angle from the stagnation line for the smooth and rough models for both high and low levels of free stream turblence. Roughness of the surface in the region prior to flow separation plays a major role in determining the heat transfer distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Mohammed; Khan, Arham Amin; Hasan, Mohammad Nasim
2016-07-01
This article reports a numerical investigation of mixed convection heat transfer phenomena around an active rotating heated cylinder placed inside a trapezoidal enclosure. The cavity is configured such that top and bottom walls remain thermally insulated while the remaining two sidewalls experience a constant cold temperature. The heated cylinder is located at the centre of the trapezoidal enclosure and undergoes counter clockwise rotation. The numerical solution of various governing equations (i.e. continuity, momentum and energy equations) for the present problem is obtained by using Galerkin finite element method. The present study focused on the influence of the variation of inertia effect of the rotating cylinder as manifested by the parameter, Reynolds number (Re) for various Grashof number (Gr) ranging from 103 to 105 while keeping the Richardson number constant as 1, which essentially represents the case of pure mixed convection. An envision of flow field and thermal field has been made by studying the streamlines, isotherms respectively while for the study of heat transfer characteristics, local and average Nusselt number over the heated cylinder has been considered. The result indicates that both the side wall inclination angle as well as the inertia effect of the rotating cylinder has greater impact on heat transfer characteristics compared to the case of motionless heated cylinder placed in a square cavity.
A skin friction model for axisymmetric turbulent boundary layers along long thin circular cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Stephen A.
2013-07-01
Only a few engineering design models are presently available that adequately depict the axisymmetric skin friction (Cf) maturity along long thin turbulent cylinders. This deficit rests essentially on the experimental and numerical difficulties of measuring (or computing) the spatial evolution of the thin cylinder turbulence. Consequently, the present axisymmetric Cf models have questionable accuracy. Herein, we attempt to formulate a more robust Cf model that owns acceptable error. The formulation is founded on triple integration of the governing equation system that represents a thin cylinder turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at statistical steady-state in appropriate dimensionless units. The final model requires only the radius-based Reynolds number (Rea) and transverse curvature (δ/a) as input parameters. We tuned the accompanying coefficients empirically via an expanded statistical database (over 60 data points) that house new Cf values from large-eddy simulations (LES). The LES computations employed a turbulence inflow generation procedure that permits spatial resolution of the TBL at low-high Reynolds numbers and transverse curvatures. Compared to the new skin friction database, the Cf model revealed averaged predictive errors under 5% with a 3.5% standard deviation. Apart from owning higher values than the flat plate TBL, the most distinguishing characteristic of the axisymmetric skin friction is its rising levels when the boundary layer thickness exceeds the cylinder radius. All Cf levels diminish with increasing Reynolds number. These unique features differentiate the axisymmetric TBL along thin cylinders as a separate canonical flow when compared to the turbulent wall shear-layers of channels, pipes, and planar-type geometries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, F. H.
2000-12-01
Measurements are presented which show that, at a Reynolds number of 60, the Strouhal number for the shedding of vortices from a rotating cylinder is only weakly dependent on the value of α, the ratio of the cylinder's peripheral speed to its translational speed, up to the α value at which shedding is suppressed. This finding agrees with the theoretical results of Kang et al (1999 Phys. Fluids 11 3312), and strongly disagrees with those of Hu et al (1996 Phys. Fluids 8 1972). In addition, measurements were made to determine the α value at which shedding is suppressed for Reynolds numbers between 50 and 65. The results indicate a flow more stable than that predicted by both Hu et al and Kang et al.
Vibrations of a circular cylinder submerged in a fluid with a non-homogeneous upper boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sturova, I. V.
2014-05-01
Results of solving a linear problem on steady vibrations of a horizontal cylinder submerged in a fluid, whose upper boundary is partially closed by a solid lid, whereas the rest of the surface is free, are presented. Multipole and eigenfunction expansion methods are used. Reciprocity relations are derived. Added-mass and damping coefficients and the wave amplitudes on the free surface of the fluid are calculated.
The Flow Field Downstream of a Dynamic Low Aspect Ratio Circular Cylinder: A Parametric Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gildersleeve, Samantha; Dan, Clingman; Amitay, Michael
2015-11-01
Flow past a static, low aspect ratio cylinder (pin) has shown the formation of vortical structures, namely the horseshoe and arch-type vortex. These vortical structures may have substantial effects in controlling flow separation over airfoils. In the present experiments, the flow field associated with a low aspect ratio cylinder as it interacts with a laminar boundary layer under static and dynamic conditions was investigated through a parametric study over a flat plate. As a result of the pin being actuated in the wall-normal direction, the structures formed in the wake of the pin were seen to be a strong function of actuation amplitude, driving frequency, and aspect ratio of the cylinder. The study was conducted at a Reynolds number of 1875, based on the local boundary layer thickness, with a free stream velocity of 10 m/s. SPIV data were collected for two aspect ratios of 0.75 and 1.125, actuation amplitudes of 6.7% and 16.7%, and driving frequencies of 175 Hz and 350 Hz. Results indicate that the presence and interactions between vortical structures are altered in comparison to the static case and suggest increased large-scale mixing when the pin is driven at the shedding frequency (350 Hz). Supported by the Boeing Company.
Linear stability of radially-heated circular Couette flow with simulated radial gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tagg, Randy; Weidman, Patrick D.
2007-05-01
The stability of circular Couette flow between vertical concentric cylinders in the presence of a radial temperature gradient is considered with an effective “radial gravity.” In addition to terrestrial buoyancy - ρg e z we include the term - ρg m f(r)e r where g m f(r) is the effective gravitational acceleration directed radially inward across the gap. Physically, this body force arises in experiments using ferrofluid in the annular gap of a Taylor Couette cell whose inner cylinder surrounds a vertical stack of equally spaced disk magnets. The radial dependence f(r) of this force is proportional to the modified Bessel function K 1(κr), where 2π/κ is the spatial period of the magnetic stack and r is the radial coordinate. Linear stability calculations made to compare with conditions reported by Ali and Weidman (J. Fluid Mech., 220, 1990) show strong destabilization effects, measured by the onset Rayleigh number R, when the inner wall is warmer, and strong stabilization effects when the outer wall is warmer, with increasing values of the dimensionless radial gravity γ = g m /g. Further calculations presented for the geometry and fluid properties of a terrestrial laboratory experiment reveal a hitherto unappreciated structure of the stability problem for differentially-heated cylinders: multiple wavenumber minima exist in the marginal stability curves. Transitions in global minima among these curves give rise to a competition between differing instabilities of the same spiral mode number, but widely separated axial wavenumbers.
One- versus two-degree-of-freedom vortex-induced vibrations of a circular cylinder at Re=3900
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gsell, Simon; Bourguet, Rémi; Braza, Marianna
2015-11-01
The response of an elastically-mounted circular cylinder, immersed in a current and free to move either in the streamwise or cross-flow direction, or in both directions, is predicted by means of direct numerical simulation. The Reynolds number based on the inflow velocity and the cylinder diameter is kept equal to 3900. Each configuration is studied over a range of the reduced velocity (inverse of the oscillator natural frequency) encompassing the entire region of lock-in, i.e. where body motion and flow unsteadiness are synchronized. The impact of an additional degree of freedom on the body response and fluid loading is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the synchronization between the streamwise and cross-flow oscillations, their frequency ratio and phase difference, and to the frequency content of the fluid forces, including the occurrence of large higher harmonic contributions. The reciprocal influence of flow patterns and body motion is investigated on the basis of three-dimensional visualizations of the wake; the formation and modulation of the shear layer vortices is explored in this context.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Yen-Ming; Ou, Yuh-Roung; Pearlstein, Arne J.
1991-01-01
The temporal development of two-dimensional viscous incompressible flow generated by a circular cylinder started impulsively into steady rotatory and rectilinear motion is studied by integration of a velocity/vorticity formulation of the governing equations, using an explicit finite-difference/pseudo-spectral technique and an implementation of the Biot-Savart law. Results are presented for a Reynolds number of 200 (based on the cylinder diameter 2a and the magnitude U of the rectilinear velocity) for several values of the angular/rectilinear speed ratio alpha = (omega x a)/U (where omega is the angular speed) up to 3.25. Several aspects of the kinematics and dynamics of the flow not considered earlier are discussed. For higher values of alpha, the results indicate that for Re = 200, vortex shedding does indeed occur for alpha = 3.25. The shedding process is; however, very different from that which gives rise to the usual Karman vortex street for alpha = 0. In particular, consecutive vortices shed by the body can be shed from the same side and be of the same sense, in contrast to the nonrotating case, in which mirror-image vortices of opposite sense are shed alternately on opposite sides of the body. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to the possibility of suppressing vortex shedding by open or closed-loop control of the rotation rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, A. C.; Waechter, R. T.
1994-01-01
Waechter and Philip (1985) obtained the asymptotic expansion of the mean infiltration rate for large s from a buried circular cylinder using a scattering analog. Here s(= αl/2) is defined as the ratio of the characteristic length l of the water supply surface (in fact, its radius) to the sorptive length 2α-1 of the soil and a satisfies the relationship K(ψ) = K(0) eαψ, where K is the hydraulic conductivity, and ψ is the moisture potential. This exact solution cannot be used directly to obtain the separate contributions to the mean infiltration rate from the top and the bottom halves of the cylinder; our analysis is based on a new class of special functions derived from the modified Bessel equation with a forcing term. In this paper, we obtain the separate asymptotics for the two halves for large s to make a comparison with the results of the trench problem (Waechter and Mandal, 1993). The asymptotic expansions for top and bottom halves are (2/π)(0.69553s-2/3) and (2/π)(1+0.30066s-2/3), respectively, whereas for a semicircular trench, the mean infiltration rate is given by (2/π)(1+0.30066s-2/3).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malamataris, Nikolaos; Liakos, Anastasios
2015-11-01
The exact value of the Reynolds number regarding the inception of separation in the flow around a circular cylinder is still a matter of research. This work connects the inception of separation with the calculation of a positive pressure gradient around the circumference of the cylinder. The hypothesis is that inception of separation occurs when the pressure gradient becomes positive around the circumference. From the most cited laboratory experiments that have dealt with that subject of inception of separation only Thom has measured the pressure gradient there at very low Reynolds numbers (up to Re=3.5). For this reason, the experimental conditions of his tunnel are simulated in a new numerical experiment. The full Navier Stokes equations in both two and three dimensions are solved with a home made code that utilizes Galerkin finite elements. In the two dimensional numerical experiment, inception of separation is observed at Re=4.3, which is the lowest Reynolds number where inception has been reported computationally. Currently, the three dimensional experiment is under way, in order to compare if there are effects of three dimensional theory of separation in the conditions of Thom's experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'herde, Eric J.
Flow over a fixed circular cylinder is a fundamental fluid mechanics problem that involves a simple geometry; yet, as the Reynolds number is incremented, increasingly complex flow patterns emerge. Most notably, when the Reynolds number exceeds a value of about 46, a Benard-von Karman vortex street pattern appears. It is associated with a characteristic natural vortex shedding frequency. The objectives of this study are to numerically investigate the effects of an incoming free-stream velocity pulsation with a mean Reynolds number of 100 on the dynamic forces acting on a fixed circular cylinder, on the flow regimes behind the cylinder, and on heat transfer between the cylinder and surrounding fluid. Sinusoidal free-stream pulsations with velocity amplitude Av values of 25%, 50% and 75% that of the mean free-stream velocity, and selected frequencies in the range of one fourth the natural shedding frequency fs to five times fs were considered. Of particular interest, is the interaction between forced pulsating frequencies and the natural vortex shedding frequency. At frequencies close to the natural frequency, and to twice the natural frequency, sudden reductions in the mean value of the drag coefficient are observed, as the imposed frequency increases. These sudden reductions are accompanied by complex changes in flow regimes and vortex shedding patterns. The complexity of flow regimes as a function of the imposed pulsation variables was compiled into a frequency-amplitude map. This original map enables one to correlate changes in flow regimes to both dynamic forces and heat transfer characteristics. No net mean drag reduction was observed in the range of dimensionless amplitudes and frequencies considered, at a Reynolds number of 100. Local heat transfer enhancements of up to 86% were achieved for a specific frequency-amplitude pair. A particular finding is the appearance, for a narrow range of frequencies, of a non-zero mean lift coefficient, despite the overall
Flow of Supercritical Hydrogen in a Uniformly Heated Circular Tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Youn, B.; Mills, A. F.
1993-01-01
Turbulent flow of supercritical hydrogen through a uniformly heated circular tube has been investigated using numerical methods, for the range of 4 x 10(exp 5) less than Re less than 3 x 10(exp 6), 5 less than or equal to q(sub W) less than or equal to 10 MW/sq m, 30 less than or equal to T(sub in) less than or equal to 90 K, and 5 less than or equal to P(sub in) less than or equal to 15 MPa. The purpose is to validate a turbulence model and calculation method for the design of active cooling systems of hydrogen-fueled hypersonic aircraft, where the hydrogen fuel a used as coolant. The PHOENICS software package was used for the computations, which required special provision for evaluation of the thermophysical properties of the supercritical hydrogen, and a low Reynolds number form of the k-epsilon turbulence model. Pressure drop and heat transfer data were compared with experiment and existing correlations and good agreement was demonstrated. For the pressure range considered here a "thermal spike" was observed and shown to be due to the secondary peak in specific heat, rather than the primary peak.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockwood, Vernard E.; McKinney, Linwood W.
1960-01-01
A two-dimensional lifting circular cylinder has been tested over a Mach number range from 0.011 to 0.32 and a Reynolds number range from 135,000 to 1,580,000 to determine the force and pressure distribution characteristics. Two flaps having chords of 0.37 and 6 percent of the cylinder diameter, respectively, and attached normal to the surface were used to generate lift. A third configuration which had 6-percent flaps 1800 apart was also investigated. All flaps were tested through a range of angular positions. The investigation also included tests of a plain cylinder without flaps. The lift coefficient showed a wide variation with Reynolds number for the 6-percent flap mounted on the bottom surface at the 50-percent-diameter station, varying from a low of about 0.2 at a Reynolds number of 165,000 to a high of 1.54 at a Reynolds number of 350,000 and then decreasing almost linearly to a value of 1.0 at a Reynolds number of 1,580,000. The pressure distribution showed that the loss of lift with Reynolds number above the critical was the result of the separation point moving forward on the upper surface. Pressure distributions on a plain cylinder also showed similar trends with respect to the separation point. The variation of drag coefficient with Reynolds number was in direct contrast to the lift coefficient with the minimum drag coefficient of 0.6 occurring at a Reynolds number of 360,000. At this point the lift-drag ratios were a maximum at a value of 2.54. Tests of a flap with a chord of 0.0037 diameter gave a lift coefficient of 0.85 at a Reynolds number of 520,000 with the same lift-drag ratio as the larger flap but the position of the flap for maximum lift was considerably farther forward than on the larger flap. Tests of two 6-percent flaps spaced 180 deg apart showed a change in the sign of the lift developed for angular positions of the flap greater than 132 deg at subcriti- cal Reynolds numbers. These results may find use in application to air- craft using
A finite element-boundary integral method for cavities in a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.
1992-01-01
Conformal antenna arrays offer many cost and weight advantages over conventional antenna systems. However, due to a lack of rigorous mathematical models for conformal antenna arrays, antenna designers resort to measurement and planar antenna concepts for designing non-planar conformal antennas. Recently, we have found the finite element-boundary integral method to be very successful in modeling large planar arrays of arbitrary composition in a metallic plane. We extend this formulation to conformal arrays on large metallic cylinders. In this report, we develop the mathematical formulation. In particular, we discuss the shape functions, the resulting finite elements and the boundary integral equations, and the solution of the conformal finite element-boundary integral system. Some validation results are presented and we further show how this formulation can be applied with minimal computational and memory resources.
Radiation and scattering by cavity-backed antennas on a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.
1993-01-01
Conformal arrays are popular antennas for aircraft and missile platforms due to their inherent low weight and drag properties. However, to date there has been a dearth of rigorous analytical or numerical solutions to aid the designer. In fact, it has been common practice to use limited measurements and planar approximations in designing such non-planar antennas. The finite element-boundary integral method is extended to scattering and radiation by cavity-backed structures in an infinite, metallic cylinder. In particular, the formulation specifics such as weight functions, dyadic Green's function, implementation details, and particular difficulties inherent to cylindrical structures are discussed. Special care is taken to ensure that the resulting computer program has low memory demand and minimal computational requirements. Both scattering and radiation parameters are computed and validated as much as possible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Shaoyan; Li, Pengbo; Li, Fuli
2013-03-01
The plasmon resonance-induced near electric field focusing and enhancement of three-layered silver nano-cylinder has been studied by quasi-static electricity. A field enhancement factor of more than 102 times can be obtained in the middle dielectric wall between the inner silver wire and outer tube around the resonance wavelengths of 400-500 nm. Because of the anti-symmetric coupling between the bonding tube plasmon and the wire plasmon, the incident electric field could be fine focused between the two metallic surfaces by decreasing the middle wall thickness. As a result of the curvature-dependent surface charge concentration, thinner dielectric wall with small diameter provides stronger local field enhancement. It provides the potential applications of plamonic nano-structures for high-density and high-contrast optical data storage under the diffraction limit.
A finite element-boundary integral method for conformal antenna arrays on a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.; Woo, Alex C.; Yu, C. Long
1992-01-01
Conformal antenna arrays offer many cost and weight advantages over conventional antenna systems. In the past, antenna designers have had to resort to expensive measurements in order to develop a conformal array design. This is due to the lack of rigorous mathematical models for conformal antenna arrays, and as a result the design of conformal arrays is primarily based on planar antenna design concepts. Recently, we have found the finite element-boundary integral method to be very successful in modeling large planar arrays of arbitrary composition in a metallic plane. Herewith we shall extend this formulation for conformal arrays on large metallic cylinders. In this we develop the mathematical formulation. In particular we discuss the finite element equations, the shape elements, and the boundary integral evaluation, and it is shown how this formulation can be applied with minimal computation and memory requirements. The implementation shall be discussed in a later report.
A finite element-boundary integral method for conformal antenna arrays on a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.
1992-01-01
Conformal antenna arrays offer many cost and weight advantages over conventional antenna systems. In the past, antenna designers have had to resort to expensive measurements in order to develop a conformal array design. This was due to the lack of rigorous mathematical models for conformal antenna arrays. As a result, the design of conformal arrays was primarily based on planar antenna design concepts. Recently, we have found the finite element-boundary integral method to be very successful in modeling large planar arrays of arbitrary composition in a metallic plane. We are extending this formulation to conformal arrays on large metallic cylinders. In doing so, we will develop a mathematical formulation. In particular, we discuss the finite element equations, the shape elements, and the boundary integral evaluation. It is shown how this formulation can be applied with minimal computation and memory requirements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Yong; Lu, De-Tang; Liu, Yang; Xu, You-Sheng
2009-03-01
The multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) is implemented to numerically simulate the cross flow over a longitudinal vibrating circular cylinder. This research is carried out on a three-dimensional (3D) finite cantilevered cylinder to investigate the effect of forced vibration on the wake characteristics and the 3D effect of a cantilevered cylinder. To meet the accuracy of this method, the present calculation is carried out at a low Reynolds number Re = 100, as well as to make the vibration obvious, we make the vibration strong enough. The calculation results indicate that the vibration has significant influence on the wake characteristics. When the vibrating is big enough, our early works show that the 2D vortex shedding would be locked up by vibration. Contrarily, this phenomenon would not appear in the present 3D case because of the end effect of the cantilevered cylinder.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waka, R.; Yoshino, F.; Hayashi, T.
1985-06-01
An experiment was carried out to understand effects of the slot shape at the cylinder-side-wall juncture and the angular location of a blowing slot on the spanwise distributions of various characteristic values near the side-wall of a circular cylinder with tangential blowing. The range of the side-wall effects and the characteristic values near the side-wall are much influenced by the slot shape and the location of the slot. When the slot shaped like a knife edge, termed 'Edge', is used, the range of the side-wall effects becomes narrower as the angular location of the blowing slot is farther downstream.
Yousefi, T.; Paknezhad, M.; Ashjaee, M.; Yazdani, S.
2009-09-15
Steady state two-dimensional natural convection heat transfer from the vertical array of five horizontal isothermal elliptic cylinders with vertical major axis which confined between two adiabatic walls has been studied experimentally. Experiments were carried out using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The Rayleigh number based on cylinder major axis was in the range 10{sup 3}{<=}Ra{<=}2.5 x 10{sup 3}, and dimensionless wall spacing 1.5{<=} t/b{<=}9 and infinity. The effect of wall spacing and Rayleigh number on the heat transfer from the individual cylinder and the array were investigated. Experiments are performed for ratio wall spacing to major diameter t/b = 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and infinity. A correlation based on the experimental data for the average Nusselt number of the array as a function of Ra and t/b is presented in the aforementioned ranges. A relation has been derived for optimum wall spacing at which the Nusselt number of the array attains its maximum value. At optimum wall spacing, approximately 10% increase in the heat transfer from the confined array of elliptic cylinders has been observed as compared to the unconfined case. Also, a heat transfer correlation has been proposed for a single elliptic cylinder with vertical major axis and has been compared with earlier works. (author)
Effect of finite length on forced convection heat transfer from cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quarmby, A.; Al-Fakhri, A. A. M.
1980-04-01
Forced convection heat transfer from single cylinders of finite length is investigated experimentally with particular reference to the effect of aspect (length/diameter) ratio of the cylinder. It is found that for aspect ratios greater than 4 there is little further effect as aspect ratio increases to infinity. The disagreement between the correlations proposed by Zukauskas (1972) and Morgan (1975) is considered and resolved in favor of the Zukauskas correlation. A correlation is proposed for heat transfer from cylinders of low aspect ratio which in the limit agrees with the correlation for large aspect ratios and with the generally accepted correlation for turbulent heat transfer from isothermal flat plates for small aspect ratios.
Transient thermal stresses due to periodically moving line heat source of composite hollow cylinder
Chen, L.S.; Chu, H.S. )
1990-01-01
The transient thermal stress distribution of a finite composite hollow cylinder, which is heated by a periodically moving line source on its inner boundary and cooled convectively on the outer surface, is analyzed in this paper. The heat sources are assumed to be axisymmetric, moving along the axis of the hollow cylinder with constant velocity. To solve the temperature distribution of the hollow cylinder, the Laplace transform and eigenfunction expansion methods are used. The associated thermal stress distributions are then obtained by solving the thermoelastic displacement function and the Love function. Finally, a numerical scheme, the Fourier series technique, is utilized to calculate the inverse transform. The numerical results of the temperature and thermal stress distribution are presented, which demonstrate the effects of thermal conductivity ratio, shear modulus ratio, Biot number, and period of the moving heat source. 13 refs.