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Sample records for heavy baryons heavy

  1. Transport coefficients of heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolos, Laura; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Das, Santosh K.

    2016-08-01

    We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons Λc and Λb in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain nonrelativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation, and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for Λc and Λb in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion collisions at LHC and RHIC energies.

  2. Decay properties of double heavy baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery; Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Koerner, Juergen G.

    2010-08-05

    We study the semileptonic decays of double heavy baryons using a manifestly Lorentz covariant constituent three-quark model. We present complete results on transition form factors between double-heavy baryons for finite values of the heavy quark/baryon masses and in the heavy quark symmetry limit which is valid at and close to zero recoil. Decay rates are calculated and compared to each other in the full theory, keeping masses finite, and also in the heavy quark limit.

  3. Isospin Splittings of Doubly Heavy Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Guo, Feng-Kun; Hanhart, Christoph; Meissner, Ulf-G.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.

    2011-08-18

    The SELEX Collaboration has reported a very large isospin splitting of doubly charmed baryons. We show that this effect would imply that the doubly charmed baryons are very compact. One intriguing possibility is that such baryons have a linear geometry Q-q-Q where the light quark q oscillates between the two heavy quarks Q, analogous to a linear molecule such as carbon dioxide. However, using conventional arguments, the size of a heavy-light hadron is expected to be around 0.5 fm, much larger than the size needed to explain the observed large isospin splitting. Assuming the distance between two heavy quarks is much smaller than that between the light quark and a heavy one, the doubly heavy baryons are related to the heavy mesons via heavy quark-diquark symmetry. Based on this symmetry, we predict the isospin splittings for doubly heavy baryons including {Xi}{sub cc}, {Xi}{sub bb} and {Xi}{sub bc}. The prediction for the {Xi}{sub cc} is much smaller than the SELEX value. On the other hand, the {Xi}{sub bb} baryons are predicted to have an isospin splitting as large as (6.3 {+-} 1.7) MeV. An experimental study of doubly bottomed baryons is therefore very important to better understand the structure of baryons with heavy quarks.

  4. Heavy Baryons in a Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Winston Roberts; Muslema Pervin

    2007-11-14

    A quark model is applied to the spectrum of baryons containing heavy quarks. The model gives masses for the known heavy baryons that are in agreement with experiment, but for the doubly-charmed baryon $\\Xi_{cc}$, the model prediction is too heavy. Mixing between the $\\Xi_Q$ and $\\Xi_Q^\\prime$ states is examined and is found to be small for the lowest lying states. In contrast with this, mixing between the $\\Xi_{bc}$ and $\\Xi_{bc}^\\prime$ states is found to be large, and the implication of this mixing for properties of these states is briefly discussed. We also examine heavy-quark spin-symmetry multiplets, and find that many states in the model can be placed in such multiplets.

  5. Heavy-flavor-conserving hadronic weak decays of heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai-Yang; Cheung, Chi-Yee; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yeu-Chung; Yan, Tung-Mow; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2016-03-01

    More than two decades ago, we studied heavy-flavor-conserving weak decays of heavy baryons within the framework that incorporates both heavy-quark and chiral symmetries. In view of the first observation of Ξ b - → Λ b 0 π - by LHCb recently, we have reexamined these decays and presented updated predictions. The predicted rates for Ξ b - → Λ b 0 π - in the MIT bag and diquark models are consistent with experiment. The major theoretical uncertainty stems from the evaluation of baryon matrix elements. The branching fraction of Ξ c → Λ c π is predicted to be of order 10-4. It is suppressed relative to {B}({Ξ}_bto {Λ}_bπ ) owing to the shorter lifetime of Ξ c relative to Ξ b and the destructive nonspectator W-exchange contribution. The kinematically accessible weak decays of the sextet heavy baryon Ω Q are Ω Q → Ξ Q π. Due to the absence of the {{B}}_6-{{B}}{_3-} transition in the heavy quark limit and the {{B}}_6-{{B}}_6 transition in the model calculations, Ω Q → Ξ Q π vanish in the heavy quark limit.

  6. Staggered heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Jon A.

    2008-03-01

    Although taste violations significantly affect the results of staggered calculations of pseudoscalar and heavy-light mesonic quantities, those entering staggered calculations of baryonic quantities have not been quantified. Here I develop staggered chiral perturbation theory in the light-quark baryon sector by mapping the Symanzik action into heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. For 2+1 dynamical quark flavors, the masses of flavor-symmetric nucleons are calculated to third order in partially quenched and fully dynamical staggered chiral perturbation theory. To this order the expansion includes the leading chiral logarithms, which come from loops with virtual decuplet-like states, as well as terms of O(mπ3), which come from loops with virtual octet-like states. Taste violations enter through the meson propagators in loops and tree-level terms of O(a2). The pattern of taste symmetry breaking and the resulting degeneracies and mixings are discussed in detail. The resulting chiral forms are appropriate to lattice results obtained with operators already in use and could be used to study the restoration of taste symmetry in the continuum limit. I assume that the fourth root of the fermion determinant can be incorporated in staggered chiral perturbation theory using the replica method.

  7. Heavy to light baryon transition form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, X. |; Huang, T. |; Li, Z.

    1996-05-01

    Recently, Stech found form factor relations for heavy to light transitions based on two simple dynamical assumptions for a spectator particle. In this paper we generalize his approach to the case of baryons and find that for {Lambda}{sub {ital Q}}{r_arrow}{Lambda} ({ital Q}={ital b} or {ital c}) only one independent form factor remains in the limit {ital m}{sub {ital Q}}{r_arrow}{infinity}. Furthermore, combining with the model of Guo and Kroll we determine both of the two form factors for {Lambda}{sub {ital Q}}{r_arrow}{Lambda} in the heavy quark limit. The results are applied to {Lambda}{sub {ital b}}{r_arrow}{Lambda}+{ital J}/{psi} which is not clarified both theoretically and experimentally. It is found that the branching ratio of {Lambda}{sub {ital b}}{r_arrow}{Lambda}+{ital J}/{psi} is of order 10{sup {minus}5}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. Color fluxes in the production of doubly heavy baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, S. P.

    2007-04-15

    The production of doubly heavy baryons in hadron-hadron collisions is considered. A method is proposed for decomposing the respective differential cross section into parts associated with contributions of various color-flux configurations.

  9. STOPPING AND BARYON TRANSPORT IN HEAVY ION REACTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VIDEBAEK, F.

    2005-02-05

    In this report I will give an experimental overview on nuclear stopping in hadron collisions, and relate observations to understanding of baryon transport. Baryon number transport is not only evidenced via net-proton distributions but also by the enhancement of strange baryons near mid-rapidity. Although the focus is on high-energy data obtained from pp and heavy ions from RHIC, relevant data from SPS and ISR will be considered. A discussion how the available data at higher energy relates and gives information on baryon junction, quark-diquark breaking will be made.

  10. Doubly Heavy Baryons, Heavy Quark-DiQuark Symmetry and NRQCD

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Fleming; Thomas Mehen

    2005-09-27

    In the heavy quark limit, properties of heavy mesons and doubly heavy baryons are related by heavy quark-diquark symmetry. This problem is reanalyzed in the framework of Non-Relativistic QCD (NRQCD). We introduce a novel method for deriving Potential NRQCD (pNRQCD) Lagrangians for composite fields from vNRQCD, which contains quarks and antiquarks as explicit degrees of freedom and maintains manifest power counting in the velocity via a label formalism. A Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation is used to eliminate four quark interactions in vNRQCD and then quarks and antiquarks are integrated out to get effective Lagrangians for composite fields. This method is used to rederive Lagrangians for the Q\\bar Q and QQ sectors of pNRQCD and give a correct derivation of the O(1/m_Q) prediction for the hyperfine splitting of doubly heavy baryons.

  11. Semileptonic decays of double heavy baryons in a relativistic constituent three-quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Koerner, Juergen G.

    2009-08-01

    We study the semileptonic decays of double-heavy baryons using a manifestly Lorentz covariant constituent three-quark model. We present complete results on transition form factors between double-heavy baryons for finite values of the heavy quark/baryon masses and in the heavy quark symmetry limit, which is valid at and close to zero recoil. Decay rates are calculated and compared to each other in the full theory, keeping masses finite, and also in the heavy quark limit.

  12. Two potential quark models for double heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchkov, A. M.; Kozhedub, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Baryons containing two heavy quarks (QQ' q) are treated in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Two non-relativistic potential models are proposed, in which the Schrödinger equation admits a separation of variables in prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinates, respectively. In the first model, the potential is equal to the sum of Coulomb potentials of the two heavy quarks, separated from each other by a distance - R and linear potential of confinement. In the second model the center distance parameter R is assumed to be purely imaginary. In this case, the potential is defined by the two-sheeted mapping with singularities being concentrated on a circle rather than at separate points. Thus, in the first model diquark appears as a segment, and in the second - as a circle. In this paper we calculate the mass spectrum of double heavy baryons in both models, and compare it with previous results.

  13. Heavy baryons - Recent and very new results

    SciTech Connect

    Peter S Cooper

    2003-01-15

    Recent results on observations, properties and decay modes of the charmed and beauty baryons will be reviewed. Candidates for several new high mass states which include a cleanly-identified daughter {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} baryon are seen in data from the SELEX experiment at Fermilab. These states are candidates for doubly-charmed baryons: a {Xi}{sub cc}{sup ++} state and a {Xi}{sub cc}{sup +} state. These candidates are more than 5{sigma} signals in each case at masses of 3520 and 3460 MeV respectively.

  14. Ratios of heavy baryons to heavy mesons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Yongseok; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2009-04-15

    Heavy baryon/meson ratios {lambda}{sub c}/D{sup 0} and {lambda}{sub b}/B{sup 0} in relativistic heavy ion collisions are studied in the quark coalescence model. For heavy baryons, we include production from coalescence of heavy quarks with free light quarks as well as with bounded light diquarks that might exist in the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma produced in these collisions. Including the contribution from decays of heavy hadron resonances and also that due to fragmentation of heavy quarks that are left in the system after coalescence, the resulting {lambda}{sub c}/D{sup 0} and {lambda}{sub b}/B{sup 0} ratios in midrapidity (|y|{<=}0.5) from central Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV are about a factor of five and ten, respectively, larger than those given by the thermal model, and about a factor of ten and twelve, respectively, larger than corresponding ratios in the PYTHIA model for pp collisions. These ratios are reduced by a factor of about 1.6 if there are no diquarks in the quark-gluon plasma. The transverse momentum dependence of the heavy baryon/meson ratios is found to be sensitive to the heavy quark mass, with the {lambda}{sub b}/B{sup 0} ratio being much flatter than the {lambda}{sub c}/D{sup 0} ratio. The latter peaks at the transverse momentum p{sub T}{approx_equal}0.8 GeV but the peak shifts to p{sub T}{approx_equal}2 GeV in the absence of diquarks.

  15. Semileptonic Decays of Heavy Omega Baryons in a Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Muslema Pervin; Winston Roberts; Simon Capstick

    2006-03-24

    The semileptonic decays of {Omega}{sub c} and {Omega}{sub b} are treated in the framework of a constituent quark model developed in a previous paper on the semileptonic decays of heavy {Lambda} baryons. Analytic results for the form factors for the decays to ground states and a number of excited states are evaluated. For {Omega}{sub b} to {Omega}{sub c} the form factors obtained are shown to satisfy the relations predicted at leading order in the heavy-quark effective theory at the non-recoil point. A modified fit of nonrelativistic and semirelativistic Hamiltonians generates configuration-mixed baryon wave functions from the known masses and the measured {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}e{sup +}{nu} rate, with wave functions expanded in both harmonic oscillator and Sturmian bases. Decay rates of {Omega}{sub b} to pairs of ground and excited {Omega}{sub c} states related by heavy-quark symmetry calculated using these configuration-mixed wave functions are in the ratios expected from heavy-quark effective theory, to a good approximation. Our predictions for the semileptonic elastic branching fraction of {Omega}{sub Q} vary minimally within the models we use. We obtain an average value of (84 {+-} 2%) for the fraction of {Omega}{sub c} {yields} {Xi}{sup (*)} decays to ground states, and 91% for the fraction of {Omega}{sub c} {yields} {Omega}{sup (*)} decays to the ground state {Omega}. The elastic fraction of {Omega}{sub b} {yields} {Omega}{sub c} ranges from about 50% calculated with the two harmonic-oscillator models, to about 67% calculated with the two Sturmian models.

  16. Doubly heavy baryons and quark-diquark symmetry in quenched and partially quenched chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen; Brian C. Tiburzi

    2006-07-17

    We extend the chiral Lagrangian with heavy quark-diquark symmetry to quenched and partially quenched theories. These theories are used to derive formulae for the chiral extrapolation of masses and hyperfine splittings of doubly heavy baryons in lattice QCD simulations. A quark-diquark symmetry prediction for the hyperfine splittings of heavy mesons and doubly heavy baryons is rather insensitive to chiral corrections in both quenched and partially quenched QCD. Extrapolation formulae for the doubly heavy baryon electromagnetic transition moments are also determined for the partially quenched theory.

  17. K{sup +} production in baryon-baryon and heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G.Q.; Ko, C.M.; Chung, W.S.

    1998-01-01

    Kaon production cross sections in nucleon-nucleon, nucleon-{Delta}, and {Delta}-{Delta} interactions are studied in a boson exchange model. For the latter two interactions, the exchanged pion can be on-mass shell; only contributions due to a virtual pion are included via the Peierls method by taking into account the finite {Delta} width. With these cross sections and also those for pion-baryon interactions, subthreshold kaon production from heavy-ion collisions is studied in the relativistic transport model. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Ground state heavy baryon production in a relativistic quark-diquark model

    SciTech Connect

    Gomshi Nobary, M. A.; Sepahvand, R.

    2007-12-01

    We use current-current interaction to calculate the fragmentation functions to describe the production of spin-1/2, spin-1/2{sup '}, and spin-3/2 baryons with massive constituents in a relativistic quark-diquark model. Our results are in their analytic forms and are applicable for singly, doubly, and triply heavy baryons. We discuss the production of {omega}{sub bbc}, {omega}{sub bcc}, and {omega}{sub ccc} baryons in some detail. The results are satisfactorily compared with those obtained for triply heavy baryons calculated in a perturbative regime within reasonable values of the parameters involved.

  19. Analysis of heavy spin-3/2 baryon-heavy spin-1/2 baryon-light vector meson vertices in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, T. M.; Savci, M.; Azizi, K; Zamiralov, V. S.

    2011-05-01

    The heavy spin-3/2 baryon-heavy spin-1/2 baryon vertices with light vector mesons are studied within the light cone QCD sum rules method. These vertices are parametrized in terms of three coupling constants. These couplings are calculated for all possible transitions. It is shown that correlation functions for these transitions are described by only one invariant function for every Lorenz structure. The obtained relations between the correlation functions of the different transitions are structure independent while explicit expressions of invariant functions depend on the Lorenz structure.

  20. Radiative decays of the heavy flavored baryons in light cone QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, T. M.; Azizi, K.; Ozpineci, A.

    2009-03-01

    The transition magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of the radiative decays of the sextet heavy flavored spin 3/2 to the heavy spin 1/2 baryons are calculated within the light cone QCD sum rules approach. Using the obtained results, the decay rate for these transitions are also computed and compared with the existing predictions of the other approaches.

  1. New Exotic Meson and Baryon Resonances from Doubly Heavy Hadronic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L

    2015-09-18

    We predict several new exotic doubly heavy hadronic resonances, inferring from the observed exotic bottomoniumlike and charmoniumlike narrow states X(3872), Z_{b}(10610), Z_{b}(10650), Z_{c}(3900), and Z_{c}(4020/4025). We interpret the binding mechanism as mostly molecularlike isospin-exchange attraction between two heavy-light mesons in a relative S-wave state. We then generalize it to other systems containing two heavy hadrons which can couple through isospin exchange. The new predicted states include resonances in meson-meson, meson-baryon, baryon-baryon, and baryon-antibaryon channels. These include those giving rise to final states involving a heavy quark Q=c,b and antiquark Q[over ¯]^{'}=c[over ¯],b[over ¯], namely, DD[over ¯]^{*}, D^{*}D[over ¯]^{*}, D^{*}B^{*}, B[over ¯]B^{*}, B[over ¯]^{*}B^{*}, Σ_{c}D[over ¯]^{*}, Σ_{c}B^{*}, Σ_{b}D[over ¯]^{*}, Σ_{b}B^{*}, Σ_{c}Σ[over ¯]_{c}, Σ_{c}Λ[over ¯]_{c}, Σ_{c}Λ[over ¯]_{b}, Σ_{b}Σ[over ¯]_{b}, Σ_{b}Λ[over ¯]_{b}, and Σ_{b}Λ[over ¯]_{c}, as well as corresponding S-wave states giving rise to QQ^{'} or Q[over ¯]Q[over ¯]^{'}. PMID:26430989

  2. Observation of the Heavy Baryons Sigma b and Sigma b*.

    PubMed

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Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; 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Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tesarek, R J; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuno, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vazquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-11-16

    We report an observation of new bottom baryons produced in pp collisions at the Tevatron. Using 1.1 fb(-1) of data collected by the CDF II detector, we observe four Lambda b 0 pi+/- resonances in the fully reconstructed decay mode Lambda b 0-->Lambda c + pi-, where Lambda c+-->pK* pi+. We interpret these states as the Sigma b(*)+/- baryons and measure the following masses: m Sigma b+=5807.8 -2.2 +2.0(stat.)+/-1.7(syst.) MeV/c2, m Sigma b- =5815.2+/-1.0(stat.)+/-1.7(syst.) MeV/c2, and m(Sigma b*)-m(Sigma b)=21.2-1.9 +2.0(stat.)-0.3+0.4(syst.) MeV/c2. PMID:18233134

  3. Strong coupling constants of heavy baryons with light mesons in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, T. M.; Azizi, K.; Savci, M.

    2012-10-23

    The strong coupling constants of the heavy spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 baryons with light pseudoscalar and vector mesons are calculated in the framework of the light cone QCD sum rules. Using the symmetry arguments, some structure independent relations among different correlation functions are obtained. It is shown that all possible transitions are described by only one invariant function, whose explicit expression is structure dependent.

  4. Baryonic matter onset in two-color QCD with heavy quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scior, Philipp; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2015-11-01

    We study the cold and dense regime in the phase diagram of two-color QCD with heavy quarks within a three-dimensional effective theory for Polyakov loops. This theory is derived from two-color QCD in a combined strong-coupling and hopping expansion. In particular, we study the onset of diquark density as the finite-density transition of the bosonic baryons in the two-color world. In contrast to previous studies of heavy dense QCD, our zero-temperature extrapolations are consistent with a continuous transition without binding energy. They thus provide evidence that the effective theory for heavy quarks is capable of describing the characteristic differences between diquark condensation in two-color QCD and the liquid-gas transition of nuclear matter in QCD.

  5. Radiative decays of double heavy baryons in a relativistic constituent three-quark model including hyperfine mixing effects

    SciTech Connect

    Branz, Tanja; Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Oexl, Bettina; Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Koerner, Juergen G.

    2010-06-01

    We study flavor-conserving radiative decays of double-heavy baryons using a manifestly Lorentz covariant constituent three-quark model. Decay rates are calculated and compared to each other in the full theory, keeping masses finite, and also in the heavy quark limit. We discuss in some detail hyperfine mixing effects.

  6. Semileptonic decays of charmed and beauty baryons with heavy sterile neutrinos in the final state

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazanov, Sabir

    2009-04-01

    We obtain tree-level estimates of various differential branching ratios of heavy baryon decays with massive sterile neutrinos {nu}{sub x} in the final state. Generally, charmed baryons are found to be less promising than charmed mesons, in contrast to b hadrons. In the latter case, branching ratios of beauty mesons and baryons into sterile neutrinos are of the same order. As a consequence, at high energies beauty baryons give contribution to sterile neutrino production comparable to the contribution of beauty mesons (up to about 15%). Experimental limits on active-to-sterile mixing are quite strong for neutrinos lighter than D mesons but for heavier neutrinos they are weaker. As an example, for neutrino masses in the range 2 GeV < or approx. m{sub {nu}{sub x}} < or approx. 2.5 GeV, current data imply that the bounds on {lambda}{sub b}-hyperon branching ratios into sterile neutrinos are Br({lambda}{sub b}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}+e{sup -}+{nu}{sub x}) < or approx. 1.3x10{sup -5}-1.7x10{sup -6} and Br({lambda}{sub b}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}+{mu}{sup -}+{nu}{sub x}) < or approx. 3.9x10{sup -7}-1.4x10{sup -7}.

  7. Strong decays of charmed baryons in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory: An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai-Yang; Chua, Chun-Khiang

    2015-10-01

    We first give a brief overview of the charmed baryon spectroscopy and discuss their possible structure and spin-parity assignments in the quark model. With the new Belle measurement of the widths of Σc(2455 ) and Σc(2520 ) and the recent CDF measurement of the strong decays of Λc(2595 ) and Λc(2625 ), we give updated coupling constants in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory. We find g2=0.56 5-0.024+0.011 for P -wave transitions between s -wave and s -wave baryons, and h2, one of the couplings responsible for S -wave transitions between s -wave and p -wave baryons, is extracted from Λc(2595 )+→Λc+π π to be 0.63 ±0.07 . It is substantially enhanced compared to the old value of order 0.437. With the help from the quark model, two of the couplings h10 and h11 responsible for D -wave transitions between s -wave and p -wave baryons are determined from Σc(2880 ) decays. There is a tension for the coupling h2 as its value extracted from Λc(2595 )+→Λc+ππ will imply Ξc(2790 )0→Ξc'π and Ξc(2815 )+→Ξc*π rates slightly above the current limits. It is conceivable that SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking can help account for the discrepancy.

  8. Mean-field theory of baryonic matter for QCD in the large Nc and heavy quark mass limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Cohen, Thomas D.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss theoretical issues pertaining to baryonic matter in the combined heavy-quark and large Nc limits of QCD. Witten's classic argument that baryons and interacting systems of baryons can be described in a mean-field approximation with each of the quarks moving in an average potential due to the remaining quarks is heuristic. It is important to justify this heuristic description for the case of baryonic matter since systems of interacting baryons are intrinsically more complicated than single baryons due to the possibility of hidden color states—states in which the subsystems making up the entire baryon crystal are not color-singlet nucleons but rather colorful states coupled together to make a color-singlet state. In this work, we provide a formal justification of this heuristic prescription. In order to do this, we start by taking the heavy quark limit, thus effectively reducing the problem to a many-body quantum mechanical system. This problem can be formulated in terms of integrals over coherent states, which for this problem are simple Slater determinants. We show that for the many-body problem, the support region for these integrals becomes narrow at large Nc, yielding an energy which is well approximated by a single coherent state—that is a mean-field description. Corrections to the energy are of relative order 1/Nc. While hidden color states are present in the exact state of the heavy quark system, they only influence the interaction energy below leading order in 1/Nc.

  9. GENXICC2.1: An improved version of GENXICC for hadronic production of doubly heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-You; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2013-03-01

    We present an improved version of GENXICC, which is a generator for hadronic production of the doubly heavy baryons Ξcc, Ξbc and Ξbb and has been introduced by C.H. Chang, J.X. Wang and X.G. Wu [Comput. Phys. Commun. 177 (2007) 467; Comput. Phys. Commun. 181 (2010) 1144]. In comparison with the previous GENXICC versions, we update the program in order to generate the unweighted baryon events more effectively under various simulation environments, whose distributions are now generated according to the probability proportional to the integrand. One Les Houches Event (LHE) common block has been added to produce a standard LHE data file that contains useful information of the doubly heavy baryon and its accompanying partons. Such LHE data can be conveniently imported into PYTHIA to do further hadronization and decay simulation, especially, the color-flow problem can be solved with PYTHIA8.0. NEW VERSION PROGRAM SUMMARYTitle of program: GENXICC2.1 Program obtained from: CPC Program Library Reference to original program: GENXICC Reference in CPC: Comput. Phys. Commun. 177, 467 (2007); Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 1144 (2010) Does the new version supersede the old program: No Computer: Any LINUX based on PC with FORTRAN 77 or FORTRAN 90 and GNU C compiler as well Operating systems: LINUX Programming language used: FORTRAN 77/90 Memory required to execute with typical data: About 2.0 MB No. of bytes in distributed program: About 2 MB, including PYTHIA6.4 Distribution format: .tar.gz Nature of physical problem: Hadronic production of doubly heavy baryons Ξcc, Ξbc and Ξbb. Method of solution: The upgraded version with a proper interface to PYTHIA can generate full production and decay events, either weighted or unweighted, conveniently and effectively. Especially, the unweighted events are generated by using an improved hit-and-miss approach. Reasons for new version: Responding to the feedback from users of CMS and LHCb groups at the Large Hadron Collider, and based on

  10. Relativistic description of pair production of doubly heavy baryons in e{sup +}e{sup −} annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Martynenko, A. P.; Trunin, A. M.

    2015-05-15

    Relativistic corrections in the pair production of S-wave doubly heavy diquarks in electron-positron annihilation were calculated on the basis of perturbative QCD and the quark model. The relativistic corrections to the wave functions for quark bound states were taken into account with the aid of the Breit potential in QCD. Relativistic effects change substantially the nonrelativistic cross sections for pair diquark production. The yield of pairs of (ccq) doubly heavy baryons at B factories was estimated.

  11. Free energy of a baryon at finite temperatures and its implications to the heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Minati; Digal, Sanatan; Saumia, P. S.

    2015-07-01

    We study the free energy per baryon using canonical formalism in the Polyakov loop Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with imaginary chemical potential. We find that the free energy decreases rapidly with temperature around the transition temperature. This result coupled with the heavy-ion collision geometry leads to the creation of a free energy well for the baryons. We study the time evolution of this free energy well using hydrodynamic simulations and discuss the implications of this free energy well on the dynamics of the baryons.

  12. Heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory approach to thermal neutron capture on {sup 3}He

    SciTech Connect

    Lazauskas, Rimantas; Park, Tae-Sun

    2011-03-15

    The cross section for radiative thermal neutron capture on {sup 3}He ({sup 3}He+n{yields}{sup 4}He+{gamma}; known as the hen reaction) is calculated based on heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. The relevant M1 operators are derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N{sup 3}LO). The initial and final nuclear wave functions are obtained from the rigorous Faddeev-Yakubovski equations for five sets of realistic nuclear interactions. Up to N{sup 3}LO, the M1 operators contain two low-energy constants, which appear as the coefficients of nonderivative two-nucleon contact terms. After determining these two constants using the experimental values of the magnetic moments of the triton and {sup 3}He, we carry out a parameter-free calculation of the hen cross section. The results are in good agreement with the data.

  13. New predictions for generalized spin polarizabilities from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.-W.; Pasquini, Barbara; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2004-12-01

    We extract the next-to-next-to-leading order results for spin-flip generalized polarizabilities (GPs) of the nucleon from the spin-dependent amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering at O(p{sup 4}) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. At this order, no unknown low-energy constants enter the theory, allowing us to make absolute predictions for all spin-flip GPs. Furthermore, by using constraint equations between the GPs due to nucleon crossing combined with charge conjugation symmetry of the virtual Compton scattering amplitudes, we get a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order prediction for one of the GPs. We provide estimates for forthcoming double-polarization experiments which allow one to access these spin-flip GPs of the nucleon.

  14. New predictions for generalized spin polarizabilities from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chung-Wen Kao; Barbara Pasquini; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2004-08-01

    We extract the next-to-next-to-leading order results for spin-flip generalized polarizabilities (GPs) of the nucleon from the spin-dependent amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering (VCS) at {Omicron}(p{sup 4}) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. At this order, no unknown low energy constants enter the theory, allowing us to make absolute predictions for all spin-flip GPs. Furthermore, by using constraint equations between the GPs due to nucleon crossing combined with charge conjugation symmetry of the VCS amplitudes, we get a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order prediction for one of the GPs. We provide estimates for forthcoming double polarization experiments which allow to access these spin-flip GPs of the nucleon.

  15. Muon capture by a proton in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Fearing, H.W.; Lewis, R.; Mobed, N.; Scherer, S.

    1997-08-01

    The matrix element for muon capture by a proton is calculated to O(p{sup 3}) within heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory using the new O(p{sup 3}) Lagrangian of Ecker and Moj{hacek z}i{hacek s}. External nucleon fields are renormalized using the appropriate definition of the wave function renormalization factor Z{sub N}. Our expression for Z{sub N} differs somewhat from that found in the existing literature, but is the one which is consistent with the Lagrangian we use and the one which ensures, within our approach, the nonrenormalization of the vector coupling as required by the conserved vector current. Expressions for the standard muon capture form factors are derived and compared to experimental data and we determine three of the coefficients of the Ecker-Moj{hacek z}i{hacek s} Lagrangian, namely, b{sub 7}, b{sub 19}, and b{sub 23}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Hidden beauty baryon states in the local hidden gauge approach with heavy quark spin symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, C. W.; Oset, E.

    2013-11-01

    Using a coupled-channel unitary approach, combining the heavy quark spin symmetry and the dynamics of the local hidden gauge, we investigate the meson-baryon interaction with hidden beauty and obtain several new states of N around 11 GeV. We consider the basis of states η b N, ϒN, BΛ b , BΣ b , B * Λ b , B * Σ b , B * Σ {/b *} and find four basic bound states which correspond to BΣ b , BΣ {/b *}, B * Σ b and B * Σ {/b *}, decaying mostly into η b N and ϒN and with a binding energy about 50-130 MeV with respect to the thresholds of the corresponding channel. All of them have isospin I = 1/2 , and we find no bound states or resonances in I = 3/2 . The BΣ b state appears in J = 1/2 , the BΣ {/b *} in J = 3/2 , the B * Σ b appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2 , 3/2 and the B * Σ {/b *} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2 , 3/2, 5/2. These states have a width from 2-110 MeV, with conservative estimates of uncertainties, except for the one in J = 5/2 which has zero width since it cannot decay into any of the states of the basis chosen. We make generous estimates of the uncertainties and find that within very large margins these states appear bound.

  17. Higher moments of nucleon spin structure functions in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and in a resonance model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Kao; D. Drechsel; S. Kamalov; M. Vanderhaeghen

    2003-11-01

    The third moment d{sub 2} of the twist-3 part of the nucleon spin structure function g{sub 2} is generalized to arbitrary momentum transfer Q{sup 2} and is evaluated in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT) up to order {Omicron}(p{sup 4}) and in a unitary isobar model (MAID). We show how to link d{sub 2} as well as higher moments of the nucleon spin structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} to nucleon spin polarizabilities. We compare our results with the most recent experimental data, and find a good description of these available data within the unitary isobar model. We proceed to extract the twist-4 matrix element f{sub 2} which appears in the 1/Q{sup 2} suppressed term in the twist expansion of the spin structure function g{sub 1} for proton and neutron.

  18. Chiral symmetry restoration versus deconfinement in heavy-ion collisions at high baryon density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassing, W.; Palmese, A.; Moreau, P.; Bratkovskaya, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the production of strange hadrons in nucleus-nucleus collisions from 4 to 160 A GeV within the parton-hadron-string dynamics (PHSD) transport approach that is extended to incorporate essentials aspects of chiral symmetry restoration (CSR) in the hadronic sector (via the Schwinger mechanism) on top of the deconfinement phase transition as implemented in PHSD. Especially the K+/π+ and the (Λ +Σ0) /π- ratios in central Au+Au collisions are found to provide information on the relative importance of both transitions. The modeling of chiral symmetry restoration is driven by the pion-nucleon Σ term in the computation of the quark scalar condensate that serves as an order parameter for CSR and also scales approximately with the effective quark masses ms and mq. Furthermore, the nucleon scalar density ρs, which also enters the computation of , is evaluated within the nonlinear σ -ω model which is constrained by Dirac-Brueckner calculations and low-energy heavy-ion reactions. The Schwinger mechanism (for string decay) fixes the ratio of strange to light quark production in the hadronic medium. We find that above ˜80 A GeV the reaction dynamics of heavy nuclei is dominantly driven by partonic degrees of freedom such that traces of the chiral symmetry restoration are hard to identify. Our studies support the conjecture of "quarkyonic matter" in heavy-ion collisions from about 5 to 40 A GeV and provide a microscopic explanation for the maximum in the K+/π+ ratio at about 30 A GeV, which only shows up if a transition to partonic degrees of freedom is incorporated in the reaction dynamics and is discarded in the traditional hadron-string models.

  19. Baryon distributions in heavy ion collisions at AGS energies: An experimental overview

    SciTech Connect

    Videbaek, F.

    1993-06-01

    Data on rapidity distributions of protons from the three AGS experiments E-814, E-810 and E-802 are compared on a common base to enlarge the rapidity coverage. Together they provide a unique opportunity to study the proton distributions in relativistic heavy ion reactions over the full rapidity range. Systematics of the rapidity density distributions are presented as function of centrality and mass of colliding system. Considerable stopping is achieved for the heaviest system studied, Au+Au, thus giving the means to study high-density effects in nuclear matter.

  20. Baryon distributions in heavy ion collisions at AGS energies: An experimental overview

    SciTech Connect

    Videbaek, F.

    1993-01-01

    Data on rapidity distributions of protons from the three AGS experiments E-814, E-810 and E-802 are compared on a common base to enlarge the rapidity coverage. Together they provide a unique opportunity to study the proton distributions in relativistic heavy ion reactions over the full rapidity range. Systematics of the rapidity density distributions are presented as function of centrality and mass of colliding system. Considerable stopping is achieved for the heaviest system studied, Au+Au, thus giving the means to study high-density effects in nuclear matter.

  1. Combined heavy-quark symmetry and large-Nc operator analysis for 2-body counterterms in the chiral Lagrangian with D mesons and charmed baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samart, Daris; Nualchimplee, Chakrit; Yan, Yupeng

    2016-06-01

    In this work we construct a chiral SU(3) Lagrangian with D mesons of spin JP=0- and JP=1- and charmed baryons of spin JP=1 /2+ and JP=3 /2+. There are 42 leading two-body counterterms involving two charmed baryon fields and two D meson fields in the constructed Lagrangian. The heavy-quark spin symmetry leads to 35 sum rules, while the large-Nc operator analysis predicts 29 at the next-to leading order of the 1 /Nc expansion. The combination of the sum rules from both the heavy-quark symmetry and the large-Nc analysis results in 38 independent sum rules, which reduces the number of free parameters in the chiral Lagrangian to only four. This is a remarkable result demonstrating the consistency of the heavy-quark symmetry and large-Nc operator analysis.

  2. Studies of heavy hadron physics

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xinheng

    2011-12-14

    In the diquark picture, we establish Bethe-Salpeter equations for ground states of heavy baryons containing one heavy quark and two heavy quarks in the heavy quark limit, respectively. The Bethe-Salpeter equations for both heavy and light diquarks are also established. Assuming kernels to consist of a scalar confinement term and a one-gluon-exchange term we solve Bethe-Salpeter wave functions numerically in the covariant instantaneous approximation and give some applications including semileptonic and nonleptonic decay widths of heavy baryons, the average kinetic energy of the heavy quark in {Lambda}{sub Q}, {Sigma}{sub Q}{sup (*)}{yields}{Lambda}{sub Q}+{pi} decay widths, and heavy quark distribution functions. We also study possible molecular heavy bound states in the Bethe-Salpeter approach. Proof of QCD factorization for {Lambda}{sub b}{yields}{Lambda}{sub c}{pi} is presented in the framework of QCD factorization.

  3. Masses and magnetic moments of heavy flavour baryons in hyper central model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Bhavin; Raiyz, Ajay Kumar; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2008-05-01

    We employ the hyper central approach to study the masses and magnetic moments of the baryons constituting single charm and beauty quark. The confinement potential is assumed in the hyper central co-ordinates of the coulomb plus power potential form.

  4. Heavy flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.; Gilman, F.J.; Gottschalk, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    A range of issues pertaining to heavy flavors at the SSC is examined including heavy flavor production by gluon-gluon fusion and by shower evolution of gluon jets, flavor tagging, reconstruction of Higgs and W bosons, and the study of rare decays and CP violation in the B meson system. A specific detector for doing heavy flavor physics and tuned to this latter study at the SSC, the TASTER, is described. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Heavy gauge boson and {Lambda}{sub b} baryon searches at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Maeshima, K.; The CDF Collaboration

    1992-06-01

    We have searched for new gauge bosons (W{prime}{yields} lv, Z{prime} {yields} ll) and b baryons ({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {psi}{Lambda}{sup 0}) in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV from the 1988--1989 run of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We present 95% confidence level (C.L.) limits on the W{prime} and Z{prime} production cross section in leptonic decay modes. The nonobservation of these processes leads to limits of M{sub w{prime}} > 520 GeV/c{sub 2} and M{sub z{prime}} > 412 GeV/c{sub 2} (95% C.L.), assuming Standard Model coupling strengths. We see no evidence for the signal ({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {psi}{Lambda}{sup 0}) in our {psi} sample ({psi} {yields} {mu}{mu}) around the {Lambda}{sub b} mass region of 5600 MeV. We set an upper limit on F({Lambda}{sub b})Br({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {psi}{Lambda}{sup 0}) of 0.55 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} (90% C.L.), assuming that b baryons and mesons are produced in the fragmentation process in similar ways. The CDF Ai, search is also reported in the QCD session of this conference. This paper summarizes our result briefly; the details can be found in the other talk.

  6. Up to N{sup 3}LO heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory calculation for the M1 properties of three-nucleon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Young-Ho; Lazauskas, Rimantas; Park, Tae-Sun

    2009-06-15

    M1 properties, comprising magnetic moments and radiative capture of thermal neutron observables, are studied in two- and three-nucleon systems. We use meson exchange current derived up to N{sup 3}LO using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory a la Weinberg. Calculations have been performed for several qualitatively different realistic nuclear Hamiltonians, which permits us to analyze model dependence of our results. Our results are found to be strongly correlated with the effective range parameters such as binding energies and the scattering lengths. Taking into account such correlations, the results are in good agreement with the experimental data with small model dependence.

  7. Heavy loads

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, D.

    1982-01-01

    The extreme pressures on the roof and walls of an earth-sheltered residential home are discussed and the need for careful planning is stressed. Pertinent terms are defined. Footings and wall structure (reinforced concrete walls and concrete block walls) are described. Roofing systems are discussed in detail and illustrated: (1) poured-in-place concrete roof slabs; (2) pre-cast concrete planks; and (3) heavy timber roofs. Insulation of earth-sheltered homes is reviewed in terms of using: (1) urethanes; (2) extruded polystyrene; and (3) expanded polystyrene. Advantages, disadvantages, R-factors, costs, and installation are discussed. (MJJ)

  8. Heavy Stars Thrive among Heavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    , with a sprinkling of the light element lithium. At our epoch, the visible ("baryonic") matter in the Universe still mostly consists of hydrogen and helium. However, progressively heavier elements have been built up via fusion processes in the interior of stars ever since the Big Bang. Some of the heaviest elements are also produced when massive stars die in gigantic stellar explosions, observed as "supernovae". This gradual process, referred to as "chemical evolution" , occurs with different speeds in different regions of the Universe, being fastest in those regions where star formation is most intense. In the relatively "quiet" region of the Milky Way galaxy where our Solar System was born some 4,600 million years ago, it took nearly 10,000 million years to produce all the heavy elements now found in our neighbourhood . Contrarily, in the innermost regions ( the "nuclei" ) of normal galaxies and especially in so-called "active galaxies", the same or even higher heavy-element "enrichment" levels were reached in much shorter time, less than about 1,000 to 2,000 million years. This is the result of observations of particularly active galaxy nuclei ("quasars") in the distant (i.e., early) Universe. Star formation in highly enriched environments Little is presently known about such highly enriched environments. Since astronomers refer to elements heavier than hydrogen and helium as "metals" , they talk about "metal-rich" regions . This is readily observable from the presence of strong lines from heavier elements in the spectra of the interstellar gas in such regions. A central, still unresolved question is whether under such special conditions, stars can still form with the same diversity of masses, as this happens in other, less extreme areas of the Universe . Indeed, some current theories of star formation and certain indirect observations appear to indicate that very heavy stars - with masses more than 20 - 30 times that of our Sun - could no

  9. Heavy quark masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  10. Mutagenicity of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.K.

    1988-04-01

    Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). The present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

  11. Supersymmetry across the light and heavy-light hadronic spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dosch, Hans Gunter; de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2015-10-07

    Relativistic light-front bound-state equations for mesons and baryons can be constructed in the chiral limit from the supercharges of a superconformal algebra which connect baryon and meson spectra. Quark masses break the conformal invariance, but the basic underlying supersymmetric mechanism, which transforms meson and baryon wave functions into each other, still holds and gives remarkable connections across the entire spectrum of light and heavy-light hadrons. As a result, we also briefly examine the consequences of extending the supersymmetric relations to double-heavy mesons and baryons.

  12. Heavy hadron spectroscopy at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez Ramos, Juan Pablo; /Madrid, CIEMAT

    2011-01-01

    We present recent CDF results on the properties of hadrons containing heavy quarks. These include measurements of charm and {Sigma}{sub b}{sup -}{Sigma}*{sub b}{sup -} baryon's masses, lifetimes and masses of {Omega}{sub b}{sup -}, {Xi}{sub b}{sup -} and B{sub c}{sup -} and a measurement of exclusive B{sup +}, B{sup 0} and {Lambda}{sub b} lifetimes as well as lifetime ratios (charge conjugate modes are implied throughout the text). We also summarize new measurements of exotic particles X(3872) and Y(4140).

  13. Heavy Hadron Spectroscopy at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2010-12-22

    We present recent CDF results on the properties of hadrons containing heavy quarks. These include measurements of charm and {Sigma}{sub b}{sup -{Sigma}}{sub b}*{sup -} baryon's masses, lifetimes and masses of {Omega}{sub b}{sup -,} {Xi}{sub b}{sup -} and B{sub c}{sup -} and a measurement of exclusive B{sup +}, B{sup 0} and {Lambda}{sub b} lifetimes as well as lifetime ratios (charge conjugate modes are implied throughout the text). We also summarize new measurements of exotic particles X(3872) and Y(4140).

  14. Heavy-electron materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, Z.; Ott, H.R.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    De Haas-van Alphen results demonstrated the existence of a Fermi surface at sufficiently low temperature and show that the entire Fermi surface involves heavy electrons. The phase transitions in their heavy-electron state are discussed. These are either magnetic or superconducting. 38 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs. (WRF)

  15. Mutagenicity of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.K. )

    1988-05-01

    Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, on plants and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). Though the rec assay with Bacillus subtilis and the reversion assay with Escherichia coli were used to assess the mutagenicity of some heavy metals, the present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

  16. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  17. Heavy hadron-string states as weakly interacting heavy dark-matter particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    Massive states (with energies ≥ 10 GeV) of a hadronic string (with a scale α' ≈ 1GeV-2) can have a very small coupling to ordinary baryons in the Universe. The lifetime of such states is of the order of or even greater than the age of the Universe. These heavy states are assumed to be possible candidates for the role of weakly interacting heavy dark-matter particles.

  18. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  19. Heavy Stars Thrive among Heavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    , with a sprinkling of the light element lithium. At our epoch, the visible ("baryonic") matter in the Universe still mostly consists of hydrogen and helium. However, progressively heavier elements have been built up via fusion processes in the interior of stars ever since the Big Bang. Some of the heaviest elements are also produced when massive stars die in gigantic stellar explosions, observed as "supernovae". This gradual process, referred to as "chemical evolution" , occurs with different speeds in different regions of the Universe, being fastest in those regions where star formation is most intense. In the relatively "quiet" region of the Milky Way galaxy where our Solar System was born some 4,600 million years ago, it took nearly 10,000 million years to produce all the heavy elements now found in our neighbourhood . Contrarily, in the innermost regions ( the "nuclei" ) of normal galaxies and especially in so-called "active galaxies", the same or even higher heavy-element "enrichment" levels were reached in much shorter time, less than about 1,000 to 2,000 million years. This is the result of observations of particularly active galaxy nuclei ("quasars") in the distant (i.e., early) Universe. Star formation in highly enriched environments Little is presently known about such highly enriched environments. Since astronomers refer to elements heavier than hydrogen and helium as "metals" , they talk about "metal-rich" regions . This is readily observable from the presence of strong lines from heavier elements in the spectra of the interstellar gas in such regions. A central, still unresolved question is whether under such special conditions, stars can still form with the same diversity of masses, as this happens in other, less extreme areas of the Universe . Indeed, some current theories of star formation and certain indirect observations appear to indicate that very heavy stars - with masses more than 20 - 30 times that of our Sun - could not possibly form in metal

  20. Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.

  1. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  2. A study of heavy-heavy nuclear reactions. [nuclear research/nuclear particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the reaction products in high energy collisions and of the atmospheric transport of particles such as protons, neutrons and other nucleons. The magnetic moments of charmed baryons are examined. Total cross sections which are required for cosmic heavy ion transport and shielding studies are also examined.

  3. Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Willen, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a proposed research facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to study the collision of beams of heavy ions, up to gold in mass and at beam energies up to 100 GeV/nucleon. The physics to be explored by this collider is an overlap between the traditional disciplines of nuclear physics and high energy physics and is a continuation of the planned program of light and heavy ion physics at BNL. The machine is to be constructed in the now-empty tunnel built for the former CBA project. Various other facilities to support the collider are either in place or under construction at BNL. The collider itself, including the magnets, is in an advanced state of design, and a construction start is anticipated in the next several years.

  4. (Relativistic heavy ion research)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, participation in the E802 Experiment, which is the first major heavy-ion experiment at the BNL-AGS, was the main focus of the group during the past four years. The emphases of the E802 experiment were on (a) accurate particle identification and measurements of spectra over a wide kinematical domain (5{degree} < {theta}{sub LAB} < 55{degree}, p < 20 GeV/c); and (b) measurements of small-angle two-particle correlations, with event characterization tools: multiplicity array, forward and large-angle calorimeters. This experiment and other heavy ion collision experiments are discussed in this report.

  5. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  6. Resonances in heavy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental situation for the study of resonances in heavy-ion collisions is reviewed, with emphasis on the heaviest systems. New data are presented which show some of the systematics of this phenomenon. The narrow resonance structures are established as a feature of the nuclear structure of the composite system rather than a purely entrance channel effect.

  7. Heavy Chain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells often prevents proper absorption of nutrients from food (malabsorption), resulting in severe diarrhea and weight loss. A rare form that affects the respiratory tract also exists. Blood tests are done when alpha heavy chain disease is suspected. Serum protein electrophoresis, measurement of ...

  8. Detection of heavy Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    The prospects for detecting heavy Higgs are discussed. In particular a general procedure is developed which includes studying first the characteristics of producing the signal, estimating the most important background, simulating both types of events via Monte Carlo techniques in an appropriate detector and concluding with the prospects for detection. 20 references.

  9. Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

    2000-04-11

    Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

  10. Heavy Flavor Dynamics in Relativistic Heavy-ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan

    Heavy flavor hadrons serve as valuable probes of the transport properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this dissertation, we introduce a comprehensive framework that describes the full-time evolution of heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions, including its initial production, in-medium evolution inside the QGP matter, hadronization process from heavy quarks to their respective mesonic bound states and the subsequent interactions between heavy mesons and the hadron gas. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is studied within the framework of a Langevin equation coupled to hydrodynamic models that simulate the space-time evolution of the hot and dense QGP matter. We improve the classical Langevin approach such that, apart from quasi-elastic scatterings between heavy quarks and the medium background, radiative energy loss is incorporated as well by treating gluon radiation as a recoil force term. The subsequent hadronization of emitted heavy quarks is simulated via a hybrid fragmentation plus recombination model. The propagation of produced heavy mesons in the hadronic phase is described using the ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. Our calculation shows that while collisional energy loss dominates the heavy quark motion inside the QGP in the low transverse momentum (p T) regime, contributions from gluon radiation are found to be significant at high pT. The recombination mechanism is important for the heavy flavor meson production at intermediate energies. The hadronic final state interactions further enhance the suppression and the collective flow of heavy mesons we observe. Within our newly developed framework, we present numerical results for the nuclear modification and the elliptic flow of D mesons, which are consistent with measurements at both the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC); predictions for B mesons are also provided. In

  11. Heavy quarks and lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas S. Kronfeld

    2003-11-05

    This paper is a review of heavy quarks in lattice gauge theory, focusing on methodology. It includes a status report on some of the calculations that are relevant to heavy-quark spectroscopy and to flavor physics.

  12. Heavy quark physics in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, G.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The most recent results which concern the heavy quark hadrons done in the CMS experiment are reported. The searching area spans over the heavy quark spectroscopy, production cross sections, beauty meson decay properties, rare decays, and CP violation.

  13. Numerical precision radiative corrections to the Dalitz plot of light and heavy quark unpolarized baryon semileptonic decays: The cases {xi}{sup 0}{yields}{sigma}{sup +}e{nu} and {lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{lambda}e{sup +}{nu}

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Mendieta, Ruben; Torres, J.J.; Neri, M.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, A.

    2005-02-01

    We propose and discuss a numerical use for our previous precision results for the radiative corrections to unpolarized spin one-half baryon semileptonic decays, which is not compromised to fixing the form factors at prescribed values. We present various cross-checks and comparisons with other results available in the literature of such analytical radiative corrections. Our analysis, however, is general and applies to all charge assignments to the baryons allowed by heavy quarks. The procedure is exemplified with the processes {xi}{sup 0}{yields}{sigma}{sup +}e{nu} and {lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{lambda}e{sup +}{nu}.

  14. Detecting heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Benenson, G.; Chau, L.L.; Ludlam, T.; Paige, F.E.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Rehak, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this exercise we examine the performance of a detector specifically configured to tag heavy quark (HQ) jets through direct observations of D-meson decays with a high resolution vertex detector. To optimize the performance of such a detector, we assume the small diamond beam crossing configuration as described in the 1978 ISABELLE proposal, giving a luminosity of 10/sup 32/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. Because of the very large backgrounds from light quark (LQ) jets, most triggering schemes at this luminosity require high P/sub perpendicular to/ leptons and inevitably give missing neutrinos. If alternative triggering schemes could be found, then one can hope to find and calculate the mass of objects decaying to heavy quarks. A scheme using the high resolution detector will also be discussed in detail. The study was carried out with events generated by the ISAJET Monte Carlo and a computer simulation of the described detector system. (WHK)

  15. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Johnson

    2000-01-31

    The objectives are to Provide Key Enabling Materials Technologies to Increase Energy Efficiency and Reduce Exhaust Emissions. The following goals are listed: Goal 1: By 3rd quarter 2002, complete development of materials enabling the maintenance or improvement of fuel efficiency {ge} 45% of class 7-8 truck engines while meeting the EPA/Justice Department ''Consent Decree'' for emissions reduction. Goal 2: By 4th quarter 2004, complete development of enabling materials for light-duty (class 1-2) diesel truck engines with efficiency over 40%, over a wide range of loads and speeds, while meeting EPA Tier 2 emission regulations. Goal 3: By 4th quarter 2006, complete development of materials solutions to enable heavy-duty diesel engine efficiency of 50% while meeting the emission reduction goals identified in the EPA proposed rule for heavy-duty highway engines.''

  16. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  17. Heavy rain field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melson, ED

    1991-01-01

    A weight-measuring rain gauge was developed to collect rain data and configured to operate at a high sample rate (one sample pre second). Instead of averaging the rain rate in minutes, hours, and sometime days as normally performed, the rain data collected are examined in seconds. The results of six field sites are compiled. Rain rate levels, duration of downpours, and frequency of heavy rainfall events are presented.

  18. Comment on 'Heavy element production in inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis'

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, Thomas

    2007-03-15

    The work of Matsuura et al. [Phys. Rev. D 72, 123505 (2005)] claims that heavy nuclei could have been produced in a combined p- and r-process in very high baryon density regions of an inhomogeneous big bang. However, they do not account for observational constraints and previous studies which show that such high baryon density regions did not significantly contribute to big bang abundances.

  19. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wiss, J.

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.

  20. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient engine

  1. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  2. Heavy quark production and spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, J.A.

    1993-11-01

    This review covers many new experimental results on heavy flavor production and spectroscopy. It also shows some of the increasingly improved theoretical understanding of results in light of basic perturbative QCD and heavy quark symmetry. At the same time, there are some remaining discrepancies among experiments as well as significant missing information on some of the anticipated lowest lying heavy quark states. Most interesting, perhaps, are some clearly measured production effects awaiting full explanation.

  3. Recent CDF results on heavy and exotic baryons in p-pbar collisions at s**(1/2)=1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Curbis, F.; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2005-01-01

    Since March 2001 a new period of CDF data taking (called Run II) began at the p{bar p} Tevatron collider. The upgrade of Collider Detector at Fermilab improved the tracking system: the vertexing, triggering and particle identification capabilities. This has allowed a further development of B physics, because the B{sub s} and {Lambda}{sub b} are produced in hadronic collisions. Here measurements of the mass and lifetime of {Lambda}{sub b} in two decay channels are presented. Using particle identification (PID) information from the time of flight and the dE/dx, CDF performed pentaquark searches for {Theta}{sup +}, {Xi}{sub 3/2}{sup --,0} and {Theta}{sub c}{sup 0}, following the recent interest in exotic baryon spectroscopy.

  4. Heavy-flavor production overview

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey A. Appel

    2003-12-10

    This talk serves as an introduction to the Heavy-Flavor session of the XXXIII International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics. A major focus of this session is on the production of heavy quarks. The talks which follow review the latest results on heavy quark production in strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions, as well as some of the physics of the heavy quarks themselves. This talk emphasizes what we can learn from the production measurements, both about underlying QCD theory and the partonic nature of the hadrons which we see in the laboratory.

  5. Cosmology with a heavy Polonyi field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Taku; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yamada, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    We consider a cosmologically consistent scenario with a heavy Polonyi field. The Polonyi field with a mass of Script O(100) TeV decays before the Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and avoids the severe constraint from the BBN. However, the abundance of the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP) produced from the decay often exceeds the observed dark matter density. In our scenario, the dark matter density is obtained by the LSP abundance with an aid of entropy production, and baryon asymmetry is generated by the Affleck-Dine mechanism. We show that the observed baryon-to-dark matter ratio of Script O(0.1–1) is naturally explained in sequestering models with a QCD axion.

  6. Rheological properties of heavy oils and heavy oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, the author investigated the effects of a number of process variables such as shear rate, measurement temperature, pressure, the influence of pretreatment, and the role of various amounts of added water on the rheology of the resulting heavy oil or the emulsion. Rheological properties of heavy oils and the corresponding emulsions are important from transportation and processing standpoints.

  7. HEAVY METAL PUMPS IN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants have been proposed as a bioremediation tool to help remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated land and water. However, little is known about how plants take up heavy metals from the soil and transport them to different parts of the plant. An important long term goal is t...

  8. Heavy Equipment Mechanic Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    Designed to train an entry-level mechanic, this heavy equipment mechanic program guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a heavy equipment mechanic program. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  9. SULFIDE PRECIPITATION OF HEAVY METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program was initiated with the objective of evaluating a new process, the sulfide precipitation of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters. The process was expected to effect a more complete removal of heavy metals than conventional lime processing because of the mu...

  10. Heavy ion measurement on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Jonathal, D.; Enge, W.

    1992-01-01

    A stack of CR-39 and Kodak CN track detectors was exposed on the NASA satellite LDEF and recovered after almost six years in space. The quick look analysis yielded heavy ion tracks on a background of low energy secondaries from proton interaction. The detected heavy ions show a steep energy spectrum which indicates a radiation belt origin.

  11. Heavy Equipment Mechanic. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Laborn J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist heavy equipment instructors in teaching the latest concepts and functions of heavy equipment. It includes 7 sections and 27 instructional units. Sections (and units) are: orientation (shop safety and first aid, hand tools and miscellaneous tools, measuring, basic rigging and hoisting), engines (basic engine…

  12. Heavy fragment radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.B.

    1987-12-10

    This recently discovered mode of radioactive decay, like alpha decay and spontaneous fission, is believed to involve tunneling through the deformation-energy barrier between a very heavy nucleus and two separated fragments the sum of whose masses is less than the mass of the parent nucleus. In all known cases the heavier of the two fragments is close to doubly magic /sup 208/Pb, and the lighter fragment has even Z. Four isotopes of Ra are known to emit /sup 14/C nuclei; several isotopes of U as well as /sup 230/Th and /sup 231/Pa emit Ne nuclei; and /sup 234/U exhibits four hadronic decay modes: alpha decay, spontaneous fission, Ne decay and Mg decay.

  13. Heavy ion beam probing

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  14. Heavy flavor production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-06-10

    Predictions are presented of total cross sections for charm and bottom quark production in /bar p/p, ..pi../sup /minus//p, and pp interactions at fixed target and collider energies. The calculations are done through next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. The sensitivity is explored of results to the choices of renormalization/evolution scale, parton densities, ..lambda../sub QCD/, and heavy flavor masses. Comparisons with available data show that good agreement is obtained for reasonable values of charm and bottom quark masses and other parameters. Open issues in the interpretation of results are summarized including the large size of the next-to-leading order contributions, proper definition of the gluon density, the nuclear A dependence of charm cross sections, the role of final state interactions, and higher twist effects. 39 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  16. Super-heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Sigurd

    2015-11-01

    Scientifically based searches for elements beyond uranium started after the discovery of the neutron. Neutrons captured by uranium nuclei and subsequent {β }- decay, similarly as most of the elements were produced in nature, was the successful method applied. However, as a first result, Hahn and Strassmann discovered nuclear fission indicating a limit for the existence of nuclei at an increasing number of protons. Eventually, the nuclear shell model allowed for a more accurate calculation of binding energies, half-lives and decay modes of the heaviest nuclei. Theoreticians predicted a region of increased stability at proton number Z = 126, later shifted to 114, and neutron number N = 184. These nuclei receive their stability from closed shells for the protons and neutrons. Later, increased stability was also predicted for deformed nuclei at Z = 108 and N = 162. In this review I will report on experimental work performed on research to produce and identify these super-heavy nuclei (SHN). Intensive heavy ion beams, sophisticated target technology, efficient electromagnetic ion separators, and sensitive detector arrays were the prerequisites for discovery of 12 new elements during the last 40 years. The results are described and compared with theoretical predictions and interpretations. An outlook is given on further improvement of experimental facilities which will be needed for exploration of the extension and structure of the island of SHN, in particular for searching for isotopes with longer half-lives predicted to be located in the south east of the island, for new elements, and last not least, for surprises which, naturally, emerge unexpectedly.

  17. Management of heavy drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A.; Wiseman, S.

    1992-01-01

    1. The amount of alcohol consumed per capita in the UK has approximately doubled since 1950. 2. One unit of alcohol is equivalent to around 8 g of pure alcohol (half a pint of beer, a single bar measure of spirits or glass of wine). 3. Consumption of above 21 units a week for men and 14 units a week for women carries an increasing risk of alcohol-related damage. Pregnant women are usually advised to abstain. 4. Newly registered patients should be asked if they have consumed any alcohol in the last three months and if so how much they consume in an average week using a quantity frequency scale. 5. In those in whom there is concern about their drinking a systematic 7-day history gives the best estimate of consumption. 6. Heavy drinking should also be considered in a wide range of clinical circumstances, including hypertension, injuries and accidents, marital disharmony and child abuse, dyspepsia, hepatic damage, memory impairment and dementia. Sudden withdrawal may cause fits which may lead to a mistaken diagnosis of epilepsy. 7. Laboratory tests pick up only 30-50% of heavy drinkers but may be useful in monitoring progress and in motivating patients to cut down. 8. It is important to decide whether a patient is dependent on alcohol as dependent drinkers are unlikely to be able to keep their consumption at modest levels. The possibility of psychological and social problems due to alcohol should also be considered. The use of drugs should be explored in dependent drinkers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1345154

  18. Advances in heavy oil hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Mendizabal, O.B. )

    1988-06-01

    The world increase in heavy crudes has forced refiners to develop different processes that upgrade the yields and product properties recovered from these crudes. However, some of the optimized and new processes are not able to handle whole heavy crude oils, due to the high viscosity and corrosion of their long and short residues. The different processes for heavy crudes can be classified in two areas: physical (vg. Liquid Extraction) and chemical processes. The catalytic hydrotreating process, which belongs to this last classification, has demonstrated to be an economical upgrading process for heavy crude oil. This paper describes the development by the Mexican Petroleum Institute of the process to hydrotreat maya heavy crude. The effect of the operating conditions, the catalyst ---- development and the technical - economical analysis are presented. The product properties and yields are compared with the results obtained with light crude oil like isthmus.

  19. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  20. Heavy quark in exotic hadron and nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Shigehiro

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, it has turned out that heavy hadrons with charm and bottom flavors have rich structures, which are different from simple quark-antiquark or three-quark systems. The new states of heavy hadrons are called exotic hadrons X, Y and Z. The subjects are now covering not only exotic hadrons but also exotic ``nuclei'' in which heavy hadrons are bound. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the general properties of exotic states of hadrons and nuclei with heavy quarks. We begin our discussion by the heavy quark spin (HQS) symmetry in the heavy quark limit, and show that all heavy hadrons are classified by the HQS symmetry, i.e. either HQS singlet or doublet. Next, in order to discuss the long-range physics of exotic hadrons, we introduce the heavy hadron effective theory according to the HQS symmetry in heavy quark sector as well as by chiral symmetry in light quark sector. As examples, we investigate the theoretically possible states of hadronic molecules with an anti-D meson (B meson) and nucleons with baryon number one, two and infinity (i.e. nuclear matter). Calculating the energies, we show that many of them exhibit the HQS doublets. Beyond the leading order in heavy quark limit, we further discuss the 1/M corrections with heavy hadron mass M, and show that finding the HQS-breaking (non-breaking) terms at 1/M is important to investigate the magnetic (electric) gluons in the heavy hadrons in nuclear medium [1,5]. In recent years, it has turned out that heavy hadrons with charm and bottom flavors have rich structures, which are different from simple quark-antiquark or three-quark systems. The new states of heavy hadrons are called exotic hadrons X, Y and Z. The subjects are now covering not only exotic hadrons but also exotic ``nuclei'' in which heavy hadrons are bound. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the general properties of exotic states of hadrons and nuclei with heavy quarks. We begin our discussion by the heavy quark spin (HQS

  1. Managing Inventories of Heavy Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, Robert M; Patton, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has stored a limited inventory of heavy actinides contained in irradiated targets, some partially processed, at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 'heavy actinides' of interest include plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes; specifically 242Pu and 244Pu, 243Am, and 244/246/248Cm. No alternate supplies of these heavy actinides and no other capabilities for producing them are currently available. Some of these heavy actinide materials are important for use as feedstock for producing heavy isotopes and elements needed for research and commercial application. The rare isotope 244Pu is valuable for research, environmental safeguards, and nuclear forensics. Because the production of these heavy actinides was made possible only by the enormous investment of time and money associated with defense production efforts, the remaining inventories of these rare nuclear materials are an important part of the legacy of the Nuclear Weapons Program. Significant unique heavy actinide inventories reside in irradiated Mark-18A and Mark-42 targets at SRS and ORNL, with no plans to separate and store the isotopes for future use. Although the costs of preserving these heavy actinide materials would be considerable, for all practical purposes they are irreplaceable. The effort required to reproduce these heavy actinides today would likely cost billions of dollars and encompass a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles for at least 50 years; thus, reproduction is virtually impossible. DOE has a limited window of opportunity to recover and preserve these heavy actinides before they are disposed of as waste. A path forward is presented to recover and manage these irreplaceable National Asset materials for future use in research, nuclear forensics, and other potential applications.

  2. Heavy Flavor Physics in Heavy-Ion Collisions with STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yifei

    2010-02-01

    Heavy quarks are a unique tool to probe the strongly interacting matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. Due to their large mass, energetic heavy quarks are predicted to lose less energy than light quarks by gluon radiation when they traverse a Quark-Gluon Plasma. In contrast, recent measurements of non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays at high transverse momentum (pT) show a jet quenching level similar to that of the light hadrons. Heavy quark are produced mainly at early stage in heavy-ion collisions, thus they are proposed to probe the QCD medium and to be sensitive to bulk medium properties. Ultimately, their flow behavior may help establish whether light quarks thermalize. Therefore, topological reconstruction of D-mesons and identification of electrons from charm and bottom decays are crucial to understand the heavy flavor production and their in medium properties. The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a micro-vertex detector utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precise measurement of charmed and bottom hadrons. We present a performance study with full detector on the open charm nuclear modification factor, elliptic flow v2 and λc measurement as well as the measurement of bottom mesons via a semi-leptonic decay. )

  3. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videbaek, Flemming; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is an on-going upgrade for the STAR detector at RHIC that aim to study heavy quark production. In relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC, heavy quarks are primarily created from initial hard scatterings. Since their large masses are not easily affected by the strong interaction with QCD medium they may carry information from the system at early stage. The interaction between heavy quarks and the medium is sensitive to the medium dynamics; therefore heavy quarks are suggested as an ideal probe to quantify the properties of the strongly interacting QCD matter. The HFT detectors will study this via the topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons. The HFT that consists of a thin two layer inner Pixel vertex detector, and two outer concentric layers of silicon, the Silicon Strip Detector, and the Intermediate Silicon Tracker. We will show how this detector system can assess heavy flavor physics with great precision. An overview of the HFT that will be completed for the upcoming RHIC run-14, its expected performance, and current status will be presented. Supported by the Division of Nuclear Physics of the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Heavy Quarkonium Production and Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Sterman, George

    2012-03-01

    We present a perturbative QCD factorization formalism for the production of heavy quarkonia of large transverse momentum pT at collider energies, which includes both the leading-power (LP) and next-to-leading-power (NLP) contributions to the cross section in the mQ2/pT2 expansion for heavy quark mass mQ. We estimate fragmentation functions in the nonrelativistic QCD formalism and reproduce the bulk of the large enhancement found in explicit next-to-leading-order calculations in the color-singlet model. Heavy quarkonia produced from NLP channels prefer longitudinal polarization.

  5. Imaging using accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1982-05-01

    Several methods for imaging using accelerated heavy ion beams are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using the HILAC (Heavy-Ion Linear Accelerator) as an injector, the Bevalac can accelerate fully stripped atomic nuclei from carbon (Z = 6) to krypton (Z = 34), and partly stripped ions up to uranium (Z = 92). Radiographic studies to date have been conducted with helium (from 184-inch cyclotron), carbon, oxygen, and neon beams. Useful ranges in tissue of 40 cm or more are available. To investigate the potential of heavy-ion projection radiography and computed tomography (CT), several methods and instrumentation have been studied.

  6. Plants absorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination of heavy metals-polluted soils remains one of the most intractable problems of cleanup technology. Currently available techniques include extraction of the metals by physical and chemical means, such as acid leaching and electroosmosis, or immobilization by vitrification. There are presently no techniques for cleanup which are low cost and retain soil fertility after metals removal. But a solution to the problem could be on the horizon. A small but growing number of plants native to metalliferous soils are known to be capable of accumulating extremely high concentrations of metals in their aboveground portions. These hyperaccumulators, as they are called, contain up to 1,000 times larger metal concentrations in their aboveground parts than normal species. Their distribution is global, including many different families of flowering plants of varying growth forms, from herbaceous plants to trees. Hyperaccumulators absorb metals they do not need for their own nutrition. The metals are accumulated in the leaf and stem vacuoles, and to a lesser extent in the roots.

  7. Biosorption of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Volesky, B. |; Holan, Z.R.

    1995-05-01

    Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. For economic reasons, of particular interest are abundant biomass types generated as a waste byproduct of large-scale industrial fermentations or certain metal-binding algae found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-building capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Lead and cadmium, for instance, have been effectively removed from very dilute solutions by the dried biomass of some ubiquitous species of brown marine algae such as Ascophyllum and Sargassum, which accumulate more than 30% of biomass dry weight in the metal. Mycelia of the industrial steroid-transforming fungi Rhizopus and Absidia are excellent biosorbents for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and uranium and also bind other heavy metals up to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments, are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance in dynamic continuous-flow sorption systems. In the course of this work, new methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. 115 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle development phase, Marshall plarners concluded a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) would be needed for successful Space Industrialization. Shown here in this 1976's artist's conception is an early version of the HLLV during launch.

  9. Heavy quark spectroscopy and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of q anti q systems containing heavy, charmed, and bottom quarks has progressed rapidly in recent years, through steady improvements in experimental techniques for production and detection of their decays. These lectures are meant to be an experimentalist's review of the subject. In the first of two lectures, the existing data on the spectroscopy of the bound c anti c and b anti b systems will be discussed. Emphasis is placed on comparisons with the theoretical models. The second lecture covers the rapidly changing subject of the decays of heavy mesons (c anti q and b anti q), and their excited states. In combination, the spectroscopy and decays of heavy quarks are shown to provide interesting insights into both the strong and electroweak interactions of the heavy quarks. 103 refs., 39 figs.

  10. Heavy Equipment Mechanic Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the heavy equipment mechanic program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning);…

  11. Mixing {Xi}--{Xi}' Effects and Static Properties of Heavy {Xi}'s

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, T. M.; Ozpineci, A.; Zamiralov, V. S.

    2010-12-22

    It is shown the importance of mixing of heavy baryons {Xi}--{Xi}' with the new quantum numbers for analysis of its characteristics. The quark model of Ono is used as an example. Masses of new baryons as well as mixing angles of the states {Xi}--{Xi}' are obtained. The same reasoning is shown to be valid for the interpolating currents of these baryons in the framework of the QCD sum rules.

  12. LCLS Heavy Met Outgassing Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kishiyama, K. I.

    2010-12-01

    A Heavy Met that is 95% tungsten, 3% nickel and 2% iron and sintered to 100% density and is Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) compatible is proposed for use as the X-ray slit in the Front End Enclosure and the Fixed Mask for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The Heavy Met was tested in the LLNL Vacuum Sciences and Engineering Lab (VSEL) to determine its outgassing rate and its overall compatibility with the vacuum requirements for LCLS.

  13. Heavy Metal Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    La Silla Telescope Detects Lots of Lead in Three Distant Binaries Summary Very high abundances of the heavy element Lead have been discovered in three distant stars in the Milky Way Galaxy . This finding strongly supports the long-held view that roughly half of the stable elements heavier than Iron are produced in common stars during a phase towards the end of their life when they burn their Helium - the other half results from supernova explosions. All the Lead contained in each of the three stars weighs about as much as our Moon. The observations show that these "Lead stars" - all members of binary stellar systems - have been more enriched with Lead than with any other chemical element heavier than Iron. This new result is in excellent agreement with predictions by current stellar models about the build-up of heavy elements in stellar interiors. The new observations are reported by a team of Belgian and French astronomers [1] who used the Coude Echelle Spectrometer on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory (Chile). PR Photo 26a/01 : A photo of HD 196944 , one of the "Lead stars". PR Photo 26b/01 : A CES spectrum of HD 196944 . The build-up of heavy elements Astronomers and physicists denote the build-up of heavier elements from lighter ones as " nucleosynthesis ". Only the very lightest elements (Hydrogen, Helium and Lithium [2]) were created at the time of the Big Bang and therefore present in the early universe. All the other heavier elements we now see around us were produced at a later time by nucleosynthesis inside stars. In those "element factories", nuclei of the lighter elements are smashed together whereby they become the nuclei of heavier ones - this process is known as nuclear fusion . In our Sun and similar stars, Hydrogen is being fused into Helium. At some stage, Helium is fused into Carbon, then Oxygen, etc. The fusion process requires positively charged nuclei to move very close to each other before they can unite. But with increasing

  14. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, A.F.

    1997-06-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, C.-J. David Lin, Stefan Meinel

    2012-04-01

    We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light-quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeV < m{sub {pi}} < 352 MeV, two lattice spacings, a = 0.085, 0.112 fm, and a volume of (2.7 fm){sup 3}. Our results for the axial couplings are g{sub 1} = 0.449(51), g{sub 2} = 0.84(20), and g{sub 3} = 0.71(13), where g{sub 1} governs the interaction between heavy-light mesons and pions and g{sub 2,3} are similar couplings between heavy-light baryons and pions. Using our lattice result for g{sub 3}, and constraining 1/m{sub Q} corrections in the strong decay widths with experimental data for {Sigma}{sub c}{sup (*)} decays, we obtain {Gamma}[{Sigma}{sub b}{sup (*)} {yields} {Lambda}{sub b} {pi}{sup {+-}}] = 4.2(1.0), 4.8(1.1), 7.3(1.6), 7.8(1.8) MeV for the {Sigma}{sub b}{sup +}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *+}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *-} initial states, respectively. We also derive upper bounds on the widths of the {Xi}{sub b}{sup prime(*)} baryons.

  16. Chemistry of heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1988-10-01

    The use of heavy ions to induce nuclear reactions was reported as early as 1950. Since that time it has been one of the most active areas of nuclear research. Intense beams of ions as heavy as uranium with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of even the heaviest elements are available. The wide variety of possible reactions gives rise to a multitude of products which have been studied by many ingenious chemical and physical techniques. Chemical techniques have been of special value for the separation and unequivocal identification of low yield species from the plethora of other nuclides present. Heavy ion reactions have been essential for the production of the trans-Md elements and a host of new isotopes. The systematics of compound nucleus reactions, transfer reactions, and deeply inelastic reactions have been elucidated using chemical techniques. A review of the variety of chemical procedures and techniques which have been developed for the study of heavy ion reactions and their products is given. Determination of the chemical properties of the trans-Md elements, which are very short-lived and can only be produced an ''atom-at-a-time'' via heavy ion reactions, is discussed. 53 refs., 19 figs.

  17. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothard, Hermann; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM). This conference was held in Darmstadt, from 18 to 21 May 2015. SHIM is a triennial series, which started about 25 years ago by a joint initiative of CIRIL - Caen and GSI - Darmstadt, with the aim of promoting fundamental and applied interdisciplinary research in the field of high-energy, heavy-ion interaction processes with matter. SHIM was successively organized in Caen (1989), Bensheim (1992), Caen (1995), Berlin (1998), Catania (2002), Aschaffenburg (2005), Lyon (2008), and Kyoto (2012). The conference attracts scientists from many different fields using high-energy heavy ions delivered by large accelerator facilities and characterized by strong and short electronic excitations.

  18. Heavy ion physics at BNL, the AGS and RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, D.I.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of heavy ion acceleration with the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1986 and the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) for 1990 brings us into a temperature and density regime well above anything yet produced and into a time domain of the early universe of 10/sup -13/-10/sup -6/ seconds. The physics of high energy heavy ions range from the more traditional nuclear physics to the formation of new forms of matter. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the latest, and as of yet, the most successful theory to describe the interaction of quarks and gluons. The nature of the confinement of the quarks and gluons under extremes of temperature and density is one of the compelling reasons for this new physics program at BNL. There are reasons to believe that with collisions of heavy nuclei at energies in the 10 to 100 GeV/amu range a very large volume of approx. 10 fm/sup 3/ would be heated to 200-300 MeV and/or acquire a sufficient quark density (5-10 times normal baryon density) so that the entire contents of the volume would be deconfined and the quarks and gluons would form a plasma. The kinematic region for the extant machines and the proposed RHIC are shown. At AGS energies the baryons in colliding nuclei bring each other to rest, yielding fragmentation regions of high baryon density. These are the regions in which supernorvae and neutrons stars exist. For energies much higher, such as in RHIC, nuclei are transparent to each other and one can form a central region of almost zero baryon density, mostly pions, and very high temperature. This is the region of the early universe and the quark-gluon plasma. Design parameters and cost of the RHIC are discussed.

  19. Aspects of heavy-ion collisions at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Wolschin, G.

    2014-01-14

    Three aspects of relativistic heavy-ion collisions are considered in this article: (1) Stopping and baryon transport in a QCD-based approach, (2) charged-hadron production in a nonequilibrium-statistical relativistic diffusion model (RDM), and (3) quarkonia suppression and in particular, Υ suppression in PbPb at the current LHC energy of √(s{sub NN}) = 2.76TeV.

  20. Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-05-01

    A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Exotics from Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Akira; Jido, Daisuke; Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Yazaki, Koichi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2011-10-21

    Discriminating hadronic molecular and multi-quark states is a long standing problem in hadronic physics. We propose here to utilize relativistic heavy ion collisions to resolve this problem, as exotic hadron yields are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model, we find that the exotic hadron yield relative to the statistical model result is typically an order of magnitude smaller for a compact multi-quark state, and larger by a factor of two or more for a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured at RHIC and LHC.

  2. Implications of a heavy gauge boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Junhai

    We study the implications of neutral heavy gauge bosons to electroweak (EW) baryogenesis, neutrino physics and the discovery limits at the Tevatron and LHC. For baryogenesis, we construct two anomaly free supersymmetric U(1)' models with secluded U(1) '-breaking sectors. In the framework of the one with E6 embedding, we study the one-loop effective potential at finite temperature, and show that there exist strong enough first order EW phase transition (EWPT) because of the large trilinear terms in the tree-level Higgs potentials. Unlike the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the stop masses can be very heavy. We discuss possible large tree-level CP violation associated with the Higgs sector. Numerical calculations show that the contribution purely from the thin wall regime is big enough to explain the observed baryon number asymmetry for some of the parameter space. Our model is free of domain wall problems and does not introduce new contributions to electric dipole moments (EDM). Secondly, we consider various possibilities for generating neutrino masses in supersymmetric models with an additional U(1)' gauge symmetry. One class of models involves two extra U (1)' x U(1)″ gauge symmetries, with U(1)″ breaking at an intermediate scale and yielding small Dirac masses through higher-dimensional operators. The right-handed neutrinos Nci can naturally decouple from the low energy U(1) ', avoiding cosmological constraints. We secondly consider models with a pair of heavy triplets which couple to left-handed neutrinos. After integrating out the heavy triplets, a small neutrino Majorana mass matrix can be generated by the induced non-renormalizable terms. We also study models involving the double-see-saw mechanism, in which heavy Majorana masses are associated with the TeV-scale of U(1)' breaking. We finally study how the exotic particles and supersymmetric partners would affect the discovery limit at the Tevatron and LHC for neutral gauge bosons in generic

  3. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  4. Heavy ions in Jupiter's environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extended atmosphere of the Jupiter system consists of atoms and ions of heavy elements. This material originates on the satellite Io. Energy is lost from the thermal plasma in collisionally excited optical and ultraviolet emission. The juxtaposition of Earth and spacecraft measurements provide insight concerning the underlying processes of particle transport and energy supply.

  5. Shock Mounting for Heavy Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Elastomeric bearings eliminate extraneous forces. Rocket thrust transmitted from motor to load cells via support that absorbs extraneous forces so they do not affect accuracy of thrust measurements. Adapter spoked cone fits over forward end of rocket motor. Shock mounting developed for rocket engines under test used as support for heavy machines, bridges, or towers.

  6. Proton Distribution in Heavy Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Johnson, M. H; Teller, E.

    1953-11-13

    It is reasoned that, from considerations connected with beta-decay stability and Coulomb repulsion forces, a neutron excess is developed on the surface of heavy nuclei. Several consequences of this qualitative analysis in nucleon interactions are briefly noted. (K.S.)

  7. The Search for Heavy Elements

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  8. Heavy quark physics from LEP

    SciTech Connect

    Dornan, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    A review of some of the latest results on heavy flavor physics from the LEP Collaborations is presented. The emphasis is on B physics, particularly new results and those where discrepancies is given of the many techniques which have been developed to permit these analyses.

  9. Status of heavy rain tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezos, Gaudy

    1991-01-01

    The heavy rain effects program is presented in the form of the view-graphs. The following topics are covered: rain effects on airfoil performance; two-phase flow dynamics; wind tunnel test results; issues; large-scale results; and summary.

  10. The Search for Heavy Elements

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-17

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  11. Summary of heavy ion theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.

    1994-09-01

    Can we study hot QCD using nuclear collisions? Can we learn about metallic hydrogen from the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter? The answer to both questions may surprise you! I summarize progress in relativistic heavy ion theory reported at DPF `94 in the parallel sessions.

  12. Future relativistic heavy ion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned. (GHT)

  13. Heavy Drinking Might Harm the Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160283.html Heavy Drinking Might Harm the Lungs Alcohol appears to reduce ... 2016 FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heavy drinking may increase the risk of lung problems, a ...

  14. Heavy particle radiotherapy: prospects and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Faju, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heavy particles in radiotherapy of tumor volumes is examined. Particles considered are protons, helium ions, heavy ions, negative pions, and fast neutrons. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. (ACR)

  15. Heavy Precipitation Events in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukantis, A.; Rimkus, E.; Kažys, J.

    2010-09-01

    Analysis of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania is presented in this work. Research was divided into two parts. Spatial distribution and dynamic of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania during observation period (1961-2008) is presented in the first part and climate predictions for XXI century according to outputs of CCLM model are in the second. Daily data from 17 meteorological stations were used for the analysis of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania. Research covers period from 1961 to 2008. Annual and seasonal heavy precipitation values and the recurrence of extreme daily and 3-day precipitation events were analyzed. Spatial distribution of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania was determined; the trends of such precipitation recurrence were identified. Also, daily and 3-day annual maxima probabilities were calculated using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. 10, 30 and 100 years return period was analyzed. Finally, atmospheric circulation processes during heavy precipitation events were described using the adapted Hess & Brezowski macrocirculation form classification Predictions of changes of heavy precipitation recurrence in Lithuania are also presented in this study. Output data of the regional climate model CCLM (COSMO - Climate Limited-area Model) for the period 1971-2100 were used. Predictions were based on A1B and B1 emission scenarios. Despite of relatively small area and quite negligible differences in altitude there are significant unevenness in spatial distribution of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania. The mean annual number of cases when daily precipitation amount exceeded 10 mm fluctuates from 12.4 to 21.9 and from 5.3 to 10.5 when 3-day precipitation exceeded 20 mm. The probability of maximum precipitation amount for 10 year return period appears very familiar to spatial distribution of heavy precipitation recurrence: the highest values can be expected in the western part (55-60 mm daily and 75-85 mm in 3-days

  16. ``Heavy-water Lattice and Heavy-Quark''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, Ssi, Wh-

    Refer to Birgitt Roettger-Roessler: ``Feelings at the Margins'', 2014 retrieved the Vienna, 2006 UNIDO Research Programme: Combating Marginalization and Poverty through Industrial Development/COMPID. Also from Vienna, on Feb 18-22, 1963 reported Technical Report Series 20 about ``Heavy Water Lattice''. Failed to relates scale-invariant properties of public-Debt growth to convergence in perturbation theory, sought JH Field: ``Convergence & Gauge Dependence Properties:..''. Furthers, in GP Lepage: ``On the Viabilities of Lattice Perturbation Theory'', 1992 stated: ``in terms of physical quantities, like the heavy-quark potential, greatly enhanced the predictive power of lattice perturbation theory''. Acknowledgements to HE. Mr. H. TUK SETYOHADI, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, South-Jakarta, INDONESIA.

  17. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)

  18. Study of heavy flavored particles

    SciTech Connect

    Nemati, Bijan

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses progress on the following topics: time-of- flight system; charmed baryon production and decays; D decays to baryons; measurement of sigma plus particles magnetic moments; and strong interaction coupling. (LSP)

  19. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.F.

    2000-10-01

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  20. Central collisions of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

  1. Heavy quark production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    C. Paus

    2002-11-13

    The contribution summarizes the latest results from CDF on heavy quark production. Results from top, bottom and charm production are included. Some new analysis using Run I (1991-1994) data have become available. More importantly there are a number of results using Run II data which began in April 2001. The data indicate the potential of CDF for bottom and charm production physics in the near future.

  2. Open heavy flavor measurements at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlustý, David

    2015-05-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC, heavy quarks are expected to be created from initial hard scatterings. Since heavy quarks have large masses, long life time, and negligible annihilation due to their small population, the number of heavy quarks is conserved during whole medium evolution. The interaction between heavy quarks and the medium is sensitive to the early medium dynamics, therefore heavy quarks are suggested as an ideal probe to quantify the properties of the strongly interacting QCD matter. In this article, we report on recent STAR results of open heavy flavor production at √s = 200 and 500 GeV in p+p, √sNN = 200 GeV in Au+Au and √sNN = 193 GeV in U+U collisions.

  3. Lifetimes and heavy quark expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Kolya Uraltsev was one of the inventors of the Heavy Quark Expansion (HQE), that describes inclusive weak decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks and in particular lifetimes. Besides giving a pedagogic introduction to the subject, we review the development and the current status of the HQE, which just recently passed several non-trivial experimental tests with an unprecedented precision. In view of many new experimental results for lifetimes of heavy hadrons, we also update several theory predictions: τ (B+)/τ (Bd) = 1.04+0.05-0.01 ± 0.02 ± 0.01, τ(Bs)/τ(Bd) = 1.001 ±0.002, τ(Λb)/τ(Bd) = 0.935 ±0.054 and \\bar {τ } (Ξ b0)/\\bar {τ } (Ξ b+) = 0.95 ± 0.06. The theoretical precision is currently strongly limited by the unknown size of the non-perturbative matrix elements of four-quark operators, which could be determined with lattice simulations.

  4. Dynamics of strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions near threshold energies

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Zhaoqing; Jin Genming

    2010-11-15

    Within the framework of the improved isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (ImIQMD) model, the dynamics of strangeness (K{sup 0,+}, {Lambda}, and {Sigma}{sup -,0,+}) production in heavy-ion collisions near threshold energies is investigated systematically, with the strange particles considered to be produced mainly by inelastic collisions of baryon-baryon and pion-baryon. Collisions in the region of suprasaturation densities of the dense baryonic matter formed in heavy-ion collisions dominate the yields of strangeness production. Total multiplicities as functions of incident energies and collision centralities are calculated with the Skyrme parameter SLy6. The excitation function of strangeness production is analyzed and also compared with the KaoS data for K{sup +} production in the reactions {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C and {sup 197}Au+{sup 197}Au.

  5. Future Heavy-Ion Program at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Hiroyuki

    Recently, a heavy ion program as a future J-PARC project has been discussed among nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists. The overview of the heavy-ion program with physics goals, the design and physics feasibility of the spectrometer, and preliminary accelerator schemes are presented. The main goal of the program is to explore the QCD phase diagram in baryon densities 8-10 times as high as the normal nucleus density with heavy ion beams up to uranium at 1-10 AGeV, as well as research of unstable nuclei up to 10 AMeV. In this work, we focus on the former. One of the most important measurements which could signal the phase transition in high baryon densities is a dilepton. We study in-medium modifications of ρ , ω , and φ mesons decaying into dileptons, measure rare particles such as multi-strangeness hadrons, exotic hadrons, and hypernuclei utilizing high rate beams at J-PARC. We have been designing a spectrometer with a solenoid and a dipole magnets, which covers almost 4π acceptance, and has capability of identifying charged hadrons as well as electrons and muons. In one-month running of the experiment at the beam rate of 1011 Hz, we expect to measure ρ , ω , and φ dielectron decays of the order of 107. Heavy-ion acceleration schemes have been studied with a new heavy-ion linac and a new booster ring as an injector to RCS. The beams will be accelerated in RCS and MR. The goal beam rate is around 1010-1011/MR cycle.

  6. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Zachary S; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-01

    The spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of exper- iments for some time, it is interesting compute this spectrum from QCD and compare results between lattice calculations and continuum theoretical models. Several lattice calculations ex- ist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. Here, we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. We present preliminary results for the ground state spectrum.

  7. Heavy flavor in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Song, T.; Berrehrah, H.; Cabrera, D.; Torres-Rincon, J. M.; Tolos, L.; Cassing, W.

    2016-01-01

    We study charm production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions by using the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach. The initial charm quarks are produced by the PYTHIA event generator tuned to fit the transverse momentum spectrum and rapidity distribution of charm quarks from Fixed-Order Next-to-Leading Logarithm (FONLL) calculations. The produced charm quarks scatter in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with the off-shell partons whose masses and widths are given by the Dynamical Quasi-Particle Model (DQPM), which reproduces the lattice QCD equation-of-state in thermal equilibrium. The relevant cross sections are calculated in a consistent way by employing the effective propagators and couplings from the DQPM. Close to the critical energy density of the phase transition, the charm quarks are hadronized into D mesons through coalescence and/or fragmentation. The hadronized D mesons then interact with the various hadrons in the hadronic phase with cross sections calculated in an effective lagrangian approach with heavy-quark spin symmetry. The nuclear modification factor Raa and the elliptic flow v2 of D0 mesons from PHSD are compared with the experimental data from the STAR Collaboration for Au+Au collisions at √sNN =200 GeV and to the ALICE data, for Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN =2.76 TeV. We find that in the PHSD the energy loss of D mesons at high pT can be dominantly attributed to partonic scattering while the actual shape of RAA versus pT reflects the heavy-quark hadronization scenario, i.e. coalescence versus fragmentation. Also the hadronic rescattering is important for the Raa at low pT and enhances the D-meson elliptic flow v2.

  8. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  9. Phenomenology of heavy flavor production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-10-13

    A review is presented of heavy quark in /bar p/p, p, and pp interactions at fixed target and collider energies. Calculations of total cross sections are described, including contributions through next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. Comparisons with available data on charm and bottom quark production show good agreement for reasonable values of charm and bottom quark masses and other parameters. Open issues in the interpretation of results are summarized. A discussion is presented of signatures, backgrounds, and expected event rates for top quark production. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Phenomenology of heavy vectorlike leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwata, Koji; Wise, Mark B.

    2013-09-01

    We study the impact that a heavy generation of vectorlike leptons can have on the value of the electric dipole moment of the electron, and the rates for the flavor violating processes μ→eγ and μ→3e. The smallness of the charged lepton masses suggests that at least some of the Yukawa coupling constants of the vectorlike leptons to the ordinary leptons or amongst themselves are small, but even with such small couplings experiments trying to detect these quantities are sensitive to extra generation lepton masses up to about 100 TeV.

  11. Diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Herman, Malou C; Mol, Ben W; Bongers, Marlies Y

    2016-01-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is an important health problem. This paper gives an overview of the diagnosis of HMB. For each woman, a thorough history should be taken as one should ascertain whether there are underlying factors that could cause complaints of HMB. Objectively knowing whether or not the blood loss is excessive could also be very beneficial. The pictorial blood assessment chart score can help with diagnosis. Physical examination starts with standard gynecological examination. Imaging tests are widely used in the work-up for women with HMB. The first step in imaging tests should be the transvaginal ultrasound. Other diagnostic tests should only be performed when indicated. PMID:26696006

  12. Heavy Gas Dispersion Incompressible Flow

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-01-27

    FEM3 is a numerical model developed primarily to simulate heavy gas dispersion in the atmosphere, such as the gravitational spread and vapor dispersion that result from an accidental spill of liquefied natural gas (LNG). FEM3 solves both two and three-dimensional problems and, in addition to the generalized anelastic formulation, includes options to use either the Boussinesq approximation or an isothermal assumption, when appropriate. The FEM3 model is composed of three parts: a preprocessor PREFEM3, themore » main code FEM3, and two postprocessors TESSERA and THPLOTX.« less

  13. The Compact Muon Solenoid Heavy Ion program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Pablo Yepes

    2005-12-15

    their interactions with the environment, they measure its properties and are sensitive to the formation of quark-gluon plasma. Moreover large transverse momentum probes are easily isolated experimentally from the background of soft particles produced in the collision. From a theoretical point of view, the high p{sub T} ensures that the medium effects are perturbatively calculable, strengthening their usefulness as quantitative diagnostic tools. Another interesting aspect of heavy ion collisions at the energy of the LHC is the time evolution of the system. At the moment of the collision, this may be described in terms of classical color fields and the gross properties of the system are calculable in perturbative QCD. Lastly let us mention the fact that at central rapidities LHC is expected to reach a truly baryon-free regime. Results from RHIC have shown that not all the valence quarks are removed from central rapidities at RHIC.

  14. Dynamical heavy-quark recombination and the non-photonic single electron puzzle at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alejandro; Magnin, J.; Montano, Luis Manuel; Toledo Sanchez, G.

    2011-04-26

    We show that the single, non-photonic electron nuclear modification factor R{sub AA}{sup e} is affected by the thermal enhancement of the heavy-baryon to heavy-meson ratio in relativistic heavy-ion collisions with respect to proton-proton collisions. We make use of the dynamical quark recombination model to compute such ratio and show that this produces a sizable suppression factor for the R{sub AA}{sup e} at intermediate transverse momenta. We argue that such suppression factor needs to be considered, in addition to the energy loss contribution, in calculations of R{sub AA}{sup e}.

  15. Ratios of heavy hadron semileptonic decay rates

    SciTech Connect

    Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2011-02-01

    Ratios of charmed meson and baryon semileptonic decay rates appear to be satisfactorily described by considering only the lowest-lying (S-wave) hadronic final states and assuming the kinematic factor describing phase space suppression is the same as that for free quarks. For example, the rate for D{sub s} semileptonic decay is known to be (17.0{+-}5.3)% lower than those for D{sup 0} or D{sup +}, and the model accounts for this difference. When applied to hadrons containing b quarks, this method implies that the B{sub s} semileptonic decay rate is about 1% higher than that of the nonstrange B mesons. This small difference thus suggests surprisingly good local quark-hadron duality for B semileptonic decays, complementing the expectation based on inclusive quark-hadron duality that these differences in rates should not exceed a few tenths of a percent. For {Lambda}{sub b} semileptonic decay, however, the inclusive rate is predicted to be about 13% greater than that of the nonstrange B mesons. This value, representing a considerable departure from a calculation using a heavy-quark expansion, is close to the corresponding experimental ratio {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub b})/{Gamma}(B)=1.13{+-}0.03 of total decay rates.

  16. SBI allocation between heavy and singlet missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-04-01

    The optimal allocation of space-based interceptors (SBIs) between fixed, heavy missiles and mobile singlets can be derived from approximate expressions for the boost-phase penetration of each. Singlets can cluster before launch and have shorter burn times, which reduce their availability to SBIs by an order of magnitude. Singlet penetration decreased slowly with the number of SBIs allocated to them; heavy missile penetration falls rapidly. The allocation to the heavy missiles falls linearly with their number. The penetration of heavy and singlet missiles is proportional to their numbers and inversely proportional to their availability. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Baryon number fluctuations from a crossover equation of state compared to heavy-ion collision measurements in the beam energy range √{sNN}=7.7 to 200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, M.; Kapusta, J.; Young, C.

    2015-10-01

    Fluctuations of the proton number distribution in central Au-Au collisions have been measured by the STAR Collaboration in a beam energy scan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The motivation is a search for evidence of a critical point in the equation of state. It was found that the skewness and kurtosis display an interesting energy dependence. We compare these measurements to an equation of state which smoothly interpolates between an excluded volume hadron resonance gas at low energy density to a perturbative plasma of quarks and gluons at high energy density. This crossover equation of state agrees very well with the lattice QCD equation of state. The crossover equation of state can reproduce the data if the fluctuations are frozen at a temperature significantly lower than the average chemical freeze-out.

  18. Radical scavengers from heavy hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Junichi

    1996-10-01

    The hydrogen-donating properties of some hydrocarbons form the basis for processes such as coal liquefaction and heavy oil upgrading. However, these hydrocarbons have seldom been used for other purposes, because their potential applications have not been well recognized. Research has indicated that these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons can be used in important reactions as radical scavengers and have properties particular to those of pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms. Over years of study researchers have found that pure hydrocarbons with radical-scavenging effects nearly as high as those in conventional hindered phenolic antioxidants can be produced from petroleum, and these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons exhibit such effects even in oxidative atmospheres (i.e., they function as antioxidants). He has also shown that these mixtures have some properties particular to pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms, and they`ve seen that a mechanism based on the steric effects appears when these hydrocarbons are used in heavy oil hydroprocessing. Hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons should be a viable resource in many applications. In this article, he presents radical-scavenging abilities, characteristics as pure hydrocarbons, and applications on the basis of the studies.

  19. New life for heavy lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeis, Richard

    1991-03-01

    The advisory committee to NASA on overall approaches for implementing the U.S. space program in the years ahead has concluded that Shuttle missions should only be flown when a human presence is necessary. It was noted that reducing the number of missions would extend the life of the existing fleet and retain the number of orbiters required at the presently planned four and any funding for a fifth orbiter should be utilized instead for the development of a new heavy lift launch vehicle. These recommendations have led to increased design proposals under the Advanced Launch Development (ADLP) Program such as the Shuttle C (cargo), an unmanned version that could orbit 100,00 to 150,000 lb for two- and three-engine versions, respectively, and would make maximum utilization of present Shuttle processing and pad facilities. Other concepts under investigation by ADLP include electromechanical actuators to replace hydraulic systems, advanced modular avionics and common avionics/payload interfaces, and laser-initiated ordnance for component separation and staging. It is noted that the drive to evolve a heavy lift system will fully employ the total quality management approach, with producibility and operability built into the system from the start.

  20. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  1. Heavy ion measurement on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Jonathal, D.; Enge, W.

    1991-01-01

    The Kiel Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment M0002, mounted on experiment tray E6, was designed to measure the heavy ion environment by means of CR-39 plastic solid state track detectors. The detector stack with a size of 40x34x4.5 cu cm was exposed in vacuum covered by thermal protection foils with a total thickness of approx. 14 mg/sq cm. After etching small samples of the detector foils tracks with Z greater than or = 6 could be easily detected on a background of small etch pits, which were probably produced by secondaries from proton interactions. The LDEF orientation with respect to the magnetic field lines within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is expected to be constant during the mission. Therefore, the azimuth angle distribution was measured on the detector foils for low energy stopping particles. All detected arrival directions are close to a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field line of -20 deg declination and -40 deg inclination at location 34 deg W and 27 deg S. Together with the steep energy spectrum, this spatial distribution close to the mirror plane in the SAA is an evidence that heavy ions were detected from a radiation belt population.

  2. Transfer reactions with heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Transfer reactions for several transuranium elements are studied. (/sup 248/Cm, /sup 249/Bk, /sup 249/CF, /sup 254/Es), /sup 16,18/O, /sup 20,22/Ne, and /sup 40,48/Ca projectiles are used. The production of neutron-rich heavy actinides is enhanced by the use of neutron-rich projectiles /sup 18/O and /sup 22/Ne. The maxima of the isotopic distributions occur at only 2 to 3 mass numbers larger for /sup 48/Ca than for /sup 40/Ca reactions with /sup 248/Cm. The cross sections decrease rapidly with the number of nucleons transferred. The use of neutron-rich targets favors the production of neutron-rich isotopes. ''Cold'' heavy targets are produced. Comparisons with simple calculations of the product excitation energies assuming binary transfers indicate that the maxima of the isotopic distributions occur at the lightest product isotope for which the energy exceeds the reaction barrier. The cross sections for transfer of the same nucleon clusters appear to be comparable for a wide variety of systems. 23 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Heavy Flavour results from Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Borissov, G.; /Lancaster U.

    2012-06-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments finalize the analysis of their full statistics collected in the p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This paper presents several new results on the properties of hadrons containing heavy b- and c-quarks obtained by both collaborations. These results include the search for the rare decays B{sup 0}, B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} (CDF), the study of CP asymmetry in B{sub s} {yields} J{psi}{phi} decay (CDF, D0), the measurement of the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry (D0), the measurement of CP asymmetry in D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays (CDF), and the new measurement of the B{sub s} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} D{sub s}{sup (*)-} branching fraction (CDF). Both experiments still expect to produce more results on the properties of heavy flavours.

  4. Charmed Mesons in Nuclei with Heavy-Quark Spin Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolos, L.; Garcia-Recio, C.; Nieves, J.; Romanets, O.; Salcedo, L. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study the properties of charmed pseudoscalar and vector mesons in dense matter within a unitary meson-baryon coupled-channel model which incorporates heavy-quark spin symmetry. This is accomplished by extending the SU(3) Weinberg-Tomozawa Lagrangian to incorporate spin-flavor symmetry and implement a suitable flavor symmetry breaking. Several resonances with negative parity are generated dynamically by the s-wave interaction between pseudoscalar and vector meson multiplets with 1/2+ and 3/2+ baryons. Those states are then compared to experimental data as well as theoretical models. Next, Pauli-blocking effects and meson self-energies are introduced in a self-consistent manner to obtain the open-charm meson spectral functions in a dense nuclear environment. We finally discuss the formation of D-mesic nuclei.

  5. Weak decays of heavy hadrons into dynamically generated resonances

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Oset, Eulogio; Liang, Wei -Hong; Bayar, Melahat; Xie, Ju -Jun; Dai, Lian Rong; Albaladejo, Miguel; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Navarra, Fernando; Roca, Luis; et al

    2016-01-28

    In this study, we present a review of recent works on weak decay of heavy mesons and baryons with two mesons, or a meson and a baryon, interacting strongly in the final state. The aim is to learn about the interaction of hadrons and how some particular resonances are produced in the reactions. It is shown that these reactions have peculiar features and act as filters for some quantum numbers which allow to identify easily some resonances and learn about their nature. The combination of basic elements of the weak interaction with the framework of the chiral unitary approach allowmore » for an interpretation of results of many reactions and add a novel information to different aspects of the hadron interaction and the properties of dynamically generated resonances.« less

  6. Heavy quarks, gluons and the confinement potential in Coulomb gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Popovici, Carina; Watson, Peter; Reinhardt, Hugo

    2011-05-23

    We consider the heavy quark limit of Coulomb gauge QCD, with the truncation of the Yang-Mills sector to include only (dressed) two-point functions. We find that the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is nonperturbatively exact and moreover, we provide a direct connection between the temporal gluon propagator and the quark confinement potential. Further, we show that only bound states of color singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (SU(2) baryon) pairs are physically allowed.

  7. Heavy quarks, gluons and the confinement potential in Coulomb gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovici, Carina; Watson, Peter; Reinhardt, Hugo

    2011-05-01

    We consider the heavy quark limit of Coulomb gauge QCD, with the truncation of the Yang-Mills sector to include only (dressed) two-point functions. We find that the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is nonperturbatively exact and moreover, we provide a direct connection between the temporal gluon propagator and the quark confinement potential. Further, we show that only bound states of color singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (SU(2) baryon) pairs are physically allowed.

  8. The effect of meson wave function on heavy-quark fragmentation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi Nejad, S. Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the process-independent fragmentation functions (FFs) for a heavy quark to fragment into heavy mesons considering the effects of meson wave function. In all previous works, where the FFs of heavy mesons or heavy baryons were calculated, a delta function form was approximated for the wave function of hadrons. Here, for the first time, we consider a typical mesonic wave function which is different from the delta function and is the nonrelativistic limit of the solution of Bethe-Salpeter equation with the QCD kernel. We shall present our numerical results for the heavy FFs and show how the proposed wave function improves the previous results. As an example, we focus on the fragmentation function for c -quark to split into S -wave D^0 -meson and compare our results with experimental data from BELLE and CLEO.

  9. Phycoremediation of heavy metals using transgenic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sathish; Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Falcao, Vanessa; Torres, Moacir; Colepicolo, Pio; Sayre, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Microalgae account for most of the biologically sequestered trace metals in aquatic environments. Their ability to adsorb and metabolize trace metals is associated with their large surface:volume ratios, the presence of high-affinity, metal-binding groups on their cell surfaces, and efficient metal uptake and storage systems. Microalgae may bind up to 10% of their biomass as metals. In addition to essential trace metals required for metabolism, microalgae can efficiently sequester toxic heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals often compete with essential trace metals for binding to and uptake into cells. Recently, transgenic approaches have been developed to further enhance the heavy metal specificity and binding capacity of microalgae with the objective of using these microalgae for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated wastewaters and sediments. These transgenic strategies have included the over expression of enzymes whose metabolic products ameliorate the effects of heavy metal-induced stress, and the expression of high-affinity, heavy metal binding proteins on the surface and in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. The most effective strategies have substantially reduced the toxicity of heavy metals allowing transgenic cells to grow at wild-type rates in the presence of lethal concentrations of heavy metals. In addition, the metal binding capacity of transgenic algae has been increased five-fold relative to wild-type cells. Recently, fluorescent heavy metal biosensors have been developed for expression in transgenic Chlamydomonas. These fluorescent biosensor strains can be used for the detection and quantification of bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments. The use of transgenic microalgae to monitor and remediate heavy metals in aquatic environments is not without risk, however. Strategies to prevent the release of live microalgae having enhanced metal binding properties are described. PMID:18161494

  10. Staggered baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Jon Andrew

    The strong force binds protons and neutrons within nuclei and quarks within mesons and baryons. Calculations of the masses of the light-quark baryons from the theory of the strong force, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), require numerical methods in which continuous Minkowski spacetime is replaced by a discrete Euclidean spacetime lattice. Finite computational resources and theoretical constraints impose significant limitations on lattice calculations. The price of perhaps the fastest formulation of lattice QCD, rooted staggered QCD, includes quark degrees of freedom called tastes, associated discretization effects called taste violations, and the rooting conjecture for eliminating the tastes in the continuum limit. Empirically successful rooted staggered QCD calculations of the baryon spectrum would constitute numerical evidence for the rooting conjecture and further vindication of QCD as the theory of the strong force. With such calculations as the goal, I discuss expected features of the staggered baryon spectrum, examine the spectra of interpolating operators transforming irreducibly under the staggered lattice symmetry group, construct such a set of baryon operators, and show how they could allow for particularly clean calculations of the masses of the nucleon, Delta, Sigma*, Ξ*, and O-. To quantify taste violations in baryonic quantities, I develop staggered chiral perturbation theory for light-quark baryons by mapping the Symanzik action into heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, calculate the masses of flavor-symmetric nucleons to third order in partially quenched and fully dynamical staggered chiral perturbation theory, and discuss in detail the pattern of taste symmetry breaking and the resulting baryon degeneracies and mixings. The resulting chiral forms could be used with interpolating operators already in use to study the restoration of taste symmetry in the continuum limit.

  11. Heavy Ion Physics in eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal

    2005-10-06

    We review the physics of gluon saturation in heavy ions at small x and consider the applications of Color Glass Condensate formalism to Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) of leptons on nuclei and discuss the overlapping physics between high energy heavy ion collisions at RHIC and DIS in eRHIC.

  12. Comparative SEU sensitivities to relativistic heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, R.; Crain, S.H.; Crain, W.R.; Crawford, K.B.; Hansel, S.J.

    1998-12-01

    SEU sensitivity of microcircuits to relativistic heavy ions is compared to that measured with low-energy ions of comparable LET values. Multiple junction charge collection in a complex circuit seems to mask the effect of varying charge generations due to different iron track structures. Heavy ions at sub-relativistic speeds may generate nuclear fragments, sometimes resulting in SEUs.

  13. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  14. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine

    2001-01-01

    Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

  15. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  16. Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

  17. Octupole correlations in the heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of octupole correlations on the nuclear structure of the heavy elements are discussed. The cluster model description of the heavy elements is analyzed. The relevance of 2/sup 6/-pole deformation and fast El transitions to an octupole model is considered. 30 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program Retrospective and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    James J. Eberhardt

    1999-04-10

    OHVT Mission is to conduct, in collaboration with our heavy vehicle industry partners and their suppliers, a customer-focused national program to research and develop technologies that will enable trucks and other heavy vehicles to be more energy efficient and able to use alternative fuels while simultaneously reducing emissions.

  19. FINAL REPORT. HEAVY METAL PUMPS IN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of t...

  20. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  1. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  2. Heavy quark production in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, P.L.; Quack, E.; Ruuskanen, P.V. |

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.

  3. Phenomenology of heavy quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of heavy quark production in {bar p}p, {pi}{sup -}p, and pp interactions at fixed target and collider energies. Calculations of total cross sections and of single quark inclusive differential cross sections d{sup 2}{omega}/dk{sub T}dy are described including contributions through next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. Comparisons with available data on charm and bottom quark production show good agreement for reasonable values of the charm and bottom quark masses and other parameters. Predictions and open issues in the interpretation of results are summarized. A brief discussion is presented of signatures, backgrounds, and expected event rates for top quark production. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Laboratory studies of heavy ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, J.; Barnes, J.; Schueler, B.; Mauersberger, K.

    1990-01-01

    Dissociation of ozone in the Chappuis bands has been used as an O atom source to study isotope effects occurring in the O(3P) + O2(3 Sigma g) recombination reaction. The ozone produced was found to be enriched in both of its heavy isotopes. The pressure dependence (5-1000 torr) and temperature dependence (127-360 K) of this isotope effect have been investigated. The enrichment is approximately constant from 5 torr to 100 torr and decreases at higher pressures. It increases with temperature, with O3-50 showing a slightly faster rate of increase than O3-45. The results of this experiment have clearly isolated the source of the isotope effect to the gas phase O(3P) + O2(3 Sigma g) recombination reaction.

  5. HEAVY WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1958-04-29

    A nuclear reactor of the type which utilizes uranium fuel elements and a liquid coolant is described. The fuel elements are in the form of elongated tubes and are disposed within outer tubes extending through a tank containing heavy water, which acts as a moderator. The ends of the fuel tubes are connected by inlet and discharge headers, and liquid bismuth is circulated between the headers and through the fuel tubes for cooling. Helium is circulated through the annular space between the outer tubes in the tank and the fuel tubes to cool the water moderator to prevent boiling. The fuel tubes are covered with a steel lining, and suitable control means, heat exchange means, and pumping means for the coolants are provided to complete the reactor assembly.

  6. Hazards of heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Järup, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues, and is even increasing in some parts of the world, in particular in less developed countries, though emissions have declined in most developed countries over the last 100 years. Cadmium compounds are currently mainly used in re-chargeable nickel-cadmium batteries. Cadmium emissions have increased dramatically during the 20th century, one reason being that cadmium-containing products are rarely re-cycled, but often dumped together with household waste. Cigarette smoking is a major source of cadmium exposure. In non-smokers, food is the most important source of cadmium exposure. Recent data indicate that adverse health effects of cadmium exposure may occur at lower exposure levels than previously anticipated, primarily in the form of kidney damage but possibly also bone effects and fractures. Many individuals in Europe already exceed these exposure levels and the margin is very narrow for large groups. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce cadmium exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. The general population is primarily exposed to mercury via food, fish being a major source of methyl mercury exposure, and dental amalgam. The general population does not face a significant health risk from methyl mercury, although certain groups with high fish consumption may attain blood levels associated with a low risk of neurological damage to adults. Since there is a risk to the fetus in particular, pregnant women should avoid a high intake of certain fish, such as shark, swordfish and

  7. SUPRI heavy oil research program

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, K.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Castanier, L.M.

    1991-12-01

    The 14th Annual Report of the SUPRI Heavy Oil Research Program includes discussion of the following topics: (1) A Study of End Effects in Displacement Experiments; (2) Cat Scan Status Report; (3) Modifying In-situ Combustion with Metallic Additives; (4) Kinetics of Combustion; (5) Study of Residual Oil Saturation for Steam Injection and Fuel Concentration for In-Situ Combustion; (6) Analysis of Transient Foam Flow in 1-D Porous Media with Computed Tomography; (7) Steam-Foam Studies in the Presence of Residual Oil; (8) Microvisualization of Foam Flow in a Porous Medium; (9) Three- Dimensional Laboratory Steam Injection Model; (10) Saturation Evaluation Following Water Flooding; (11) Numerical Simulation of Well-to-Well Tracer Flow Test with Nonunity Mobility Ratio.

  8. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  9. Heavy quark physics from SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Messner, R.

    1997-01-01

    This report covers preliminary measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 1993-1995 runs. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag is presented. The high electron beam polarization of the SLC is employed in the direct measurement of the parity-violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} by use of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry. The lifetimes of B{sup +} and B{sup 0} mesons have been measured by two analyses. The first identifies semileptonic decays of B mesons with high (p,p{sub t}) leptons; the second analysis isolates a sample of B meson decays with a two-dimensional impact parameter tag and reconstructs the decay length and charge using a topological vertex reconstruction method.

  10. Laithwaite's Heavy Spinning Disk Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2014-09-01

    In 1974, Professor Eric Laithwaite demonstrated an unusually heavy gyroscope at a Royal Institution lecture in London. The demonstration was televised and can be viewed on YouTube.1 A recent version of the same experiment, together with partial explanations, attracted two million YouTube views in the first few months.2 In both cases, the gyroscope consisted of a 40-lb (18-kg) spinning disk on the end of a 3-ft (0.91-m) long axle. The most remarkable feature of the demonstration was that Laithwaite was able to lift the disk over his head with one hand, holding onto the far end of the axle. The impression was given that the 40-lb disk was almost weightless, or "as light as a feather" according to Laithwaite.

  11. Heavy cocaine use by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Schwartz, R H; Martin, D M

    1989-04-01

    Adolescents are susceptible to becoming cocaine users. Twenty-eight teenagers in a drug rehabilitation program were identified as heavy cocaine users and questioned about their experiences. They reported family conflict leading to running away (86%), school drop-out (24%) and delinquent behaviors such as stealing (96%) and vandalism (57%). Cocaine use started at 14 years for 21%, with progression from onset to at least weekly use within eight weeks (54%). Side effects included sleep disturbance (18%) and tolerance to cocaine (25%). Withdrawal was characterized by cocaine craving up to one month later (93%). The majority (96%) were polydrug abusers. Possible causes of teen substance abuse are discussed, and the importance of prevention is emphasized. PMID:2927994

  12. An accessible heavy neutral lepton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chao-Hsi

    1982-09-01

    In the SUL(2) ⊗ SUR(2) ⊗ UB-L(1) model, an accessible heavy neutral lepton may exist owing to the mixing of generations. Based on a rough estimate, it is pointed out that the most hopeful experiments to observe this lepton are ν-production in an emulsion (because the track of a particle with lifetime 10-11-10-13 s could be seen) and e-production. The author thanks Professor J.D. Bjorken, Professor He Zuo-Xiu, Professor R.E. Mashark, Professor S.J. Chang, Professor Zhu Cong-Yuan and Professor M. Dine for helpful discussions and comments. He would like to thank the referee for valuable comments.

  13. Heavy Gas Dispersion Incompressible Flow

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-03

    FEM3 is a numerical model developed primarily to simulate heavy gas dispersion in the atmosphere, such as the gravitational spread and vapor dispersion that result from an accidental spill of liquefied natural gas (LNG). FEM3 solves both two and three-dimensional problems and, in addition to the generalized anelastic formulation, includes options to use either the Boussinesq approximation or an isothermal assumption, when appropriate. The FEM3 model is composed of three parts: a preprocessor PREFEM3, themore » main code FEM3, and two postprocessors TESSERA and THPLOTX. The DEC VAX11 version contains an auxiliary program, POLYREAD, which reads the polyplot file created by FEM3.« less

  14. Heavy-lift airship dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

  15. QCD mechanisms for heavy particle production

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-09-01

    For very large pair mass, the production of heavy quarks and supersymmetric particles is expected to be governed by ACD fusion subprocesses. At lower mass scales other QCD mechanisms such as prebinding distortion and intrinsic heavy particle Fock states can become important, possibly accounting for the anomalies observed for charm hadroproduction. We emphasize the importance of final-state Coulomb interactions at low relative velocity in QCD and predict the existence of heavy narrow four quark resonances (c c-bar u u-bar) and (cc c-bar c-bar) in ..gamma gamma.. reactions. Coherent QCD contributions are discussed as a contribution to the non-additivity of nuclear structure functions and heavy particle production cross sections. We also predict a new type of amplitude zero for exclusive heavy meson pair production which follows from the tree-graph structure of QCD. 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Heavy photon search experiment at JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanyan, Stepan

    2013-11-01

    The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) experiment in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab will search for new heavy vector boson(s), aka "heavy photons", in the mass range of 20 MeV/c{sup 2} to 1000 MeV/c{sup 2} using the scattering of high energy, high intensity electron beams off a high Z target. The proposed measurements will cover the region of parameter space favored by the muon g-2 anomaly, and will explore a significant region of parameter space, not only at large couplings ({alpha}'/{alpha} > 10{sup -7}), but also in the regions of small couplings, down to {alpha}'/{alpha}~10{sup -10}. The excellent vertexing capability of the Si-tracker uniquely enables HPS to cover the small coupling region. Also, HPS will search for heavy photons in an alternative to the e{sup +} e{sup -} decay mode, in the heavy photon's decay to {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}.

  17. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS.

    PubMed

    Van Keer, Jan; Meijers, Björn; Delforge, Michel; Verhoef, Gregor; Poesen, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of "heavy chain MGUS" have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma. PMID:27213064

  18. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS

    PubMed Central

    Meijers, Björn; Delforge, Michel; Verhoef, Gregor; Poesen, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of “heavy chain MGUS” have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma. PMID:27213064

  19. Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Mahendra; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common pollutants found in the environment. Health problems due to the heavy metal pollution become a major concern throughout the world, and therefore, various treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and adsorption are adopted to reduce or eliminate their concentration in the environment. Biosorption is a cost-effective and environmental friendly technique, and it can be used for detoxification of heavy metals in industrial effluents as an alternative treatment technology. Biosorption characteristics of various bacterial species are reviewed here with respect to the results reported so far. The role of physical, chemical, and biological modification of bacterial cells for heavy metal removal is presented. The paper evaluates the different kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic models used in bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Biomass characterization and sorption mechanisms as well as elution of metal ions and regeneration of biomass are also discussed. PMID:25471624

  20. Heavy ion program at BNL: AGS, RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    With the recent commissioning of fixed target, heavy ion physics at the AGS, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has embarked on a long range program in support of relativistic heavy ion research. Acceleration of low mass heavy ions (up to sulfur) to an energy of about 14.5 GeV/nucleon is possible with the direct connection of the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff and AGS accelerators. When completed, the new booster accelerator will provide heavy ions over the full mass range for injection and subsequent acceleration in the AGS. BNL is now engaged in an active R and D program directed toward the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The results of the first operation of the low mass heavy ion program will be reviewed, and future expectations discussed. The expected performance for the heavy ion operation of the booster will be described and finally, the current status and outlook for the RHIC facility will be presented.

  1. Effective Hadron Dynamics: from the Proton Spin to Heavy Meson Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbaraman, Anand Hariharan

    In this thesis, chiral effective Lagrangians are used to study certain aspects of QCD in the low energy limit. A chiral Lagrangian including vector mesons as well as pseudoscalar mesons is developed. Careful attention is paid to SU(3) symmetry breaking effects, and the parameters are fitted to experiment. It is found that this Lagrangian explains certain SU(3) breaking effects in the meson sector much better than a model with pseudoscalars alone. The above Lagrangian is then used to study the "proton spin puzzle". The nucleon arises as a solitonic excitation of the mesonic fields in this model. It is shown that the explanation of the small value of the matrix element of the axial singlet current in the proton state is very satisfactory within this framework. A gauge invariant two-component decomposition of the above matrix element into "matter" and "glue" contributions is then displayed, and it is demonstrated that both these pieces are intrinsically small, though the "glue" part does tend to cancel out the "matter" part. The interactions of heavy mesons (mesons containing a single heavy quark) with light mesons is also studied. A formalism is developed to include light vector mesons as well as pseudoscalars into a chiral effective Lagrangian of heavy and light mesons. The parameters in the Lagrangian are fitted by the analysis of certain semi-leptonic heavy meson decays. The heavy-light Lagrangian is then used to study the picture of heavy baryons as bound states of the nucleon-as-soliton and heavy mesons. It is demonstrated that light vector mesons play a significant role in the binding of the soliton and the heavy meson. The heavy baryon mass splitting is estimated as a test of the model.

  2. Stabilization of heavy metals in sludge ceramsite.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Zou, J L; Li, G B

    2010-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the stabilization behaviours of heavy metals in ceramsite made from wastewater treatment sludge (WWTS) and drinking-water treatment sludge (DWTS). Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of sintering temperature, (Fe(2)O(3) + CaO + MgO)/(SiO(2) + Al(2)O(3)) (defined as F/SA ratios), pH, and oxidative condition. Results show that sintering exhibits good binding capacity for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb in ceramsite and leaching contents of heavy metals will not change above 1000 degrees C. The main crystalline phases in ceramsite sintered at 1000 degrees C are kyanite, quartz, Na-Ca feldspars, sillimanite, and enstatite. The main compounds of heavy metals are crocoite, chrome oxide, cadmium silicate, and copper oxide. Leaching contents of Cd, Cu, and Pb increase as the F/SA ratios increase. Heavy metals in ceramsite with variation of F/SA ratios are also in same steady forms, which prove that stronger chemical bonds are formed between these heavy metals and the components. Leaching contents of heavy metals decrease as pH increases and increase as H(2)O(2) concentration increases. The results indicate that when subjected to rigorous leaching conditions, the crystalline structures still exhibit good chemical binding capacity for heavy metals. In conclusion, it is environmentally safe to use ceramsite in civil and construction fields. PMID:20219229

  3. Heavy-element fission barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Peter; Sierk, Arnold J.; Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Bengtsson, Ragnar; Uhrenholt, Henrik; Angstromberg, Sven

    2009-06-15

    We present calculations of fission properties for heavy elements. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic finite-range liquid-drop model with a 2002 parameter set. For each nucleus we have calculated the potential energy in three different shape parametrizations: (1) for 5 009 325 different shapes in a five-dimensional deformation space given by the three-quadratic-surface parametrization, (2) for 10 850 different shapes in a three-dimensional deformation space spanned by {epsilon}{sub 2}, {epsilon}{sub 4}, and {gamma} in the Nilsson perturbed-spheroid parametrization, supplemented by a densely spaced grid in {epsilon}{sub 2}, {epsilon}{sub 3}, {epsilon}{sub 4}, and {epsilon}{sub 6} for axially symmetric deformations in the neighborhood of the ground state, and (3) an axially symmetric multipole expansion of the shape of the nuclear surface using {beta}{sub 2}, {beta}{sub 3}, {beta}{sub 4}, and {beta}{sub 6} for intermediate deformations. For a fissioning system, it is always possible to define uniquely one saddle or fission threshold on the optimum trajectory between the ground state and separated fission fragments. We present such calculated barrier heights for 1585 nuclei from Z=78 to Z=125. Traditionally, actinide barriers have been characterized in terms of a ''double-humped'' structure. Following this custom we present calculated energies of the first peak, second minimum, and second peak in the barrier for 135 actinide nuclei from Th to Es. However, for some of these nuclei which exhibit a more complex barrier structure, there is no unique way to extract a double-humped structure from the calculations. We give examples of such more complex structures, in particular the structure of the outer barrier region near {sup 232}Th and the occurrence of multiple fission modes. Because our complete results are too extensive to present in a paper of this type, our aim here is limited: (1) to fully present our model and the methods for determining the

  4. Heavy-quark physics in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1991-04-01

    Heavy quarks can expose new symmetries and novel phenomena in QCD not apparent in ordinary hadronic systems. In these lectures I discuss the use of effective-Lagrangian and light-cone Fock methods to analyze exclusive heavy hadron decays such as {Upsilon} {yields} p{bar p} and B {yields} {pi}{pi}, and also to derive effective Schroedinger and Dirac equations for heavy quark systems. Two contributions to the heavy quark structure functions of the proton and other light hadrons are identified: an extrinsic'' contribution associated with leading twist QCD evolution of the gluon distribution, and a higher twist intrinsic'' contribution due to the hardness of high-mass fluctuations of multi-gluon correlations in hadronic wavefunctions. A non-perturbative calculation of the heavy quark distribution of a meson in QCD in one space and one time is presented. The intrinsic higher twist contributions to the pion and proton structure functions can dominate the hadronic production of heavy quark systems at large longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub F} and give anomalous contributions to the quark structure functions of ordinary hadrons at large x{sub bj}. I also discuss a number of ways in which heavy quark production in nuclear targets can test fundamental QCD phenomena and provide constraints on hadronic wavefunctions. The topics include color transparency, finite formation time, and predictions for charm production at threshold, including nuclear-bound quarkonium. I also discuss a number of QCD mechanisms for the suppression of J/{psi} and {Upsilon} production in nuclear collisions, including gluon shadowing, the peripheral excitation of intrinsic heavy quark components at large x{sub F}, and the coalescence of heavy quarks with co-moving spectators at low x{sub F}.

  5. Energy loss, hadronization, and hadronic interactions of heavy flavors in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Bass, Steffen A.

    2015-08-01

    We construct a theoretical framework to describe the evolution of heavy flavors produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is described using our modified Langevin equation that incorporates both quasielastic scatterings and the medium-induced gluon radiation. The space-time profiles of the fireball are described by a (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics simulation. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is utilized for heavy quark hadronization, after which the produced heavy mesons together with the soft hadrons produced from the bulk quark-gluon plasma (QGP) are fed into the hadron cascade ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model to simulate the subsequent hadronic interactions. We find that the medium-induced gluon radiation contributes significantly to heavy quark energy loss at high pT; heavy-light quark coalescence enhances heavy meson production at intermediate pT; and scatterings inside the hadron gas further suppress the D meson RAA at large pT and enhance its v2. Our calculations provide good descriptions of heavy meson suppression and elliptic flow observed at both the Large Hadron Collider and the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

  6. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C{sub s}+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac.

  7. Experimental Search for a Heavy Electron

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Boley, C. D.; Elias, J. E.; Friedman, J. I.; Hartmann, G. C.; Kendall, H. W.; Kirk, P.N.; Sogard, M. R.; Van Speybroeck, L. P.; de Pagter, J. K.

    1967-09-01

    A search for a heavy electron of the type considered by Low and Blackmon has been made by studying the inelastic scattering of 5 BeV electrons from hydrogen. The search was made over a range of values of the mass of the heavy electron from 100 t0 1300 MeV. No evidence for such a particle was observed. Upper limits on the production cross sections were determined and employed to deducelimits on the values of the electron-photon-heavy electron coupling constant in Low and Blackmon=s theory.

  8. Modeling of heavy organic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, F.T.H.

    1992-01-01

    Organic deposition is often a major problem in petroleum production and processing. This problem is manifested by current activities in gas flooding and heavy oil production. The need for understanding the nature of asphaltenes and asphaltics and developing solutions to the deposition problem is well recognized. Prediction technique is crucial to solution development. In the past 5 years, some progress in modeling organic deposition has been made. A state-of-the-art review of methods for modeling organic deposition is presented in this report. Two new models were developed in this work; one based on a thermodynamic equilibrium principle and the other on the colloidal stability theory. These two models are more general and realistic than others previously reported. Because experimental results on the characteristics of asphaltene are inconclusive, it is still not well known whether the asphaltenes is crude oil exist as a true solution or as a colloidal suspension. Further laboratory work which is designed to study the solubility properties of asphaltenes and to provide additional information for model development is proposed. Some experimental tests have been conducted to study the mechanisms of CO{sub 2}-induced asphaltene precipitation. Coreflooding experiments show that asphaltene precipitation occurs after gas breakthrough. The mechanism of CO{sub 2}-induced asphaltene precipitation is believed to occur by hydrocarbon extraction which causes change in oil composition. Oil swelling due to CO{sub 2} solubilization does not induce asphaltene precipitation.

  9. heavy ion acceleration at shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. I.; Galinsky, V.

    2009-12-01

    The theoretical study of alpha particle acceleration at a quasi-parallel shock due to interaction with Alfven waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model [1]. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or dumped and hence particles will be pitch--angle scattered as well as the change of the wave energy due to instability or damping. It includes in consideration the total distribution function (the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no any assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. In previous studies heavy ions were treated as perfect test particles, they only experienced the Alfven turbulence excited by protons and didn’t contribute to turbulence generation. In contrast to this approach, we consider the ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves. It is important for alpha particles with their relatively large mass-loading parameter that defines efficiency of the wave excitation by alpha particles. The energy spectra of alpha particles is found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation. [1] Galinsky, V.L., and V.I. Shevchenko, Astrophys. J., 669, L109, 2007.

  10. Heavy metals in Antarctic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.E.A. de; Moreno, V.J.; Gerpe, M.S.; Vodopivez, C.

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate levels of essential (zinc and copper) and non-essential (mercury and cadmium) heavy metals, 34 species of organisms from different areas close to the Antarctic Peninsula were analysed. These included algae, filter-feeders, omnivorous invertebrates and vertebrates. Mercury was not detected, while cadmium was found in the majority of organisms analysed (detection limit was 0.05 ppm for both metals). The highest cadmium concentration was observed in the starfish Odontaster validus. Anthozoans, sipunculids and nudibranchs showed maximum levels of zinc, while the highest copper level was found in the gastropod Trophon brevispira. Mercury and cadmium levels in fishes were below the detection limit. Concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in birds were highest in liver followed by muscle and eggs. Cadmium and mercury levels in muscle of southern elephant seals were above the detection limit, whereas in Antarctic fur seals they were below it. The objective of the study was to gather baseline information for metals in Antarctic Ocean biota that may be needed to detect, measure and monitor future environmental changes. 46 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Charm Baryon Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistov, R.

    2016-02-01

    B-factories Belle and BaBar during its operation made not only measurements connected with B-meson decays but also numerous observation and measurements in charm physics. In particular, their results on charm baryon decays and spectroscopy have enlarged and enriched the current picture of heavy flavour hadrons. In this talk we overview current status of charm baryons and their excited states.

  12. Relativistic heavy ion fragmentation at HISS (Heavy Ion Spectrometer System)

    SciTech Connect

    Tull, C.E.

    1990-10-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to measure projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions. Charge identification was obtained by the use of a Cerenkov Hodoscope operating above the threshold for total internal reflection, while velocity measurement was performed by use of a second set of Cerenkov radiators operating at the threshold for total internal reflection. Charge and mass resolution for the system was {sigma}{sub Z} = 0.2 e and {sigma}{sub A} = 0.2 u. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic production cross sections for the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar at 1.65{center dot}A GeV have been compared with an Abrasion-Ablation Model based on the evaporation computer code GEMINI. The model proves to be an accurate predictor of the cross sections for fragments between Chlorine and Boron. The measured cross section were reproduced using simple geometry with charge dispersions induced by zero-point vibrations of the giant dipole resonance for the prompt abrasion stage, and injecting an excitation energy spectrum based on a final state interaction with scaling factor E{sub fsi} = 38.8 MeV/c. Measurement of the longitudinal momentum distribution widths for projectile fragments are consistent with previous experiment and can be interpreted as reflecting the Fermi momentum distribution in the initial projectile nucleus. Measurement of the transverse momentum indicate an additional, unexplained dependence of the reduced momentum widths on fragment mass. This dependence has the same sign and similar slope to previously measured fragments of {sup 139}La, and to predictions based on phase-space constraints on the final state of the system.

  13. Extracting p Λ scattering lengths from heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, V. M.; Erazmus, B.; Lednicky, R.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.

    2015-09-01

    The source radii previously extracted by the STAR Collaboration from the p -Λ ⊕p ¯-Λ ¯ and p ¯-Λ ⊕p -Λ ¯ correlation functions measured in 10% most central Au+Au collisions at top Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy, √{sN N}=200 GeV, differ by a factor of 2. The probable reason for this is the neglect of residual correlation effect in the STAR analysis. In the present paper we analyze baryon correlation functions within the Lednický and Lyuboshitz analytical model, extended to effectively account for the residual correlation contribution. Different analytical approximations for such a contribution are considered. We also use the averaged source radii extracted from hydrokinetic model (HKM) simulations to fit the experimental data. In contrast to the STAR experimental study, the calculations in HKM show both p Λ and p Λ ¯ radii to be quite close, as expected from theoretical considerations. Using the effective Gaussian parametrization of residual correlations we obtain a satisfactory fit to the measured baryon-antibaryon correlation function with the HKM source radius value 3.28 fm. The baryon-antibaryon spin-averaged strong interaction scattering length is also extracted from the fit to the experimental correlation function.

  14. Heavy quark results at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, D.K.; D0 Collaboration

    1997-01-01

    Recent results in heavy quark physics from the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are reported. Topics included are top quark production and mass determination, bottom production and correlations, and charmonium production. 20 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. INELASTIC DIFFRACTION AT HEAVY ION COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, S.

    2005-01-01

    The heavy ion physics approach to global event characterization has led us to instrument the forward region in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. In heavy ion collisions this coverage yields a measurement of the ''spectator'' energy and its distribution about the beam direction. This energy flow is the basis of event-by-event determination of the centrality and reaction plane which are key to analyzing particle production in heavy ion collisions. These same tools have also enabled a unique set of measurements on inelastic diffraction with proton, deuteron and gold ion beams in the PHENIX experiment. We present first new results on this topic and discuss briefly the opportunity for diffractive physics with Heavy Ion beams at the LHC.

  16. Electromagnetic processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Baur, G.

    1986-10-01

    Electromagnetic effects in relativistic heavy ion collisions with impact parameter larger than the sum of the nuclear radii are studied using the virtual photon method. With increasing value of the relativistic parameter γ the hardness of the virtual photon spectrum increases. This leads to interesting new effects which will also have to be considered in the design of future relativistic heavy ion machines and experiments. The excitation of high-lying giant E1 and E2 multipole resonances is calculated as well as electromagnetic pion production. Coulomb bremsstrahlung is calculated and compared to the bremsstrahlung emitted in the more violent central nuclear collisions. K-shell ionization and electron-positron pair production is studied. The latter process has a very large cross section for heavy ions and contributes significantly to the stopping power of relativistic heavy ions in a dense medium.

  17. Heavy Flavor Measurements at the RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Donadelli, Marisilvia

    2010-11-12

    The main focus of the heavy flavor program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility is to investigate the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma poduced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, by studying its effect on open heavy flavor and quarkonia production. The measurements shown in this Letter were performed by PHENIX and STAR experiments in p+p, d+Au, Au+Au collisions at {radical}(S{sub NN}) = 200 GeV. Charm and beauty cross sections are measured and compared through single lepton, and lepton-hadron correlations in p+p collisions. R{sub AA} modification factor for single electrons in Au+Au collisions is presented. Quarkonia measurements include J/{Psi}, {Psi}' and {Upsilon} yields as well as rapidity dependence, and modification factors for J/{Psi} in d+Au collisions and for {Upsilon} in Au+Au collisions.

  18. Status of heavy-lepton searches

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1981-06-01

    Searches for heavy leptons using e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation, lepton-hadron collisions, photon-hadron collisions, hadron-hadron collisions, and studies of macroscopic matter are reviewed. The present experimental status and future possibilities are summarized.

  19. Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cris Guidi delivers a presentation from the Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of ...

  20. Status of Heavy-lepton Searches

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Perl, M. L.

    1981-06-01

    Searches for heavy leptons using e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation, lepton-hadron collisions, photon-hadron collisions, hadron-hadron collisions, and studies of macroscopic matter are reviewed. The present experimental status and future possibilities are summarized.

  1. Space Curvature and the "Heavy Banana 'Paradox.'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Two ways to visually enhance the concept of space curvature are described. Viewing space curvature as a meterstick contraction and the heavy banana "paradox" are discussed. The meterstick contraction is mathematically explained. (KR)

  2. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-12-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals. PMID:1227849

  3. Removal of heavy metals from waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.D.; Kozaruk, J.M.; Melvin, M.; Gardocki, S.M.

    1988-07-19

    A method for removing heavy metals from effluent water is described comprising performing sequentially the following steps: (a) adding from 7-333 ppm of an anionic surfactant to the effluent water to provide coagulatable heavy metal ion; (b) adjusting the effluent water pH to within the range of 8 to 10, (c) providing from 10-200 ppm of a cationic coagulant to coagulate the heavy metal ion, (d) providing from 0.3 to 5.0 ppm of a polymeric flocculant whereby a heavy metal containing floc is formed for removal from the effluent water, and, (e) then removing the floc from the effluent water, wherein the anionic surfactant is sodium lauryl ether sulfate. The cationic coagulant is selected from the group consisting of diallyl dimethylammonium chloride polymer, epichlorohydrin dimethylamine polymer, ethylene amine polymer, polyaluminum chloride, and alum; and the flocculant is an acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymer having an RSV greater than 23.

  4. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed Central

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-01-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals. PMID:1227849

  5. Baryon spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Klempt, Eberhard; Richard, Jean-Marc

    2010-04-15

    About 120 baryons and baryon resonances are known, from the abundant nucleon with u and d light-quark constituents up to the {Xi}{sub b}{sup -}=(bsd), which contains one quark of each generation and to the recently discovered {Omega}{sub b}{sup -}=(bss). In spite of this impressively large number of states, the underlying mechanisms leading to the excitation spectrum are not yet understood. Heavy-quark baryons suffer from a lack of known spin parities. In the light-quark sector, quark-model calculations have met with considerable success in explaining the low-mass excitations spectrum but some important aspects such as the mass degeneracy of positive-parity and negative-parity baryon excitations remain unclear. At high masses, above 1.8 GeV, quark models predict a very high density of resonances per mass interval which is not yet observed. In this review, issues are identified discriminating between different views of the resonance spectrum; prospects are discussed on how open questions in baryon spectroscopy may find answers from photoproduction and electroproduction experiments which are presently carried out in various laboratories.

  6. Heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1983-12-01

    The advantages of heavy ion beams as a way of delivering the needed energy and power to an inertial fusion target are surveyed. The existing broad technology base of particle accelerators provides an important foundation for designing, costing, and evaluating proposed systems. The sequence of steps needed for the verification of the heavy ion approach is described; recent research results are even more encouraging than had been assumed hitherto.

  7. Beam dynamics in heavy ion induction LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.

    1981-10-01

    Interest in the use of an induction linac to accelerate heavy ions for the purpose of providing the energy required to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated a theoretical effort to investigate various beam dynamical effects associated with high intensity heavy ion beams. This paper presents a summary of the work that has been done so far; transverse, longitudinal and coupled longitudinal transverse effects are discussed.

  8. The physics and chemistry of heavy fermions.

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, Z; Sarrao, J L; Smith, J L; Thompson, J D

    1995-01-01

    The heavy fermions are a subset of the f-electron intermetallic compounds straddling the magnetic/nonmagnetic boundary. Their low-temperature properties are characterized by an electronic energy scale of order 1-10 K. Among the low-temperature ground states observed in heavy fermion compounds are exotic superconductors and magnets, as well as unusual semiconductors. We review here the current experimental and theoretical understanding of these systems. PMID:11607558

  9. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Isospin dependence of fragment spectra in heavy/super-heavy colliding nuclei at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugh, Rajiv; Kumar, Rohit; Vinayak, Karan Singh

    2016-05-01

    Using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) approach, we performed a theoretical investigation of the evolution of various kinds of fragments in heavy and superheavy-ion reactions in the intermediate/medium energy domain. We demonstrated direct impact of symmetry energy and Coulomb interactions on the evolution of fragments. Final fragment spectra (yields) obtained from the analysis of various heavy/super-heavy ion reactions at different reaction conditions show high sensitivity towards Coulomb interactions and less significant sensitivity to symmetry energy forms. No inconsistent pattern of fragment structure is obtained in case of super-heavy ion involved reactions for all the parameterizations of density dependence of symmetry energy.

  11. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  12. Heavy Metal Risk Management: Case Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Ae; Lee, Seung Ha; Choi, Seung Hyun; Jung, Ki Kyung; Park, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ji Yoon; Hwang, Myung Sil; Yoon, Hae Jung; Choi, Dal Woong

    2012-01-01

    To prepare measures for practical policy utilization and the control of heavy metals, hazard control related institutions by country, present states of control by country, and present states of control by heavy metals were examined. Hazard control cases by heavy metals in various countries were compared and analyzed. In certain countries (e.g., the U.S., the U.K., and Japan), hazardous substances found in foods (e.g., arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury) are controlled. In addition, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) recommends calculating the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of individual heavy metals instead of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) to compare their pollution levels considering their toxicity accumulated in the human body. In Korea, exposure assessments have been conducted, and in other countries, hazardous substances are controlled by various governing bodies. As such, in Korea and other countries, diverse food heavy metal monitoring and human body exposure assessments are conducted, and reducing measures are prepared accordingly. To reduce the danger of hazardous substances, many countries provide leaflets and guidelines, develop hazardous heavy metal intake recommendations, and take necessary actions. Hazard control case analyses can assist in securing consumer safety by establishing systematic and reliable hazard control methods. PMID:24278603

  13. Ion Mobility Spectrometry of Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Ilbeigi, Vahideh; Valadbeigi, Younes; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud

    2016-07-19

    A simple, fast, and inexpensive method was developed for detecting heavy metals via the ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) in the negative mode. In this method, Cl(-) ion produced by the thermal ionization of NaCl is employed as the dopant or the ionizing reagent to ionize heavy metals. In practice, a solution of mixed heavy metals and NaCl salts was directly deposited on a Nichrome filament and electrically heated to vaporize the salts. This produced the IMS spectra of several heavy-metal salts, including CdCl2, ZnSO4, NiCl2, HgSO4, HgCl2, PbI2, and Pb(Ac)2. For each heavy metal (M), one or two major peaks were observed, which were attributed to M·Cl(-) or [M·NaCl]Cl(-)complexes. The method proved to be useful for the analysis of mixed heavy metals. The absolute detection limits measured for ZnSO4 and HgSO4 were 0.1 and 0.05 μg, respectively. PMID:27321408

  14. Understanding Heavy Flavor Production at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2009-01-08

    Accurate assessments of the charm and bottom cross sections and kinematic distributions in hadron-hadron collisions are needed in order to understand the behavior of heavy flavors in more complex collisions. Neither the charm nor bottom cross sections were measured at {radical}S = 200 GeV before the startup of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The RHIC detectors are capable of measuring the heavy flavor transverse momentum distributions to p{sub T} {approx} 0, making estimates of the total heavy flavor cross section feasible at a collider. It is thus possible to obtain and compare the total heavy flavor cross sections at RHIC with those measured at other energies. The charm production data, in particular, can have a considerable spread in the measured cross sections, even at a single energy. In addition, the small charm mass can lead to large theoretical uncertainties. We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the heavy flavor (charm and bottom) hadroproduction cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the renormalization and factorization scales and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty.

  15. Discovery of Interstellar Heavy Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butner, H. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Ceccarelli, C.; Rodgers, S. D.; Pardo, J. R.; Parise, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Davis, G. R.

    2007-04-01

    We report the discovery of doubly deuterated water (D2O, heavy water) in the interstellar medium. Using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 10 m telescope, we detected the 110-101 transition of para-D2O at 316.7998 GHz in both absorption and emission toward the protostellar binary system IRAS 16293-2422. Assuming that the D2O exists primarily in the warm regions where water ices have been evaporated (i.e., in a ``hot corino'' environment), we determine a total column density of N(D2O) of 1.0×1013 cm-2 and a fractional abundance of D2O/H2=1.7×10-10. The derived column density ratios for IRAS 16293-2422 are D2O/HDO=1.7×10-3 and D2O/H2O=5×10-5 for the hot corino gas. Steady state models of water ice formation, either in the gas phase or on grains, predict D2O/HDO ratios that are about 4 times larger than that derived from our observations. For water formation on grain surfaces to be a viable explanation, a larger H2O abundance than that measured in IRAS 16293-2422 is required. Alternatively, the observed D2O/HDO ratio could be indicative of gas-phase water chemistry prior to a chemical steady state being attained, such as would have occurred during the formation of this source. Future observations with the Herschel Space Observatory satellite will be important for settling this issue.

  16. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals and related trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.B.; Speigel, S.J.

    1983-06-01

    A literature review of bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals is presented. The most common heavy metals studied were Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Pb. The studies dealt with heavy metals in the environment, bioconcentration, toxicity, and detoxification of heavy metals. (JMT)

  17. 46 CFR 44.01-13 - Heavy weather plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heavy weather plan. 44.01-13 Section 44.01-13 Shipping... VOYAGES Administration § 44.01-13 Heavy weather plan. (a) Each heavy weather plan under § 44.01-12(b) must... Inspection. Approval of a heavy weather plan is limited to the current hurricane season. (b) The...

  18. 46 CFR 44.01-13 - Heavy weather plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heavy weather plan. 44.01-13 Section 44.01-13 Shipping... VOYAGES Administration § 44.01-13 Heavy weather plan. (a) Each heavy weather plan under § 44.01-12(b) must... Inspection. Approval of a heavy weather plan is limited to the current hurricane season. (b) The...

  19. Fusion probability in heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    sections over a wider energy range for many more reactions is desired for accurate determination of and more insight into the dynamics of fusion in the heavy mass region.

  20. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  1. Heavy Lift for Exploration: Options and Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve; Sumrall, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Every study of exploration capabilities since the Apollo Program has recommended the renewal of a heavy lift launch capability for the United States. NASA is aggressively pursuing that capability. This paper will discuss several aspects of that effort and the potential uses for that heavy lift capability. The need for heavy lift was cited most recent in the findings of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee. Combined with considerations of launch availability and on-orbit operations, the Committee finds that exploration will benefit from the availability of a heavy-lift vehicle, the report said. In addition, heavy lift would enable the launching of large scientific observatories and more capable deep-space missions. It may also provide benefit in national security applications. The most recent focus of NASA s heavy lift effort is the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which is part of the Constellation Program architecture for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The most recent point-of-departure configuration of the Ares V was approved during the Lunar Capabilities concept Review (LCCR) in 2008. The Ares V first stage propulsion system consists of a core stage powered by six commercial liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen (LH2/LOX) RS-68 engines, flanked by two 5.5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) based on the 5-segment Ares I first stage. The boosters use the same Polybutadiene Acrylonitrile (PBAN) propellant as the Space Shuttle. Atop the core stage is the Earth departure stage (EDS), powered by a single J-2X upper stage engine based on the Ares I upper stage engine. The 33-foot-diameter payload shroud can enclose a lunar lander, scientific instruments, or other payloads. Since LCCR, NASA has continued to refine the design through several successive internal design cycles. In addition, NASA has worked to quantify the broad national consensus for heavy lift in ways that, to the extent possible, meet the needs of the user community.

  2. Proton/pion ratios and radial flow in pp and peripheral heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuautle, E.; Paić, G.

    2006-09-01

    The production of baryon and mesons in the RHIC heavy-ion experiments has received a lot of attention lately. Although not widely known, the pp data measured concurrently with heavy ion collisions do not find a convincing explanation in terms of simple models. We present the results of an afterburner to Pythia and Hijing event generators, simulating radial flow which seems to qualitatively explain the experimental results when applied to the pp collision data from RHIC at 200 GeV center-of-mass energy.

  3. Proton/pion ratios and radial flow in pp and peripheral heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Cuautle, E.; Paic, G.

    2006-09-25

    The production of baryon and mesons in the RHIC heavy-ion experiments has received a lot of attention lately. Although not widely known, the pp data measured concurrently with heavy ion collisions do not find a convincing explanation in terms of simple models. We present the results of an afterburner to Pythia and Hijing event generators, simulating radial flow which seems to qualitatively explain the experimental results when applied to the pp collision data from RHIC at 200 GeV center-of-mass energy.

  4. Moon originating heavy ions associated with CIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Nishino, Masaki; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    Existance of a tenuous alkali atmosphere around the Moon was discovered by ground-based optical observations in 1980s. Since then the generation mechanism of the alkali atmosphere has been actively investigated. Currently, photon-stimulated desorption is regarded as the major generation process of the lunar alkai atmosphere such as sodium and potassium. MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya found four typical ion populations on the dayside of the Moon. These includes (1) solar wind protons backscattered at the lunar surface, (2) solar wind protons reflected by magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, (3) reflected/backscattered protons picked-up by the solar wind, and (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere. One of these populations: (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere usually consisted of heavy ions such as carbon, oxygen, sodium, and potassium. Some of these ions were generated on the lunar surface by photon-stimulated desorption especially for alkali ions such as sodium and potassium and some others were generated by solar wind sputtering. Photo-ionized neutral particles were also included in these ions. These heavy ions were accelerated by the solar wind convection electric field and detected by the ion energy mass spectrometer MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya. Since the gyro-radius of these heavy ions was much larger than the Moon, the energy of these ions detected at 100km altitude was in most cases lower than the incident solar wind ion energy. Two special examples were found where the energy of the heavy ions was higher than the incident solar wind ion energy. These high-energy heavy ions were observed on the dayside of the Moon when CIR (Corotating Interaction Region) passed the Moon. The high energy heavy ions were observed for several hours with the highest heavy ion flux observed when the solar wind pressure increased due to the passage of the CIR. The mass spectrum of the heavy ions observed associated with CIR showed H+, He++, He

  5. Heavy metal contaminants in yerberia shop products.

    PubMed

    Levine, Michael; Mihalic, Jason; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; French, Robert N E; Brooks, Daniel E

    2013-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medications, including the use of herbal medications, have become quite popular in the USA. Yerberias are found throughout the southwest and specialize in selling Hispanic herbal products. The products sold in these stores are not regulated by any governmental agency. Previous reports have found Ayurvedic medications contain high levels of lead, mercury, and arsenic. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of heavy metal contaminants sold at Yerberia stores in the southwest. Yerberias in the Phoenix, Arizona area were identified via search of an on-line search engine using the words "Yerberia Phoenix." Every second store was selected, and products were purchased using a standard script. The products were subsequently analyzed for mercury, lead, and arsenic. The main outcome is the prevalence of heavy metal content in over-the-counter "cold" medications purchased at a Yerberia. Twenty-two samples were purchased. One product contained pure camphor (2-camphone) and was subsequently not further analyzed. Of the 21 samples analyzed, lead was found in 4/21 (19.4 %). Arsenic and mercury were in 1/21 (4.8 %) each. Because two samples contained two heavy metals, the total prevalence of heavy metals was 4/21 (19.4). Heavy metal contaminants are commonly encountered in over-the-counter herbal "cold" medications purchased at Yerberias in the southwest. PMID:22562238

  6. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed. PMID:21912545

  7. Partial oxidation of heavy refinery fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Dille, R.M.; Rhodes, H.A.; Wallon, S.B.

    1984-07-31

    This is a partial oxidation process in which heavy hydrocarbonaceous fractions from a petroleum refinery and light liquid paraffinic hydrocarbon extractants are used in the production of synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas i.e., gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/ and CO. In the process, substantially all of the particulate carbon and soot that are simultaneously produced are recovered and recycled to the reaction zone. A dispersion of carbon-soot-light paraffinic hydrocarbon extractant from the decanting zone is combined with a heavy refinery fraction in admixture with a liquid aromatic-rich hydrocarbon to produce a pumpable single liquid phase mixture which is introduced into a fractionation zone where the following streams are separated from each other: (a) a stream of light paraffinic hydrocarbon extractant which is recycled to the decanting zone, (b) a stream comprising at least a portion of the aromatic-rich hydrocarbon which is recycled for mixing with the heavy refinery fraction, and (c) a stream of pumpable dispersion of carbon-soot heavy refinery fraction and any remaining aromatic-rich hydrocarbon which may be used as fuel in the system or exported. Troublesome asphaltene precipitation that causes operational problems and increased viscosity is avoided by the subject process. Comparatively low cost heavy refinery fractions which ordinarily are difficult to handle may be now used along with light liquid paraffinic hydrocarbon extractants.

  8. Drag reduction of a heavy vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jason; Salari, Kambiz

    2007-11-01

    During the 1970's and 1980's, a number of first-generation drag reduction devices were designed to reduce the aerodynamic losses of heavy vehicles (Cooper, 2003). The result of this effort led to the development of a number of devices that improved the aerodynamics of a heavy vehicle tractor. Additionally, a number of second-generation devices were developed for heavy vehicle trailers. Unfortunately, these trailer devices did not enter into the market on a wide-scale basis and, as a result, the modern heavy vehicle trailer largely remains a ``box on wheels'' with minimal aerodynamic consideration taken into its design. The primary obstacle to implementing trailer devices was not their effectiveness in reducing drag, but rather operational, maintenance, and ultimately, economic concerns. However, with rising fuel costs and potentially unstable fuel supplies, there is a renewed objective to further reduce heavy vehicle fuel usage. To accomplish this purpose, the present study investigates the drag reduction capability of a trailer device, which neither reduces the trailer cargo capacity, nor limits access to the trailer doors. RANS simulations are performed on a full-scale tractor-trailer that is traveling at highway conditions with and without the trailer device. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  9. Effect of correlations on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, D. K.; Garg, P.; Netrakanti, P. K.

    2016-02-01

    We study the effects of correlations on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distributions which have been measured for central (0%-5%) Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied by assuming individual proton and antiproton distributions as a Poisson or negative binomial distribution (NBD). In spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation, and kinematical correlations of protons and antiprotons, the measured cumulants of the net-proton distribution follow the independent-production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of the correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and antiproton distributions obtained from the hijing event generator.

  10. Coulomb gauge confinement in the heavy quark limit

    SciTech Connect

    Popovici, C.; Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.

    2010-05-15

    The relationship between the nonperturbative Green's functions of Yang-Mills theory and the confinement potential is investigated. By rewriting the generating functional of quantum chromodynamics in terms of a heavy quark mass expansion in Coulomb gauge, restricting to leading order in this expansion and considering only the two-point functions of the Yang-Mills sector, the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is shown to be exact in this case and an analytic, nonperturbative solution is presented. It is found that there is a direct connection between the string tension and the temporal gluon propagator. Further, it is shown that for the 4-point quark correlation functions, only confined bound states of color-singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (baryon) pairs exist.