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Sample records for heavy baryons heavy

  1. Transport coefficients of heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolos, Laura; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Das, Santosh K.

    2016-08-01

    We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons Λc and Λb in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain nonrelativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation, and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for Λc and Λb in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion collisions at LHC and RHIC energies.

  2. Decay properties of double heavy baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery; Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Koerner, Juergen G.

    2010-08-05

    We study the semileptonic decays of double heavy baryons using a manifestly Lorentz covariant constituent three-quark model. We present complete results on transition form factors between double-heavy baryons for finite values of the heavy quark/baryon masses and in the heavy quark symmetry limit which is valid at and close to zero recoil. Decay rates are calculated and compared to each other in the full theory, keeping masses finite, and also in the heavy quark limit.

  3. Isospin Splittings of Doubly Heavy Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Guo, Feng-Kun; Hanhart, Christoph; Meissner, Ulf-G.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.

    2011-08-18

    The SELEX Collaboration has reported a very large isospin splitting of doubly charmed baryons. We show that this effect would imply that the doubly charmed baryons are very compact. One intriguing possibility is that such baryons have a linear geometry Q-q-Q where the light quark q oscillates between the two heavy quarks Q, analogous to a linear molecule such as carbon dioxide. However, using conventional arguments, the size of a heavy-light hadron is expected to be around 0.5 fm, much larger than the size needed to explain the observed large isospin splitting. Assuming the distance between two heavy quarks is much smaller than that between the light quark and a heavy one, the doubly heavy baryons are related to the heavy mesons via heavy quark-diquark symmetry. Based on this symmetry, we predict the isospin splittings for doubly heavy baryons including {Xi}{sub cc}, {Xi}{sub bb} and {Xi}{sub bc}. The prediction for the {Xi}{sub cc} is much smaller than the SELEX value. On the other hand, the {Xi}{sub bb} baryons are predicted to have an isospin splitting as large as (6.3 {+-} 1.7) MeV. An experimental study of doubly bottomed baryons is therefore very important to better understand the structure of baryons with heavy quarks.

  4. Heavy Baryons in a Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Winston Roberts; Muslema Pervin

    2007-11-14

    A quark model is applied to the spectrum of baryons containing heavy quarks. The model gives masses for the known heavy baryons that are in agreement with experiment, but for the doubly-charmed baryon $\\Xi_{cc}$, the model prediction is too heavy. Mixing between the $\\Xi_Q$ and $\\Xi_Q^\\prime$ states is examined and is found to be small for the lowest lying states. In contrast with this, mixing between the $\\Xi_{bc}$ and $\\Xi_{bc}^\\prime$ states is found to be large, and the implication of this mixing for properties of these states is briefly discussed. We also examine heavy-quark spin-symmetry multiplets, and find that many states in the model can be placed in such multiplets.

  5. Heavy-flavor-conserving hadronic weak decays of heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai-Yang; Cheung, Chi-Yee; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yeu-Chung; Yan, Tung-Mow; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2016-03-01

    More than two decades ago, we studied heavy-flavor-conserving weak decays of heavy baryons within the framework that incorporates both heavy-quark and chiral symmetries. In view of the first observation of Ξ b - → Λ b 0 π - by LHCb recently, we have reexamined these decays and presented updated predictions. The predicted rates for Ξ b - → Λ b 0 π - in the MIT bag and diquark models are consistent with experiment. The major theoretical uncertainty stems from the evaluation of baryon matrix elements. The branching fraction of Ξ c → Λ c π is predicted to be of order 10-4. It is suppressed relative to {B}({Ξ}_bto {Λ}_bπ ) owing to the shorter lifetime of Ξ c relative to Ξ b and the destructive nonspectator W-exchange contribution. The kinematically accessible weak decays of the sextet heavy baryon Ω Q are Ω Q → Ξ Q π. Due to the absence of the {{B}}_6-{{B}}{_3-} transition in the heavy quark limit and the {{B}}_6-{{B}}_6 transition in the model calculations, Ω Q → Ξ Q π vanish in the heavy quark limit.

  6. Staggered heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Jon A.

    2008-03-01

    Although taste violations significantly affect the results of staggered calculations of pseudoscalar and heavy-light mesonic quantities, those entering staggered calculations of baryonic quantities have not been quantified. Here I develop staggered chiral perturbation theory in the light-quark baryon sector by mapping the Symanzik action into heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. For 2+1 dynamical quark flavors, the masses of flavor-symmetric nucleons are calculated to third order in partially quenched and fully dynamical staggered chiral perturbation theory. To this order the expansion includes the leading chiral logarithms, which come from loops with virtual decuplet-like states, as well as terms of O(mπ3), which come from loops with virtual octet-like states. Taste violations enter through the meson propagators in loops and tree-level terms of O(a2). The pattern of taste symmetry breaking and the resulting degeneracies and mixings are discussed in detail. The resulting chiral forms are appropriate to lattice results obtained with operators already in use and could be used to study the restoration of taste symmetry in the continuum limit. I assume that the fourth root of the fermion determinant can be incorporated in staggered chiral perturbation theory using the replica method.

  7. Heavy to light baryon transition form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, X. |; Huang, T. |; Li, Z.

    1996-05-01

    Recently, Stech found form factor relations for heavy to light transitions based on two simple dynamical assumptions for a spectator particle. In this paper we generalize his approach to the case of baryons and find that for {Lambda}{sub {ital Q}}{r_arrow}{Lambda} ({ital Q}={ital b} or {ital c}) only one independent form factor remains in the limit {ital m}{sub {ital Q}}{r_arrow}{infinity}. Furthermore, combining with the model of Guo and Kroll we determine both of the two form factors for {Lambda}{sub {ital Q}}{r_arrow}{Lambda} in the heavy quark limit. The results are applied to {Lambda}{sub {ital b}}{r_arrow}{Lambda}+{ital J}/{psi} which is not clarified both theoretically and experimentally. It is found that the branching ratio of {Lambda}{sub {ital b}}{r_arrow}{Lambda}+{ital J}/{psi} is of order 10{sup {minus}5}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. Color fluxes in the production of doubly heavy baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, S. P.

    2007-04-15

    The production of doubly heavy baryons in hadron-hadron collisions is considered. A method is proposed for decomposing the respective differential cross section into parts associated with contributions of various color-flux configurations.

  9. STOPPING AND BARYON TRANSPORT IN HEAVY ION REACTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VIDEBAEK, F.

    2005-02-05

    In this report I will give an experimental overview on nuclear stopping in hadron collisions, and relate observations to understanding of baryon transport. Baryon number transport is not only evidenced via net-proton distributions but also by the enhancement of strange baryons near mid-rapidity. Although the focus is on high-energy data obtained from pp and heavy ions from RHIC, relevant data from SPS and ISR will be considered. A discussion how the available data at higher energy relates and gives information on baryon junction, quark-diquark breaking will be made.

  10. Doubly Heavy Baryons, Heavy Quark-DiQuark Symmetry and NRQCD

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Fleming; Thomas Mehen

    2005-09-27

    In the heavy quark limit, properties of heavy mesons and doubly heavy baryons are related by heavy quark-diquark symmetry. This problem is reanalyzed in the framework of Non-Relativistic QCD (NRQCD). We introduce a novel method for deriving Potential NRQCD (pNRQCD) Lagrangians for composite fields from vNRQCD, which contains quarks and antiquarks as explicit degrees of freedom and maintains manifest power counting in the velocity via a label formalism. A Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation is used to eliminate four quark interactions in vNRQCD and then quarks and antiquarks are integrated out to get effective Lagrangians for composite fields. This method is used to rederive Lagrangians for the Q\\bar Q and QQ sectors of pNRQCD and give a correct derivation of the O(1/m_Q) prediction for the hyperfine splitting of doubly heavy baryons.

  11. Semileptonic decays of double heavy baryons in a relativistic constituent three-quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Koerner, Juergen G.

    2009-08-01

    We study the semileptonic decays of double-heavy baryons using a manifestly Lorentz covariant constituent three-quark model. We present complete results on transition form factors between double-heavy baryons for finite values of the heavy quark/baryon masses and in the heavy quark symmetry limit, which is valid at and close to zero recoil. Decay rates are calculated and compared to each other in the full theory, keeping masses finite, and also in the heavy quark limit.

  12. Two potential quark models for double heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchkov, A. M.; Kozhedub, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Baryons containing two heavy quarks (QQ' q) are treated in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Two non-relativistic potential models are proposed, in which the Schrödinger equation admits a separation of variables in prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinates, respectively. In the first model, the potential is equal to the sum of Coulomb potentials of the two heavy quarks, separated from each other by a distance - R and linear potential of confinement. In the second model the center distance parameter R is assumed to be purely imaginary. In this case, the potential is defined by the two-sheeted mapping with singularities being concentrated on a circle rather than at separate points. Thus, in the first model diquark appears as a segment, and in the second - as a circle. In this paper we calculate the mass spectrum of double heavy baryons in both models, and compare it with previous results.

  13. Heavy baryons - Recent and very new results

    SciTech Connect

    Peter S Cooper

    2003-01-15

    Recent results on observations, properties and decay modes of the charmed and beauty baryons will be reviewed. Candidates for several new high mass states which include a cleanly-identified daughter {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} baryon are seen in data from the SELEX experiment at Fermilab. These states are candidates for doubly-charmed baryons: a {Xi}{sub cc}{sup ++} state and a {Xi}{sub cc}{sup +} state. These candidates are more than 5{sigma} signals in each case at masses of 3520 and 3460 MeV respectively.

  14. Ratios of heavy baryons to heavy mesons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Yongseok; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2009-04-15

    Heavy baryon/meson ratios {lambda}{sub c}/D{sup 0} and {lambda}{sub b}/B{sup 0} in relativistic heavy ion collisions are studied in the quark coalescence model. For heavy baryons, we include production from coalescence of heavy quarks with free light quarks as well as with bounded light diquarks that might exist in the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma produced in these collisions. Including the contribution from decays of heavy hadron resonances and also that due to fragmentation of heavy quarks that are left in the system after coalescence, the resulting {lambda}{sub c}/D{sup 0} and {lambda}{sub b}/B{sup 0} ratios in midrapidity (|y|{<=}0.5) from central Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV are about a factor of five and ten, respectively, larger than those given by the thermal model, and about a factor of ten and twelve, respectively, larger than corresponding ratios in the PYTHIA model for pp collisions. These ratios are reduced by a factor of about 1.6 if there are no diquarks in the quark-gluon plasma. The transverse momentum dependence of the heavy baryon/meson ratios is found to be sensitive to the heavy quark mass, with the {lambda}{sub b}/B{sup 0} ratio being much flatter than the {lambda}{sub c}/D{sup 0} ratio. The latter peaks at the transverse momentum p{sub T}{approx_equal}0.8 GeV but the peak shifts to p{sub T}{approx_equal}2 GeV in the absence of diquarks.

  15. Semileptonic Decays of Heavy Omega Baryons in a Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Muslema Pervin; Winston Roberts; Simon Capstick

    2006-03-24

    The semileptonic decays of {Omega}{sub c} and {Omega}{sub b} are treated in the framework of a constituent quark model developed in a previous paper on the semileptonic decays of heavy {Lambda} baryons. Analytic results for the form factors for the decays to ground states and a number of excited states are evaluated. For {Omega}{sub b} to {Omega}{sub c} the form factors obtained are shown to satisfy the relations predicted at leading order in the heavy-quark effective theory at the non-recoil point. A modified fit of nonrelativistic and semirelativistic Hamiltonians generates configuration-mixed baryon wave functions from the known masses and the measured {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}e{sup +}{nu} rate, with wave functions expanded in both harmonic oscillator and Sturmian bases. Decay rates of {Omega}{sub b} to pairs of ground and excited {Omega}{sub c} states related by heavy-quark symmetry calculated using these configuration-mixed wave functions are in the ratios expected from heavy-quark effective theory, to a good approximation. Our predictions for the semileptonic elastic branching fraction of {Omega}{sub Q} vary minimally within the models we use. We obtain an average value of (84 {+-} 2%) for the fraction of {Omega}{sub c} {yields} {Xi}{sup (*)} decays to ground states, and 91% for the fraction of {Omega}{sub c} {yields} {Omega}{sup (*)} decays to the ground state {Omega}. The elastic fraction of {Omega}{sub b} {yields} {Omega}{sub c} ranges from about 50% calculated with the two harmonic-oscillator models, to about 67% calculated with the two Sturmian models.

  16. Doubly heavy baryons and quark-diquark symmetry in quenched and partially quenched chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen; Brian C. Tiburzi

    2006-07-17

    We extend the chiral Lagrangian with heavy quark-diquark symmetry to quenched and partially quenched theories. These theories are used to derive formulae for the chiral extrapolation of masses and hyperfine splittings of doubly heavy baryons in lattice QCD simulations. A quark-diquark symmetry prediction for the hyperfine splittings of heavy mesons and doubly heavy baryons is rather insensitive to chiral corrections in both quenched and partially quenched QCD. Extrapolation formulae for the doubly heavy baryon electromagnetic transition moments are also determined for the partially quenched theory.

  17. K{sup +} production in baryon-baryon and heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G.Q.; Ko, C.M.; Chung, W.S.

    1998-01-01

    Kaon production cross sections in nucleon-nucleon, nucleon-{Delta}, and {Delta}-{Delta} interactions are studied in a boson exchange model. For the latter two interactions, the exchanged pion can be on-mass shell; only contributions due to a virtual pion are included via the Peierls method by taking into account the finite {Delta} width. With these cross sections and also those for pion-baryon interactions, subthreshold kaon production from heavy-ion collisions is studied in the relativistic transport model. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Ground state heavy baryon production in a relativistic quark-diquark model

    SciTech Connect

    Gomshi Nobary, M. A.; Sepahvand, R.

    2007-12-01

    We use current-current interaction to calculate the fragmentation functions to describe the production of spin-1/2, spin-1/2{sup '}, and spin-3/2 baryons with massive constituents in a relativistic quark-diquark model. Our results are in their analytic forms and are applicable for singly, doubly, and triply heavy baryons. We discuss the production of {omega}{sub bbc}, {omega}{sub bcc}, and {omega}{sub ccc} baryons in some detail. The results are satisfactorily compared with those obtained for triply heavy baryons calculated in a perturbative regime within reasonable values of the parameters involved.

  19. Analysis of heavy spin-3/2 baryon-heavy spin-1/2 baryon-light vector meson vertices in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, T. M.; Savci, M.; Azizi, K; Zamiralov, V. S.

    2011-05-01

    The heavy spin-3/2 baryon-heavy spin-1/2 baryon vertices with light vector mesons are studied within the light cone QCD sum rules method. These vertices are parametrized in terms of three coupling constants. These couplings are calculated for all possible transitions. It is shown that correlation functions for these transitions are described by only one invariant function for every Lorenz structure. The obtained relations between the correlation functions of the different transitions are structure independent while explicit expressions of invariant functions depend on the Lorenz structure.

  20. Radiative decays of the heavy flavored baryons in light cone QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, T. M.; Azizi, K.; Ozpineci, A.

    2009-03-01

    The transition magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of the radiative decays of the sextet heavy flavored spin 3/2 to the heavy spin 1/2 baryons are calculated within the light cone QCD sum rules approach. Using the obtained results, the decay rate for these transitions are also computed and compared with the existing predictions of the other approaches.

  1. New Exotic Meson and Baryon Resonances from Doubly Heavy Hadronic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L

    2015-09-18

    We predict several new exotic doubly heavy hadronic resonances, inferring from the observed exotic bottomoniumlike and charmoniumlike narrow states X(3872), Z_{b}(10610), Z_{b}(10650), Z_{c}(3900), and Z_{c}(4020/4025). We interpret the binding mechanism as mostly molecularlike isospin-exchange attraction between two heavy-light mesons in a relative S-wave state. We then generalize it to other systems containing two heavy hadrons which can couple through isospin exchange. The new predicted states include resonances in meson-meson, meson-baryon, baryon-baryon, and baryon-antibaryon channels. These include those giving rise to final states involving a heavy quark Q=c,b and antiquark Q[over ¯]^{'}=c[over ¯],b[over ¯], namely, DD[over ¯]^{*}, D^{*}D[over ¯]^{*}, D^{*}B^{*}, B[over ¯]B^{*}, B[over ¯]^{*}B^{*}, Σ_{c}D[over ¯]^{*}, Σ_{c}B^{*}, Σ_{b}D[over ¯]^{*}, Σ_{b}B^{*}, Σ_{c}Σ[over ¯]_{c}, Σ_{c}Λ[over ¯]_{c}, Σ_{c}Λ[over ¯]_{b}, Σ_{b}Σ[over ¯]_{b}, Σ_{b}Λ[over ¯]_{b}, and Σ_{b}Λ[over ¯]_{c}, as well as corresponding S-wave states giving rise to QQ^{'} or Q[over ¯]Q[over ¯]^{'}. PMID:26430989

  2. Observation of the Heavy Baryons Sigma b and Sigma b*.

    PubMed

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Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; 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Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tesarek, R J; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuno, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vazquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-11-16

    We report an observation of new bottom baryons produced in pp collisions at the Tevatron. Using 1.1 fb(-1) of data collected by the CDF II detector, we observe four Lambda b 0 pi+/- resonances in the fully reconstructed decay mode Lambda b 0-->Lambda c + pi-, where Lambda c+-->pK* pi+. We interpret these states as the Sigma b(*)+/- baryons and measure the following masses: m Sigma b+=5807.8 -2.2 +2.0(stat.)+/-1.7(syst.) MeV/c2, m Sigma b- =5815.2+/-1.0(stat.)+/-1.7(syst.) MeV/c2, and m(Sigma b*)-m(Sigma b)=21.2-1.9 +2.0(stat.)-0.3+0.4(syst.) MeV/c2. PMID:18233134

  3. Strong coupling constants of heavy baryons with light mesons in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, T. M.; Azizi, K.; Savci, M.

    2012-10-23

    The strong coupling constants of the heavy spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 baryons with light pseudoscalar and vector mesons are calculated in the framework of the light cone QCD sum rules. Using the symmetry arguments, some structure independent relations among different correlation functions are obtained. It is shown that all possible transitions are described by only one invariant function, whose explicit expression is structure dependent.

  4. Baryonic matter onset in two-color QCD with heavy quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scior, Philipp; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2015-11-01

    We study the cold and dense regime in the phase diagram of two-color QCD with heavy quarks within a three-dimensional effective theory for Polyakov loops. This theory is derived from two-color QCD in a combined strong-coupling and hopping expansion. In particular, we study the onset of diquark density as the finite-density transition of the bosonic baryons in the two-color world. In contrast to previous studies of heavy dense QCD, our zero-temperature extrapolations are consistent with a continuous transition without binding energy. They thus provide evidence that the effective theory for heavy quarks is capable of describing the characteristic differences between diquark condensation in two-color QCD and the liquid-gas transition of nuclear matter in QCD.

  5. Radiative decays of double heavy baryons in a relativistic constituent three-quark model including hyperfine mixing effects

    SciTech Connect

    Branz, Tanja; Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Oexl, Bettina; Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Koerner, Juergen G.

    2010-06-01

    We study flavor-conserving radiative decays of double-heavy baryons using a manifestly Lorentz covariant constituent three-quark model. Decay rates are calculated and compared to each other in the full theory, keeping masses finite, and also in the heavy quark limit. We discuss in some detail hyperfine mixing effects.

  6. Semileptonic decays of charmed and beauty baryons with heavy sterile neutrinos in the final state

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazanov, Sabir

    2009-04-01

    We obtain tree-level estimates of various differential branching ratios of heavy baryon decays with massive sterile neutrinos {nu}{sub x} in the final state. Generally, charmed baryons are found to be less promising than charmed mesons, in contrast to b hadrons. In the latter case, branching ratios of beauty mesons and baryons into sterile neutrinos are of the same order. As a consequence, at high energies beauty baryons give contribution to sterile neutrino production comparable to the contribution of beauty mesons (up to about 15%). Experimental limits on active-to-sterile mixing are quite strong for neutrinos lighter than D mesons but for heavier neutrinos they are weaker. As an example, for neutrino masses in the range 2 GeV < or approx. m{sub {nu}{sub x}} < or approx. 2.5 GeV, current data imply that the bounds on {lambda}{sub b}-hyperon branching ratios into sterile neutrinos are Br({lambda}{sub b}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}+e{sup -}+{nu}{sub x}) < or approx. 1.3x10{sup -5}-1.7x10{sup -6} and Br({lambda}{sub b}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}+{mu}{sup -}+{nu}{sub x}) < or approx. 3.9x10{sup -7}-1.4x10{sup -7}.

  7. Strong decays of charmed baryons in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory: An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai-Yang; Chua, Chun-Khiang

    2015-10-01

    We first give a brief overview of the charmed baryon spectroscopy and discuss their possible structure and spin-parity assignments in the quark model. With the new Belle measurement of the widths of Σc(2455 ) and Σc(2520 ) and the recent CDF measurement of the strong decays of Λc(2595 ) and Λc(2625 ), we give updated coupling constants in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory. We find g2=0.56 5-0.024+0.011 for P -wave transitions between s -wave and s -wave baryons, and h2, one of the couplings responsible for S -wave transitions between s -wave and p -wave baryons, is extracted from Λc(2595 )+→Λc+π π to be 0.63 ±0.07 . It is substantially enhanced compared to the old value of order 0.437. With the help from the quark model, two of the couplings h10 and h11 responsible for D -wave transitions between s -wave and p -wave baryons are determined from Σc(2880 ) decays. There is a tension for the coupling h2 as its value extracted from Λc(2595 )+→Λc+ππ will imply Ξc(2790 )0→Ξc'π and Ξc(2815 )+→Ξc*π rates slightly above the current limits. It is conceivable that SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking can help account for the discrepancy.

  8. Mean-field theory of baryonic matter for QCD in the large Nc and heavy quark mass limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Cohen, Thomas D.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss theoretical issues pertaining to baryonic matter in the combined heavy-quark and large Nc limits of QCD. Witten's classic argument that baryons and interacting systems of baryons can be described in a mean-field approximation with each of the quarks moving in an average potential due to the remaining quarks is heuristic. It is important to justify this heuristic description for the case of baryonic matter since systems of interacting baryons are intrinsically more complicated than single baryons due to the possibility of hidden color states—states in which the subsystems making up the entire baryon crystal are not color-singlet nucleons but rather colorful states coupled together to make a color-singlet state. In this work, we provide a formal justification of this heuristic prescription. In order to do this, we start by taking the heavy quark limit, thus effectively reducing the problem to a many-body quantum mechanical system. This problem can be formulated in terms of integrals over coherent states, which for this problem are simple Slater determinants. We show that for the many-body problem, the support region for these integrals becomes narrow at large Nc, yielding an energy which is well approximated by a single coherent state—that is a mean-field description. Corrections to the energy are of relative order 1/Nc. While hidden color states are present in the exact state of the heavy quark system, they only influence the interaction energy below leading order in 1/Nc.

  9. GENXICC2.1: An improved version of GENXICC for hadronic production of doubly heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-You; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2013-03-01

    We present an improved version of GENXICC, which is a generator for hadronic production of the doubly heavy baryons Ξcc, Ξbc and Ξbb and has been introduced by C.H. Chang, J.X. Wang and X.G. Wu [Comput. Phys. Commun. 177 (2007) 467; Comput. Phys. Commun. 181 (2010) 1144]. In comparison with the previous GENXICC versions, we update the program in order to generate the unweighted baryon events more effectively under various simulation environments, whose distributions are now generated according to the probability proportional to the integrand. One Les Houches Event (LHE) common block has been added to produce a standard LHE data file that contains useful information of the doubly heavy baryon and its accompanying partons. Such LHE data can be conveniently imported into PYTHIA to do further hadronization and decay simulation, especially, the color-flow problem can be solved with PYTHIA8.0. NEW VERSION PROGRAM SUMMARYTitle of program: GENXICC2.1 Program obtained from: CPC Program Library Reference to original program: GENXICC Reference in CPC: Comput. Phys. Commun. 177, 467 (2007); Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 1144 (2010) Does the new version supersede the old program: No Computer: Any LINUX based on PC with FORTRAN 77 or FORTRAN 90 and GNU C compiler as well Operating systems: LINUX Programming language used: FORTRAN 77/90 Memory required to execute with typical data: About 2.0 MB No. of bytes in distributed program: About 2 MB, including PYTHIA6.4 Distribution format: .tar.gz Nature of physical problem: Hadronic production of doubly heavy baryons Ξcc, Ξbc and Ξbb. Method of solution: The upgraded version with a proper interface to PYTHIA can generate full production and decay events, either weighted or unweighted, conveniently and effectively. Especially, the unweighted events are generated by using an improved hit-and-miss approach. Reasons for new version: Responding to the feedback from users of CMS and LHCb groups at the Large Hadron Collider, and based on

  10. Relativistic description of pair production of doubly heavy baryons in e{sup +}e{sup −} annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Martynenko, A. P.; Trunin, A. M.

    2015-05-15

    Relativistic corrections in the pair production of S-wave doubly heavy diquarks in electron-positron annihilation were calculated on the basis of perturbative QCD and the quark model. The relativistic corrections to the wave functions for quark bound states were taken into account with the aid of the Breit potential in QCD. Relativistic effects change substantially the nonrelativistic cross sections for pair diquark production. The yield of pairs of (ccq) doubly heavy baryons at B factories was estimated.

  11. Free energy of a baryon at finite temperatures and its implications to the heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Minati; Digal, Sanatan; Saumia, P. S.

    2015-07-01

    We study the free energy per baryon using canonical formalism in the Polyakov loop Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with imaginary chemical potential. We find that the free energy decreases rapidly with temperature around the transition temperature. This result coupled with the heavy-ion collision geometry leads to the creation of a free energy well for the baryons. We study the time evolution of this free energy well using hydrodynamic simulations and discuss the implications of this free energy well on the dynamics of the baryons.

  12. Heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory approach to thermal neutron capture on {sup 3}He

    SciTech Connect

    Lazauskas, Rimantas; Park, Tae-Sun

    2011-03-15

    The cross section for radiative thermal neutron capture on {sup 3}He ({sup 3}He+n{yields}{sup 4}He+{gamma}; known as the hen reaction) is calculated based on heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. The relevant M1 operators are derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N{sup 3}LO). The initial and final nuclear wave functions are obtained from the rigorous Faddeev-Yakubovski equations for five sets of realistic nuclear interactions. Up to N{sup 3}LO, the M1 operators contain two low-energy constants, which appear as the coefficients of nonderivative two-nucleon contact terms. After determining these two constants using the experimental values of the magnetic moments of the triton and {sup 3}He, we carry out a parameter-free calculation of the hen cross section. The results are in good agreement with the data.

  13. New predictions for generalized spin polarizabilities from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.-W.; Pasquini, Barbara; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2004-12-01

    We extract the next-to-next-to-leading order results for spin-flip generalized polarizabilities (GPs) of the nucleon from the spin-dependent amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering at O(p{sup 4}) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. At this order, no unknown low-energy constants enter the theory, allowing us to make absolute predictions for all spin-flip GPs. Furthermore, by using constraint equations between the GPs due to nucleon crossing combined with charge conjugation symmetry of the virtual Compton scattering amplitudes, we get a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order prediction for one of the GPs. We provide estimates for forthcoming double-polarization experiments which allow one to access these spin-flip GPs of the nucleon.

  14. New predictions for generalized spin polarizabilities from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chung-Wen Kao; Barbara Pasquini; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2004-08-01

    We extract the next-to-next-to-leading order results for spin-flip generalized polarizabilities (GPs) of the nucleon from the spin-dependent amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering (VCS) at {Omicron}(p{sup 4}) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. At this order, no unknown low energy constants enter the theory, allowing us to make absolute predictions for all spin-flip GPs. Furthermore, by using constraint equations between the GPs due to nucleon crossing combined with charge conjugation symmetry of the VCS amplitudes, we get a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order prediction for one of the GPs. We provide estimates for forthcoming double polarization experiments which allow to access these spin-flip GPs of the nucleon.

  15. Muon capture by a proton in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Fearing, H.W.; Lewis, R.; Mobed, N.; Scherer, S.

    1997-08-01

    The matrix element for muon capture by a proton is calculated to O(p{sup 3}) within heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory using the new O(p{sup 3}) Lagrangian of Ecker and Moj{hacek z}i{hacek s}. External nucleon fields are renormalized using the appropriate definition of the wave function renormalization factor Z{sub N}. Our expression for Z{sub N} differs somewhat from that found in the existing literature, but is the one which is consistent with the Lagrangian we use and the one which ensures, within our approach, the nonrenormalization of the vector coupling as required by the conserved vector current. Expressions for the standard muon capture form factors are derived and compared to experimental data and we determine three of the coefficients of the Ecker-Moj{hacek z}i{hacek s} Lagrangian, namely, b{sub 7}, b{sub 19}, and b{sub 23}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Hidden beauty baryon states in the local hidden gauge approach with heavy quark spin symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, C. W.; Oset, E.

    2013-11-01

    Using a coupled-channel unitary approach, combining the heavy quark spin symmetry and the dynamics of the local hidden gauge, we investigate the meson-baryon interaction with hidden beauty and obtain several new states of N around 11 GeV. We consider the basis of states η b N, ϒN, BΛ b , BΣ b , B * Λ b , B * Σ b , B * Σ {/b *} and find four basic bound states which correspond to BΣ b , BΣ {/b *}, B * Σ b and B * Σ {/b *}, decaying mostly into η b N and ϒN and with a binding energy about 50-130 MeV with respect to the thresholds of the corresponding channel. All of them have isospin I = 1/2 , and we find no bound states or resonances in I = 3/2 . The BΣ b state appears in J = 1/2 , the BΣ {/b *} in J = 3/2 , the B * Σ b appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2 , 3/2 and the B * Σ {/b *} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2 , 3/2, 5/2. These states have a width from 2-110 MeV, with conservative estimates of uncertainties, except for the one in J = 5/2 which has zero width since it cannot decay into any of the states of the basis chosen. We make generous estimates of the uncertainties and find that within very large margins these states appear bound.

  17. Higher moments of nucleon spin structure functions in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and in a resonance model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Kao; D. Drechsel; S. Kamalov; M. Vanderhaeghen

    2003-11-01

    The third moment d{sub 2} of the twist-3 part of the nucleon spin structure function g{sub 2} is generalized to arbitrary momentum transfer Q{sup 2} and is evaluated in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT) up to order {Omicron}(p{sup 4}) and in a unitary isobar model (MAID). We show how to link d{sub 2} as well as higher moments of the nucleon spin structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} to nucleon spin polarizabilities. We compare our results with the most recent experimental data, and find a good description of these available data within the unitary isobar model. We proceed to extract the twist-4 matrix element f{sub 2} which appears in the 1/Q{sup 2} suppressed term in the twist expansion of the spin structure function g{sub 1} for proton and neutron.

  18. Chiral symmetry restoration versus deconfinement in heavy-ion collisions at high baryon density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassing, W.; Palmese, A.; Moreau, P.; Bratkovskaya, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the production of strange hadrons in nucleus-nucleus collisions from 4 to 160 A GeV within the parton-hadron-string dynamics (PHSD) transport approach that is extended to incorporate essentials aspects of chiral symmetry restoration (CSR) in the hadronic sector (via the Schwinger mechanism) on top of the deconfinement phase transition as implemented in PHSD. Especially the K+/π+ and the (Λ +Σ0) /π- ratios in central Au+Au collisions are found to provide information on the relative importance of both transitions. The modeling of chiral symmetry restoration is driven by the pion-nucleon Σ term in the computation of the quark scalar condensate that serves as an order parameter for CSR and also scales approximately with the effective quark masses ms and mq. Furthermore, the nucleon scalar density ρs, which also enters the computation of , is evaluated within the nonlinear σ -ω model which is constrained by Dirac-Brueckner calculations and low-energy heavy-ion reactions. The Schwinger mechanism (for string decay) fixes the ratio of strange to light quark production in the hadronic medium. We find that above ˜80 A GeV the reaction dynamics of heavy nuclei is dominantly driven by partonic degrees of freedom such that traces of the chiral symmetry restoration are hard to identify. Our studies support the conjecture of "quarkyonic matter" in heavy-ion collisions from about 5 to 40 A GeV and provide a microscopic explanation for the maximum in the K+/π+ ratio at about 30 A GeV, which only shows up if a transition to partonic degrees of freedom is incorporated in the reaction dynamics and is discarded in the traditional hadron-string models.

  19. Baryon distributions in heavy ion collisions at AGS energies: An experimental overview

    SciTech Connect

    Videbaek, F.

    1993-06-01

    Data on rapidity distributions of protons from the three AGS experiments E-814, E-810 and E-802 are compared on a common base to enlarge the rapidity coverage. Together they provide a unique opportunity to study the proton distributions in relativistic heavy ion reactions over the full rapidity range. Systematics of the rapidity density distributions are presented as function of centrality and mass of colliding system. Considerable stopping is achieved for the heaviest system studied, Au+Au, thus giving the means to study high-density effects in nuclear matter.

  20. Baryon distributions in heavy ion collisions at AGS energies: An experimental overview

    SciTech Connect

    Videbaek, F.

    1993-01-01

    Data on rapidity distributions of protons from the three AGS experiments E-814, E-810 and E-802 are compared on a common base to enlarge the rapidity coverage. Together they provide a unique opportunity to study the proton distributions in relativistic heavy ion reactions over the full rapidity range. Systematics of the rapidity density distributions are presented as function of centrality and mass of colliding system. Considerable stopping is achieved for the heaviest system studied, Au+Au, thus giving the means to study high-density effects in nuclear matter.

  1. Combined heavy-quark symmetry and large-Nc operator analysis for 2-body counterterms in the chiral Lagrangian with D mesons and charmed baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samart, Daris; Nualchimplee, Chakrit; Yan, Yupeng

    2016-06-01

    In this work we construct a chiral SU(3) Lagrangian with D mesons of spin JP=0- and JP=1- and charmed baryons of spin JP=1 /2+ and JP=3 /2+. There are 42 leading two-body counterterms involving two charmed baryon fields and two D meson fields in the constructed Lagrangian. The heavy-quark spin symmetry leads to 35 sum rules, while the large-Nc operator analysis predicts 29 at the next-to leading order of the 1 /Nc expansion. The combination of the sum rules from both the heavy-quark symmetry and the large-Nc analysis results in 38 independent sum rules, which reduces the number of free parameters in the chiral Lagrangian to only four. This is a remarkable result demonstrating the consistency of the heavy-quark symmetry and large-Nc operator analysis.

  2. Studies of heavy hadron physics

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xinheng

    2011-12-14

    In the diquark picture, we establish Bethe-Salpeter equations for ground states of heavy baryons containing one heavy quark and two heavy quarks in the heavy quark limit, respectively. The Bethe-Salpeter equations for both heavy and light diquarks are also established. Assuming kernels to consist of a scalar confinement term and a one-gluon-exchange term we solve Bethe-Salpeter wave functions numerically in the covariant instantaneous approximation and give some applications including semileptonic and nonleptonic decay widths of heavy baryons, the average kinetic energy of the heavy quark in {Lambda}{sub Q}, {Sigma}{sub Q}{sup (*)}{yields}{Lambda}{sub Q}+{pi} decay widths, and heavy quark distribution functions. We also study possible molecular heavy bound states in the Bethe-Salpeter approach. Proof of QCD factorization for {Lambda}{sub b}{yields}{Lambda}{sub c}{pi} is presented in the framework of QCD factorization.

  3. Masses and magnetic moments of heavy flavour baryons in hyper central model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Bhavin; Raiyz, Ajay Kumar; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2008-05-01

    We employ the hyper central approach to study the masses and magnetic moments of the baryons constituting single charm and beauty quark. The confinement potential is assumed in the hyper central co-ordinates of the coulomb plus power potential form.

  4. Heavy flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.; Gilman, F.J.; Gottschalk, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    A range of issues pertaining to heavy flavors at the SSC is examined including heavy flavor production by gluon-gluon fusion and by shower evolution of gluon jets, flavor tagging, reconstruction of Higgs and W bosons, and the study of rare decays and CP violation in the B meson system. A specific detector for doing heavy flavor physics and tuned to this latter study at the SSC, the TASTER, is described. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Heavy gauge boson and {Lambda}{sub b} baryon searches at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Maeshima, K.; The CDF Collaboration

    1992-06-01

    We have searched for new gauge bosons (W{prime}{yields} lv, Z{prime} {yields} ll) and b baryons ({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {psi}{Lambda}{sup 0}) in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV from the 1988--1989 run of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We present 95% confidence level (C.L.) limits on the W{prime} and Z{prime} production cross section in leptonic decay modes. The nonobservation of these processes leads to limits of M{sub w{prime}} > 520 GeV/c{sub 2} and M{sub z{prime}} > 412 GeV/c{sub 2} (95% C.L.), assuming Standard Model coupling strengths. We see no evidence for the signal ({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {psi}{Lambda}{sup 0}) in our {psi} sample ({psi} {yields} {mu}{mu}) around the {Lambda}{sub b} mass region of 5600 MeV. We set an upper limit on F({Lambda}{sub b})Br({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {psi}{Lambda}{sup 0}) of 0.55 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} (90% C.L.), assuming that b baryons and mesons are produced in the fragmentation process in similar ways. The CDF Ai, search is also reported in the QCD session of this conference. This paper summarizes our result briefly; the details can be found in the other talk.

  6. Up to N{sup 3}LO heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory calculation for the M1 properties of three-nucleon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Young-Ho; Lazauskas, Rimantas; Park, Tae-Sun

    2009-06-15

    M1 properties, comprising magnetic moments and radiative capture of thermal neutron observables, are studied in two- and three-nucleon systems. We use meson exchange current derived up to N{sup 3}LO using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory a la Weinberg. Calculations have been performed for several qualitatively different realistic nuclear Hamiltonians, which permits us to analyze model dependence of our results. Our results are found to be strongly correlated with the effective range parameters such as binding energies and the scattering lengths. Taking into account such correlations, the results are in good agreement with the experimental data with small model dependence.

  7. Heavy loads

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, D.

    1982-01-01

    The extreme pressures on the roof and walls of an earth-sheltered residential home are discussed and the need for careful planning is stressed. Pertinent terms are defined. Footings and wall structure (reinforced concrete walls and concrete block walls) are described. Roofing systems are discussed in detail and illustrated: (1) poured-in-place concrete roof slabs; (2) pre-cast concrete planks; and (3) heavy timber roofs. Insulation of earth-sheltered homes is reviewed in terms of using: (1) urethanes; (2) extruded polystyrene; and (3) expanded polystyrene. Advantages, disadvantages, R-factors, costs, and installation are discussed. (MJJ)

  8. Heavy Stars Thrive among Heavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    , with a sprinkling of the light element lithium. At our epoch, the visible ("baryonic") matter in the Universe still mostly consists of hydrogen and helium. However, progressively heavier elements have been built up via fusion processes in the interior of stars ever since the Big Bang. Some of the heaviest elements are also produced when massive stars die in gigantic stellar explosions, observed as "supernovae". This gradual process, referred to as "chemical evolution" , occurs with different speeds in different regions of the Universe, being fastest in those regions where star formation is most intense. In the relatively "quiet" region of the Milky Way galaxy where our Solar System was born some 4,600 million years ago, it took nearly 10,000 million years to produce all the heavy elements now found in our neighbourhood . Contrarily, in the innermost regions ( the "nuclei" ) of normal galaxies and especially in so-called "active galaxies", the same or even higher heavy-element "enrichment" levels were reached in much shorter time, less than about 1,000 to 2,000 million years. This is the result of observations of particularly active galaxy nuclei ("quasars") in the distant (i.e., early) Universe. Star formation in highly enriched environments Little is presently known about such highly enriched environments. Since astronomers refer to elements heavier than hydrogen and helium as "metals" , they talk about "metal-rich" regions . This is readily observable from the presence of strong lines from heavier elements in the spectra of the interstellar gas in such regions. A central, still unresolved question is whether under such special conditions, stars can still form with the same diversity of masses, as this happens in other, less extreme areas of the Universe . Indeed, some current theories of star formation and certain indirect observations appear to indicate that very heavy stars - with masses more than 20 - 30 times that of our Sun - could no

  9. Heavy quark masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  10. Mutagenicity of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.K.

    1988-04-01

    Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). The present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

  11. Supersymmetry across the light and heavy-light hadronic spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dosch, Hans Gunter; de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2015-10-07

    Relativistic light-front bound-state equations for mesons and baryons can be constructed in the chiral limit from the supercharges of a superconformal algebra which connect baryon and meson spectra. Quark masses break the conformal invariance, but the basic underlying supersymmetric mechanism, which transforms meson and baryon wave functions into each other, still holds and gives remarkable connections across the entire spectrum of light and heavy-light hadrons. As a result, we also briefly examine the consequences of extending the supersymmetric relations to double-heavy mesons and baryons.

  12. Heavy Hadron Spectroscopy at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2010-12-22

    We present recent CDF results on the properties of hadrons containing heavy quarks. These include measurements of charm and {Sigma}{sub b}{sup -{Sigma}}{sub b}*{sup -} baryon's masses, lifetimes and masses of {Omega}{sub b}{sup -,} {Xi}{sub b}{sup -} and B{sub c}{sup -} and a measurement of exclusive B{sup +}, B{sup 0} and {Lambda}{sub b} lifetimes as well as lifetime ratios (charge conjugate modes are implied throughout the text). We also summarize new measurements of exotic particles X(3872) and Y(4140).

  13. Heavy hadron spectroscopy at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez Ramos, Juan Pablo; /Madrid, CIEMAT

    2011-01-01

    We present recent CDF results on the properties of hadrons containing heavy quarks. These include measurements of charm and {Sigma}{sub b}{sup -}{Sigma}*{sub b}{sup -} baryon's masses, lifetimes and masses of {Omega}{sub b}{sup -}, {Xi}{sub b}{sup -} and B{sub c}{sup -} and a measurement of exclusive B{sup +}, B{sup 0} and {Lambda}{sub b} lifetimes as well as lifetime ratios (charge conjugate modes are implied throughout the text). We also summarize new measurements of exotic particles X(3872) and Y(4140).

  14. Heavy-electron materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, Z.; Ott, H.R.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    De Haas-van Alphen results demonstrated the existence of a Fermi surface at sufficiently low temperature and show that the entire Fermi surface involves heavy electrons. The phase transitions in their heavy-electron state are discussed. These are either magnetic or superconducting. 38 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs. (WRF)

  15. Mutagenicity of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.K. )

    1988-05-01

    Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, on plants and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). Though the rec assay with Bacillus subtilis and the reversion assay with Escherichia coli were used to assess the mutagenicity of some heavy metals, the present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

  16. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  17. Heavy hadron-string states as weakly interacting heavy dark-matter particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    Massive states (with energies ≥ 10 GeV) of a hadronic string (with a scale α' ≈ 1GeV-2) can have a very small coupling to ordinary baryons in the Universe. The lifetime of such states is of the order of or even greater than the age of the Universe. These heavy states are assumed to be possible candidates for the role of weakly interacting heavy dark-matter particles.

  18. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  19. Heavy Stars Thrive among Heavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    , with a sprinkling of the light element lithium. At our epoch, the visible ("baryonic") matter in the Universe still mostly consists of hydrogen and helium. However, progressively heavier elements have been built up via fusion processes in the interior of stars ever since the Big Bang. Some of the heaviest elements are also produced when massive stars die in gigantic stellar explosions, observed as "supernovae". This gradual process, referred to as "chemical evolution" , occurs with different speeds in different regions of the Universe, being fastest in those regions where star formation is most intense. In the relatively "quiet" region of the Milky Way galaxy where our Solar System was born some 4,600 million years ago, it took nearly 10,000 million years to produce all the heavy elements now found in our neighbourhood . Contrarily, in the innermost regions ( the "nuclei" ) of normal galaxies and especially in so-called "active galaxies", the same or even higher heavy-element "enrichment" levels were reached in much shorter time, less than about 1,000 to 2,000 million years. This is the result of observations of particularly active galaxy nuclei ("quasars") in the distant (i.e., early) Universe. Star formation in highly enriched environments Little is presently known about such highly enriched environments. Since astronomers refer to elements heavier than hydrogen and helium as "metals" , they talk about "metal-rich" regions . This is readily observable from the presence of strong lines from heavier elements in the spectra of the interstellar gas in such regions. A central, still unresolved question is whether under such special conditions, stars can still form with the same diversity of masses, as this happens in other, less extreme areas of the Universe . Indeed, some current theories of star formation and certain indirect observations appear to indicate that very heavy stars - with masses more than 20 - 30 times that of our Sun - could not possibly form in metal

  20. Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.

  1. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  2. A study of heavy-heavy nuclear reactions. [nuclear research/nuclear particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the reaction products in high energy collisions and of the atmospheric transport of particles such as protons, neutrons and other nucleons. The magnetic moments of charmed baryons are examined. Total cross sections which are required for cosmic heavy ion transport and shielding studies are also examined.

  3. Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Willen, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a proposed research facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to study the collision of beams of heavy ions, up to gold in mass and at beam energies up to 100 GeV/nucleon. The physics to be explored by this collider is an overlap between the traditional disciplines of nuclear physics and high energy physics and is a continuation of the planned program of light and heavy ion physics at BNL. The machine is to be constructed in the now-empty tunnel built for the former CBA project. Various other facilities to support the collider are either in place or under construction at BNL. The collider itself, including the magnets, is in an advanced state of design, and a construction start is anticipated in the next several years.

  4. (Relativistic heavy ion research)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, participation in the E802 Experiment, which is the first major heavy-ion experiment at the BNL-AGS, was the main focus of the group during the past four years. The emphases of the E802 experiment were on (a) accurate particle identification and measurements of spectra over a wide kinematical domain (5{degree} < {theta}{sub LAB} < 55{degree}, p < 20 GeV/c); and (b) measurements of small-angle two-particle correlations, with event characterization tools: multiplicity array, forward and large-angle calorimeters. This experiment and other heavy ion collision experiments are discussed in this report.

  5. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  6. Resonances in heavy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental situation for the study of resonances in heavy-ion collisions is reviewed, with emphasis on the heaviest systems. New data are presented which show some of the systematics of this phenomenon. The narrow resonance structures are established as a feature of the nuclear structure of the composite system rather than a purely entrance channel effect.

  7. Heavy Chain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells often prevents proper absorption of nutrients from food (malabsorption), resulting in severe diarrhea and weight loss. A rare form that affects the respiratory tract also exists. Blood tests are done when alpha heavy chain disease is suspected. Serum protein electrophoresis, measurement of ...

  8. Detection of heavy Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    The prospects for detecting heavy Higgs are discussed. In particular a general procedure is developed which includes studying first the characteristics of producing the signal, estimating the most important background, simulating both types of events via Monte Carlo techniques in an appropriate detector and concluding with the prospects for detection. 20 references.

  9. Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

    2000-04-11

    Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

  10. Heavy Flavor Dynamics in Relativistic Heavy-ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan

    Heavy flavor hadrons serve as valuable probes of the transport properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this dissertation, we introduce a comprehensive framework that describes the full-time evolution of heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions, including its initial production, in-medium evolution inside the QGP matter, hadronization process from heavy quarks to their respective mesonic bound states and the subsequent interactions between heavy mesons and the hadron gas. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is studied within the framework of a Langevin equation coupled to hydrodynamic models that simulate the space-time evolution of the hot and dense QGP matter. We improve the classical Langevin approach such that, apart from quasi-elastic scatterings between heavy quarks and the medium background, radiative energy loss is incorporated as well by treating gluon radiation as a recoil force term. The subsequent hadronization of emitted heavy quarks is simulated via a hybrid fragmentation plus recombination model. The propagation of produced heavy mesons in the hadronic phase is described using the ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. Our calculation shows that while collisional energy loss dominates the heavy quark motion inside the QGP in the low transverse momentum (p T) regime, contributions from gluon radiation are found to be significant at high pT. The recombination mechanism is important for the heavy flavor meson production at intermediate energies. The hadronic final state interactions further enhance the suppression and the collective flow of heavy mesons we observe. Within our newly developed framework, we present numerical results for the nuclear modification and the elliptic flow of D mesons, which are consistent with measurements at both the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC); predictions for B mesons are also provided. In

  11. Heavy quarks and lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas S. Kronfeld

    2003-11-05

    This paper is a review of heavy quarks in lattice gauge theory, focusing on methodology. It includes a status report on some of the calculations that are relevant to heavy-quark spectroscopy and to flavor physics.

  12. Heavy quark physics in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, G.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The most recent results which concern the heavy quark hadrons done in the CMS experiment are reported. The searching area spans over the heavy quark spectroscopy, production cross sections, beauty meson decay properties, rare decays, and CP violation.

  13. Numerical precision radiative corrections to the Dalitz plot of light and heavy quark unpolarized baryon semileptonic decays: The cases {xi}{sup 0}{yields}{sigma}{sup +}e{nu} and {lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{lambda}e{sup +}{nu}

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Mendieta, Ruben; Torres, J.J.; Neri, M.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, A.

    2005-02-01

    We propose and discuss a numerical use for our previous precision results for the radiative corrections to unpolarized spin one-half baryon semileptonic decays, which is not compromised to fixing the form factors at prescribed values. We present various cross-checks and comparisons with other results available in the literature of such analytical radiative corrections. Our analysis, however, is general and applies to all charge assignments to the baryons allowed by heavy quarks. The procedure is exemplified with the processes {xi}{sup 0}{yields}{sigma}{sup +}e{nu} and {lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{lambda}e{sup +}{nu}.

  14. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Johnson

    2000-01-31

    The objectives are to Provide Key Enabling Materials Technologies to Increase Energy Efficiency and Reduce Exhaust Emissions. The following goals are listed: Goal 1: By 3rd quarter 2002, complete development of materials enabling the maintenance or improvement of fuel efficiency {ge} 45% of class 7-8 truck engines while meeting the EPA/Justice Department ''Consent Decree'' for emissions reduction. Goal 2: By 4th quarter 2004, complete development of enabling materials for light-duty (class 1-2) diesel truck engines with efficiency over 40%, over a wide range of loads and speeds, while meeting EPA Tier 2 emission regulations. Goal 3: By 4th quarter 2006, complete development of materials solutions to enable heavy-duty diesel engine efficiency of 50% while meeting the emission reduction goals identified in the EPA proposed rule for heavy-duty highway engines.''

  15. Detecting heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Benenson, G.; Chau, L.L.; Ludlam, T.; Paige, F.E.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Rehak, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this exercise we examine the performance of a detector specifically configured to tag heavy quark (HQ) jets through direct observations of D-meson decays with a high resolution vertex detector. To optimize the performance of such a detector, we assume the small diamond beam crossing configuration as described in the 1978 ISABELLE proposal, giving a luminosity of 10/sup 32/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. Because of the very large backgrounds from light quark (LQ) jets, most triggering schemes at this luminosity require high P/sub perpendicular to/ leptons and inevitably give missing neutrinos. If alternative triggering schemes could be found, then one can hope to find and calculate the mass of objects decaying to heavy quarks. A scheme using the high resolution detector will also be discussed in detail. The study was carried out with events generated by the ISAJET Monte Carlo and a computer simulation of the described detector system. (WHK)

  16. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  17. Heavy rain field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melson, ED

    1991-01-01

    A weight-measuring rain gauge was developed to collect rain data and configured to operate at a high sample rate (one sample pre second). Instead of averaging the rain rate in minutes, hours, and sometime days as normally performed, the rain data collected are examined in seconds. The results of six field sites are compiled. Rain rate levels, duration of downpours, and frequency of heavy rainfall events are presented.

  18. Comment on 'Heavy element production in inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis'

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, Thomas

    2007-03-15

    The work of Matsuura et al. [Phys. Rev. D 72, 123505 (2005)] claims that heavy nuclei could have been produced in a combined p- and r-process in very high baryon density regions of an inhomogeneous big bang. However, they do not account for observational constraints and previous studies which show that such high baryon density regions did not significantly contribute to big bang abundances.

  19. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wiss, J.

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.

  20. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient engine

  1. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  2. Heavy quark production and spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, J.A.

    1993-11-01

    This review covers many new experimental results on heavy flavor production and spectroscopy. It also shows some of the increasingly improved theoretical understanding of results in light of basic perturbative QCD and heavy quark symmetry. At the same time, there are some remaining discrepancies among experiments as well as significant missing information on some of the anticipated lowest lying heavy quark states. Most interesting, perhaps, are some clearly measured production effects awaiting full explanation.

  3. Recent CDF results on heavy and exotic baryons in p-pbar collisions at s**(1/2)=1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Curbis, F.; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2005-01-01

    Since March 2001 a new period of CDF data taking (called Run II) began at the p{bar p} Tevatron collider. The upgrade of Collider Detector at Fermilab improved the tracking system: the vertexing, triggering and particle identification capabilities. This has allowed a further development of B physics, because the B{sub s} and {Lambda}{sub b} are produced in hadronic collisions. Here measurements of the mass and lifetime of {Lambda}{sub b} in two decay channels are presented. Using particle identification (PID) information from the time of flight and the dE/dx, CDF performed pentaquark searches for {Theta}{sup +}, {Xi}{sub 3/2}{sup --,0} and {Theta}{sub c}{sup 0}, following the recent interest in exotic baryon spectroscopy.

  4. Heavy-flavor production overview

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey A. Appel

    2003-12-10

    This talk serves as an introduction to the Heavy-Flavor session of the XXXIII International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics. A major focus of this session is on the production of heavy quarks. The talks which follow review the latest results on heavy quark production in strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions, as well as some of the physics of the heavy quarks themselves. This talk emphasizes what we can learn from the production measurements, both about underlying QCD theory and the partonic nature of the hadrons which we see in the laboratory.

  5. Cosmology with a heavy Polonyi field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Taku; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yamada, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    We consider a cosmologically consistent scenario with a heavy Polonyi field. The Polonyi field with a mass of Script O(100) TeV decays before the Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and avoids the severe constraint from the BBN. However, the abundance of the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP) produced from the decay often exceeds the observed dark matter density. In our scenario, the dark matter density is obtained by the LSP abundance with an aid of entropy production, and baryon asymmetry is generated by the Affleck-Dine mechanism. We show that the observed baryon-to-dark matter ratio of Script O(0.1–1) is naturally explained in sequestering models with a QCD axion.

  6. Rheological properties of heavy oils and heavy oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, the author investigated the effects of a number of process variables such as shear rate, measurement temperature, pressure, the influence of pretreatment, and the role of various amounts of added water on the rheology of the resulting heavy oil or the emulsion. Rheological properties of heavy oils and the corresponding emulsions are important from transportation and processing standpoints.

  7. Heavy ion measurement on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Jonathal, D.; Enge, W.

    1992-01-01

    A stack of CR-39 and Kodak CN track detectors was exposed on the NASA satellite LDEF and recovered after almost six years in space. The quick look analysis yielded heavy ion tracks on a background of low energy secondaries from proton interaction. The detected heavy ions show a steep energy spectrum which indicates a radiation belt origin.

  8. HEAVY METAL PUMPS IN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants have been proposed as a bioremediation tool to help remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated land and water. However, little is known about how plants take up heavy metals from the soil and transport them to different parts of the plant. An important long term goal is t...

  9. Heavy Equipment Mechanic Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    Designed to train an entry-level mechanic, this heavy equipment mechanic program guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a heavy equipment mechanic program. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  10. SULFIDE PRECIPITATION OF HEAVY METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program was initiated with the objective of evaluating a new process, the sulfide precipitation of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters. The process was expected to effect a more complete removal of heavy metals than conventional lime processing because of the mu...

  11. Heavy Equipment Mechanic. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Laborn J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist heavy equipment instructors in teaching the latest concepts and functions of heavy equipment. It includes 7 sections and 27 instructional units. Sections (and units) are: orientation (shop safety and first aid, hand tools and miscellaneous tools, measuring, basic rigging and hoisting), engines (basic engine…

  12. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  13. Heavy ion beam probing

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  14. Heavy flavor production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-06-10

    Predictions are presented of total cross sections for charm and bottom quark production in /bar p/p, ..pi../sup /minus//p, and pp interactions at fixed target and collider energies. The calculations are done through next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. The sensitivity is explored of results to the choices of renormalization/evolution scale, parton densities, ..lambda../sub QCD/, and heavy flavor masses. Comparisons with available data show that good agreement is obtained for reasonable values of charm and bottom quark masses and other parameters. Open issues in the interpretation of results are summarized including the large size of the next-to-leading order contributions, proper definition of the gluon density, the nuclear A dependence of charm cross sections, the role of final state interactions, and higher twist effects. 39 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Heavy fragment radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.B.

    1987-12-10

    This recently discovered mode of radioactive decay, like alpha decay and spontaneous fission, is believed to involve tunneling through the deformation-energy barrier between a very heavy nucleus and two separated fragments the sum of whose masses is less than the mass of the parent nucleus. In all known cases the heavier of the two fragments is close to doubly magic /sup 208/Pb, and the lighter fragment has even Z. Four isotopes of Ra are known to emit /sup 14/C nuclei; several isotopes of U as well as /sup 230/Th and /sup 231/Pa emit Ne nuclei; and /sup 234/U exhibits four hadronic decay modes: alpha decay, spontaneous fission, Ne decay and Mg decay.

  16. Super-heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Sigurd

    2015-11-01

    Scientifically based searches for elements beyond uranium started after the discovery of the neutron. Neutrons captured by uranium nuclei and subsequent {β }- decay, similarly as most of the elements were produced in nature, was the successful method applied. However, as a first result, Hahn and Strassmann discovered nuclear fission indicating a limit for the existence of nuclei at an increasing number of protons. Eventually, the nuclear shell model allowed for a more accurate calculation of binding energies, half-lives and decay modes of the heaviest nuclei. Theoreticians predicted a region of increased stability at proton number Z = 126, later shifted to 114, and neutron number N = 184. These nuclei receive their stability from closed shells for the protons and neutrons. Later, increased stability was also predicted for deformed nuclei at Z = 108 and N = 162. In this review I will report on experimental work performed on research to produce and identify these super-heavy nuclei (SHN). Intensive heavy ion beams, sophisticated target technology, efficient electromagnetic ion separators, and sensitive detector arrays were the prerequisites for discovery of 12 new elements during the last 40 years. The results are described and compared with theoretical predictions and interpretations. An outlook is given on further improvement of experimental facilities which will be needed for exploration of the extension and structure of the island of SHN, in particular for searching for isotopes with longer half-lives predicted to be located in the south east of the island, for new elements, and last not least, for surprises which, naturally, emerge unexpectedly.

  17. Management of heavy drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A.; Wiseman, S.

    1992-01-01

    1. The amount of alcohol consumed per capita in the UK has approximately doubled since 1950. 2. One unit of alcohol is equivalent to around 8 g of pure alcohol (half a pint of beer, a single bar measure of spirits or glass of wine). 3. Consumption of above 21 units a week for men and 14 units a week for women carries an increasing risk of alcohol-related damage. Pregnant women are usually advised to abstain. 4. Newly registered patients should be asked if they have consumed any alcohol in the last three months and if so how much they consume in an average week using a quantity frequency scale. 5. In those in whom there is concern about their drinking a systematic 7-day history gives the best estimate of consumption. 6. Heavy drinking should also be considered in a wide range of clinical circumstances, including hypertension, injuries and accidents, marital disharmony and child abuse, dyspepsia, hepatic damage, memory impairment and dementia. Sudden withdrawal may cause fits which may lead to a mistaken diagnosis of epilepsy. 7. Laboratory tests pick up only 30-50% of heavy drinkers but may be useful in monitoring progress and in motivating patients to cut down. 8. It is important to decide whether a patient is dependent on alcohol as dependent drinkers are unlikely to be able to keep their consumption at modest levels. The possibility of psychological and social problems due to alcohol should also be considered. The use of drugs should be explored in dependent drinkers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1345154

  18. Advances in heavy oil hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Mendizabal, O.B. )

    1988-06-01

    The world increase in heavy crudes has forced refiners to develop different processes that upgrade the yields and product properties recovered from these crudes. However, some of the optimized and new processes are not able to handle whole heavy crude oils, due to the high viscosity and corrosion of their long and short residues. The different processes for heavy crudes can be classified in two areas: physical (vg. Liquid Extraction) and chemical processes. The catalytic hydrotreating process, which belongs to this last classification, has demonstrated to be an economical upgrading process for heavy crude oil. This paper describes the development by the Mexican Petroleum Institute of the process to hydrotreat maya heavy crude. The effect of the operating conditions, the catalyst ---- development and the technical - economical analysis are presented. The product properties and yields are compared with the results obtained with light crude oil like isthmus.

  19. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  20. Heavy quark in exotic hadron and nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Shigehiro

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, it has turned out that heavy hadrons with charm and bottom flavors have rich structures, which are different from simple quark-antiquark or three-quark systems. The new states of heavy hadrons are called exotic hadrons X, Y and Z. The subjects are now covering not only exotic hadrons but also exotic ``nuclei'' in which heavy hadrons are bound. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the general properties of exotic states of hadrons and nuclei with heavy quarks. We begin our discussion by the heavy quark spin (HQS) symmetry in the heavy quark limit, and show that all heavy hadrons are classified by the HQS symmetry, i.e. either HQS singlet or doublet. Next, in order to discuss the long-range physics of exotic hadrons, we introduce the heavy hadron effective theory according to the HQS symmetry in heavy quark sector as well as by chiral symmetry in light quark sector. As examples, we investigate the theoretically possible states of hadronic molecules with an anti-D meson (B meson) and nucleons with baryon number one, two and infinity (i.e. nuclear matter). Calculating the energies, we show that many of them exhibit the HQS doublets. Beyond the leading order in heavy quark limit, we further discuss the 1/M corrections with heavy hadron mass M, and show that finding the HQS-breaking (non-breaking) terms at 1/M is important to investigate the magnetic (electric) gluons in the heavy hadrons in nuclear medium [1,5]. In recent years, it has turned out that heavy hadrons with charm and bottom flavors have rich structures, which are different from simple quark-antiquark or three-quark systems. The new states of heavy hadrons are called exotic hadrons X, Y and Z. The subjects are now covering not only exotic hadrons but also exotic ``nuclei'' in which heavy hadrons are bound. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the general properties of exotic states of hadrons and nuclei with heavy quarks. We begin our discussion by the heavy quark spin (HQS

  1. Managing Inventories of Heavy Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, Robert M; Patton, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has stored a limited inventory of heavy actinides contained in irradiated targets, some partially processed, at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 'heavy actinides' of interest include plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes; specifically 242Pu and 244Pu, 243Am, and 244/246/248Cm. No alternate supplies of these heavy actinides and no other capabilities for producing them are currently available. Some of these heavy actinide materials are important for use as feedstock for producing heavy isotopes and elements needed for research and commercial application. The rare isotope 244Pu is valuable for research, environmental safeguards, and nuclear forensics. Because the production of these heavy actinides was made possible only by the enormous investment of time and money associated with defense production efforts, the remaining inventories of these rare nuclear materials are an important part of the legacy of the Nuclear Weapons Program. Significant unique heavy actinide inventories reside in irradiated Mark-18A and Mark-42 targets at SRS and ORNL, with no plans to separate and store the isotopes for future use. Although the costs of preserving these heavy actinide materials would be considerable, for all practical purposes they are irreplaceable. The effort required to reproduce these heavy actinides today would likely cost billions of dollars and encompass a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles for at least 50 years; thus, reproduction is virtually impossible. DOE has a limited window of opportunity to recover and preserve these heavy actinides before they are disposed of as waste. A path forward is presented to recover and manage these irreplaceable National Asset materials for future use in research, nuclear forensics, and other potential applications.

  2. Heavy Flavor Physics in Heavy-Ion Collisions with STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yifei

    2010-02-01

    Heavy quarks are a unique tool to probe the strongly interacting matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. Due to their large mass, energetic heavy quarks are predicted to lose less energy than light quarks by gluon radiation when they traverse a Quark-Gluon Plasma. In contrast, recent measurements of non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays at high transverse momentum (pT) show a jet quenching level similar to that of the light hadrons. Heavy quark are produced mainly at early stage in heavy-ion collisions, thus they are proposed to probe the QCD medium and to be sensitive to bulk medium properties. Ultimately, their flow behavior may help establish whether light quarks thermalize. Therefore, topological reconstruction of D-mesons and identification of electrons from charm and bottom decays are crucial to understand the heavy flavor production and their in medium properties. The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a micro-vertex detector utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precise measurement of charmed and bottom hadrons. We present a performance study with full detector on the open charm nuclear modification factor, elliptic flow v2 and λc measurement as well as the measurement of bottom mesons via a semi-leptonic decay. )

  3. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videbaek, Flemming; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is an on-going upgrade for the STAR detector at RHIC that aim to study heavy quark production. In relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC, heavy quarks are primarily created from initial hard scatterings. Since their large masses are not easily affected by the strong interaction with QCD medium they may carry information from the system at early stage. The interaction between heavy quarks and the medium is sensitive to the medium dynamics; therefore heavy quarks are suggested as an ideal probe to quantify the properties of the strongly interacting QCD matter. The HFT detectors will study this via the topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons. The HFT that consists of a thin two layer inner Pixel vertex detector, and two outer concentric layers of silicon, the Silicon Strip Detector, and the Intermediate Silicon Tracker. We will show how this detector system can assess heavy flavor physics with great precision. An overview of the HFT that will be completed for the upcoming RHIC run-14, its expected performance, and current status will be presented. Supported by the Division of Nuclear Physics of the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Heavy Quarkonium Production and Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Sterman, George

    2012-03-01

    We present a perturbative QCD factorization formalism for the production of heavy quarkonia of large transverse momentum pT at collider energies, which includes both the leading-power (LP) and next-to-leading-power (NLP) contributions to the cross section in the mQ2/pT2 expansion for heavy quark mass mQ. We estimate fragmentation functions in the nonrelativistic QCD formalism and reproduce the bulk of the large enhancement found in explicit next-to-leading-order calculations in the color-singlet model. Heavy quarkonia produced from NLP channels prefer longitudinal polarization.

  5. Imaging using accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1982-05-01

    Several methods for imaging using accelerated heavy ion beams are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using the HILAC (Heavy-Ion Linear Accelerator) as an injector, the Bevalac can accelerate fully stripped atomic nuclei from carbon (Z = 6) to krypton (Z = 34), and partly stripped ions up to uranium (Z = 92). Radiographic studies to date have been conducted with helium (from 184-inch cyclotron), carbon, oxygen, and neon beams. Useful ranges in tissue of 40 cm or more are available. To investigate the potential of heavy-ion projection radiography and computed tomography (CT), several methods and instrumentation have been studied.

  6. Biosorption of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Volesky, B. |; Holan, Z.R.

    1995-05-01

    Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. For economic reasons, of particular interest are abundant biomass types generated as a waste byproduct of large-scale industrial fermentations or certain metal-binding algae found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-building capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Lead and cadmium, for instance, have been effectively removed from very dilute solutions by the dried biomass of some ubiquitous species of brown marine algae such as Ascophyllum and Sargassum, which accumulate more than 30% of biomass dry weight in the metal. Mycelia of the industrial steroid-transforming fungi Rhizopus and Absidia are excellent biosorbents for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and uranium and also bind other heavy metals up to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments, are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance in dynamic continuous-flow sorption systems. In the course of this work, new methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. 115 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Plants absorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination of heavy metals-polluted soils remains one of the most intractable problems of cleanup technology. Currently available techniques include extraction of the metals by physical and chemical means, such as acid leaching and electroosmosis, or immobilization by vitrification. There are presently no techniques for cleanup which are low cost and retain soil fertility after metals removal. But a solution to the problem could be on the horizon. A small but growing number of plants native to metalliferous soils are known to be capable of accumulating extremely high concentrations of metals in their aboveground portions. These hyperaccumulators, as they are called, contain up to 1,000 times larger metal concentrations in their aboveground parts than normal species. Their distribution is global, including many different families of flowering plants of varying growth forms, from herbaceous plants to trees. Hyperaccumulators absorb metals they do not need for their own nutrition. The metals are accumulated in the leaf and stem vacuoles, and to a lesser extent in the roots.

  8. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle development phase, Marshall plarners concluded a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) would be needed for successful Space Industrialization. Shown here in this 1976's artist's conception is an early version of the HLLV during launch.

  9. Heavy Equipment Mechanic Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the heavy equipment mechanic program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning);…

  10. Heavy quark spectroscopy and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of q anti q systems containing heavy, charmed, and bottom quarks has progressed rapidly in recent years, through steady improvements in experimental techniques for production and detection of their decays. These lectures are meant to be an experimentalist's review of the subject. In the first of two lectures, the existing data on the spectroscopy of the bound c anti c and b anti b systems will be discussed. Emphasis is placed on comparisons with the theoretical models. The second lecture covers the rapidly changing subject of the decays of heavy mesons (c anti q and b anti q), and their excited states. In combination, the spectroscopy and decays of heavy quarks are shown to provide interesting insights into both the strong and electroweak interactions of the heavy quarks. 103 refs., 39 figs.

  11. Mixing {Xi}--{Xi}' Effects and Static Properties of Heavy {Xi}'s

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, T. M.; Ozpineci, A.; Zamiralov, V. S.

    2010-12-22

    It is shown the importance of mixing of heavy baryons {Xi}--{Xi}' with the new quantum numbers for analysis of its characteristics. The quark model of Ono is used as an example. Masses of new baryons as well as mixing angles of the states {Xi}--{Xi}' are obtained. The same reasoning is shown to be valid for the interpolating currents of these baryons in the framework of the QCD sum rules.

  12. LCLS Heavy Met Outgassing Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kishiyama, K. I.

    2010-12-01

    A Heavy Met that is 95% tungsten, 3% nickel and 2% iron and sintered to 100% density and is Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) compatible is proposed for use as the X-ray slit in the Front End Enclosure and the Fixed Mask for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The Heavy Met was tested in the LLNL Vacuum Sciences and Engineering Lab (VSEL) to determine its outgassing rate and its overall compatibility with the vacuum requirements for LCLS.

  13. Heavy Metal Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    La Silla Telescope Detects Lots of Lead in Three Distant Binaries Summary Very high abundances of the heavy element Lead have been discovered in three distant stars in the Milky Way Galaxy . This finding strongly supports the long-held view that roughly half of the stable elements heavier than Iron are produced in common stars during a phase towards the end of their life when they burn their Helium - the other half results from supernova explosions. All the Lead contained in each of the three stars weighs about as much as our Moon. The observations show that these "Lead stars" - all members of binary stellar systems - have been more enriched with Lead than with any other chemical element heavier than Iron. This new result is in excellent agreement with predictions by current stellar models about the build-up of heavy elements in stellar interiors. The new observations are reported by a team of Belgian and French astronomers [1] who used the Coude Echelle Spectrometer on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory (Chile). PR Photo 26a/01 : A photo of HD 196944 , one of the "Lead stars". PR Photo 26b/01 : A CES spectrum of HD 196944 . The build-up of heavy elements Astronomers and physicists denote the build-up of heavier elements from lighter ones as " nucleosynthesis ". Only the very lightest elements (Hydrogen, Helium and Lithium [2]) were created at the time of the Big Bang and therefore present in the early universe. All the other heavier elements we now see around us were produced at a later time by nucleosynthesis inside stars. In those "element factories", nuclei of the lighter elements are smashed together whereby they become the nuclei of heavier ones - this process is known as nuclear fusion . In our Sun and similar stars, Hydrogen is being fused into Helium. At some stage, Helium is fused into Carbon, then Oxygen, etc. The fusion process requires positively charged nuclei to move very close to each other before they can unite. But with increasing

  14. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, A.F.

    1997-06-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, C.-J. David Lin, Stefan Meinel

    2012-04-01

    We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light-quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeV < m{sub {pi}} < 352 MeV, two lattice spacings, a = 0.085, 0.112 fm, and a volume of (2.7 fm){sup 3}. Our results for the axial couplings are g{sub 1} = 0.449(51), g{sub 2} = 0.84(20), and g{sub 3} = 0.71(13), where g{sub 1} governs the interaction between heavy-light mesons and pions and g{sub 2,3} are similar couplings between heavy-light baryons and pions. Using our lattice result for g{sub 3}, and constraining 1/m{sub Q} corrections in the strong decay widths with experimental data for {Sigma}{sub c}{sup (*)} decays, we obtain {Gamma}[{Sigma}{sub b}{sup (*)} {yields} {Lambda}{sub b} {pi}{sup {+-}}] = 4.2(1.0), 4.8(1.1), 7.3(1.6), 7.8(1.8) MeV for the {Sigma}{sub b}{sup +}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *+}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *-} initial states, respectively. We also derive upper bounds on the widths of the {Xi}{sub b}{sup prime(*)} baryons.

  16. Chemistry of heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1988-10-01

    The use of heavy ions to induce nuclear reactions was reported as early as 1950. Since that time it has been one of the most active areas of nuclear research. Intense beams of ions as heavy as uranium with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of even the heaviest elements are available. The wide variety of possible reactions gives rise to a multitude of products which have been studied by many ingenious chemical and physical techniques. Chemical techniques have been of special value for the separation and unequivocal identification of low yield species from the plethora of other nuclides present. Heavy ion reactions have been essential for the production of the trans-Md elements and a host of new isotopes. The systematics of compound nucleus reactions, transfer reactions, and deeply inelastic reactions have been elucidated using chemical techniques. A review of the variety of chemical procedures and techniques which have been developed for the study of heavy ion reactions and their products is given. Determination of the chemical properties of the trans-Md elements, which are very short-lived and can only be produced an ''atom-at-a-time'' via heavy ion reactions, is discussed. 53 refs., 19 figs.

  17. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothard, Hermann; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM). This conference was held in Darmstadt, from 18 to 21 May 2015. SHIM is a triennial series, which started about 25 years ago by a joint initiative of CIRIL - Caen and GSI - Darmstadt, with the aim of promoting fundamental and applied interdisciplinary research in the field of high-energy, heavy-ion interaction processes with matter. SHIM was successively organized in Caen (1989), Bensheim (1992), Caen (1995), Berlin (1998), Catania (2002), Aschaffenburg (2005), Lyon (2008), and Kyoto (2012). The conference attracts scientists from many different fields using high-energy heavy ions delivered by large accelerator facilities and characterized by strong and short electronic excitations.

  18. Aspects of heavy-ion collisions at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Wolschin, G.

    2014-01-14

    Three aspects of relativistic heavy-ion collisions are considered in this article: (1) Stopping and baryon transport in a QCD-based approach, (2) charged-hadron production in a nonequilibrium-statistical relativistic diffusion model (RDM), and (3) quarkonia suppression and in particular, Υ suppression in PbPb at the current LHC energy of √(s{sub NN}) = 2.76TeV.

  19. Heavy ion physics at BNL, the AGS and RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, D.I.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of heavy ion acceleration with the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1986 and the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) for 1990 brings us into a temperature and density regime well above anything yet produced and into a time domain of the early universe of 10/sup -13/-10/sup -6/ seconds. The physics of high energy heavy ions range from the more traditional nuclear physics to the formation of new forms of matter. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the latest, and as of yet, the most successful theory to describe the interaction of quarks and gluons. The nature of the confinement of the quarks and gluons under extremes of temperature and density is one of the compelling reasons for this new physics program at BNL. There are reasons to believe that with collisions of heavy nuclei at energies in the 10 to 100 GeV/amu range a very large volume of approx. 10 fm/sup 3/ would be heated to 200-300 MeV and/or acquire a sufficient quark density (5-10 times normal baryon density) so that the entire contents of the volume would be deconfined and the quarks and gluons would form a plasma. The kinematic region for the extant machines and the proposed RHIC are shown. At AGS energies the baryons in colliding nuclei bring each other to rest, yielding fragmentation regions of high baryon density. These are the regions in which supernorvae and neutrons stars exist. For energies much higher, such as in RHIC, nuclei are transparent to each other and one can form a central region of almost zero baryon density, mostly pions, and very high temperature. This is the region of the early universe and the quark-gluon plasma. Design parameters and cost of the RHIC are discussed.

  20. Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-05-01

    A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Exotics from Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Akira; Jido, Daisuke; Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Yazaki, Koichi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2011-10-21

    Discriminating hadronic molecular and multi-quark states is a long standing problem in hadronic physics. We propose here to utilize relativistic heavy ion collisions to resolve this problem, as exotic hadron yields are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model, we find that the exotic hadron yield relative to the statistical model result is typically an order of magnitude smaller for a compact multi-quark state, and larger by a factor of two or more for a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured at RHIC and LHC.

  2. Implications of a heavy gauge boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Junhai

    We study the implications of neutral heavy gauge bosons to electroweak (EW) baryogenesis, neutrino physics and the discovery limits at the Tevatron and LHC. For baryogenesis, we construct two anomaly free supersymmetric U(1)' models with secluded U(1) '-breaking sectors. In the framework of the one with E6 embedding, we study the one-loop effective potential at finite temperature, and show that there exist strong enough first order EW phase transition (EWPT) because of the large trilinear terms in the tree-level Higgs potentials. Unlike the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the stop masses can be very heavy. We discuss possible large tree-level CP violation associated with the Higgs sector. Numerical calculations show that the contribution purely from the thin wall regime is big enough to explain the observed baryon number asymmetry for some of the parameter space. Our model is free of domain wall problems and does not introduce new contributions to electric dipole moments (EDM). Secondly, we consider various possibilities for generating neutrino masses in supersymmetric models with an additional U(1)' gauge symmetry. One class of models involves two extra U (1)' x U(1)″ gauge symmetries, with U(1)″ breaking at an intermediate scale and yielding small Dirac masses through higher-dimensional operators. The right-handed neutrinos Nci can naturally decouple from the low energy U(1) ', avoiding cosmological constraints. We secondly consider models with a pair of heavy triplets which couple to left-handed neutrinos. After integrating out the heavy triplets, a small neutrino Majorana mass matrix can be generated by the induced non-renormalizable terms. We also study models involving the double-see-saw mechanism, in which heavy Majorana masses are associated with the TeV-scale of U(1)' breaking. We finally study how the exotic particles and supersymmetric partners would affect the discovery limit at the Tevatron and LHC for neutral gauge bosons in generic

  3. Heavy ions in Jupiter's environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extended atmosphere of the Jupiter system consists of atoms and ions of heavy elements. This material originates on the satellite Io. Energy is lost from the thermal plasma in collisionally excited optical and ultraviolet emission. The juxtaposition of Earth and spacecraft measurements provide insight concerning the underlying processes of particle transport and energy supply.

  4. Shock Mounting for Heavy Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Elastomeric bearings eliminate extraneous forces. Rocket thrust transmitted from motor to load cells via support that absorbs extraneous forces so they do not affect accuracy of thrust measurements. Adapter spoked cone fits over forward end of rocket motor. Shock mounting developed for rocket engines under test used as support for heavy machines, bridges, or towers.

  5. Proton Distribution in Heavy Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Johnson, M. H; Teller, E.

    1953-11-13

    It is reasoned that, from considerations connected with beta-decay stability and Coulomb repulsion forces, a neutron excess is developed on the surface of heavy nuclei. Several consequences of this qualitative analysis in nucleon interactions are briefly noted. (K.S.)

  6. The Search for Heavy Elements

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  7. Heavy quark physics from LEP

    SciTech Connect

    Dornan, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    A review of some of the latest results on heavy flavor physics from the LEP Collaborations is presented. The emphasis is on B physics, particularly new results and those where discrepancies is given of the many techniques which have been developed to permit these analyses.

  8. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  9. Future relativistic heavy ion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned. (GHT)

  10. The Search for Heavy Elements

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-17

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  11. Summary of heavy ion theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.

    1994-09-01

    Can we study hot QCD using nuclear collisions? Can we learn about metallic hydrogen from the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter? The answer to both questions may surprise you! I summarize progress in relativistic heavy ion theory reported at DPF `94 in the parallel sessions.

  12. Status of heavy rain tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezos, Gaudy

    1991-01-01

    The heavy rain effects program is presented in the form of the view-graphs. The following topics are covered: rain effects on airfoil performance; two-phase flow dynamics; wind tunnel test results; issues; large-scale results; and summary.

  13. Heavy Drinking Might Harm the Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160283.html Heavy Drinking Might Harm the Lungs Alcohol appears to reduce ... 2016 FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heavy drinking may increase the risk of lung problems, a ...

  14. Heavy particle radiotherapy: prospects and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Faju, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heavy particles in radiotherapy of tumor volumes is examined. Particles considered are protons, helium ions, heavy ions, negative pions, and fast neutrons. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. (ACR)

  15. Heavy Precipitation Events in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukantis, A.; Rimkus, E.; Kažys, J.

    2010-09-01

    Analysis of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania is presented in this work. Research was divided into two parts. Spatial distribution and dynamic of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania during observation period (1961-2008) is presented in the first part and climate predictions for XXI century according to outputs of CCLM model are in the second. Daily data from 17 meteorological stations were used for the analysis of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania. Research covers period from 1961 to 2008. Annual and seasonal heavy precipitation values and the recurrence of extreme daily and 3-day precipitation events were analyzed. Spatial distribution of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania was determined; the trends of such precipitation recurrence were identified. Also, daily and 3-day annual maxima probabilities were calculated using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. 10, 30 and 100 years return period was analyzed. Finally, atmospheric circulation processes during heavy precipitation events were described using the adapted Hess & Brezowski macrocirculation form classification Predictions of changes of heavy precipitation recurrence in Lithuania are also presented in this study. Output data of the regional climate model CCLM (COSMO - Climate Limited-area Model) for the period 1971-2100 were used. Predictions were based on A1B and B1 emission scenarios. Despite of relatively small area and quite negligible differences in altitude there are significant unevenness in spatial distribution of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania. The mean annual number of cases when daily precipitation amount exceeded 10 mm fluctuates from 12.4 to 21.9 and from 5.3 to 10.5 when 3-day precipitation exceeded 20 mm. The probability of maximum precipitation amount for 10 year return period appears very familiar to spatial distribution of heavy precipitation recurrence: the highest values can be expected in the western part (55-60 mm daily and 75-85 mm in 3-days

  16. ``Heavy-water Lattice and Heavy-Quark''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, Ssi, Wh-

    Refer to Birgitt Roettger-Roessler: ``Feelings at the Margins'', 2014 retrieved the Vienna, 2006 UNIDO Research Programme: Combating Marginalization and Poverty through Industrial Development/COMPID. Also from Vienna, on Feb 18-22, 1963 reported Technical Report Series 20 about ``Heavy Water Lattice''. Failed to relates scale-invariant properties of public-Debt growth to convergence in perturbation theory, sought JH Field: ``Convergence & Gauge Dependence Properties:..''. Furthers, in GP Lepage: ``On the Viabilities of Lattice Perturbation Theory'', 1992 stated: ``in terms of physical quantities, like the heavy-quark potential, greatly enhanced the predictive power of lattice perturbation theory''. Acknowledgements to HE. Mr. H. TUK SETYOHADI, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, South-Jakarta, INDONESIA.

  17. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)

  18. Study of heavy flavored particles

    SciTech Connect

    Nemati, Bijan

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses progress on the following topics: time-of- flight system; charmed baryon production and decays; D decays to baryons; measurement of sigma plus particles magnetic moments; and strong interaction coupling. (LSP)

  19. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.F.

    2000-10-01

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  20. Central collisions of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

  1. Heavy quark production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    C. Paus

    2002-11-13

    The contribution summarizes the latest results from CDF on heavy quark production. Results from top, bottom and charm production are included. Some new analysis using Run I (1991-1994) data have become available. More importantly there are a number of results using Run II data which began in April 2001. The data indicate the potential of CDF for bottom and charm production physics in the near future.

  2. Open heavy flavor measurements at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlustý, David

    2015-05-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC, heavy quarks are expected to be created from initial hard scatterings. Since heavy quarks have large masses, long life time, and negligible annihilation due to their small population, the number of heavy quarks is conserved during whole medium evolution. The interaction between heavy quarks and the medium is sensitive to the early medium dynamics, therefore heavy quarks are suggested as an ideal probe to quantify the properties of the strongly interacting QCD matter. In this article, we report on recent STAR results of open heavy flavor production at √s = 200 and 500 GeV in p+p, √sNN = 200 GeV in Au+Au and √sNN = 193 GeV in U+U collisions.

  3. Lifetimes and heavy quark expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Kolya Uraltsev was one of the inventors of the Heavy Quark Expansion (HQE), that describes inclusive weak decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks and in particular lifetimes. Besides giving a pedagogic introduction to the subject, we review the development and the current status of the HQE, which just recently passed several non-trivial experimental tests with an unprecedented precision. In view of many new experimental results for lifetimes of heavy hadrons, we also update several theory predictions: τ (B+)/τ (Bd) = 1.04+0.05-0.01 ± 0.02 ± 0.01, τ(Bs)/τ(Bd) = 1.001 ±0.002, τ(Λb)/τ(Bd) = 0.935 ±0.054 and \\bar {τ } (Ξ b0)/\\bar {τ } (Ξ b+) = 0.95 ± 0.06. The theoretical precision is currently strongly limited by the unknown size of the non-perturbative matrix elements of four-quark operators, which could be determined with lattice simulations.

  4. Dynamics of strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions near threshold energies

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Zhaoqing; Jin Genming

    2010-11-15

    Within the framework of the improved isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (ImIQMD) model, the dynamics of strangeness (K{sup 0,+}, {Lambda}, and {Sigma}{sup -,0,+}) production in heavy-ion collisions near threshold energies is investigated systematically, with the strange particles considered to be produced mainly by inelastic collisions of baryon-baryon and pion-baryon. Collisions in the region of suprasaturation densities of the dense baryonic matter formed in heavy-ion collisions dominate the yields of strangeness production. Total multiplicities as functions of incident energies and collision centralities are calculated with the Skyrme parameter SLy6. The excitation function of strangeness production is analyzed and also compared with the KaoS data for K{sup +} production in the reactions {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C and {sup 197}Au+{sup 197}Au.

  5. Future Heavy-Ion Program at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Hiroyuki

    Recently, a heavy ion program as a future J-PARC project has been discussed among nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists. The overview of the heavy-ion program with physics goals, the design and physics feasibility of the spectrometer, and preliminary accelerator schemes are presented. The main goal of the program is to explore the QCD phase diagram in baryon densities 8-10 times as high as the normal nucleus density with heavy ion beams up to uranium at 1-10 AGeV, as well as research of unstable nuclei up to 10 AMeV. In this work, we focus on the former. One of the most important measurements which could signal the phase transition in high baryon densities is a dilepton. We study in-medium modifications of ρ , ω , and φ mesons decaying into dileptons, measure rare particles such as multi-strangeness hadrons, exotic hadrons, and hypernuclei utilizing high rate beams at J-PARC. We have been designing a spectrometer with a solenoid and a dipole magnets, which covers almost 4π acceptance, and has capability of identifying charged hadrons as well as electrons and muons. In one-month running of the experiment at the beam rate of 1011 Hz, we expect to measure ρ , ω , and φ dielectron decays of the order of 107. Heavy-ion acceleration schemes have been studied with a new heavy-ion linac and a new booster ring as an injector to RCS. The beams will be accelerated in RCS and MR. The goal beam rate is around 1010-1011/MR cycle.

  6. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Zachary S; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-01

    The spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of exper- iments for some time, it is interesting compute this spectrum from QCD and compare results between lattice calculations and continuum theoretical models. Several lattice calculations ex- ist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. Here, we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. We present preliminary results for the ground state spectrum.

  7. Heavy flavor in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Song, T.; Berrehrah, H.; Cabrera, D.; Torres-Rincon, J. M.; Tolos, L.; Cassing, W.

    2016-01-01

    We study charm production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions by using the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach. The initial charm quarks are produced by the PYTHIA event generator tuned to fit the transverse momentum spectrum and rapidity distribution of charm quarks from Fixed-Order Next-to-Leading Logarithm (FONLL) calculations. The produced charm quarks scatter in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with the off-shell partons whose masses and widths are given by the Dynamical Quasi-Particle Model (DQPM), which reproduces the lattice QCD equation-of-state in thermal equilibrium. The relevant cross sections are calculated in a consistent way by employing the effective propagators and couplings from the DQPM. Close to the critical energy density of the phase transition, the charm quarks are hadronized into D mesons through coalescence and/or fragmentation. The hadronized D mesons then interact with the various hadrons in the hadronic phase with cross sections calculated in an effective lagrangian approach with heavy-quark spin symmetry. The nuclear modification factor Raa and the elliptic flow v2 of D0 mesons from PHSD are compared with the experimental data from the STAR Collaboration for Au+Au collisions at √sNN =200 GeV and to the ALICE data, for Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN =2.76 TeV. We find that in the PHSD the energy loss of D mesons at high pT can be dominantly attributed to partonic scattering while the actual shape of RAA versus pT reflects the heavy-quark hadronization scenario, i.e. coalescence versus fragmentation. Also the hadronic rescattering is important for the Raa at low pT and enhances the D-meson elliptic flow v2.

  8. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  9. Diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Herman, Malou C; Mol, Ben W; Bongers, Marlies Y

    2016-01-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is an important health problem. This paper gives an overview of the diagnosis of HMB. For each woman, a thorough history should be taken as one should ascertain whether there are underlying factors that could cause complaints of HMB. Objectively knowing whether or not the blood loss is excessive could also be very beneficial. The pictorial blood assessment chart score can help with diagnosis. Physical examination starts with standard gynecological examination. Imaging tests are widely used in the work-up for women with HMB. The first step in imaging tests should be the transvaginal ultrasound. Other diagnostic tests should only be performed when indicated. PMID:26696006

  10. Phenomenology of heavy flavor production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-10-13

    A review is presented of heavy quark in /bar p/p, p, and pp interactions at fixed target and collider energies. Calculations of total cross sections are described, including contributions through next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. Comparisons with available data on charm and bottom quark production show good agreement for reasonable values of charm and bottom quark masses and other parameters. Open issues in the interpretation of results are summarized. A discussion is presented of signatures, backgrounds, and expected event rates for top quark production. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Phenomenology of heavy vectorlike leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwata, Koji; Wise, Mark B.

    2013-09-01

    We study the impact that a heavy generation of vectorlike leptons can have on the value of the electric dipole moment of the electron, and the rates for the flavor violating processes μ→eγ and μ→3e. The smallness of the charged lepton masses suggests that at least some of the Yukawa coupling constants of the vectorlike leptons to the ordinary leptons or amongst themselves are small, but even with such small couplings experiments trying to detect these quantities are sensitive to extra generation lepton masses up to about 100 TeV.

  12. Heavy Gas Dispersion Incompressible Flow

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-01-27

    FEM3 is a numerical model developed primarily to simulate heavy gas dispersion in the atmosphere, such as the gravitational spread and vapor dispersion that result from an accidental spill of liquefied natural gas (LNG). FEM3 solves both two and three-dimensional problems and, in addition to the generalized anelastic formulation, includes options to use either the Boussinesq approximation or an isothermal assumption, when appropriate. The FEM3 model is composed of three parts: a preprocessor PREFEM3, themore » main code FEM3, and two postprocessors TESSERA and THPLOTX.« less

  13. The Compact Muon Solenoid Heavy Ion program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Pablo Yepes

    2005-12-15

    their interactions with the environment, they measure its properties and are sensitive to the formation of quark-gluon plasma. Moreover large transverse momentum probes are easily isolated experimentally from the background of soft particles produced in the collision. From a theoretical point of view, the high p{sub T} ensures that the medium effects are perturbatively calculable, strengthening their usefulness as quantitative diagnostic tools. Another interesting aspect of heavy ion collisions at the energy of the LHC is the time evolution of the system. At the moment of the collision, this may be described in terms of classical color fields and the gross properties of the system are calculable in perturbative QCD. Lastly let us mention the fact that at central rapidities LHC is expected to reach a truly baryon-free regime. Results from RHIC have shown that not all the valence quarks are removed from central rapidities at RHIC.

  14. Dynamical heavy-quark recombination and the non-photonic single electron puzzle at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alejandro; Magnin, J.; Montano, Luis Manuel; Toledo Sanchez, G.

    2011-04-26

    We show that the single, non-photonic electron nuclear modification factor R{sub AA}{sup e} is affected by the thermal enhancement of the heavy-baryon to heavy-meson ratio in relativistic heavy-ion collisions with respect to proton-proton collisions. We make use of the dynamical quark recombination model to compute such ratio and show that this produces a sizable suppression factor for the R{sub AA}{sup e} at intermediate transverse momenta. We argue that such suppression factor needs to be considered, in addition to the energy loss contribution, in calculations of R{sub AA}{sup e}.

  15. Ratios of heavy hadron semileptonic decay rates

    SciTech Connect

    Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2011-02-01

    Ratios of charmed meson and baryon semileptonic decay rates appear to be satisfactorily described by considering only the lowest-lying (S-wave) hadronic final states and assuming the kinematic factor describing phase space suppression is the same as that for free quarks. For example, the rate for D{sub s} semileptonic decay is known to be (17.0{+-}5.3)% lower than those for D{sup 0} or D{sup +}, and the model accounts for this difference. When applied to hadrons containing b quarks, this method implies that the B{sub s} semileptonic decay rate is about 1% higher than that of the nonstrange B mesons. This small difference thus suggests surprisingly good local quark-hadron duality for B semileptonic decays, complementing the expectation based on inclusive quark-hadron duality that these differences in rates should not exceed a few tenths of a percent. For {Lambda}{sub b} semileptonic decay, however, the inclusive rate is predicted to be about 13% greater than that of the nonstrange B mesons. This value, representing a considerable departure from a calculation using a heavy-quark expansion, is close to the corresponding experimental ratio {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub b})/{Gamma}(B)=1.13{+-}0.03 of total decay rates.

  16. SBI allocation between heavy and singlet missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-04-01

    The optimal allocation of space-based interceptors (SBIs) between fixed, heavy missiles and mobile singlets can be derived from approximate expressions for the boost-phase penetration of each. Singlets can cluster before launch and have shorter burn times, which reduce their availability to SBIs by an order of magnitude. Singlet penetration decreased slowly with the number of SBIs allocated to them; heavy missile penetration falls rapidly. The allocation to the heavy missiles falls linearly with their number. The penetration of heavy and singlet missiles is proportional to their numbers and inversely proportional to their availability. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Baryon number fluctuations from a crossover equation of state compared to heavy-ion collision measurements in the beam energy range √{sNN}=7.7 to 200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, M.; Kapusta, J.; Young, C.

    2015-10-01

    Fluctuations of the proton number distribution in central Au-Au collisions have been measured by the STAR Collaboration in a beam energy scan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The motivation is a search for evidence of a critical point in the equation of state. It was found that the skewness and kurtosis display an interesting energy dependence. We compare these measurements to an equation of state which smoothly interpolates between an excluded volume hadron resonance gas at low energy density to a perturbative plasma of quarks and gluons at high energy density. This crossover equation of state agrees very well with the lattice QCD equation of state. The crossover equation of state can reproduce the data if the fluctuations are frozen at a temperature significantly lower than the average chemical freeze-out.

  18. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  19. Radical scavengers from heavy hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Junichi

    1996-10-01

    The hydrogen-donating properties of some hydrocarbons form the basis for processes such as coal liquefaction and heavy oil upgrading. However, these hydrocarbons have seldom been used for other purposes, because their potential applications have not been well recognized. Research has indicated that these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons can be used in important reactions as radical scavengers and have properties particular to those of pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms. Over years of study researchers have found that pure hydrocarbons with radical-scavenging effects nearly as high as those in conventional hindered phenolic antioxidants can be produced from petroleum, and these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons exhibit such effects even in oxidative atmospheres (i.e., they function as antioxidants). He has also shown that these mixtures have some properties particular to pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms, and they`ve seen that a mechanism based on the steric effects appears when these hydrocarbons are used in heavy oil hydroprocessing. Hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons should be a viable resource in many applications. In this article, he presents radical-scavenging abilities, characteristics as pure hydrocarbons, and applications on the basis of the studies.

  20. New life for heavy lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeis, Richard

    1991-03-01

    The advisory committee to NASA on overall approaches for implementing the U.S. space program in the years ahead has concluded that Shuttle missions should only be flown when a human presence is necessary. It was noted that reducing the number of missions would extend the life of the existing fleet and retain the number of orbiters required at the presently planned four and any funding for a fifth orbiter should be utilized instead for the development of a new heavy lift launch vehicle. These recommendations have led to increased design proposals under the Advanced Launch Development (ADLP) Program such as the Shuttle C (cargo), an unmanned version that could orbit 100,00 to 150,000 lb for two- and three-engine versions, respectively, and would make maximum utilization of present Shuttle processing and pad facilities. Other concepts under investigation by ADLP include electromechanical actuators to replace hydraulic systems, advanced modular avionics and common avionics/payload interfaces, and laser-initiated ordnance for component separation and staging. It is noted that the drive to evolve a heavy lift system will fully employ the total quality management approach, with producibility and operability built into the system from the start.

  1. Heavy Flavour results from Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Borissov, G.; /Lancaster U.

    2012-06-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments finalize the analysis of their full statistics collected in the p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This paper presents several new results on the properties of hadrons containing heavy b- and c-quarks obtained by both collaborations. These results include the search for the rare decays B{sup 0}, B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} (CDF), the study of CP asymmetry in B{sub s} {yields} J{psi}{phi} decay (CDF, D0), the measurement of the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry (D0), the measurement of CP asymmetry in D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays (CDF), and the new measurement of the B{sub s} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} D{sub s}{sup (*)-} branching fraction (CDF). Both experiments still expect to produce more results on the properties of heavy flavours.

  2. Transfer reactions with heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Transfer reactions for several transuranium elements are studied. (/sup 248/Cm, /sup 249/Bk, /sup 249/CF, /sup 254/Es), /sup 16,18/O, /sup 20,22/Ne, and /sup 40,48/Ca projectiles are used. The production of neutron-rich heavy actinides is enhanced by the use of neutron-rich projectiles /sup 18/O and /sup 22/Ne. The maxima of the isotopic distributions occur at only 2 to 3 mass numbers larger for /sup 48/Ca than for /sup 40/Ca reactions with /sup 248/Cm. The cross sections decrease rapidly with the number of nucleons transferred. The use of neutron-rich targets favors the production of neutron-rich isotopes. ''Cold'' heavy targets are produced. Comparisons with simple calculations of the product excitation energies assuming binary transfers indicate that the maxima of the isotopic distributions occur at the lightest product isotope for which the energy exceeds the reaction barrier. The cross sections for transfer of the same nucleon clusters appear to be comparable for a wide variety of systems. 23 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Heavy ion measurement on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Jonathal, D.; Enge, W.

    1991-01-01

    The Kiel Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment M0002, mounted on experiment tray E6, was designed to measure the heavy ion environment by means of CR-39 plastic solid state track detectors. The detector stack with a size of 40x34x4.5 cu cm was exposed in vacuum covered by thermal protection foils with a total thickness of approx. 14 mg/sq cm. After etching small samples of the detector foils tracks with Z greater than or = 6 could be easily detected on a background of small etch pits, which were probably produced by secondaries from proton interactions. The LDEF orientation with respect to the magnetic field lines within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is expected to be constant during the mission. Therefore, the azimuth angle distribution was measured on the detector foils for low energy stopping particles. All detected arrival directions are close to a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field line of -20 deg declination and -40 deg inclination at location 34 deg W and 27 deg S. Together with the steep energy spectrum, this spatial distribution close to the mirror plane in the SAA is an evidence that heavy ions were detected from a radiation belt population.

  4. Charmed Mesons in Nuclei with Heavy-Quark Spin Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolos, L.; Garcia-Recio, C.; Nieves, J.; Romanets, O.; Salcedo, L. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study the properties of charmed pseudoscalar and vector mesons in dense matter within a unitary meson-baryon coupled-channel model which incorporates heavy-quark spin symmetry. This is accomplished by extending the SU(3) Weinberg-Tomozawa Lagrangian to incorporate spin-flavor symmetry and implement a suitable flavor symmetry breaking. Several resonances with negative parity are generated dynamically by the s-wave interaction between pseudoscalar and vector meson multiplets with 1/2+ and 3/2+ baryons. Those states are then compared to experimental data as well as theoretical models. Next, Pauli-blocking effects and meson self-energies are introduced in a self-consistent manner to obtain the open-charm meson spectral functions in a dense nuclear environment. We finally discuss the formation of D-mesic nuclei.

  5. Weak decays of heavy hadrons into dynamically generated resonances

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Oset, Eulogio; Liang, Wei -Hong; Bayar, Melahat; Xie, Ju -Jun; Dai, Lian Rong; Albaladejo, Miguel; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Navarra, Fernando; Roca, Luis; et al

    2016-01-28

    In this study, we present a review of recent works on weak decay of heavy mesons and baryons with two mesons, or a meson and a baryon, interacting strongly in the final state. The aim is to learn about the interaction of hadrons and how some particular resonances are produced in the reactions. It is shown that these reactions have peculiar features and act as filters for some quantum numbers which allow to identify easily some resonances and learn about their nature. The combination of basic elements of the weak interaction with the framework of the chiral unitary approach allowmore » for an interpretation of results of many reactions and add a novel information to different aspects of the hadron interaction and the properties of dynamically generated resonances.« less

  6. Heavy quarks, gluons and the confinement potential in Coulomb gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovici, Carina; Watson, Peter; Reinhardt, Hugo

    2011-05-01

    We consider the heavy quark limit of Coulomb gauge QCD, with the truncation of the Yang-Mills sector to include only (dressed) two-point functions. We find that the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is nonperturbatively exact and moreover, we provide a direct connection between the temporal gluon propagator and the quark confinement potential. Further, we show that only bound states of color singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (SU(2) baryon) pairs are physically allowed.

  7. Heavy quarks, gluons and the confinement potential in Coulomb gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Popovici, Carina; Watson, Peter; Reinhardt, Hugo

    2011-05-23

    We consider the heavy quark limit of Coulomb gauge QCD, with the truncation of the Yang-Mills sector to include only (dressed) two-point functions. We find that the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is nonperturbatively exact and moreover, we provide a direct connection between the temporal gluon propagator and the quark confinement potential. Further, we show that only bound states of color singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (SU(2) baryon) pairs are physically allowed.

  8. The effect of meson wave function on heavy-quark fragmentation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi Nejad, S. Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the process-independent fragmentation functions (FFs) for a heavy quark to fragment into heavy mesons considering the effects of meson wave function. In all previous works, where the FFs of heavy mesons or heavy baryons were calculated, a delta function form was approximated for the wave function of hadrons. Here, for the first time, we consider a typical mesonic wave function which is different from the delta function and is the nonrelativistic limit of the solution of Bethe-Salpeter equation with the QCD kernel. We shall present our numerical results for the heavy FFs and show how the proposed wave function improves the previous results. As an example, we focus on the fragmentation function for c -quark to split into S -wave D^0 -meson and compare our results with experimental data from BELLE and CLEO.

  9. Phycoremediation of heavy metals using transgenic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sathish; Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Falcao, Vanessa; Torres, Moacir; Colepicolo, Pio; Sayre, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Microalgae account for most of the biologically sequestered trace metals in aquatic environments. Their ability to adsorb and metabolize trace metals is associated with their large surface:volume ratios, the presence of high-affinity, metal-binding groups on their cell surfaces, and efficient metal uptake and storage systems. Microalgae may bind up to 10% of their biomass as metals. In addition to essential trace metals required for metabolism, microalgae can efficiently sequester toxic heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals often compete with essential trace metals for binding to and uptake into cells. Recently, transgenic approaches have been developed to further enhance the heavy metal specificity and binding capacity of microalgae with the objective of using these microalgae for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated wastewaters and sediments. These transgenic strategies have included the over expression of enzymes whose metabolic products ameliorate the effects of heavy metal-induced stress, and the expression of high-affinity, heavy metal binding proteins on the surface and in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. The most effective strategies have substantially reduced the toxicity of heavy metals allowing transgenic cells to grow at wild-type rates in the presence of lethal concentrations of heavy metals. In addition, the metal binding capacity of transgenic algae has been increased five-fold relative to wild-type cells. Recently, fluorescent heavy metal biosensors have been developed for expression in transgenic Chlamydomonas. These fluorescent biosensor strains can be used for the detection and quantification of bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments. The use of transgenic microalgae to monitor and remediate heavy metals in aquatic environments is not without risk, however. Strategies to prevent the release of live microalgae having enhanced metal binding properties are described. PMID:18161494

  10. Staggered baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Jon Andrew

    The strong force binds protons and neutrons within nuclei and quarks within mesons and baryons. Calculations of the masses of the light-quark baryons from the theory of the strong force, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), require numerical methods in which continuous Minkowski spacetime is replaced by a discrete Euclidean spacetime lattice. Finite computational resources and theoretical constraints impose significant limitations on lattice calculations. The price of perhaps the fastest formulation of lattice QCD, rooted staggered QCD, includes quark degrees of freedom called tastes, associated discretization effects called taste violations, and the rooting conjecture for eliminating the tastes in the continuum limit. Empirically successful rooted staggered QCD calculations of the baryon spectrum would constitute numerical evidence for the rooting conjecture and further vindication of QCD as the theory of the strong force. With such calculations as the goal, I discuss expected features of the staggered baryon spectrum, examine the spectra of interpolating operators transforming irreducibly under the staggered lattice symmetry group, construct such a set of baryon operators, and show how they could allow for particularly clean calculations of the masses of the nucleon, Delta, Sigma*, Ξ*, and O-. To quantify taste violations in baryonic quantities, I develop staggered chiral perturbation theory for light-quark baryons by mapping the Symanzik action into heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, calculate the masses of flavor-symmetric nucleons to third order in partially quenched and fully dynamical staggered chiral perturbation theory, and discuss in detail the pattern of taste symmetry breaking and the resulting baryon degeneracies and mixings. The resulting chiral forms could be used with interpolating operators already in use to study the restoration of taste symmetry in the continuum limit.

  11. Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program Retrospective and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    James J. Eberhardt

    1999-04-10

    OHVT Mission is to conduct, in collaboration with our heavy vehicle industry partners and their suppliers, a customer-focused national program to research and develop technologies that will enable trucks and other heavy vehicles to be more energy efficient and able to use alternative fuels while simultaneously reducing emissions.

  12. FINAL REPORT. HEAVY METAL PUMPS IN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of t...

  13. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  14. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  15. Comparative SEU sensitivities to relativistic heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, R.; Crain, S.H.; Crain, W.R.; Crawford, K.B.; Hansel, S.J.

    1998-12-01

    SEU sensitivity of microcircuits to relativistic heavy ions is compared to that measured with low-energy ions of comparable LET values. Multiple junction charge collection in a complex circuit seems to mask the effect of varying charge generations due to different iron track structures. Heavy ions at sub-relativistic speeds may generate nuclear fragments, sometimes resulting in SEUs.

  16. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  17. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine

    2001-01-01

    Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

  18. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  19. Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

  20. Octupole correlations in the heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of octupole correlations on the nuclear structure of the heavy elements are discussed. The cluster model description of the heavy elements is analyzed. The relevance of 2/sup 6/-pole deformation and fast El transitions to an octupole model is considered. 30 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Heavy quark production in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, P.L.; Quack, E.; Ruuskanen, P.V. |

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.

  2. Heavy Ion Physics in eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal

    2005-10-06

    We review the physics of gluon saturation in heavy ions at small x and consider the applications of Color Glass Condensate formalism to Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) of leptons on nuclei and discuss the overlapping physics between high energy heavy ion collisions at RHIC and DIS in eRHIC.

  3. SUPRI heavy oil research program

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, K.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Castanier, L.M.

    1991-12-01

    The 14th Annual Report of the SUPRI Heavy Oil Research Program includes discussion of the following topics: (1) A Study of End Effects in Displacement Experiments; (2) Cat Scan Status Report; (3) Modifying In-situ Combustion with Metallic Additives; (4) Kinetics of Combustion; (5) Study of Residual Oil Saturation for Steam Injection and Fuel Concentration for In-Situ Combustion; (6) Analysis of Transient Foam Flow in 1-D Porous Media with Computed Tomography; (7) Steam-Foam Studies in the Presence of Residual Oil; (8) Microvisualization of Foam Flow in a Porous Medium; (9) Three- Dimensional Laboratory Steam Injection Model; (10) Saturation Evaluation Following Water Flooding; (11) Numerical Simulation of Well-to-Well Tracer Flow Test with Nonunity Mobility Ratio.

  4. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  5. Heavy quark physics from SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Messner, R.

    1997-01-01

    This report covers preliminary measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 1993-1995 runs. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag is presented. The high electron beam polarization of the SLC is employed in the direct measurement of the parity-violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} by use of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry. The lifetimes of B{sup +} and B{sup 0} mesons have been measured by two analyses. The first identifies semileptonic decays of B mesons with high (p,p{sub t}) leptons; the second analysis isolates a sample of B meson decays with a two-dimensional impact parameter tag and reconstructs the decay length and charge using a topological vertex reconstruction method.

  6. Phenomenology of heavy quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of heavy quark production in {bar p}p, {pi}{sup -}p, and pp interactions at fixed target and collider energies. Calculations of total cross sections and of single quark inclusive differential cross sections d{sup 2}{omega}/dk{sub T}dy are described including contributions through next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. Comparisons with available data on charm and bottom quark production show good agreement for reasonable values of the charm and bottom quark masses and other parameters. Predictions and open issues in the interpretation of results are summarized. A brief discussion is presented of signatures, backgrounds, and expected event rates for top quark production. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Laboratory studies of heavy ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, J.; Barnes, J.; Schueler, B.; Mauersberger, K.

    1990-01-01

    Dissociation of ozone in the Chappuis bands has been used as an O atom source to study isotope effects occurring in the O(3P) + O2(3 Sigma g) recombination reaction. The ozone produced was found to be enriched in both of its heavy isotopes. The pressure dependence (5-1000 torr) and temperature dependence (127-360 K) of this isotope effect have been investigated. The enrichment is approximately constant from 5 torr to 100 torr and decreases at higher pressures. It increases with temperature, with O3-50 showing a slightly faster rate of increase than O3-45. The results of this experiment have clearly isolated the source of the isotope effect to the gas phase O(3P) + O2(3 Sigma g) recombination reaction.

  8. HEAVY WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1958-04-29

    A nuclear reactor of the type which utilizes uranium fuel elements and a liquid coolant is described. The fuel elements are in the form of elongated tubes and are disposed within outer tubes extending through a tank containing heavy water, which acts as a moderator. The ends of the fuel tubes are connected by inlet and discharge headers, and liquid bismuth is circulated between the headers and through the fuel tubes for cooling. Helium is circulated through the annular space between the outer tubes in the tank and the fuel tubes to cool the water moderator to prevent boiling. The fuel tubes are covered with a steel lining, and suitable control means, heat exchange means, and pumping means for the coolants are provided to complete the reactor assembly.

  9. Hazards of heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Järup, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues, and is even increasing in some parts of the world, in particular in less developed countries, though emissions have declined in most developed countries over the last 100 years. Cadmium compounds are currently mainly used in re-chargeable nickel-cadmium batteries. Cadmium emissions have increased dramatically during the 20th century, one reason being that cadmium-containing products are rarely re-cycled, but often dumped together with household waste. Cigarette smoking is a major source of cadmium exposure. In non-smokers, food is the most important source of cadmium exposure. Recent data indicate that adverse health effects of cadmium exposure may occur at lower exposure levels than previously anticipated, primarily in the form of kidney damage but possibly also bone effects and fractures. Many individuals in Europe already exceed these exposure levels and the margin is very narrow for large groups. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce cadmium exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. The general population is primarily exposed to mercury via food, fish being a major source of methyl mercury exposure, and dental amalgam. The general population does not face a significant health risk from methyl mercury, although certain groups with high fish consumption may attain blood levels associated with a low risk of neurological damage to adults. Since there is a risk to the fetus in particular, pregnant women should avoid a high intake of certain fish, such as shark, swordfish and

  10. Heavy-lift airship dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

  11. An accessible heavy neutral lepton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chao-Hsi

    1982-09-01

    In the SUL(2) ⊗ SUR(2) ⊗ UB-L(1) model, an accessible heavy neutral lepton may exist owing to the mixing of generations. Based on a rough estimate, it is pointed out that the most hopeful experiments to observe this lepton are ν-production in an emulsion (because the track of a particle with lifetime 10-11-10-13 s could be seen) and e-production. The author thanks Professor J.D. Bjorken, Professor He Zuo-Xiu, Professor R.E. Mashark, Professor S.J. Chang, Professor Zhu Cong-Yuan and Professor M. Dine for helpful discussions and comments. He would like to thank the referee for valuable comments.

  12. Heavy Gas Dispersion Incompressible Flow

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-03

    FEM3 is a numerical model developed primarily to simulate heavy gas dispersion in the atmosphere, such as the gravitational spread and vapor dispersion that result from an accidental spill of liquefied natural gas (LNG). FEM3 solves both two and three-dimensional problems and, in addition to the generalized anelastic formulation, includes options to use either the Boussinesq approximation or an isothermal assumption, when appropriate. The FEM3 model is composed of three parts: a preprocessor PREFEM3, themore » main code FEM3, and two postprocessors TESSERA and THPLOTX. The DEC VAX11 version contains an auxiliary program, POLYREAD, which reads the polyplot file created by FEM3.« less

  13. Laithwaite's Heavy Spinning Disk Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2014-09-01

    In 1974, Professor Eric Laithwaite demonstrated an unusually heavy gyroscope at a Royal Institution lecture in London. The demonstration was televised and can be viewed on YouTube.1 A recent version of the same experiment, together with partial explanations, attracted two million YouTube views in the first few months.2 In both cases, the gyroscope consisted of a 40-lb (18-kg) spinning disk on the end of a 3-ft (0.91-m) long axle. The most remarkable feature of the demonstration was that Laithwaite was able to lift the disk over his head with one hand, holding onto the far end of the axle. The impression was given that the 40-lb disk was almost weightless, or "as light as a feather" according to Laithwaite.

  14. Heavy cocaine use by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Schwartz, R H; Martin, D M

    1989-04-01

    Adolescents are susceptible to becoming cocaine users. Twenty-eight teenagers in a drug rehabilitation program were identified as heavy cocaine users and questioned about their experiences. They reported family conflict leading to running away (86%), school drop-out (24%) and delinquent behaviors such as stealing (96%) and vandalism (57%). Cocaine use started at 14 years for 21%, with progression from onset to at least weekly use within eight weeks (54%). Side effects included sleep disturbance (18%) and tolerance to cocaine (25%). Withdrawal was characterized by cocaine craving up to one month later (93%). The majority (96%) were polydrug abusers. Possible causes of teen substance abuse are discussed, and the importance of prevention is emphasized. PMID:2927994

  15. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS.

    PubMed

    Van Keer, Jan; Meijers, Björn; Delforge, Michel; Verhoef, Gregor; Poesen, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of "heavy chain MGUS" have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma. PMID:27213064

  16. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS

    PubMed Central

    Meijers, Björn; Delforge, Michel; Verhoef, Gregor; Poesen, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of “heavy chain MGUS” have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma. PMID:27213064

  17. QCD mechanisms for heavy particle production

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-09-01

    For very large pair mass, the production of heavy quarks and supersymmetric particles is expected to be governed by ACD fusion subprocesses. At lower mass scales other QCD mechanisms such as prebinding distortion and intrinsic heavy particle Fock states can become important, possibly accounting for the anomalies observed for charm hadroproduction. We emphasize the importance of final-state Coulomb interactions at low relative velocity in QCD and predict the existence of heavy narrow four quark resonances (c c-bar u u-bar) and (cc c-bar c-bar) in ..gamma gamma.. reactions. Coherent QCD contributions are discussed as a contribution to the non-additivity of nuclear structure functions and heavy particle production cross sections. We also predict a new type of amplitude zero for exclusive heavy meson pair production which follows from the tree-graph structure of QCD. 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Heavy photon search experiment at JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanyan, Stepan

    2013-11-01

    The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) experiment in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab will search for new heavy vector boson(s), aka "heavy photons", in the mass range of 20 MeV/c{sup 2} to 1000 MeV/c{sup 2} using the scattering of high energy, high intensity electron beams off a high Z target. The proposed measurements will cover the region of parameter space favored by the muon g-2 anomaly, and will explore a significant region of parameter space, not only at large couplings ({alpha}'/{alpha} > 10{sup -7}), but also in the regions of small couplings, down to {alpha}'/{alpha}~10{sup -10}. The excellent vertexing capability of the Si-tracker uniquely enables HPS to cover the small coupling region. Also, HPS will search for heavy photons in an alternative to the e{sup +} e{sup -} decay mode, in the heavy photon's decay to {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}.

  19. Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Mahendra; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common pollutants found in the environment. Health problems due to the heavy metal pollution become a major concern throughout the world, and therefore, various treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and adsorption are adopted to reduce or eliminate their concentration in the environment. Biosorption is a cost-effective and environmental friendly technique, and it can be used for detoxification of heavy metals in industrial effluents as an alternative treatment technology. Biosorption characteristics of various bacterial species are reviewed here with respect to the results reported so far. The role of physical, chemical, and biological modification of bacterial cells for heavy metal removal is presented. The paper evaluates the different kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic models used in bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Biomass characterization and sorption mechanisms as well as elution of metal ions and regeneration of biomass are also discussed. PMID:25471624

  20. Heavy ion program at BNL: AGS, RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    With the recent commissioning of fixed target, heavy ion physics at the AGS, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has embarked on a long range program in support of relativistic heavy ion research. Acceleration of low mass heavy ions (up to sulfur) to an energy of about 14.5 GeV/nucleon is possible with the direct connection of the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff and AGS accelerators. When completed, the new booster accelerator will provide heavy ions over the full mass range for injection and subsequent acceleration in the AGS. BNL is now engaged in an active R and D program directed toward the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The results of the first operation of the low mass heavy ion program will be reviewed, and future expectations discussed. The expected performance for the heavy ion operation of the booster will be described and finally, the current status and outlook for the RHIC facility will be presented.

  1. Effective Hadron Dynamics: from the Proton Spin to Heavy Meson Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbaraman, Anand Hariharan

    In this thesis, chiral effective Lagrangians are used to study certain aspects of QCD in the low energy limit. A chiral Lagrangian including vector mesons as well as pseudoscalar mesons is developed. Careful attention is paid to SU(3) symmetry breaking effects, and the parameters are fitted to experiment. It is found that this Lagrangian explains certain SU(3) breaking effects in the meson sector much better than a model with pseudoscalars alone. The above Lagrangian is then used to study the "proton spin puzzle". The nucleon arises as a solitonic excitation of the mesonic fields in this model. It is shown that the explanation of the small value of the matrix element of the axial singlet current in the proton state is very satisfactory within this framework. A gauge invariant two-component decomposition of the above matrix element into "matter" and "glue" contributions is then displayed, and it is demonstrated that both these pieces are intrinsically small, though the "glue" part does tend to cancel out the "matter" part. The interactions of heavy mesons (mesons containing a single heavy quark) with light mesons is also studied. A formalism is developed to include light vector mesons as well as pseudoscalars into a chiral effective Lagrangian of heavy and light mesons. The parameters in the Lagrangian are fitted by the analysis of certain semi-leptonic heavy meson decays. The heavy-light Lagrangian is then used to study the picture of heavy baryons as bound states of the nucleon-as-soliton and heavy mesons. It is demonstrated that light vector mesons play a significant role in the binding of the soliton and the heavy meson. The heavy baryon mass splitting is estimated as a test of the model.

  2. Stabilization of heavy metals in sludge ceramsite.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Zou, J L; Li, G B

    2010-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the stabilization behaviours of heavy metals in ceramsite made from wastewater treatment sludge (WWTS) and drinking-water treatment sludge (DWTS). Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of sintering temperature, (Fe(2)O(3) + CaO + MgO)/(SiO(2) + Al(2)O(3)) (defined as F/SA ratios), pH, and oxidative condition. Results show that sintering exhibits good binding capacity for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb in ceramsite and leaching contents of heavy metals will not change above 1000 degrees C. The main crystalline phases in ceramsite sintered at 1000 degrees C are kyanite, quartz, Na-Ca feldspars, sillimanite, and enstatite. The main compounds of heavy metals are crocoite, chrome oxide, cadmium silicate, and copper oxide. Leaching contents of Cd, Cu, and Pb increase as the F/SA ratios increase. Heavy metals in ceramsite with variation of F/SA ratios are also in same steady forms, which prove that stronger chemical bonds are formed between these heavy metals and the components. Leaching contents of heavy metals decrease as pH increases and increase as H(2)O(2) concentration increases. The results indicate that when subjected to rigorous leaching conditions, the crystalline structures still exhibit good chemical binding capacity for heavy metals. In conclusion, it is environmentally safe to use ceramsite in civil and construction fields. PMID:20219229

  3. Heavy-element fission barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Peter; Sierk, Arnold J.; Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Bengtsson, Ragnar; Uhrenholt, Henrik; Angstromberg, Sven

    2009-06-15

    We present calculations of fission properties for heavy elements. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic finite-range liquid-drop model with a 2002 parameter set. For each nucleus we have calculated the potential energy in three different shape parametrizations: (1) for 5 009 325 different shapes in a five-dimensional deformation space given by the three-quadratic-surface parametrization, (2) for 10 850 different shapes in a three-dimensional deformation space spanned by {epsilon}{sub 2}, {epsilon}{sub 4}, and {gamma} in the Nilsson perturbed-spheroid parametrization, supplemented by a densely spaced grid in {epsilon}{sub 2}, {epsilon}{sub 3}, {epsilon}{sub 4}, and {epsilon}{sub 6} for axially symmetric deformations in the neighborhood of the ground state, and (3) an axially symmetric multipole expansion of the shape of the nuclear surface using {beta}{sub 2}, {beta}{sub 3}, {beta}{sub 4}, and {beta}{sub 6} for intermediate deformations. For a fissioning system, it is always possible to define uniquely one saddle or fission threshold on the optimum trajectory between the ground state and separated fission fragments. We present such calculated barrier heights for 1585 nuclei from Z=78 to Z=125. Traditionally, actinide barriers have been characterized in terms of a ''double-humped'' structure. Following this custom we present calculated energies of the first peak, second minimum, and second peak in the barrier for 135 actinide nuclei from Th to Es. However, for some of these nuclei which exhibit a more complex barrier structure, there is no unique way to extract a double-humped structure from the calculations. We give examples of such more complex structures, in particular the structure of the outer barrier region near {sup 232}Th and the occurrence of multiple fission modes. Because our complete results are too extensive to present in a paper of this type, our aim here is limited: (1) to fully present our model and the methods for determining the

  4. Heavy-quark physics in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1991-04-01

    Heavy quarks can expose new symmetries and novel phenomena in QCD not apparent in ordinary hadronic systems. In these lectures I discuss the use of effective-Lagrangian and light-cone Fock methods to analyze exclusive heavy hadron decays such as {Upsilon} {yields} p{bar p} and B {yields} {pi}{pi}, and also to derive effective Schroedinger and Dirac equations for heavy quark systems. Two contributions to the heavy quark structure functions of the proton and other light hadrons are identified: an extrinsic'' contribution associated with leading twist QCD evolution of the gluon distribution, and a higher twist intrinsic'' contribution due to the hardness of high-mass fluctuations of multi-gluon correlations in hadronic wavefunctions. A non-perturbative calculation of the heavy quark distribution of a meson in QCD in one space and one time is presented. The intrinsic higher twist contributions to the pion and proton structure functions can dominate the hadronic production of heavy quark systems at large longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub F} and give anomalous contributions to the quark structure functions of ordinary hadrons at large x{sub bj}. I also discuss a number of ways in which heavy quark production in nuclear targets can test fundamental QCD phenomena and provide constraints on hadronic wavefunctions. The topics include color transparency, finite formation time, and predictions for charm production at threshold, including nuclear-bound quarkonium. I also discuss a number of QCD mechanisms for the suppression of J/{psi} and {Upsilon} production in nuclear collisions, including gluon shadowing, the peripheral excitation of intrinsic heavy quark components at large x{sub F}, and the coalescence of heavy quarks with co-moving spectators at low x{sub F}.

  5. Energy loss, hadronization, and hadronic interactions of heavy flavors in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Bass, Steffen A.

    2015-08-01

    We construct a theoretical framework to describe the evolution of heavy flavors produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is described using our modified Langevin equation that incorporates both quasielastic scatterings and the medium-induced gluon radiation. The space-time profiles of the fireball are described by a (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics simulation. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is utilized for heavy quark hadronization, after which the produced heavy mesons together with the soft hadrons produced from the bulk quark-gluon plasma (QGP) are fed into the hadron cascade ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model to simulate the subsequent hadronic interactions. We find that the medium-induced gluon radiation contributes significantly to heavy quark energy loss at high pT; heavy-light quark coalescence enhances heavy meson production at intermediate pT; and scatterings inside the hadron gas further suppress the D meson RAA at large pT and enhance its v2. Our calculations provide good descriptions of heavy meson suppression and elliptic flow observed at both the Large Hadron Collider and the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

  6. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C{sub s}+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac.

  7. Experimental Search for a Heavy Electron

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Boley, C. D.; Elias, J. E.; Friedman, J. I.; Hartmann, G. C.; Kendall, H. W.; Kirk, P.N.; Sogard, M. R.; Van Speybroeck, L. P.; de Pagter, J. K.

    1967-09-01

    A search for a heavy electron of the type considered by Low and Blackmon has been made by studying the inelastic scattering of 5 BeV electrons from hydrogen. The search was made over a range of values of the mass of the heavy electron from 100 t0 1300 MeV. No evidence for such a particle was observed. Upper limits on the production cross sections were determined and employed to deducelimits on the values of the electron-photon-heavy electron coupling constant in Low and Blackmon=s theory.

  8. Heavy metals in Antarctic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.E.A. de; Moreno, V.J.; Gerpe, M.S.; Vodopivez, C.

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate levels of essential (zinc and copper) and non-essential (mercury and cadmium) heavy metals, 34 species of organisms from different areas close to the Antarctic Peninsula were analysed. These included algae, filter-feeders, omnivorous invertebrates and vertebrates. Mercury was not detected, while cadmium was found in the majority of organisms analysed (detection limit was 0.05 ppm for both metals). The highest cadmium concentration was observed in the starfish Odontaster validus. Anthozoans, sipunculids and nudibranchs showed maximum levels of zinc, while the highest copper level was found in the gastropod Trophon brevispira. Mercury and cadmium levels in fishes were below the detection limit. Concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in birds were highest in liver followed by muscle and eggs. Cadmium and mercury levels in muscle of southern elephant seals were above the detection limit, whereas in Antarctic fur seals they were below it. The objective of the study was to gather baseline information for metals in Antarctic Ocean biota that may be needed to detect, measure and monitor future environmental changes. 46 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. heavy ion acceleration at shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. I.; Galinsky, V.

    2009-12-01

    The theoretical study of alpha particle acceleration at a quasi-parallel shock due to interaction with Alfven waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model [1]. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or dumped and hence particles will be pitch--angle scattered as well as the change of the wave energy due to instability or damping. It includes in consideration the total distribution function (the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no any assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. In previous studies heavy ions were treated as perfect test particles, they only experienced the Alfven turbulence excited by protons and didn’t contribute to turbulence generation. In contrast to this approach, we consider the ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves. It is important for alpha particles with their relatively large mass-loading parameter that defines efficiency of the wave excitation by alpha particles. The energy spectra of alpha particles is found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation. [1] Galinsky, V.L., and V.I. Shevchenko, Astrophys. J., 669, L109, 2007.

  10. Modeling of heavy organic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, F.T.H.

    1992-01-01

    Organic deposition is often a major problem in petroleum production and processing. This problem is manifested by current activities in gas flooding and heavy oil production. The need for understanding the nature of asphaltenes and asphaltics and developing solutions to the deposition problem is well recognized. Prediction technique is crucial to solution development. In the past 5 years, some progress in modeling organic deposition has been made. A state-of-the-art review of methods for modeling organic deposition is presented in this report. Two new models were developed in this work; one based on a thermodynamic equilibrium principle and the other on the colloidal stability theory. These two models are more general and realistic than others previously reported. Because experimental results on the characteristics of asphaltene are inconclusive, it is still not well known whether the asphaltenes is crude oil exist as a true solution or as a colloidal suspension. Further laboratory work which is designed to study the solubility properties of asphaltenes and to provide additional information for model development is proposed. Some experimental tests have been conducted to study the mechanisms of CO{sub 2}-induced asphaltene precipitation. Coreflooding experiments show that asphaltene precipitation occurs after gas breakthrough. The mechanism of CO{sub 2}-induced asphaltene precipitation is believed to occur by hydrocarbon extraction which causes change in oil composition. Oil swelling due to CO{sub 2} solubilization does not induce asphaltene precipitation.

  11. Relativistic heavy ion fragmentation at HISS (Heavy Ion Spectrometer System)

    SciTech Connect

    Tull, C.E.

    1990-10-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to measure projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions. Charge identification was obtained by the use of a Cerenkov Hodoscope operating above the threshold for total internal reflection, while velocity measurement was performed by use of a second set of Cerenkov radiators operating at the threshold for total internal reflection. Charge and mass resolution for the system was {sigma}{sub Z} = 0.2 e and {sigma}{sub A} = 0.2 u. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic production cross sections for the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar at 1.65{center dot}A GeV have been compared with an Abrasion-Ablation Model based on the evaporation computer code GEMINI. The model proves to be an accurate predictor of the cross sections for fragments between Chlorine and Boron. The measured cross section were reproduced using simple geometry with charge dispersions induced by zero-point vibrations of the giant dipole resonance for the prompt abrasion stage, and injecting an excitation energy spectrum based on a final state interaction with scaling factor E{sub fsi} = 38.8 MeV/c. Measurement of the longitudinal momentum distribution widths for projectile fragments are consistent with previous experiment and can be interpreted as reflecting the Fermi momentum distribution in the initial projectile nucleus. Measurement of the transverse momentum indicate an additional, unexplained dependence of the reduced momentum widths on fragment mass. This dependence has the same sign and similar slope to previously measured fragments of {sup 139}La, and to predictions based on phase-space constraints on the final state of the system.

  12. Charm Baryon Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistov, R.

    2016-02-01

    B-factories Belle and BaBar during its operation made not only measurements connected with B-meson decays but also numerous observation and measurements in charm physics. In particular, their results on charm baryon decays and spectroscopy have enlarged and enriched the current picture of heavy flavour hadrons. In this talk we overview current status of charm baryons and their excited states.

  13. Extracting p Λ scattering lengths from heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, V. M.; Erazmus, B.; Lednicky, R.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.

    2015-09-01

    The source radii previously extracted by the STAR Collaboration from the p -Λ ⊕p ¯-Λ ¯ and p ¯-Λ ⊕p -Λ ¯ correlation functions measured in 10% most central Au+Au collisions at top Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy, √{sN N}=200 GeV, differ by a factor of 2. The probable reason for this is the neglect of residual correlation effect in the STAR analysis. In the present paper we analyze baryon correlation functions within the Lednický and Lyuboshitz analytical model, extended to effectively account for the residual correlation contribution. Different analytical approximations for such a contribution are considered. We also use the averaged source radii extracted from hydrokinetic model (HKM) simulations to fit the experimental data. In contrast to the STAR experimental study, the calculations in HKM show both p Λ and p Λ ¯ radii to be quite close, as expected from theoretical considerations. Using the effective Gaussian parametrization of residual correlations we obtain a satisfactory fit to the measured baryon-antibaryon correlation function with the HKM source radius value 3.28 fm. The baryon-antibaryon spin-averaged strong interaction scattering length is also extracted from the fit to the experimental correlation function.

  14. Status of heavy-lepton searches

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1981-06-01

    Searches for heavy leptons using e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation, lepton-hadron collisions, photon-hadron collisions, hadron-hadron collisions, and studies of macroscopic matter are reviewed. The present experimental status and future possibilities are summarized.

  15. Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cris Guidi delivers a presentation from the Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of ...

  16. Status of Heavy-lepton Searches

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Perl, M. L.

    1981-06-01

    Searches for heavy leptons using e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation, lepton-hadron collisions, photon-hadron collisions, hadron-hadron collisions, and studies of macroscopic matter are reviewed. The present experimental status and future possibilities are summarized.

  17. Space Curvature and the "Heavy Banana 'Paradox.'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Two ways to visually enhance the concept of space curvature are described. Viewing space curvature as a meterstick contraction and the heavy banana "paradox" are discussed. The meterstick contraction is mathematically explained. (KR)

  18. Electromagnetic processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Baur, G.

    1986-10-01

    Electromagnetic effects in relativistic heavy ion collisions with impact parameter larger than the sum of the nuclear radii are studied using the virtual photon method. With increasing value of the relativistic parameter γ the hardness of the virtual photon spectrum increases. This leads to interesting new effects which will also have to be considered in the design of future relativistic heavy ion machines and experiments. The excitation of high-lying giant E1 and E2 multipole resonances is calculated as well as electromagnetic pion production. Coulomb bremsstrahlung is calculated and compared to the bremsstrahlung emitted in the more violent central nuclear collisions. K-shell ionization and electron-positron pair production is studied. The latter process has a very large cross section for heavy ions and contributes significantly to the stopping power of relativistic heavy ions in a dense medium.

  19. Heavy Flavor Measurements at the RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Donadelli, Marisilvia

    2010-11-12

    The main focus of the heavy flavor program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility is to investigate the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma poduced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, by studying its effect on open heavy flavor and quarkonia production. The measurements shown in this Letter were performed by PHENIX and STAR experiments in p+p, d+Au, Au+Au collisions at {radical}(S{sub NN}) = 200 GeV. Charm and beauty cross sections are measured and compared through single lepton, and lepton-hadron correlations in p+p collisions. R{sub AA} modification factor for single electrons in Au+Au collisions is presented. Quarkonia measurements include J/{Psi}, {Psi}' and {Upsilon} yields as well as rapidity dependence, and modification factors for J/{Psi} in d+Au collisions and for {Upsilon} in Au+Au collisions.

  20. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed Central

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-01-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals. PMID:1227849

  1. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-12-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals. PMID:1227849

  2. Removal of heavy metals from waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.D.; Kozaruk, J.M.; Melvin, M.; Gardocki, S.M.

    1988-07-19

    A method for removing heavy metals from effluent water is described comprising performing sequentially the following steps: (a) adding from 7-333 ppm of an anionic surfactant to the effluent water to provide coagulatable heavy metal ion; (b) adjusting the effluent water pH to within the range of 8 to 10, (c) providing from 10-200 ppm of a cationic coagulant to coagulate the heavy metal ion, (d) providing from 0.3 to 5.0 ppm of a polymeric flocculant whereby a heavy metal containing floc is formed for removal from the effluent water, and, (e) then removing the floc from the effluent water, wherein the anionic surfactant is sodium lauryl ether sulfate. The cationic coagulant is selected from the group consisting of diallyl dimethylammonium chloride polymer, epichlorohydrin dimethylamine polymer, ethylene amine polymer, polyaluminum chloride, and alum; and the flocculant is an acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymer having an RSV greater than 23.

  3. INELASTIC DIFFRACTION AT HEAVY ION COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, S.

    2005-01-01

    The heavy ion physics approach to global event characterization has led us to instrument the forward region in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. In heavy ion collisions this coverage yields a measurement of the ''spectator'' energy and its distribution about the beam direction. This energy flow is the basis of event-by-event determination of the centrality and reaction plane which are key to analyzing particle production in heavy ion collisions. These same tools have also enabled a unique set of measurements on inelastic diffraction with proton, deuteron and gold ion beams in the PHENIX experiment. We present first new results on this topic and discuss briefly the opportunity for diffractive physics with Heavy Ion beams at the LHC.

  4. Heavy quark results at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, D.K.; D0 Collaboration

    1997-01-01

    Recent results in heavy quark physics from the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are reported. Topics included are top quark production and mass determination, bottom production and correlations, and charmonium production. 20 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Beam dynamics in heavy ion induction LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.

    1981-10-01

    Interest in the use of an induction linac to accelerate heavy ions for the purpose of providing the energy required to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated a theoretical effort to investigate various beam dynamical effects associated with high intensity heavy ion beams. This paper presents a summary of the work that has been done so far; transverse, longitudinal and coupled longitudinal transverse effects are discussed.

  6. Heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1983-12-01

    The advantages of heavy ion beams as a way of delivering the needed energy and power to an inertial fusion target are surveyed. The existing broad technology base of particle accelerators provides an important foundation for designing, costing, and evaluating proposed systems. The sequence of steps needed for the verification of the heavy ion approach is described; recent research results are even more encouraging than had been assumed hitherto.

  7. The physics and chemistry of heavy fermions.

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, Z; Sarrao, J L; Smith, J L; Thompson, J D

    1995-01-01

    The heavy fermions are a subset of the f-electron intermetallic compounds straddling the magnetic/nonmagnetic boundary. Their low-temperature properties are characterized by an electronic energy scale of order 1-10 K. Among the low-temperature ground states observed in heavy fermion compounds are exotic superconductors and magnets, as well as unusual semiconductors. We review here the current experimental and theoretical understanding of these systems. PMID:11607558

  8. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Baryon spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Klempt, Eberhard; Richard, Jean-Marc

    2010-04-15

    About 120 baryons and baryon resonances are known, from the abundant nucleon with u and d light-quark constituents up to the {Xi}{sub b}{sup -}=(bsd), which contains one quark of each generation and to the recently discovered {Omega}{sub b}{sup -}=(bss). In spite of this impressively large number of states, the underlying mechanisms leading to the excitation spectrum are not yet understood. Heavy-quark baryons suffer from a lack of known spin parities. In the light-quark sector, quark-model calculations have met with considerable success in explaining the low-mass excitations spectrum but some important aspects such as the mass degeneracy of positive-parity and negative-parity baryon excitations remain unclear. At high masses, above 1.8 GeV, quark models predict a very high density of resonances per mass interval which is not yet observed. In this review, issues are identified discriminating between different views of the resonance spectrum; prospects are discussed on how open questions in baryon spectroscopy may find answers from photoproduction and electroproduction experiments which are presently carried out in various laboratories.

  10. Isospin dependence of fragment spectra in heavy/super-heavy colliding nuclei at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugh, Rajiv; Kumar, Rohit; Vinayak, Karan Singh

    2016-05-01

    Using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) approach, we performed a theoretical investigation of the evolution of various kinds of fragments in heavy and superheavy-ion reactions in the intermediate/medium energy domain. We demonstrated direct impact of symmetry energy and Coulomb interactions on the evolution of fragments. Final fragment spectra (yields) obtained from the analysis of various heavy/super-heavy ion reactions at different reaction conditions show high sensitivity towards Coulomb interactions and less significant sensitivity to symmetry energy forms. No inconsistent pattern of fragment structure is obtained in case of super-heavy ion involved reactions for all the parameterizations of density dependence of symmetry energy.

  11. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  12. Heavy Metal Risk Management: Case Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Ae; Lee, Seung Ha; Choi, Seung Hyun; Jung, Ki Kyung; Park, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ji Yoon; Hwang, Myung Sil; Yoon, Hae Jung; Choi, Dal Woong

    2012-01-01

    To prepare measures for practical policy utilization and the control of heavy metals, hazard control related institutions by country, present states of control by country, and present states of control by heavy metals were examined. Hazard control cases by heavy metals in various countries were compared and analyzed. In certain countries (e.g., the U.S., the U.K., and Japan), hazardous substances found in foods (e.g., arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury) are controlled. In addition, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) recommends calculating the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of individual heavy metals instead of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) to compare their pollution levels considering their toxicity accumulated in the human body. In Korea, exposure assessments have been conducted, and in other countries, hazardous substances are controlled by various governing bodies. As such, in Korea and other countries, diverse food heavy metal monitoring and human body exposure assessments are conducted, and reducing measures are prepared accordingly. To reduce the danger of hazardous substances, many countries provide leaflets and guidelines, develop hazardous heavy metal intake recommendations, and take necessary actions. Hazard control case analyses can assist in securing consumer safety by establishing systematic and reliable hazard control methods. PMID:24278603

  13. Understanding Heavy Flavor Production at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2009-01-08

    Accurate assessments of the charm and bottom cross sections and kinematic distributions in hadron-hadron collisions are needed in order to understand the behavior of heavy flavors in more complex collisions. Neither the charm nor bottom cross sections were measured at {radical}S = 200 GeV before the startup of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The RHIC detectors are capable of measuring the heavy flavor transverse momentum distributions to p{sub T} {approx} 0, making estimates of the total heavy flavor cross section feasible at a collider. It is thus possible to obtain and compare the total heavy flavor cross sections at RHIC with those measured at other energies. The charm production data, in particular, can have a considerable spread in the measured cross sections, even at a single energy. In addition, the small charm mass can lead to large theoretical uncertainties. We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the heavy flavor (charm and bottom) hadroproduction cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the renormalization and factorization scales and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty.

  14. Ion Mobility Spectrometry of Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Ilbeigi, Vahideh; Valadbeigi, Younes; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud

    2016-07-19

    A simple, fast, and inexpensive method was developed for detecting heavy metals via the ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) in the negative mode. In this method, Cl(-) ion produced by the thermal ionization of NaCl is employed as the dopant or the ionizing reagent to ionize heavy metals. In practice, a solution of mixed heavy metals and NaCl salts was directly deposited on a Nichrome filament and electrically heated to vaporize the salts. This produced the IMS spectra of several heavy-metal salts, including CdCl2, ZnSO4, NiCl2, HgSO4, HgCl2, PbI2, and Pb(Ac)2. For each heavy metal (M), one or two major peaks were observed, which were attributed to M·Cl(-) or [M·NaCl]Cl(-)complexes. The method proved to be useful for the analysis of mixed heavy metals. The absolute detection limits measured for ZnSO4 and HgSO4 were 0.1 and 0.05 μg, respectively. PMID:27321408

  15. Discovery of Interstellar Heavy Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butner, H. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Ceccarelli, C.; Rodgers, S. D.; Pardo, J. R.; Parise, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Davis, G. R.

    2007-04-01

    We report the discovery of doubly deuterated water (D2O, heavy water) in the interstellar medium. Using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 10 m telescope, we detected the 110-101 transition of para-D2O at 316.7998 GHz in both absorption and emission toward the protostellar binary system IRAS 16293-2422. Assuming that the D2O exists primarily in the warm regions where water ices have been evaporated (i.e., in a ``hot corino'' environment), we determine a total column density of N(D2O) of 1.0×1013 cm-2 and a fractional abundance of D2O/H2=1.7×10-10. The derived column density ratios for IRAS 16293-2422 are D2O/HDO=1.7×10-3 and D2O/H2O=5×10-5 for the hot corino gas. Steady state models of water ice formation, either in the gas phase or on grains, predict D2O/HDO ratios that are about 4 times larger than that derived from our observations. For water formation on grain surfaces to be a viable explanation, a larger H2O abundance than that measured in IRAS 16293-2422 is required. Alternatively, the observed D2O/HDO ratio could be indicative of gas-phase water chemistry prior to a chemical steady state being attained, such as would have occurred during the formation of this source. Future observations with the Herschel Space Observatory satellite will be important for settling this issue.

  16. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals and related trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.B.; Speigel, S.J.

    1983-06-01

    A literature review of bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals is presented. The most common heavy metals studied were Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Pb. The studies dealt with heavy metals in the environment, bioconcentration, toxicity, and detoxification of heavy metals. (JMT)

  17. 46 CFR 44.01-13 - Heavy weather plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heavy weather plan. 44.01-13 Section 44.01-13 Shipping... VOYAGES Administration § 44.01-13 Heavy weather plan. (a) Each heavy weather plan under § 44.01-12(b) must... Inspection. Approval of a heavy weather plan is limited to the current hurricane season. (b) The...

  18. 46 CFR 44.01-13 - Heavy weather plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heavy weather plan. 44.01-13 Section 44.01-13 Shipping... VOYAGES Administration § 44.01-13 Heavy weather plan. (a) Each heavy weather plan under § 44.01-12(b) must... Inspection. Approval of a heavy weather plan is limited to the current hurricane season. (b) The...

  19. Fusion probability in heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    sections over a wider energy range for many more reactions is desired for accurate determination of and more insight into the dynamics of fusion in the heavy mass region.

  20. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  1. Heavy Lift for Exploration: Options and Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve; Sumrall, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Every study of exploration capabilities since the Apollo Program has recommended the renewal of a heavy lift launch capability for the United States. NASA is aggressively pursuing that capability. This paper will discuss several aspects of that effort and the potential uses for that heavy lift capability. The need for heavy lift was cited most recent in the findings of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee. Combined with considerations of launch availability and on-orbit operations, the Committee finds that exploration will benefit from the availability of a heavy-lift vehicle, the report said. In addition, heavy lift would enable the launching of large scientific observatories and more capable deep-space missions. It may also provide benefit in national security applications. The most recent focus of NASA s heavy lift effort is the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which is part of the Constellation Program architecture for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The most recent point-of-departure configuration of the Ares V was approved during the Lunar Capabilities concept Review (LCCR) in 2008. The Ares V first stage propulsion system consists of a core stage powered by six commercial liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen (LH2/LOX) RS-68 engines, flanked by two 5.5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) based on the 5-segment Ares I first stage. The boosters use the same Polybutadiene Acrylonitrile (PBAN) propellant as the Space Shuttle. Atop the core stage is the Earth departure stage (EDS), powered by a single J-2X upper stage engine based on the Ares I upper stage engine. The 33-foot-diameter payload shroud can enclose a lunar lander, scientific instruments, or other payloads. Since LCCR, NASA has continued to refine the design through several successive internal design cycles. In addition, NASA has worked to quantify the broad national consensus for heavy lift in ways that, to the extent possible, meet the needs of the user community.

  2. Proton/pion ratios and radial flow in pp and peripheral heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuautle, E.; Paić, G.

    2006-09-01

    The production of baryon and mesons in the RHIC heavy-ion experiments has received a lot of attention lately. Although not widely known, the pp data measured concurrently with heavy ion collisions do not find a convincing explanation in terms of simple models. We present the results of an afterburner to Pythia and Hijing event generators, simulating radial flow which seems to qualitatively explain the experimental results when applied to the pp collision data from RHIC at 200 GeV center-of-mass energy.

  3. Proton/pion ratios and radial flow in pp and peripheral heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Cuautle, E.; Paic, G.

    2006-09-25

    The production of baryon and mesons in the RHIC heavy-ion experiments has received a lot of attention lately. Although not widely known, the pp data measured concurrently with heavy ion collisions do not find a convincing explanation in terms of simple models. We present the results of an afterburner to Pythia and Hijing event generators, simulating radial flow which seems to qualitatively explain the experimental results when applied to the pp collision data from RHIC at 200 GeV center-of-mass energy.

  4. Moon originating heavy ions associated with CIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Nishino, Masaki; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    Existance of a tenuous alkali atmosphere around the Moon was discovered by ground-based optical observations in 1980s. Since then the generation mechanism of the alkali atmosphere has been actively investigated. Currently, photon-stimulated desorption is regarded as the major generation process of the lunar alkai atmosphere such as sodium and potassium. MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya found four typical ion populations on the dayside of the Moon. These includes (1) solar wind protons backscattered at the lunar surface, (2) solar wind protons reflected by magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, (3) reflected/backscattered protons picked-up by the solar wind, and (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere. One of these populations: (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere usually consisted of heavy ions such as carbon, oxygen, sodium, and potassium. Some of these ions were generated on the lunar surface by photon-stimulated desorption especially for alkali ions such as sodium and potassium and some others were generated by solar wind sputtering. Photo-ionized neutral particles were also included in these ions. These heavy ions were accelerated by the solar wind convection electric field and detected by the ion energy mass spectrometer MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya. Since the gyro-radius of these heavy ions was much larger than the Moon, the energy of these ions detected at 100km altitude was in most cases lower than the incident solar wind ion energy. Two special examples were found where the energy of the heavy ions was higher than the incident solar wind ion energy. These high-energy heavy ions were observed on the dayside of the Moon when CIR (Corotating Interaction Region) passed the Moon. The high energy heavy ions were observed for several hours with the highest heavy ion flux observed when the solar wind pressure increased due to the passage of the CIR. The mass spectrum of the heavy ions observed associated with CIR showed H+, He++, He

  5. Partial oxidation of heavy refinery fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Dille, R.M.; Rhodes, H.A.; Wallon, S.B.

    1984-07-31

    This is a partial oxidation process in which heavy hydrocarbonaceous fractions from a petroleum refinery and light liquid paraffinic hydrocarbon extractants are used in the production of synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas i.e., gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/ and CO. In the process, substantially all of the particulate carbon and soot that are simultaneously produced are recovered and recycled to the reaction zone. A dispersion of carbon-soot-light paraffinic hydrocarbon extractant from the decanting zone is combined with a heavy refinery fraction in admixture with a liquid aromatic-rich hydrocarbon to produce a pumpable single liquid phase mixture which is introduced into a fractionation zone where the following streams are separated from each other: (a) a stream of light paraffinic hydrocarbon extractant which is recycled to the decanting zone, (b) a stream comprising at least a portion of the aromatic-rich hydrocarbon which is recycled for mixing with the heavy refinery fraction, and (c) a stream of pumpable dispersion of carbon-soot heavy refinery fraction and any remaining aromatic-rich hydrocarbon which may be used as fuel in the system or exported. Troublesome asphaltene precipitation that causes operational problems and increased viscosity is avoided by the subject process. Comparatively low cost heavy refinery fractions which ordinarily are difficult to handle may be now used along with light liquid paraffinic hydrocarbon extractants.

  6. Heavy metal contaminants in yerberia shop products.

    PubMed

    Levine, Michael; Mihalic, Jason; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; French, Robert N E; Brooks, Daniel E

    2013-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medications, including the use of herbal medications, have become quite popular in the USA. Yerberias are found throughout the southwest and specialize in selling Hispanic herbal products. The products sold in these stores are not regulated by any governmental agency. Previous reports have found Ayurvedic medications contain high levels of lead, mercury, and arsenic. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of heavy metal contaminants sold at Yerberia stores in the southwest. Yerberias in the Phoenix, Arizona area were identified via search of an on-line search engine using the words "Yerberia Phoenix." Every second store was selected, and products were purchased using a standard script. The products were subsequently analyzed for mercury, lead, and arsenic. The main outcome is the prevalence of heavy metal content in over-the-counter "cold" medications purchased at a Yerberia. Twenty-two samples were purchased. One product contained pure camphor (2-camphone) and was subsequently not further analyzed. Of the 21 samples analyzed, lead was found in 4/21 (19.4 %). Arsenic and mercury were in 1/21 (4.8 %) each. Because two samples contained two heavy metals, the total prevalence of heavy metals was 4/21 (19.4). Heavy metal contaminants are commonly encountered in over-the-counter herbal "cold" medications purchased at Yerberias in the southwest. PMID:22562238

  7. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed. PMID:21912545

  8. Drag reduction of a heavy vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jason; Salari, Kambiz

    2007-11-01

    During the 1970's and 1980's, a number of first-generation drag reduction devices were designed to reduce the aerodynamic losses of heavy vehicles (Cooper, 2003). The result of this effort led to the development of a number of devices that improved the aerodynamics of a heavy vehicle tractor. Additionally, a number of second-generation devices were developed for heavy vehicle trailers. Unfortunately, these trailer devices did not enter into the market on a wide-scale basis and, as a result, the modern heavy vehicle trailer largely remains a ``box on wheels'' with minimal aerodynamic consideration taken into its design. The primary obstacle to implementing trailer devices was not their effectiveness in reducing drag, but rather operational, maintenance, and ultimately, economic concerns. However, with rising fuel costs and potentially unstable fuel supplies, there is a renewed objective to further reduce heavy vehicle fuel usage. To accomplish this purpose, the present study investigates the drag reduction capability of a trailer device, which neither reduces the trailer cargo capacity, nor limits access to the trailer doors. RANS simulations are performed on a full-scale tractor-trailer that is traveling at highway conditions with and without the trailer device. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  9. Effect of correlations on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, D. K.; Garg, P.; Netrakanti, P. K.

    2016-02-01

    We study the effects of correlations on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distributions which have been measured for central (0%-5%) Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied by assuming individual proton and antiproton distributions as a Poisson or negative binomial distribution (NBD). In spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation, and kinematical correlations of protons and antiprotons, the measured cumulants of the net-proton distribution follow the independent-production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of the correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and antiproton distributions obtained from the hijing event generator.

  10. Coulomb gauge confinement in the heavy quark limit

    SciTech Connect

    Popovici, C.; Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.

    2010-05-15

    The relationship between the nonperturbative Green's functions of Yang-Mills theory and the confinement potential is investigated. By rewriting the generating functional of quantum chromodynamics in terms of a heavy quark mass expansion in Coulomb gauge, restricting to leading order in this expansion and considering only the two-point functions of the Yang-Mills sector, the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is shown to be exact in this case and an analytic, nonperturbative solution is presented. It is found that there is a direct connection between the string tension and the temporal gluon propagator. Further, it is shown that for the 4-point quark correlation functions, only confined bound states of color-singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (baryon) pairs exist.

  11. Heavy Quarks, QCD, and Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen

    2012-10-09

    The research supported by this OJI award is in the area of heavy quark and quarkonium production, especially the application Soft-Collinear E ective Theory (SCET) to the hadronic production of quarkonia. SCET is an e ffective theory which allows one to derive factorization theorems and perform all order resummations for QCD processes. Factorization theorems allow one to separate the various scales entering a QCD process, and in particular, separate perturbative scales from nonperturbative scales. The perturbative physics can then be calculated using QCD perturbation theory. Universal functions with precise fi eld theoretic de nitions describe the nonperturbative physics. In addition, higher order perturbative QCD corrections that are enhanced by large logarithms can be resummed using the renormalization group equations of SCET. The applies SCET to the physics of heavy quarks, heavy quarkonium, and similar particles.

  12. Heavy-heartedness biases your weight perception.

    PubMed

    Min, Bora; Choi, Incheol

    2016-01-01

    Heavy-heartedness (light-heartedness), among more than two hundred metaphors related to the heart, indicates negative (positive) affects. Although these metaphors are generally understood rhetorically, this study explores whether there is any literal connection between either of these two states and one's perception of weight. Participants who recalled a heavy-heartening (vs. light-heartening) past event estimated more weight of an object (Study 1). While watching weightlifting and pole-vaulting competition clips, people in heavy-hearted (vs. light-hearted) states predicted that players' success is less likely (Study 2). However, this result was not observed while people in both states watched non-weight-related games, such as golf-putting and pool. The findings are congruous with embodied cognition theory and the role of metaphors in our life. PMID:26666503

  13. Heavy Ion Fragmentation Experiments at the Bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using the heavy-ion capability of the Bevatron were studied. The purpose was to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Attempts were also made to: (1) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (2) test the applicability of high-energy multi-particle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (3) apply the cross-section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (4) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross sections.

  14. Plutonium-Based Heavy-Fermion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    An effective mass of charge carriers that is significantly larger than the mass of a free electron develops at low temperatures in certain lanthanide- and actinide-based metals, including those formed with plutonium, owing to strong electron-electron interactions. This heavy-fermion mass is reflected in a substantially enhanced electronic coefficient of specific heat γ, which for elemental Pu is much larger than that of normal metals. By our definition, there are twelve Pu-based heavy-fermion compounds, most discovered recently, whose basic properties are known and discussed. Relative to other examples, these Pu-based heavy-fermion systems are particularly complex owing in part to the possible simultaneous presence of multiple, nearly degenerate 5fn configurations. This complexity poses significant opportunities as well as challenges, including understanding the origin of unconventional superconductivity in some of these materials.

  15. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  16. Tumor therapy with heavy charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattmann, Hans

    1999-11-01

    Nuclear science has contributed significantly to the development of tumor therapy with heavy charged particles. Interest evolved for neutron therapies in the forties because of the increased radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) compared to photon irradiation. The development of more powerful proton and heavy ion accelerators with higher energies or higher intensities, made new particles for radiation therapy available. Pions, protons, light ions, from helium up to silicon were studied in view of precision dose delivery and increased RBE. Without the parallel development of new diagnostic techniques such as computer tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) the rapid development would not have been possible. Heavy-charged particle therapy has now come into a consolidation phase. Hospital-based facilities are built by industry, and research institutes focus on refinements in dose delivery and treatment planning, as well as systems for monitoring dose delivery and for dose distribution verification.

  17. Quantum critical behavior in heavy electron materials

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi-feng; Pines, David

    2014-01-01

    Quantum critical behavior in heavy electron materials is typically brought about by changes in pressure or magnetic field. In this paper, we develop a simple unified model for the combined influence of pressure and magnetic field on the effectiveness of the hybridization that plays a central role in the two-fluid description of heavy electron emergence. We show that it leads to quantum critical and delocalization lines that accord well with those measured for CeCoIn5, yields a quantitative explanation of the field and pressure-induced changes in antiferromagnetic ordering and quantum critical behavior measured for YbRh2Si2, and provides a valuable framework for describing the role of magnetic fields in bringing about quantum critical behavior in other heavy electron materials. PMID:24912172

  18. HEAVY-ION IMAGING APPLIED TO MEDICINE

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Benton, E.V.; Holley, W.R.

    1980-02-01

    Heavy particle radiography is a newly developed noninvasive low dose imaging procedure with increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the BEVALAC accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program applied to medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures and brain and spinal neoplasms. The presentation will be illustrated with clinical cases under study. Discussion will include the potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, as an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for the applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, but also for the early detection of small soft tissue tumors at low radiation dose.

  19. Submerged arc welding of heavy plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The submerged arc process is particularly suitable for heavy plate welding because of its ability to combine very high deposit rates along with excellent quality. It does these things without the smoke and spatter often accompanying other processes. It is available today in several forms that are pointed to the fabricators of heavy sections with long, short or round about welds. Tandem arc full automatic equipment is particularly suitable for those long heavy welds where speed and deposit rate are of the first order. An attachment called long stick-out which makes use of the IR drop on long electrode extensions can be included on this equipment to increase deposition rates 50% or more.

  20. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  1. Probing heavy neutrinos in the COMET experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Takehiko; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2016-03-01

    We argue that the COMET experiment-a dedicated experiment for the μ -e conversion search-has a good potential to search for heavy neutrinos in the mass range 1 MeV ≲ M ≲ 100 MeV. The stopped muons captured by the target nuclei or decaying in orbit efficiently produce heavy neutrinos via the active-sterile mixing. The produced heavy neutrinos then decay to electron-positron pairs (plus an active neutrino), which charged particles hit the cylindrical drift chamber surrounding the target. If the backgrounds from gamma rays are sufficiently rejected by some method, the expected sensitivity becomes comparable to the PS191 bound when the COMET experiment achieves {˜ }10^{17} stopping muons in the target.

  2. NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  3. Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation of Cobalt Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprouster, D. J.; Giulian, R.; Schnohr, C. S.; Kluth, P.; Araujo, L. L.; Byrne, A. P.; Foran, G. J.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the electronic energy loss released by swift heavy ions can cause considerable atomic movement in various solids. Here, we present a study of the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on Co nanoparticles embedded within a silica host matrix. The evolution of the Co nanoparticle crystal phase, structural properties, shape and size has been characterized using a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. An FCC-to-HCP phase transformation is observed at low fluences, while higher fluences result in significant changes in the short range order and NP shape. After an incubation fluence the nanoparticles deform into ellipsoids, preferentially aligned parallel to the incident beam direction. The threshold diameter for elongation was comparable to the saturation value of the ellipsoid width. We correlate this saturation value with the diameter of the molten track induced in amorphous silica by swift heavy ion irradiation.

  4. Light particle emissions in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Petitt, G.A.; Liu, Xin-Tao; Smathers, J.; Zhang, Ziang.

    1991-03-01

    We are completing another successful year of experimental work at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF), the Los Alamos white neutron source facility, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Georgia State University (GSU). A paper on energy division between the two heavy fragments in deep inelastic reactions between {sup 58}Ni + {sup 165}Ho was published in Physical Review C during the year. We have partially completed analysis of the data on the {sup 32}S + {sup 93}Nb system taken with the HILI detector system at the HHIRF. This paper discusses work on these topics and discusses the setup of a neutron detector for a neutron reaction experiment.

  5. Equilateral non-Gaussianity from heavy fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Pi, Shi; Sasaki, Misao E-mail: spi@apctp.org

    2013-11-01

    The effect of self-interactions of heavy scalar fields during inflation on the primordial non-Gaussianity is studied. We take a specific constant-turn quasi-single field inflation as an example. We derive an effective theory with emphasis on non-linear self-interactions of heavy fields and calculate the corresponding non-Gaussianity, which is of equilateral type and can be as relevant as those computed previously in the literature. We also derive the non-Gaussianity by directly using the in-in formalism, and verify the equivalence of these two approaches.

  6. Heavy quarks in the jet calculus

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.M.

    1983-07-01

    In this paper we explore a method for treating heavy quarks such as c and b quarks within the jet calculus. These quarks are differentiated from the more common u, d, and s quarks by the requirement that the gluons never branch into heavy-quark pairs during the jet development. We compute and discuss the charmed-quark ''propagators''; the x distribution of colorless clusters containing a charmed quark, a noncharmed antiquark, and gluons; and the mass distribution of the parent partons giving rise to these colorless clusters.

  7. New lattice action for heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Oktay, Mehmet B.; Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2008-03-01

    We extend the Fermilab method for heavy quarks to include interactions of dimension six and seven in the action. There are, in general, many new interactions, but we carry out the calculations needed to match the lattice action to continuum QCD at the tree level, finding six non-zero couplings. Using the heavy-quark theory of cutoff effects, we estimate how large the remaining discretization errors are. We find that our tree-level matching, augmented with one-loop matching of the dimension-five interactions, can bring these errors below 1%, at currently available lattice spacings.

  8. Solenoid transport for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Edward

    2004-06-15

    Solenoid transport of high current, heavy ion beams is considered for several stages of a heavy ion fusion driver. In general this option is more efficient than magnetic quadrupole transport at sufficiently low kinetic energy and/or large e/m, and for this reason it has been employed in electron induction linacs. Ideally an ion beam would be transported in a state of Brillouin flow, i.e. cold in the transverse plane and spinning at one half the cyclotron frequency. The design of appropriate solenoids and the equilibrium and stability of transported ion beams are discussed. An outline of application to a fusion driver is also presented.

  9. The Electronic Structure of Heavy Element Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bursten, Bruce E.

    2000-07-25

    The area of study is the bonding in heavy element complexes, and the application of more sophisticated electronic structure theories. Progress is recounted in several areas: (a) technological advances and current methodologies - Relativistic effects are extremely important in gaining an understanding of the electronic structure of compounds of the actinides, transactinides, and other heavy elements. Therefore, a major part of the continual benchmarking was the proper inclusion of the appropriate relativistic effects for the properties under study. (b) specific applications - These include organoactinide sandwich complexes, CO activation by actinide atoms, and theoretical studies of molecules of the transactinide elements. Finally, specific directions in proposed research are described.

  10. Recent research on the heavy transuranium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1988-09-01

    This review is devoted to recent research (performed in the 1980s) on the heavy members of the group, defined as the transcurium elements (with a few references to related work on lighter elements). It covers the discovery of the three heaviest elements, the discovery of new isotopes, investigation of interesting decay properties of some previously known isotopes, investigations of some heavy ion reaction mechanisms in this region, and recent investigations of nuclear and chemical properties. It is not exhaustive in its coverage, is necessarily succinct, and inevitably places emphasis on those aspects with which the author is most familiar. 92 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Reena; Gautam, Neetu; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known. PMID:21713085

  12. Discriminating "top-heavy" versus "bottom-heavy" geometric patterns in 2- to 4.5-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Chien, Sarina Hui-Lin; Hsu, Hsin-Yueh; Su, Bai-Horng

    2010-09-24

    Simion, Valenza, Macchi Cassia, Turati, and Umiltà (2002) suggested that newborns preferred "top-heavy" stimuli and such bias may account for neonatal face preference. However, convergent evidence for the discriminability between the top-heavy versus bottom-heavy patterns has not been demonstrated. We used a modified familiarization/novelty procedure (Chien, Palmer, & Teller, 2003) to assess basic discriminability between "top-heavy" and "bottom-heavy" geometric patterns in 2- to 4.5-month-old infants. Each infant was tested with three types of top-heavy and bottom-heavy geometric figures and received both familiarized-to-top-heavy and familiarized-to-bottom-heavy conditions. If infants of this age can discriminate the two configurations and there is no intrinsic bias toward either pattern, we expected to see significant and about equal novelty effects in both familiarization conditions. If there is a strong intrinsic bias for the top-heavy configuration, we expect to see a greater preference for the top-heavy patterns in the familiarization-to-bottom-heavy condition. Our results (N=24) showed significant and equal novelty preferences in both familiarization conditions across age and figure types, suggesting a reliable discriminability between top-heavy and bottom-heavy configurations and there is no intrinsic bias towards either configuration at this age. PMID:20603142

  13. Clinical Characteristics of Heavy and Non-Heavy Smokers with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wehring, Heidi J.; Liu, Fang; McMahon, Robert P.; Mackowick, Kristen M.; Love, Raymond C.; Dixon, Lisa; Kelly, Deanna L.

    2014-01-01

    Up to 50–90% of persons with schizophrenia smoke cigarettes. Limited data and theories suggest persons with schizophrenia may smoke for different reasons than persons without schizophrenia, making smoking cessation interventions particularly challenging in this population. Although health consequences of smoking are widely known, less information is available regarding characteristics of different amounts of smoking exposure in this population. This study was performed to investigate differences between heavy (≥1 pack per day) and non-heavy (<1 pack per day) smoking in patients with schizophrenia. Data from 745 patients, mean age 41.3 +/−12.6 years, were drawn from a population of smokers admitted to State of Maryland inpatient mental health facilities (1994–2000). Records were reviewed to obtain demographic information, diagnosis, medication, smoking and substance use. 43% of patients were characterized as heavy smokers. Heavy and non-heavy groups did not differ in age, GAF, weight, or BMI. No differences were found in race, gender or antipsychotic treatments. However, patients smoking ≥1 packs per day were more likely to use other substances such as alcohol (χ2=6.67, df=1, p=0.01), cocaine (χ2=6.66, df=1, p=0.01), and other substances (χ2=9.95, df=1, p=0.003) compared to non-heavy smokers. No differences in cannabis or heroin use were found by smoking category. Controlling for age, race, sex and BMI, heavy smokers had higher total cholesterol (190.7(51.6) mg/dl) compared to non-heavy smokers (178.2 (43.0) mg/dl, p=0.03), but no differences were found in glucose or blood pressure. Heavy smoking may be a particular health risk in schizophrenia and significant efforts for smoking cessation or reduction are needed. PMID:22578720

  14. The Mesozoic Era of relativistic heavy ion physics and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    In order to understand how matter 15 billion years ago in the form of quarks, gluons and leptons at a temperature of 2 {times} 10{sup 12} {degrees}K evolved to become today`s Universe, the goal of relativistic and ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics is to understand the equation of state of nuclear, hadronic and partonic matter. This quest is of cross-disciplinary interest. The phase transition from partonic matter to hadronic matter tens of micro-seconds after the beginning of the universe is of interest to cosmology. Fluctuations during this phase transition would influence nucleosynthesis and the understanding of baryonic inhomogeneities in the universe. The nuclear matter equation of state, which describes the incompressibility of nuclear matter, governs neutron star stability. It determines the possible existence of strange quark matter stars and the dynamics of supernova expansion in astrophysics. The existence of collective nuclear phenomena in nuclear physics is also determined by the nuclear equation of state. In relativistic heavy ion collisions collective nuclear flow has been observed and is being studied extensively to obtain a better understanding of the incompressibility of nuclear matter. In high energy nuclear and particle physics, production and excitations of hadronic final states have been studied in detail and are important to an overall understanding of the equation of state of nuclear matter at finite temperature. The possibility in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions to create and study highly excited hadronic and partonic degrees of freedom provides a unique opportunity for understanding the behavior of nuclear, hadronic and partonic matter. Study of the QCD vacuum, of particular interest in particle physics, would provide a better understanding of symmetry-breaking mechanisms and the origins of the masses of the various quarks and particles.

  15. Clerget 100 hp heavy-oil engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leglise, Pierre

    1931-01-01

    A complete technical description of the Clerget heavy-oil engine is presented along with the general characteristics. The general characteristics are: 9 cylinders, bore 120 mm, stroke 130 mm, four-stroke cycle engine, rated power limited to 100 hp at 1800 rpm; weight 228 kg; propeller with direct drive and air cooling. Moving parts, engine block, and lubrication are all presented.

  16. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  17. Clusterization and Deformation in Heavy Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, A.; Cseh, J.; Darai, J.; Hess, P.O.; Antonenko, N.V.; Jolos, R.V.; Scheid, W.

    2005-11-21

    The deformation-dependence of clusterization in heavy nuclei is investigated. In particular, allowed and forbidden cluster-configurations are determined for the ground, superdeformed, and hyperdeformed states of some nuclei, based on a microscopic (effective SU(3)) selection rule. The stability of the different cluster configurations from the viewpoint of the binding energy and the dinuclear system model (DNS) is also investigated.

  18. Phase structure of QCD for heavy quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Christian S.; Luecker, Jan; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the deconfinement and Roberge-Weiss transition in the heavy quark regime for finite real and imaginary chemical potential within the functional approach to continuum QCD. We extract the critical phase boundary between the first-order and crossover regions and also explore tricritical scaling. Our results confirm previous ones from finite volume lattice studies.

  19. Heavy ion fragmentation experiments at the bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1976-01-01

    Collaborative research efforts to study the fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using heavy ion beams of the Bevatron/Bevalac are described. The goal of the program is to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Effects were also made to: (a) study processes of heavy nuclei in matter, (b) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (c) test the applicability of high energy multiparticle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (d) apply the cross section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (e) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross-sections.

  20. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  1. Heavy quarkonium suppression in a fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The dissociation of heavy quarkonium seen in heavy-ion collisions is a phenomena that allows to extract information of the produced thermal medium. This was believed to be due to the screening of the static potential but recently perturbative computations and some lattice studies have pointed out the possibility of having an imaginary part of the potential that would also contribute to dissociation. In recent years a program to study heavy quarkonium with the use of non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs) has been started, this allows to make the computations in a more systematic way by defining a more suitable power counting and making it more difficult to miss necessary resummations. However until now these studies have been done assuming thermal equilibrium. In this work we will discuss what happens in the EFT formalism when heavy quarkonium is in a medium that is not in thermal equilibrium and what is the expected suppression when a medium with a time dependent effective temperature that follows Bjorken evolution is considered. This will be done adapting previous results from different temperature regimes.

  2. Recent advances in heavy quark theory

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.

    1997-01-01

    Some recent developments in heavy quark theory are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to inclusive weak decays of hadrons containing a b quark. The isospin violating hadronic decay D{sub s}* {yields} D{sub s}{sup pi}{sup 0} is also discussed.

  3. Geopolitics of heavy crudes and bitumens

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-12

    The geography of heavy crudes and bitumens is even more elitist than it is for conventional petroleum: three countries - Canada, Venezuela, and the USSR - hold 88% of those resources as recoverable economically and technologically. Thus, these countries also hold a medium-term alternative to conventional petroleum concentrated mainly in the Middle East. Production, too, is dominated by only a few nations, with Venezuela, the US, Mexico, China, and Canada producing about 70% of world supplies of petroleum under 20/sup 0/API. At the Second International Conference on Heavy Crudes and Tar Sands held in Caracas, Venezuela in February 1982, Energy Detente established that 671.7 billion barrels of nonconventional (under 20/sup 0/API) hydrocarbons are recoverable with proven technology - and their exploitation is economically superior to that of conventional crudes using tertiary recovery methods. The Definitions Committee of the above conference set definitions for heavy crudes, extra heavy crudes, and bitumens, which are given here. This issue updates the geography of heavyweight oil and addresses the geopolitical implications. The hydrocarbon price series for the Western Hemisphere is updated.

  4. BUILDING EFFECTS ON HEAVY GAS JET DISPERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wind tunnel study was performed to determine the effect of a single building on the dispersion characteristics of a high-momentum heavy gas jet as it might emerge from the release valve of a pressurized storage tank. uilding-surface concentrations have been measured at correspo...

  5. Acceleration of heavy ions in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.Q.

    1983-01-01

    It is possible to use the Brookhaven AGS as a heavy ion machine by adding a cyclotron to the Tandem and using this combination as injector. An intermediate step for lighter ions might consist of injecting the Tandem beam directly into the AGS. In either case, quite high intensities should be possible.

  6. Cataracts Heavy Ions and Individual Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E.; Worgul, B.; Brenner, D.; Smilenov, L.

    Ocular cataracts represents one of the few legacies of space flight evident in a significant proportion of astronauts X-rays are known to induce cataracts Heavy ions are known to be much more effective per unit dose than gamma -rays The object of this present study was to identify genes that confer individual susceptibility and to estimate RBE values Wild type mice were compared with animals heterozygous for Atm Mrad9 or BRCA1 or animals that were double heterozygotes for pairs of genes Mice were irradiated with x-rays at Columbia University in New York City or with heavy ions 1GeV amu 56 Fe ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory Haploinsufficiency for either Atm or mRAD9 resulted in cataracts appearing earlier than in wild type animals whether exposed to gamma -rays or heavy ions Double heterozygotes were more radiosensitive than animals haploinsufficient for either gene alone Heavy ions were much more effective than x-rays in inducing cataracts of all grades in animals of all genotypes A detailed analysis suggest that the RBE varies to some extent with the genotype of the animal and the cataract grade

  7. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W. ); Benemann, J.R. , Pinole, CA )

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  8. Radiative transitions of heavy quarkonium states

    SciTech Connect

    De Fazio, Fulvia

    2009-03-01

    We study radiative decays of heavy QQ states, both for Q=c and Q=b, using an effective Lagrangian approach which exploits spin symmetry for such states. We use existing data on radiative quarkonium transitions to predict some unmeasured decay rates. We also discuss how these modes can be useful to understand the structure of X(3872)

  9. Auto Mechanics. Heavy Equipment. Small Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnerty, Kathy

    Developed for use in auto mechanics, Heavy Equipment Repair and Operation (HERO), and small engines programs, these study guides and supplemental worksheets cover operating principles, lubrication, cooling system, ignition circuit and electrical system, and fuel system. The worksheets and guide questions are phrased to emphasize key points…

  10. ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling has been undertaken to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, both particle-associated and dissolved, in stormwater from several storm sewer outfalls in Monmouth County, NJ. This project is ongoing in concert with coordinated studies of pathogen and nutrient input...

  11. Heavy quark production processes in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Gunion, J.F.

    1984-12-01

    We have identified two novel effects in QCD, each of which acts to enhance the production of heavy quark and supersymmetric particles beyond what is conventionally expected from gluon fusion. Both effects are present in QED, but are compounded in QCD because of the increased number of diagrams and the much larger coupling constant. The intrinsic charm quark distribution in the nucleon could account for the observed enhancements of the charm structure function at large x and features of the charm production data but this mechanism is relatively suppressed for heavier systems. Prebinding distortion of the fusion cross section is, however, likely to be significant for the production at low p/sub T/ of all particles containing heavy colored constituents. At this stage the QCD calculations are highly model dependent although they agree with the general properties which can be inferred from the operator product expansion in the heavy quark mass. Much more theoretical analysis of these effects is clearly needed. It is also clear that much more experimental work is necessary to extend and confirm the reported anomalous heavy quark signals. 22 references.

  12. Physics of heavy flavor at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Torre, Stefano; /Siena U. /INFN, Pisa

    2005-06-01

    Results on physics of heavy flavor at CDF are reported. Selected measurements of Branching Ratios and CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0}, lifetime difference of B{sub s}{sup 0} CP eigenstates and a precise measurement of the B{sub c} mass are presented.

  13. Pions from and about heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.

    1982-09-01

    A review is presented of the possibilities of pion production with heavy ion reactions. Major headings include: pion thermometry; hills and valleys in pion spectra; pionic orbits of nuclear size; pion confinement in the fireball; anomalons; and Schroedinger equation solutions for pionic atoms. 47 references, 9 figures. (GHT)

  14. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  15. Heavy particle production at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Haber, H.E.; Gunion, J.F.

    1984-03-01

    Predictions for the production of heavy quarks, supersymmetric particles, and other colored systems at high energy due to intrinsic twist-six components in the proton wavefunction are given. We also suggest the possibility of using asymmetric collision energies (e.g., via intersecting rings at the SSC) in order to facilitate the study of forward and diffractive particle production processes. 9 references.

  16. BIODEGRADABILITY OF ORIMULSION AND HEAVY OILS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Orimulsion is a product that is being marketed throughout the world by Venezuela for use in power plants as a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. It consists of an emulsion of heavy bitumen and water. In the event of a spill in the environment, it is important that its fate can be tra...

  17. Heavy duty transport research needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-13

    As a result of the desire to decrease the dependence of the US on foreign petroleum as a transportation fuel, this report assesses the research needs to further develop heavy duty engines. The topics covered include diesel engines, alternative fuels, electric vehicle technology, gas turbine engines, and stirling cycle alternative engines. (GHH)

  18. Heavy ions in space (M0001)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Slberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    The ojectives are to investigate three components of heavy nuclei in space: (1) a recently observed anomalous component of low-energy nuclei of N, O, and Ne; (2) the heavy nuclei in the Van Allen radiation belts; and (3) the UH nuclei (Z 30) of the galactic radiation. The study of the anomalous flux of N, O, and Ne nuclei in the unexplored energy region above 100 MeV/u is expected to provide new insights into the source of this component. Its observation in this experiment will confirm that these ions are singly charged. Knowledge of the energy spectra of the heavy nuclei observed in the Van Allen belts is expected to enhance the understanding of the origin of the belts (e.g., injection and local acceleration pocesses). The observation of these heavy ions could show, for the first time, that low-energy particles of extraterrestrial origin can diffuse to the innermost parts of the magnetosphere. Measurements of the UH component are expected to contribute information concerning its source, interstellar propagation, and the galactic storage time.

  19. Superoxide dismutases of heavy metal resistant streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Astrid; Schmidt, André; Haferburg, Götz; Kothe, Erika

    2007-02-01

    Heavy metal tolerant and resistant strains of streptomycetes isolated from a former uranium mining site were screened for their superoxide dismutase expression. From the strains tolerating high concentrations of different heavy metals, one was selected for its tolerance of concentrations of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn, Fe). This strain, Streptomyces acidiscabies E13, was chosen for the purpose of superoxide dismutase analysis. Gel electrophoresis and activity staining revealed only one each of a nickel (NiSOD) and an iron (FeZnSOD) containing superoxide dismutase as shown by differential enzymatic repression studies. The gene for nickel containing superoxide dismutase, sodN, was cloned and sequenced from this strain. The genomic sequence shows 92.7% nucleotide identity and 96.1% amino acid identity to sodN of S. coelicolor. Expression can be activated by nickel as well as other heavy metals and active enzyme is produced in media lacking nickel but containing copper, iron or zinc. Thus, the selected strain is well suited for further characterization of the enzyme encoded by sodN. PMID:17304620

  20. ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater sampling for colloidal and dissolved metals and organic carbon has been initiated at six outfalls draining locally-designated, nonindustrial land uses in Monmouth County, NJ. Of the heavy metals, only Cu and Zn were found in all samples, mostly in dissolved form. Large...

  1. Catalytic hydroprocessing of heavy oil feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunev, A. G.; Parkhomchuk, E. V.; Lysikov, A. I.; Parunin, P. D.; Semeikina, V. S.; Parmon, V. N.

    2015-09-01

    A grave problem of modern oil refining industry is continuous deterioration of the produced oil quality, on the one hand, and increase in the demand for motor fuels, on the other hand. This necessitates processing of heavy oil feedstock with high contents of sulfur, nitrogen and metals and the atmospheric residue. This feedstock is converted to light oil products via hydrogenation processes catalyzed by transition metal compounds, first of all, cobalt- or nickel-promoted molybdenum and tungsten compounds. The processing involves desulfurization, denitrogenation and demetallization reactions as well as reactions converting heavy hydrocarbons to lighter fuel components. The review discusses the mechanisms of reactions involved in the heavy feedstock hydroprocessing, the presumed structure and state of the catalytically active components and methods for the formation of supports with the desired texture. Practically used and prospective approaches to catalytic upgrading of heavy oil feedstock as well as examples of industrial processing of bitumen and vacuum residues in the presence of catalysts are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 140 references.

  2. Suprathermal Minor Heavy Ions In Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christon, S. P.; Difabio, R. D.; Hamilton, D. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2010-12-01

    Minor heavy ions, with MPQ > ~25 amu/e, have been measured at energies >~64 keV/e in Saturn's inner magnetosphere using the Cassini/MIMI/CHEMS Charge Energy Mass Spectrometer. CHEMS measures atomic and molecular ions in the mass-per-charge, MPQ, range 1-80 amu/e. The predominant minor heavy ions, N2+1 and O2+1, share general spatial characteristics with the dominant water group ions (taken as O+1, OH+1, H2O+1, and H3O+1). Using an extended collection interval (mid-2004 to 2010) for CHEMS, we have also found several rare heavy ion groups with MPQ > ~40 amu/e, at ~40, ~42-48, and ~52-58 amu/e. CHEMS cannot distinguish atomic from molecular species in this MPQ range, but possible candidates at these masses are Ar+1, CO2+1 or C3H8+1, and Fe+1 or C4H8+1, respectively. These rare heavy ions exhibit somewhat different spatial characteristics than the more abundant water group and N2+1 and O2+1 ions. The compositional characteristics of these suprathermal ion groups will be discussed in the context of recent results concerning liquid water on Enceladus and the composition of dark material on the moons and rings.

  3. Heavy ion pion production: spectral irregularities

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.

    1982-09-01

    Data on ..pi../sup -//..pi../sup +/ ratios and on hills and valleys in spectra from heavy ion collisions are reviewed. Theoretical studies to handle Coulomb effects on pion spectra are examined. The possible role of strongly-bound pion orbitals of nuclear size is discussed.

  4. Supersymmetry with a heavy lightest supersymmetric particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Taoli; Li, Jinmian; Li, Tianjun

    2015-06-01

    To escape the current LHC supersymmetry (SUSY) search constraints while preserving the naturalness condition, we propose the heavy lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) SUSY. According to the different dependencies on the LSP mass, we systematically classify the discriminating variables into three categories. We find that the strong dependence of all current SUSY searches on variables in the first category render weak sensitivity for the heavy LSP SUSY. In particular, all the current LHC SUSY search constraints can be evaded if the LSP mass is around 600 GeV or higher. In the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), we find that the heavy LSP SUSY does not induce more fine-tuning than the Higgs boson mass. Moreover, the muon anomalous magnetic moment can be satisfied within the 3-σ level. We systematically study the viable parameter space for the heavy LSP SUSY and present four benchmark points that realize our proposal concretely. An improved collider search for those benchmark points, which mainly relies on the variable in the second category, is discussed in detail.

  5. Resonant structures in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, S.J.; Henning, W.; Ernst, H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Jachcinski, C.; Kovar, D.G.; Paul, M.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of heavy-ion resonance structures using the /sup 24/Mg(/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C)/sup 28/Si reaction is presented. The data are analyzed in the context of Breit-Wigner resonances added to a direct-reaction background.

  6. Heavy-Duty Rescue Straps For Coveralls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddell, Henry M.

    1988-01-01

    New type of strap on coveralls helps rescuers lift victims of industrial accidents. Made of heavy twill. New material, 1 in. wide and has breaking strength of 600 lb, sewn to coveralls with polyester thread in box "X" stitching. Reinforcing nylon webbing, 1 3/4 in. wide sewn with strap at attachment points.

  7. Metastable states of highly excited heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, D. J.; Griffin, P. M.; Sellin, I. A.; Smith, W. W.; Donnally, B.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the method used and results obtained in an experimental study of the metastable states of highly stripped heavy ions, aimed at determining the lifetimes of such states by the rates of autoionization and radiation. The significance and limitations of the results presented are discussed.

  8. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek

    2002-07-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from April 1 through June 30, 2002, for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms.'' We investigate a broad spectrum of topics related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. Significant results were obtained in the areas of multiphase flow and rock properties, hot-fluid injection, improved primary heavy oil recovery, and reservoir definition. The research tools and techniques used are varied and span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history-matching techniques. Briefly, experiments were conducted to image at the pore level matrix-to-fracture production of oil from a fractured porous medium. This project is ongoing. A simulation studied was completed in the area of recovery processes during steam injection into fractured porous media. We continued to study experimentally heavy-oil production mechanisms from relatively low permeability rocks under conditions of high pressure and high temperature. High temperature significantly increased oil recovery rate and decreased residual oil saturation. Also in the area of imaging production processes in laboratory-scale cores, we use CT to study the process of gas-phase formation during solution gas drive in viscous oils. Results from recent experiments are reported here. Finally, a project was completed that uses the producing water-oil ratio to define reservoir heterogeneity and integrate production history into a reservoir model using streamline properties.

  9. Heavy Oils Produced by Aureobasidium pullulans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From a survey of more than 50 diverse strains of Aureobasidium pullulans, 21 strains were observed to produce extracellular heavy oils. These strains represented at least 6 phylogenetic clades, although more than half fell into clades 9 and 11. Oil colors ranged from bright yellow to malachite. M...

  10. Heavy primary spectra observed by RUNJOB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apanasenko, A. V.; Beresovskaya, V. A.; Fujii, M.; Galkin, V. I.; Hareyama, M.; Ichimura, M.; Ito, S.; Kamioka, E.; Kitami, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopenkin, V. V.; Kuramata, S.; Kuriyama, T.; Lapshin, V. I.; Managadze, A. K.; Matsutani, H.; Mikami, H.; Misnikova, N. P.; Mukhamedshin, R. A.; Namiki, M.; Nanjo, H.; Nazarov, S. N.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Oe, T.; Ohta, S.; Osedlo, V. I.; Oshuev, D. S.; Publichenko, P. A.; Rakobolskaya, I. V.; Roganova, T. M.; Saito, M.; Sazhina, G. P.; Semba, H.; Shabanova, Yu. N.; Shibata, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Takahashi, K.; Tsutiya, T.; Taran, V. M.; Yajima, N.; Yamagami, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Yashin, I. V.; Zamchalova, E. A.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zayarnaya, I. S.

    2001-08-01

    RUssian Nippon JOint Balloon (RUNJOB) has been observing the primary spectra of cosmic ray nuclei since 1995. Data from 6 out of 10 succesful flights will be used to report the spectra of heavy primaries up to iron nucleus with the energy range more than 1014 eV/particle. The details of analysis like charge and energy determinations will be also given.

  11. DECONTAMINATION OF HEAVY METALS WITH BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory



    OBJECTIVES: To discover, improve, understand the mechanisms and use naturally occurring bacteria to decontiminate in situ heavy metals from the soils, sediments and waters to protect human health and the environment.


    ABSTRACT: Our laboratory (Vesper et al. ...

  12. Reaction parameters for heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcke, W.W.; Birkelund, J.R.; Wollersheim, H.J.; Hoover, A.D.; Huizenga, J.R.; Schroeder, W.U.; Tubbs, L.E.

    1980-09-01

    These tables present reaction parameters for all combinations of 27 projectile and 16 target nuclei in a laboratory bombarding energy range of 1--50 MeV/u. The reaction parameters are derived from the Fresnel model of heavy-ion scattering, the droplet model, and the rotating liquid-drop model, or from systematics of experimental data.

  13. Heavy Drinking and Suicide in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Russian levels of alcohol consumption and suicide are among the highest in the world. While observers have long suspected an association between the two, they were unable to investigate this hypothesis until recently due to past Soviet secrecy and thus a lack of data. This study took advantage of the newly available data during the post-Soviet era to examine the cross-sectional association between heavy drinking and suicide mortality in Russia. Aggregate mortality data for the Russian regions (n = 78) for the year 2000 were used to measure heavy drinking and suicide rates. Government data were used to control for the regional economic situation and strength of social institutions. Ordinary Least Squares regression was employed to estimate the effect of a proxy for heavy drinking on overall and sex-specific age-adjusted suicide rates. The results showed a positive and significant association between the two, and the association held for overall, male and female rates. These results not only confirmed an association between heavy drinking and suicide in Russia, but when compared to findings from previous studies of other countries they led to the hypothesis that a nation’s beverage preference may be as important as its wet/dry drinking culture in its sensitivity of suicide rates to alcohol consumption. PMID:17160138

  14. Heavy ion beams for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Godlove, T.F.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1980-05-01

    The United States' program in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is described in this paper, with emphasis on the studies of the use of intense high energy beams of heavy ions to provide the power and energy needed to initiate thermonuclear burn. Preliminary calculations of the transport of intense ion beams in an electrostatic quadrupole focussing structure are discussed.

  15. Initial conditions in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopalan, Raju

    2001-10-01

    At very high energies, partons in nuclei form a color glass condensate (CGC). In a nuclear collision, the color glass shatters, producing a high multiplicity of gluons. We discuss the results of numerical simulations which describe the real time evolution of the CGC in a heavy ion collision.

  16. DEMETALLIZATION CATALYST TESTS ON HEAVY RESIDUAL OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a cooperative project between the U.S. and the USSR to exchange technology on the demetallization step of an overall process to produce low sulfur fuel oil from heavy petroleum residua. Catalysts and petroleum residua feedstocks were exchanged and test...

  17. Global constraints on heavy neutrino mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Hernandez-Garcia, Josu; Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo

    2016-08-01

    We derive general constraints on the mixing of heavy Seesaw neutrinos with the SM fields from a global fit to present flavour and electroweak precision data. We explore and compare both a completely general scenario, where the heavy neutrinos are integrated out without any further assumption, and the more constrained case were only 3 additional heavy states are considered. The latter assumption implies non-trivial correlations in order to reproduce the correct neutrino masses and mixings as observed by oscillation data and thus some qualitative differences can be found with the more general scenario. The relevant processes analyzed in the global fit include searches for Lepton Flavour Violating (LFV) decays, probes of the universality of weak interactions, CKM unitarity bounds and electroweak precision data. In particular, a comparative and detailed study of the present and future sensitivity of the different LFV experiments is performed. We find a mild 1-2σ preference for non-zero heavy neutrino mixing of order 0.03-0.04 in the electron and tau sectors. At the 2σ level we derive bounds on all mixings ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 with the notable exception of the e - μ sector with a more stringent bound of 0.005 from the μ → eγ process.

  18. REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS BY ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Artificial wetlands have been operated successfully for treatment of municipal wastewater for a number of years at several locations in this country. However, the capability of these systems to treat heavy metal laden municipal wastewater had not previously been investigated. The...

  19. Density of saturated nuclear matter at large Nc and heavy quark mass limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Cohen, Thomas D.; Datta, Ishaun

    2014-06-01

    We exhibit the existence of stable, saturated nuclear matter in the large Nc and heavy quark mass limits of QCD. In this limit, baryons (with the same spin flavor structure) interact at leading order in Nc via a repulsive interaction due to the Pauli exclusion principle and at subleading order in 1/Nc via the exchange of glueballs. Assuming that the lightest glueball is a scalar, which implies that the subleading baryon interaction is attractive, we find that nuclear matter saturates since the subleading attractive interaction is longer ranged than the leading order repulsive one. We find that the saturated matter is in the form of a crystal with either a face-centered-cubic or a hexagonal-close-packed symmetry with baryon densities of O ({α˜smq[baryon coupling in the extreme large Nc limit or heavy quark limit (or both), which we define precisely in this work.

  20. Heavy Pot Use in Teen Years Linked to Shortened Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158467.html Heavy Pot Use in Teen Years Linked to Shortened Life But Swedish study couldn' ... 000 of the men died during the 42-year study period. Those who were heavy marijuana users ...

  1. Back reaction effects on the dynamics of heavy probes in heavy quark cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabortty, Shankhadeep; Dey, Tanay K.

    2016-05-01

    We holographically study the effect of back reaction on the hydrodynamical properties of {N}=4 strongly coupled super Yang-Mills (SYM) thermal plasma. The back reaction we consider arises from the presence of static heavy quarks uniformly distributed over {N}=4 SYM plasma. In order to study the hydrodynamical properties, we use heavy quark as well as heavy quark-antiquark bound state as probes and compute the jet quenching parameter, screening length and binding energy. We also consider the rotational dynamics of heavy probe quark in the back-reacted plasma and analyse associated energy loss. We observe that the presence of back reaction enhances the energy-loss in the thermal plasma. Finally, we show that there is no effect of angular drag on the rotational motion of quark-antiquark bound state probing the back reacted thermal plasma.

  2. Heavy quark pair production in high energy pA collisions: Open heavy flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hirotsugu; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2013-12-01

    We study open heavy flavor meson production in proton-nucleus (pA) collisions at RHIC and LHC energies within the Color Glass Condensate framework. We use the unintegrated gluon distribution at small Bjorken's x in the proton obtained by solving the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with running coupling correction and constrained by global fitting of HERA data. We change the initial saturation scale of the gluon distribution for the heavy nucleus. The gluon distribution with McLerran-Venugopalan model initial condition is also used for comparison. We present transverse momentum spectra of single D and B productions in pA collisions, and the so-called nuclear modification factor. The azimuthal angle correlation of open heavy flavor meson pair is also computed to study the modification due to the gluon saturation in the heavy nucleus at the LHC.

  3. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. P.

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report.

  4. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.

    1991-08-01

    The USA Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report.

  5. Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

  6. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel. PMID:20040969

  7. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  8. Elliptic and triangular flow of heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahrgang, Marlene; Aichelin, Jörg; Bass, Steffen; Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Werner, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the elliptic and the triangular flow of heavy mesons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . The dynamics of heavy quarks is coupled to the locally thermalized and fluid dynamically evolving quark-gluon plasma. The elliptic flow of D mesons and the centrality dependence measured at the LHC is well reproduced for purely collisional and bremsstrahlung interactions. Due to the event-by-event fluctuating initial conditions from the EPOS2 model, the D meson triangular flow is predicted to be nonzero at √{s }=200 GeV and √{s }=2.76 TeV. We study the centrality dependence and quantify the contributions stemming from flow of the light bulk event and the hadronization process. The flow coefficients as responses to the initial eccentricities behave differently for heavy mesons than for light hadrons due to their inertia. Higher-order flow coefficients of heavy flavor become important in order to quantify the degree of thermalization.

  9. 7 CFR 29.2662 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... percent injury tolerance. B4F Fair Medium-brown Heavy Leaf. Medium body, mature, close, lean in oil... tolerance. B5F Low Medium-brown Heavy Leaf. Medium body, mature, close, lean in oil, inelastic, weak, dull... to heavy body, mature, close, lean in oil, inelastic, weak, dull finish, pale color intensity,...

  10. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  11. Science and art in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, M.S.

    1982-08-09

    One of the more intriguing phenomena discovered in heavy-ion physics is the seeming appearance of high energy structure in the excitation spectra of inelastically scattered heavy ions. For reasons illustrated, these may well be a phenomena unique to heavy ions and their explanation perhaps unique to TDHF.

  12. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  13. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  14. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  15. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  16. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  17. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  18. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  19. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  20. 49 CFR 523.8 - Heavy-duty vocational vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. 523.8 Section 523.8... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.8 Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. Heavy-duty vocational vehicles are vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) above 8,500...

  1. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine. 24.213 Section 24.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine...

  2. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  3. Heavy precipitation events in northern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakaki, Paraskevi; Martius, Olivia

    2013-04-01

    Heavy precipitation events in the Alpine region often cause floods, rock-falls and mud slides with severe consequences for population and economy. Breaking synoptic Rossby waves located over western Europe, play a central role in triggering such heavy rain events in southern Switzerland (e.g. Massacand et al. 1998). In contrast, synoptic scale structures triggering heavy precipitation on the north side of the Swiss Alps and orographic effects have so far not been studied comprehensively. An observation based high resolution precipitation data set for Switzerland and the Alps (MeteoSwiss) is used to identify heavy precipitation events affecting the north side of the Swiss Alps for the time period 1961-2010. For these events a detailed statistical and dynamical analysis of the upper level flow is conducted using ECMWFs ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalysis data sets. For the analysis north side of the Swiss Alps is divided in two investigation areas north-eastern and western Switzerland following the Swiss climate change scenarios (Bey et al. 2011). A subjective classification of upper level structures triggering heavy precipitation events in the areas of interest is presented. Four classes are defined based on the orientation and formation of the dynamical tropopause during extreme events in the northern part of Switzerland and its sub-regions. The analysis is extended by a climatology of breaking waves and cut-offs following the method of Wernli and Sprenger (2007) to examine their presence and location during extreme events. References Bey I., Croci-Maspoli M., Fuhrer J., Kull C, Appenzeller C., Knutti R. and Schär C. Swiss Climate Change Scenarios CH2011, C2SM, MeteoSwiss, ETH, NCCR Climate, OcCC (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.3929/ethz-a-006720559 Massacand A., H. Wernli, and H.C. Davies, 1998. Heavy precipitation on the Alpine South side: An upper-level precursor. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1435-1438. MeteoSwiss 2011. Documentation of Meteoswiss grid-data products

  4. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary Brown, William Detmold, Stefan Meinel, Konstantinos Orginos

    2012-09-01

    The arena of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. This has led to a great deal of theoretical effort being put forth in the calculation of mass spectra in this sector. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of experiments for some time, it is interesting to compare results between lattice QCD computations and continuum theoretical models. Several recent lattice QCD calculations exist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. In this work we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of the mass spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. The wide range of quark masses in these systems require that the various flavors of quarks be treated with different lattice actions. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. The calculation of the ground state spectrum is presented and compared to recent models.

  5. Environmental impact of mercury and other heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, Oliver

    The environmental impact of heavy metals is reviewed. One significant source of emissions of heavy metals to air is waste incineration. Consumer batteries contributes significantly to this problem, as well as to heavy metal leakage to groundwater from landfill deposits. The situation in Sweden is used as an example to describe how the deposition from the atmosphere still is increasing the load of heavy metals, like mercury, cadmium and lead, in top soils and aquatic sediments. Critical factors and effect levels for Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and As are discussed. Specific questions like mercury contents in present battery waste and heavy metal contents in new and future secondary batteries are addressed.

  6. Heavy-light charm mesons spectroscopy and decay widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Alka; Batra, Meenakshi; Gupta, Pallavi

    2016-05-01

    We present the mass formula for heavy-light charm meson at one loop, using heavy quark effective theory. Formulating an effective Lagrangian, the masses of the ground state heavy mesons have been studied in the heavy quark limit, including leading corrections from finite heavy quark masses and nonzero light quark masses, using a constrained fit for the eight equations with 11 parameters including three coupling constants g, h, and g^' }. Masses determined using this approach are fitted to the experimentally known decay widths to estimate the strong coupling constants, showing a better match with available theoretical and experimental data.

  7. Study of heavy flavored particles. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses progress on the following topics: time-of- flight system; charmed baryon production and decays; D decays to baryons; measurement of sigma plus particles magnetic moments; and strong interaction coupling. (LSP)

  8. Unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    White, B. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-02-27

    Over the past 35 years, research on unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has evolved from the surprising observations of unprecedented superconducting properties in compounds that convention dictated should not superconduct at all to performing explorations of rich phase spaces in which the delicate interplay between competing ground states appears to support emergent superconducting states. In this article, we review the current understanding of superconductivity in heavy-fermion com- pounds and identify a set of characteristics that is common to their unconventional superconducting states. These core properties are compared with those of other classes of unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates andmore » iron-based superconductors. Lastly, we conclude by speculating on the prospects for future research in this field and how new advances might contribute towards resolving the long-standing mystery of how unconventional superconductivity works.« less

  9. Unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds

    SciTech Connect

    White, B. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-02-27

    Over the past 35 years, research on unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has evolved from the surprising observations of unprecedented superconducting properties in compounds that convention dictated should not superconduct at all to performing explorations of rich phase spaces in which the delicate interplay between competing ground states appears to support emergent superconducting states. In this article, we review the current understanding of superconductivity in heavy-fermion com- pounds and identify a set of characteristics that is common to their unconventional superconducting states. These core properties are compared with those of other classes of unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates and iron-based superconductors. Lastly, we conclude by speculating on the prospects for future research in this field and how new advances might contribute towards resolving the long-standing mystery of how unconventional superconductivity works.

  10. The heavy top quark and supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J. |

    1996-05-08

    Three aspects of supersymmetric theories are discussed: electroweak symmetry breaking, the issues of flavor, and gauge unification. The heavy top quark plays an important, sometimes dominant, role in each case. Additional symmetries lead to extensions of the standard model which can provide an understanding for many of the outstanding problems of particle physics. A broken supersymmetric extension of spacetime allows electroweak symmetry breaking to follow from the dynamics of the heavy top quark; an extension of isospin provides a constrained framework for understanding the pattern of quark and lepton masses; and a grand unified extension of the standard model gauge group provides an elegant understanding of the gauge quantum numbers of the components of a generation. Experimental signatures for each of these additional symmetries are discussed.

  11. Mosquito flight failure in heavy fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Telljohann, Luke; Thornton, Lee-Ellen; Moyer, Caitlin; Hu, David

    2012-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. We previously found that mosquitoes are successful fliers through rainfall. Heavy fog, consisting of drops three orders of magnitude smaller in mass than raindrops, presents an environment in which mosquitoes cannot maintain flight. Through high-speed videography, we observe mosquitoes reduce wingbeat frequency in heavy fog, but retain the ability to generate sufficient force to lift their bodies, even after significant dew deposition. They are unable, however, to maintain an upright position required for sustainable flight. A mosquito's primary flight control mechanism is its halteres, small knobbed structures evolved from the hind wings, which flap anti-phase with the wings and provide gyroscopic feedback through Coriolis forces. Though the halteres are hydrophobic, repeated collisions with 10-micron fog particles hinders flight control, leading to flight failure.

  12. Identifying Multiquark Hadrons from Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Yazaki, Koichi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Akira; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2011-05-27

    Identifying hadronic molecular states and/or hadrons with multiquark components either with or without exotic quantum numbers is a long-standing challenge in hadronic physics. We suggest that studying the production of these hadrons in relativistic heavy ion collisions offers a promising resolution to this problem as yields of exotic hadrons are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model for hadron production, we find that, compared to the case of a nonexotic hadron with normal quark numbers, the yield of an exotic hadron is typically an order of magnitude smaller when it is a compact multiquark state and a factor of 2 or more larger when it is a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured in these experiments.

  13. The heavy top quark and supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J. |

    1997-01-01

    Three aspects of supersymmetric theories are discussed: electroweak symmetry breaking, the issues of flavor, and gauge unification. The heavy top quark plays an important, sometimes dominant, role in each case. Additional symmetries lead to extensions of the Standard Model which can provide an understanding for many of the outstanding problems of particle physics. A broken supersymmetric extension of spacetime allows electroweak symmetry breaking to follow from the dynamics of the heavy top quark; an extension of isospin provides a constrained framework for understanding the pattern of quark and lepton masses; and a grand unified extension of the Standard Model gauge group provides an elegant understanding of the gauge quantum numbers of the components of a generation. Experimental signatures for each of these additional symmetries are discussed.

  14. Heavy ions, targets, and research at HHIRF

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, J.L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) typifies a new generation of heavy ion accelerators capable of producing high resolution beams with sufficient energy to study nuclear reactions across the periodic table. Exploiting the capabilities of the machine depends on the availability of thin foils at each stage of the experimental process. Rugged carbon foils are needed in the tandem and cyclotron to strip injected ions up to high charge states. Experimental success largely depends on the availability of a suitable target for bombardment which imposes new demands on the target maker. Many experiments use large solid angle gaseous counters with very thin foils as windows. The accelerators, experimental apparatus, and beam characteristics will be described. Target requirements demanded by different types of experiments will be discussed. These requirements have lead to the construction of specialized apparatus such as the supersonic gas jet target and the single crystal goniometer for blocking measurements.

  15. Heavy meson observables and Dyson Schwinger equations.

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, M. A.

    1998-10-20

    Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) studies show that the b-quark mass-function is approximately constant, and that this is true to a lesser extent for the c-quark. This observation provides the basis for a study of the leptonic and semileptonic decays of heavy pseudoscalar mesons using a ''heavy-quark'' limit of the DSES, which, when exact, reduces the number of independent form factors. Semileptonic decays with light mesons in the final state are also accessible because the DSES provide a description of light-quark propagation characteristics and light-meson structure. A description of B-meson decays is straightforward, however, the study of decays involving the D-meson indicates that c-quark mass-corrections are quantitatively important.

  16. Future heavy duty trucking engine requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawhorn, L. W.; Suski, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    Developers of advanced heavy duty diesel engines are engaged in probing the opportunities presented by new materials and techniques. This process is technology driven, but there is neither assurance that the eventual users of the engines so developed will be comfortable with them nor, indeed, that those consumers will continue to exist in either the same form, or numbers as they do today. To ensure maximum payoff of research dollars, the equipment development process must consider user needs. This study defines motor carrier concerns, cost tolerances, and the engine parameters which match the future projected industry needs. The approach taken to do that is to be explained and the results presented. The material to be given comes basically from a survey of motor carrier fleets. It provides indications of the role of heavy duty vehicles in the 1998 period and their desired maintenance and engine performance parameters.

  17. Optical Faraday Cup for Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, Frank; Bieniosek, F.M.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-06-25

    We have been using alumina scintillators for imaging beams in heavy-ion beam fusion experiments in 2 to 4 transverse dimensions [1]. The scintillator has a limited lifetime under bombardment by the heavy ion beams. As a possible replacement for the scintillator, we are studying the technique of imaging the beam on a gas cloud. A gas cloud for imaging the beam may be created on a solid hole plate placed in the path of the beam, or by a localized gas jet. It is possible to image the beam using certain fast-quenching optical lines that closely follow beam current density and are independent of gas density. We describe this technique and show preliminary experimental data. This approach has promise to be a new fast beam current diagnostic on a nanosecond time scale.

  18. Classical chromodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappi, T.

    2005-05-01

    This paper is a slightly modified version of the introductory part of a doctoral dissertation also containing the articles hep-ph/0303076, hep-ph/0409328 and hep-ph/0409058. The paper focuses on the calculation of particle production in a relativistic heavy ion collision using the McLerran-Venugopalan model. The main part of the paper summarizes the background of these numerical calculations. First we relate this calculation of the initial stage af a heavy ion collision to our understanding of the whole collision process. Then we discuss the saturation physics of the small x wavefunction of a hadron or a nucleus. The classical field model of Kovner, McLerran and Weigert is then introduced before moving to discuss the numerical algorithms used to compute gluon and quark pair production in this model. Finally we shortly review the results on gluon and quark-antiquark production obtained in the three articles mentioned above.

  19. Uterine artery embolization for heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jonathan; Christie, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) as a treatment option for fibroids was first reported by Ravina in 1995. Although rapidly adopted by enthusiasts, many were skeptical and its introduction varied widely across the globe. It was not until randomized controlled trials and registries were published and national guidance statements issued that UAE was accepted as a safe and proven treatment for fibroids. The technique is now established as one of the treatment options to be discussed with patients as an alternative to surgery for fibroid-associated heavy menstrual bleeding. Research is on-going to evaluate the relative merits of UAE compared with other medical and surgical treatment options for heavy menstrual bleeding, particularly for women wishing to maintain their fertility. PMID:26756068

  20. Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.; Tylka, Allan J.

    1992-01-01

    The Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment has two primary objectives: (1) to measure the elemental composition of ultraheavy Galactic cosmic rays, beginning in the tin-barium region of the periodic table; and (2) to study heavy ions which arrive at LDEF below the geomagnetic cutoff, either because they are not fully stripped of electrons or because their source is within the magnetosphere. Both have practical as well as astrophysical consequences. The HIIS experiment used eight thick stacks of plastic track detectors mounted in two trays on the space facing end of LDEF. Since the last LDEF symposium, the statistics were increased of the observations and have extended the analysis to a second stack and to detector sheets near the top of a stack. New results are reported on the detector resolution and on the observations of both stopping and relativistic particles.

  1. Entropic destruction of a moving heavy quarkonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Tabatabaei, Seyed Kamal

    2016-07-01

    Recently it has been shown that the peak of the quarkonium entropy at the deconfinement transition is related to the emergent entropic force which destructs the quarkonium. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we consider dissociation of a moving heavy quarkonium by entropic force. For larger distance of quark and antiquark, the entropy of moving quarkonium increases, monotonically. We find that the entropic force destructs the moving quarkonium easier than the static case. By considering the Maxwell charge, we study the effect of the medium on the destruction of heavy quarkonium. It is shown that the quarkonium dissociates easier in the medium. Our results imply that the quarkonium dissociates easier when it moves orthogonal to the plasma wind rather than parallel.

  2. Ultra heavy nuclei in the cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. Robert

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the measurements of the ultraheavy cosmic ray abundances obtained by the Heavy Nuclei Experiment aboard the NASA High Energy Astronomy Observatory-3. It is found that the cosmic ray abundances are in broad agreement with solar system abundances with a step-FIP fractionation model applied although in detail there are some differences. In particular, Ge and Pb appear to be underabundant in the cosmic radiation. Although the platinum/lead ratio and the actinides are consistent with some r-process enhancement, the cosmic ray source is not dominated by the r-process up through the 50s as evidenced by the Sr/Rb ratio and by the abundance of Sn and Ba. The actinides are not greatly enhanced, ruling out freshly synthesized r-process production as the primary source of the heavy cosmic rays.

  3. Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, Maxime; Paquet, Jean-François; Schenke, Björn; Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical studies of the production of real thermal photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are performed. The space-time evolution of the colliding system is modelled using music, a 3+1D relativistic hydrodynamic simulation, using both its ideal and viscous versions. The inclusive spectrum and its azimuthal angular anisotropy are studied separately, and the relative contributions of the different photon sources are highlighted. It is shown that the photon v2 coefficient is especially sensitive to the details of the microscopic dynamics like the equation of state, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, η/s, and to the morphology of the initial state.

  4. Dynamical processes in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1988-07-25

    In this report I review the physical assumptions of the Boltzmann Master Equation (BME). Comparisons of the model with experimental neutron spectra gated on evaporation residues for a range of incident projectile energies and masses are presented; next, I compare n spectra gated on projectile-like fragments, followed by comparisons with ungated, inclusive proton spectra. I will then consider secondary effects from the nucleon-nucleon processes involved in the heavy ion relaxation processes, specifically the high energy ..gamma..-rays which have been observed at energies up to 140 MeV in collisions of heavy ions of 20/endash/84 MeV/..mu... Another secondary effect, subthreshold pion production, was covered in the XVII School and will not be repeated. 39 refs., 16 figs.

  5. Removal of gadolinium nitrate from heavy water

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2000-03-22

    Work was conducted to develop a cost-effective process to purify 181 55-gallon drums containing spent heavy water moderator (D2O) contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These drums also contain low level radioactive contamination, including tritium, which complicates treatment options. Presently, the drums of degraded moderator are being stored on site. It was suggested that a process utilizing biological mechanisms could potentially lower the total cost of heavy water purification by allowing the use of smaller equipment with less product loss and a reduction in the quantity of secondary waste materials produced by the current baseline process (ion exchange).

  6. Network design for heavy rainfall analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietsch, T.; Naveau, P.; Gilardi, N.; Guillou, A.

    2013-12-01

    The analysis of heavy rainfall distributional properties is a complex object of study in hydrology and climatology, and it is essential for impact studies. In this paper, we investigate the question of how to optimize the spatial design of a network of existing weather stations. Our main criterion for such an inquiry is the capability of the network to capture the statistical properties of heavy rainfall described by the Extreme Value Theory. We combine this theory with a machine learning algorithm based on neural networks and a Query By Committee approach. Our resulting algorithm is tested on simulated data and applied to high-quality extreme daily precipitation measurements recorded in France at 331 weather stations during the time period 1980-2010.

  7. Earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Diercxsens, P.; de Weck, D.; Borsinger, N.; Rosset, B.; Tarradellas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is made of soil and earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals between a nature reserve and two sites conditioned by the addition of sewage sludge and compost. The tissues and gut content of the earthworms shows a higher PCB concentration than that of the surrounding soil and also a difference in the fingerprint of some single PCB compounds. Earthworms display a selective accumulation of cadmium and zinc in their tissues and gut content.

  8. Heavy flavour physics from top to bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Paulini, M.; CDF and D0 Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour physics at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by summarizing recent top quark and B physics results from CDF and D0. In particular we discuss the measurement of the top quark mass and top production cross section as well as B meson lifetimes and time dependent B{anti B} mixing results. An outlook of perspectives for top and B physics in Run II starting in 1999 is also given.

  9. Femtoscopy in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa, M; Pratt, S; Soltz, R A; Wiedemann, U

    2005-07-29

    Analyses of two-particle correlations have provided the chief means for determining spatio-temporal characteristics of relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss the theoretical formalism behind these studies and the experimental methods used in carrying them out. Recent results from RHIC are put into context in a systematic review of correlation measurements performed over the past two decades. The current understanding of these results are discussed in terms of model comparisons and overall trends.

  10. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility: Users handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Auble, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this handbook is to provide information for those who plan to carry out research programs at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator systems and experimental apparatus available are described. The mechanism for obtaining accelerator time and the responsibilities of those users who are granted accelerator time are described. The names and phone numbers of ORNL personnel to call for information about specific areas are given. (LEW)

  11. ρ meson decays of heavy hybrid mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Huang, Peng-Zhi

    2016-07-01

    We calculate the ρ meson couplings between the heavy hybrid doublets Hh/Sh/Mh/Th and the ordinary qQ̅ doublets in the framework of the light-cone QCD sum rule. The sum rules obtained rely mildly on the Borel parameters in their working regions. The resulting coupling constants are rather small in most cases. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105007)

  12. Heavy quark production in hadron collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical developments in the dynamics of heavy quark production in hadronic collisions as well as recent data are discussed. Focus is principally on bottom quark production. Extensive calculations of cross sections and production spectra for both collider and fixed target energies are presented. Available data are in excellent agreement with expectations of lowest order perturbative quantum chromodynamics. Uncertainties in the theoretical estimates are explored. The paper includes calculations and comments on charm and top quark production.

  13. Heavy flavor physics at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.

    1991-12-01

    The search for the top quark has dominated heavy flavor physics at hadron colliders. For Standard model decay of top the present mass limit in m{sub t} > 89 GeV (95% C.L.). Bottom production cross sections are quite large at hadron colliders, thus providing enough statistics for extensive studies. Results on cross sections, B{sup 0} {minus} {bar B}{sup 0} mixing, exclusive channels and rare B decays will be summarized.

  14. Ground vibrations from heavy freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawn, T. M.

    1983-03-01

    Ground vibration from heavy freight trains on good quality welded track are found to have only a weak dependence on train speed above 30 km/h. At the site on which these tests were carried out a critical speed was found at which the vibration reached a peak. The frequencies of vibration produced appear to be functions of track and vehicle dimensions and the critical speed occurs at the coincidence of sleeper passage frequency and the total vehicle on track resonance frequency.

  15. Heavy flavour physics from top to bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Paulini, M.; CDF and D0 Collaborations

    1997-01-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour physics at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by summarizing recent top quark and B physics results from CDF and D0. In particular we discuss the measurement of the top quark mass and top production cross section as well as B meson lifetimes and time dependent B{bar B} mixing results. An outlook of perspectives for top and B physics in Run II starting in 1999 is also given. 38 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Point contact spectroscopy of heavy fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, M.; Wachter, P.; Franse, J. J. M.; Meisner, G. P.; Walker, E.

    Point contact spectroscopy (PCS) has been performed on the heavy fermion systems CeAl3, CeCu6, UPt3, U6Co and U2PtC2. The dynamical resistance dU/dI is a function of the electronic density of states (EDS) at E/sub F/. The width of the EDS inferred from the PC measurements can be compared with the (GAMMA)-value of the specific heat.

  17. Lifecycle-analysis for heavy vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.

    1998-04-16

    Various alternative fuels and improved engine and vehicle systems have been proposed in order to reduce emissions and energy use associated with heavy vehicles (predominantly trucks). For example, oil companies have proposed improved methods for converting natural gas to zero-aromatics, zero-sulfur diesel fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process. Major heavy-duty diesel engine companies are working on ways to simultaneously reduce particulate-matter and NOX emissions. The trend in heavy vehicles is toward use of lightweight materials, tires with lower rolling resistance, and treatments to reduce aerodynamic drag. In this paper, we compare the Mecycle energy use and emissions from trucks using selected alternatives, such as Fisher-Tropsch diesel fuel and advanced fuel-efficient engines. We consider heavy-duty, Class 8 tractor-semitrailer combinations for this analysis. The total life cycle includes production and recycling of the vehicle itself, extraction, processing, and transportation of the fuel itself, and vehicle operation and maintenance. Energy use is considered in toto, as well as those portions that are imported, domestic, and renewable. Emissions of interest include greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Angonne's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is used to generate per-vehicle fuel cycle impacts. Energy use and emissions for materials manufacturing and vehicle disposal are estimated by means of materials information from Argonne studies. We conclude that there are trade-offs among impacts. For example, the lowest fossil energy use does not necessarily result in lowest total energy use, and lower tailpipe emissions may not necessarily result in lower lifecycle emissions of all criteria pollutants.

  18. Heavy-lift launch vehicle propulsion considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordway, Wayne L.

    1991-01-01

    Information on heavy-lift launch vehicle (HLLV) propulsion is given in viewgraph form. The objective was to investigate Earth to orbit options which minimize on-orbit operations and impacts to Space Station Freedom, have a reasonable capability to support Mars missions, and minimize mass in low Earth orbit. Potential synergism with the Space Transportation System is considered. Launch vehicle sizing results, HLLV thrust requirements, and propulsion system reliability are covered.

  19. Heavy metal detoxification in eukaryotic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2006-06-01

    Microalgae are aquatic organisms possessing molecular mechanisms that allow them to discriminate non-essential heavy metals from those essential ones for their growth. The different detoxification processes executed by algae are reviewed with special emphasis on those involving the peptides metallothioneins, mainly the post transcriptionally synthesized class III metallothioneins or phytochelatins. Also, the features that make microalgae suitable organisms technologies specially to treat water that is heavily polluted with metals is discussed. PMID:16405948

  20. Estimating Heavy Oil Viscosity from Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasheghani Farahani, Fereidoon

    Heavy oils are viscoelastic material; therefore, their shear properties influence the seismic response and should not be ignored. Heavy oil viscosity, among other parameters, controls the attenuation of seismic waves which is measured in terms of quality factor Q. BISQ, a poroviscoelastic model that couples the effects of simultaneous Biot and squirt flow mechanisms, is used to relate Q to the fluid viscosity. The variation of quality factor with respect to fluid viscosity, as predicted by BISQ, matches the laboratory measurements. Quality factor is a measurable seismic attribute. Higher frequency data are more favourable for Q estimation. Crosswell seismic data from a heavy oil reservoir is used for estimating Q. Travel time tomography followed by attenuation tomography yields the quality factor. The resultingQ tomogram can be converted into the viscosity tomogram if the remaining reservoir parameters are known. Such parameters are populated for the zone of interest using the geostatistical methods from the available log and core data at borehole locations. Existing BISQ equations can only take one fluid phase into account. However, the porous reservoir rock is saturated with bitumen and water. A slightly modified version of the BISQ relations is used in order to accommodate the presence of a second fluid phase. The estimated viscosity tomogram shows ambiguity because for every given quality factor, more than one viscosity value can be calculated. Despite the ambiguity, the methodology introduced in this study demonstrates that seismic data have the potential to be used for estimation of fluid viscosity in heavy oil reservoirs, although further research is needed to improve the workflow.

  1. Combustion Stages of a Single Heavy Oil Droplet in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikegami, M.; Xu, G.; Ikeda, K.; Honma, S.; Nagaishi, H.; Dietrich, D. L.; Struk, P. M.; Takeshita, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy oil is a common fuel for industrial furnaces, boilers, marines and diesel engines. Previous studies showed that the combustion of heavy oil involves not only the complete burning of volatile matters but also the burn-out of coke residues. Detailed knowledge about heavy oil combustion therefore requires an understanding of the different burning stages of heavy oil droplets in the burner. This in turn, demands knowledge about the single droplet evaporation and combustion characteristics. This study measured the temperature and size histories of heavy oil (C glass) droplets burning in microgravity to elucidate the various stages that occur during combustion. The elimination of the gravity-induced gas convection in microgravity allows the droplet combustion to be studied in greater detail. Noting that the compositions of heavy oil are various, we also tested the fuel blends of a diesel light oil (LO) and a heavy oil residue (HOR).

  2. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O`Neill, M.A.; Pellerin, P.J.M.; Warrenfeltz, D.; Vidal, S.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations. 15 figs.

  3. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O'Neill, Malcolm A.; Pellerin, Patrice J. M.; Warrenfeltz, Dennis; Vidal, Stephane; Darvill, Alan G.; Albersheim, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations.

  4. Heavy quarkonium cascades in the glueball model

    SciTech Connect

    Zuk, J.; Joshi, G.C.

    1984-05-01

    The OZI ciolating two pion cascades between /sup 3/Si states of heavy quarkonium (V' ..-->.. V/sup pipi/) are studied in the Freund--Nambu model. When interpreted in the context of QCD, this model implies that OZI violation results from mixing with an intermediate glueball state. It is found that for an appropriate flavour--symmetry--breaking scheme, cascades between the same quantum numbers are satisfactorily described by varying only the quarkonium masses. Some predictions are made. But, the observed suppression of GAMMA(..gamma..'' ..-->.. ..gamma pi pi..)/GAMMA(..gamma..' ..-->.. ..gamma pi pi..)= indicates that the QQ bound state nature of heavy quarkonia is an important consideration in these decays. We show that the quarkonium couplings depend on overlap integrals between the wavefunctions of the mesons present at the decay vertex. We discuss various models that exploit the non-relativistic nature of heavy quarkonia, and from which such overlap integrals are derived in terms of ''charmonium--model'' radial wavefunctions.

  5. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research. PMID:18547718

  6. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.

    2005-06-23

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  7. Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals by aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M; Ghaly, A E; Mahmoud, N; Côté, R

    2004-02-01

    Three aquatic plants were examined for their ability to remove heavy metals from contaminated water: parrot feather (Myriophylhum aquaticum), creeping primrose (Ludwigina palustris), and water mint (Mentha aquatic). The plants were obtained from a Solar Aquatic System treating municipal wastewater. All the three plants were able to remove Fe, Zn, Cu, and Hg from the contaminated water. The average removal efficiency for the three plant species was 99.8%, 76.7%, 41.62%, and 33.9% of Hg, Fe, Cu, and Zn, respectively. The removal rates of zinc and copper were constant (0.48 mg/l/day for Zn and 0.11 mg/l/day for Cu), whereas those of iron and mercury were dependent on the concentration of these elements in the contaminated water and ranged from 7.00 to 0.41 mg/l/day for Fe and 0.0787 to 0.0002 mg/l/day for Hg. Parrot feather showed greater tolerance to toxicity followed by water mint and creeping primrose. The growth of creeping primrose was significantly affected by heavy metal toxicity. The selectivity of heavy metals for the three plant species was the same (Hg>Fe>Cu>Zn). The mass balance preformed on the system showed that about 60.45-82.61% of the zinc and 38.96-60.75% of the copper were removed by precipitation as zinc phosphate and copper phosphate, respectively. PMID:14680885

  8. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek

    2003-01-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from October 1 through December 31, 2002 , for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms.'' In this project, a broad spectrum of research is undertaken related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. The research tools and techniques used are varied and span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history-matching techniques. During this period, experimental data regarding multidimensional imbibition was analyzed to obtain shape factors appropriate for dual-porosity simulation. It is shown that the usual assumption of constant, time-independent shape factors is incorrect. In other work, we continued to study the mechanisms by which oil is produced from fractured media at high pressure and high temperature. High temperature significantly increased the apparent wettability and affected water relative permeability of cores used in previous experiments. A phenomenological and mechanistic cause for this behavior is sought. Our work in the area of primary production of heavy oil continues with field cores and crude oil. On the topic of reservoir definition, work continued on developing techniques that integrate production history into reservoir models using streamline-based properties.

  9. CP violation in heavy MSSM Higgs scenarios

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carena, M.; Ellis, J.; Lee, J. S.; Pilaftsis, A.; Wagner, C. E. M.

    2016-02-18

    We introduce and explore new heavy Higgs scenarios in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with explicit CP violation, which have important phenomenological implications that may be testable at the LHC. For soft supersymmetry-breaking scales MS above a few TeV and a charged Higgs boson mass MH+ above a few hundred GeV, new physics effects including those from explicit CP violation decouple from the light Higgs boson sector. However, such effects can significantly alter the phenomenology of the heavy Higgs bosons while still being consistent with constraints from low-energy observables, for instance electric dipole moments. To consider scenarios with amore » charged Higgs boson much heavier than the Standard Model (SM) particles but much lighter than the supersymmetric particles, we revisit previous calculations of the MSSM Higgs sector. We compute the Higgs boson masses in the presence of CP violating phases, implementing improved matching and renormalization-group (RG) effects, as well as two-loop RG effects from the effective two-Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) scale MH± to the scale MS. Here, we illustrate the possibility of non-decoupling CP-violating effects in the heavy Higgs sector using new benchmark scenarios named.« less

  10. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P; Covo, Kireeff M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.; Prost, L.

    2004-11-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  11. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; L. Grisham; I. Kaganovich; R. L. Watson; V. Horvat; K. E. Zaharakis; Y. Peng

    2002-06-25

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters.

  12. Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, W. J.

    1995-05-31

    This report describes an on-going research initiative for the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR): investigating the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ions, i.e. collisions between massive nuclei which have been accelerated to kinetic energies so large that the rest mass of the ions is a negligible fraction of their total mass-energy. This progress report is being submitted in conjunction with a 3-year grant-renewal proposal, containing additional materials. Three main categories drive the UALRGultra-relativistic heavy ion research. (1) investigations of multi-particle Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) correlations in the CERN and RHIC energy domains strongly influence the URHI experimental effort, (2) participation in the NA49 Experiment to study 33 TeV (160 GeV/nucleon) Pb on Pb collisions using the SPS facili& at CERN, and (3) participation in the STAR collaboration which is developing a major detector for use with the STAR Experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), being built at BNL.

  13. Modeling heavy metal removal in wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Lung, W.S.; Light, R.N.

    1994-12-31

    Although the use of wetland ecosystems to purify water has gained increased attention only recently, it has been recognized as a wastewater treatment technique for centuries. While considerable research has occurred to quantify the nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal mechanisms of wetlands, relatively few investigators have focused on the mechanisms of heavy metal removal and uptake by wetland sediments and plants. The quantification of the assimilative capacity of heavy metals by wetland ecosystems is a critical component in the design and use of wetlands for this purpose. A computer model has been developed to simulate the fate and transport of heavy metals introduced to a wetland ecosystem. Modeled water quality variables include phytoplankton biomass and productivity; macrophyte (Nulumbo lutea) biomass; total phosphorus in the water column; dissolved copper in the water column and sediments; particulate copper in the water column and sediments; and suspended solids. These variables directly affect the calculated rate of copper uptake by macrophytes, and the rate of copper recycling as a function of the decomposition of copper-laden biomass litter. The model was calibrated using total phosphorus and chlorophyll a data from the Old Woman Creek Wetland in Ohio. Verification of the model was achieved using data on the copper content of the macrophyte Nelumbo lutea.

  14. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek

    2003-04-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from January 1 through March 31, 2003 for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms,'' DE-FC26-00BC15311. In this project, a broad spectrum of research is undertaken related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. The research tools and techniques span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history matching techniques. During this period, previous analysis of experimental data regarding multidimensional imbibition to obtain shape factors appropriate for dual-porosity simulation was verified by comparison among analytic, dual-porosity simulation, and fine-grid simulation. We continued to study the mechanisms by which oil is produced from fractured porous media at high pressure and high temperature. Temperature has a beneficial effect on recovery and reduces residual oil saturation. A new experiment was conducted on diatomite core. Significantly, we show that elevated temperature induces fines release in sandstone cores and this behavior may be linked to wettability. Our work in the area of primary production of heavy oil continues with field cores and crude oil. On the topic of reservoir definition, work continued on developing techniques that integrate production history into reservoir models using streamline-based properties.

  15. The influence of initial state fluctuations on heavy quark energy loss in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Huang, Yajing; Qin, Guang-You; Bass, Steffen A.

    2015-12-01

    We study the effects of initial state fluctuations on the dynamical evolution of heavy quarks inside a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The evolution of heavy quarks in QGP matter is described utilizing a modified Langevin equation that incorporates the contributions from both collisional and radiative energy loss. The spacetime evolution of the fireball medium is simulated with a (2 + 1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic model. We find that when the medium traversed by the heavy quark contains a fixed amount of energy, heavy quarks tend to lose more energy for greater fluctuations of the medium density. This may result in a larger suppression of heavy flavor observables in a fluctuating QGP matter than in a smooth one. The possibility of using hard probes to infer the information of initial states of heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  16. Modeling and Analysis of Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, William; Pratt, Scott

    2014-09-01

    High-energy collisions of heavy ions, such as gold, copper, or uranium serve as an important means of studying quantum chromodynamic matter. When relativistic nuclei collide, a hot, energetic fireball of dissociated partonic matter is created; this super-hadronic matter is believed to be the quark gluon plasma (QGP), which is theorized to have comprised the universe immediately following the big bang. As the fireball expands and cools, it reaches freeze-out temperatures, and quarks hadronize into baryons and mesons. To characterize this super-hadronic matter, one can use balance functions, a means of studying correlations due to local charge conservation. In particular, the simple model used in this research assumed two waves of localized charge-anticharge production, with an abrupt transition from the QGP stage to hadronization. Balance functions were constructed as the sum of these two charge production components, and four parameters were manipulated to match the model's output with experimental data taken from the STAR Collaboration at RHIC. Results show that the chemical composition of the super-hadronic matter are consistent with that of a thermally equilibrated QGP. High-energy collisions of heavy ions, such as gold, copper, or uranium serve as an important means of studying quantum chromodynamic matter. When relativistic nuclei collide, a hot, energetic fireball of dissociated partonic matter is created; this super-hadronic matter is believed to be the quark gluon plasma (QGP), which is theorized to have comprised the universe immediately following the big bang. As the fireball expands and cools, it reaches freeze-out temperatures, and quarks hadronize into baryons and mesons. To characterize this super-hadronic matter, one can use balance functions, a means of studying correlations due to local charge conservation. In particular, the simple model used in this research assumed two waves of localized charge-anticharge production, with an abrupt transition

  17. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on Heavy Quark Production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, John Matthew

    2011-12-01

    The experimental collaborations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have established that dense nuclear matter with partonic degrees of freedom is formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at 200 GeV. Information from heavy quarks has given significant insight into the dynamics of this matter. Charm and bottom quarks are dominantly produced by gluon fusion in the early stages of the collision, and thus experience the complete evolution of the medium. The production baseline measured in p + p collisions can be described by fixed order plus next to leading log perturbative QCD calculations within uncertainties. In central Au+Au collisions, suppression has been measured relative to the yield in p + p scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, indicating a significant energy loss by heavy quarks in the medium. The large elliptic flow amplitude v2 provides evidence that the heavy quarks flow along with the lighter partons. The suppression and elliptic flow of these quarks are in qualitative agreement with calculations based on Langevin transport models that imply a viscosity to entropy density ratio close to the conjectured quantum lower bound of 1/4pi. However, a full understanding of these phenomena requires measurements of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects, which should be present in Au+Au collisions but are difficult to distinguish experimentally from effects due to interactions with the medium. This thesis presents measurements of electrons at midrapidity from the decays of heavy quarks produced in d+Au collisions at RHIC. A significant enhancement of these electrons is seen at a transverse momentum below 5 GeV/c, indicating strong CNM effects on charm quarks that are not present for lighter quarks. A simple model of CNM effects in Au+Au collisions suggests that the level of suppression in the hot nuclear medium is comparable for all quark flavors.

  18. Cosmic inflation in a landscape of heavy-fields

    SciTech Connect

    Céspedes, Sebastián; Palma, Gonzalo A. E-mail: gpalmaquilod@ing.uchile.cl

    2013-10-01

    Heavy isocurvature fields may have a strong influence on the low energy dynamics of curvature perturbations during inflation, as long as the inflationary trajectory becomes non-geodesic in the multi-field target space (the landscape). If fields orthogonal to the inflationary trajectory are sufficiently heavy, one expects a reliable effective field theory describing the low energy dynamics of curvature perturbations, with self-interactions determined by the shape of the inflationary trajectory. Previous work analyzing the role of heavy-fields during inflation have mostly focused in the effects on curvature perturbations due to a single heavy-field. In this article we extend the results of these works by studying models of inflation in which curvature perturbations interact with two heavy-fields. We show that the second heavy-field (orthogonal to both tangent and normal directions of the inflationary trajectory) may significantly affect the evolution of curvature modes. We compute the effective field theory for the low energy curvature perturbations obtained by integrating out the two heavy-fields and show that the presence of the second heavy-field implies the existence of additional self-interactions not accounted for in the single heavy-field case. We conclude that future observations will be able to constrain the number of heavy fields interacting with curvature perturbations.

  19. Relativistic heavy-atom effects on heavy-atom nuclear shieldings.

    PubMed

    Lantto, Perttu; Romero, Rodolfo H; Gómez, Sergio S; Aucar, Gustavo A; Vaara, Juha

    2006-11-14

    The principal relativistic heavy-atom effects on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensor of the heavy atom itself (HAHA effects) are calculated using ab initio methods at the level of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. This is the first systematic study of the main HAHA effects on nuclear shielding and chemical shift by perturbational relativistic approach. The dependence of the HAHA effects on the chemical environment of the heavy atom is investigated for the closed-shell X(2+), X(4+), XH(2), and XH(3) (-) (X=Si-Pb) as well as X(3+), XH(3), and XF(3) (X=P-Bi) systems. Fully relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations are carried out for comparison. It is necessary in the Breit-Pauli approach to include the second-order magnetic-field-dependent spin-orbit (SO) shielding contribution as it is the larger SO term in XH(3) (-), XH(3), and XF(3), and is equally large in XH(2) as the conventional, third-order field-independent spin-orbit contribution. Considering the chemical shift, the third-order SO mechanism contributes two-thirds of the difference of approximately 1500 ppm between BiH(3) and BiF(3). The second-order SO mechanism and the numerically largest relativistic effect, which arises from the cross-term contribution of the Fermi contact hyperfine interaction and the relativistically modified spin-Zeeman interaction (FC/SZ-KE), are isotropic and practically independent of electron correlation effects as well as the chemical environment of the heavy atom. The third-order SO terms depend on these factors and contribute both to heavy-atom shielding anisotropy and NMR chemical shifts. While a qualitative picture of heavy-atom chemical shifts is already obtained at the nonrelativistic level of theory, reliable shifts may be expected after including the third-order SO contributions only, especially when calculations are carried out at correlated level. The FC/SZ-KE contribution to shielding is almost completely produced in the s orbitals of the heavy atom

  20. Relativistic heavy-atom effects on heavy-atom nuclear shieldings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantto, Perttu; Romero, Rodolfo H.; Gómez, Sergio S.; Aucar, Gustavo A.; Vaara, Juha

    2006-11-01

    The principal relativistic heavy-atom effects on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensor of the heavy atom itself (HAHA effects) are calculated using ab initio methods at the level of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. This is the first systematic study of the main HAHA effects on nuclear shielding and chemical shift by perturbational relativistic approach. The dependence of the HAHA effects on the chemical environment of the heavy atom is investigated for the closed-shell X2+, X4+, XH2, and XH3- (X =Si-Pb) as well as X3+, XH3, and XF3 (X =P-Bi) systems. Fully relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations are carried out for comparison. It is necessary in the Breit-Pauli approach to include the second-order magnetic-field-dependent spin-orbit (SO) shielding contribution as it is the larger SO term in XH3-, XH3, and XF3, and is equally large in XH2 as the conventional, third-order field-independent spin-orbit contribution. Considering the chemical shift, the third-order SO mechanism contributes two-thirds of the difference of ˜1500ppm between BiH3 and BiF3. The second-order SO mechanism and the numerically largest relativistic effect, which arises from the cross-term contribution of the Fermi contact hyperfine interaction and the relativistically modified spin-Zeeman interaction (FC/SZ-KE), are isotropic and practically independent of electron correlation effects as well as the chemical environment of the heavy atom. The third-order SO terms depend on these factors and contribute both to heavy-atom shielding anisotropy and NMR chemical shifts. While a qualitative picture of heavy-atom chemical shifts is already obtained at the nonrelativistic level of theory, reliable shifts may be expected after including the third-order SO contributions only, especially when calculations are carried out at correlated level. The FC/SZ-KE contribution to shielding is almost completely produced in the s orbitals of the heavy atom, with values diminishing with the principal

  1. Heavy quarkonium: progress, puzzles, and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Brambilla, N; Heltsley, B K; Vogt, R; Bodwin, G T; Eichten, E; Frawley, A D; Meyer, A B; Mitchell, R E; Papdimitriou, V; Petreczky, P; Petrov, A A; Robbe, P; Vairo, A; Andronic, A; Arnaldi, R; Artoisenet, P; Bali, G; Bertolin, A; Bettoni, D; Brodzicka, J; Bruno, G E; Caldwell, A; Catmore, J; Chang, C -H; Chao, K -T; Chudakov, E; Cortese, P; Crochet, P; Drutskoy, A; Ellwanger, U; Faccioli, P; Gabareen Mokhtar, A; Garcia i Tormo, X; Hanhart, C; Harris, F A; Kaplan, D M; Klein, S R; Kowalski, H; Lansberg, J -P; Levichev, E; Lombardo, V; Loureno, C; Maltoni, F; Mocsy, A; Mussa, R; Navarra, F S; Negrini, M; Nielsen, M; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Peters, K; Polosa, A D; Qian, W; Qiu, J -W; Rong, G; Sanchis-Lozano, M A; Scomparin, E; Senger, P; Simon, F; Stracka, S; Sumino, Y; Voloshin, M; Weiss, C; Wohri, H K; Yuan, C -Z

    2011-02-01

    A golden age for heavy quarkonium physics dawned a decade ago, initiated by the confluence of exciting advances in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and an explosion of related experimental activity. The early years of this period were chronicled in the Quarkonium Working Group (QWG) CERN Yellow Report (YR) in 2004, which presented a comprehensive review of the status of the field at that time and provided specific recommendations for further progress. However, the broad spectrum of subsequent breakthroughs, surprises, and continuing puzzles could only be partially anticipated. Since the release of the YR, the BESII program concluded only to give birth to BESIII; the $B$-factories and CLEO-c flourished; quarkonium production and polarization measurements at HERA, JLab, and the Tevatron matured; and heavy-ion collisions at RHIC have opened a window on the deconfinement regime. All these experiments leave legacies of quality, precision, and unsolved mysteries for quarkonium physics, and therefore beg for continuing investigations. The plethora of newly-found quarkonium-like states unleashed a flood of theoretical investigations into new forms of matter such as quark-gluon hybrids, mesonic molecules, and tetraquarks. Measurements of the spectroscopy, decays, production, and in-medium behavior of c\\bar{c}, b\\bar{b}, and b\\bar{c} bound states have been shown to validate some theoretical approaches to QCD and highlight lack of quantitative success for others. The intriguing details of quarkonium suppression in heavy-ion collisions that have emerged from RHIC have elevated the importance of separating hot- and cold-nuclear-matter effects in quark-gluon plasma studies. This review systematically addresses all these matters and concludes by prioritizing directions for ongoing and future efforts.

  2. Effect of heavy metals on bacterial transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Olson, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Adsorption of metals onto bacteria and soil takes place as stormwater runoff infiltrates into the subsurface. Changes in both bacterial surfaces and soil elemental content have been observed, and may alter the attachment of bacteria to soil surfaces. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses were performed on soil samples equilibrated with synthetic stormwater amended with copper, lead and zinc. The results demonstrate the presence of copper and zinc on soil surfaces. To investigate bacterial attachment behavior, sets of batch sorption experiments were conducted on Escherichia Coli (E. coli) under different chemical conditions by varying solution compositions (nutrient solution vs synthetic stormwater). The adsorption data is best described using theoretical linear isotherms. The equilibrium coefficient (Kd) of E. coli is higher in synthetic stormwater than in nutrient solution without heavy metals. The adsorption of heavy metals onto bacterial surfaces significantly decreases their negative surface charge as determined via zeta potential measurements (-17.0±5.96mv for E. coli equilibrated with synthetic stormwater vs -21.6±5.45mv for E. coli equilibrated with nutrient solution), indicating that bacterial attachment may increase due to the attachment of metals onto bacterial surfaces and their subsequent change in surface charge. The attachment efficiency (α) of bacteria was also calculated and compared for both solution chemistries. Bacterial attachment efficiency (α) in synthetic stormwater is 0.997, which is twice as high as that in nutrient solution(α 0.465). The ratio of bacterial diameter : collector diameter suggests minimal soil straining during bacterial transport. Results suggest that the presence of metals in synthetic stormwater leads to an increase in bacterial attachment to soil surfaces. In terms of designing stormwater infiltration basins, the presence of heavy metals seems to

  3. Heavy metals and the origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nriagu, J.

    2003-05-01

    The functional value of heavy metals in proto-cells was immense and involved critical roles in catalysis of molecular synthesis, translation, electrical neutrality and conduction, energy capture, cross-linking and precipitation (stabilizers of protective cell walls), and to a limited extent, osmotic pressure control. Metals must have modulated the evolutionary choices of the types of building blocks, such as ribose sugars as a constituent of RNA, or the the chirality and enantiopurity of many biomolecules. The formation of an enclosing membrane led to intracellular prokaryotic life (believed to have originated in an anaerobic environment) and much enhanced control over primary metabolism, the uptake and incorporation of heavy metals and the management of biomolecules (especially RNA, DNA and proteins) that were formed. Cells of the most primitive organisms (archaebacteria) reveal complex mechanisms designed specifically to deal with selective pressures from metal-containing environments including intra- and extra-cellular sequestration, exclusion by cell wall barrier, removal through active efflux pumps, enzymatic detoxification, and reduction in sensitivity of cellular targets to metal ions. Adaptation to metals using a variety of chromosomal, and transposon and plasmid-mediated systems began early in the evolution of life on Earth. Recent studies, however, show that the roles played by many heavy metals have changed over time. Divalent lead, for instance, has relinquished its unique catalytic role in the conversion of carbohydrates into ribose in the prebiotic world. The putative elements that dominated the primordial biochemistry were V, Mo, W, Co, Fe(II) and Ni; with the development of oxygenated atmosphere, these elements gave way to Zn, Cu and Fe(Ill) in their metabolic functions.

  4. Heavy quarkonium: progress, puzzles, and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Petreczky, P.; Brambilla, N.; Eidelman,S; B.K. Heltsley; Vogt, R.; Bodwiny, G.T.; Eichteny, E., et. al.

    2011-02-08

    A golden age for heavy quarkonium physics dawned a decade ago, initiated by the confluence of exciting advances in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and an explosion of related experimental activity. The early years of this period were chronicled in the Quarkonium Working Group (QWG) CERN Yellow Report (YR) in 2004, which presented a comprehensive review of the status of the field at that time and provided specific recommendations for further progress. However, the broad spectrum of subsequent breakthroughs, surprises, and continuing puzzles could only be partially anticipated. Since the release of the YR, the BESII program concluded only to give birth to BESIII; the $B$-factories and CLEO-c flourished; quarkonium production and polarization measurements at HERA and the Tevatron matured; and heavy-ion collisions at RHIC have opened a window on the deconfinement regime. All these experiments leave legacies of quality, precision, and unsolved mysteries for quarkonium physics, and therefore beg for continuing investigations. The plethora of newly-found quarkonium-like states unleashed a flood of theoretical investigations into new forms of matter such as quark-gluon hybrids, mesonic molecules, and tetraquarks. Measurements of the spectroscopy, decays, production, and in-medium behavior of c{bar c}, b{bar b}, and b{bar c} bound states have been shown to validate some theoretical approaches to QCD and highlight lack of quantitative success for others. The intriguing details of quarkonium suppression in heavy-ion collisions that have emerged from RHIC have elevated the importance of separating hot- and cold-nuclear-matter effects in quark-gluon plasma studies. This review systematically addresses all these matters and concludes by prioritizing directions for ongoing and future efforts.

  5. Positron production in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ATLAS Positron Experiment APEX was built to study positron emission in collisions between very heavy ions. Narrow peaks were observed in such collisions at GSI, Darmstadt in the spectra of positrons and in the sum-energy spectra of electron-positron coincidences. APEX is a second-generation experiment which was specifically designed to look for the coincidence events and measure the opening angle between electrons and positrons. The first beam-induced positrons were detected using APEX in March 1993, and since then three additional runs were carried out. The first results for the collision system {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta show no evidence for sharp peaks in the electron-positron sum-energy spectrum. The current emphasis in this work is to obtain a complete understanding of the APEX apparatus. The atomic group is studying events involving coincidences between heavy ions and electrons. Since APEX measures the laboratory angles and energies of both electrons and heavy ions, it is possible to make an event-by-event Doppler correction of the electron spectra. These Doppler-corrected spectra show a number of lines which are attributed to conversion electrons which are emitted when a nuclear excited state decays by ejecting an inner-shell electron. The study of these spectra provide an important confirmation of the proper functioning of APEX. We are particularly concerned with the atomic physics aspects of this process. In order to understand the electron spectra, it is necessary to account for the change in binding energy of the inner-shell electrons as a function of ionic charge. We are utilizing the GRASP relativistic atomic structure program to calculate the binding energies. This information, together with the measured gamma-ray energies, allows us to calculate the expected energies of the conversion electrons which we can then compare with the observed Doppler-corrected conversion electron energies.

  6. Genetic effects on heavy ions in drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kale, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal mutation test was used to study the dose response relation and relative biological effectiveness of heavy ions. The experiments were performed using the heavy ion beams at BEVALAC of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. These experiments were undertaken according to the proposed milestones and included Ne-20, A-40 and Fe-65 ions with respective energies of 600 MeV, 840 MeV and 850 MeV. At these energies several doses of these radiations ranging from 20 to 1280 R were used. Space radiation exposure to astronauts is supposed to be quite low and therefore very low dose experiments i.e., 20 R, were also performed for the three ions. The mutation response was measured in all germ cell types i.e., spermatozoa, spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatogonia of treated Drosophila males. A linear dose frequency relation was observed for most of the range except at high doses where the saturation effect was observed. Also, a very significant difference was observed among the sensitivity of the four germ cell stages where spermatozoa and spermatids were more sensitive. At the higher doses of this range, most of the spermatogonia and spermatocytes were killed. Although comparative and identical experiments with X-rays or neutrons have not been performed, the compassion of our data with the ones available in literature suggest that the heavy ions have a high rbe and that they are several times more effective than low LET X-rays. The rbe compared to neutrons however appears to be only slightly higher.

  7. The Heavy Photon Search test detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglieri, M.; Boyarinov, S.; Bueltmann, S.; Burkert, V.; Celentano, A.; Charles, G.; Cooper, W.; Cuevas, C.; Dashyan, N.; DeVita, R.; Desnault, C.; Deur, A.; Egiyan, H.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Essig, R.; Fadeyev, V.; Field, C.; Freyberger, A.; Gershtein, Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Girod, F.-X.; Graf, N.; Graham, M.; Griffioen, K.; Grillo, A.; Guidal, M.; Haller, G.; Hansson Adrian, P.; Herbst, R.; Holtrop, M.; Jaros, J.; Kaneta, S.; Khandaker, M.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, J.; Moffeit, K.; Moreno, O.; Neal, H.; Nelson, T.; Niccolai, S.; Odian, A.; Oriunno, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Partridge, R.; Phillips, S. K.; Rauly, E.; Raydo, B.; Reichert, J.; Rindel, E.; Rosier, P.; Salgado, C.; Schuster, P.; Sharabian, Y.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S.; Toro, N.; Uemura, S.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Walz, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2015-03-01

    The Heavy Photon Search (HPS), an experiment to search for a hidden sector photon in fixed target electroproduction, is preparing for installation at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) in the Fall of 2014. As the first stage of this project, the HPS Test Run apparatus was constructed and operated in 2012 to demonstrate the experiment's technical feasibility and to confirm that the trigger rates and occupancies are as expected. This paper describes the HPS Test Run apparatus and readout electronics and its performance. In this setting, a heavy photon can be identified as a narrow peak in the e+e- invariant mass spectrum above the trident background or as a narrow invariant mass peak with a decay vertex displaced from the production target, so charged particle tracking and vertexing are needed for its detection. In the HPS Test Run, charged particles are measured with a compact forward silicon microstrip tracker inside a dipole magnet. Electromagnetic showers are detected in a PbW04 crystal calorimeter situated behind the magnet, and are used to trigger the experiment and identify electrons and positrons. Both detectors are placed close to the beam line and split top-bottom. This arrangement provides sensitivity to low-mass heavy photons, allows clear passage of the unscattered beam, and avoids the spray of degraded electrons coming from the target. The discrimination between prompt and displaced e+e- pairs requires the first layer of silicon sensors be placed only 10 cm downstream of the target. The expected signal is small, and the trident background huge, so the experiment requires very large statistics. Accordingly, the HPS Test Run utilizes high-rate readout and data acquisition electronics and a fast trigger to exploit the essentially 100% duty cycle of the CEBAF accelerator at JLab.

  8. Strain aging in tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dowding, R.J.; Tauer, K.J. . Materials Technology Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on tungsten heavy alloys which are two-phase mixtures of body center cubic (BCC) tungsten surrounded by a face center cubic (FCC) matrix. The matrix is most often composed of nickel and iron in a ratio of 70:30 but, occasionally, the matrix may also contain cobalt or copper. Nickel, however, is always the primary matrix component. The tungsten heavy alloy is fabricated through powder metallurgy techniques. Elemental powders are blended, pressed to shape, and sintered. Depending upon the tungsten content, the sintering temperatures are usually in the range of 1450{degrees}C to 1525{degrees}C. These temperatures are high enough that, as a result, the matrix is at the liquid phase and the process is known as liquid phase sintering. At the liquid phase temperature, the matrix becomes saturated with tungsten, but this does not change the FCC character of the matrix. The sintering is usually done in a hydrogen atmosphere furnace in order to reduce the oxides on the tungsten powder surfaces and create clean, active surfaces which will enhance the adherence between the tungsten and the matrix. The hydrogen atmosphere also creates the presence of excess dissolved hydrogen in the alloy. It has been shown that the hydrogen degrades the toughness and ductility of the heavy alloy. A post-sintering vacuum heat treatment is generally required to insure that there is no residual hydrogen present. The as-sintered tensile strength of a 90% tungsten, 7% nickel, 3% iron alloy (90W) is in the range of 800 to 940 MPa and can be increased significantly by cold working, usually rolling or swaging. Swaging to reductions in area of 20% can result in tensile strengths of 1250 MPa or more. As the strength increases, the elongation, which may have been 30% or more, decreases to less than 5%.

  9. Visualizing plumes of heavy metals and radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigiobbe, V.; Liu, T.; Bryant, S. L.; Hesse, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of the transport behaviors in porous media resides on the ability to reproduce fundamental phenomena in a lab setting. Experiments with quasi 2D tanks filled with beads are performed to study physical phenomena induced by chemical and fluid dynamic processes. When an alkaline solution containing heavy metals or radionuclides invades a low pH region, mixing due to longitudinal dispersion induces destabilization of the front forming a fast travelling pulse [1]. When the two fluids travel in parallel, instead, mixing induced by transverse dispersion creates a continuous leakage from the alkaline region into the acidic one forming a fast travelling plume [2] (Figure 1). Impact of these phenomena are on aquifers upon leaking of alkaline fluids, rich in heavy metals and radionuclides, from waste storage sites. Here, we report the results from a study where experiments with a quasi 2D tank are performed to analyze the effect of transverse mixing on strontium (Sr2+) transport. To visualize the leaking plume, a fluorescent dye (Fura-2) is added the acidic solution, which has been widely used in biomedical applications [3]. It is the aim of this work to optimize its application under the conditions relevant to this work. Spectrometric measurements of absorption and fluorescence show sensitivity of the dye to the presence of Sr2+ throughout a broad range of pH and Sr2+ concentration (Figure 2). In the absence of Sr2+, no significant absorption and fluorescence was measured, but as Sr2+ was added the relevant peaks increase significantly and sample dilution of tenfold was required to remain within the measuring threshold. These results show a strong sensitivity of the dye to the cation opening the opportunity to use Fura-2 as a tool to visualize heavy metals and radionuclides plumes. References[1] Prigiobbe et al. (2012) GRL 39, L18401. [2] Prigiobbe and Hesse (2015) in preparation. [3] Xu-Friedman and Regehr (2000) J. Neurosci. 20(12) 4414-4422.

  10. Heavy Ion Carcinogenesis and Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Durante, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Prior to the human exploration of Mars or long duration stays on the Earth s moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been show to produce distinct biological damage compared to radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer and other health risks, while obscuring evaluation of the effectiveness of possible countermeasures. Here, we describe how research in cancer radiobiology can support human missions to Mars and other planets.

  11. Multiple photon emission in heavy particle decays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M. J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions, at energies above 1 TeV/nucleon, in emulsion chambers flown on high altitude balloons have yielded two events showing apparent decays of a heavy particle into one charged particle and four photons. The photons converted into electron pairs very close to the decay vertex. Attempts to explain this decay topology with known particle decays are presented. Unless both events represent a b yields u transition, which is statistically unlikely, then other known decay modes for charmed or bottom particles do not account satisfactorily for these observations. This could indicate, possibly, a new decay channel.

  12. Bound states of heavy flavor hyperons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frömel, F.; Juliá-Díaz, B.; Riska, D. O.

    2005-04-01

    Several realistic phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interaction models are employed to investigate the possibility of bound deuteron-like states of such heavy flavor hyperons and nucleons, for which the interaction between the light flavor quark components is expected to be the most significant interaction. The results indicate that deuteron-like bound states are likely to form between nucleons and the Ξc' and Ξ charm hyperons as well as between Ξ hyperons and double-charm hyperons. Bound states between two Σ hyperons are also likely. In the case of beauty hyperons the corresponding states are likely to be deeply bound.

  13. Measurements of Heavy Flavour Photoproduction at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergelmeyer, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    Recent measurements of open charm and beauty photoproduction with the H1 and ZEUS detectors at the e±p-collider HERA are presented. These measurements reveal valuable details about the inner structure of the proton and the photon, the fragmentation of quarks into jets, and allow tests of perturbative QCD. Various experimental techniques were employed to identify and extract the heavy-quark signal. Their results are discussed, and compared to each other and to NLO QCD calculations. In addition the determination of charm fragmentation fractions is presented.

  14. Pair creation in heavy ion channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Harman, Z.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy ions channeled through crystals with multi-GeV kinetic energies can create electron-positron pairs. In the framework of the ion, the energy of virtual photons arising from the periodic crystal potential may exceed the threshold 2mec2. The repeated periodic collisions with the crystal ions yield high pair production rates. When the virtual photon frequency matches a nuclear transition in the ion, the production rate can be resonantly increased. In this two-step excitation-pair conversion scheme, the excitation rates are coherently enhanced, and scale approximately quadratically with the number of crystal sites along the channel.

  15. HEAVY WATER COMPONENTS TEST REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2011-10-13

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) Decommissioning Project was initiated in 2009 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Removal Action with funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). This paper summarizes the history prior to 2009, the major D&D activities, and final end state of the facility at completion of decommissioning in June 2011. The HWCTR facility was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. In 2009 the $1.6 billion allocation from the ARRA to SRS for site footprint reduction at SRS reopened the doors to HWCTR - this time for final decommissioning. Alternative studies concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning was to remove the reactor vessel, both steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. The transfer coffin, originally above grade, was to be placed in the cavity vacated by the reactor vessel and the remaining below grade spaces would be grouted. Once all above equipment

  16. Review of metastable states in heavy nuclei.

    PubMed

    Dracoulis, G D; Walker, P M; Kondev, F G

    2016-07-01

    The structure of nuclear isomeric states is reviewed in the context of their role in contemporary nuclear physics research. Emphasis is given to high-spin isomers in heavy nuclei, with [Formula: see text]. The possibility to exploit isomers to study some of the most exotic nuclei is a recurring theme. In spherical nuclei, the role of octupole collectivity is discussed in detail, while in deformed nuclei the limitations of the K quantum number are addressed. Isomer targets and isomer beams are considered, along with applications related to energy storage, astrophysics, medicine, and experimental advances. PMID:27243336

  17. Heavy Cosmic Ray Measurement Aboard Spacelab-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Krause, J.; Fischer, E.; Enge, W.

    1985-01-01

    A stack of CR-39 plastic track detectors was exposed to cosmic radiation during the 10 days mission aboard Spacelab-1. A part of the stack was rotated one revolution within 7 days. The impact time of most of the particles was correlated with the orbit position of the shuttle and thus with geomagnetic field parameters. The analysis of heavy particles with charge Z greater than or equal to 6 in the energy range 50-150 MeV per nucleon with special emphasis on geomagnetically forbidden particles is reported.

  18. Search for Heavy Pointlike Dirac Monopoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Bartlett, J. F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M. K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oliveira, E.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1998-07-01

    We have searched for central production of a pair of photons with high transverse energies in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV using 70 pb-1 of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron in 1994-1996. If they exist, virtual heavy pointlike Dirac monopoles could rescatter pairs of nearly real photons into this final state via a box diagram. We observe no excess of events above background, and set lower 95% C.L. limits of 610, 870, or 1580 GeV/c2 on the mass of a spin 0, 1/2, or 1 Dirac monopole.

  19. Exotic nuclei with open heavy flavor mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Shigehiro; Sudoh, Kazutaka

    2009-08-01

    We propose stable exotic nuclei bound with D and B mesons with respect to heavy quark symmetry. We indicate that an approximate degeneracy of D(B) and D*(B*) mesons plays an important role, and discuss the stability of DN and BN bound states. We find the binding energies 1.4 MeV and 9.4 MeV for each state in the J{sup P}=1/2{sup -} with the I=0 channel. We discuss also possible existence of exotic nuclei DNN and BNN.

  20. Economic aspects of heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The usual parameter space for examining scenarios for heavy ion fusion power plants has generally been based on large, slow cycling, reactor chambers which are only marginally different from chambers proposed for laser drivers. This paper will examine the economic implications of assuming that an inexpensive, low gain pellet is available and that a suitable high-repetition rate reactor has been devised. Interesting scenarios are found that generate economically feasible power from a system with a minimum net capacity of approx. 1 GWe compared to the larger approx. 4 GWe required in previous studies.

  1. Consequential species of heavy metals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yousef, Y.A.; Harper, H.H.; Wiseman, L.; Bateman, M.

    1985-02-01

    Highway stormwater runoff contains significantly higher concentrations of trace metals, particularly Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ni than the water samples from adjacent receiving water bodies. The metals associated with highway runoff tend to be detoxified by the organic content and chemical conditions of natural waters and sediments. Most of the metals are retained by the bottom sediments on a permanent basis if aerobic conditions and high redax-potential (Eh) values are maintained. Retention/detention ponds similar to the Maitland Pond site are very effective in nutrient and heavy metal removal from highway runoff.

  2. Vorticity in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei-Tian; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-06-01

    We study the event-by-event generation of flow vorticity in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Au +Au collisions and CERN Large Hadron Collider Pb +Pb collisions by using the hijing model. Different definitions of the vorticity field and velocity field are considered. A variety of properties of the vorticity are explored, including the impact parameter dependence, the collision energy dependence, the spatial distribution, the event-by-event fluctuation of the magnitude and azimuthal direction, and the time evolution. In addition, the spatial distribution of the flow helicity is also studied.

  3. Faster Heavy Ion Transport for HZETRN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.

    2013-01-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN was developed to enable fast and accurate space radiation transport through materials. As more complex transport solutions are implemented for neutrons, light ions (Z < 2), mesons, and leptons, it is important to maintain overall computational efficiency. In this work, the heavy ion (Z > 2) transport algorithm in HZETRN is reviewed, and a simple modification is shown to provide an approximate 5x decrease in execution time for galactic cosmic ray transport. Convergence tests and other comparisons are carried out to verify that numerical accuracy is maintained in the new algorithm.

  4. Variable-Compliance Couplings For Heavy Lifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James; Eklund, Wayne; Burkhardt, Raymond; Richardson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    New coupling devices contain manual or electronically controlled, motorized drives that vary stiffnesses. Short, clamped lengths of cable provide compliance. Using threaded rods, cables stretched, relaxed, or folded to make coupling more or less stiff. In more-advanced device, brackets holding cables moved by stepping motor via gearbox and ball screw. Motor operates under computer control with position feedback. Control computer commands greater stiffness during operations requiring precise positioning, and greater compliance to accommodate manufacturing tolerances. Intended for use in wrist joints of robotic manipulators and other industrial equipment that must lift heavy objects.

  5. Nonrelativistic theory of heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsch, G.

    1984-07-17

    A wide range of phenomena is observed in heavy-ion collisions, calling for a comprehensive theory based on fundamental principles of many-particle quantum mechanics. At low energies, the nuclear dynamics is controlled by the mean field, as we know from spectroscopic nuclear physics. We therefore expect the comprehensive theory of collisions to contain mean-field theory at low energies. The mean-field theory is the subject of the first lectures in this chapter. This theory can be studied quantum mechanically, in which form it is called TDHF (time-dependent Hartree-Fock), or classically, where the equation is called the Vlasov equation. 25 references, 14 figures.

  6. Propagation of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letaw, J. R.; Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for modeling the propagation of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei, and the required atomic and nuclear data, are assembled in this paper. Emphasis is on understanding nuclear composition in the charge range Z = 3-83. Details of the application of 'matrix methods' above a few hundred MeV/nucleon, a new treatment of electron capture decay, and a new table of cosmic ray-stable isotopes are presented. Computation of nuclear fragmentation cross sections, stopping power, and electron stripping and attachment are briefly reviewed.

  7. Heavy-particle radioactivity of superheavy nuclei.

    PubMed

    Poenaru, D N; Gherghescu, R A; Greiner, W

    2011-08-01

    The concept of heavy-particle radioactivity (HPR) is changed to allow emitted particles with Z(e) > 28 from parents with Z > 110 and daughter around (208)Pb. Calculations for superheavy (SH) nuclei with Z = 104-124 are showing a trend toward shorter half-lives and larger branching ratio relative to α decay for heavier SHs. It is possible to find regions in which HPR is stronger than alpha decay. The new mass table AME11 and the theoretical KTUY05 and FRDM95 masses are used to determine the released energy. For 124 we found isotopes with half-lives in the range of ns to ps. PMID:21902317

  8. Heavy quarkonium in a holographic basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Maris, Pieter; Zhao, Xingbo; Vary, James P.

    2016-07-01

    We study the heavy quarkonium within the basis light-front quantization approach. We implement the one-gluon exchange interaction and a confining potential inspired by light-front holography. We adopt the holographic light-front wavefunction (LFWF) as our basis function and solve the non-perturbative dynamics by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix. We obtain the mass spectrum for charmonium and bottomonium. With the obtained LFWFs, we also compute the decay constants and the charge form factors for selected eigenstates. The results are compared with the experimental measurements and with other established methods.

  9. Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rosseel, T.M.

    2000-04-01

    Maintaining the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant is crucial in preventing and controlling severe accidents that have the potential for major contamination release. Because the RPV is the only key safety-related component of the plant for which a redundant backup system does not exist, it is imperative to fully understand the degree of irradiation-induced degradation of the RPV's fracture resistance that occurs during service. For this reason, the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program has been established.

  10. Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetta, E.

    2014-01-14

    The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.

  11. Heavy Flavor Simplified Models at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Izaguirre, Eder; Kaplan, Jared; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    We consider a comprehensive set of simplified models that contribute to final states with top and bottom quarks at the LHC. These simplified models are used to create minimal search strategies that ensure optimal coverage of new heavy flavor physics involving the pair production of color octets and triplets. We provide a set of benchmarks that are representative of model space, which can be used by experimentalists to perform their own optimization of search strategies. For data sets larger than 1 fb{sup -1}, same-sign dilepton and 3b search regions become very powerful. Expected sensitivities from existing and optimized searches are given.

  12. Review of metastable states in heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Walker, P. M.; Kondev, F. G.

    2016-07-01

    The structure of nuclear isomeric states is reviewed in the context of their role in contemporary nuclear physics research. Emphasis is given to high-spin isomers in heavy nuclei, with A≳ 150 . The possibility to exploit isomers to study some of the most exotic nuclei is a recurring theme. In spherical nuclei, the role of octupole collectivity is discussed in detail, while in deformed nuclei the limitations of the K quantum number are addressed. Isomer targets and isomer beams are considered, along with applications related to energy storage, astrophysics, medicine, and experimental advances.

  13. Heavy flavor dynamics in QGP and hadron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Bass, Steffen A.

    2014-11-01

    We study heavy flavor evolution in the quark-gluon plasma matter and the subsequent hadron gas created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. The motion of heavy quarks inside the QGP is described using our modified Langevin framework that incorporates both collisional and radiative energy loss mechanisms; and the scatterings between heavy mesons and the hadron gas are simulated with the UrQMD model. We find that the hadronic interaction further suppresses the D meson RAA at high pT and enhances its v2. And our calculations provide good descriptions of experimental data from both RHIC and LHC. In addition, we explore the heavy-flavor-tagged angular correlation functions and find them to be a potential candidate for distinguishing different energy loss mechanisms of heavy quarks inside the QGP.

  14. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  15. Unraveling heavy oil desulfurization chemistry: targeting clean fuels.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Tushar V; Parrott, Stephen; Johnson, Byron

    2008-03-15

    The sulfur removal chemistry of heavy oils has been unraveled by systematically investigating several heavy oils with an extremely wide range of properties. The heavy oil feed and product properties have been characterized by advanced analytical methods, and these properties have been related to the sulfur conversion data observed in pilot hydrotreating units. These studies coupled with kinetic treatment of the data have revealed that the desulfurization chemistry of heavy oils is essentially controlled by the strongly inhibiting three and larger ring aromatic hydrocarbon content and surprisingly not by the content of the "hard-to-remove" sulfur compounds. Such enhanced understanding of the heavy oil sulfur removal is expected to open new avenues for catalyst/process optimization for heavy oil desulfurization and thereby assist the efficent production of clean transporation fuels. PMID:18409618

  16. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi. PMID:27387415

  17. Heavy Gas Conversion of the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, James M.; Cole, Stanley, R.

    1998-01-01

    The heavy gas test medium has recently been changed in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at the NASA Langley Research Center. A NASA Construction of Facilities project has converted the TDT heavy gas from dichlorodifluoromethane (R12) to 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane (R134a). The facility s heavy gas processing system was extensively modified to implement the conversion to R134a. Additional system modifications have improved operator interfaces, hardware reliability, and quality of the research data. The facility modifications included improvements to the heavy gas compressor and piping, the cryogenic heavy gas reclamation system, and the heavy gas control room. A series of wind tunnel characterization and calibration tests are underway. Results of the flow characterization tests show the TDT operating envelope in R134a to be very similar to the previous operating envelope in R12.

  18. ESTIMATE OF WORLD HEAVY CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL BITUMEN RESOURCES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Richard F.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    1985-01-01

    The quantity of heavy hydrocarbons - heavy crude oil and natural bitumens - known or surmised to be present in the earth is large. The total is estimated to fall in the range of 5,879,712-5,942,139 million barrels. The portion of this that may ultimately prove recoverable is small, perhaps on the order of 500,000 million barrels of heavy crude oil and 200,000 million barrels of bitumen.

  19. Quantum Electrodynamics Effects in Heavy Ions and Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Shabaev, V. M.; Andreev, O. V.; Bondarev, A. I.; Glazov, D. A.; Kozhedub, Y. S.; Maiorova, A. V.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Plunien, G.; Volotka, A. V.

    2011-05-11

    Quantum electrodynamics theory of heavy ions and atoms is considered. The current status of calculations of the binding energies, the hyperfine splitting and g factor values in heavy few-electron ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions are compared with available experimental data. A special attention is focused on tests of quantum electrodynamics in strong electromagnetic fields and on determination of the fundamental constants. Recent progress in calculations of the parity nonconservation effects with heavy atoms and ions is also reported.

  20. A heavy ion spectrometer system for the measurement of projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelage, J.; Crawford, H. J.; Albergo, S.; Kuo, C.; Caccia, Z.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Cronqvist, M.; Flores, L.; Fonte, R.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Insolia, A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1996-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the LBL Bevalac provided a unique facility for measuring projectile fragmentation cross sections important in deconvolving the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) source composition. The general characteristics of the apparatus specific to this application are described and the main features of the event reconstruction and analysis used in the TRANSPORT experiment are discussed.

  1. Production of strange clusters in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.; Baltz, A.J.; Pang, Yang; Schlagel, T.J.; Kahana, S.H.

    1993-02-01

    We address a number of issues related to the production of strangeness in high energy heavy ion collisions, including the possibility that stable states of multi-strange hyperonic or quark matter might exist, and the prospects that such objects may be created and detected in the laboratory. We make use of events generated by the cascade code ARC to estimate the rapidity distribution dN/dy of strange clusters produced in Si+Au and Au+Au collisions at AGS energies. These calculations are performed in a simple coalescence model, which yields a consistent description of the strange cluster (d, [sup 3]HE, [sup 3]H, [sup 4]He) production at these energies. If a doubly strange, weakly bound [Lambda][Lambda] dibaryon exists, we find that it is produced rather copiously in Au+Au collisions, with dN/dy [approximately]0.1 at raid-rapidity. If one adds another non-strange or strange baryon to a cluster, the production rate decreases by roughly one or two orders of magnitude, respectively. For instance, we predict that the hypernucleus [sub [Lambda][Lambda

  2. METHOD OF OPERATING A HEAVY WATER MODERATED REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1962-08-14

    A method of removing fission products from the heavy water used in a slurry type nuclear reactor is described. According to the process the slurry is steam distilled with carbon tetrachloride so that at least a part of the heavy water and carbon tetrachloride are vaporized; the heavy water and carbon tetrachloride are separated; the carbon tetrachloride is returned to the steam distillation column at different points in the column to aid in depositing the slurry particles at the bottom of the column; and the heavy water portion of the condensate is purified. (AEC)

  3. Contamination of environment with heavy metals emitted from automotives

    SciTech Connect

    Falahi-Ardakani, A.

    1984-04-01

    Interest has arisen in heavy-metal contamination of the environment, mostly because of potential hazards to the health of animals and human (directly and/or indirectly). High levels of heavy metals in soil, plants, and the atmosphere are often related to industries, highways, chemical dumping, impure chemical fertilizers, and pesticides containing metals. An important source of heavy metals, especially lead, is from the combustion of leaded gasoline used for transportation. Other heavy metals associated with transportation include nickel, which is also added to gasoline and is contained in engine parts, zinc, and cadmium from tires, lubricating oils, and galvanized parts such as fuel tanks.

  4. A STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN "GUERILLA HEAVY RAINFALL" AND DISASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushiyama, Motoyuki

    "Guerilla heavy rainfall" is a newly-coined word by mass media of Japan. The four major newspaper publishing companies began to use this word frequently from the beginning of August, 2008. The definition of "Guerilla heavy rainfall" is not clear. It was found from the result of newspaper article analysis from 2008 to 2009 that short-time very heavy rainfall events are called "Guerilla heavy rainfall". In this study, the rainfall event of 80mm or more of rainfalls of 1 hour and 149mm or less of rainfalls was defined as "Guerilla heavy rainfall". 104 events of "Guerilla heavy rainfall" were extracted from AMeDAS precipitation data from 1979 to 2008. There were two victims of these heavy rainfall events in total. They killed at basement or underpass. Although inundation above the floor level occurred in 38% of event, the damage of 100 or more buildings was 9%. We may say that "Guerilla heavy rainfall" does not cause large-scale damage. However, it is necessary to keep in mind that damage caused by "Guerilla heavy rainfall" is generated well in high-risk area of flood, such as basement, underpass, low land and river park.

  5. Biosorption of heavy metals by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Volesky, B; May-Phillips, H A

    1995-01-01

    Abundant and common yeast biomass has been examined for its capacity to sequester heavy metals from dilute aqueous solutions. Live and non-living biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differs in the uptake of uranium, zinc and copper at the optimum pH 4-5. Culture growth conditions can influence the biosorbent metal uptake capacity which normally was: living and non-living brewer's yeast: U > Zn > Cd > Cu; non-living baker's yeast: Zn > (Cd) > U > Cu; living baker's yeast: Zn > Cu approximately (Cd) > U. Non-living brewer's yeast biomass accumulated 0.58 mmol U/g. The best biosorbent of zinc was non-living baker's yeast (approximately 0.56 mmol Zn/g). Dead cells of S. cerevisiae removed approximately 40% more uranium or zinc than the corresponding live cultures. Biosorption of uranium by S. cerevisiae was a rapid process reaching 60% of the final uptake value within the first 15 min of contact. Its deposition differing from that of other heavy metals more associated with the cell wall, uranium was deposited as fine needle-like crystals both on the inside and outside of the S. cerevisiae cells. PMID:7765919

  6. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2004-03-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from July 1 through September, 2003 for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms,'' DE-FC26-00BC15311. In this project, a broad spectrum of research is undertaken related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. The research tools and techniques span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history-matching techniques. During this period, work focused on completing project tasks in the area of multiphase flow and rock properties. The area of interest is the production mechanisms of oil from porous media at high temperature. Temperature has a beneficial effect on oil recovery and reduces residual oil saturation. Work continued to delineate how the wettability of reservoir rock shifts from mixed and intermediate wet conditions to more water-wet conditions as temperature increases. One mechanism for the shift toward water-wet conditions is the release of fines coated with oil-wet material from pore walls. New experiments and theory illustrate the role of temperature on fines release.

  7. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RACK) to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 5 /times/ 10/sup 26/cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ at an energy of 100 GeV/u in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The collider consists of two interlaced, but otherwise separate, superconducting magnet rings. The 9.7 m long dipoles will operate at 3.5 T. Their 8 cm aperture was determined by the dimensions of gold ion beams taking into account diffusion due to intrabeam scattering. Heavy ion beams will be available from the Tandem Van de Graaff/Booster/AGS complex. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 24 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.; Amirtayev, K. G.; Tokarova, B.; Bonev, M.

    The peculiarities and mechanisms of the mutagenic action of γ-rays and heavy ions on bacterial cells have been investigated. Direct mutations in the lac-operon of E. coli in wild type cells and repair deficient strains have been detected. Furthermore, the induction of revertants in Salmonella tester strains was measured. It was found that the mutation rate was a linear-quadratic function of dose in the case of both γ-rays and heavy ions with LET up to 200 keV/μm. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) increased with LET up to 20 keV/μm. Low mutation rates were observed in repair deficient mutants with a block of SOS-induction. The induction of SOS-repair by ionizing radiation has been investigated by means of the ``SOS-chromotest'' and λ-prophage induction. It was shown that the intensity of the SOS-induction in E. coli increased with increasing LET up to 40-60 keV/μm.

  9. Ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment (A0178)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A.; Osullivan, D.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K. P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) is based on a modular array of 192 side viewing solid state nuclear track detector stacks. These stacks were mounted in sets of four in 48 pressure vessels using 16 peripheral LDEF trays. The geometry factor for high energy cosmic ray nuclei, allowing for Earth shadowing, was 30 sq m sr, giving a total exposure factor of 170 sq m sr y at an orbital inclination of 28.4 degs. Scanning results indicate that about 3000 cosmic ray nuclei in the charge region with Z greater than 65 were collected. This sample is more than ten times the current world data in the field (taken to be the data set from the HEAO-3 mission plus that from the Ariel-6 mission) and is sufficient to provide the world's first statistically significant sample of actinide cosmic rays. Results are presented including a sample of ultra heavy cosmic ray nuclei, analysis of pre-flight and post-flight calibration events and details of track response in the context of detector temperature history. The integrated effect of all temperature and age related latent track variations cause a maximum charge shift of + or - 0.8e for uranium and + or - 0.6e for the platinum-lead group. Astrophysical implications of the UHCRE charge spectrum are discussed.

  10. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  11. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.; Fowler, M.M.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S.; Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50--100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components--intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: the reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicity of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Formation of Slow Heavy Mesons in Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirenzaki, Satoru

    2009-10-01

    Meson - nucleus systems such as mesic atoms and mesic nuclei have been studied systematically for a long time. The binding energies and widths of these bound states provide us unique and valuable information on the meson-nucleus interactions. In addition, the measurements of light vector meson spectra in nucleus as the invariant mass of lepton pairs have also provided interesting information. So far, the properties of relatively light mesons have been studied well both theoretically and experimentally. In this contribution, to extend our studies to a domain of heavier mesons, we would like to report recent research activities on the formation of heavy mesons in nuclei with small momenta. We think it is very interesting to consider the in-medium properties of heavier mesons including heavy quark contents. As a first step to heavier mesons, we will report our studies on formation of slow phi meson in nuclei. In-medium properties of phi meson have been studied theoretically, which have close relation to K and K-bar meson properties in medium because of the strong coupling of phi to K and K-bar. The study of QCD sum rule and the data taken at KEK suggested 3 percent mass reduction of phi at the normal nuclear density, while the phi meson selfenergy calculated in some effective models indicated a significantly smaller attractive potential for phi. We will show the calculated spectra for some reactions.

  13. Rare Suprathermal Heavy Ions in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christon, S. P.; Hamilton, D. C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; DiFabio, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Cassini/MIMI/CHEMS ion spectrometer has measured suprathermal (~83-167 keV/e) ions in Saturn's magnetosphere since mid-2004. We report on three rare, heavy ion groups measured in Saturn's ~4-20 Rs magnetosphere at ~40, ~46, and ~56 amu/e, with the separation from other species best at higher mass. These masses suggest possible singly-charged ion identifications as Ar+, CO2+, and Fe+, respectively. The presence of these species or compounds containing them has been suggested in composition studies of Saturn's particle populations using data from other instruments on Cassini. The observed rare ion intensities are highly variable in time and space. Broad temporal and spatial averaging is needed to examine these rare ion groups because their detection levels are much lower than the dominant water ion group, W+ (which includes O+, OH+, H2O+, and H3O+). W+ itself can be quite variable. We show that these rare ions display unique spatial and temporal variations, with similarities and differences from the dominant ion group W+ as well as O2+ and M28+, all local origin ions. We compare and contrast these rare, heavy ion species to W+ and the recently characterized [Christon et al., 2013, 10.1002/jgra.50383] minor ions M28+ (C2H5+, HCNH+, N2+, and/or CO+) and O2+ (M32+).

  14. Disappearing inflaton potential via heavy field dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2016-02-01

    We propose a possibility that the inflaton potential is significantly modified after inflation due to heavy field dynamics. During inflation such a heavy scalar field may be stabilized at a value deviated from the low-energy minimum. In extreme cases, the inflaton potential vanishes and the inflaton becomes almost massless at some time after inflation. Such transition of the inflaton potential has interesting implications for primordial density perturbations, reheating, creation of unwanted relics, dark radiation, and experimental search for light degrees of freedom. To be concrete, we consider a chaotic inflation in supergravity where the inflaton mass parameter is promoted to a modulus field, finding that the inflaton becomes stable after the transition and contributes to dark matter. Another example is a hilltop inflation (also called new inflation) by the MSSM Higgs field which acquires a large expectation value just after inflation, but it returns to the origin after the transition and finally rolls down to the electroweak vacuum. Interestingly, the smallness of the electroweak scale compared to the Planck scale is directly related to the flatness of the inflaton potential.

  15. Low NOx Heavy Fuel Combustor Concept Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novick, A. S.; Troth, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the technology required to operate an industrial gas turbine combustion system on minimally processed, heavy petroleum or residual fuels having high levels of fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) while producing acceptable levels of exhaust emissions is discussed. Three combustor concepts were designed and fabricated. Three fuels were supplied for the combustor test demonstrations: a typical middle distillate fuel, a heavy residual fuel, and a synthetic coal-derived fuel. The primary concept was an air staged, variable-geometry combustor designed to produce low emissions from fuels having high levels of FBN. This combustor used a long residence time, fuel-rich primary combustion zone followed by a quick-quench air mixer to rapidly dilute the fuel rich products for the fuel-lean final burnout of the fuel. This combustor, called the rich quench lean (RQL) combustor, was extensively tested using each fuel over the entire power range of the model 570 K engine. Also, a series of parameteric tests was conducted to determine the combustor's sensitivity to rich-zone equivalence ratio, lean-zone equivalence ratio, rich-zone residence time, and overall system pressure drop. Minimum nitrogen oxide emissions were measured at 50 to 55 ppmv at maximum continuous power for all three fuels. Smoke was less than a 10 SAE smoke number.

  16. Hydrodynamic approaches in relativistic heavy ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derradi de Souza, R.; Koide, T.; Kodama, T.

    2016-01-01

    We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation to the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to be answered to clarify the physics of collective phenomena in the relativistic heavy ion collisions are pointed out.

  17. Heavy metal speciation in the composting process.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Gillian M; Song, Qi Jun

    2002-04-01

    Composting is one of the more efficient and environment friendly methods of solid waste disposal and has many advantages when compared with landfill disposal on which the UK and Ireland are currently heavily dependent. Composting is a very complicated process involving intensive microbial activity and the detailed mechanisms of the process have yet to be fully understood. Metal speciation information can provide an insight into the metal-microbial interaction and would help in the evaluation of the quality of compost. This would facilitate the exploitation of composts in remediation of heavy metal contaminated land. In this work a systematic approach to metal speciation in compost has been taken by applying the three-step method for operationally defined metal speciation of soils and sediments, developed by the European Commission's Standards, Measurement and Testing Programme to monitor the change in metal speciation with time (up to 106 days) for four different waste composting processes. The results have shown that in general metals become less available for the first extraction step as the composting process proceeds. This implies that composting tends to redistribute the metals from more labile forms to more fixed forms which may explain why the application of composts could be useful for with heavy metal contaminated land. There are exceptions to this trend and in some cases, certain metals appear to behave differently depending on the source of the compost. PMID:11993774

  18. Approaches for enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Atul; Carmona, Francisco F; Bhargava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Shilpi

    2012-08-30

    The contamination of the environment with toxic metals has become a worldwide problem. Metal toxicity affects crop yields, soil biomass and fertility. Soils polluted with heavy metals pose a serious health hazard to humans as well as plants and animals, and often requires soil remediation practices. Phytoextraction refers to the uptake of contaminants from soil or water by plant roots and their translocation to any harvestable plant part. Phytoextraction has the potential to remove contaminants and promote long-term cleanup of soil or wastewater. The success of phytoextraction as a potential environmental cleanup technology depends on factors like metal availability for uptake, as well as plants ability to absorb and accumulate metals in aerial parts. Efforts are ongoing to understand the genetics and biochemistry of metal uptake, transport and storage in hyperaccumulator plants so as to be able to develop transgenic plants with improved phytoremediation capability. Many plant species are being investigated to determine their usefulness for phytoextraction, especially high biomass crops. The present review aims to give an updated version of information available with respect to metal tolerance and accumulation mechanisms in plants, as well as on the environmental and genetic factors affecting heavy metal uptake. The genetic tools of classical breeding and genetic engineering have opened the door to creation of 'remediation' cultivars. An overview is presented on the possible strategies for developing novel genotypes with increased metal accumulation and tolerance to toxicity. PMID:22542973

  19. Steamflood hikes Oklahoma heavy oil flow

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-16

    Conoco Inc.'s fracture assisted steamflood technology (fast) has boosted recovery of heavy oil from shallow zones in Loco Field in Stephens County, Oklahoma to 25 to 50% from approxmately 3%. The company plans to use the fast process to increase recovery from Loco's deeper zones to 40% from 7%. In addition, Conoco expects to license the process for use in heavy oil deposits in Texas, Utah, and Wyoming and the Athabasca tar sands in Alberta. Since the Loco Pilot Project went on stream in 1974, Conoco has run 20 fast injection well patterns which boosted recovery by 25 to 50% from pay at 50 to 350 ft. The first fast test at Loco yielded 43,000 bbl of oil in 6 months, or 60% of the trial zones oil in place. Conoco pegs Loco Fields's shallow oil in place at approximately 70 million bbl with a gravity of approximately 23 to 24. Plans call for the fast process to be used to recover an additional 40%, or approximately 30 million bbl of 26 g oil, from Loco's deeper zones at 1000 to 1200 ft. Tests showed fast recovery feasible at 1500 ft and shallower depths.

  20. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-α) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  1. Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, A.; Kumar, M.; Knapp, R.B.

    2000-05-01

    The most widely used method of thermal oil recovery is by injecting steam into the reservoir. A well-designed steam injection project is very efficient in recovering oil, however its applicability is limited in many situations. Simulation studies and field experience has shown that for low injectivity reservoirs, small thickness of the oil-bearing zone, and reservoir heterogeneity limits the performance of steam injection. This paper discusses alternative methods of transferring heat to heavy oil reservoirs, based on electromagnetic energy. They present a detailed analysis of low frequency electric resistive (ohmic) heating and higher frequency electromagnetic heating (radio and microwave frequency). They show the applicability of electromagnetic heating in two example reservoirs. The first reservoir model has thin sand zones separated by impermeable shale layers, and very viscous oil. They model preheating the reservoir with low frequency current using two horizontal electrodes, before injecting steam. The second reservoir model has very low permeability and moderately viscous oil. In this case they use a high frequency microwave antenna located near the producing well as the heat source. Simulation results presented in this paper show that in some cases, electromagnetic heating may be a good alternative to steam injection or maybe used in combination with steam to improve heavy oil production. They identify the parameters which are critical in electromagnetic heating. They also discuss past field applications of electromagnetic heating including technical challenges and limitations.

  2. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2002-09-30

    The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI-A) conducts a broad spectrum of research intended to help improve the recovery efficiency from difficult to produce reservoirs including heavy oil and fractured low permeability systems. Our scope of work is relevant across near-, mid-, and long-term time frames. The primary functions of the group are to conduct direction-setting research, transfer research results to industry, and educate and train students for careers in industry. Presently, research in SUPRI-A is divided into 5 main project areas. These projects and their goals include: (1) Multiphase flow and rock properties--to develop better understanding of the physics of displacement in porous media through experiment and theory. This category includes work on imbibition, flow in fractured media, and the effect of temperature on relative permeability and capillary pressure. (2) Hot fluid injection--to improve the application of nonconventional wells for enhanced oil recovery and elucidate the mechanisms of steamdrive in low permeability, fractured porous media. (3) Mechanisms of primary heavy oil recovery--to develop a mechanistic understanding of so-called ''foamy oil'' and its associated physical chemistry. (4) In-situ combustion--to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the insitu combustion process. (5) Reservoir definition--to develop and improve techniques for evaluating formation properties from production information. What follows is a report on activities for the past year. Significant progress was made in all areas.

  3. Constraining relativistic models through heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, D. P.; Providencia, C.; Chiapparini, M.; Bracco, M. E.; Delfino, A.; Malheiro, M.

    2007-12-15

    Relativistic models can be successfully applied to the description of compact star properties in nuclear astrophysics as well as to nuclear matter and finite nuclei properties, these studies taking place at low and moderate temperatures. Nevertheless, all results are model dependent, and so far it is unclear whether some of them should be discarded. Moreover, in the regime of hot hadronic matter, very few calculations exist using these relativistic models, in particular when applied to particle yields in heavy ion collisions. A very important investigation is the simulation of a supernova explosion that is based on the construction of an adequate equation of state that needs to be valid within very large ranges of temperatures (0 to 100 MeV at least) and densities (very low to ten times the nuclear saturation density at least). In the present work, we comment on the known constraints that can help the selection of adequate models in this wide regime and investigate the main differences that arise when the particle production during a Au+Au collision at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is calculated with different relativistic models. We conclude that most of the models investigated in the present work give a very good overall description of the data and make predictions for not yet measured particle ratios.

  4. Getty to tap heavy oil in diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1982-01-18

    Getty Oil Co. has launched a test program in California to mine a huge deposit of diatomaceous earth. The company will run side by side pilot plants incorporating 2 state-of-the-art extraction processes to extract virtually 100% of the heavy oil contained in the mined material. Economic success of either extraction process would lead to development of a commercial scale mine and plant to yield as much as 20,000 bpd of heavy oil during the next half century. More important success of the Getty project could serve as a springboard for development of other tight, shallow diatomite, oil shale, and tar sands deposits hitherto thought uneconomic. The target is ca 380 million bbl of recoverable 14 to 17 gravity oil locked in tight, shallow diatomite deposits in McKittrick field. That is more than the 218 million bbl of cumulative production from the entire field since its discovery more than 80 yr ago. Although open pit mining of diatomite eventually will cover a 2.5-mile by one-mile surface area, going as deep as 1200 ft, extensive backfilling and reclamation work will leave the landscape restored.

  5. Overview of the hypernuclear production in heavy-ion collision experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappold, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, heavy-ion collision experiments have brought new insight to the study of hypernucleus. Experiments using ion induced reactions for hypernuclear research focus on two distinct aspects: the spectroscopy and probing the nuclear reaction. In the case of the experimental spectroscopy, the internal structure of hypernuclei is investigated in order to determine the baryon-baryon interaction in the strangeness sector for the hyper-matter equation of state. The dynamical aspect of the nucleus-nucleus reaction can also be explored by studying the production of hypernuclei. The experimental observations of the production mechanisms responsible for the formation of the hypernuclei in ion collisions will be presented. Depending of the center-of-mass energy and the type of experiment, fixed target or collider, hypernuclei can be produced in the mid-rapidity and/or in the spectator regions. The experimental results from both cases will be presented and discussed.

  6. New results on CLEO`s heavy quarks - bottom and charm

    SciTech Connect

    Menary, S.

    1997-01-01

    While the top quark is confined to virtual reality for CLEO, the increased luminosity of the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) and the improved photon detection capabilities of the CLEO`s {open_quotes}heavy{close_quotes} quarks - bottom and charm. I will describe new results in the B meson sector including the first observation of exclusive b {yields} ulv decays, upper limits on gluonic penguin decay rates, and precise measurements of semileptonic and hadronic b {yields} c branching fractions. The charmed hadron results that are discussed include the observation of isospin violation in D{sub s}*{sup +} decays, an update on measurements of the D{sub s}{sup +} decay constant, and the observation of a new excited {Xi}{sub c} charmed baryon. These measurements have had a large impact on our understanding of heavy quark physics.

  7. Axial couplings of heavy hadrons from domain-wall lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    W. Detmold, C.J.D. Lin, S. Meinel

    2011-12-01

    We calculate matrix elements of the axial current for static-light mesons and baryons in lattice QCD with dynamical domain wall fermions. We use partially quenched heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory in a finite volume to extract the axial couplings g{sub 1}, g{sub 2}, and g{sub 3} from the data. These axial couplings allow the prediction of strong decay rates and enter chiral extrapolations of most lattice results in the b sector. Our calculations are performed with two lattice spacings and with pion masses down to 227 MeV.

  8. Production of doubly heavy-flavored hadrons at e+e- colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xu-Chang; Chang, Chao-Hsi; Pan, Zan

    2016-02-01

    Production of the doubly heavy-flavored hadrons (Bc meson, doubly heavy baryons Ξc c , Ξb c , Ξb b , their excited states, and antiparticles of them as well) at e+e- colliders is investigated under two different approaches: LO (leading-order QCD complete calculation) and LL (leading-logarithm fragmentation calculation). The results for the production obtained by the LO and LL approaches, including the angle distributions of the produced hadrons with unpolarized and polarized incoming beams, the behaviors on the energy fraction of the produced doubly heavy-flavored hadron, and comparisons of results between the two approaches, are presented in tables and figures. Thus, characteristics of the production and uncertainties of the approaches are shown precisely, and it is concluded that only if the colliders run at the energies around the Z pole (which may be called the Z factories) and the luminosity of the colliders is as high as possible is the study of the doubly heavy-flavored hadrons completely accessible.

  9. Current Status of NASA's Heavy Lift Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies since the Apollo Program of the 1960s have highlighted the benefits of - and the need for - a national heavy lift launch capability to support human exploration, science, national security, and commercial development of space. NASA's most recent and most refined effort to develop that heavy lift capability is the Ares V. Ares V is a key element of NASA's Constellation Program. It s overall goal s part of approved national space policy is to retire the Space Shuttle and develop its successor, complete the International Space Station, and resume human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), beginning with exploration of the Moon as a step to other destinations in the Solar System. Ares V s first role is that of cargo vehicle to carry a lunar lander into Earth orbit, rendezvous with astronauts launched on the smaller Ares I crew launch vehicle, and perform the trans lunar injection (TLI) mission to send the mated crew and lander vehicles to the Moon. The design reference missions (DRMs) envisioned for it also include direct lunar cargo flights and a human Mars mission. Although NASA's priority from the start of the Constellation Program to the present has been development of the Ares I and Orion crew vehicle to replace the retiring Shuttle fleet, the Ares team has made significant progress in understanding the performance, design trades, technology needs, mission scenarios, ground and flight operations, cost, and other factors associated with heavy lift development. The current reference configuration was selected during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) in fall 2008. That design has served since then as a point of departure for further refinements and trades among five participating NASA field centers. Ares V development to date has benefited from progress on the Ares I due to commonality between the vehicles. The Ares I first stage completed a successful firing of a 5-segment solid rocket motor. The Ares I-X launch Numerous studies

  10. Charged Particle Multiplicity and Open Heavy Flavor Physics in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yujiao

    In this thesis, two independent measurements are presented: the measurements of centrality dependence and pseudo-rapidity dependence of charged particle multiplicities, and the measurements of centrality dependence of open heavy flavor suppression. These measurements are carried out with the Pb+Pb collisions data at the LHC energy sNN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector. For the charged particle measurements, charged particles are reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point "tracklet" and full tracking) from the pixel detector only. Measurements are presented of the per-event charged particle density distribution, dNch /deta and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudo-rapidity interval |eta| <0.5 in several intervals of collision centrality. The results are compared to previous mid-rapidity measurements at the LHC and RHIC. The variation of the mid-rapidity charged particle yield per colliding nucleon pair with the number of participants is consistent with the lower sNN results measured at RHIC. The shape of the dNch/deta distribution is found to be independent of centrality within the systematic uncertainties of the measurement. For the open heavy flavor suppression measurements, muons identified by the muon spectrometer are classified as heavy flavor decays and background contributions by using a fitting procedure with templates from Monte Carlo samples. Results are presented for the per-event muon yield as a function of muon transverse momentum, p T, over the range of 4 < pT < 14 GeV. Over that momentum range single muon production results largely from heavy quark decays. The centrality dependence of the muon yields is characterized by the "central to peripheral" ratio, RCP. Using this measure, muon production from heavy quark decays is found to be suppressed by a centrality-dependent factor that increases smoothly from peripheral to central collisions. Muon production is suppressed by approximately a factor of two in central collisions relative to

  11. Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. The most favorable conditions of high densities and low temperatures are usually associated with astrophysical processes and may be difficult to achieve in heavy ion collisions. Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made.

  12. Decay constants of p and d wave heavy light mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Veseli, Sinisa; Dunietz, Isard

    1996-07-01

    We investigate decay constants of P- and D-wave heavy-light mesons within the mock-meson approach. Numerical estimates are obtained using the relativistic quark model. We also comment on recent calculations of heavy-light pseudo-scalar and vector decay constants.

  13. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments. PMID:26426011

  14. Heavy-Workpiece Handler For Vacuum Plasma Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William N.

    1991-01-01

    Handling device manipulates heavy, hollow workpiece for plasma spraying in vacuum chamber. Rotates and tilts workpiece, keeping it approximately perpendicular to plasma-spray nozzle, so nozzle deposits uniform layer on interior surface of workpiece. Accommodates workpieces as heavy as 1,000 pounds and compatible with heat and vacuum of spraying process.

  15. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidality: An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheel, Karen R.; Westefeld, John S.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between preference for heavy metal music and vulnerability to suicide among high school students. Results indicate that preference for heavy metal music among adolescents may be sign of increased suicidal vulnerability, but also suggests that the source of the problem may lie more in personal and familial…

  16. Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-four male and 30 female adolescents who like heavy metal music were compared on various outcome variables to 56 male and 105 female peers who do not like it. Those who like heavy metal report a wider range of reckless behavior than those who do not like it. (SLD)

  17. Theoretical Concepts for Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2009-07-27

    Various forms of matter may be produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. These are the Quark GluonPlasma, the Color Glass Condensate , the Glasma and Quarkyoninc Matter. A novel effect that may beassociated with topological charge fluctuations is the Chiral Magnetic Effect. I explain these concepts andexplain how they may be seen in ultra-relatvistic heavy ion collisions

  18. NSAC Recommends a Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes the plan submitted by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee to the Department of Energy and National Science Foundation urging construction of an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collider designed to accelerate nucleon beams of ions as heavy as uranium. Discusses the process of selecting the type of facility as well as siting. (JM)

  19. Why Heavy Drinking Seems to Boost Desire to Smoke More

    MedlinePlus

    ... stop smoking may be because their heavy drinking speeds up how quickly their body breaks down nicotine, a new study suggests. "Our study showed that chronic heavy alcohol consumption may lead to an increase in the rate of nicotine metabolism, which could be one contributing factor to the ...

  20. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments. PMID:26426011

  1. ENZYME-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATIONS OF HEAVY METALS/METALLOIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major emphasis has been placed on the bioremediation of organic compounds and their fate and transport throughout the environment. However, another important class of chemicals polluting our environment are inorganic, particularly heavy metals and metalloids. Heavy metals are elements of the Per...

  2. Stabilization of heavy metals in ceramsite made with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Zou, J L; Li, G B

    2008-03-21

    In order to investigate stabilization of heavy metals in ceramsite made with sewage sludge as an additive, the configuration of heavy metals in ceramsite was analysed by XRD and while leaching tests were conducted to find out the effect of sintering temperature (850 degrees C, 900 degrees C, 950 degrees C, 1000 degrees C, 1100 degrees C, and 1200 degrees C), pH (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12), and H2O2 concentration (0.5molL(-1), 1molL(-1), 1.5molL(-1), 3molL(-1), and 5molL(-1)) on stabilization of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb) in ceramsite. The results indicate that leaching contents of heavy metals do not change above 1000 degrees C and sintering temperature has a significant effect on stabilization of heavy metals in ceramsite; leaching contents of heavy metals decrease as pH increases and increase as H2O2 concentration increases. XRD analysis reveals that the heavy metals exist in steady forms, mainly Pb2O(CrO(4)), CdSiO3, and CuO at 1100 degrees C. It is therefore concluded that heavy metals are properly stabilized in ceramsite and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. PMID:17692459

  3. Heavy Duty Tireman. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColman, Don

    This training outline for heavy duty tiremen, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  4. Heavy Equipment. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the heavy equipment trade as recommended by the successful heavy equipment operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to…

  5. 7 CFR 29.2662 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... percent injury tolerance. B4F Fair Medium-brown Heavy Leaf. Medium body, mature, close, lean in oil... tolerance. B5F Low Medium-brown Heavy Leaf. Medium body, mature, close, lean in oil, inelastic, weak,...

  6. Recent Progress in Isospin Physics with Heavy-Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liewen; Ko, Che Ming; Li Baoan

    2008-11-11

    We review recent progress in the determination of the subsaturation density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy from heavy-ion collisions as well as the theoretical progress in probing the high density behavior of the symmetry energy in heavy-ion reactions induced by future high energy radioactive beams. Implications of these results for the nuclear effective interactions are also discussed.

  7. Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

    2008-08-03

    For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

  8. Medical management of heavy menstrual bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Maybin, Jacqueline A; Critchley, Hilary OD

    2016-01-01

    Women with benign heavy menstrual bleeding have the choice of a number of medical treatment options to reduce their blood loss and improve quality of life. The role of the clinician is to provide information to facilitate women in making an appropriate choice. Unfortunately, many options can be associated with hormonal side effects, prevention of fertility and lack of efficacy, leading to discontinuation and progression to surgical interventions. Herein, we discuss the various options currently available to women, including antifibrinolytics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory preparations, oral contraceptive pills and oral, injectable and intrauterine progestogens. In addition, we describe the more novel option of selective progesterone receptor modulators and their current benefits and limitations. PMID:26695687

  9. Ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.

    1995-09-01

    The development of ion sources for heavy ion fusion will be reported with particular emphasis on a recently built 2 MV injector. The new injector is based on an electrostatic quadrupole configuration, and has produced pulsed K{sup +} ions of 950 mA peak from a 6.7 inch curved alumino silicate source. The ion beam has reached 2.3 MV with an energy flatness of {+-}0.2% over 1 {micro}s. The measured normalized edge emittance of less than 1 {pi} mm-mr is close to the source temperature limit. The design, construction, performance, and comparisons with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations will be described.

  10. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design of a collider capable of accelerating and colliding heavy ions and to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 2 /times/ 10/sup 26/ cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ at an energy per nucleon of 100 GeV in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Heavy Quarkonia on the Light Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Guangyao; Adhikari, Lekha; Zhao, Xingbo; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James

    2016-03-01

    We employ solutions for heavy quarkonium within a light-front basis function approach to compare with experiment and predict additional observables. The Hamiltonian is based on the Light-Front Holographic QCD (phenomenological confinement) plus one-gluon exchange. Mass spectra agree well with experiment and we employ the wavefunctions to evaluate decay constants and form factors. We discuss our progress and plans for evaluating generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and cross sections for diffractive production. Our predictions for these observables as well as predictions of additional excited states can be tested at ongoing and future experimental facilities, e.g., LHC, sPHENIX and the EIC. We acknowledge DOE Grants DE-FG02-87ER40371 & DESC0008485.

  12. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-10-01

    Various mutagenic effects by heavy ions were studied in bacteria, irradiated at accelerators in Dubna, Prague, Berkeley or Darmstadt. Endpoints investigated are histidine reversion (B. subtilis, S. typhimurium), azide resistance (B. subtilis), mutation in the lactose operon (E. coli), SOS chromotest (E. coli) and λ-prophage induction (E. coli). It was found that the cross sections of the different endpoints show a similar dependence on energy. For light ions (Z <= 4) the cross section decreases with increasing energy. For ions of Z = 10, it is nearly independent of energy. For heavier ions (Z >= 26) it increases with energy up to a maximum or saturation. The increment becomes steeper with increasing Z. This dependence on energy suggests a ``mutagenic belt'' inside the track that is restricted to an area where the density of departed energy is low enough not to kill the cell, but high enough to induce mutations.

  13. Jet Structure in Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, J.-P.; Mehtar-Tani, Y.

    We review recent theoretical developments in the study of the structure of jets that are produced in ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions. The core of the review focusses on the dynamics of the parton cascade that is induced by the interactions of a fast parton crossing a quark-gluon plasma. We recall the basic mechanisms responsible for medium induced radiation, underline the rapid disappearance of coherence effects, and the ensuing probabilistic nature of the medium induced cascade. We discuss how large radiative corrections modify the classical picture of the gluon cascade, and how these can be absorbed in a renormalization of the jet quenching parameter hat q. Then, we analyze the (wave)-turbulent transport of energy along the medium induced cascade, and point out the main characteristics of the angular structure of such a cascade. Finally, color decoherence of the incone jet structure is discussed. Modest contact with phenomenology is presented towards the end of the review.

  14. Heavy ion physics at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.

    2004-08-15

    The ion-ion center of mass energies at the LHC will exceed that at RHIC by nearly a factor of 30, providing exciting opportunities for addressing unique physics issues in a completely new energy domain. Some highlights of this new physics domain are presented here. We briefly describe how these collisions will provide new insights into the high density, low momentum gluon content of the nucleus expected to dominate the dynamics of the early state of the system. We then discuss how the dense initial state of the nucleus affects the lifetime and temperature of the produced system. Finally, we explain how the high energy domain of the LHC allows abundant production of ''rare'' processes, hard probes calculable in perturbative quantum chromodynamics, QCD. At the LHC, high momentum jets and b{bar b} bound states, the {Upsilon} family, will be produced with high statistics for the first time in heavy ion collisions.

  15. Heavy crudes, stocks pose desalting problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, D.

    1982-02-02

    The design of electrostatic desalters for crudes lighter than 30 API is well established and is no longer considered a problem. However, since 1970, the number of desalting applications involving heavy crudes (less than 20 API), syncrudes, and residual fuels has increased markedly. These stocks present unique problems that require additional design considerations. All produced crude oils, including synthetic crude from shale, tar sands, and coal liquefaction, contain impurities that adversely affect production and refining processes, the equipment used in these processes, and the final products. The most common of these impurities are water, salt, solids, metals, and sulfur. The desalting process consists of (1) adding water with a low salt content (preferably fresh) to the feedstock; (2) adequately mixing this added water with the feedstock, which already contains some quantities of salty water, sediment, and/or crystalline salt; and (3) extracting as much water as possible from the feedstock.

  16. Weld peaking on heavy aluminum structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E.; Poorman, R.; Sexton, J.

    1978-01-01

    Weld peaking is usually undesirable in any welded structure. In heavy structures, the forces involved in the welding process become very large and difficult to handle. With the shuttle's solid rocket booster, the weld peaking resulted in two major problems: (1) reduced mechanical properties across the weld joint, and (2) fit-up difficulties in subsequent assembly operation. Peaking from the weld shrinkage forces can be fairly well predicted in simple structures; however, in welding complicated assemblies, the amount of peaking is unpredictable because of unknown stresses from machining and forming, stresses induced by the fixturing, and stresses from welds in other parts of the assembly. When excessive peaking is encountered, it can be corrected using the shrinkage forces resulting from the welding process. Application of these forces is discussed in this report.

  17. Wind tunnel modeling of heavy gas dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König-Langlo, G.; Schatzmann, M.

    Assessment of risk attending the manufacturing, storing and transportation of flammable and toxic gases involves the quantification of the ensuing dispersion in case of an accidental release. Worst case considerations have to be applied in order to obtain conservative estimates The paper describes a method for the determination of lower flammability distances for gases heavier than air under unfavorable atmospheric conditions. The method is based on the results of a wind tunnel study investigating the dispersion of instantaneous as well as continuous releases into a boundary-layer shear flow disturbed and undisturbed by surface obstacles. Thermodynamic effects on the dispersing cloud have been taken into account through modification of source parameters. The results have been compared with those from corresponding field trials. The agreement is generally fair. The method has now been converted into a detailed guideline for dispersion calculations within risk assessment studies for flammable and toxic heavy gases (VDI 3783, Part 2, Beuth Verlag, Berlin, 1990).

  18. Understanding the newly observed heavy pentaquark candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Hai; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    We find that several thresholds can contribute to the enhancements of the newly observed heavy pentaquark candidates Pc+ (4380) and Pc+ (4450) via the anomalous triangle singularity (ATS) transitions in the specific kinematics of Λb → J / ψK- p. Apart from the observed two peaks we find that another peaks around 4.5 GeV can also be produced by the ATS. We also show that the Σc(*) can be produced at leading order in Λb decay. This process is different from the triangle diagram and its threshold enhancement only appears as CUSP effects if there is no pole structure or the ATS involved. The threshold interaction associated with the presence of the ATS turns out to be a general phenomenon and plays a crucial role in the understanding of candidates for exotic states.

  19. Focal-surface detector for heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, John R.; Braid, Thomas H.; Stoltzfus, Joseph C.

    1979-01-01

    A detector of the properties of individual charged particles in a beam includes a gridded ionization chamber, a cathode, a plurality of resistive-wire proportional counters, a plurality of anode sections, and means for controlling the composition and pressure of gas in the chamber. Signals generated in response to the passage of charged particles can be processed to identify the energy of the particles, their loss of energy per unit distance in an absorber, and their angle of incidence. In conjunction with a magnetic spectrograph, the signals can be used to identify particles and their state of charge. The detector is especially useful for analyzing beams of heavy ions, defined as ions of atomic mass greater than 10 atomic mass units.

  20. Medical management of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Maybin, Jacqueline A; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-01-01

    Women with benign heavy menstrual bleeding have the choice of a number of medical treatment options to reduce their blood loss and improve quality of life. The role of the clinician is to provide information to facilitate women in making an appropriate choice. Unfortunately, many options can be associated with hormonal side effects, prevention of fertility and lack of efficacy, leading to discontinuation and progression to surgical interventions. Herein, we discuss the various options currently available to women, including antifibrinolytics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory preparations, oral contraceptive pills and oral, injectable and intrauterine progestogens. In addition, we describe the more novel option of selective progesterone receptor modulators and their current benefits and limitations. PMID:26695687