Science.gov

Sample records for heavy drinking nondaily

  1. Nondaily smoking: a population-based, longitudinal study of stability and predictors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nondaily smoking appears to have remained stable in Western countries in recent years, alongside a steep decline in daily smoking. Nondaily smoking increases the risk of several diseases and premature mortality, but our knowledge about nondaily smoking is limited. The present study was designed to examine the stability of nondaily smoking during young adulthood, and to identify adolescent factors predictive of nondaily smoking compared with nonsmoking and non-nicotine-dependent and nicotine-dependent daily smoking. Methods A population-based sample (n = 942) of Norwegians was followed up by surveys for 13 years, from adolescence to young adulthood. Information about smoking patterns, nicotine dependence, school achievement, parents’ and peers’ smoking, and parental monitoring was collected. Data on parental and participants’ education were obtained from a national register. Results Of all nondaily smokers at age 21 years, 26% were still nondaily smokers at 27 years, while 17% had become daily smokers and 57% had quit. Bivariate analyses revealed that young adult nondaily smokers did not differ from nonsmokers on any of the included variables, while a number of differences in parental, peers’ and individual characteristics were observed between nondaily smokers and the two categories of smokers in young adulthood. Longitudinal analyses revealed that unorganized leisure time activities and peers’ smoking differentiated nondaily smoking from nonsmoking. Higher educational achievement and less parental binge drinking predicted nondaily smoking and differentiated it from both categories of daily smoking. Conclusions The degree of nondaily smoking-stability from 21 to 27 years of age was modest, and most nondaily smokers quit smoking in the course of young adulthood. Young adult nondaily smokers were quite similar to nonsmokers, but differed substantially from both nicotine-dependent and nondependent daily smokers. The study suggests that

  2. Heavy Drinking Might Harm the Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160283.html Heavy Drinking Might Harm the Lungs Alcohol appears to reduce ... 2016 FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heavy drinking may increase the risk of lung problems, a ...

  3. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Nondaily and Daily Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Nguyen, Nga; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore associations between subjective social status (SSS) and smoking level among 2274 adult current smokers. Methods Associations were investigated using a covariate-adjusted proportional odds cumulative logit model. Moderation (via race/ethnicity or sex) and mediation (via depressive symptoms, social/emotional support, or life satisfaction) were explored in additional models. Results Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily versus light daily or moderate/ heavy daily smoking (p = .017). Life satisfaction partially mediated the association of SSS and smoking level (p = .003). Conclusions Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily relative to light daily or moderate to heavy smoking, potentially via greater life satisfaction. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24629553

  4. Heavy Drinking and Suicide in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Russian levels of alcohol consumption and suicide are among the highest in the world. While observers have long suspected an association between the two, they were unable to investigate this hypothesis until recently due to past Soviet secrecy and thus a lack of data. This study took advantage of the newly available data during the post-Soviet era to examine the cross-sectional association between heavy drinking and suicide mortality in Russia. Aggregate mortality data for the Russian regions (n = 78) for the year 2000 were used to measure heavy drinking and suicide rates. Government data were used to control for the regional economic situation and strength of social institutions. Ordinary Least Squares regression was employed to estimate the effect of a proxy for heavy drinking on overall and sex-specific age-adjusted suicide rates. The results showed a positive and significant association between the two, and the association held for overall, male and female rates. These results not only confirmed an association between heavy drinking and suicide in Russia, but when compared to findings from previous studies of other countries they led to the hypothesis that a nation’s beverage preference may be as important as its wet/dry drinking culture in its sensitivity of suicide rates to alcohol consumption. PMID:17160138

  5. Multivariate Analyses of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenzel, L. Mickey

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines predictors of heavy drinking frequency and drinking-related problems among more than 600 college students. Controlling for high school drinking frequency, results of multiple regression analyses showed that more frequent heavy drinking was predicted by being male and risk factors of more frequent marijuana and tobacco…

  6. Executive cognitive function and heavy drinking behavior among college students.

    PubMed

    Blume, A W; Marlatt, G A; Schmaling, K B

    2000-09-01

    Executive cognitive functions (ECFs) seem important for motivating change and self-regulation of problem drinking. Evidence for executive cognitive deficits have been found among heavy-drinking college students. Although college students who abuse alcohol often experience a variety of negative consequences related to their drinking behavior, executive cognitive dysfunction may interfere with recognizing consequences and responding skillfully to avoid future harm. Fifty college students with drinking problems completed assessments of ECFs. Greater negative drinking consequences and short-term memory function significantly predicted greater awareness of drinking problems. ECF may be an important factor for motivation to change drinking behavior among college students. PMID:10998956

  7. Situational Determinants of Heavy Drinking among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kate B.

    1993-01-01

    Examined situations associated with excessive drinking among college students (n=78). Compared to light and moderate drinkers, heavy drinkers were more likely to report excessive drinking in situations involving social pressure to drink, pleasant times with others, pleasant emotions, and physical discomfort. (Author/NB)

  8. HealthLines - Heavy Drinking Poor Eating | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents Heavy Drinking, Poor Eating A recent study finds that heavy ... parts of the diet that suffer with heavy drinking. For instance, men who drink a lot of ...

  9. Exploring Heavy Drinking Patterns Among Black and White Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Tali; Skinner, Martie L; Haggerty, Kevin P; Crutchfield, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This investigation examined patterns of heavy drinking among Black and White young adults from a person-centered perspective and linked family and individual factors in adolescence to young adult drinking patterns. Method: The analysis focuses on 331 10th-grade students (168 Whites, 163 Blacks; 51% males) who were followed into young adulthood (ages 20 and 22). Cluster analyses using heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness, and alcohol problems in young adulthood resulted in groups of drinkers with different patterns. Groups were examined across and within race. Associations between young adult drinking groups and adolescent family and individual factors were tested. Results: Groups followed well-established race differences, with Whites clustering into frequent drinking groups more than Blacks, and Blacks clustering into non–heavy drinking groups more than Whites. Further, Black heavy drinkers reported fewer alcohol problems than White counterparts. Parental monitoring, consistent discipline, ethnic identity, and delinquency were associated with adult heavy episodic drinking groups for both races. Monitoring and delinquency, along with parental norms, were associated with drunkenness groups for both races. However, race differences were observed for drunkenness clusters such that attachment was predictive for White clusters, and parental guidelines and discipline were predictive for Black clusters. Conclusions: Large race differences in heavy drinking at young adulthood were confirmed. Family dynamics in 10th grade were identified as important for the development of different drinking patterns in the early 20s, when many individuals have left home, which suggests a key target for substance use prevention programs. PMID:25208202

  10. Examining Factors Associated with Heavy Episodic Drinking Among College Undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Scholly, Kristen; Katz, Alan R; Kehl, Lisa

    2014-04-26

    Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students' heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one's social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students' perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found. PMID:26973931

  11. Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Drew K.

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…

  12. Drinking identity as a mediator of the relationship between drinking motives and weekly alcohol consumption among heavy drinking undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study assessed relationships among social, coping, enhancement, and conformity drinking motives and weekly alcohol consumption by considering drinking identity as a mediator of this relationship. Methods Participants were 260 heavy drinking undergraduate students (81% female; Mage = 23.45; SD = 5.39) who completed a web-based survey. Results Consistent with expectations, findings revealed significant direct effects of motives on drinking identity for all four models. Further, significant direct effects emerged for drinking identity on weekly drinking. Results partially supported predictions that motives would have direct effects on drinks per week; total effects of motives on drinking emerged for all models but direct effects of motives on weekly drinking emerged for only enhancement motives. There were significant indirect effects of motives on weekly drinking through drinking identity for all four models. Conclusions Findings supported hypotheses that drinking identity would mediate the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consumption. These examinations have practical utility and may inform development and implementation of interventions and programs targeting alcohol misuse among heavy drinking undergraduate students. PMID:25127197

  13. Secondary Effects of Heavy Drinking on Campus. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    While some may view college drinking as a "rite of passage" for students, the consequences of underage and high-risk drinking leave no room for doubt--excessive alcohol use is harmful, affecting both students and the institution as a whole. Not only do heavy drinkers negatively affect their own health and academic potential but also the physical,…

  14. Acculturation Stress and Drinking Problems Among Urban Heavy Drinking Latinos in the Northeast

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christina S.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; López, Steven R.; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between level of acculturation and acculturation stress, and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of acculturation level. Acculturation stress accounted for significant variance in drinking problems while adjusting for acculturation, income, and education. Choosing to drink in response to acculturation stress should be an intervention target with Hispanic heavy drinkers. PMID:24215224

  15. Heavy Episodic Drinking in Early Adulthood and Outcomes in Midlife*

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Frank; Grossman, Daniel; Platt, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed to what extent drinking patterns of young adults persist into midlife and whether frequent heavy episodic drinking as a young adult is associated with educational attainment, labor market, and health outcomes at midlife. Method: Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we grouped individuals into three baseline drinking categories using data on the number of occasions they consumed six or more drinks on one occasion from the 1982—1984 surveys. Categories were frequent heavy episodic drinker, occasional heavy episodic drinker, and other drinker/abstainer. We used propensity score matching to compare baseline drinking groups on midlife alcohol consumption, educational attainment, and labor market and health outcomes. Results: Frequent heavy episodic drinkers substantially reduced alcohol consumption between baseline and follow-up 25 years later. However, they were much more likely to abuse alcohol and be alcohol dependent in 1994 and be heavy episodic drinkers at the 25-year follow-up compared with the other drinking groups. After matching, there was little indication that being in a higher consumption baseline alcohol group was adversely associated with years of schooling completed by middle age, the probability of being employed, earnings conditional on being employed in midlife, and health problems in midlife. Results on the probability of surviving to follow-up were mixed. Conclusions: Frequent heavy episodic drinking at ages 17–25 years was associated with higher rates of alcohol dependence and abuse at a 10-year follow-up and alcohol consumption 25 years following baseline but not with other study outcomes at midlife. Lack of differences in outcomes at midlife may be because of decreased heavy episodic drinking among the heaviest baseline drinkers. PMID:21513683

  16. Why Heavy Drinking Seems to Boost Desire to Smoke More

    MedlinePlus

    ... stop smoking may be because their heavy drinking speeds up how quickly their body breaks down nicotine, a new study suggests. "Our study showed that chronic heavy alcohol consumption may lead to an increase in the rate of nicotine metabolism, which could be one contributing factor to the ...

  17. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol's aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking. PMID:26052793

  18. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking

    PubMed Central

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking. PMID:26052793

  19. Usefulness of Heavy Drinking and Binge Drinking for the Diagnosis of Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Gu; Sung, Han Na

    2016-01-01

    Background This research investigated the sensitivity and specificity of heavy and binge drinking for screening of alcohol use disorder. Methods This retrospective study was conducted with 976 adults who visited the Sun Health Screening Center for health screenings in 2015. Daily drinking amount, drinking frequency per week, and weekly drinking amount were investigated. Using criteria from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, participants were classified as normal drinkers, heavy drinkers, or binge drinkers, and grouped by age and sex. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of heavy and binge drinking were compared for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) 4th edition-text revision and alcohol use disorder using the DSM 5th edition. Results The sensitivity of heavy and binge drinking for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and alcohol use disorder were 51.7%, 43.8%, and 35.3%, and 69.0%, 62.5%, and 48.2%, respectively. The specificity of these were 90.1%, 91.7%, and 95.5%, and 84.3%, 86.8%, and 91.2%, respectively. The PPV of these were 24.8%, 40.5%, and 72.7%, and 21.7%, 38.0%, and 65.2%, respectively. The NPV of these were 96.7%, 92.6%, and 81.2%, and 97.8%, 94.7%, and 83.7%, respectively. Conclusion Heavy and binge drinking did not show enough diagnostic power to screen DSM alcohol use disorder although they did show high specificity and NPV. PMID:27468339

  20. Decisional balance: Alcohol decisional balance intervention for heavy drinking undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated a decisional balance intervention among heavy drinking undergraduates and compared a non-weighted decisional balance proportion (DBP; Collins, Carey, & Otto, 2009) to a participant-weighted DBP with weights based on relative importance of items. We expected: 1) the intervention to decrease drinking compared to control; 2) the weighted intervention to be more effective compared to the non-weighted or control in reducing drinking; and 3) intervention efficacy to be moderated by initial DBP. Method Participants (N =162, Mean age = 24.37, SD = 6.81, 27% male) were randomly assigned to an alcohol intervention wherein they were either asked to assign weights of importance to pros and cons (weighted intervention), or not (non-weighted intervention), or to control. Participants completed web-based questionnaires at baseline and again during a one month follow-up assessment. Results Consistent with expectations, the non-weighted intervention was associated with reduced follow-up weekly drinking, and the weighted intervention was associated with reductions in drinking frequency. Results further indicated that initial decisional balance did not moderate intervention efficacy. Discussion Findings suggest that the decisional balance procedure can reduce drinking but there was not compelling evidence for the addition of weights. This study lays the groundwork for enhancing future interventions by increasing empirical knowledge of the role motivation plays in heavy alcohol use. PMID:26555004

  1. International Study of Heavy Drinking: Attitudes and Sociodemographic Factors in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dantzer, Cecile; Wardle, Jane; Fuller, Ray; Pampalone, Sacha Z.; Steptoe, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of heavy drinking among students in 21 developed and developing countries using an anonymous survey of 7,846 male and 9,892 female students aged 17 to 30 years. There were wide variations in the prevalence of drinking among countries, and the highest rates of heavy drinking (defined as 5 or more drinks for men…

  2. Personality Profiles and Frequent Heavy Drinking in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Bethany C.; Zhang, Minqiang; Lanza, Stephanie T.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies examining the link between personality and alcohol use have adopted a comprehensive modeling framework to take into account individuals’ profiles across multiple personality traits. In this study, latent profile analysis (LPA) was applied to a national sample of young adults in the United States to identify subgroups defined by their profiles of mean scores on the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness personality factors. Personality profiles were then used to predict heavy drinking. Five profiles were identified: Reserved, Rigid, Confident, Ordinary, and Resilient. Compared to individuals in the Ordinary profile, those with Reserved and Resilient profiles were at increased risk of frequent heavy drinking. These findings suggest which comprehensive personality profiles may place individuals at risk for problematic alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:25892836

  3. Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mendel, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants: 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods: The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results: Nondaily (65.8%)…

  4. Adolescent Heavy Episodic Drinking: Neurocognitive Functioning during Early Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Winward, Jennifer L.; Hanson, Karen L.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The present study investigated the rate and pattern of neuropsychological recovery in heavy episodic drinking teens during the initial days to weeks of abstinence from alcohol. Method Adolescents (ages 16–18) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HED; N=39) and socio-demographically similar control teens (CON; N=26) were recruited from San Diego area schools. HED and CON were comparable on 5th grade standardized math and language arts test performance to ensure similar functioning prior to onset of substance use. Participants were administered three neuropsychological test batteries with 2-week intervals during a 4-week monitored abstinence period. Results HED teens performed worse overall than CON on tests of prospective memory (p=.005), cognitive switching (p=.039), inhibition task accuracy (p=.001), verbal memory (p's<.045), visuospatial construction (p’s<.043), and language and achievement (p’s<.008). The statistically significant group × time interaction for block design demonstrated normalization within the four weeks of abstinence for the HED (p=.009). Discussion This study identified cognitive performance deficits associated with heavy episodic drinking in adolescence during early abstinence and with sustained 4-week abstention. These findings suggest alcohol-related influences on several underlying brain systems that may predate the onset of alcohol abuse or dependence or take longer than four weeks to recover. PMID:24512674

  5. International study of heavy drinking: attitudes and sociodemographic factors in university students.

    PubMed

    Dantzer, Cecile; Wardle, Jane; Fuller, Ray; Pampalone, Sacha Z; Steptoe, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of heavy drinking among students in 21 developed and developing countries using an anonymous survey of 7,846 male and 9,892 female students aged 17 to 30 years. There were wide variations in the prevalence of drinking among countries, and the highest rates of heavy drinking (defined as 5 or more drinks for men and 4 or more drinks for women on at least 1 occasion over the past 2 weeks) were reported in Belgium, Colombia, Ireland, and Poland (men), and Ireland and England (women). Heavy drinking was associated with living away from home, having a wealthier family background, and having well-educated parents. Beliefs about the dangers to health of excessive consumption were negatively related to heavy drinking. Heavy drinking is a concern among students in several countries and is associated with greater affluence. Challenging beliefs concerning health risks is a crucial aspect of prevention in this population. PMID:17017304

  6. Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O’Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods In fall 2005, a random sample of 4,100 students completed an online survey. Results 29% reported current smoking, of which 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers, nondaily smokers were younger, African American (compared to White), had mothers with higher education, belonged to Greek organizations, and attended private (vs. public) schools. Nondaily smokers were less likely to have used illicit drugs. Conclusions Nondaily and daily smokers differed on several demographic and contextual factors, but reported mostly similar health risk behaviors. PMID:22370259

  7. Predictors of heavy episodic drinking and weekly drunkenness among immigrant Latinos in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Daniel-Ulloa, J.; Reboussin, B.A.; Gilbert, P.A.; Mann, L.; Alonzo, J.; Downs, M.; Rhodes, S.D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined correlates of heavy drinking among rural immigrant Latino men. This analysis identified correlates of typical week drunkenness and past 30-day heavy episodic drinking, within a sample of immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina (n = 258). In the bivariate analyses, Mexican birth, entering the United States as an adult, and year-round employment were associated with increased odds of typical week drunkenness, and higher acculturation and affiliation with a religion with strict prohibitions against drinking alcohol were associated with lower odds of typical week drunkenness. Being older, Mexican birth, and entering the United States as an adult were associated with increased odds of heavy episodic drinking, and affiliation with a religion with strict prohibitions against drinking alcohol was associated with decreased odds of heavy episodic drinking. In multivariable modeling, only religious affiliation was associated with typical week drunkenness. Mexican birth, entering the United States as an adult and were associated with increased odds of heavy episodic drinking, and affiliation with a religion with strict prohibitions against drinking alcohol and completing high school was associated with lower odds of heavy episodic drinking. The health of minority men in the United States has been neglected, and immigrant Latino men comprise a particularly vulnerable population. This analysis provides initial data on some factors associated with heavy drinking within a population about whom little is known. Future studies should examine moderating or mediating factors between age, acculturation, religiosity, and heavy drinking that might be targets for behavioral interventions. PMID:24457467

  8. Alcohol abuse: medical effects of heavy drinking in late life.

    PubMed

    Gambert, S R

    1997-06-01

    As many as 15% of community-dwelling older persons are heavy drinkers, but their alcoholism is often hidden from their physicians. Depression, loneliness, and lack of social support are the most frequently cited antecedents to drinking for older alcoholics. Clinically, the same amount of alcohol once consumed with impunity may cause clinical symptoms in late life. Physiologic changes in volume of distribution make older patients susceptible to acute alcohol toxicity, with its CNS effects and metabolic disturbances. Liver disease, nutritional deficiencies, and impotence are consequences of chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:9194788

  9. College Student Affect and Heavy Drinking: Variable Associations Across Days, Semesters, and People

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea L.; Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested associations between positive and negative affect and heavy drinking in 734 college students who completed daily diaries in 14-day bursts once per semester over 7 semesters (≤98 days per person). Three-level multilevel models tested whether affect and heavy drinking were linked across days, semesters, and persons. Higher daily, between-semester, and between-person positive affect were each associated with a greater odds of heavy drinking on weekdays and on weekend days. A significant interaction with semester in college showed that the association between daily positive affect and heavy drinking on weekend days became stronger over time. That is, heavy drinking on a weekend day with higher positive affect was more likely in later years of college (OR=2.93, Fall of 4th year), compared to earlier in college (OR=1.80, Fall of 1st year). A similar interaction was found for between-semester positive affect and heavy drinking on weekdays. Higher daily negative affect was associated with a greater odds of heavy drinking on weekdays only for students who first began drinking in 7th grade or earlier (OR=2.36). Results of this study highlight the importance of varied time spans in studying the etiology, consequences, and prevention of heavy drinking. Harm-reduction strategies that target positive affect-related drinking by encouraging protective behaviors during celebratory events may become increasingly important as students transition to later years of college. PMID:25347017

  10. Heavy Drinking and Polydrug Use among College Students

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.; Fitzelle, Dawn M.B.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a serious problem on college campuses but may not be adequately captured by traditional methods of defining binge drinking. This study examined a new approach to categorizing alcohol use and its relationship with illicit drug use. A survey was administered to 484 college students ages 18 to 25. Drinkers were divided into three groups based on the number of typical drinks consumed per day: “light”—1 to 4 (n=182); “moderate”—5 to 9 (n=173); and “heavy”—10+ (n=56). Heavy drinkers could be differentiated from moderate and light drinkers on age of onset of alcohol use, illicit drug use, and frequency of illicit drug use. A binary categorization of “binge” vs. “nonbinge” drinking may obscure important differences within binge drinkers. These findings have implications for prevention, as well as clinical risk assessment of college student drinkers for adverse consequences of concomitant alcohol and illicit drug consumption. PMID:19122887

  11. Alcohol Expectancies as Potential Mediators of Parent Alcoholism Effects on the Development of Adolescent Heavy Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colder, Craig R.; Chassin, Laurie; Stice, Eric M.; Curran, Patrick J.

    1997-01-01

    Used latent growth curve modeling to examine adolescent alcohol expectancies as mediators of effects of parent alcoholism on escalation in adolescent heavy drinking. Found that parent alcoholism directly affected adolescent heavy drinking. Alcohol expectancies did not mediate parent alcoholism effects. Cross-sectional evidence suggested that…

  12. Correlates of Dating Violence among Male and Female Heavy-Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roudsari, Bahman S.; Leahy, Matthew M.; Walters, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlates for dating violence among heavy-drinking college students. Method: Participants were at least 18 years old and reported at least one heavy-drinking episode in the past 2 weeks. Results: After covariate adjustment, estimated peak blood alcohol concentration during the past month was associated with higher…

  13. A Research Update on Correlates of Heavy Episodic Drinking among Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montauti, Sara Barrows; Bulmer, Sandra Minor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite prevention efforts of colleges and universities across the nation, there have been no substantial decreases in heavy episodic drinking among undergraduates over the past 2 decades. Purpose: This study provides an update on correlates of heavy episodic drinking for a recent cohort of undergraduate college students. Methods: A…

  14. Heavy Episodic Drinking among Adolescents: A Test of Hypotheses Derived from Control Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Barbara J.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature on the causes of heavy episodic drinking, little attention has been paid to this phenomenon in the sociological and criminological literature. This research assesses the extent to which a popular theory of crime and deviance, control theory, can explain heavy episodic drinking. Analysis of data collected from a…

  15. Heavy Episodic Drinking in College Students: Associations with Features of Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvers, Patrick; Landfield, Kristin E.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study extends the college heavy episodic drinking literature by examining the associations between features of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), on the one hand, and heavy episodic drinking and associated problem behaviors, on the other. Participants: Participants were 159 (85 male, 74 female) undergraduates…

  16. Unintended Effects of an Intervention Supporting Mexican-Heritage Youth: Decreased Parent Heavy Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Baldwin, Adrienne; Ayers, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of a parenting intervention, "Familias: Preparando la Nueva Generación" (FPNG), intended to support children, on parents heavy drinking. We hypothesized that parent participants of FPNG would reduce their heavy drinking at 1-year follow-up. Methods: Parents (N = 281) of middle school children from a large,…

  17. Heavy metals in drinking water: Occurrences, implications, and future needs in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, M A Jafar; Al-Attas, Omar; Husain, Tahir

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metals in drinking water pose a threat to human health. Populations are exposed to heavy metals primarily through water consumption, but few heavy metals can bioaccumulate in the human body (e.g., in lipids and the gastrointestinal system) and may induce cancer and other risks. To date, few thousand publications have reported various aspects of heavy metals in drinking water, including the types and quantities of metals in drinking water, their sources, factors affecting their concentrations at exposure points, human exposure, potential risks, and their removal from drinking water. Many developing countries are faced with the challenge of reducing human exposure to heavy metals, mainly due to their limited economic capacities to use advanced technologies for heavy metal removal. This paper aims to review the state of research on heavy metals in drinking water in developing countries; understand their types and variability, sources, exposure, possible health effects, and removal; and analyze the factors contributing to heavy metals in drinking water. This study identifies the current challenges in developing countries, and future research needs to reduce the levels of heavy metals in drinking water. PMID:27355520

  18. HEAVY DRINKING TRAJECTORIES AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: A LONGITUDINAL, GROUP-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon DL; Shoveller, Jean A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy episodic drinking (HED) is associated with sexual risk behavior and HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM), yet few studies have examined heavy drinking typologies in this population. Methods We analyzed data from 4,075 HIV-uninfected MSM (aged 16 to 88) participating in EXPLORE, a 48-month behavioral intervention trial, to determine the patterns and predictors of HED trajectories. Heavy episodic drinking was defined as the number of days in which ≥5 alcohol drinks were consumed in the past 6 months. Longitudinal group-based mixture models were used to identify HED trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine correlates of membership in each group. Results We identified five distinct HED trajectories: non-heavy drinkers (31.9%); infrequent heavy drinkers (i.e., <10 heavy drinking days per 6 month period, 54.3%); regular heavy drinkers (30-45 heavy drinking days per 6 months, 8.4%); drinkers who increased HED over time (average 33 days in the past six months to 77 days at end of follow-up, 3.6%); and very frequent heavy drinkers (>100 days per 6 months, 1.7%). Intervention arm did not predict drinking trajectory patterns. Younger age, self-identifying as white, lower educational attainment, depressive symptoms, and stimulant use were also associated with reporting heavier drinking trajectories. Compared to non-heavy drinkers, participants who increased HED more often experienced a history of childhood sexual abuse. Over the study period, depressive symptomatology increased significantly among very frequent heavy drinkers. Conclusions Socioeconomic factors, substance use, depression, and childhood sexual abuse were associated with heavier drinking patterns among MSM. Multi-component interventions to reduce HED should seek to mitigate the adverse impacts of low educational attainment, depression, and early traumatic life events on the initiation, continuation or escalation of frequent HED among MSM. PMID

  19. US trends in light, moderate and heavy drinking episodes from 2000 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, William C.; Mulia, Nina; Zemore, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Risks and potential benefits associated with alcohol use vary with the amount of alcohol consumed on a drinking occasion. Over time, changes in the absolute and relative numbers of light or heavy drinking episodes may occur, impacting health and social problems. Methods Analyses of the 2000, 2005 and 2010 NAS surveys focus on trends in the volumes of alcohol consumed on days where the drinker had 1–2, 3–4 or 5 or more drinks separately. These volume measures were obtained from graduated frequency questions with adjustments for estimated drink alcohol content for each drinker based on reported beer brand, spirits drink and pour method, contexts of drinking and demographic characteristics. Respondents with especially high alcohol content drinks were adjusted up one category and those with especially low alcohol content drinks were adjusted down one category. Trend significance was tested with adjusted Wald tests and in negative binomial models with 2000 as the reference year, indicators for race/ethnicity group and interactions between these and survey year, and adjustments for age, educational attainment, income, employment status and wetness region. Analyses were conducted both in the overall sample including abstainers, and in the current drinker sample only. Results Overall trend results indicate an increase in drink-alcohol-content-adjusted alcohol volume of 25% from 2000 to 2010 with similar changes between 2000 to 2005 and 2005 to 2010. Most of the increase from 2000 to 2005 resulted from increased volume from light (1–2 drink) days for men and women and moderate to heavy (3–4 drink) days for women, while the change from 2005 to 2010 resulted mostly from volume from heavy drinking days (5+ drinks per day) for men. Black and Hispanic women were found not to have participated in the overall trend of increased alcohol volume. Conclusions Findings highlight shifts in drinking patterns suggesting increased heavy occasion drinking in 2010

  20. Nondaily drinkers score higher on the Alcohol Dependence Scale than daily drinkers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Linda D; Sobell, Linda C; Sobell, Mark B; Dornheim, Liane; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between drinking pattern and alcohol dependence severity, 209 individuals voluntarily seeking treatment for alcohol problems were administered the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS), the Short Alcohol Dependence Data (SADD) questionnaire, and a 12-month Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB) drinking assessment as part of their pretreatment assessment. Based on their TLFB data, participants were divided into two groups: daily (DD, n=84) and nondaily (NDD, n=125) drinkers. The two groups were compared on several demographic and drinking variables. It was hypothesized that DD would have higher scores on measures of alcohol dependence than NDD. However, the reverse pattern was found. The NDD had significantly higher ADS scores than the DD. An analysis of ADS subscale scores indicated that the primary difference between the two groups was in the domain of loss of behavior control. It is suggested that NDD may perceive intoxication as more impairing, perhaps because they have acquired less tolerance than DD. These results suggest that treatment focused on restoring a sense of behavior control would be beneficial for NDD. PMID:12573684

  1. Trends in binge and heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure in the U.S. military.

    PubMed

    Bray, Robert M; Brown, Janice M; Williams, Jason

    2013-07-01

    Population-based Department of Defense health behavior surveys were examined for binge and heavy drinking among U.S. active duty personnel. From 1998-2008, personnel showed significant increases in heavy drinking (15% to 20%) and binge drinking (35% to 47%). The rate of alcohol-related serious consequences was 4% for nonbinge drinkers, 9% for binge drinkers, and 19% for heavy drinkers. Personnel with high combat exposure had significantly higher rates of heavy (26.8%) and binge (54.8%) drinking than their counterparts (17% and 45%, respectively). Heavy and binge drinking put service members at high risk for problems that diminish force readiness and psychological fitness. PMID:23869454

  2. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  3. Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods: In fall 2005, a random sample of 4100 students completed an online survey. Results: Of those surveyed, 29% reported current smoking; of that 29%, 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers,…

  4. Lifetime and twelve-month prevalence of heavy-drinking in Singapore: Results from a representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study aimed to establish the prevalence of heavy drinking, evaluate correlations between heavy drinking and socio-demographic factors, physical and psychiatric conditions, and assess the impact of heavy drinking on quality of life and days of work-loss. Methods Data from a nationally-representative cross-sectional sample were used. The sample comprised 6616 community-dwelling Singaporeans & Singapore Permanent Residents. The main instruments used were the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview and EuroQol 5D. Heavy drinking was defined as consumption of 4 or more drinks, or 5 or more drinks in a day in women and men respectively. Results 12.6% of all adult Singapore residents reported heavy drinking in the last 12 months, and 15.9% reported lifetime heavy-drinking. Strong gender, ethnic, age and income differences were seen. Heavy drinking was positively associated with major depression, the presence of any mood disorder, and with chronic pain. It was also strongly associated with alcohol dependence, alcohol abuse, and nicotine dependence. Heavy-drinkers reported lower quality of life compared to non-heavy drinkers, measured using the EuroQol 5D Visual Analogue Scale. Conclusions Singapore has a relatively high prevalence of 12-month heavy drinking of 12.6%, and lifetime heavy drinking of 15.9%. Heavy drinking was positively associated with both physical and mental health conditions, and with declines in quality of life. Continued monitoring of heavy drinking behavior and sustained efforts to mitigate the risks associated with heavy drinking is needed. PMID:24499269

  5. Randomized Controlled Trial of BASICS for Heavy Drinking Mandated and Volunteer Undergraduates: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Meredith A.; Buckner, Julia D.; Larimer, Mary E.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first randomized trial testing whether heavy drinking undergraduates mandated to the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program following a campus alcohol violation would benefit as much as heavy drinking volunteers up to one year post-intervention using control groups with high-risk drinkers to model disciplinary-related and naturalistic changes in drinking. Participants (61% male; 51% mandated; 84% Caucasian; Mage = 20.14 years) were screened for heavy drinking and randomized to BASICS (n = 115) or assessment-only control (n = 110). Outcome measures (drinking, alcohol problems) were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. At 4 weeks post-intervention, intent-to-treat multilevel longitudinal models showed that regardless of referral group (mandated or volunteer) BASICS significantly decreased weekly drinking, typical drinks, and peak drinks relative to controls (ds = .41-.92). BASICS had a large effect on decreases in alcohol problems (d = .87). At 12 months post-intervention, BASICS participants (regardless of referral group) reported significantly fewer alcohol problems (d = .56) compared to controls. Significant long-term intervention gains for peak and typical drinks were sustained in both referral groups relative to controls (ds = .42; .11). Referral group had no significant main effect and did not interact with intervention condition to predict outcomes. Given that BASICS was associated with less drinking and fewer alcohol problems (even among heavier drinking mandated students up to one year post-intervention), provision of BASICS-style programs within disciplinary settings may help reduce heavy and problematic drinking among at-risk students. PMID:25844834

  6. The Role of Education, Parents and Peers in Adolescent Heavy Episodic Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Van Dorsselaer, Saskia A. F. M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is more common among adolescents with a lower educational level. Aim: This study probed into the mechanism through which a lower educational level is linked to heavier adolescent drinking. Methods: Structural equation modelling was conducted using data from the 2005 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey (n =…

  7. The role of heavy drinking in the risk of traffic fatalities.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, B P; Isaac, N E; Graham, J D

    1996-08-01

    Recent studies have identified a "hard core" of drinking drivers who do not fit a "social" drinker profile and may require medical intervention. This article builds on these studies by quantifying the role of heavy drinking in motor vehicle fatalities. Data on male alcohol-involved fatally injured drivers (AIFIDs) were obtained from the U.S. Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) for the years 1989-1990 (n = 8876). The AIFIDs were grouped into either a "heavy" or "light" drinking category based on drinking behaviors inferred from prior driving records and blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). The majority of male AIFIDs were between the ages of 20-39 (70%). Sixty-five percent had a BAC of 150 mg/dl or greater, and 41% had a BAC in excess of 200 mg/dl. AIFIDs with high BACs were more likely to have histories of DUI convictions and license suspensions than AIFIDs with low BACs. According to the study's criteria, 73% percent of the AIFIDs could be classified as "heavy" drinkers. There were no driving variables that differentiated the heavy and light drinker groups, indicating that heavy drinking per se is the primary factor that distinguishes the groups. Male alcohol-involved fatally injured drivers are comprised mostly of heavy drinkers who may suffer from serious drinking problems or alcoholism. Successful interventions may require medical treatment as well as punitive criminal justice policies. PMID:8819346

  8. Heavy-Drinking Smokers' Treatment Needs and Preferences: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Fucito, Lisa M; Hanrahan, Tess H

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the smoking and psychological characteristics of heavy-drinking smokers, their perceptions of smoking and drinking, and their smoking and alcohol treatment preferences to inform an integrated smoking and alcohol intervention. Heavy-drinking smokers (N=26) completed standardized surveys and participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Participants reported a strong association between their smoking and drinking. Participants were more motivated to quit smoking than to reduce their drinking but perceived greater barriers to smoking cessation. Stress/negative affect was closely linked with both behaviors. They expressed overall enthusiasm for a smoking and alcohol intervention but had specific format and content preferences. Half preferred an integrated treatment format whereas others preferred a sequential treatment model. The most preferred content included personalized health feedback and a way to monitor health gains after behavior changes. PMID:26297324

  9. The road to drink is paved with high intentions: Expectancies, refusal self-efficacy, and intentions among heavy drinking college students.

    PubMed

    Foster, Dawn W; Dukes, Kristin; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the effects of drinking intentions (DI) on alcohol expectancies (AE) and drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) in regard to alcohol consumption among heavy drinking undergraduates. Research shows that DRSE buffers against drinking (Young, Hasking, Oei, & Loveday, 2007) and interacts with AE to predict alcohol consumption (Oei & Burrow, 2000). Studies further show that DI is predicted by DRSE (Norman, 2011) and AE (Fleming, Thorson, & Atkin, 2004). However, additional research is needed to understand DI's influence on both DRSE and AE among heavy college drinkers. This research included 344 heavy drinking college students (mean age = 23.06 years, SD = 5.61, 74.71% female) from a large southern university who completed study material as part of a larger intervention. Findings showed that DI, DRSE, and AE interacted with respect to heavy drinking such that DRSE was negatively associated with alcohol consumption, particularly among those low in positive AE and high in negative AE. This relationship was stronger among individuals low in DI relative to those high in DI. DI seems to be an important factor influencing heavy drinking among undergraduate students. Present findings further support DI's associations with heavy drinking, regardless of an individual's DRSE or AE. Implications of this research suggest that it may be beneficial for interventions to target specific aspects of AE, including anxious drinking. PMID:26810041

  10. How Accurate Are Blood (or Breath) Tests for Identifying Self-Reported Heavy Drinking Among People with Alcohol Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Winter, Michael R.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Aims Managing patients with alcohol dependence includes assessment for heavy drinking, typically by asking patients. Some recommend biomarkers to detect heavy drinking but evidence of accuracy is limited. Methods Among people with dependence, we assessed the performance of disialo-carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%dCDT, ≥1.7%), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, ≥66 U/l), either %dCDT or GGT positive, and breath alcohol (> 0) for identifying 3 self-reported heavy drinking levels: any heavy drinking (≥4 drinks/day or >7 drinks/week for women, ≥5 drinks/day or >14 drinks/week for men), recurrent (≥5 drinks/day on ≥5 days) and persistent heavy drinking (≥5 drinks/day on ≥7 consecutive days). Subjects (n = 402) with dependence and current heavy drinking were referred to primary care and assessed 6 months later with biomarkers and validated self-reported calendar method assessment of past 30-day alcohol use. Results The self-reported prevalence of any, recurrent and persistent heavy drinking was 54, 34 and 17%. Sensitivity of %dCDT for detecting any, recurrent and persistent self-reported heavy drinking was 41, 53 and 66%. Specificity was 96, 90 and 84%, respectively. %dCDT had higher sensitivity than GGT and breath test for each alcohol use level but was not adequately sensitive to detect heavy drinking (missing 34–59% of the cases). Either %dCDT or GGT positive improved sensitivity but not to satisfactory levels, and specificity decreased. Neither a breath test nor GGT was sufficiently sensitive (both tests missed 70–80% of cases). Conclusions Although biomarkers may provide some useful information, their sensitivity is low the incremental value over self-report in clinical settings is questionable. PMID:24740846

  11. Reducing drinking to cope among heavy episodic drinking college women: Secondary outcomes of a web-based combined alcohol use and sexual assault risk reduction intervention.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Bountress, Kaitlin E

    2016-10-01

    College students are at high risk for engaging in heavy episodic drinking and for experiencing sexual assault. Further, drinking to cope with anxiety motives are associated with sexual assault history and drinking, and thus should be examined when targeting both sexual assault and drinking in college populations. The current study examined the effectiveness of decreasing coping with anxiety drinking motives among underage heavy episodic drinking college women (n=264). Results indicate that a web-based combined alcohol use and sexual assault risk reduction intervention was effective at decreasing drinking to cope with anxiety motives among those with stronger drinking to cope with anxiety motives at baseline. However, the alcohol-only and sexual assault-only interventions were not. Decreases in drinking motives were associated with decreases in heavy episodic drinking. This suggests that alcohol interventions in college populations may not be effectively targeting drinking motives and this preliminary study provides evidence indicating that targeting alcohol and sexual assault together may decrease drinking to cope motives among a high risk population. PMID:27262965

  12. Young adults' decision making surrounding heavy drinking: a multi-staged model of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Northcote, Jeremy

    2011-06-01

    This paper examines the real life contexts in which decisions surrounding heavy drinking are made by young adults (that is, on occasions when five or more alcoholic drinks are consumed within a few hours). It presents a conceptual model that views such decision making as a multi-faceted and multi-staged process. The mixed method study draws on purposive data gathered through direct observation of eight social networks consisting of 81 young adults aged between 18 and 25 years in Perth, Western Australia, including in-depth interviews with 31 participants. Qualitative and some basic quantitative data were gathered using participant observation and in-depth interviews undertaken over an eighteen month period. Participants explained their decision to engage in heavy drinking as based on a variety of factors. These elements relate to socio-cultural norms and expectancies that are best explained by the theory of planned behaviour. A framework is proposed that characterises heavy drinking as taking place in a multi-staged manner, with young adults having: 1. A generalised orientation to the value of heavy drinking shaped by wider influences and norms; 2. A short-term orientation shaped by situational factors that determines drinking intentions for specific events; and 3. An evaluative orientation shaped by moderating factors. The value of qualitative studies of decision making in real life contexts is advanced to complement the mostly quantitative research that dominates research on alcohol decision making. PMID:21632161

  13. Prediction of Abstinence, Controlled Drinking, and Heavy Drinking Outcomes Following Behavioral Self-Control Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William R.; Joyce, Mark A.

    1979-01-01

    Examined prognostic value of client characteristics for problem drinkers treated with an initial goal of controlled drinking. Clients achieving moderation had less severe symptoms and less family history of problem drinking than abstainers or uncontrolled cases. Females were more successful in attaining moderation. Males were overrepresented among…

  14. Reasons for Nondaily Smoking among Young Adults: Scale Development and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Given the increased rates of nondaily smoking and the lack of validated measures to assess factors related to nondaily smoking, we aimed to develop a measure of reasons for nondaily smoking among young adults. Specifically, we developed a scale assessing reasons or triggers for nondaily smoking and examined its reliability, factor structure, and concurrent validity. Methods: We administered an online survey to 2,000 students at six colleges in the Southeastern US, and 718 (35.9%) returned a completed survey. The current analyses focused on the 95 participants who reported nondaily smoking (i.e., smoking between 1 and 29 days of the past 30 days). In addition to the items created for scale development, measures included socio-demographics, other measures of motivation and confidence/self-efficacy, past smoking/quitting history, readiness to quit, and other psychosocial factors related to smoking. Results: The 19-item Reasons for Nondaily Smoking Scale (RNS) demonstrated an average score of 45.36 (SD = 15.55) and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.79). Factor analysis of the items extracted four factors which accounted for 57.4% of score variance: Social influences; Enhancing buzzes and positive affect; Negative affect regulation; and Lack of concern of addiction. Concurrent and discriminant validity were documented. Conclusions: Developing validated measures designed to assess factors associated with nondaily smoking will enhance our ability to address this growing public health concern. The development and validation of the RNS for young adults may be critical in informing our intervention strategies and potentially for effecting or predicting cessation among young adult nondaily smokers. PMID:25258646

  15. Longitudinal prediction of early childhood discipline styles among heavy drinking parents.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ellen P; Homish, Gregory G; Eiden, Rina D; Grohman, Kerry K; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of parenting trajectories in a sample of heavy drinking and abstaining/light drinking parents. Mixture modeling was used to estimate trajectories of parental discipline styles over time. Two dimensions of parenting were examined: laxness and overreactivity. Changes in these dimensions were examined for each parent. Trajectories for mothers and fathers were very similar and were generally stable from 18 months to 5-6 years child age. Fathers' binge drinking was associated with high levels of both paternal and maternal overreactivity. Mothers with depressed affect had the highest levels of overreactivity, whereas fathers reporting depressed affect were more likely to have moderate levels of laxness. Mothers with high levels of marital satisfaction were more likely to have partners in the stable low overreactivity group. Findings begin to elucidate the nature of early family processes that may contribute to maladaptive child outcomes in heavy drinking families. PMID:18818023

  16. Does our legal minimum drinking age modulate risk of first heavy drinking episode soon after drinking onset? Epidemiological evidence for the United States, 2006–2014

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. State-level ‘age 21’ drinking laws conform generally with the United States National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (US), and are thought to protect young people from adverse drinking experiences such as heavy episodic drinking (HED, sometimes called ‘binge drinking’). We shed light on this hypothesis while estimating the age-specific risk of transitioning from 1st full drink to 1st HED among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, with challenge to a “gender gap” hypothesis and male excess described in HED prevalence reports. Methods. The study population consisted of non-institutionalized civilians in the United States, with nine independently drawn nationally representative samples of more than 40,000 12-to-23-year-olds (2006–2014). Standardized audio computer-assisted self-interviews identified 43,000 newly incident drinkers (all with 1st HED evaluated within 12 months of drinking onset). Estimated age-specific HED risk soon after first full drink is evaluated for males and females. Results. Among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, an estimated 20–30% of females and 35–45% of males experienced their 1st HED within 12 months after drinking onset. Before mid-adolescence, there is no male excess in such HED risk. Those who postponed drinking to age 21 are not spared (27% for ‘postponer’ females; 95% CI [24–30]; 42% for ‘postponer’ males; 95% CI [38–45]). An estimated 10–18% females and 10–28% males experienced their 1st HED in the same month of their 1st drink; peak HED risk estimates are 18% for ‘postponer’ females (95% CI [15–21]) and 28% for ‘postponer’ males (95% CI [24–31]). Conclusions. In the US, one in three young new drinkers transition into HED within 12 months after first drink. Those who postpone the 1st full drink until age 21 are not protected. Furthermore, ‘postponers’ have substantial risk for very rapid transition to HED. A male excess in this transition to HED is not

  17. Perceptions of addiction, attempts to quit, and successful quitting in nondaily and daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Schauer, Gillian L; Buchanan, Taneisha S; Sterling, Kymberle; DeSisto, Carla; Pinsker, Erika A; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to qualitatively examine differences in perceptions of addiction, attempts to quit, and successful quitting among nondaily versus daily college student smokers. We conducted 16 focus groups with a total of 73 college student smokers from the southeastern U.S. Focus groups were homogenous in terms of gender, smoking status (nondaily, daily), and type of school (2-year college, 4-year university). Questions centered on perceptions of addiction, their own addiction, what constitutes a quit attempt, and successful quitting. Themes that emerged among all smokers regarding conceptualization of general addiction included physiological and psychological dependence and an inability to quit smoking. In terms of their own addiction, nondaily smokers referenced their ability to quit and sense of choice to smoke as factors indicating a lack of addiction, whereas daily smokers reported dependence symptoms and their inability to control their smoking indicating addiction. Nondaily smokers discussed quit attempts in terms of making the decision to quit and avoiding situational triggers, whereas daily smokers reported taking more behavioral steps toward cessation (e.g., not buying cigarettes, reducing cigarette consumption). With regard to successful cessation, both groups identified losing the desire to smoke as a hallmark. However, nondaily smokers reported that the decision to quit might constitute successful cessation; daily smokers had more strict behavioral criteria such as abstinence for an extended period of time. The different perceptions of one's own addiction, attempting to quit smoking, and successful quitting suggest the need to improve assessments of these factors, particularly among nondaily smokers. PMID:24364689

  18. Stimulant Use Trajectories and the Longitudinal Risk of Heavy Drinking: Findings From a Rural Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    The extant literature offers little information about the longitudinal course of alcohol use among stimulant users, particularly those in rural areas, but it is plausible that reductions in stimulant use are accompanied by increases in heavy drinking. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between heavy drinking days and latent trajectories of powder cocaine, crack cocaine, and methamphetamine use. Participants (n = 710) were identified via Respondent-Driven Sampling in 3 rural communities in each of 3 states, with interviews conducted every 6 months over 3 years. Latent trajectory classes for powder cocaine, crack cocaine, and methamphetamine use were identified by conducting latent class growth analysis (LCGA). Generalized linear models (GLM) were conducted to examine how these latent classes were associated with the number of heavy drinking days in the past 30 days. Heavy drinking days did not significantly change over time when adjusting for covariates. Compared to those with a “fast low” trajectory of crack use, those with “steady high” and “declining” trajectories had more heavy drinking days. Compared to those with a “fast low” trajectory of powder cocaine use, those with a “steady moderate” trajectory had more heavy drinking days. Trajectories of methamphetamine use were not significantly associated with heavy drinking days. In conclusion, heavy alcohol use changes little over time among rural stimulant users. Many rural cocaine users could potentially benefit from interventions aimed at curtailing heavy drinking. PMID:22112423

  19. Stimulant use trajectories and the longitudinal risk of heavy drinking: findings from a rural population-based study.

    PubMed

    Borders, Tyrone F; Booth, Brenda M

    2012-03-01

    The extant literature offers little information about the longitudinal course of alcohol use among stimulant users, particularly those in rural areas, but it is plausible that reductions in stimulant use are accompanied by increases in heavy drinking. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between heavy drinking days and latent trajectories of powder cocaine, crack cocaine, and methamphetamine use. Participants (n=710) were identified via Respondent-Driven Sampling in 3 rural communities in each of 3 states, with interviews conducted every 6 months over 3 years. Latent trajectory classes for powder cocaine, crack cocaine, and methamphetamine use were identified by conducting latent class growth analysis (LCGA). Generalized linear models (GLM) were conducted to examine how these latent classes were associated with the number of heavy drinking days in the past 30 days. Heavy drinking days did not significantly change over time when adjusting for covariates. Compared to those with a "fast low" trajectory of crack use, those with "steady high" and "declining" trajectories had more heavy drinking days. Compared to those with a "fast low" trajectory of powder cocaine use, those with a "steady moderate" trajectory had more heavy drinking days. Trajectories of methamphetamine use were not significantly associated with heavy drinking days. In conclusion, heavy alcohol use changes little over time among rural stimulant users. Many rural cocaine users could potentially benefit from interventions aimed at curtailing heavy drinking. PMID:22112423

  20. Optimizing a Text Message Intervention to Reduce Heavy Drinking in Young Adults: Focus Group Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kristan, Jeffrey; Person Mecca, Laurel; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent trial results show that an interactive short message service (SMS) text message intervention, Texting to Reduce Alcohol Consumption (TRAC), is effective in reducing heavy drinking in non-treatment-seeking young adults, but may not be optimized. Objective To assess the usability of the TRAC intervention among young adults in an effort to optimize future intervention design. Methods We conducted five focus groups with 18 young adults, aged 18-25 years, who had a history of heavy drinking and had been randomized to 12 weeks of the TRAC intervention as part of a clinical trial. A trained moderator followed a semistructured interview guide. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed to identify themes. Results We identified four themes regarding user experiences with the TRAC intervention: (1) ease of use, (2) comfort and confidentiality, (3) increased awareness of drinking behavior, and (4) accountability for drinking behavior. Participants’ comments supported the existing features of the TRAC intervention, as well as the addition of other features to increase personalization and continuing engagement with the intervention. Conclusions Young adults perceived the TRAC intervention as a useful way to help them reduce heavy drinking on weekends. Components that promote ease of use, ensure confidentiality, increase awareness of alcohol consumption, and increase accountability were seen as important. PMID:27335099

  1. Are Social Norms the Best Predictor of Outcomes Among Heavy-Drinking College Students?*

    PubMed Central

    NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON; LEE, CHRISTINE M.; LEWIS, MELISSA A.; FOSSOS, NICOLE; LARIMER, MARY E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This research was designed to evaluate the relative contribution of social norms, demographics, drinking motives, and alcohol expectancies in predicting alcohol consumption and related problems among heavy-drinking college students. Method Participants included 818 (57.6% women) first-year undergraduates who reported at least one heavy-drinking episode in the previous month. In addition to providing demographic information (gender and fraternity/sorority membership) participants completed Web-based assessments of social norms (perceived descriptive norms regarding typical student drinking, injunctive norms regarding friends’ and parents’ approval), motives (social, enhancement, coping, and conformity), and expectancies and evaluations of positive and negative alcohol effects. Results Regression results indicated that descriptive and injunctive norms were among the best predictors of college student drinking. With respect to alcohol problems, results indicated that coping motives accounted for the largest proportion of unique variance. Finally, results revealed that alcohol consumption mediated the relationships between predictors and problems for social norms, whereas coping motives, negative expectancies, and evaluation of negative effects were directly associated with alcohol problems despite having relatively weak or null unique associations with consumption. Conclusions The results of this study substantiate social norms as being among the best predictors of alcohol consumption in this population and suggest that drinking to cope is a better predictor of problems. The findings are discussed in terms of practical prevention and treatment implications. PMID:17568961

  2. Longitudinal Associations between Fathers' Heavy Drinking Patterns and Children's Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in children of alcoholics (N = 114) was examined in the year before and at three follow-ups in the 15 months after their alcoholic fathers entered alcoholism treatment, testing the hypothesis that children's adjustment problems will vary over time as a function of their fathers' heavy drinking patterns. Three unique…

  3. Heavy drinking is associated with deficient response inhibition in women but not in men.

    PubMed

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Baltus, Marcus; Guerrieri, Ramona; Wiers, Reinout W

    2009-09-01

    Poor response inhibition has been associated with a wide range of problem behaviours, including addictive behaviours, and could represent a general vulnerability factor. Standard tests of response inhibition have used neutral stimuli. Here we tested whether a deficit in response inhibition in heavy drinkers would be stronger for stimuli related to their problem (alcohol) or not. Response inhibition was assessed with a stop signal task, using four classes of pictures: alcohol-related, soft drinks, erotic (control appetitive categories) and neutral pictures. Participants were 32 heavy and 32 light drinkers. An equal amount of men and women were tested in both drinking groups, in view of recent studies reporting that response disinhibition may be most pronounced in heavy drinking women. Main results were first that no domain-specific differences in response inhibition were found in both groups. Second, heavy drinking females showed stronger response inhibition deficits than other groups. Results are discussed in light of a possible gender difference in response inhibition as a risk factor for addictive behaviours. PMID:19409923

  4. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  5. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing and Feedback with Heavy Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez, Patricia; Walters, Scott T.; Daugherty, Mikyta; Radi, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a brief intervention that has been shown to reduce heavy drinking among college students. Because all college studies of MI to date have included a personalized feedback report, it remains unclear which of the components is necessary to produce behavior change. This study evaluated the separate and collective…

  6. Brief motivational intervention and alcohol expectancy challenge with heavy drinking college students: a randomized factorial study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Mark D; Capone, Christy; Laforge, Robert; Erickson, Darin J; Brand, Nancy H

    2007-11-01

    This study is the first reported test of the unique and combined effects of Brief Motivational Intervention (BMI) and Alcohol Expectancy Challenge (AEC) with heavy drinking college students. Three hundred and thirty-five participants were randomly assigned in a 2x2 factorial design to either: BMI, AEC, BMI and AEC, and assessment only conditions. Follow-ups occurred at 1, 3, and 6 months. Unconditional latent curve analyses suggested that alcohol use (Q-F), heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol problems were best modeled as quadratic effects. BMI produced significant decreases in Q-F, heavy drinking, and problems, while AEC produced significant decreases in Q-F and heavy drinking. There was no evidence of an additive effect of combining the interventions. Intervention effects decayed somewhat for BMI and completely for AEC over 6 months. Multi-group analyses suggested similar intervention effects for men and women. BMI effects on alcohol problems were mediated by perceived norms. These findings extend previous research with BMI and AEC but do not support their utility as a combined preventive intervention to reduce collegiate alcohol abuse. PMID:17658696

  7. Electronic Cigarette Use among College Students: Links to Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Smoking, and Heavy Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Gottlieb, Joshua C.; Cohen, Lee M.; Trotter, David R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine e-cigarette use and the relation of such use with gender, race/ethnicity, traditional tobacco use, and heavy drinking. Participants and Methods: A sample of…

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life among Heavy-Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Christopher J.; Bracken-Minor, Katherine L.; McCausland, Claudia M.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine unique contributions of depression, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences on functional health outcomes in college students. Methods: Participants were heavy-drinking undergraduate students (N = 207) who completed self-report questionnaires. Results: For men and women, depression predicted overall general…

  9. Hook ‘Em Horns and Heavy Drinking: Alcohol Use and Collegiate Sports

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Dan J.; Fromme, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with collegiate sporting events, but little is known about specific levels of consumption over the course of an entire sports season. Ongoing web-based daily-monitoring at the University of Texas at Austin allowed assessment of drinking levels of students (n = 541) over two full football seasons. High-profile football game days were among the heaviest days for alcohol consumption, comparable to consumption on other well-known drinking days such as New Years Eve and Halloween weekend. Men increased their drinking for all games, and women with greater social involvement were more likely to drink heavily during away games. Among lighter drinkers, away games were associated with a greater likelihood of behavioral risks as intoxication increased. PMID:17662537

  10. Heavy Drinking, Poor Mental Health, and Substance Use Among Asian Americans in the NLAAS: A Gender-Based Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Alice W.; Lee, Christina S.; Iwamoto, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    The severity of heavy drinking among Asian Americans has often been dismissed because of relatively low rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups. However, higher depression and suicide rates among Asian Americans and their association to alcohol use suggest serious detrimental effects of heavy alcohol use among Asian Americans. Gender differences in heavy drinking have been documented among other immigrant based ethnic minorities, little is known of this pattern for Asian Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine gender differences in heavy drinking, poor mental health, and substance use among a national sample of Asian Americans (N = 581) in the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). Using National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) guidelines, heavy drinkers were categorized as those who exceeded the recommended weekly number of drinks (≥14 drinks/week for male and ≥7 drinks/week for female). Accordingly, six comparison groups were created (male non, light, and heavy drinkers, and female non, light, and heavy drinkers). Pearson’s chi-square test was conducted to examine percentage distribution for the six groups for mental health disorders (i.e., suicidality, DSM–IV mental health endorsement for past 12-month and lifetime). Logistic regression was followed to determined predictors for heavy drinking behavior for men and for women. Female heavy drinkers reported significantly poorer mental health than non drinkers, light drinkers and male heavy drinkers, as indicated by higher rates of lifetime generalized anxiety, and depressive disorders. In contrast, male heavy drinkers were more likely to have lifetime substance use disorders. Findings suggest the need to develop gender-specific drinking interventions for Asian Americans that focus on improving mental health among women and substance treatment among men. PMID:25554732

  11. Fake ID ownership and heavy drinking in underage college students: prospective findings.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Julia A; Rutledge, Patricia C; Sher, Kenneth J

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the ownership of false identification (fake ID) for the purpose of obtaining alcohol and the relation of fake ID ownership to heavy drinking in a longitudinal sample of college students under 21 years of age. A sample of 3,720 undergraduates was assessed the summer prior to college entrance and during the 4 semesters comprising freshman and sophomore years. Regression analyses were used to estimate bidirectional relations between consumption and fake ID ownership. Sex, Greek membership, and prior drinking were controlled. Results showed that fake ID ownership increased over time (12.5% pre-college to 32.2% fourth semester) and that Greek members were more likely than others to own fake IDs. Fake ID ownership predicted concurrent and next-semester heavy drinking with increasing strength over time. Also, the acquisition (onset) of fake ID ownership at each time point was predicted by previous-semester consumption. When traditional, robust risk factors of consumption are controlled, fake ID ownership meaningfully relates to heavy drinking in college. It thus presents a significant public health problem, addressable through training for alcohol servers and retailers, punitive measures toward fake ID owners, and other possible interventions. PMID:17563142

  12. Latent Class Analysis of DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder Criteria Among Heavy-Drinking College Students.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    The DSM-5 has created significant changes in the definition of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Limited work has considered the impact of these changes in specific populations, such as heavy-drinking college students. Latent class analysis (LCA) is a person-centered approach that divides a population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive latent classes, based on observable indicator variables. The present research was designed to examine whether there were distinct classes of heavy-drinking college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD and whether gender, perceived social norms, use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS), drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), self-perceptions of drinking identity, psychological distress, and membership in a fraternity/sorority would be associated with class membership. Three-hundred and ninety-four college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD were recruited from three different universities. Two distinct classes emerged: Less Severe (86%), the majority of whom endorsed both drinking more than intended and tolerance, as well as met criteria for a mild AUD; and More Severe (14%), the majority of whom endorsed at least half of the DSM-5 AUD criteria and met criteria for a severe AUD. Relative to the Less Severe class, membership in the More Severe class was negatively associated with DRSE and positively associated with self-identification as a drinker. There is a distinct class of heavy-drinking college students with a more severe AUD and for whom intervention content needs to be more focused and tailored. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26051027

  13. FKBP5 genotype interacts with early life trauma to predict heavy drinking in college students.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Richard; Armeli, Stephen; Scott, Denise M; Kranzler, Henry R; Tennen, Howard; Covault, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is debilitating and costly. Identification and better understanding of risk factors influencing the development of AUD remain a research priority. Although early life exposure to trauma increases the risk of adulthood psychiatric disorders, including AUD, many individuals exposed to early life trauma do not develop psychopathology. Underlying genetic factors may contribute to differential sensitivity to trauma experienced in childhood. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is susceptible to long-lasting changes in function following childhood trauma. Functional genetic variation within FKBP5, a gene encoding a modulator of HPA axis function, is associated with the development of psychiatric symptoms in adulthood, particularly among individuals exposed to trauma early in life. In the current study, we examined interactions between self-reported early life trauma, past-year life stress, past-year trauma, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1360780) in FKBP5 on heavy alcohol consumption in a sample of 1,845 college students from two university settings. Although we found no effect of early life trauma on heavy drinking in rs1360780*T-allele carriers, rs1360780*C homozygotes exposed to early life trauma had a lower probability of heavy drinking compared to rs1360780*C homozygotes not exposed to early life trauma (P < 0.01). The absence of an interaction between either current life stress or past-year trauma, and FKBP5 genotype on heavy drinking suggests that there exists a developmental period of susceptibility to stress that is moderated by FKBP5 genotype. These findings implicate interactive effects of early life trauma and FKBP5 genetic variation on heavy drinking. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27196697

  14. Perceptions of Heavy-Drinking College Students About a Sleep and Alcohol Health Intervention.

    PubMed

    Fucito, Lisa M; DeMartini, Kelly S; Hanrahan, Tess H; Whittemore, Robin; Yaggi, H Klar; Redeker, Nancy S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the sleep and psychological characteristics of heavy-drinking college students, their perceptions of sleep and sleep/alcohol interactions, and their reactions to a proposed integrated sleep and alcohol Web-based intervention. Students (N = 24) completed standardized surveys and participated in semistructured focus group interviews. Participants reported a high degree of sleep disturbance, sleep obstacles, and sleep-related consequences, which were validated by both quantitative and qualitative investigations. Sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment were associated with more frequent drinking and greater risks from drinking. Participants perceived that alcohol has positive and negative effects on sleep latency, continuity, and quality. They expressed overall enthusiasm for the intervention but had specific content and format preferences. PMID:24924956

  15. Toenail as a biomarker of heavy metal exposure via drinking water: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ab Razak, Nurul Hafiza; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Hashim, Zailina

    2015-01-01

    Toenail is metabolic end product of the skin, which can provide information about heavy metal accumulation in human cells. Slow growth rates of toenail can represent heavy metal exposure from 2 to 12 months before the clipping. The toenail is a non-invasive biomarker that is easy to collect and store and is stable over time. In this systematic review, the suitability of toenail as a long-term biomarker was reviewed, along with the analysis and validation of toenail and confounders to heavy metal. This systematic review has included 30 articles chosen from a total of 132 articles searched from online electronic databases like Pubmed, Proquest, Science Direct, and SCOPUS. Keywords used in the search included "toenail", "biomarker", "heavy metal", and "drinking water". Heavy metal in toenail can be accurately analyzed using an ICP-MS instrument. The validation of toenail heavy metal concentration data is very crucial; however, the Certified Reference Material (CRM) for toenail is still unavailable. Usually, CRM for hair is used in toenail studies. Confounders that have major effects on heavy metal accumulation in toenail are dietary intake of food and supplement, smoking habit, and overall health condition. This review has identified the advantages and limitations of using toenail as a biomarker for long-term exposure, which can help future researchers design a study on heavy metal exposure using toenail. PMID:25332289

  16. Do the noncaffeine ingredients of energy drinks affect metabolic responses to heavy exercise?

    PubMed

    Pettitt, Robert W; Niemeyer, JoLynne D; Sexton, Patrick J; Lipetzky, Amanda; Murray, Steven R

    2013-07-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) such as Red Bull (RB) are marketed to enhance metabolism. Secondary ingredients of EDs (e.g., taurine) have been purported to improve time trial performance; however, little research exists on how such secondary ingredients affect aerobic metabolism during heavy exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the secondary ingredients of RB on aerobic metabolism during and subsequent to heavy exercise. In double-blind, counterbalanced, and crossover fashion, 8 recreationally trained individuals completed a graded exercise test to determine the gas exchange threshold (GET). Subjects returned on 2 separate occasions and ingested either a 245 ml serving of RB or a control (CTRL) drink with the equivalent caffeine before engaging in two 10-minute constant-load cycling bouts, at an intensity equivalent to GET, with 3 minutes of rest between bouts. Accumulated liters of O2 (10 minutes) were higher for the first bout (17.1 ± 3.5 L) vs. the second bout (16.7 ± 3.5 L) but did not differ between drinks. Similarly, excess postexercise oxygen consumption was higher after the initial bout (RB mean, 2.6 ± 0.85 L; CTRL mean, 2.9 ± 0.90 L) vs. the second bout (RB mean, 1.5 ± 0.85 L; CTRL mean, 1.9 ± 0.87 L) but did not differ between drinks. No differences occurred between drinks for measures of heart rate or rating of perceived exertion. These results indicate that the secondary ingredients contained in a single serving of RB do not augment aerobic metabolism during or subsequent to heavy exercise. PMID:23037611

  17. Leaching of heavy metals from water bottle components into the drinking water of rodents.

    PubMed

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Otto, Kevin J; Artwohl, James E; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Providing high-quality, uncontaminated drinking water is an essential component of rodent husbandry. Acidification of drinking water is a common technique to control microbial growth but is not a benign treatment. In addition to its potential biologic effects, acidified water might interact with the water-delivery system, leading to the leaching of heavy metals into the drinking water. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of water acidification and autoclaving on water-bottle assemblies. The individual components of the system (stainless-steel sipper tubes, rubber stoppers, neoprene stoppers, and polysulfone water bottles) were acid-digested and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc to quantify the metal composition of each material. In addition the amounts of these metals that leached into tap and acidified water with and without autoclaving were quantified after 1 wk of contact time. On a weight basis, sipper tubes contained the largest quantities of all metals except magnesium and zinc, which were greatest in the neoprene stoppers. Except for cadmium and selenium, all metals had leached into the water after 1 wk, especially under the acidified condition. The quantities of copper, lead, and zinc that leached into the drinking water were the most noteworthy, because the resulting concentrations had the potential to confound animal experiments. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that water-quality monitoring programs include heavy metal analysis at the level of water delivery to animals. PMID:23562029

  18. Recent Alcohol Use and Episodic Heavy Drinking among American Indian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hill, Mallory K.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 366 American Indian students in grades 7 through 12 completed the PRIDE questionnaire. Recent alcohol use was reported by 31.9% of students, whereas 26.7% reported frequent episodic heavy drinking. One in three students felt it was harmful/very harmful to use alcohol and less than half felt alcohol was easy/very easy to obtain. A series…

  19. “Demonstrating Masculinity” Via Intimate Partner Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Heavy Episodic Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Lisco, Claire G.; Leone, Ruschelle M.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men’s history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men’s attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men’s adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:26456996

  20. [Preliminary health risk assessment of heavy metals in drinking waters in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ji-jun; Zhang, Li-ping; Huang, Sheng-biao; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zi-jian

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations distribution of the Cu, Hg, Cd, As in drinking water in the 8 city districts and 10 counties in Beijing was studied based on a total of 120 random samples. Health risks associated with 4 metals in drinking water were assessed using USEPA health risk assessment model. The results showed that the concentrations of the heavy metals in drinking water in Beijing ranged from 0.81 to 6.96 micrograms.L-1 for Cu, 0.34-0.82 microgram.L-1 for Cd, 0.10-0.74 microgram.L-1 for Hg and 0.19-3.02 micrograms.L-1 for As. Among the health risks caused by the carcinogens in drinking water, the largest risk associated with As should be in Tongzhou County (2.0 x 10(-5).a-1) and that with Cd should be in Changping County (2.3 x 10(-6).a-1), while both were significantly lower than the maximum allowance levels recommended by ICRP(5 x 10(-5).a-1). Among the non-carcinogenic risks in drinking water, the largest risk was the risk associated with Hg, followed by Cu. The non-carcinogenic risks levels ranged from 10(-8) to 10(-9), much lower than the maximum allowance levels recommended by ICRP. PMID:15202233

  1. A comparative evaluation of self-report and biological measures of cigarette use in nondaily smokers.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jennifer M; Gass, Julie C; Miller, Eleanor I; Wilkins, Diana G; Rollins, Douglas E; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-09-01

    A large subset of individuals who smoke cigarettes do not smoke regularly, but the assessments used to collect data on cigarette consumption in nondaily smokers have not been rigorously evaluated. The current study examined several self-report and biomarker approaches to the assessment of cigarette use in a sample of nondaily smokers (n = 176). Participants were randomly assigned to a daily monitoring condition (n = 89), requiring a daily report of the number of cigarettes smoked in the previous 24 hours, or a no monitoring condition (n = 87). Number of cigarettes smoked over the first 28 days of the study was assessed using 2 quantity frequency measures, a graduated frequency measure, and a timeline follow back (TLFB) interview at the Session 5 study visit. Hair nicotine (NIC), hair cotinine (COT), and expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) were collected from each participant. Total cigarettes reported via daily report were strongly correlated with all Session 5 measures of total cigarettes, but were most strongly associated with TLFB total cigarettes. Collapsed CO across 5 sessions was the biomarker most strongly correlated with daily report total cigarettes. The results support the use of daily report and TLFB methods of assessing cigarette use in nondaily smokers. Results also support the use of CO as appropriate biological markers of exposure in nondaily smokers, and point to some limitations in the use of hair biomarkers in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26479132

  2. Combined varenicline and naltrexone treatment reduces smoking topography intensity in heavy-drinking smokers.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel J O; Bujarski, Spencer; Hartwell, Emily; Green, ReJoyce; Ray, Lara A

    2015-07-01

    Heavy drinking smokers constitute a distinct sub-population of smokers for whom traditional smoking cessation therapies may not be effective. Recent evidence suggested that combined varenicline (VAR) and naltrexone (NTX) therapy may be more efficacious than either monotherapy alone in reducing smoking and drinking-related behavior in this population. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e., smoking topography) may be predictive of smoking cessation outcomes, yet the effects of smoking pharmacotherapies on puffing behavior have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the current double-blind medication study examined the effects of VAR alone (1mg BID), low dose NTX alone (25mg QD), the combination of VAR+NTX, and placebo on smoking topography measures in heavy drinking, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=120). After a 9-day titration period, participants completed a laboratory session in which they smoked their first cigarette of the day using a smoking topography device following 12h of nicotine abstinence and consumption of an alcoholic beverage (BrAC=0.06g/dl). The primary measures were puff count, volume, duration, and velocity and inter-puff interval (IPI). Independent of medication group, puff velocity and IPI increased, while puff volume and duration decreased, over the course of the cigarette. The active medication groups, vs. the placebo group, had significantly blunted puff duration and velocity slopes over the course of the cigarette, and this effect was particularly evident in the VAR+NTX group. Additionally, the VAR+NTX group demonstrated lower average IPI than the monotherapy groups and lower average puff volume than all other groups. These results suggest that smoking pharmacotherapies, particularly the combination of VAR+NTX, alter smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers, producing a pattern of less intense puffing behavior. As smoking topography has been predictive of the ability to quit smoking, future studies should

  3. Deployment Risk Factors and Postdeployment Health Profiles Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury in Heavy Drinking Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Joah L.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.; Crouse, Ellen M.

    2014-01-01

    Along with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is considered one of the “signature wounds” of combat operations in Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]), but the role of mTBI in the clinical profiles of Veterans with other comorbid forms of postdeployment psychopathology is poorly understood. The current study explored the deployment risk and postdeployment health profiles of heavy drinking OIF and OEF Veterans as a function of mTBI. Sixty-nine heavy-drinking OIF/OEF Veterans were recruited through a Veterans’ Affairs Medical Center and completed questionnaires and structured interviews assessing war-zone experiences, postdeployment drinking patterns, and PTSD symptoms. Veterans with positive mTBI screens and confirmed mTBI diagnoses endorsed higher rates of combat experiences, including direct and indirect killing, and met criteria for PTSD at a higher rate than Veterans without a history of mTBI. Both PTSD and combat experiences independently predicted screening positive for mTBI, whereas only combat experiences predicted receiving a confirmed mTBI diagnosis. mTBI was not associated with any dimension of alcohol use. These results support a growing body of literature linking mTBI with PTSD. PMID:22808885

  4. Examination of Post-Training Supervision of Peer Counselors in a Motivational Enhancement Intervention to Reduce Drinking in a Sample of Heavy Drinking College Students

    PubMed Central

    Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Turrisi, Rob; Carney, JoLynn V.; Ray, Anne E.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of peer counselor post-training supervision on Motivational Interviewing microskills and post-intervention drinking outcomes were evaluated in a sample of heavy drinking undergraduate students completing BASICS (Dimeff et al., 1999). Two peer counselor groups were trained using identical protocols. Post-training, one group was randomized to receive supervision, while the other received no supervision. Groups were subsequently compared on MI microskills. College students (N=122) were randomly assigned to either assessment-only control, supervision, or no supervision groups and completed a BASICS intervention. Post-intervention drinking outcomes were examined. Results suggested supervision aided peer counselors in reducing use of closed-ended questions. Both treatment groups reduced total drinks per week and heavy drinking behaviors compared to control. No differences on peak BAC or alcohol related consequences were observed. Differences in supervision did not influence drinking outcomes; however post-training supervision for peer counselors deficient in MI microskills may be needed to improve BASICS fidelity. PMID:20673621

  5. VARENICLINE, NALTREXONE, AND THEIR COMBINATION FOR HEAVY-DRINKING SMOKERS: PRELIMINARY NEUROIMAGING FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Lara A.; Courtney, Kelly E.; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Miotto, Karen; Brody, Arthur; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Heavy drinking smokers constitute a sizeable and hard-to-treat subgroup of smokers, for whom tailored smoking cessation therapies are not yet available. Objective The present study used a double-blind, randomized, 2×2 medication design, testing varenicline alone (VAR; 1mg twice daily), naltrexone alone (NTX; 25mg once daily), varenicline plus naltrexone, and placebo for effects on neural activation to cigarette cues in a sample (n=40) of heavy drinking daily smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day). Methods All participants were tested after a 10–12 day titration period designed to reach steady state on the target medication. Participants underwent functional neuroimaging (fMRI) for examination of brain responses to visual smoking-related (vs. neutral) cues. Results Region of interest (ROI) analyses of brain responses to cigarette vs. neutral cues indicated that the combination of VAR+NTX was associated with reduced activation of the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex as compared to placebo and to NTX alone. Exploratory whole-brain analyses also indicated significant differences in brain activation during cigarette cues in the active medications versus placebo condition. All medications suppressed left nucleus accumbens activation relative to placebo, suggesting the possibility that both medications, either alone or in combination, reduce neural signals associated with appetitive behavior. Conclusions Although preliminary, these neuroimaging findings indicate that clinical studies of the combination of VAR+NTX for heavy drinkers trying to quit smoking may be warranted. PMID:24949564

  6. Relationship between negative affect and smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers.

    PubMed

    Green, ReJoyce; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Ray, Lara A

    2016-10-01

    Heavy drinking smokers represent a sizeable subgroup of smokers for whom nicotine deprivation and alcohol use increases the urge to smoke in the laboratory and predicts lapses during smoking cessation. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e. smoking topography) provides a reliable index of smoking intensity and reinforcement, yet the effects of affect on smoking topography have not been thoroughly examined in heavy drinking smokers. The current study examined how affect and nicotine deprivation predict smoking behavior as participants (N=27) smoked one cigarette using a smoking topography device after 12-h of nicotine abstinence and after a priming dose of alcohol (target BrAC=0.06g/dl). Primary smoking topography measures were puff volume, velocity, duration, and inter-puff interval (IPI). The effect of nicotine deprivation was measured by the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Measures were obtained at baseline (i.e. 12-h of nicotine abstinence and pre-alcohol) and 30-minutes after alcohol administration (i.e. peak BrAC). Results revealed post-priming negative affect significantly moderated the trajectories of puff volume, puff duration and IPI (p's<0.05) over the course of the cigarette, such that those with greater negative affect had flatter slopes for volume and duration and increasingly infrequent puffs. Our results suggest that baseline and post-priming negative affect following nicotine deprivation alters smoking patterns and increases nicotine exposure throughout a single cigarette. Future studies need to examine differential amounts of nicotine deprivation on response to alcohol and smoking in heavy drinking smokers. PMID:27240211

  7. Development and evaluation of a mobile intervention for heavy drinking and smoking among college students.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Desai, Sruti A; Bowen, Sarah; Leigh, Barbara C; Kirouac, Megan; Larimer, Mary E

    2014-09-01

    Nearly all college student smokers also drink alcohol, and smoking and heavy episodic drinking (HED) commonly co-occur. However, few studies have examined the factors that concurrently influence smoking and HED among college students and, to date, no interventions have been developed that target both HED and smoking in this population. The objective of the current study was to develop and evaluate a mobile feedback intervention that targets HED and smoking. Participants (N = 94) were non-treatment-seeking college students (M(age) = 20.5 years, SD = 1.7) who engaged in at least a single HED episode in the past 2 weeks and reported concurrent smoking and drinking at least once a week. Participants were randomized to receive either the mobile intervention for 14 days, complete mobile assessments (without intervention) for 14 days, or complete minimal assessments (without intervention or mobile assessments). At a 1-month follow-up, compared with the minimal assessment condition, we observed significant reductions in the number of cigarettes per smoking day in both the mobile intervention (d = 0.55) and mobile assessment (d = 0.45) conditions. Among those randomized to the mobile intervention, receiving more modules of the intervention was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of any drinking during the 14-day assessment period and significant reductions in smoking at 1-month follow-up. The mobile intervention did not result in significant reductions in HED or concurrent smoking and drinking. Future research should continue to examine ways of using technology and the real-time environment to improve interventions for HED and smoking. PMID:25000269

  8. Multiple Trajectories of Peer and Parental Influence and their Association with the Development of Adolescent Heavy Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steven C.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2009-01-01

    This study used latent growth mixture modeling to identify discrete developmental patterns of heavy drinking, perceived parental disapproval of substance use, and association with peers who drink from early to late adolescence among a sample of 5,591 youth. We also examined associations among these trajectories to determine how the development of heavy drinking relates to the development of perceived parental disapproval of substance use and association with peer drinkers, both separately and jointly. We found that youth who perceived that their parents maintained consistently strong disapproval of substance use throughout adolescence were much more likely to abstain from heavy drinking during this period than were youth who reported that their parents’ disapproval for substance use either decreased or was maintained at only a moderate level. Furthermore, we found that across a variety of peer contexts—stable high association with drinking peers, stable low association, and increasing association—youth were at lowest risk for developing problematic patterns of heavy drinking when they perceived that their parents maintained strong disapproval of substance use throughout adolescence. PMID:19423232

  9. Adolescent Heavy Drinking Does Not Affect Maturation of Basic Executive Functioning: Longitudinal Findings from the TRAILS Study

    PubMed Central

    Boelema, Sarai R.; Harakeh, Zeena; van Zandvoort, Martine J. E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Excessive alcohol use is assumed to affect maturation of cognitive functioning in adolescence. However, most existing studies that have tested this hypothesis are seriously flawed due to the use of selective groups and/or cross-sectional designs, which limits the ability to draw firm conclusions. This longitudinal study investigated whether patterns of alcohol use predicted differences in maturation of executive functioning in adolescence. Additionally, gender was tested as a possible moderator. Methods We used data from the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which comprises a cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents. Maturation of executive functioning was measured by assessing the standardized improvement on each of four basic executive functions (i.e., inhibition, working memory, and shift- and sustained attention) between ages 11 and 19. Participants were assigned to one of six (heavy) drinking groups (i.e., non-drinkers, light drinkers, infrequent heavy drinkers, increased heavy drinkers, decreased heavy drinkers, and chronic heavy drinkers). We conducted linear regression analyses, and adjusted for relevant confounders. Results The six drinking groups did not reveal significant differences in maturation between drinking groups. E.g., maturation executive functioning of chronic heavy drinkers in comparison to non-drinkers; inhibition: B = -0.14, 95% CI [-0.41 to 0.14], working memory: B = -0.03, 95% CI [-0.26 to 0.21], shift attention: B = 0.13, 95% CI [-0.17 to 0.41], sustained attention: B = 0.12, 95% CI [-0.60 to 0.36]. Furthermore, gender was not found to be a significant moderator. Conclusions Four years of weekly heavy drinking (i.e., chronic heavy drinkers) did not result in measurable impairments in four basic executive functions. Thus, regular heavy drinking in adolescence does not seem to affect these basic behavioural measures of executive functioning. PMID:26489080

  10. Counseling Nondaily Smokers about Secondhand Smoke as a Cessation Message: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schane, Rebecca E.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nondaily smoking represents a substantial and growing fraction of smokers, many of whom do not consider themselves smokers or at risk of tobacco-related diseases and, so, may be less responsive to counseling content contained in traditional cessation interventions. This study compares the effects brief counseling interventions (<20 min) focused on the harm smoking does to themselves (harm to self, HTS) versus the harm their secondhand smoke (SHS) does to others (harm to others, HTO) among nondaily smokers. Methods: Randomized trial of 52 nondaily smokers (smoked in the past week, but not daily) recruited between September 2009 and June 2010; 40 completed the study. We measured changes in motivation and smoking status at 3 months postintervention. Results: There was a difference in quitting between the two groups, with 9.5% (2 out of 21) for HTS and 36.8% (7 out of 19) for HTO subjects reporting not smoking any cigarettes in the prior week (p = .06 by Fisher exact test and .035 by likelihood-ratio chi-square). Motivation and self-efficacy increased from baseline to 3-month follow-up, but not differentially by intervention group. Conclusions: Consistent with findings from research conducted by the tobacco industry as early as the 1970s that concluded that social smokers feel immune from the personal health effects of tobacco but are concerned about the consequences of their SHS on others, educating nondaily smokers about the dangers of SHS to others appears to be a more powerful cessation message than traditional smoking cessation counseling that emphasizes the harmful consequences to the smoker. PMID:22592447

  11. Alcohol and tobacco cue effects on craving in non-daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Peloquin, Marcel P J; McGrath, Daniel S; Telbis, Dessislava; Barrett, Sean P

    2014-12-01

    Non-daily smokers commonly smoke cigarettes following the consumption of alcohol, yet the reason(s) for this remains poorly understood. The present study examined the impact of alcohol consumption on responses in tobacco salient cues 49 male and 50 female non-daily smokers. After the administration of an alcohol, placebo, or control beverage, participants were exposed to series neutral video clips and tobacco smoking salient video clips, and their subjective states and heart rates were monitored. The timing of the exposure to the tobacco smoking clips was randomly determined to coincide with the timing of either the ascending limb or the descending limb of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve of the alcohol beverage condition. The tobacco smoking clips were found to increase cigarette craving regardless of beverage condition or timing of exposure (p = .002). Alcohol consumption was associated with increased ratings of intoxication (p < .001), increased heart rate across participants (p < .001), and increased cigarette craving in female participants specifically (p = .017). Alcohol did not influence responses to the smoking videos. These results suggest that smoking salient cues and alcohol may impact cigarette craving in non-daily smokers through independent processes. PMID:25436842

  12. Legal Ages for Purchase and Consumption of Alcohol and Heavy Drinking among College Students in Canada, Europe, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Adrienne; Frye, Laurie; Bauerle, Jennifer; Turner, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy drinking and associated negative consequences remain a serious problem among college students. In a secondary analysis of data from two published study, the authors examine the correlation between minimum legal age to purchase and/or consume alcohol and rates of heavy drinking among college students in 22 countries. The published studies use…

  13. Prevalence of Heavy Drinking and Risky Sexual Behaviors in Adult Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Operario, Don; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aim was to assess the prevalence and co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors among emergency department (ED) patients in community hospitals. Methods Systematic screening of ED patients (N = 6,486; 56.5% female) was conducted in 2 community hospitals in the northeast during times with high patient volume, generally between the hours of 10 AM to 8 PM, Monday through Saturday. Screening occurred from May 2011 through November 2013. Assessment included validated measures of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior. Results Overall results identified high rates of alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and their co-occurrence in this sample of ED patients. Specifically, ED patients in between the ages of 18 and 35 were consistently highest in hazardous alcohol use (positive on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test or endorsing heavy episodic drinking [HED]), sexual risk behaviors, and the co-occurrence of alcohol and sex-risk behaviors. Conclusions Findings show a high co-occurrence of hazardous drinking and unprotected sex among ED patients and highlight the role of HED as a factor associated with sexual risk behavior. Efforts to integrate universal screening for the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behavior in ED settings are warranted; brief interventions delivered to ED patients addressing the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors have the potential to decrease the risk of sexually transmitted infections and HIV among a large number of patients. PMID:26332359

  14. Readiness to Change among a Group of Heavy-Drinking College Students: Correlates of Readiness and a Comparison of Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, T. Robert; Walters, Scott T.; Leahy, Matthew M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although several multi-item scales assess readiness to change alcohol consumption, some researchers have proposed that a small number of single-item rulers may assess readiness nearly as well. Participants: In fall 2006 and spring 2007, the authors assessed 279 participants who reported at least 1 heavy drinking episode in the 2 weeks…

  15. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and metalloid in drinking water from communities near gold mines in Tarkwa, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-07-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and metalloid in borehole drinking water from 18 communities in Tarkwa, Ghana, were measured to assess the health risk associated with its consumption. Mean concentrations of heavy metals (μg/L) exceeded recommended values in some communities. If we take into consideration the additive effect of heavy metals and metalloid, then oral hazard index (HI) results raise concerns about the noncarcinogenic adverse health effects of drinking groundwater in Huniso. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) guidelines, HI values indicating noncarcinogenic health risk for adults and children in Huniso were 0.781 (low risk) and 1.08 (medium risk), respectively. The cancer risk due to cadmium (Cd) exposure in adults and children in the sampled communities was very low. However, the average risk values of arsenic (As) for adults and children through drinking borehole water in the communities indicated medium cancer risk, but high cancer risk in some communities such as Samahu and Mile 7. Based on the USEPA assessment, the average cancer risk values of As for adults (3.65E-05) and children (5.08E-05) indicated three (adults) and five (children) cases of neoplasm in a hundred thousand inhabitants. The results of this study showed that residents in Tarkwa who use and drink water from boreholes could be at serious risk from exposure to these heavy metals and metalloid. PMID:26038318

  16. A Cocktail of Extracurricular Activities (ECAs): Different ECA Combinations and Their Association with Heavy Drinking in Two College Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Julia A.; Johnson, Douglas N.; Jones, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    The activities that students participate in are important to college life and outcomes. With regard to the problem outcome of heavy drinking, some activities pose risks (e.g., fraternity/sorority life) and others are protective (e.g., religious groups), yet students often participate in multiple activities. We estimated the odds of frequent heavy…

  17. Results of a Feasibility and Acceptability Trial of an Online Smoking Cessation Program Targeting Young Adult Nondaily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Schauer, Gillian L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite increases in nondaily smoking among young adults, no prior research has aimed to develop and test an intervention targeting this group. Thus, we aimed to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an online intervention targeting college student nondaily smokers. We conducted a one-arm feasibility and acceptability trial of a four-week online intervention with weekly contacts among 31 college student nondaily smokers. We conducted assessments at baseline (B), end of treatment (EOT), and six-week followup (FU). We maintained a 100% retention rate over the 10-week period. Google Analytics data indicated positive utilization results, and 71.0% were satisfied with the program. There were increases (P < .001) in the number of people refraining from smoking for the past 30 days and reducing their smoking from B to EOT and to FU, with additional individuals reporting being quit despite recent smoking. Participants also increased in their perceptions of how bothersome secondhand smoke is to others (P < .05); however, no other attitudinal variables were altered. Thus, this intervention demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness among college-aged nondaily smokers. Additional research is needed to understand how nondaily smokers define cessation, improve measures for cessation, and examine theoretical constructs related to smoking among this population. PMID:22570666

  18. Does Brief Intervention Work For Heavy Episodic Drinking? A Comparison of Emergency Department Patients in Two Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yu; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Swiatkiewicz, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Little has been reported on the efficacy of brief intervention (BI) among heavy episodic drinkers, although this drinking style is known to be especially harmful in relation to negative consequences including alcohol-related injuries. The comparative efficacy of BI is analyzed in two similar randomized controlled clinical trials of emergency department (ED) patients in two different cultures, both of which exhibit similar drinking styles of heavy episodic drinking: Poland and Mexican-Americans in the U.S. Improvements in drinking and problem outcomes are analyzed at 3-month and 12-month follow-up, using random effects modeling, among 446 Polish patients and 698 Mexican-American patients, randomized to screened only, assessment, and intervention conditions in each study. In Poland significant improvement was observed in all outcome measures for the assessed condition at 3-months compared to baseline, but only in the two problem variables at 12-months, while for the intervention condition, significant improvement was found in all outcome measures at both time periods; however, estimates of the interaction terms were not statistically significant. In the Mexica-American study, while significant improvement in nearly all outcome measures were observed at 3 months and 12 months for both conditions, estimates of the interaction terms suggest that for all drinking variables, but not problem variables, outcomes were significantly improved for the intervention condition over the assessed condition at 12 months, suggesting a 12-month intervention effect. Findings here are non-conclusive regarding a treatment effect of BI for heavy episodic drinking in ED patients. Given the mixed findings for BI in other ED studies, future studies need to explore the efficacy of BI in other populations and cultures exhibiting different drinking patterns to help identify what type of drinker would most benefit from BI in the ED setting. PMID:26688611

  19. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    , traditional norms that may directly pertain to hyperfemininzed Asian-American women, including modesty and sexual fidelity, may protect against heavy episodic drinking (Young et al. 2005). Conversely, the risk for heavy episodic drinking may be enhanced in men who strive to demonstrate traditional notions of masculinity through risk-taking and endorsement of playboy norms (Iwamoto et al. 2010). Although this review has illustrated the contemporary state of research on alcohol use among Asian Americans, it also highlights the significant limitations in this literature. Many of the studies reviewed here have used cross-sectional data, which do not allow researchers to infer causality between the various sociocultural factors and problematic alcohol use. One way of addressing this gap in the existing literature may be to implement longitudinal designs to further understand how the temporal relationship between sociocultural factors, including acculturation and gender norms, may impact alcohol use and alcohol-related problem trajectories. There also is a pressing need to develop greater understanding of within-group differences among U.S.-born and foreign-born Asian Americans as well as among as specific ethnic groups. To date, epidemiological research has largely neglected to examine these significant discrepancies. Given the growing prevalence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among Asian-American women (Grant et al. 2004; Iwamoto et al. 2010), studies also should focus on this group and explore how the intersection of gender and culture may influence alcohol use. Finally, the majority of research on this population has been conducted in college samples; therefore, it is important to also examine community samples, including U.S.-born young adults who are not attending college and older adult Asian-American populations. PMID:27159808

  20. Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liping; Wang, Yeyao; Guo, Yongli; Zhou, Youya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng; Xie, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Drinking groundwater is a significant pathway for human exposure to heavy metals. To evaluate the health effect of some heavy metals ingestion through the groundwater drinking pathway, the authors collected 35 groundwater samples from the drinking water wells of local residents and the exploitation wells of waterworks in Baotou, China. The monitoring results indicate that the groundwater had been polluted by heavy metals in some regions of the study area. A health risk assessment model derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to determine the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects to residents who drink groundwater. All the respondents in the study area were at potential risk of carcinogenic health effects from arsenic when using the lowest safe standard for carcinogenic risk (1E-06). The hazard quotient values for noncarcinogenic health risk of arsenic exceeded 1 in 14.3% of the sampling wells in the study area. The research results could provide baseline data for groundwater utilization and supervision in the Baotou plain area. PMID:26867296

  1. Sexual victimization, alcohol intoxication, sexual-emotional responding, and sexual risk in heavy episodic drinking women.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Andrasik, Michele P

    2014-05-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women's sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10 %) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol's effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  2. Heavy Drinking and Social and Health Factors in University Students from 24 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate heavy drinking and social and health correlates in university students in low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 17,590 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD 2.9) from 25 universities in 24 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 71.6 % were non-drinkers, 17.1 % moderate and 11.3 % heavy alcohol drinkers (14.2 % in men and 9.2 % in women) in the past 2 weeks. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age, poorer family background, living in a higher income country, weak beliefs in the importance of limiting alcohol use, higher country per capita alcohol consumption, other substance use (tobacco and illicit drug use), and poor life satisfaction was associated with heavy drinking. Addressing health beliefs and co-occurring addictive behaviors may be crucial in the prevention of heavy drinking in this population. PMID:26298475

  3. Consumption of fruits and vegetables in Malaysia: profiling the daily and nondaily consumers.

    PubMed

    Yen, Steven T; Tan, Andrew K G; Feisul, Mustapha I

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the sociodemographic factors associated with daily fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in Malaysia. Based on a cross-sectional sample of 2447 individuals from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1, a multivariate sample selection system is developed and estimated, to accommodate high frequencies of daily FV consumption and the days of servings among nondaily consumers. Results indicate that the authors' attempt to account for endogenous sample selectivity and cross-equation correlations is justified. There exist positive correlations between FV consumption likelihoods and longer work hours, higher levels of education, high income, female gender, nonsmoking status, and being from East Malaysia. Among nondaily consumers, those with longer work hours, singles, and people with diabetes are less inclined to eat fruits on more days. Overall, higher-educated, affluent people, nonsmokers, and East Malaysians display more days of FV consumption. Based on these outcomes, several policy implications are recommended vis-à-vis FV consumption patterns in Malaysia. PMID:23007483

  4. Who does the hat fit? Teenager heterogeneity and the effectiveness of information policies in preventing cannabis use and heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    Etilé, Fabrice

    2006-07-01

    This paper models heterogeneity in the relationship between exposure to information at school or in the media and cannabis use and heavy drinking, using latent class techniques applied to data on French teenagers collected in 1993. Teenagers cluster in five classes which differ in their tastes for drunkenness and cannabis, and in the correlations between information exposure and cannabis use or heavy drinking. Teenager heterogeneity and habit-formation or precociousness effects limit the effectiveness of general information policies. Improving the impact of prevention requires that interventions be better targeted and personalised. We show how economic theory, latent class techniques and existing psychometric questionnaires can be used to build simple statistical tools for targeting prevention policies. PMID:16470707

  5. Ethnicity, alcohol drinking and changes in transaminase activity among heavy drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Scott H.; Connors, Gerard J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis mortality differs by ethnicity in the United States. Some studies suggest alcohol sensitivity may contribute to this finding. This analysis evaluated if alcohol-associated changes in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) differed by ethnicity among heavy drinkers. METHODS: Subjects included 1691 subjects from Project MATCH, a multicenter alcohol use disorders treatment trial. Changes in AST and ALT over 15 months were modeled as functions of ethnicity, age, gender, time, study site and alcohol use. The main focus was on ethnic differences in changes in transaminase activity occurring with changes in alcohol use. RESULTS: At all levels of alcohol consumption AST was lower in non-Hispanic whites relative to African Americans and Mexican Americans. Changes in AST associated with changes in alcohol use did not vary by ethnicity. ALT significantly differed only between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Similar to AST, alcohol-associated ALT change did not differ by ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with alcohol use disorders participating in a treatment trial, the effect of alcohol drinking on transaminase activity did not vary by ethnicity. However, in the general population, alcohol may still interact with other factors in mediating ethnic differences in cirrhosis mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:17534015

  6. College Students' Evaluations of Heavy Drinking: The Influence of Gender, Age, and College Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Suzanne M.; Swanton, Dale N.; Colby, John J.

    2012-01-01

    College students tend not to view their drinking as problematic despite negative consequences. Nevertheless, excessive drinking tends to desist when students graduate. We examined how college drinking is influenced by attitudes and perceived norms using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). Using standardized vignettes, we assessed the extent to…

  7. Single-Session Alcohol Interventions for Heavy Drinking College Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Jennifer E.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of brief, single-session interventions to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking college students. Method: A comprehensive literature search identified 73 studies comparing the effects of single-session brief alcohol intervention with treatment-as-usual or no-treatment control conditions on alcohol use among heavy drinking college students. Random-effects meta-analyses with robust variance estimates were used to synthesize 662 effect sizes, estimating the average overall effect of the interventions and the variability in effects across a range of moderators. Results: An overall mean effect size of ḡ = 0.18, 95% CI [0.12, 0.24] indicated that, on average, single-session brief alcohol interventions significantly reduced alcohol use among heavy drinking college students relative to comparison conditions. There was minimal variability in effects associated with study method and quality, general study characteristics, participant demo-graphics, or outcome measure type. However, studies using motivational enhancement therapy/motivational interviewing (MET/MI) modalities reported larger effects than those using psychoeducational therapy (PET) interventions. Further investigation revealed that studies using MET/ MI and feedback-only interventions, but not those using cognitive-behavioral therapy or PET modalities, reported average effect sizes that differed significantly from zero. There was also evidence that long-term effects were weaker than short-term effects. Conclusions: Single-session brief alcohol interventions show modest effects for reducing alcohol consumption among heavy drinking college students and may be particularly effective when they incorporate MET/MI principles. More research is needed to directly compare intervention modalities, to develop more potent interventions, and to explore the persistence of long-term effects. PMID:26098028

  8. The effects of ethanol on angiogenesis after myocardial infarction, and preservation of angiogenesis with rosuvastatin after heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuying; Yuan, Haitao; Sun, Yongle; Wang, Yong; Wang, Aihong

    2016-08-01

    The cardioprotective effects of moderate alcohol consumption and statins have been known for years. However, heavy or binge drinking confers a high risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of alcohol consumption on acute myocardial infarction that was induced experimentally in rats, with a focus on the potential mechanism of angiogenesis and the effects of statins on heavy drinking. The experimental rats were fed low-dose ethanol (0.5 g/kg/day), high-dose ethanol (5 g/kg/day), and high-dose ethanol with rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) during the entire experiment. Acute myocardial infarctions were induced 4 weeks after the beginning of the experiment. We assessed the capillary density in the myocardium via immunohistochemistry and quantified the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endostatin via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits on the 4th day after myocardial infarction. The results revealed that low ethanol consumption promoted angiogenesis in association with higher VEGF and lower endostatin. High ethanol intake suppressed angiogenesis with unchanged VEGF and elevated endostatin. Treatment with rosuvastatin preserved angiogenesis following high ethanol intake, with an upregulation of VEGF. This study highlights that low ethanol consumption obviously promotes angiogenesis in myocardial-infarction rats while increasing the expression of VEGF, whereas high ethanol consumption inhibits ischemia-induced angiogenesis. This study also provides evidence that rosuvastatin alleviates the inhibitory effects of heavy drinking on angiogenesis. PMID:27565753

  9. Ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair for detecting heavy drinking and/or abstinence: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Viel, Guido; Montisci, Massimo; Terranova, Claudio; Favretto, Donata; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2013-05-01

    In both clinical and forensic settings, hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (HEtG) has been increasingly employed for diagnosing chronic excessive drinking and, more recently, for monitoring abstinence. This paper aims at meta-analysing published data on HEtG concentrations in teetotallers, social drinkers and heavy drinkers in order to evaluate the use of this marker in hair for identifying chronic excessive drinking and for monitoring abstinence. In May 2012, a systematic multi-database search retrieved 366 records related to HEtG and further screened for relevant publications in the field. Fifteen (4.1 %) records matched the selection criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The mean and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of HEtG concentrations in social drinkers (mean 7.5 pg/mg; 95 % CI 4.7-10.2 pg/mg; p < 0.001), heavy drinkers (mean 142.7 pg/mg; 95 % CI 99.9-185.5 pg/mg; p < 0.001) and deceased subjects with a known history of chronic excessive drinking (mean 586.1 pg/mg; 95 % CI 177.2-995.0 pg/mg; p < 0.01) were calculated. The ranges of mean values and 95 % confidence intervals for single studies involving teetotallers/social or social/heavy drinkers showed a partial overlap with a down-trespassing of both the 7 and 30 pg/mg thresholds for social and heavy drinkers, respectively. Although larger and well-designed population studies are required to draw any definitive conclusion, our data show that the cut-off of 30 pg/mg limits the false-negative effect in differentiating heavy from social drinkers, whereas the recently proposed 7 pg/mg cut-off value might only be used for suspecting an active alcohol use, and not for proving complete abstinence. PMID:23250386

  10. Increased serum pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) concentration after longterm alcohol consumption: further evidence for regular subclinical pancreatic damage after heavy drinking?

    PubMed Central

    Nordback, I; Jaakkola, M; Iovanna, J L; Dagorn, J C

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown recently that longterm but not short term heavy drinking of alcohol frequently results in increased serum activities of pancreatic enzymes suggesting subclinical pancreatic injury. Serum pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) is a novel protein, whose synthesis in the acinar cells and release into serum is specifically induced by acute pancreatic damage. This study was performed to further characterise the alcohol induced subclinical pancreatic injury by using serum PAP measurements. Three groups were studied: (1) control group (n = 25), (2) short term drinking group (n = 20), who consumed 2.0 g of ethanol per kg body weight during four hours, and (3) longterm drinking group (n = 32), who were admitted to withdrawal clinic after a median 30 months heavy drinking period. Serum PAP concentration was low in the control group (8 (5 to 12) micrograms/l, geometric mean (95% confidence intervals)). In the short term drinking group serum PAP was in the range of the control group values during 56 hours after drinking. Longterm drinking induced at least a 10-fold increase in serum PAP, the highest concentrations being seen on day 2 after drinking had ended (106 (61 to 184) micrograms/l). The patients did not develop abdominal symptoms, increased blood white cell count, or increased serum C reactive protein concentration. These results further support the suggestion that heavy longterm drinking often induces subclinical pancreatic damage, but not clinical pancreatitis. PMID:7890213

  11. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and bacterial contamination in drinking water sources: a case study of Malakand Agency, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Ali, Sharafat; Sher, Hassan; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Kifayatullah; Tang, Jianfeng; Ahmad, Aziz

    2016-05-01

    Human beings are frequently exposed to pathogens and heavy metals through ingestion of contaminated drinking water throughout the world particularly in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the quality of water used for drinking purposes in Malakand Agency, Pakistan. Water samples were collected from different sources (dug wells, bore wells, tube wells, springs, and hand pumps) and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters and bacterial pathogens (fecal coliform bacteria) using standard methods, while heavy metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-PEA-700). In the study area, 70 % of water sources were contaminated with F. coliform representing high bacterial contamination. The heavy metals, such as Cd (29 and 8 %), Ni (16 and 78 %), and Cr (7 %), exceeded their respective safe limits of WHO (2006) and Pak-EPA (2008), respectively, in water sources, while Pb (9 %) only exceeded from WHO safe limit. The risk assessment tools such as daily intake of metals (DIMs) and health risk indexes (HRIs) were used for health risk estimation and were observed in the order of Ni > Cr > Mn > Pb > Cd and Cd > Ni > Pb > Mn > Cr, respectively. The HRI values of heavy metals for both children and adults were <1, showing lack of potential health risk to the local inhabitants of the study area. PMID:27075311

  12. Heavy episodic drinking and soccer practice among high school students in Brazil: the contextual aspects of this relationship

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy episodic drinking (HED) (consumption of five or more drinks on the same occasion) among adolescents is related to several problems and partaking in sport or physical activities has been suggested as an option to prevent or reduce alcohol consumption among this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between soccer practice and heavy episodic drinking among high school students from Brazil. Methods Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study among a representative sample of public and private high school students from all Brazilian state capitals (N=19,132). Only students aged from 14 to 18 who reported having taken part in soccer practice, other team sports or non-practicing sports in the last month were included. Characteristics of sport practice (frequency and motivation) and HED in the last month (type of drink; where and with whom they drank; frequency of HED) were also considered. Regression models were controlled for sociodemographic variables. Results For all groups studied most of the students reported drinking beer, with friends and at nightclubs or bars. Soccer practice was associated to HED when compared to non-practicing sports and to other team sports. Compared to other team sports, playing soccer for pleasure or profession, but not for keep fit or health reasons, were more associated to HED. Frequency of soccer practice from 1 to 5 days per month and 20 or more days per month, but not from 6 to 19 days per month, were also more associated to HED. Conclusions The relationship between soccer and HED appears to be particularly stronger than in other team sports among adolescents in Brazil. Induced sociability of team sports practice cannot be assumed as the main reason for HED among soccer players. Possibly these results reflect the importance of a strong cultural association between soccer and beer in Brazil and these findings should be integrated to future prevention or intervention programs. PMID

  13. The impact of elevated posttraumatic stress on the efficacy of brief alcohol interventions for heavy drinking college students.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Christopher J; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Skidmore, Jessica R; Martens, Matthew P; Murphy, James G

    2013-03-01

    Brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) have been widely adopted for use with college students and are associated with significant reductions in drinking and problems. However, many students do not respond to these approaches and little is known about risk factors for poor response. The current study investigated one possible risk factor by examining the impact of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms on BAI efficacy. This study presents pooled data from two randomized clinical trials that examined the efficacy of counselor-administered BAIs compared with computerized interventions. Participants were 207 college students (53.1% women, 68.1% White/Caucasian, 16.9% with elevated post-traumatic stress) who reported past-month heavy episodic drinking. Follow-up assessments were completed six months post-intervention. Analyses testing differences in frequency of past-month heavy episodic drinking revealed a significant post-traumatic stress by time interaction (F(1,165)=8.27, p=.005) such that individuals screening positive for PTS showed larger reductions in heavy episodic drinking at follow-up. A significant three-way interaction between time, PTS, and intervention condition (F(2,167)=5.76, p=.004) was found for alcohol related consequences. Specifically, among individuals screening positive for PTS, only those that received the counselor-administered BAI showed a significant reduction in consequences at follow-up. These results suggest that overall college students with PTS may respond well to BAIs and that counselor-delivered BAIs may be more efficacious than computer-delivered interventions for reducing alcohol problems for these high-risk students. PMID:23261489

  14. A Multi-site Randomized Trial of Normative Feedback for Heavy Drinking: Social Comparison versus Social Comparison plus Correction of Normative Misperceptions

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; LaBrie, Joseph; DiBello, Angelo M.; Young, Chelsie M.; Rinker, Dipali V.; Litt, Dana; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Knee, C. Raymond; Hamor, Ezekiel; Jerabeck, Jessica M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Given widespread alcohol misuse among college students, numerous intervention programs have been developed, including personalized normative feedback (PNF). Most research evaluating PNF assumes that presenting one's own perceived norms is necessary to correct normative misperceptions and thereby reduce drinking. Alternatively, simply providing social comparison information showing that one drinks more than others may be sufficient. The present study evaluated the efficacy of full PNF (one's own drinking, campus drinking rates, and perceived norms) and a partial personalized social comparison feedback (PSCF; one's own drinking and campus drinking rates) in a randomized trial among heavy-drinking college students. Method Participants included 623 heavy-drinking students from three universities. Assessments occurred at baseline and three- and six-months post-baseline. Results Primary analyses examined differences across four drinking outcomes (drinks per week, total drinks past month, frequency of past month drinking, and negative alcohol-related consequences) at three- and six-month follow-ups controlling for the baseline variable. Results revealed significant reductions across all alcohol consumption outcomes at three months in both intervention conditions compared to attention-control. Mediation analyses demonstrated significant indirect effects of the intervention on six-month drinking through changes in perceived norms at three months. Moreover, evidence emerged for changes in drinking at three months as a mediator of the association between PSCF and six-month perceived norms. Conclusions The present research suggests PNF may not require explicit consideration of one's perceived norms in order to be effective and that direct social comparison provides an alternative theoretical mechanism for PNF efficacy. PMID:26727407

  15. Factors associated with heavy drinking among off-reserve First Nations and Métis youth and adults: Evidence from the 2012 Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Christopher J; Cooke, Martin; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2016-06-01

    Objective . Aboriginal people in Canada are at higher risk to heavy alcohol consumption than are other Canadians. The objective of this study was to examine a set of culturally specific correlates of heavy drinking among First Nations and Métis youth and adults. Methods . Demographic, geographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables were also considered. Data were used from Statistics Canada's 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey to predict heavy drinking among 14,410 First Nations and Métis 15years of age and older. Separate sets of binary sequential logistic regression models were estimated for youth and adults. Results . Among youth, those who had hunted, fished or trapped within the last year were more likely to be heavy drinkers. In addition, current smokers and those who most frequently participated in sports were at higher odds of heavy alcohol consumption. Among adults, respondents who had hunted, fished or trapped within the last year were more likely to drink heavily. On the other hand, those who had made traditional arts or crafts within the last year were less likely to drink heavily. Conclusions . Men, younger adults, smokers, those who were unmarried, those who had higher household incomes, and those who had higher ratings of self-perceived health were more likely to be heavy drinkers. Efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of heavy drinking among this population may benefit from considering culturally specific factors, in addition to demographic variables and co-occurring health-risk behaviors. PMID:26861752

  16. Racial Differences in Parenting Style Typologies and Heavy Episodic Drinking Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Trenette T.; Yang, Chongming; McClernon, F. Joseph; Fuemmeler, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examines racial differences between Caucasians and African Americans in the association of parenting style typologies with changes in heavy episodic drinking from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods The analytic sample consists of 9,942 adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which followed respondents from ages 12 to 31 years. Confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture modeling are used to classify parenting style typologies based on measures of parental acceptance and control. HED trajectories are evaluated using a zero-inflated Poisson multigroup latent growth curve modeling approach. Results The mixture model identified four heterogeneous groups that differed based on the two latent variables (parental acceptance and control): balanced (65.8% of the sample), authoritarian (12.2%), permissive (19.4%), and uninvolved/neglectful (2.7%). Regardless of race, we found that at age 12 years, children of authoritarian parents have a higher probability of not engaging in HED than children of parents with balanced, permissive, or neglectful parenting styles. However, among African American youth who reported HED at age 12, authoritarian parenting was associated with greater level of HED at age 12 but a less steep increase in level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with balanced parenting. For Caucasian adolescents, uninvolved, permissive, and authoritarian parenting were not associated with a greater level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with adolescents exposed to balanced parenting. Conclusion The influence of parenting styles on HED during adolescence persists into young adulthood and differs by race for youth engaging in HED. PMID:25222086

  17. The Effect of Heavy Drinking on Social Security Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Contributions and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Jan; Sloan, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    This article estimates the effects of heavy alcohol consumption on Social Security Old-Age and Survivor Insurance (OASI) contributions and benefits. The analysis accounts for differential earnings and mortality experiences of individuals with different alcohol consumption patterns and controls for other characteristics, including smoking. Relative to moderate drinkers, heavy drinkers receive fewer OASI benefits relative to their contributions. Ironically, for each cohort of 25-year-olds, eliminating heavy drinking costs the program an additional $3 billion over the cohort's lifetime. Public health campaigns are designed to improve individual health-relevant behaviors and, in the long run, increase longevity. Therefore, if programs for the elderly are structured as longevity-independent defined benefit programs, their success will reward healthier behaviors but increase these programs’ outlays and worsen their financial condition. PMID:15330975

  18. The effect of heavy drinking on social security old-age and survivors insurance contributions and benefits.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Jan; Sloan, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    This article estimates the effects of heavy alcohol consumption on Social Security Old-Age and Survivor Insurance (OASI) contributions and benefits. The analysis accounts for differential earnings and mortality experiences of individuals with different alcohol consumption patterns and controls for other characteristics, including smoking. Relative to moderate drinkers, heavy drinkers receive fewer OASI benefits relative to their contributions. Ironically, for each cohort of 25-year-olds, eliminating heavy drinking costs the program an additional $3 billion over the cohort's lifetime. Public health campaigns are designed to improve individual health-relevant behaviors and, in the long run, increase longevity. Therefore, if programs for the elderly are structured as longevity-independent defined benefit programs, their success will reward healthier behaviors but increase these programs' outlays and worsen their financial condition. PMID:15330975

  19. From the laboratory to real life: a pilot study of an expectancy challenge with "heavy drinking" young people on holiday.

    PubMed

    van de Luitgaarden, Jade; Wiers, Reinout W; Knibbe, Ronald A; Boon, Brigitte J

    2006-01-01

    The Alcohol Expectancy Challenge (EC) is a promising program for changing alcohol expectancies and reducing alcohol consumption in "heavy drinking" young men in a bar-lab setting. In this study the EC was adapted for use in mixed-gender groups in a holiday setting and its feasibility tested in camping resorts in the Netherlands where a lot of binge drinking takes place (summer 2002). Male and female participants (N = 170; mean age, 18.8 years) were randomly assigned to an EC or to an assessment-only control group. One day before the intervention, alcohol expectancies were measured by a Visual Analogue Scale of arousal-sedation expectancies (VAS expectancies questionnaire). At the same time, alcohol use in everyday life and on holiday was assessed by a General Drinking Questionnaire and a 24-hour drinking diary, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the intervention, the VAS expectancies questionnaire was administered again and alcohol use over the previous 24 hours was reported in the drinking diary. Six weeks after the intervention, participants were telephoned and administered oral versions of the VAS expectancies questionnaire and General Drinking Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs. Although the study was hampered by recruitment difficulties, the EC proved feasible in this setting, was well received by youngsters, and effects on their alcohol expectancies may have been present. No effect was found on alcohol use. In conclusion, implementation must be improved and more studies are needed to come to more definite conclusions about the value of the EC in a real-life targeted intervention. PMID:16467011

  20. The development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Voogt, Carmen V; Poelen, Evelien A P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex A C J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-12-01

    In the Netherlands, young adults' drinking practices have become an issue of public concern since their drinking levels are high. Heavy drinking can place young adults at an increased risk for developing short- and long-term health-related problems. Current national alcohol prevention programmes focus mainly on adolescents and their parents and paying less systematic attention to young adults. The present study describes the theory and evidence-based development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention entitled What Do You Drink (WDYD). We applied the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to combine theory and evidence in the development and implementation of WDYD. The WDYD intervention aims to detect and reduce heavy drinking of young adults who are willing to decrease their alcohol consumption, preferably below the Dutch guidelines of low-risk drinking. According to the IM protocol, the development of WDYD resulted in a structured intervention. Reducing heavy drinking to low-risk drinking was proposed as the behavioural outcome. Motivational interviewing principles and parts of the I-Change Model were used as methods in the development of WDYD, whereas computer tailoring was selected as main strategy. An effect and a process evaluation of the intervention will be conducted. IM was found to be a practical instrument for developing the WDYD intervention tailored to a specific target population in the area of alcohol prevention. PMID:23525645

  1. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Cobbina, Samuel J.; Duwiejuah, Abudu B.; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended. PMID:26343702

  2. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Cobbina, Samuel J; Duwiejuah, Abudu B; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-09-01

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended. PMID:26343702

  3. Hair Ethyl Glucuronide is Highly Sensitive and Specific for Detecting Moderate-to-Heavy Drinking in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Scott H.; Koch, David G.; Willner, Ira R.; Randall, Patrick K.; Reuben, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Hair ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a promising biomarker of moderate-to-heavy alcohol consumption and may have utility in detecting and monitoring alcohol use in clinical populations where alcohol use is of particular importance. This study evaluated the relationship between hair EtG and drinking in patients with liver disease. Methods: The subjects (n = 200) were patients with liver disease who presented for care at a university medical center. Alcohol use during the 3 months preceding participation in the study was assessed, and a sample of hair was obtained for EtG testing. Classification of drinking status (any drinking or averaging at least 28 g per day) by hair EtG was evaluated, as well as the effects of liver disease severity and demographic and hair care factors. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detecting an average of 28 g or more per day during the prior 90 days was 0.93. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity of hair EtG ≥8 pg/mg for averaging at least 28 g of ethanol per day were 92 and 87%, respectively. Cirrhosis and gender may have a modest influence on the relationship between drinking and hair EtG. Conclusion: Hair EtG was highly accurate in differentiating subjects with liver disease averaging at least 28 g of ethanol per day from abstainers and lighter drinkers. PMID:23015609

  4. Heavy Drinking in College Students: Who Is at Risk and What Is Being Done About It?

    PubMed Central

    TURRISI, ROB; MALLETT, KIMBERLY A.; MASTROLEO, NADINE R.; LARIMER, MARY E.

    2008-01-01

    Problem drinking and related consequences are a major social issue plaguing college campuses across the United States. Each year, alcohol is responsible for fatalities, assaults, serious injuries, and arrests that occur among college students. The authors review and discuss the risk factors, drinking patterns, and consequences that are relevant to the general student population. In addition, the authors highlight individuals at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, such as Greek-letter social organization members and student athletes. The authors also discuss the interventions that attempt to reduce risky drinking and related problems in these subgroups as well as the future directions for research. PMID:17128959

  5. Heavy metals in drinking water: Standards, sources, and effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of heavy metal pollutants in drinking water and their effects on public health. Topics examine the toxicological effects of prolonged exposure incurred by ingestion of lead, copper, nickel, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc. Quantification factors, federal and state regulations and standards, and laboratory animal studies are discussed. Goundwater contamination by landfill leachates, acid precipitation contributions to groundwater pollution, and corrosion by-products in residential plumbing and public water supply transport systems are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Harm Experienced from the Heavy Drinking of Family and Friends in the General Population: A Comparative Study of Six Northern European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ramstedt, Mats; Sundin, Erica; Moan, Inger Synnøve; Storvoll, Elisabet E.; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Bloomfield, Kim; Hope, Ann; Kristjánsson, Sveinbjörn; Tigerstedt, Christoffer

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiological research on alcohol-related harm has long given priority to studies on harm to the drinker. A limitation with this perspective is that it neglects the harm drinking causes to people around the drinker, and thus, it fails to give a full picture of alcohol-related harm in society. AIM The aim was to compare the prevalence and correlates of experiencing harm from the heavy drinking by family and friends across the Nordic countries and Scotland and to discuss whether potential differences match levels of drinking, prevalence of binge drinking, and alcohol-related mortality. DATA AND METHOD Data from recent national general population surveys with similar questions on experiences of harms from the drinking of family and friends were collected from Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, and Scotland. RESULTS National estimates of the overall population prevalence of harm from the drinking of family and friends ranged from 14% to 28% across these countries, with the highest prevalence in Finland, Iceland, and Norway and lower estimates for Denmark, Sweden, and Scotland. Across all countries, the prevalence of harm from heavy drinking by family and friends was significantly higher among women and young respondents. CONCLUSION This study revealed large differences in the prevalence of harm across the study countries, as well as by gender and age, but the differences do not match the variation in population drinking and other indicators of harm. The implications of the findings for future research are discussed. PMID:26884681

  7. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. Objective This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Methods Using Facebook’s advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Results Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ2[1,N=272]=13.0, P<.001). Of those who met initial screening

  8. Differences in Subjective Response to Alcohol in Heavy and Light Drinking Chinese Men versus Caucasian American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Hu, Hongxing; McNamara, Patrick; Cao, Dingcai; Hao, Wei; King, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Compare subjective responses to alcohol among Han Chinese and Caucasian American males. Design Double-blinded, placebo-controlled human laboratory design. Participants completed three randomized experimental sessions with high and low alcohol, and placebo beverage. Setting Chinese participants were examined at Xinjiang Medical University, China. Caucasian participants were examined at the University of Chicago, USA. Participants 70 Han Chinese (35 heavy/35 light drinkers) and 75 Caucasian Americans (43 heavy/32 light drinkers). Measurements Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and the Stimulation and Sedation subscales of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale were assessed at pre-drink baseline and four timepoints after beverage consumption. The Like and Want subscales of the Drug Effects Questionnaire were also assessed at the post-drink assessments. Findings Comparisons with light drinkers showed that high and low dose alcohol produced decreases in stimulation, liking, and wanting in Chinese vs. Caucasians (ps<.05), and dose-dependent increases in sedation in both groups (ps<0.001). Among heavy drinkers, high dose alcohol produced higher stimulation (p<0.001) but with concomitant higher sedation for both doses (ps<0.05) for Chinese vs. Caucasians. Alcohol also demonstrated significantly lower liking (ps<0.001) in Chinese vs. Caucasian heavy drinkers for both doses. Interestingly, both groups showed dose dependent increases in wanting relative to placebo (ps<0.05), but the magnitude of the increase was lower in Chinese. Conclusions Stimulating effects of alcohol are predominant in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but with less hedonic and motivational reward, potentially explaining some of the lower risk for alcohol disorders in Asian subgroups. PMID:25203488

  9. A pilot study of full-dose ondansetron to treat heavy-drinking men withdrawing from alcohol in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Filho, João Maria; Baltieri, Danilo Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ondansetron has emerged as a promising medication for the treatment of alcohol dependence, mainly among early-onset alcoholics. This research primarily aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ondansetron at a 16mg/day dosage to treat alcohol-dependent outpatients. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week study was carried out at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. The total sample comprised 102 men, 18-60 years of age, with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Half of our sample discontinued the treatment and the main outcome measures (proportion of abstinent days and proportion of heavy drinking days) were analyzed using the treatment adherents as well as with an imputed sample. The main factors associated with treatment retention were older age and smoking status. Although there were no significant differences between the main outcome measures of both medication groups in the adherents, ondansetron demonstrated a slight but significant superiority over the placebo regarding the proportion of heavy drinking days in the imputed sample (7.8% versus 11.7%, respectively). It appears that the optimal dosage to treat alcoholism has yet to be determined. Further, ondansetron may only be useful in treating some types of alcoholics. Ondansetron was well tolerated and no serious adverse events were registered. PMID:23396176

  10. Daily Associations Among Self-control, Heavy Episodic Drinking, and Relationship Functioning: An Examination of Actor and Partner Effects

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that temporary deficits in the ability to inhibit impulsive urges may be proximally associated with intimate partner aggression. The current study examined the experience of alcohol use and the depletion of self-control in the prediction of relationship functioning. Daily diary data collected from 118 heterosexual couples were analyzed using parallel multi-level Actor Partner Interdependence Models to assess the effects of heavy episodic drinking and depletion of self-control across partners on outcomes of participant-reported daily arguing with and anger toward an intimate partner. Heavy episodic drinking among actors predicted greater arguing but failed to interact with either actor or partner depletion. We also found that greater arguing was reported on days of high congruent actor and partner depletion. Both actor and partner depletion, as well as their interaction, predicted greater partner-specific anger. Greater partner-specific anger was generally reported on days of congruent actor and partner depletion, particularly on days of high partner depletion. The current results highlight the importance of independently assessing partner effects (i.e., depletion of self-control), which interact dynamically with disinhibiting actor effects, in the prediction of daily adverse relationship functioning. Results offer further support for the development of prospective individualized and couples-based interventions for partner conflict. PMID:24700558

  11. Daily Associations between Alcohol Use and Unprotected Anal Sex Among Heavy Drinking HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Wray, Tyler B.; Pantalone, David W.; Kruis, Ryan D.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Monti, Peter M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for the largest proportion of new HIV infections in the United States. Alcohol may facilitate HIV transmission by increasing unprotected anal sex, but few studies have focused on transmission behaviors in HIV-positive MSM. This study explored daily associations between alcohol use and sexual behavior among heavy drinking HIV-positive MSM using a 30-day Timeline Followback interview. Results of generalized estimating equations indicated that greater alcohol consumption on a given day was associated with a linear increase in the odds of having unprotected anal sex with partners of any HIV status. However, the odds of reporting unprotected anal sex with HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown partners increased in a curvilinear fashion, occurring primarily at very heavy levels of use (12+ drinks). Results suggest that very heavy drinking increases the risk of engaging in sexual behavior that has the potential for transmitting HIV to other men. PMID:25194967

  12. The effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and its mediators: results from two methods of adjusting for selection into marriage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; Mackinnon, David

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and tested whether this effect was mediated by involvement in social activities, religiosity, and self-control reasons for limiting drinking. The sample of 508 young adults was taken from an ongoing longitudinal study of familial alcoholism that over-sampled children of alcoholics (Chassin, Rogosch, & Barrera, 1991). In order to distinguish role socialization effects of marriage from confounding effects of role selection into marriage, analyses used both the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method and the change score method of adjusting for pre-marriage levels of heavy drinking and the mediators. Results showed role socialization effects of marriage on post-marriage declines in heavy drinking. This effect was mediated by involvement in social activities such that marriage predicted decreased involvement in social activities, which in turn predicted decreased heavy drinking. There were no statistically significant mediated effects of religiosity. The mediated effect of self-control reasons for limiting drinking was supported by the ANCOVA method only, and further investigation suggested that this result was detected erroneously due to violation of an assumption of the ANCOVA method that is not shared by the change score method. Findings from this study offer an explanation for the maturing out of heavy drinking that takes place for some individuals over the course of young adulthood. Methodologically, results suggest that the ANCOVA method should be employed with caution, and that the change score method is a viable approach to confirming results from the ANCOVA method. PMID:21198229

  13. Non-daily Smokers’ Experience of Craving on Days They Do Not Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

    2015-01-01

    Non-daily, or intermittent smokers (ITS) represent a growing pattern in adult smoking that needs to be explained by models of drug dependence. ITS regularly and voluntarily abstain from smoking, yet have difficulty quitting. We examine potential accounts of ITS’ smoking by exploring their experience of craving and withdrawal on the days they abstain. For three weeks, 146 ITS and 194 daily smokers used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to monitor craving, withdrawal, and smoking in real-time. ITS’ craving (p < .001) and arousal (p < .001) were significantly lower on the 34.4% of days when they abstained (compared to days they smoked), and they experienced no increases in withdrawal symptom. ITS who abstained for longer experienced lower craving, even on their first day of abstinence (p < .001). Within strata defined by longest duration of abstinence (1, 2-3, 4-6, ≥ 7 days), craving did not change over time, demonstrating no increase as resumption of smoking approached. Craving increased only at the moment smoking resumed. Further, duration of abstinence runs varied more within persons than across persons. These findings contradict the predictions of a model positing that craving recurs at fixed intervals. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ITS’ smoking is cued or primed by particular stimuli rather than by temporal cycles. These analyses demonstrate that ITS do not experience increased craving or withdrawal on days they do not smoke, and show neither signs of classical dependence nor regular cycles of craving and smoking. PMID:26052617

  14. Nondaily smokers' experience of craving on days they do not smoke.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S; Tindle, Hilary A; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2015-08-01

    Nondaily, or intermittent smokers (ITS), represent a growing pattern in adult smoking that needs to be explained by models of drug dependence. ITS regularly and voluntarily abstain from smoking, yet have difficulty quitting. We examine potential accounts of ITS' smoking by exploring their experience of craving and withdrawal on the days they abstain. For 3 weeks, 146 ITS and 194 daily smokers used the Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to monitor craving, withdrawal, and smoking in real-time. ITS' craving (p < .001) and arousal (p < .001) were significantly lower on the 34.4% of days when they abstained (compared with days they smoked), and they experienced no increases in withdrawal symptoms. ITS who abstained for longer experienced lower craving, even on their first day of abstinence (p < .001). Within strata defined by longest duration of abstinence (1, 2-3, 4-6, ≥7 days), craving did not change over time, demonstrating no increase as resumption of smoking approached. Craving increased only at the moment smoking resumed. Furthermore, duration of abstinence runs varied more within persons than across persons. These findings contradict the predictions of a model positing that craving recurs at fixed intervals. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ITS' smoking is cued or primed by particular stimuli rather than by temporal cycles. These analyses demonstrate that ITS do not experience increased craving or withdrawal on days they do not smoke, and show neither signs of classical dependence nor regular cycles of craving and smoking. PMID:26052617

  15. Being Smart and Social: The Lived Experience of High Achieving and Heavy Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachenheimer, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Studies showing the pervasiveness of college student drinking and the multitude of serious negative consequences as a result of this consumption have left researchers calling student abuse of alcohol "the single most serious public health problem confronting American colleges" (Wechsler, Dowdall, Maenner, Gledhill-Hoyt, & Lee, 1998,…

  16. Combining self-affirmation and implementation intentions to reduce heavy episodic drinking in university students.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul; Wrona-Clarke, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    Studies testing the effects of self-affirmation on alcohol-related cognitions and behavior in university students have produced equivocal results. Because self-affirmation is a motivational technique (i.e., designed to reduce defensive processing) it may need to be supplemented with volitional techniques, such as forming if-then plans, to translate positive intentions into behavior. Participants (N = 348) were randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 (self-affirmation) × 2 (implementation intention) between-participants factorial design. Participants completed a self-affirmation task (i.e., values essay) or not, read a summary about the health risks of binge drinking (8/6 units for men/women), and then completed an implementation intention task (i.e., forming if-then plans) or not. Participants then completed measures of message derogation, perceived risk, and intention as well as alcohol consumption 1 week later. All main and interaction effects for self-affirmation were nonsignificant. In contrast, participants who formed implementation intentions (vs. not) reported drinking fewer units of alcohol and engaged in binge drinking less frequently at 1-week follow-up. Additional analyses revealed that affirming a social value attenuated the effect of self-affirmation on intention, but augmented the effect of implementation intentions on behavior. Overall, the findings provide additional evidence for the positive effects of implementation intentions but question the use of self-affirmation to reduce alcohol consumption in university students. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26692296

  17. Reciprocal Effects of Internalizing and Oppositional Defiance Symptoms on Heavy Drinking and Alcohol-Related Harms in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kara D.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Ames, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for longitudinal research to understand how psychopathology relates to the onset and maintenance of substance use from adolescence into young adulthood. Hence, we investigate the longitudinal, reciprocal influences of internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing (oppositional defiance) symptoms on heavy episodic drinking (HED; ≥5 drinks per occasion) and alcohol-related harms in a community-based sample of youth aged 12–27 years. Participants were chosen from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, followed six times, biennially between 2003 and 2013 (N = 662). Analyses used cross-lagged panel models to examine reciprocal relations over time. Differences across age and sex were also tested. Defiance symptoms predicted increases in HED, which reciprocally predicted increases in defiance symptoms for females. Internalizing symptoms were related to HED within time for females. Alcohol-related harms had reciprocal positive associations with internalizing and defiance symptoms for both males and females. Associations were largely invariant across age groups, suggesting that the presence and strength of associations persisted across development. While psychopathology preceded the onset of HED and harms, the overall findings suggest that these risk processes are mutually reinforcing across development and that youth may become entrenched in an interdependent cycle that significantly increases their risk of comorbid disorders in adulthood. PMID:26819553

  18. Arsenic and heavy metals contamination, risk assessment and their source in drinking water of the Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Gul, Nida; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Sardar; Khattak, Nimat Ullah; Muhammad, Said

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the physico-chemical characteristics in drinking water of Mardan District, Pakistan. Furthermore, water quality was evaluated for the risk assessment of arsenic and heavy metals (HMs) and their contamination sources. Representative groundwater samples of shallow and deep sources were collected in the study area. These samples were analyzed for physical parameters, anions, light metals (LMs) and HMs. Results were compared with the drinking water guideline values set by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Average concentrations of anions, LMs and HMs were found within the maximum allowable contaminant levels except for bicarbonates, Fe, Cu, and Pb. Results revealed that hazard quotients >1 were observed for shallow groundwater for 10% samples only, suggesting potential health risk from water consumption. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis showed a relationship among various physico-chemical parameters in both shallow and deep groundwater. Statistical analyses suggested the geogenic and anthropogenic sources for possible enhancement of various physico-chemical parameters in the aquifer system of the study area. PMID:26608769

  19. The role of impulsivity traits and delayed reward discounting in dysregulated eating and drinking among heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Stojek, Monika M.; Fischer, Sarah; Murphy, Cara M.; MacKillop, James

    2016-01-01

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has been linked to dysregulated eating and problematic alcohol use. The UPPS model identifies five personality-based impulsivity traits that have unique predictive utility: Negative Urgency, Perseverance, Premeditation, Sensation Seeking, and Positive Urgency. Delayed reward discounting (DRD) is an index of impulsive decision making characterized by preference for smaller immediate gains at the cost of larger delayed gains. In the current study, we sought to refine the influence of impulsive personality traits and DRD on disordered eating patterns and problematic drinking. One hundred and eight treatment-seeking heavy drinkers were assessed for UPPS impulsivity traits, DRD, disordered eating, alcohol use, and demographic information. With regard to disordered eating patterns, DRD predicted higher levels of Dietary Restraint and Weight and Shape Concerns. Negative Urgency predicted binge eating and Weight and Shape Concerns. Positive Urgency predicted Eating Concerns. Female sex predicted Eating, Weight, and Shape Concerns. When considering problematic alcohol use, only Negative Urgency and Sensation Seeking were predictive. This is the first study to examine both personality-based impulsivity and DRD in relation to pathological eating and drinking behavior. The results suggest the importance of disentangling the contributions of various impulsivity constructs on dysregulated eating. PMID:24816318

  20. The role of impulsivity traits and delayed reward discounting in dysregulated eating and drinking among heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika M; Fischer, Sarah; Murphy, Cara M; MacKillop, James

    2014-09-01

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has been linked to dysregulated eating and problematic alcohol use. The UPPS model identifies five personality-based impulsivity traits that have unique predictive utility: Negative Urgency, Perseverance, Premeditation, Sensation Seeking, and Positive Urgency. Delayed reward discounting (DRD) is an index of impulsive decision making characterized by preference for smaller immediate gains at the cost of larger delayed gains. In the current study, we sought to refine the influence of impulsive personality traits and DRD on disordered eating patterns and problematic drinking. One hundred and eight treatment-seeking heavy drinkers were assessed for UPPS impulsivity traits, DRD, disordered eating, alcohol use, and demographic information. With regard to disordered eating patterns, DRD predicted higher levels of Dietary Restraint and Weight and Shape Concerns. Negative Urgency predicted binge eating and Weight and Shape Concerns. Positive Urgency predicted Eating Concerns. Female sex predicted Eating, Weight, and Shape Concerns. When considering problematic alcohol use, only Negative Urgency and Sensation Seeking were predictive. This is the first study to examine both personality-based impulsivity and DRD in relation to pathological eating and drinking behavior. The results suggest the importance of disentangling the contributions of various impulsivity constructs on dysregulated eating. PMID:24816318

  1. Discrepant Patterns of Heavy Drinking, Marijuana Use, and Smoking and Intimate Partner Violence: Results from the California Community Health Study of Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed whether discrepant (husband or wife use only) or concordant (both partners use) patterns of heavy drinking, marijuana use, and smoking are associated with increased risk for male-to-female partner violence and female-to-male partner violence among adult couples. Based on a geographic sample of married or cohabiting couples…

  2. Discrepant Patterns of Heavy Drinking, Marijuana Use, and Smoking and Intimate Partner Violence: Results from the California Community Health Study of Couples

    PubMed Central

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed whether discrepant (husband or wife use only) or concordant (both partners use) patterns of heavy drinking, marijuana use and smoking are associated with increased risk for male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among adult couples. Based on a geographic sample of married/cohabiting couples residing in 50 California cities, logistic regression analyses were conducted using dyadic data on past-year partner violence, binge drinking and frequency of intoxication, marijuana use, and smoking. When all substance use patterns were included simultaneously, wife-only heavy drinking couples were at elevated risk for MFPV, as were concordant marijuana-using couples. Husband-only marijuana discrepant couples were at increased risk for FMPV. Further research is needed to explore the processes by which discrepant and concordant substance use patterns may contribute to partner aggression. PMID:26464462

  3. An Examination of the Pathways of Depressive Symptoms and Heavy Drinking from Adolescence to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the dynamic interaction of heavy alcohol use and depressive symptoms at three points over a time period of 11 years from adolescence to adulthood using a subset of data from the nationally representative, multi-year, longitudinal data source, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Results revealed…

  4. Reducing alcohol-related aggression: Effects of a self-awareness manipulation and locus of control in heavy drinking males.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. PMID:26905761

  5. MAOA Alters the Effects of Heavy Drinking and Childhood Physical Abuse on Risk for Severe Impulsive Acts of Violence Among Alcoholic Violent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Background A polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has been shown to alter the effect of persistent drinking and childhood maltreatment on the risk for violent and antisocial behaviors. These findings indicate that MAOA could contribute to inter-individual differences in stress resiliency. Methods Recidivism in severe violent crimes was assessed after 8 years of nonincarcerated follow-up in a male sample of 174 impulsive Finnish alcoholic violent offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD) or both. We examined whether MAOA genotype alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse (CPA) on the risk for committing impulsive recidivistic violent crimes. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that both heavy drinking and CPA were significant independent predictors of recidivism in violent behavior (OR 5.2, p = 0.004 and OR 5.3, p = 0.003) among offenders having the high MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-H), but these predictors showed no effect among offenders carrying the low MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-L). Conclusion Carriers of the MAOA-H allele have a high risk to commit severe recidivistic impulsive violent crimes after exposure to heavy drinking and CPA. PMID:20201935

  6. Heavy metals in the gold mine soil of the upstream area of a metropolitan drinking water source.

    PubMed

    Ding, Huaijian; Ji, Hongbing; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Aixing; Guo, Xinyue; Li, Cai; Gao, Yang; Briki, Mergem

    2016-02-01

    Pinggu District is adjacent to the county of Miyun, which contains the largest drinking water source of Beijing (Miyun Reservoir). The Wanzhuang gold field and tailing deposits are located in Pinggu, threatening Beijing's drinking water security. In this study, soil samples were collected from the surface of the mining area and the tailings piles and analyzed for physical and chemical properties, as well as heavy metal contents and particle size fraction to study the relationship between degree of pollution degree and particle size. Most metal concentrations in the gold mine soil samples exceeded the background levels in Beijing. The spatial distribution of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn was the same, while that of Cr and Ni was relatively similar. Trace element concentrations increased in larger particles, decreased in the 50-74 μm size fraction, and were lowest in the <2 μm size fraction. Multivariate analysis showed that Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb originated from anthropogenic sources, while Cr, Ni, and Sc were of natural origin. The geo-accumulation index indicated serious Pb, As, and Cd pollution, but moderate to no Ni, Cr, and Hg pollution. The Tucker 3 model revealed three factors for particle fractions, metals, and samples. There were two factors in model A and three factors for both the metals and samples (models B and C, respectively). The potential ecological risk index shows that most of the study areas have very high potential ecological risk, a small portion has high potential ecological risk, and only a few sampling points on the perimeter have moderate ecological risk, with higher risk closer to the mining area. PMID:26452659

  7. Geostatistical analysis of the relationship between heavy metals in drinking water and cancer incidence in residential areas in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Colak, Ebru Husniye; Yomralioglu, Tahsin; Nisanci, Recep; Yildirim, Volkan; Duran, Celal

    2015-01-01

    In the study described in this article, the authors examined the relationship between heavy metals in the drinking water and cancer densities in residential areas. The Turkish cities of Trabzon, Rize, and Giresun in the eastern Black Sea region were chosen as the study areas. Cancer registry data, population information, heavy metal chemical analysis results for drinking water, and other spatial information for the region were collected in a database designed in GIS. Information on a total of 13,012 registered cancer cases from the years 2000-2007 was obtained from a cancer record center and depicted spatially on a map. The incidence values explaining cancer density in residential units were calculated. Chemical analyses were then conducted to determine the presence of 17 different heavy metals by collecting a total of 541 drinking water samples. It was determined that among the 17 analyzed heavy metals, beryllium, nickel, antimony, and molybdenum had a significant relationship with cancer incidence values in the residential units. PMID:25619041

  8. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation ... If you drink alcohol, doctors advise limiting how much you drink. This is called drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible drinking means ...

  9. Development and Preliminary Testing of a Promotora-Delivered, Spanish Language, Counseling Intervention for Heavy Drinking among Male, Latino Day Laborers.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison A; Karno, Mitchell P; Ray, Lara; Ramirez, Karina; Barenstein, Veronica; Portillo, Marlom J; Rizo, Patricia; Borok, Jenna; Liao, Diana H; Barron, Juan; del Pino, Homero E; Valenzuela, Abel; Barry, Kristin L

    2016-03-01

    This study developed and then tested the feasibility, acceptability and initial efficacy of a 3-session, culturally adapted, intervention combining motivational enhancement therapy (MET) and strengths-based case management (SBCM) delivered by promotoras in Spanish to reduce heavy drinking among male, Latino day laborers. A pilot two-group randomized trial (N=29) was conducted to evaluate the initial efficacy of MET/SBCM compared to brief feedback (BF). Alcohol-related measures were assessed at 6, 12 and 18weeks after baseline. Most intervention group participants (12/14) attended all counseling sessions and most participants (25/29) remained in the study at 18weeks. Alcohol related measures improved in both groups over time with no statistically significant differences observed at any of the time points. However the comparative effect size of MET/SBCM on weekly drinking was in the large range at 6-weeks and in the moderate range at 12-weeks. Post hoc analyses identified a statistically significant reduction in number of drinks over time for participants in the intervention group but not for control group participants. Despite the extreme vulnerability of the population, most participants completed all sessions of MET/SBCM and reported high satisfaction with the intervention. We feel our community partnership facilitated these successes. Additional studies of community-partnered and culturally adapted interventions are needed to reduce heavy drinking among the growing population of Latinos in the U.S. PMID:26738641

  10. Age Variability in the Association between Heavy Episodic Drinking and Adolescent Suicide Attempts: Findings from a Large-Scale, School-Based Screening Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Schilling, Elizabeth A.; James, Amy; Glanovsky, Jaime L.; Jacobs, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is significantly linked to the suicidal behavior of adolescents according to the data on 32,217 students aged 11 to 19 years old. A substantial age variation is seen with youths aged 13 years and younger roughly 2.6 times more likely to report an attempt as compared to 1.2 times among youths aged 18 years and older.

  11. Combined heavy smoking and drinking predicts overall but not disease-free survival after curative resection of locoregional esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Chen, Cui; Zhang, Fei; Yang, Hang; Bi, Xi-Wen; An, Xin; Wang, Feng-Hua; Jiang, Wen-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prognostic impact of smoking and drinking on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was scarcely discussed. We investigated the prognostic value of smoking and drinking and their relationships with clinicopathological characteristics in a large cohort of patients with locoregional ESCC. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed 488 patients who underwent curative treatment at a single institution between January 2007 and December 2008. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationships between smoking and drinking and clinicopathological variables, the Kaplan–Meier method was used for 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival, and Cox proportional hazards models were applied for univariate and multivariate analyses of variables with respect to OS and disease-free survival. Results Heavy smokers were more likely to have advanced Tumor-Node-Metastases (TNM) stage and higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio at diagnosis (P<0.05). Drinkers were more likely to have advanced TNM stage, to present with a larger tumor, and to undergo multidisciplinary treatment (P<0.05). For patients who used neither heavy tobacco nor alcohol, used either tobacco or alcohol, and used both, the 5-year OS rates and OS times were 57.4%, 46.4%, and 39.1% (P<0.05) and not reached, 55.2 months, and 41.2 months (P<0.05), respectively. On multivariate analysis, patients who both heavily smoked and drank had 1.392 times the risk of dying during follow-up compared with neither-users (95% CI =1.020–1.901, P=0.037). Conclusion We identified that combined heavy smoking and drinking might predict poor prognosis in ESCC patients. PMID:27471400

  12. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  13. Is video gaming, or video game addiction, associated with depression, academic achievement, heavy episodic drinking, or conduct problems?

    PubMed Central

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Frøyland, Lars Roar

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias. Methods: Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors. Results: Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes. Discussion: The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects. Conclusions: Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life. PMID:25215212

  14. Moderating Effects of a Craving Intervention on the Relation between Negative Mood and Heavy Drinking Following Treatment for Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah; Donovan, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Negative affect is a significant predictor of alcohol relapse, and the relation between negative affect and drinking has been shown to be strongly mediated by alcohol craving. Thus, targeting craving during treatment could potentially attenuate the relation between negative affect and drinking. Method: The current study is a secondary…

  15. Does Alcohol or Delinquency Help Adolescents Feel Better Over Time? A Study on the Influence of Heavy Drinking and Violent/Property Offending on Negative Emotions.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Joon; Ferguson, Todd W; Rhodes, Jeremy R

    2016-05-01

    Conceptualizing adolescent drinking and delinquency as adaptations to strain, we explore whether they (a) decrease or increase the probability of feeling depression and anxiety later and (b) ameliorate or aggravate the effect of strain on the negative emotions over time. These relationships are also examined for gender differences by analyzing data separately for males and females as well as both combined. We conducted ordinary least squares regression analysis of panel data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Heavy drinking and serious delinquency were found to increase the probability of feeling depression and anxiety later, whereas they tend to ameliorate the emotionally deleterious effect of strain for males and, to a lesser extent, females. PMID:25519851

  16. Binge drinking in Europe.

    PubMed

    Farke, Walter; Anderson, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Binge drinking is a pattern of heavy drinking which is observed all over Europe. The term Binge drinking implies a lot of different meanings to different people. The most popular definition used for this term is five or more 'standard drinks' in a single occasion. Binge drinking is different from intoxication, although this kind of heavy alcohol consumption can be lead to intoxication. This condition is manifested by different signs, for example slurred speech. Binge drinking is very common among the European population. In 2006 some 80 million Europeans aged 15 plus reported this kind of alcohol consumption patterns. European surveys showed that there is an increase of binge drinking across Europe amongst young people (15-16 years) old since 1995. The consequences of binge drinking contain acute and chronic effects, which are caused by long term alcohol use. The individual risks are brain damage, suicide, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. It has also an impact on harm to others than the drinkers. This includes violence and crime, accidents, etc. Each year in the European Union 2000 homicides are related to heavy drinking. There a lot of effective measures to reduce binge drinking. Strong evidence is shown by drink-driving laws, tax, reduced access to and availability of alcohol, brief interventions such as physician advice and advertising controls. PMID:18173097

  17. Effects of smoking and alcohol use on neurocognitive functioning in heavy drinking, HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Monnig, Mollie A; Kahler, Christopher W; Lee, Hana; Pantalone, David W; Mayer, Kenneth H; Cohen, Ronald A; Monti, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    High rates of cognitive impairment persist in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, despite improved health outcomes and reduced mortality through widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking are potential contributors to neurocognitive impairment in people living with HIV (PLWH), yet few studies have examined their influence concurrently. Here we investigated the effects of self-reported alcohol use and smoking on learning, memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function in 124 HIV-positive men who have sex with men [age (mean ± SD) = 42.8 ± 10.4 years], engaged with medical care. All participants were heavy drinkers. Duration of HIV infection averaged 9.9 ± 7.6 years, and 92.7% were on a stable ART regimen. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and assessment of past 30-day substance use. Average number of drinks per drinking day (DPDD) was 5.6 ± 3.5, and 33.1% of participants were daily smokers. Rates of neurocognitive impairment were the highest in learning (50.8%), executive function (41.9%), and memory (38.0%). Multiple regression models tested DPDD and smoking status as predictors of neurocognitive performance, controlling for age and premorbid intelligence. Smoking was significantly, negatively related to verbal learning (p = .046) and processing speed (p = .001). DPDD was a significant predictor of learning (p = .047) in a model that accounted for the interaction of DPDD and smoking status. As expected, premorbid intelligence significantly predicted all neurocognitive scores (ps < .01), and older age was associated with slower processing speed (ps < .01). In conclusion, smoking appears to be associated with neurocognitive functioning deficits in PLWH beyond the effects of heavy drinking, aging, and premorbid intelligence. Smoking cessation interventions have the potential to be an important target for improving functional outcomes

  18. Celiac trunk and branches dissection due to energy drink consumption and heavy resistance exercise: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    González, Wilma; Altieri, Pablo I; Alvarado, Enrique; Banchs, Héctor L; Colón, Edgar; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María

    2015-01-01

    Higher doses and consumption of energy drinks leads to cardiovascular effects and potential consequences. Principal components found in energy drinks such as caffeine, guarana and taurine has been related to dilatation, aneurysm formation, dissection and ruptures. There is no evidence showing an integration of these components and its effects in endothelium and aortic walls due to higher levels of pressure during exercises. We report a case of a 44 years male with celiac trunk and branches dissection due to long-term consumption of energy drinks and intense exercise routine. Our proposition relates cell and vessel walls alterations including elasticity in endothelial wall due to higher blood pressure, resistance by intense exercise routine and long-term consumption of energy drinks. PMID:26035983

  19. Heavy Episodic Drinking and Its Consequences: The Protective Effects of Same-Sex, Residential Living-Learning Communities for Undergraduate Women

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Carol J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Cranford, James A.; Morales, Michele; Lange, James E.; Reed, Mark B.; Ketchie, Julie M.; Scott, Marcia S.

    2008-01-01

    Gender and living environment are two of the most consistent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking on college campuses. This study aimed to determine group differences in alcohol misuse and its attendant consequences between undergraduate women living in four distinct on-campus residential environments. A Web-based survey was self-administered to a stratified random sample of full-time students attending a large Midwestern University, and living in four distinct on-campus residential environments: 1) single-sex (all female) Residential Learning Communities (RLCs), 2) mixed-sex (male and female) RLCs, 3) single-sex (all female) non-RLCs and 4) mixed-sex (male and female) non-RLCs. Respondents living in single-sex and mixed-sex RLCs had significantly lower rates of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking and related primary alcohol-related consequences when compared to respondents living in non-RLCs; however, women in single-sex RLCs had the lowest rates. RLCs – particularly single-sex learning communities – appear to provide undergraduate women with an environment that supports lower rates of alcohol use and abuse. PMID:18485609

  20. A time-series analysis of the impact of heavy drinking on homicide and suicide mortality in Russia, 1956–2002*

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B.

    2008-01-01

    Aim Assess the impact of heavy drinking on homicide and suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2002. Measures and design Alcohol-related mortality was used as a proxy for heavy drinking. We used autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model total and sex-specific alcohol—homicide and alcohol—suicide relationships at the population level. Findings We found a positive and significant contemporaneous association between alcohol and homicide and between alcohol and suicide. We found no evidence of lagged relationships. These results held for overall and sex-specific associations. Conclusion Our results lend convergent validity to the alcohol—suicide link in Russia found by Nemtsov and to the alcohol—homicide associations found in cross-sectional analyses of Russia. Levels of alcohol consumption, homicide and suicide in Russia are among the highest in the world, and the mounting evidence of the damaging effects of consumption on the social fabric of the country reveals the need for intervention at multiple levels. PMID:17156171

  1. Chronic Drinking During Adolescence Predisposes the Adult Rat for Continued Heavy Drinking: Neurotrophin and Behavioral Adaptation after Long-Term, Continuous Ethanol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Gina M; Stewart, William N; Savage, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6-8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and β-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory, assessed by spontaneous alternation and delayed alternation, was not significantly affected by CET as a function of age of drinking onset, but higher blood-EtOH levels were correlated with lower spontaneous alternation scores. Regardless of the age of onset, EtOH exposed rats were impaired on non-spatial discrimination learning and displayed inflexible behavioral patterns upon reversal learning. Our results indicate that adolescent EtOH exposure changes long-term consumption patterns producing behavioral and neural dysfunctions that persist across the lifespan. PMID:26930631

  2. Chronic Drinking During Adolescence Predisposes the Adult Rat for Continued Heavy Drinking: Neurotrophin and Behavioral Adaptation after Long-Term, Continuous Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Gina M.; Stewart, William N.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6–8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and β-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory, assessed by spontaneous alternation and delayed alternation, was not significantly affected by CET as a function of age of drinking onset, but higher blood–EtOH levels were correlated with lower spontaneous alternation scores. Regardless of the age of onset, EtOH exposed rats were impaired on non-spatial discrimination learning and displayed inflexible behavioral patterns upon reversal learning. Our results indicate that adolescent EtOH exposure changes long-term consumption patterns producing behavioral and neural dysfunctions that persist across the lifespan. PMID:26930631

  3. The Drinking Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  4. Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences: Sex-Specific Differences in Parental Influences among Ninth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Hausheer, Robin; Esp, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Parents impact adolescent substance abuse, but sex-specific influences are not well-understood. This study examined parental influences on adolescent drinking behavior in a sample of ninth-grade students (N = 473). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated parental monitoring, disapproval of teen alcohol use, and quality of parent-teen general…

  5. Heavy episodic drinking among Kenyan female sex workers is associated with unsafe sex, sexual violence and sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Chersich, M F; Luchters, S M F; Malonza, I M; Mwarogo, P; King'ola, N; Temmerman, M

    2007-11-01

    This study examined patterns of alcohol use and its association with unsafe sex and related sequelae among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using snowball sampling. Binge drinkers (> or =5 alcoholic drinks on > or =1 occasion in the previous month) were compared with non-binge drinkers. Of 719 participants, 22.4% were lifetime-alcohol abstainers, 44.7% non-binge and 33.0% binge drinkers. Compared with non-binge drinkers, binge drinkers were more likely to report unprotected sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00-2.53; P=0.047) and sexual violence (AOR=1.85, 95% CI=1.27-2.71; P=0.001) and to have either syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis infection (AOR=1.56, 95% CI=1.00-2.41; P=0.048). HIV prevalence was higher among women having ever drunk (39.9%) than lifetime abstainers (23.2%; P<0.001), but was not associated with drinking patterns. Interventions are needed to assist female sex workers adopt safer drinking patterns. Investigation is needed for the effectiveness of such interventions in reducing unprotected sex, sexual violence and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:18005511

  6. TRAJECTORIES OF ACCULTURATION AND ENCULTURATION IN RELATION TO HEAVY EPISODIC DRINKING AND MARIJUANA USE IN A SAMPLE OF MEXICAN AMERICAN SERIOUS JUVENILE OFFENDERS.

    PubMed

    Losoya, Sandra H; Knight, George P; Chassin, Laurie; Little, Michelle; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Mauricio, Anne; Piquero, Alex

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the longitudinal relations of multiple dimensions of acculturation and enculturation to heavy episodic drinking and marijuana use in a sample of 300 male, Mexican-American, serious juvenile offenders. We track trajectories between ages 15 and 20 and also consider the effects of participants' time spent residing in supervised settings during these years. Results showed some (although not entirely consistent) support for the hypothesis that bicultural adaptation is most functional in terms of lowered substance use involvement. The current findings demonstrate the importance of examining these relations longitudinally and among multiple dimensions of acculturation and enculturation, and they call into question simple models that suggest that greater acculturation is associated with greater substance use among Mexican-American adolescents. PMID:20198119

  7. TRAJECTORIES OF ACCULTURATION AND ENCULTURATION IN RELATION TO HEAVY EPISODIC DRINKING AND MARIJUANA USE IN A SAMPLE OF MEXICAN AMERICAN SERIOUS JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    PubMed Central

    Losoya, Sandra H.; Knight, George P.; Chassin, Laurie; Little, Michelle; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Mauricio, Anne; Piquero, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the longitudinal relations of multiple dimensions of acculturation and enculturation to heavy episodic drinking and marijuana use in a sample of 300 male, Mexican-American, serious juvenile offenders. We track trajectories between ages 15 and 20 and also consider the effects of participants’ time spent residing in supervised settings during these years. Results showed some (although not entirely consistent) support for the hypothesis that bicultural adaptation is most functional in terms of lowered substance use involvement. The current findings demonstrate the importance of examining these relations longitudinally and among multiple dimensions of acculturation and enculturation, and they call into question simple models that suggest that greater acculturation is associated with greater substance use among Mexican-American adolescents. PMID:20198119

  8. The neuroeconomics of alcohol demand: an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol cost-benefit decision making in heavy drinking men.

    PubMed

    MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Acker, John; Gray, Joshua C; Brown, Courtney L; Murphy, James G; Ray, Lara A; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2014-07-01

    Neuroeconomics integrates concepts and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand how the brain makes decisions. In economics, demand refers to the relationship between a commodity's consumption and its cost, and, in behavioral studies, high alcohol demand has been consistently associated with greater alcohol misuse. Relatively little is known about how the brain processes demand decision making, and the current study is an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol demand among heavy drinkers. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, participants (N=24) selected how much they would drink under varying levels of price. These choices determined access to alcohol during a subsequent bar laboratory self-administration period. During decisions to drink in general, greater activity was present in multiple distinct subunits of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. In contrast, during decisions to drink that were demonstrably affected by the cost of alcohol, significantly greater activation was evident in frontostriatal regions, suggesting an active interplay between cognitive deliberation and subjective reward value. These choices were also characterized by significant deactivation in default mode network regions, suggesting suppression resulting from greater cognitive load. Across choice types, the anterior insula was notably recruited in diverse roles, further implicating the importance of interoceptive processing in decision-making behavior. These findings reveal the neural signatures subserving alcohol cost-benefit decision making, providing a foundation for future clinical applications of this paradigm and extending this approach to understanding the neural correlates of demand for other addictive commodities. PMID:24584331

  9. The Neuroeconomics of Alcohol Demand: An Initial Investigation of the Neural Correlates of Alcohol Cost–Benefit Decision Making in Heavy Drinking Men

    PubMed Central

    MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Acker, John; Gray, Joshua C; Brown, Courtney L; Murphy, James G; Ray, Lara A; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2014-01-01

    Neuroeconomics integrates concepts and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand how the brain makes decisions. In economics, demand refers to the relationship between a commodity's consumption and its cost, and, in behavioral studies, high alcohol demand has been consistently associated with greater alcohol misuse. Relatively little is known about how the brain processes demand decision making, and the current study is an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol demand among heavy drinkers. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, participants (N=24) selected how much they would drink under varying levels of price. These choices determined access to alcohol during a subsequent bar laboratory self-administration period. During decisions to drink in general, greater activity was present in multiple distinct subunits of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. In contrast, during decisions to drink that were demonstrably affected by the cost of alcohol, significantly greater activation was evident in frontostriatal regions, suggesting an active interplay between cognitive deliberation and subjective reward value. These choices were also characterized by significant deactivation in default mode network regions, suggesting suppression resulting from greater cognitive load. Across choice types, the anterior insula was notably recruited in diverse roles, further implicating the importance of interoceptive processing in decision-making behavior. These findings reveal the neural signatures subserving alcohol cost–benefit decision making, providing a foundation for future clinical applications of this paradigm and extending this approach to understanding the neural correlates of demand for other addictive commodities. PMID:24584331

  10. Determination of ethyl-glucuronide in hair for heavy drinking detection using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry following solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, Fabien; Gaulier, Jean-michel; Sauvage, François-Ludovic; Mercerolle, Magali; Vallejo, Christine; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2009-08-01

    The detection of ethyl-beta-D-6-glucuronide (EtG), a stable phase II metabolite of ethanol, is of interest in both clinical and forensic contexts with the aim of monitoring alcohol abuse. We present a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection and quantification of EtG in hair. Thirty milligrams of washed and cut hair were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction graphite cartridges. Separation was then performed using an Uptisphere-3SI column, and the detection was operated in the negative mode. After validation, the method was applied to hair samples taken from four fatalities (F) with documented excessive drinking habits, 12 heavy drinkers (HD) and seven social drinkers (SD). The method exhibits limits of detection and quantification of 4 and 10 pg/mg, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard deviation and relative bias were less than 20% over the calibrating range (10 to 3,000 pg/mg). EtG hair concentrations in SD were <10 pg/mg and >50 pg/mg for F and HD (range, 54 to 497 pg/mg). The present assay appears convenient to carry out owing to the very small quantity of hair samples required to determine an effective heavy alcohol consumption (EtG hair concentration >50 pg/mg). PMID:19517099

  11. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Test the Effectiveness of a Web-Based Brief Alcohol Intervention Over Time Among Heavy-Drinking Students: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Web-based brief alcohol interventions are effective in reducing alcohol use among students when measured at limited follow-up time points. To date, no studies have tested Web-based brief alcohol intervention effectiveness over time by using a large number of measurements. Objective Testing whether the What Do You Drink (WDYD) Web-based brief alcohol intervention can sustain a reduction in alcohol use among heavy-drinking students aged 18-24 years at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up intervals. Methods A purely Web-based, 2-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled trial applying an ecological momentary assessment approach with 30 weekly measurements was conducted in the Netherlands (2010-2011). Participants were recruited offline and online. A total of 907 participants were randomized into the experimental condition (n=456) including the single-session and fully automated WDYD intervention, or into the control condition (n=451) including assessment only. Weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking were the self-assessed outcome measures. Results Attrition rates of the 907 participants were 110 (12.1%), 130 (14.3%), and 162 (17.9%) at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up intervals, respectively. Latent growth curve analyses according to the intention-to-treat principle revealed that participants in the experimental condition had significantly lower weekly alcohol consumption compared to participants in the control condition that was sustained at 3-month follow-up (intercept=–2.60, P<.001; slope=0.16, P=.08). Additional linear regression analyses indicated that this intercept difference resulted from significantly higher levels of alcohol units per week for participants in the control condition compared to those in the experimental condition at 1-month (beta=–2.56, SE 0.74, Cohen’s d=0.20, P=.001), 3-month (beta=–1.76, SE 0.60, Cohen’s d=0.13, P=.003), and 6-month (beta=–1.21, SE 0.58, Cohen’s d=0.09, P=.04) follow-up intervals. Latent

  12. Drinking and schooling.

    PubMed

    Cook, P J; Moore, M J

    1993-12-01

    We employ the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data to explore the effect of youthful drinking on years of schooling and on the likelihood of college graduation. Our instruments for youthful drinking include the state beer tax and the minimum purchase age. Reduced form equations are also estimated. Our results indicate that heavy drinking in high school reduces the average number of years of schooling completed following high school. Other things equal, students who spend their high school years in states with relatively high taxes and minimum age are more likely to graduate from college. PMID:10131754

  13. Childhood and Adolescent Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol Use Disorder at Ages 21 and 33: A Domain-Specific Cumulative Risk Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G; Guttmannova, Katarina; Hartigan, Lacey A; Catalano, Richard F; Hawkins, J David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Guided by a domain-specific cumulative risk model and an emerging notion of general and alcohol-specific influences, this study examined whether general and alcohol-specific influences from family, peer, and school contexts in childhood and adolescence differentially predict heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use disorder at two developmental periods: the transition to adulthood (age 21) and later in adulthood (age 33). Method: Data are from a longitudinal panel study (n = 808) examining the etiology of substance use problems and associated behavior problems from age 10 to age 33 in a Northwest United States urban community sample. The sample is ethnically diverse and evenly distributed by gender (51% male). Results: At age 21, alcohol problems were most consistently predicted by adolescent family alcohol and peer alcohol environments and by peer general environment, but not by general family functioning. Conversely, by age 33, alcohol problems were more consistently predicted by general poor family functioning in adolescence and not by family alcohol or any of the peer environment measures. Conclusions: Adolescent family and peer alcohol environment influenced alcohol problems at the transition to adulthood. However, alcohol problems later in adulthood were more strongly associated with general poor family functioning in adolescence. These results suggest that alcohol prevention efforts should involve both components designed to reduce alcohol-specific risk and components to improve general family and peer environments during childhood and adolescence. PMID:24988267

  14. Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  15. Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…

  16. Adaptation of blood pressure to continuous heavy coffee drinking in young volunteers. A double-blind crossover study.

    PubMed Central

    Ammon, H P; Bieck, P R; Mandalaz, D; Verspohl, E J

    1983-01-01

    In a double-blind crossover trial, the effect of 4 week daily ingestion of eight cups of regular coffee (corresponding to 504 mg caffeine) vs eight cups of decaffeinated coffee was studied. Blood pressure, heart rate and urinary catecholamines were measured in eight healthy, young volunteers. In both groups, regular coffee immediately led to a significant increase in mean blood pressure (+ 3 and + 5 mm Hg respectively). The difference between both groups, however, existed only in the first 3 to 5 days of ingestion of regular coffee. On day 5 after ingestion of regular coffee, and thereafter in weekly intervals, no significant increase in catecholamine excretion was observed. The data suggest that long-term consumption of large amounts of coffee leads to only a small and transient rise in mean blood pressure. This may be due to an adaptation phenomenon. Therefore, continuous heavy coffee ingestion (eight cups/day for 4 weeks) by young persons does not appear to involve a risk of the development of hypertension. PMID:6871070

  17. Alcohol-Induced Impairment in Adolescents Admitted to Inpatient Treatment After Heavy Episodic Drinking: Effects of Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Mick, Inge; Gross, Cornelius; Lachnit, Andreas; Kalkbrenner, Manja; Hoppe, Linda; Reichert, Jörg; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Germany and many other countries, the number of adolescent heavy episodic drinking–induced hospital admissions (HEDHA) in pediatric units markedly increased during the past decade. A low level of response to alcohol in young adults is associated with high risk for later development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Method: We performed a retrospective chart review of all 1,123 HEDHA cases in adolescents aged 11–17 years who were admitted to one of the pediatric inpatient units covering the cities of Dresden, Pirna, and Rostock, Germany, between 2000 and 2008. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) measures on admission were documented in 846 cases. Results: The mean (SD) BAC was 155 (50) mg/100 ml full blood, and M (SD) GCS was 12.21 (3.02). These parameters were negatively correlated with each other (r = -.256, p < .001), indicating more impairment at higher BACs. To describe a numerical estimate of how severely a subject was compromised relative to his BAC, the GCS scores were inverted (making high scores indicate severe impairment) and divided by BAC. The resulting alcohol-induced impairment index (AIII) was significantly influenced by an interaction between age and gender, decreasing with age in boys but increasing in girls. Conclusions: During adolescence, alcohol-induced impairment develops differently in boys and girls, which may be because of the girls’ developmental edge. The high variability of observed AIII might help to predict the risk for later AUDs in the emergency department, simply by measuring BAC and GCS. PMID:25978837

  18. Drinking Patterns, Drinking Expectancies, and Coping after Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Drinking patterns, alcohol expectancies, and coping strategies were assessed for 121 persons with recent spinal cord injuries during hospitalization, 3 months after surgery, and 12 months after surgery. Although the rate of heavy drinking decreased, preinjury problem drinkers still had the lowest rate of positive reappraisal, problem solving, and…

  19. Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's "at-risk" or "heavy" drinking? What's the harm? What are the risks? What are symptoms of ... use disorder. The higher alcohol levels can also harm the liver, heart, and brain without the person ...

  20. Drinking Motives Among HIV Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Aharonovich, Efrat; O’Leary, Ann; Wainberg, Milton; Hasin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Heavy drinking among individuals with HIV is associated with poor medication adherence and other health problems. Understanding reasons for drinking (drinking motives) in this population is therefore important and could inform intervention. Using concepts of drinking motives from previous alcohol research, we assessed these motives and drinking in 254 HIV-positive primary care patients (78.0% male; 94.5% African American or Hispanic) prior to their participation in an alcohol intervention trial. Three motives had good factor structure and internal consistency: “drinking to cope with negative affect”, “drinking for social facilitation” (both associated with heavier drinking), and “drinking due to social pressure” (associated with less drinking). Drinking motives may provide important content for alcohol intervention; clinical trials could indicate whether inclusion of such content improves intervention efficacy. Discussing motives in session could help providers assist clients in better managing psychological and social aspects of their lives without reliance on alcohol. PMID:24165984

  1. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  2. Social motives for drinking in students should not be neglected in efforts to decrease problematic drinking.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, J; Maes, L; Clays, E; Rosiers, J F M T; Van Hal, G; Hublet, A

    2013-08-01

    High heavy drinking prevalence persists in students. Recently, drinking motivation received a lot of attention as an important determinant. Enhancement and coping motives are mostly positively related and conformity motives are mostly negatively related with heavy drinking. Relations are less clear for social motives. This study aimed at gaining more insight in the role of drinking motives in heavy drinking students. Overall, 15 897 Belgian university and college students (mean age: 20.7, SD = 2.6) anonymously participated in an online survey. Logistic regressions tested relationships between motives and problematic drinking (>weekly drinking, ≥monthly binge drinking and being at risk for problematic drinking by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT]). Social motives had the highest prevalence, followed by enhancement, coping and conformity motives. Men engaged more in problematic drinking and reported more motives, except for coping. Enhancement, coping and social-motivated students have higher chances for problematic drinking, while the opposite is true for conformity-motivated students. Although this study found a similar ranking of motives as in other studies, a relationship between problematic drinking and all motives, including social motives, was revealed. This might indicate the different functions of social motives in heavy drinking in different cultures/sub-populations and countries. This finding is relevant for the development of interventions. PMID:23487559

  3. The influence of drinking-water pollution with heavy metal on the expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ in mice by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Radbin, Rayhaneh; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Chamani, JamshidKhan

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, water pollution has been converted to a challenging discussion in health area of human being. Heavy elements are one of the most important water pollutants and their negative adverse effects on body systems have been confirmed. In this study, investigation of effects of two heavy elements including lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) on expression of interlukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as humoral and cellular immunity biomarkers, respectively, was aimed and PCR, real-time PCR and electrophoresis techniques were used. In this study, BALB/c mice were studied that had free access to drinking water which contained Cu or Pb salts. After 2 weeks, spleens of mice were removed, RNA extracted, and cDNA was prepared for RT-PCR. Then the expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ genes were assessed by real-time PCR. The expression of IFN-γ was up-regulated in both treated groups and the expression of IL-4 was only up-regulated in the group treated with Cu and down-regulated in the group treated with Pb. This study shows that the presence of heavy elements as drinking-water pollutants results in a disproportion of natural cytokines balances, and thus may result in a negative effect on immune system. PMID:23979320

  4. Role Transitions and Young Adult Maturing Out of Heavy Drinking: Evidence for Larger Effects of Marriage among More Severe Pre-Marriage Problem Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of problem drinking beginning in young adulthood. Perhaps surprisingly, past studies suggests that young adult drinking reductions may be particularly pronounced among those exhibiting relatively severe forms of problem drinking earlier in emerging adulthood. This may occur because more severe problem drinkers experience stronger ameliorative effects of normative young adult role transitions like marriage. Methods The hypothesis of stronger marriage effects among more severe problem drinkers was tested using three waves of data from a large ongoing study of familial alcohol disorder (Chassin et al., 1992; N=844; 51% children of alcoholics). Results Longitudinal growth models characterized (1) the curvilinear trajectory of drinking quantity from ages 17-40, (2) effects of marriage on altering this age-related trajectory, and moderation of this effect by pre-marriage problem drinking levels (alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms). Results confirmed the hypothesis that protective marriage effects on drinking quantity trajectories would be stronger among more severe pre-marriage problem drinkers. Supplemental analyses showed that results were robust to alternative construct operationalizations and modeling approaches. Conclusions Consistent with role incompatibility theory, findings support the view of role conflict as a key mechanism of role-driven behavior change, as greater problem drinking likely conflicts more with demands of roles like marriage. This is also consistent with the developmental psychopathology view of transitions and turning points. Role transitions among already low-severity drinkers may merely represent developmental continuity of a low-risk trajectory, whereas role transitions among higher-severity problem drinkers may represent developmentally discontinuous “turning points” that divert individuals from a higher- to a lower-risk trajectory. Practically

  5. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    We all need to drink water. How much you need depends on your size, activity level, and the weather where you live. The water you drink is a combination of surface water and groundwater. Surface water ...

  6. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol is the most widely abused substance among America's youth. Drinking by young people has big health ... interfere with brain development Increases the risk of alcohol problems later in life Kids often begin drinking ...

  7. Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... soccer team. When Chet saw Dave pound five beers in 30 minutes at two different parties, he ... in 2 weeks. Why Do People Binge Drink? Liquor stores, bars, and alcoholic beverage companies make drinking ...

  8. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... boys binge more than girls. Alcohol use among boys Alcohol use among girls SOURCE: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. ... for children to reach these BAC levels. For boys: Ages 9–13: About 3 drinks ... 16–17: About 5 drinks For girls: Ages 9–17: About 3 drinks As children ...

  9. Older Adults and Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than this increases the risk of serious alcohol problems. Heavy drinking makes certain health problems worse, too, including diabetes, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, liver problems, osteoporosis, memory problems, and mood disorders. Drinking and Medications Many ...

  10. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  11. The Importance of Drinking Patterns | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking The Importance of Drinking Patterns Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents ... or not at all. Heavy or "at-risk" drinking. Generally for healthy adults, heavy drinking means more ...

  12. Estimation of spatial distribution of heavy metals in groundwater using interpolation methods and multivariate statistical techniques; its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hakan; Ayyildiz Turan, Nazlı

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in groundwater potentially used for drinking and irrigation is very important. This study collected groundwater samples from 78 wells in July 2012 and analyzed them for 17 heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, Al, As, Mo, Se, B, Ti, V, Ba). Spatial distributions of these elements were identified using three different interpolation methods [inverse distance weighing (IDW), radial basis function (RBF), and ordinary kriging (OK)]. Root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) for cross validation were used to select the best interpolation methods for each parameter. Multivariate statistical analysis [cluster analysis (CA) and factor analysis (FA)] were used to identify similarities among sampling sites and the contribution of variables to groundwater pollution. Fe and Mn levels exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits for drinking water in almost all of the study area, and some locations had Fe and Mn levels that exceeded Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) guidelines for drip irrigation systems. Al, As, and Cd levels also exceeded WHO guidelines for drinking water. Cluster analysis classified groundwater in the study area into three groups, and factor analysis identified five factors that explained 73.39% of the total variation in groundwater, which are as follows: factor 1: Se, Ti, Cr, Mo; factor 2: Ni, Mn, Co, Ba; factor 3: Pb, Cd; factor 4: B, V, Fe, Cu; and factor 5: AS, Zn. As a result of this study, it could be said that interpolation methods and multivariate statistical techniques gave very useful results for the determination of the source. PMID:26202813

  13. Interactive effects of drinking history and impulsivity on college drinking

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R.; Charnigo, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from adolescence into emerging adulthood is a critical developmental period for changes in alcohol use and drinking related problems. Prior research has identified a number of distinct developmental alcohol use trajectories, which appear to be differentially related to young adult drinking outcomes. Another correlate of alcohol use in early adulthood is impulsivity. The primary aim of this study was to examine the moderating role of impulsivity in the relation between patterns of past alcohol use and hazardous drinking during the first year of college. Participants (N=452; 49% male; mean age 18.5 years; 82% Caucasian) completed self-report measures during the first year of college, including retrospective alcohol use calendars, current alcohol use and drinking problems, and personality. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify groups with similar adolescent drinking history from retrospective, self-report. Four groups were identified: abstainers/very light users, late/moderate users, early/moderate users, and steep increase/heavy users. The abstainer/very light user group reported the lowest levels of alcohol use and problematic drinking in college; the steep increase/heavy use group reported the highest levels of alcohol use and problematic drinking. As predicted, the role of personality—specifically urgency, or emotion-based rash action—was strongest among moderate use groups. These findings may be helpful in guiding targeted prevention and intervention programs for alcohol use and abuse. PMID:24018231

  14. Effectiveness of daily versus non-daily granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in patients with solid tumours undergoing chemotherapy: a multivariate analysis of data from current practice

    PubMed Central

    Almenar Cubells, D; Bosch Roig, C; Jiménez Orozco, E; Álvarez, R; Cuervo, JM; Díaz Fernández, N; Sánchez Heras, AB; Galán Brotons, A; Giner Marco, V; Codes M De Villena, M

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a multicentre, retrospective, observational study including patients with solid tumours (excluding breast cancer) that received granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) and chemotherapy. We investigated the effectiveness of daily vs. non-daily G-CSFs (pegfilgrastim) adjusting by potential confounders. The study included 391 patients (211 daily G-CSF; 180 pegfilgrastim), from whom 47.3% received primary prophylaxis (PP) (57.8% pegfilgrastim), 26.3% secondary prophylaxis (SP: initiation after cycle 1 and no reactive treatment in any cycle) (51.5% pegfilgrastim) and 26.3% reactive treatment (19.4% pegfilgrastim). Only 42.2% of patients with daily G-CSF and 46.2% with pegfilgrastim initiated prophylaxis within 72 h after chemotherapy, and only 10.5% of patients with daily G-CSF received it for ≥7 days. In the multivariate models, daily G-CSF was associated with higher risk of grade 3-4 neutropenia (G3-4N) vs. pegfilgrastim [odds ratio (OR): 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.004–2.97]. Relative to SP, PP protected against G3-4N (OR for SP vs. PP: 6.0, 95%CI: 3.2–11.4) and febrile neutropenia (OR: 3.1, 95%CI: 1.1–8.8), and was associated to less chemotherapy dose delays and reductions (OR for relative dose intensity <85% for SP vs. PP: 3.1, 95%CI: 1.7–5.4) and higher response rate (OR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.2–3.7). Data suggest that pegfilgrastim, compared with a daily G-CSF, and PP, compared with SP, could be more effective in preventing neutropenia and its related events in the clinical practice. PMID:23331323

  15. Bupropion for the Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence in Non-Daily Users: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ann L.; Li, Shou-Hua; Markova, Denka; Holmes, Tyson H.; Chiang, Nora; Kahn, Roberta; Campbell, Jan; Dickerson, Daniel L.; Galloway, Gantt P.; Stock, Christopher; Elkashef, Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Bupropion was tested for efficacy to achieve methamphetamine (MA) abstinence in dependent, non-daily users. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with 12-week treatment and 4-week follow-up, was conducted with 204 treatment-seeking participants having MA dependence per DSM-IV, who used MA on a less-than-daily basis. 104 were randomized to matched placebo and 100 to bupropion, sustained-release 150mg, twice daily. Participants were seen three times weekly to obtain urine for MA and bupropion assays, study assessments, and thrice weekly, 90-minute, group psychotherapy. There was no biomarker for placebo adherence. The primary outcome was achievement of abstinence throughout the last two weeks of treatment; ‘success’ requiring at least two urine samples during each of Weeks 11 and 12, and all samples MA-negative (<300ng/mL). Results Bupropion and placebo groups did not differ significantly in the percentage achieving abstinence for the last 2 weeks of treatment (chi-square, p=0.32). Subgroup analysis of participants with lower baseline MA use (≤18 of last 30 days before consent) also revealed no difference in success between groups (p=0.73). Medication adherence per protocol (detectable bupropion, >5ng/mL, in ≥50% of urine samples from Study Weeks 1–10 and ≥66% of urine samples from Weeks 11–12) was achieved by 47% of participants taking bupropion. Conclusions These data indicate that bupropion did not increase abstinence in dependent participants who were using MA less-than-daily. Medication non-adherence was a limitation in this trial. Psychosocial therapy remains the mainstay of treatment for MA dependence. Further research on subgroups who may respond to bupropion may be warranted. Trial Registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT00687713. PMID:25818061

  16. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  17. College Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... by another student who has been drinking. 4 Sexual Assault About 97,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 report experiencing alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape. 4 What is “binge drinking?” ...

  18. Longitudinal associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks, and binge drinking behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks and binge drinking behavior in a cross-lagged path model in Mplus. Participants were 293 adolescents (131 boys, M(age)=16.1 years) who filled in two online questionnaires with a six-month interval. Binge drinking behavior and attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks were all significantly correlated at both waves. The multivariate model, however, showed that only higher levels of binge drinking at T1 were prospectively related to more positive binge drinking attitudes at T2, and not vice versa. Analyses were controlled for sex, educational level, and age. Findings discard the Theory of Planned Behavior, but rather seem consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, i.e., adolescents may adapt their cognitions to their behavior. More longitudinal research with several time points and over a longer period of time is needed to further examine the development of attitudes and drinking behavior. PMID:23435271

  19. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...

  20. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... behavior, such as drinking and driving or unprotected sex Increases the risk of physical and sexual assault Can lead to other problems, such as trouble in school May interfere with brain development Increases the risk of alcohol problems later ...

  1. The Role of Alcohol Advertising in Excessive and Hazardous Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the influence of advertising on excessive and dangerous drinking in a survey of 1,200 adolescents and young adults who were shown advertisements depicting excessive consumption themes. Results indicated that advertising stimulates consumption levels, which leads to heavy drinking and drinking in dangerous situations. (JAC)

  2. Social Influences on the Clustering of Underage Risky Drinking and Its Consequences in Communities

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine whether the clustering of underage risky drinking and its consequences within communities might arise from shared perceptions regarding underage drinking as well as the social context of drinking. Method: The Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial provided data from repeated cross-sectional samples of 5,017 current drinkers (2,619 male) ages 14–20 years from 68 communities surveyed in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Alternating logistic regressions were used to estimate the influence of social factors on the clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, nonviolent consequences, and driving after drinking or riding with a drinking driver. Results: The clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for drinking with friends and drinking with parents. Parents providing alcohol explained the clustering of heavy episodic drinking and nonviolent consequences, whereas drinking with other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol explained the clustering of nonviolent consequences. Drinking with friends or other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol increased the risk of these behaviors, whereas drinking with parents and parents providing alcohol were protective. Perceptions regarding peer drinking, community norms, consequences for drinking, and drinking at a party did not influence clustering. Conclusions: These findings suggest that interventions to reduce underage risky drinking in communities should focus on the differential effects of the social context in which drinking occurs. PMID:23036206

  3. Flaming alcoholic drinks: flirting with danger.

    PubMed

    Tan, Alethea; Frew, Quentin; Yousif, Ali; Ueckermann, Nicola; Dziewulksi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related burn injuries carry significant mortality and morbidity rates. Flaming alcoholic beverages served in trendy bars and clubs are becoming increasingly popular. The dangers associated with an ignited alcoholic drink are often underestimated by party goers whose risk assessment ability is already impaired by heavy alcohol consumption. The authors present two cases demonstrating the varied severity of burn injuries associated with flaming alcoholic drinks, and their clinical management. Consumption of flaming alcoholic drinks poses potential risks for burn injuries. Further support is required to enable national and local agencies to implement effective interventions in drinking environments. PMID:24043236

  4. Asian American Problem Drinking Trajectories During the Transition to Adulthood: Ethnic Drinking Cultures and Neighborhood Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Bond, Jason; Lui, Camillia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to identify problem drinking trajectories and their predictors among Asian Americans transitioning from adolescence to adulthood. We considered cultural and socioeconomic contextual factors, specifically ethnic drinking cultures, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and neighborhood coethnic density, to identify subgroups at high risk for developing problematic drinking trajectories. Methods. We used a sample of 1333 Asian Americans from 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1994–2008) in growth mixture models to identify trajectory classes of frequent heavy episodic drinking and drunkenness. We fitted multinomial logistic regression models to identify predictors of trajectory class membership. Results. Two dimensions of ethnic drinking culture—drinking prevalence and detrimental drinking pattern in the country of origin—were predictive of problematic heavy episodic drinking and drunkenness trajectories. Higher neighborhood socioeconomic status in adolescence was predictive of the trajectory class indicating increasing frequency of drunkenness. Neighborhood coethnic density was not predictive of trajectory class membership. Conclusions. Drinking cultures in the country of origin may have enduring effects on drinking among Asian Americans. Further research on ethnic drinking cultures in the United States is warranted for prevention and intervention. PMID:25393183

  5. Impacts of urbanization on the distribution of heavy metals in soils along the Huangpu River, the drinking water source for Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Wang, Min; Peng, Chi; Alatalo, Juha M

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the horizontal and vertical distribution of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As, Ni, and Cr) in soils in the water source protection zone for Shanghai to study the origins of these metals, their connections with urbanization, and their potential risk posed on the ecosystem. Determination of metal concentrations in 50 topsoil samples and nine soil profiles indicated that Hg, Pb, Zn, and Cu were present in significantly higher concentrations in topsoil than in deep soil layers. The spatial distributions of Hg, Pb, Zn, and Cu and contamination hotspots for these metals in the study area were similar to those near heavy industries and urban built-up areas. Emissions from automobiles resulted in increased soil concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn along roadsides, while high concentrations of Hg in the soil resulted from recent atmospheric deposition. Calculation of the potential ecological risk indicated that the integrative risk of these heavy metals in most areas was low, but a few sites surrounding high density of factories showed moderate risks. PMID:26561325

  6. Binge Drinking.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Lorena; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol is the substance most frequently abused by children and adolescents in the United States, and its use is associated with the leading causes of death and serious injury at this age (ie, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, and suicides). Among youth who drink, the proportion who drink heavily is higher than among adult drinkers, increasing from approximately 50% in those 12 to 14 years of age to 72% among those 18 to 20 years of age. In this clinical report, the definition, epidemiology, and risk factors for binge drinking; the neurobiology of intoxication, blackouts, and hangovers; genetic considerations;and adverse outcomes are discussed. The report offers guidance for the pediatrician. As with any high-risk behavior, prevention plays a more important role than later intervention and has been shown to be more effective. In the pediatric office setting, it is important to ask every adolescent about alcohol use. PMID:26324872

  7. Web-based self-help intervention reduces alcohol consumption in both heavy-drinking and dependent alcohol users: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, André Luiz Monezi; de Lacerda, Roseli Boerngen; Gomide, Henrique Pinto; Ronzani, Telmo Mota; Sartes, Laisa Marcorela Andreoli; Martins, Leonardo Fernandes; Bedendo, André; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    As part of a multicenter project supported by the World Health Organization, we developed a web-based intervention to reduce alcohol use and related problems. We evaluated the predictors of adherence to, and the outcomes of the intervention. Success was defined as a reduction in consumption to low risk levels or to <50% of the baseline levels of number of drinks. From the 32,401 people who accessed the site, 3389 registered and 929 completed the full Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a necessary condition to be considered eligible to take part in the intervention. Based on their AUDIT scores, these participants were classified into: low risk users (LRU; n=319) harmful/hazardous users (HHU; n=298) or suggestive of dependence users (SDU; n=312). 29.1% of the registered users (LRU=42; HHU=90; SDU=82) completed the evaluation form at the end of the six-week period, and 63.5% reported low-risk drinking levels. We observed a significant reduction in alcohol consumption in the HHU (62.5%) and SDU (64.5%) groups in relation to baseline. One month after the intervention, in the follow-up, 94 users filled out the evaluation form, and their rate of success was similar to the one observed in the previous evaluation. Logistic regression analyses indicated that HHU participants presented higher adherence than LRU. Despite a relatively low adherence to the program, its good outcomes and low cost, as well as the high number of people that can be reached by a web-based intervention, suggest it has good cost-effectiveness. PMID:27424165

  8. Modeling the source contribution of heavy metals in surficial sediment and analysis of their historical changes in the vertical sediments of a drinking water reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoqiang; A, Yinglan; Jiang, Hong; Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui

    2015-01-01

    Increasing water pollution in developing countries poses a significant threat to environmental health and human welfare. Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of pollution are important for the efficient management of water resources. In this study, ten types of heavy metals were detected during 2010-2013 for all ambient samples and point sources samples. A pollution assessment based on the surficial sediment dataset by Enrichment Factor (EF) showed the surficial sediment was moderately contaminated. A comparison of the multivariate approach (principle components analysis/absolute principle component score, PCA/APCS) and the chemical mass balance model (CMB) shows that the identification of sources and calculation of source contribution based on the CMB were more objective and acceptable when source profiles were known and source composition was complex. The results of source apportionment for surficial heavy metals, both from PCA/APCS and CMB model, showed that the natural background (30%) was the most dominant contributor to the surficial heavy metals, followed by mining activities (29%). The contribution percentage of the natural background was negatively related to the degree of contamination. The peak concentrations of many heavy metals (Cu, Ba, Fe, As and Hg) were found in the middle layer of sediment, which is most likely due to the result of development of industry beginning in the 1970s. However, the highest concentration of Pb appeared in the surficial sediment layer, which was most likely due to the sharp increase in the traffic volume. The historical analysis of the sources based on the CMB showed that mining and the chemical industry are stable sources for all of the sections. The comparing of change rates of source contribution versus years indicated that the composition of the materials in estuary site (HF1) is sensitive to the input from the land, whereas center site (HF4) has a buffering effect on the materials from

  9. [Risks of energy drinks in youths].

    PubMed

    Bigard, A-X

    2010-11-01

    The market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredients and the potential for adverse health consequences remain to be elucidated. This aim of the present paper is to review the current knowledge on putative adverse effects of energy drinks, especially in youths. There are many energy drink brands in the worldwide market, even if only few brands are available in France. Although the energy drink content varies, these beverages often contain taurine, caffeine, vitamins B and carbohydrates. These drinks vary widely in both caffeine content (80 to 141 mg per can) and caffeine concentration. Except caffeine, the effects of energy drink ingredients on physical and cognitive performances remain controversial. Researchers identified moderate positive effects of energy drinks on performances, whereas others found contrary results. The adverse effects of energy drink can be related to either the toxicity of ingredients or specific situations in which energy drinks are used such as ingestion in combination with alcohol. Although the issue of taurine-induced toxic encephalopathy has been addressed, it is likely that the risk of taurine toxicity after energy drink consumption remains low. However, whether the prolonged use of energy drinks providing more than 3g taurine daily remains to be examined in the future. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose and toxicity in children and teenagers. The practice of consuming great amounts of energy drink with alcohol is considered by many teenagers and students a primary locus to socialize and to meet people. This pattern of energy drink consumption explains the enhanced risk of both caffeine and alcohol toxicity in youths. Twenty five to 40% of young people report consumption of energy drink with alcohol while partying. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol during heavy

  10. Forecasting the Effect of the Amethyst Initiative on College Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Ben G.; Scribner, Richard; Ackleh, Azmy S.; Rasul, Jawaid; Jacquez, Geoffrey; Simonsen, Neal; Rommel, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of college presidents have endorsed the Amethyst Initiative, a call to consider lowering the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA). Our objective is to forecast the effect of the Amethyst Initiative on college drinking. Methods A system model of college drinking siumlates MLDA changes through (1) a decrease in heavy episodic drinking (HED) due to the lower likelihood of students drinking in unsupervised settings where they model irresponsible drinking (misperception), and (2) an increase in overall drinking among currently underage students due to increased social availability of alcohol (wetness). Results For the proportion of HEDs on campus, effects of large decreases in misperception of responsible drinking behavior were more than offset by modest increases in wetness. Conclusions For the effect of lowering the MLDA, it appears that increases in social availability of alcohol have a stronger impact on drinking behavior than decreases in misperceptions. PMID:22432502

  11. Drinking Buddies: Who Are They and When Do They Matter?

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden, Ashley N

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to further examine the role of peers on alcohol use and problems among young adults. In particular, we focused on a specific subset of peers in one's social network mostly for activities related to alcohol use called "drinking buddies." The presence of drinking buddies in one's social network has been shown to predict heavy drinking uniquely over but few studies have focused on potential factors moderating the relationship. Consequently, an aim of present study was to examine the influence of drinking buddies on alcohol outcomes and the extent to which the relationship may be dependent on one's normative perceptions. Another aim was to provide a descriptive examination of drinking buddies. Participants were college students (N = 250; 72.8% women) who completed self-report measures of alcohol use and problems, injunctive norms, descriptive norms, and social network characteristics. Results showed that descriptive norms moderated the relationship between drinking buddies and all alcohol outcomes assessed. Specifically, the influence of drinking buddies was stronger for those who perceived a lower prevalence of peer drinking. Examination of drinking buddies characteristics revealed that these peers tended to be young adults who were moderate social drinkers with whom they felt close and perceived to be available for concrete and emotional support. Several differences emerged between the drinking buddies of heavy versus non-heavy drinkers. The present study contributed to the larger body of work on peer influence and alcohol use by examining a specific subgroup of peers that may promote risky drinking. PMID:25429255

  12. A longitudinal study of the long-term consequences of drinking during pregnancy: heavy in utero alcohol exposure disrupts the normal processes of brain development.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Catherine; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Adnams, Colleen M; May, Philip A; Bookheimer, Susan Y; O'Connor, Mary J; Narr, Katherine L; Kan, Eric; Abaryan, Zvart; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2012-10-31

    Exposure to alcohol in utero can cause birth defects, including face and brain abnormalities, and is the most common preventable cause of intellectual disabilities. Here we use structural magnetic resonance imaging to measure cortical volume change longitudinally in a cohort of human children and youth with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a group of unexposed control subjects, demonstrating that the normal processes of brain maturation are disrupted in individuals whose mothers drank heavily during pregnancy. Trajectories of cortical volume change within children and youth with PAE differed from those of unexposed control subjects in posterior brain regions, particularly in the parietal cortex. In these areas, control children appear to show a particularly plastic cortex with a prolonged pattern of cortical volume increases followed by equally vigorous volume loss during adolescence, while the alcohol-exposed participants showed primarily volume loss, demonstrating decreased plasticity. Furthermore, smaller volume changes between scans were associated with lower intelligence and worse facial morphology in both groups, and were related to the amount of PAE during each trimester of pregnancy in the exposed group. This demonstrates that measures of IQ and facial dysmorphology predict, to some degree, the structural brain development that occurs in subsequent years. These results are encouraging in that interventions aimed at altering "experience" over time may improve brain trajectories in individuals with heavy PAE and possibly other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23115162

  13. Older Adults and Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Generally, ... liver problems, osteoporosis, memory problems, and mood disorders. Drinking and Medications Many medications, such as the ones ...

  14. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  15. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  16. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water & Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

  17. Differences in weekday versus weekend drinking among nonstudent emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Stamates, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    In the current investigation, we sought to examine "day-of-the-week" drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to (a) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, and (b) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were heavy-drinking noncollege attenders recruited from the community (N = 238; 63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years). They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension-reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend-drinking increases were related to social expectancies, but not tension-reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday-weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension-reduction and social-facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply that different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking, and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26901592

  18. Differences in Weekday versus Weekend Drinking among Nonstudent Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L.; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation sought to examine “day of the week” drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to: (1) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, (2) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) as relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were 238 (63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years) heavy drinking noncollege-attenders recruited from the community. They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend drinking increases were related to social expectancies but not tension reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday/weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension reduction and social facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  19. Roles of Drinking Motives, Alcohol Consequences, and Season Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahesh, Edward; Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Lewis, Todd F.; Orsini, Muhsin M.; Wyrick, David L.

    2013-01-01

    populations at risk for heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. In this study, 63 (56% female, 62% Caucasian) first-year student-athletes completed a preliminary questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, athlete-specific drinking motives,…

  20. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  1. Moderate and Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption » Drinking Levels Defined In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Drinking Levels Defined Moderate alcohol consumption: According to the "Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015- ...

  2. Times to drink: cross-cultural variations in drinking in the rhythm of the week

    PubMed Central

    Room, Robin; Mäkelä, Pia; Benegal, Vivek; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Hettige, Siri; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M.; Wilsnack, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The time of drinking in terms of daytime versus evening and weekday versus weekend is charted for regular drinkers in 14 countries in Europe, Asia, Latin America, Africa and Oceania. Methods national or regional adult population surveys from the GENACIS project. Results: The weekly rhythm of drinking varies greatly between societies. Drinking was generally more likely after 5 pm and on weekends. To this extent, alcohol consumption is now regulated by a universal clock. The relation of time of day and of the week of drinking to problems from drinking varied between societies. Drinking at specific times was more likely to predict problems among men than women, though for men the particular time varied, while weekday evenings were the most problematic time for women. The relation of drinking at a particular time to problems in part reflected that heavy drinkers were more likely to be drinking at that time. Conclusions There are commonalities across cultures in drinking by time of day and day of the week, but the implications of the timing for alcohol-related problems are fairly culture-specific. PMID:21553132

  3. Heavy Drinking and Suicide in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Russian levels of alcohol consumption and suicide are among the highest in the world. While observers have long suspected an association between the two, they were unable to investigate this hypothesis until recently due to past Soviet secrecy and thus a lack of data. This study took advantage of the newly available data during the post-Soviet era…

  4. Drinking Locations Prior to Impaired Driving among College Students: Implications for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usdan, Stuart L.; Moore, Charity G.; Schumacher, Joseph E.; Talbott, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    Drinking and driving is perhaps the most serious problem associated with heavy drinking among college students in the United States. In this study, the authors examined drinking locations prior to impaired driving in a college student sample. They administered the Impaired Driving Assessment to 91 college students identified as high risk for…

  5. The sociodemographic patterning of drinking and binge drinking in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland, 1994–2002

    PubMed Central

    Helasoja, Ville; Lahelma, Eero; Prättälä, Ritva; Petkeviciene, Janina; Pudule, Iveta; Tekkel, Mare

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the relatively low recorded alcohol consumption level, the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) and neighbouring Finland suffer from similar harmful consequences related to the use of alcoholic beverages, including socio-economic inequalities in alcohol related mortality. Comparative evidence is needed to understand harmful drinking patterns and to implement preventive alcohol policies also in the Baltic countries. This study compared heavy and binge drinking by sex, age, education, urbanisation and marital status in the Baltic countries and Finland. Methods The data were nationally representative postal surveys conducted in Estonia (n = 6271), Latvia (n = 6106), Lithuania (n = 7966) and Finland (n = 15764) during 1994–2002. The criterion for heavy drinking was at least 15 portions weekly among men, and at least five among women, and for binge drinking at least six portions per one occasion. Results Heavy drinking was more common among younger participants in all countries, and in Latvia among the less-educated. Among Finnish men, and among women from all countries except Latvia, the better-educated were more often heavy drinkers. In Latvia and Finland, urban men, and in all countries, urban women, were more often heavy drinkers. Heavy drinking was more common among non-married Lithuanian and Finnish men, and Finnish women. Binge drinking was more common among less-educated Estonian and Latvian men, and among younger and less-educated women in all countries. Conclusion Our results support the continued power of traditional drinking habits in the North Eastern part of Europe. In the future the target groups for prevention of excessive drinking should also include young and less-educated women in all four countries studied. PMID:17854484

  6. Alcohol and the College Freshman: "Binge" Drinking and Associated Problems. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Isaac, Nancy

    This study concerning the continued heavy drinking rate among Massachusetts college students sought to: (1) determine the specific changes in college drinking since a similar study on the topic was done in 1977; (2) determine the types of problems experienced by heavy drinkers; and (3) search for factors which might account for the continuation of…

  7. Response of colleges to risky drinking college students.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Nadine R; Logan, Diane E

    2014-10-01

    Heavy drinking and related consequences continue to affect college campuses due to fatalities, assaults, serious injuries, and arrests that occur among students. Several approaches aimed at reducing the harm incurred by students and the college communities as a result of heavy drinking are being used with varying success. A review of interventions including educational, individual, and environmental approaches are described, as well as new, promising, strategies. Despite some success, elevated and risky drinking patterns continue. As such, concerns over implementation of evidence-based treatments and areas in need of further study are discussed. [Full text available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2014-10.asp, free with no login]. PMID:25271660

  8. GRIK1 Genotype Moderates Topiramate's Effects on Daily Drinking Level, Expectations of Alcohol's Positive Effects, and Desire to Drink

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Armeli, Stephen; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We (Kranzler et al. 2014) reported that topiramate 200 mg/day reduced heavy drinking days and increased abstinent days in 138 heavy drinkers whose treatment goal was to reduce drinking to safe levels. In that 12-week, placebo-controlled study, we measured drinking using the Timeline Follow-back method at each treatment visit. In addition to the intent-to-treat effects of topiramate, we found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, encoding the GluK1 subunit of the kainate receptor, moderated the treatment effect in European Americans (EAs; n=122). Topiramate reduced heavy drinking only in rs2832407*C allele homozygotes. Here, we augment those analyses by using patients’ daily reports obtained using interactive voice response technology (a) to validate the interactive effects of GRIK1 and topiramate as predictors of drinking level and (b) to examine changes in expected positive effects of drinking (i.e., positive outcome expectancies) and desire to drink. We found that rs2832407*C allele homozygotes treated with topiramate drank less overall during treatment than those receiving placebo, validating our earlier findings for heavy drinking days (Kranzler et al. 2014). There was also a study day × medication group × genotype group interaction that predicted both positive alcohol expectancies and desire to drink, with rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showing the largest decreases in these outcomes during the study period. Changes in positive alcohol expectancies or desire to drink did not mediate the effects on drinking. These findings validate and extend our previous pharmacogenetic findings with topiramate. PMID:24786948

  9. A latent profile analysis of drinking patterns among nonstudent emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L; Stamates, Amy L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N

    2016-11-01

    Research indicates that nonstudent emerging adults, as compared to their college-attending peers, are at higher risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems, including alcohol use disorders. The present study sought to extend the limited research on nonstudent drinking by (1) identifying sub-groups of nonstudent drinkers based on their drinking patterns and (2) determining the extent to which social-cognitive between-person factors related to drinking (i.e., social expectancies, perceived drinking norms, social drinking motivations) distinguish these sub-groups. Participants were 195 (65.1% men) nonstudent emerging adult heavy episodic drinkers recruited from the community. Mean age was 21.88 (SD=2.08) years and 45.4% were unemployed. Latent profile analysis identified two classes based on drinking across 30days. The "moderate drinkers" group (n=143; 73.3%) reported consuming 10-11 drinks weekly and drinking two to three times per week, on average. The "heavy drinkers" class (n=52; 26.7%) reported consuming 42-43 drinks weekly and drinking six to seven days per week. Both groups exhibited a cyclic pattern of drinking whereby weekday drinking was lower, with increases on the weekend; the heavy drinkers class had stronger weekend increases starting earlier. Heavy drinkers reported greater volume, frequency, and problematic drinking behaviors, as compared to the moderate drinkers. The heavy drinkers class also endorsed stronger social motives and perceived their peers to drink more. The present study offered unique insights into nonstudent emerging adult drinking patterns by identifying sub-populations of drinkers based on their past 30-day use. Knowledge gained from this study could aide in tailoring existing alcohol interventions to nonstudents to reduce alcohol-related harms. PMID:27305099

  10. Characteristics of problem drinking in an urban South American indigenous population.

    PubMed

    Seale, J Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Sanchez, Nelia; Vogel, Robert L; Villalobos, Elibeth; Girton, Fred S; Seale, Dana M; Okosun, Ike S

    2010-11-01

    This 2002 Medcen Foundation-funded study explored characteristics of problem drinking among 211 urban Venezuelan Native Americans of Arawak origin. Prevalence of problem drinking using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Tests was 88.5% among men and 17.3% among women. Periodic binge drinking was marked by loss of control, failure to meet obligations, and alcohol-related trauma. Focus group participants noted that previous occasional binge drinking by men has been replaced by frequent male and female heavy weekend drinking, violence, and death. Limitations and implications are discussed. Awareness of high levels of problem drinking and desire for assistance present compelling mandates for community intervention efforts. PMID:20388009

  11. Patterns of alcohol use and the risk of drinking and driving among US high school students.

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, L G; Chorba, T L; Waxweiler, R

    1995-01-01

    Approximately one third of deaths among persons aged 15 to 24 years are the result of motor vehicle-related crashes. Data from a national sample of US high school students were used to assess patterns of alcohol use among adolescents in relation to the risk of drinking and driving. Prevalence and odds ratios were calculated for drinking and driving associated with patterns of alcohol use. Drinking and driving increased with increasing frequency of alcohol use and binge drinking and when alcohol was used in addition to other drugs. Efforts to reduce drinking and driving among adolescents should address underage drinking that is frequent or heavy. PMID:7604923

  12. Increases in Problem Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Increases in Problem Drinking Alcohol use disorder is becoming more common, a ... the need to better educate people about problem drinking and its treatment. Alcohol use disorder, or AUD, ...

  13. Drink Water, Stay Slimmer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... than slimmer ones, the study authors said. While coffee and other caffeine-containing drinks can act as ... Chang said, ''but I wouldn't recommend drinking coffee to hydrate." The study was published in the ...

  14. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, J; Asp, S; Olkinuora, M; Aärimaa, M; Strid, L; Kauttu, K

    1988-10-15

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  15. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Juntunen, J.; Asp, S.; Olkinuora, M.; Aärimaa, M.; Strid, L.; Kauttu, K.

    1988-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  16. AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

  17. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink consumption and…

  18. Thinking About Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet was prepared for young people as a basis for discussion of attitudes about drinking. It reflects the latest findings in alcohol research and has been reviewed by many professionals and students. It examines basic statistics, sizes up individual attitudes about drinking, reviews experts' opinions on teenage drinking habits. The…

  19. Assessing college students' attitudes toward responsible drinking messages to identify promising binge drinking intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A

    2007-01-01

    Health communication appeals were utilized through a Web site simulation to evaluate the potential effectiveness of 3 intervention approaches to promote responsible drinking among college students. Within the Web site simulation, participants were exposed to a persuasive message designed to represent either the generalized social norms advertising approach (based on others' behavior), the personalized behavioral feedback approach (tailored to the individual's behavior), or the schema-based approach (tailored to the individual's self-schema, or personality). A control group was exposed to a message that was designed to be neutral (it was designed to discourage heavy drinking, but it did not represent any of the previously mentioned approaches). It was hypothesized that the more personalized the message was to the individual, the more favorable college students' attitudes would be toward the responsible drinking message. Participants receiving the more personalized messages did report more favorable attitudes toward the responsible drinking message. PMID:17967148

  20. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2016-01-01

    Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non–college-attending peers. These drinking patterns are affected by environmental and temporal characteristics specific to the college environment, including residential campus living, the academic week, and the academic year. Additional psychosocial factors are of particular relevance to the drinking behavior of college-age people, and include exaggerated peer norms, the development and use of protective behavioral strategies, and mental health considerations. Understanding the unique interaction of person and environment is key to designing prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:27159817

  1. Culturally Adapted Motivational Interviewing for Latino Heavy Drinkers: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christina S.; López, Steven R.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Rohsenow, Damaris; Hernández, Lynn; Borrelli, Belinda; Caetano, Raul

    2014-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial of culturally adapted (CAMI) and un-adapted motivational interviewing (MI) to reduce drinking and related problems among heavy drinking Latinos randomized and assessed 58 participants at baseline, at 2 (86% retention) and 6 months (84% retention). Significant declines across both were found in heavy drinking days/month and drinking consequences (p < .001), with greater reductions for drinking consequences for CAMI at 2 months (p = .009) and continuing reductions in CAMI at 6 months. Findings provide preliminary support for the value of culturally adaptation to enhance the efficacy of motivational interviewing with Latino heavy drinkers. PMID:24215227

  2. Up Close and Personal: Temporal Variability in the Drinking of Individual College Students During Their First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Boca, Frances K.; Darkes, Jack; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    Surveys have documented excessive drinking among college students and tracked annual changes in consumption over time. This study extended previous work by examining drinking changes during the freshman year, using latent growth curve (LGC) analysis to model individual change, and relating risk factors for heavy drinking to growth factors in the…

  3. Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  4. Less drinking, yet more problems: understanding African American drinking and related problems.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  5. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting. PMID:18429501

  6. Haemorrhagic diarrhoea and reproductive failure in Bonsmara cattle resulting from anomalous heavy metal concentrations in soils, forages and drinking water associated with geochemical anomalies of toxic elements on the farm Puntlyf, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsenbroek, J. H.; Meyer, J.; Myburgh, J.

    2003-05-01

    Poor livestock health conditions are associated with geochemical Pb anomalies on a farm approximately 40km east of Pretoria, South Africa. A generic risk assessment of drinking water for Bonsmara cattle obtained from three separate subterranean water sources on the farm, revealed the presence of several potentially hazardous constituents suspected for the development of adverse health effects in the herd. The two main symptoms of the herd, namely, severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea in calves and reproductive failure in cows, have been investigated. A selenium-induced copper deficiency was proposed as the main cause to the calf diarrhoea, due to complexing between high concentrations of Se, Mo, Hg and Pb in drinking water. It was also anticipated that such Cu deficiencies would lead to low systemic Se inducing hypothyroidism in the cows due to inadequate iodine activation required for thyroid hormone formation and consequently adversely affect reproduction. The anomalous Pb in borehole drinking water on the southem part of the farm, suggests a clear genetic link with the underlying geochemical Pb anomalies detected by means of an ongoing regional geochemical survey.

  7. Alcohol drinking among college students: college responsibility for personal troubles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One young adult in two has entered university education in Western countries. Many of these young students will be exposed, during this transitional period, to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialisation groups, and social activities. This kind of transition is often associated with risky behaviour such as excessive alcohol consumption. So far, however, there is little evidence about the social determinants of alcohol consumption among college students. We set out to explore how college environmental factors shape college students' drinking behaviour. Methods In May 2010 a web questionnaire was sent to all bachelor and master students registered with an important Belgian university; 7,015 students participated (participation = 39%). The survey looked at drinking behaviour, social involvement, college environmental factors, drinking norms, and positive drinking consequences. Results On average each student had 1.7 drinks a day and 2.8 episodes of abusive drinking a month. We found that the more a student was exposed to college environmental factors, the greater the risk of heavy, frequent, and abusive drinking. Alcohol consumption increased for students living on campus, living in a dormitory with a higher number of room-mates, and having been in the University for a long spell. Most such environmental factors were explained by social involvement, such as participation to the student folklore, pre-partying, and normative expectations. Conclusions Educational and college authorities need to acknowledge universities’ responsibility in relation to their students’ drinking behaviour and to commit themselves to support an environment of responsible drinking. PMID:23805939

  8. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? KidsHealth > For ... a daily multivitamin formulated for kids. previous continue Energy Drinks These are becoming increasingly popular with middle- ...

  9. Drinking in the Context of Life Stressors: A Multidimensional Coping Strategy among South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Karmel W.; Watt, Melissa H.; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored narratives of drinking as a coping strategy among female drinkers in a South African township. In 2010–11, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 54 women recruited from 12 alcohol-serving venues. Most women drank heavily and linked their drinking to stressors. They were motivated to use drinking to manage their emotions, facilitate social engagement, and achieve a sense of empowerment, even while recognizing the limitations of this strategy. This study helps to contextualize heavy drinking behavior among women in this setting. Multifaceted interventions that help female drinkers to more effectively manage stressors may aid in reducing hazardous drinking. PMID:23905586

  10. Addiction, Drinking Behavior, and Driving Under the Influence

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Frank A.; Chepke, Lindsey M.; Davis, Dontrell V.

    2012-01-01

    Using a survey of drinkers (N=1,634), we evaluated alternative explanations of heavy and binge drinking, driving under the influence (DUI), DUI arrests, speeding citations, and chargeable accidents. Explanations included socializing, short-term decision-making, unrealistic optimism, risk preferring behavior, and addiction. Most consistent relationships were between substance use and alcohol addiction and dependent variables for (1) binge drinking and (2) DUI episodes. Respondent characteristics (age, marital and employment status, race) had important roles for DUI arrests. Drinker-drivers and those arrested for DUI are partially overlapping groups with implications for treatment and policies detecting and incapacitating persons from drinking and driving. PMID:24304171

  11. Brief motivational intervention for college drinking: the synergistic impact of social anxiety and perceived drinking norms.

    PubMed

    Terlecki, Meredith A; Buckner, Julia D; Larimer, Mary E; Copeland, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Despite the efficacy of Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), students with higher social anxiety appear vulnerable to poorer outcomes. A possible explanation for these outcomes is that corrective normative feedback (an active component of BASICS) may be less effective for socially anxious students if their beliefs about others' drinking are less malleable because of intense fear of negative evaluation for deviating from perceived drinking norms. This study evaluated whether socially anxious students demonstrated less change in perceived norms during BASICS. We also examined whether change in norm endorsement moderated the relation between social anxiety and BASICS outcomes. Undergraduates (n = 52) who underwent BASICS completed measures of drinking, social anxiety, and perceived norms at baseline and 4 weeks post-BASICS. Higher social anxiety was related to less change in norm endorsement after receiving BASICS. Change in perceived norms during treatment moderated the relation between social anxiety and follow-up drinking. Among students with smaller change in norm endorsement after BASICS, higher social anxiety was related to heavier follow-up drinking. Among students with greater changes to norm endorsement during BASICS, the effect of social anxiety was nonsignificant. Results suggest that corrective perceived norms interventions may be less effective among socially anxious students, contributing to continued heavy drinking. Development of social anxiety-specific BASICS components warrants attention. PMID:22612254

  12. Teenage Drinking and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Lis-Marie

    1975-01-01

    This study focuses on drinking and the socially associated behavior of young people in discotheques and restaurants serving alcoholic beverages in Helsinki, Finland. Patterns of entering, seating, drinking, contact-making, and social control are discussed with respect to their inter-relationships and sexual differences are noted. (EH)

  13. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  14. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  15. Safe drinking water act

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.

  16. Alcohol Consumption and Women's Vulnerability to Sexual Victimization: Can Reducing Women's Drinking Prevent Rape?

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Before effective prevention interventions can be developed, it is necessary to identify the mechanisms that contribute to the targeted negative outcomes. A review of the literature on women's substance use and sexual victimization points to women's heavy episodic drinking as a proximal risk factor, particularly among college samples. At least half of sexual victimization incidents involve alcohol use and the majority of rapes of college women occur when the victim is too intoxicated to resist (“incapacitated rape”). Despite the importance of women's heavy episodic drinking as being a risk factor, existing rape prevention programs have rarely addressed women's alcohol use and have shown little success in reducing rates of sexual victimization. We argue that given the strength of the association between heavy episodic drinking and sexual victimization among young women, prevention programs targeting drinking may prove more efficacious than programs targeting sexual vulnerability. Applications of existing drinking prevention strategies to reducing women's sexual victimization are discussed. PMID:19938922

  17. Associations among Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress, and Hazardous Drinking in College Students: Considerations for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Radomski, Sharon; Borsari, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Students with trauma and posttraumatic stress are disproportionately at risk for heavy drinking and for alcohol-related consequences. Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) have been shown to reduce hazardous drinking in college students, and could serve as a first-line approach to reduce heavy drinking in students with trauma and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Yet the standard BMI format may not adequately address the factors that lead to hazardous drinking in these students. Here, we review the literature on PTS and hazardous drinking in college students, and highlight cognitive (self-efficacy, alcohol expectancies) and behavioral (coping strategies, emotion regulation skills, protective behaviors) factors that may link trauma and PTS to drinking risk. Incorporating these factors into standard BMIs in a collaborative way that enhances their personal relevance may enhance intervention efficacy and acceptability for these at-risk students. PMID:26167448

  18. Underage Drinking and the Drinking Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Carla T.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of underage drinking on college campuses has been brewing for many years to the continued vexation of higher education administrators. In 2008, John McCardell, president emeritus of Middlebury College, began to circulate for signature a public statement among colleagues titled "The Amethyst Initiative," which calls for elected…

  19. Cognitive Manifestations of Drinking-Smoking Associations: Preliminary Findings with a Cross-Primed Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jason A.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite tremendous growth in research examining the role of cognitive bias in addictive behaviors, scant consideration has been paid to the close association between smoking and drinking behavior. This study sought to determine whether an association between smoking and drinking could be observed at an implicit level using a novel cognitive bias task, as well as characterize the relationship between performance on this task and clinically relevant variables (i.e., heaviness of use/dependence). Methods Individuals (N = 51) with a range of smoking and drinking patterns completed a modified Stroop task in which participants identified the color of drinking, smoking and neutral words that were each preceded by drinking, smoking or neutral picture primes. Participants also provided information regarding the heaviness of their smoking and drinking behavior and completed self-report measures of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Results Response times to smoking and drinking words were significantly slowed following the presentation of either smoking or drinking picture primes. This effect did not differ across subgroups. However, the strength of the coupling between smoking and drinking prime effects was greater among heavier drinkers, who also exhibited a concordant looser coupling of the effects of smoking and drinking primes on smoking words. Conclusions Associations between smoking and drinking can be observed at an implicit level and may be strongest for heavier drinkers. PMID:25561386

  20. Alcohol Expectancies and Context-Specific Drinking Behaviors among Female College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol expectancies have been associated with drinking behaviors among college students. Few studies, however, have focused on researcher-labeled ''positive'' and ''negative'' expectancies as well as the valuations (i.e., desirability) of these expectancies. Moreover, research on the correlates of heavy drinking among female college athletes…

  1. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual, intended for chemists and technicians with little or no experience in chemical procedures required to monitor drinking water, covers analytical methods for inorganic and organic chemical contaminants listed in the interim primary drinking water regulations. Topics include methods for heavy metals, nitrate, and organic…

  2. High-Risk Drinking and Academic Performance among College Student Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossbard, Joel R.; Widome, Rachel; Lust, Katherine; Simpson, Tracy L.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Saxon, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Heavy drinking and psychiatric symptoms pose challenges to college student Veterans and may undermine academic success. We used Boynton College Student Health Survey data to assess highrisk drinking (HRD), psychiatric symptoms, and psychosocial stressors among student Veterans (N = 1,679) with and without prior deployment. Rates of HRD and…

  3. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System▿

    PubMed Central

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A.

    2011-01-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments. PMID:21652741

  4. Young Adult Veteran Perceptions of Peers’ Drinking Behavior and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based intervention in this heavy drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine: (1) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (2) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (3) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-same-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans’ own drinking, and (4) whether perceptions about others’ attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association on drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  5. Young adult veteran perceptions of peers' drinking behavior and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-02-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and the resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active-duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based interventions in this heavy-drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine (a) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (b) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from the actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (c) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans' own drinking, and (d) whether perceptions about others' attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association with drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  6. Self-efficacy mediates the effects of topiramate and GRIK1 genotype on drinking.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Armeli, Stephen; Wetherill, Reagan; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan; Pond, Timothy

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that topiramate reduces alcohol use among problem drinkers, with one study showing that the effect was moderated by a polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, the gene encoding the GluK1 kainate subunit. We examined whether the interactive effect of medication and genotype (1) altered the association between daily self-efficacy and later-day drinking; and (2) had an indirect effect on drinking via self-efficacy. In a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate, we used daily interactive voice response technology to measure self-efficacy (i.e. confidence in avoiding heavy drinking later in the day) and drinking behavior in 122 European-American heavy drinkers. Topiramate's effects on both self-efficacy and drinking level were moderated by rs2832407. C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showed higher levels of self-efficacy and lower levels of nighttime drinking across the 12-week trial. Further, the interactive effect of topiramate and genotype on mean nighttime drinking levels was mediated by mean levels of self-efficacy. By modeling topiramate's effects on nighttime drinking across multiple levels of analysis, we found that self-efficacy, a key psychologic construct, mediated the effect of topiramate, which was moderated by rs2832407 genotype. Thus, it may be possible to use an individualized assessment (i.e. genotype) to select treatment to optimize the reduction in heavy drinking and thereby provide a personalized treatment approach. PMID:25496338

  7. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  8. Risks of underage drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Over time, too much alcohol damages brain cells. This can lead to behavior problems and lasting damage to memory, thinking, and judgment. Teens who drink tend to do poorly in school and their behaviors may get them into trouble.

  9. A gender-specific measure of binge drinking among college students.

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, H; Dowdall, G W; Davenport, A; Rimm, E B

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of volume of alcohol consumed to the occurrence of alcohol-related problems among male and female college students to develop a gender-specific measure of heavy episodic or binge drinking by college students for public health research. A self-administered survey was mailed to a national representative sample of students at 140 4-year colleges in 40 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 17,592 college students completed the survey. Women who typically drink four drinks in a row were found to have roughly the same likelihood of experiencing drinking-related problems as men who typically drink five drinks in a row. Use of the same standard for both sexes underestimates binge drinking and the negative health risks for women. PMID:7604925

  10. University Student Drinking: The Role of Motivational and Social Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Krishnan, Mya; Balaam, Melanie; Everitt, Meri; Van der Graaf, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate UK university student drinking in terms of social and motivational factors. Design: Quantitative and qualitative studies. Participants: Undergraduate students at a UK university: 50 "heavy drinkers" and 49 "light drinkers", equally distributed in terms of sex and year of study. Data: Questionnaire measures of drinking…

  11. Cardiovascular risk is more related to drinking pattern than to the type of alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    van de Wiel, A; de Lange, D W

    2008-12-01

    Many observational studies have shown an association between moderate alcohol consumption and a lower risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Some of these studies, whether or not inspired by the French paradox, suggest a more favourable effect of wine than of other alcoholic drinks. Certain polyphenols including the flavonoids, more abundant in red than in white wine, are held responsible for this 'bonus' effect. However, this conclusion seems premature, since no significant bioactive effect of wine polyphenols has been shown in humans so far. Furthermore, wine drinking proves to be associated with a healthier lifestyle profile than consumption of beer and liquor, and this may have a substantial influence on the outcome of studies. In contrast to moderate drinking, incidental heavy or binge drinking is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk by influences both on the electrical conduction system of the heart and the process of atherothrombosis. Although only prospective randomised intervention trials including a sufficient number of people will give definite answers, the chances are small that they will ever be performed given the ethical and practical objections of such studies. Available data so far justify the conclusion with regard to cardiovascular risk that the pattern of drinking is of more importance than the content of the bottle. PMID:19075312

  12. A behavioral economic analysis of the effect of next-day responsibilities on drinking.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lindsey J; Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 37% of college students report heavy episodic drinking (5 or more drinks in an occasion for men and 4 or more for women) in the past month. This pattern of drinking is often associated with high blood alcohol levels, accidents, injuries, and negative social and academic outcomes. There is a need for novel theoretical approaches to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral economics emphasizes the role of contextual determinants, such as drink price and the presence and amount of alternative reinforcement as determinants of drinking levels and has received strong empirical support in basic laboratory research. This translational research study used a hypothetical behavioral economic measure to investigate the impact of a variety of next-day responsibilities on night-before drinking intentions in a sample of first-year college students (N = 80; 50% female) who reported recent heavy episodic drinking. Drinking estimates were significantly lower in all of the responsibility conditions relative to the no-responsibility condition; internships were associated with the greatest reduction (d(rm) = 1.72), and earlier class times were associated with greater reductions in drinking intentions (d(rm) range = 1.22-1.35) than later class times (d(rm) range = 0.83-1.00). These results suggest that increasing morning responsibilities should be further investigated as a potential strategy to reduce drinking in college students. PMID:25402835

  13. Not All Drinks Are Created Equal: Implications for Alcohol Assessment in India

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Madhabika B.; Kerr, William; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Pillai, Aravind

    2008-01-01

    Aims: There is sparse literature on drink alcohol content in developing countries. This study documented detailed information on drink sizes and ethanol content of alcoholic beverages consumed in three different parts of India. Methods: Data primarily from formative phases of studies on alcohol use patterns in the states of Delhi, Rajasthan and Goa are reported. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews with key informants and drinking respondents were used to assess different beverage types and to empirically measure actual drink sizes as poured. Investigation of ethanol content included the use of biochemical analyses, the alcoholmeter and the Analox Analyser AM3. Respondents interviewed in the post-formative phase in one study were also asked to define the volume of their drinks by indicating pour levels in select drinking vessels. Results: A wide range of alcoholic drinks were documented that varied in ethanol concentration across and within sites. Drink sizes, particularly for high-strength beverages, varied both by study site and respondent, with pours of distilled spirits on average being larger than standard measures. Conclusion: Estimates of both mean volume of alcohol consumption and heavy drinking amounts are influenced by variability in alcohol concentration and respondent-defined pour sizes. The variation in drink alcohol content found across Indian states indicates that prior to conducting quantitative surveys, preliminary work on sources of drink alcohol content variation should be undertaken to tailor measurement tools to specific beverages and drinking practices observed. Recommendations for alcohol research in developing countries are provided. PMID:18832137

  14. Decision Making and Binge Drinking: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Goudriaan, Anna E.; Grekin, Emily R.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavioral decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is found to be diminished in individuals with substance dependence and other types of disinhibitory psychopathology. However, little is known regarding the relation between heavy alcohol use and decision-making skills in young adults. This study therefore investigated whether binge drinking is related to disadvantageous decision making, as measured by the IGT. We also examined the relation between decision making and impulsivity. Methods: Latent class growth analysis was used to classify college students into 4 groups (each group n = 50, 50% male), based on their binge drinking trajectories over a 2-year time period (precollege through second year of college). Participants were 200 college students, divided in 4 subgroups: (1) low binge drinkers, (2) stable moderate binge drinkers, (3) increasing binge drinkers, and (4) stable high binge drinkers. A measure of decision making, the IGT, impulsivity questionnaires, and multiple indicators of heavy alcohol use were included. Results: The stable high binge-drinking group made less advantageous choices on the IGT than the low binge-drinking group. Impulsivity was not related to decision-making performance. Decision-making performance did not differ by gender, but deck preferences and decision time patterns did differ; women preferred low frequency, high amount punishments to a greater extent than men. Conclusions: Although disadvantageous decision making is related to binge-drinking patterns in emerging adulthood, this relation is independent of impulsivity. Additionally, the association appears attributable to those who engage in heavy (binge) drinking at an early age, but not to age of onset of drinking in general. PMID:17403069

  15. An Exploratory Study of Trauma and Religious Factors in Predicting Drinking Outcomes in African American Sexual Assault Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Adofoli, Grace; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships between religious factors, trauma histories and life satisfaction to alcohol-related outcomes in adult sexual assault survivors. A mail survey was administered to a community sample of African American survivors (N = 836) in the Chicago metropolitan area. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that for non-religious women, interpersonal trauma was related to greater frequency of heavy drinking. For moderately religious women, interpersonal and contextual traumas were related to more frequent heavy drinking. For highly religious women, religious coping was related to less frequent heavy drinking. Implications are drawn for research and treatment of female survivors. PMID:25530738

  16. Evaluating the believability and effectiveness of the social norms message "most students drink 0 to 4 drinks when they party".

    PubMed

    Polonec, Lindsey D; Major, Ann Marie; Atwood, L Erwin

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to reduce dangerous drinking levels among college students, university health educators have initiated social norms campaigns based on the rationale that students will be more likely to reduce their own drinking behaviors if they think that most students on campus are not heavy or binge drinkers. Within the framework of social comparisons theory, this study reports the findings of a survey of 277 college students and explores the correlates of accuracy and bias in students' estimates of whether or not most other students think that binge drinking on campus is a problem and whether or not most other students believe the campaign message. The overwhelming majority (72.6%) of students did not believe the norms message that most students on campus drink "0 to 4" drinks when they party, and 52.7% reported drinking "5 or more" drinks in a sitting. The social norms campaign was effective in motivating 61% of the respondents to think about binge drinking as a problem. For the most part, group or social network norms were more influential on students' own drinking behavior than were their estimates of the campus drinking norm. The findings also clarify that accuracy in estimating the campus social norm in and of itself does not necessarily lead to an increase or reduction in alcohol consumption. The social comparisons approach underscores the complex and social nature of human interaction and reinforces the need for the development of multiple approaches to alcohol education with messages that are designed to target the specific needs of students based on their orientations toward alcohol consumption. PMID:16813486

  17. Drinking water and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R D

    1995-01-01

    Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water. PMID:8741788

  18. Drinking Consequences and Subsequent Drinking in College Students Over 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Julia A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Wood, Phillip K.

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence that college student drinkers may continue drinking in the face of adverse consequences. We examined 2 hypotheses: (a) that this seemingly pathological behavior is a phenomenon of university life, occurring with consistency throughout the entirety of college, and (b) that individuals accumulate these consequences over multiple semesters in college. A sample of 3,720 students from a large Midwestern university was asked to complete surveys the summer before college and every semester thereafter for 4 years. Results showed that certain drinking-related consequences (e.g., blackouts, regretted sexual experiences) consistently predicted continued frequent heavy drinking in the following semester, even after controlling for sex, race, age, and previous-semester frequent heavy drinking (range of odds ratio = 1.17 to 1.45 across semesters, p < .01). Such potent consequences may predict subsequent drinking for a number of possible reasons that may be examined and addressed as they would pertain to specific protective behavioral strategy-related and cognitive interventions. Furthermore, consequences were accumulated over multiple semesters by notable proportions of students. For example, 13.8% of students reported blacking out 5 time-points or more—describing a full half or more of their college careers. Experimental studies which aim to modify students’ perceptions of norms associated with these consequences may aid in developing interventions to reduce the burden of harm to students. In the broader context, and given the prevalence of students’ accumulation of consequences, future study might aim to determine how and in what ways these findings describe either pathological or normative processes. PMID:25528051

  19. Self concept and drinking problems of college students raised in alcohol-abused homes.

    PubMed

    Rearden, J J; Markwell, B S

    1989-01-01

    To examine drinking problems and self concept of college students raised in homes where alcohol is abused, 148 lower division college students were given the following paper and pencil tests: The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, and the "Personal Self" section of The Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Students classified as children of alcoholics had a significantly lower self concept (F = 4.23, p = .04). Tabulation of the incidence of heavy drinking (31%) and lapses of memory after drinking bouts (62%) show an amount of drinking on college campuses that is truly alarming. PMID:2728960

  20. Reduction of drinking in problem drinkers and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Rehm, J; Roerecke, M

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been linked with considerable mortality, and reduction of drinking, especially of heavy drinking, has been suggested as one of the main measures to reduce alcohol-attributable mortality. Aggregate-level studies including but not limited to natural experiments support this suggestion; however, causality cannot be established in ecological analysis. The results of individual-level cohort studies are ambiguous. On the other hand, randomized clinical trials with problem drinkers show that brief interventions leading to a reduction of average drinking also led to a reduction of all-cause mortality within 1 year. The results of these studies were pooled and a model for reduction of drinking in heavy drinkers and its consequences for all-cause mortality risk was estimated. Ceteris paribus, the higher the level of drinking, the stronger the effects of a given reduction. Implications for interventions and public health are discussed. PMID:23531718

  1. Alcohol evaluations and acceptability: Examining descriptive and injunctive norms among heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Krieger, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed descriptive and injunctive norms, evaluations of alcohol consequences, and acceptability of drinking. Methods Participants were 248 heavy-drinking undergraduates (81.05% female; Mage = 23.45). Results Stronger perceptions of descriptive and injunctive norms for drinking and more positive evaluations of alcohol consequences were positively associated with drinking and the number of drinks considered acceptable. Descriptive and injunctive norms interacted, indicating that injunctive norms were linked with number of acceptable drinks among those with higher descriptive norms. Descriptive norms and evaluations of consequences interacted, indicating that descriptive norms were positively linked with number of acceptable drinks among those with negative evaluations of consequences; however, among those with positive evaluations of consequences, descriptive norms were negatively associated with number of acceptable drinks. Injunctive norms and evaluations of consequences interacted, indicating that injunctive norms were positively associated with number of acceptable drinks, particularly among those with positive evaluations of consequences. A three-way interaction emerged between injunctive and descriptive norms and evaluations of consequences, suggesting that injunctive norms and the number of acceptable drinks were positively associated more strongly among those with negative versus positive evaluations of consequences. Those with higher acceptable drinks also had positive evaluations of consequences and were high in injunctive norms. Conclusions Findings supported hypotheses that norms and evaluations of alcohol consequences would interact with respect to drinking and acceptance of drinking. These examinations have practical utility and may inform development and implementation of interventions and programs targeting alcohol misuse among heavy drinking undergraduates. PMID:25437265

  2. Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adult Dating, Cohabitating, and Married Drinking Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Herrera, Veronica; Fischer, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined intimate partner violence (IPV) and drinking partnerships in 741 young adults in male-female dating, cohabitating, and married relationships. Cluster analyses revealed four similar kinds of drinking partnerships: (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b) discrepant male heavy and frequent, (c) discrepant female heavy and infrequent, and (d) congruent moderate/heavy-frequent drinkers. Overall, there were no significant main effect differences across relationship type and clusters. The type of relationship and the type of drinking partnership interacted with contexts examined (i.e., type of violence severity, gender, and whether the violence was perpetration or victimization). Given the severity of IPV in couple relationships, additional empirical attention to drinking partnerships is warranted. PMID:20532190

  3. Postpartum and Alcohol-Related Factors Associated with the Relapse of Risky Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    JAGODZINSKI, TANYA; FLEMING, MICHAEL F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this investigation were (1) to describe postpartum drinking patterns among women who were frequent drinkers before pregnancy and (2) to identify factors correlated with postpartum “risky” drinking among women who were frequent drinkers before pregnancy. Method Information was gathered through a self-administered questionnaire completed at the postpartum visit and a subsequent face-to-face interview of 381 women, recruited from 35 obstetric/gynecologic clinics throughout Wisconsin, who reported frequent drinking before pregnancy. Multivariate analyses were used to identify correlates of postpartum risky drinking, defined as consuming four or more drinks per occasion (heavy episodic drinking) at least twice in the past 28 days or drinking an average of seven or more drinks per week. Results Overall, 37.8% (n = 144) women reported postpartum risky drinking. Eighteen percent reported heavy episodic drinking only, 5% reported frequent drinking only, and 15% reported both behaviors. Postpartum risky drinkers were more likely than other women to have had a partner who engaged in risky drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–4.5), to have been unemployed (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.2–7.7), to have smoked following pregnancy (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0–3.5), and to have consumed alcohol after the recognition of pregnancy (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.2–10.6). Women who breast-fed their child were less likely to report risky drinking (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2–0.5). Conclusions In the postpartum period, health care providers may want to focus alcohol screening efforts on former frequent drinkers who are smokers, are unemployed, have a partner who is a risky drinker, or are not breast-feeding. PMID:17960306

  4. The relationship between early drinking contexts of women "coming out" as lesbian and current alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Parks, Cheryl A; Hughes, Tonda L; Kinnison, Kelly E

    2007-01-01

    Several decades of research show that lesbians are at risk for hazardous drinking. Compared with heterosexual women, lesbians are less likely to abstain from drinking, less likely to decrease their alcohol consumption as they age, and more likely to report alcohol-related problems. Stress associated with lesbian identity and reliance on lesbian or gay bars for socialization and support are frequently posited--but largely untested--explanations for lesbians' heightened risk. Results from general population studies indicate that patterns of alcohol use established early in the life-course or during life transitions influence later alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Further, heavy-drinking peers, availability of alcohol, and drinking in particular social contexts--such as at bars and parties--are believed to contribute to heavier drinking and to alcohol-related problems. To better understand lesbians' risks for hazardous drinking, we examined relationships between retrospective accounts of drinking patterns and drinking contexts in the early stages of lesbian identity development and current drinking outcomes in a large sample of adult lesbians. Findings suggest that early drinking patterns and drinking contexts influence later alcohol use and have important implications for risk reduction and prevention among lesbians. PMID:19042906

  5. Serogroups of Escherichia coli from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, P W; Tewari, Suman

    2007-07-01

    Fifty seven isolates of thermotolerant E. coli were recovered from 188 drinking water sources, 45 (78.9%) were typable of which 15 (26.3%) were pathogenic serotypes. Pathogenic serogroup obtained were 04 (Uropathogenic E. coli, UPEC), 025 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC), 086 (Enteropathogenic E. coli, EPEC), 0103 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 0157 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 08 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC) and 0113 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC). All the pathogenic serotypes showed resistance to bacitracin and multiple heavy metal ions. Resistance to streptomycin and cotrimazole was detected in two strains whereas resistance to cephaloridine, polymixin-B and ampicillin was detected in one strain each. Transfer of resistances to drugs and metallic ions was observed in 9 out of 12 strains studied. Resistances to bacitracin were transferred in all nine strains. Among heavy metals resistance to As(3+) followed by Cr(6+) were transferred more frequently. PMID:17057960

  6. Drinking group characteristics related to willingness to engage in protective behaviors with the group at nightclubs.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark B; Voas, Robert B

    2016-03-01

    Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) in nightclubs are settings where young adults tend to engage in high-risk behaviors, such as heavy alcohol and drug use. Consequences of these behaviors may be prevented if young adults engage in protective strategies with their drinking group. It is important to identify drinking group characteristics that predict willingness to intervene with peers. Objectives of this study were to (a) examine whether young adults at EMDEs would be willing to intervene with members of their drinking group and (b) identify both individual and group characteristics of drinking groups that predict willingness to intervene. Nightclub patrons (N = 215 individuals; 80 groups) were surveyed anonymously as they entered clubs. Individual- and group-level characteristics were measured in relation to willingness to intervene with peers. Mixed-model regressions were conducted, accounting for nesting by drinking group. Analyses show that participants were willing to intervene with their peers. Groups that knew each other well and had lower expectations for members' drinking were more willing to intervene. Women, younger, and older participants were also more willing to intervene. Findings show that club patrons are willing to intervene with their drinking groups to protect them from harmful consequences of heavy drinking and drug use. Findings indicate characteristics of both individuals and drinking groups that could be targeted in interventions among young adults largely not being reached by college interventions. PMID:26999349

  7. A multimethod examination of negative behaviors during couples interactions and problem drinking trajectories.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Cranford, James A

    2016-08-01

    Models of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are increasingly conceptualizing social and relationship factors as being critical to the understanding of problem drinking. Close relationships involving conflict have been a particular research focus, and partners' expressions of negative emotion are theorized to affect drinking among those with AUD. Although it has long been presumed that behaviors during couples interactions influence drinking-and this assumption has informed many modern treatments for AUD-this hypothesis has not been directly tested. We bring multiple methods to bear on this question, combining laboratory-based behavioral observation with a longitudinal design. Forty-eight individuals with AUD (probands), together with their partners, completed a laboratory-based conflict interaction. Their behavior was coded with the Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System. Longitudinal follow-ups of drinking behaviors were completed at 6 and 12 months. Results showed that, above and beyond the proband's own behaviors, partner negative behaviors moderated probands' drinking trajectories, with drinkers whose partners displayed higher levels of hostility at baseline reporting slower declines in frequency of drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol problems over time and higher levels of drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol problems at follow-up. Results emphasize the importance of considering close relationships in the study of AUD and further indicate the utility of combining multiple methods in alcohol research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362489

  8. Dying To Drink: Confronting Binge Drinking on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Wuethrich, Bernice

    This book outlines the toll binge drinking is taking on college campuses and suggests steps that can be taken to take action against the binge drinking that has become part of college culture. The chapters of part 1, "The College Drinking Environment," are: (1) "A Culture of Alcohol"; (2) "Where's the Party?"; (3) "College Sports and Alcohol"; and…

  9. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  10. DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conducted every 4 years, the Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey (DWINS) is an EPA-conducted statistically-based survey of the infrastructure investment needs of the Nation's drinking water systems for the next 20 years.

  11. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  12. Drinking among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabow, Jerome; Duncan-Schill, Marilyn

    1995-01-01

    Reports the results of a study on the ways in which alcohol is built into the social role and social life of college students. Provides direct support for the idea that the patterns of drinking alcoholic beverages are integral to social and structural aspects of college. (LKS)

  13. DRINKING WATER ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

  14. How Giraffes Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, P.-M.; Taylor, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Giraffes face unique challenges for drinking due to their long necks. In this article we use evidence from videos, size estimates, and elementary fluid mechanics to make a strong case for a plunger pump mechanism moving water up from their lips to their shoulders.

  15. Who Drinks Where: Youth Selection of Drinking Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina F.; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Grube, Joel W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Different drinkers may experience specific risks depending on where they consume alcohol. This longitudinal study examined drinking patterns, demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with youth drinking in different contexts. Methods We used survey data from 665 past-year alcohol using youths (ages 13–16 at Wave 1) in 50 midsized California cities. Measures of drinking behaviors and drinking in seven contexts were obtained at three annual time points. Other characteristics included gender, age, race, parental education, weekly disposable income, general deviance, and past year cigarette smoking. Results Results of multilevel regression analyses show that more frequent past-year alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of drinking at parties and at someone else’s home. Greater continued volumes of alcohol (i.e., heavier drinking) was associated with increased likelihood of drinking at parking lots or street corners. Deviance was positively associated with drinking in most contexts, and past year cigarette smoking was positively associated with drinking at beaches or parks and someone else’s home. Age and deviance were positively associated with drinking in a greater number of contexts. The likelihood of youth drinking at parties and someone else’s home increased over time, whereas the likelihood of drinking at parking lots/street corners decreased. Also, deviant youths progress to drinking in their own home, beaches or parks and restaurants/bars/nightclubs more rapidly. Conclusions The contexts in which youths consume alcohol changes over time. These changes vary by individual characteristics. The redistribution of drinking contexts over the early life course may contribute to specific risks associated with different drinking contexts. PMID:25778102

  16. Social processes underlying acculturation: a study of drinking behavior among immigrant Latinos in the Northeast United States

    PubMed Central

    LEE, CHRISTINA S.; LÓPEZ, STEVEN REGESER; COBLY, SUZANNE M.; TEJADA, MONICA; GARCÍA-COLL, CYNTHIA; SMITH, MARCIA

    2010-01-01

    Study Goals To identify social processes that underlie the relationship of acculturation and heavy drinking behavior among Latinos who have immigrated to the Northeast United States of America (USA). Method Community-based recruitment strategies were used to identify 36 Latinos who reported heavy drinking. Participants were 48% female, 23 to 56 years of age, and were from South or Central America (39%) and the Caribbean (24%). Six focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Results Content analyses indicated that the social context of drinking is different in the participants’ countries of origin and in the United States. In Latin America, alcohol consumption was part of everyday living (being with friends and family). Nostalgia and isolation reflected some of the reasons for drinking in the USA. Results suggest that drinking in the Northeastern United States (US) is related to Latinos’ adaptation to a new sociocultural environment. Knowledge of the shifting social contexts of drinking can inform health interventions. PMID:20376331

  17. A Cohort Study on Long-Term Adverse Effects of Parental Drinking: Background and Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Ingunn Olea; Bukten, Anne; Storvoll, Elisabet E; Moan, Inger Synnøve; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Handal, Marte; Nordfjærn, Trond; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Rossow, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have addressed adverse outcomes in children of parents with alcohol abuse/dependence, less is known about the possible long-term effects of more normative patterns of parental alcohol consumption, including drinking at lower risk levels and heavy episodic or binge drinking. The extent of harm from parental drinking may therefore be underestimated. With this research proposal, we describe a project that aims to assess possible long-term adverse effects of parental drinking by combining survey and nationwide registry data. Advantages of a longitudinal general population cohort design include that it allows for detailed information on parental drinking through survey data and identification of possible negative long-term health and social outcomes from exposure to parental drinking 1–19 years after exposure through continuously updated nationwide registers. The rich information available from combining survey and registry data allows us to take into account important confounders, mediators, and moderators. PMID:26688663

  18. Longitudinal Patterns of Alcohol Mixed With Energy Drink Use Among College Students and Their Associations With Risky Drinking and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Scaglione, Nichole; Reavy, Racheal; Turrisi, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) is a form of risky drinking among college students, a population already in danger of heavy drinking and associated consequences. The goals of the current longitudinal study were to (a) identify types of AmED users between the first and second year of college and (b) examine differences among these groups in rates of highrisk drinking and consequences over time. Method: A random sample of college student drinkers (n = 1,710; 57.7% female) completed baseline and 6-month follow-up measures assessing alcohol-related behaviors. Results: AmED use was endorsed by 40% of participants during the course of the study. As anticipated, four distinct groups of AmED users were identified (nonusers, initiators, discontinuers, and continuous users) and were significantly different from one another on drinking and consequence outcomes. Further, significant Time × Group interaction effects were observed for drinking and overall consequences. Generally, across all outcomes and time points, nonusers reported the lowest rates of drinking and consequences, whereas continuous users consistently reported the highest rates of drinking and consequences. Students who initiated AmED use during the course of the study also reported an abrupt increase in alcohol use and reported consequences. Conclusions: Findings suggest students who consistently engage in and initiate AmED use also engage in riskier drinking behaviors and experience higher rates of consequences. Interventions that specifically target AmED use may be warranted and have the potential to reduce alcohol-related consequences. PMID:25978824

  19. REGULATED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...

  20. Dimensions of Problem Drinking among Young Adult Restaurant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roland S.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Nationwide surveys identify food service workers as heavy alcohol users. Objectives This article analyzes dimensions and correlates of problem drinking among young adult food service workers. Methods A telephone survey of national restaurant chain employees yielded 1294 completed surveys. Results Hazardous alcohol consumption patterns were seen in 80% of men and 64% of women. Multivariate analysis showed that different dimensions of problem drinking measured by the AUDIT were associated with workers' demographic characteristics, smoking behavior and job category. Conclusions & Scientific Significance These findings offer evidence of extremely high rates of alcohol misuse among young adult restaurant workers. PMID:20180660

  1. Human coffee drinking: manipulation of concentration and caffeine dose.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A; O'Keeffe, M; O'Leary, D; Russ, N

    1986-01-01

    In a residential research ward coffee drinking was studied in 9 volunteer human subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. A series of five experiments was undertaken to characterize adlibitum coffee consumption and to investigate the effects of manipulating coffee concentration, caffeine dose per cup, and caffeine preloads prior to coffee drinking. Manipulations were double-blind and scheduled in randomized sequences across days. When cups of coffee were freely available, coffee drinking tended to be rather regularly spaced during the day with intercup intervals becoming progressively longer throughout the day; experimental manipulations showed that this lengthening of intercup intervals was not due to accumulating caffeine levels. Number of cups of coffee consumed was an inverted U-shaped function of both coffee concentration and caffeine dose per cup; however, coffee-concentration and dose-per-cup manipulations did not produce similar effects on other measures of coffee drinking (intercup interval, time to drink a cup, within-day distribution of cups). Caffeine preload produced dose-related decreases in number of cups consumed. As a whole, these experiments provide some limited evidence for both the suppressive and the reinforcing effects of caffeine on coffee consumption. Examination of total daily coffee and caffeine intake across experiments, however, provides no evidence for precise regulation (i.e., titration) of coffee or caffeine intake. PMID:3958660

  2. Effectiveness of a Screening and Brief Intervention protocol for heavy drinkers in dental practice: A cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Neff, James Alan; Kelley, Michelle L; Walters, Scott T; Cunningham, Tina D; Paulson, James F; Braitman, Abby L; Brickhouse, Tegwyn H; Gunsolley, John C; Darby, Michele L; Lemaster, Margaret F; Vandersluis, J Patrick; Walsh, Margaret M; Bolen, Heather

    2015-12-01

    Results of a cluster-randomized trial of a Screening and Brief Intervention for heavy drinkers in dental practice are reported. Data were obtained from 103 heavy drinking patients recruited from randomized intervention (7; n = 50) and control (6; n = 53) practices. Analysis of data revealed that 6-month decreases in total drinks per week were significantly (p < .05) greater for heavy drinking intervention (43%) than control patients (21%)-a 4 drink per week difference. Similar decreases were obtained for quantity and frequency among intervention patients compared to control patients. Despite power limitations, the 6-month results support the effectiveness of the Screening and Brief Intervention. PMID:24423575

  3. Drinking Patterns and Going-Out Behavior as Predictors of Illicit Substance Use: An Analysis among Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Goor, Ien; Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina; Knibbe, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    This study examines relations between drinking patterns, going-out behavior, and illicit substance use among Dutch adolescents ages 15 to 24 who reported alcohol use at least once per week (N = 711). Logistic regression analyses indicated that adolescents reporting heavy drinking patterns showed higher risks of lifetime and current illicit…

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Event-Specific Prevention Strategies for Reducing Problematic Drinking Associated with 21st Birthday Celebrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Geisner, Irene M.; Zheng, Cheng; Larimer, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: While research has documented heavy drinking practices and associated negative consequences of college students turning 21, few studies have examined prevention efforts aimed at reducing high-risk drinking during 21st birthday celebrations. The present study evaluated the comparative efficacy of a general prevention effort (i.e., Brief…

  5. Age differences in alcohol drinking patterns among Norwegian and German hospital doctors – a study based on national samples

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To describe and discuss the alcohol drinking patterns of the younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany – respectively the abstainers, frequent drinkers, episodic heavy drinkers and hazardous drinkers. Methods: Data were collected in nationwide postal surveys among doctors in Norway (2000) and Germany (2006). A representative sample of 1898 German and 602 Norwegian hospital doctors aged 27–65 years were included in the analyses (N=2500). Alcohol drinking patterns were measured using the first three items of AUDIT in Norway and the AUDIT-C in Germany, scores of ≥5 (ranking from 0 to 12) indicating hazardous drinking. Episodic heavy drinking was defined by the intake of ≥60g of ethanol, on one occasion, at least once a week. Frequent drinkers were who drank alcoholic beverages at least twice a week. Abstainers were persons who drank no alcohol. The analyses were performed separately for age groups (27–44 years versus 45–65 years) and genders. Results: Compared to the age groups 45 to 65 years in the Norwegian and German samples, the younger age groups (27–44 years) tend to have higher rates of abstainers, higher rates of infrequent drinking of moderate amount of alcoholic drinks, lower rates of episodic heavy drinking and lower rates of hazardous drinking. Conclusion: The younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany showed tendencies to healthier drinking habits. Changes in professional life, and in the attitude towards alcohol consumption, may go some way towards explaining these findings. PMID:20200658

  6. 21st Birthday Drinking and Associated Physical Consequences and Behavioral Risks

    PubMed Central

    Brister, Heather A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first birthday celebrations often involve dangerously high levels of alcohol consumption, yet little is known about risk factors for excessive drinking on this occasion. Participants (N = 150) from a larger prospective study who consumed at least one drink during their celebration completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews about their 21st birthday within four days after the event. Assessments were designed to characterize 21st birthday alcohol use, adjusted for alcohol content, as well as situational/contextual factors (e.g., celebration location, peer influence) that contribute to event-level drinking. Participants reported an average of 10.85 drinks (9.76 adjusted drinks), with experienced drinkers consuming significantly more than relatively naïve drinkers who had no previous binge or drunken episodes. Men consumed more drinks, whereas age of first drunken episode and heavier drinking during the 3-months preceding the 21st birthday predicted higher estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs) on the 21st birthday. Celebrating in bars and engaging in birthday-specific drinking traditions (free drinks at bars) explained additional variance in 21st birthday eBACs. Both physical consequences (e.g., blacking out or having a hangover) and behavioral risks (e.g., sexually provocative behaviors) were prevalent and were predicted by higher eBACs. Together these findings indicate that 21st birthday celebrations are associated with heavy drinking and a variety of physical consequences and behavioral risks. PMID:21895347

  7. Self-determination, perceived approval, and drinking: Differences between Asian Americans and Whites☆

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Mai-Ly; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    The present research assessed racial differences in the associations among controlled orientation, injunctive norms, and increased drinking by White and Asian American college students. Previous research has noted racial differences in drinking, but reasons have not been considered in the context of individual differences in self-determination or responses to social influences. The authors evaluated perceived parental and peer injunctive norms as mediators of the relationship between controlled orientation and number of drinks consumed per week. The association between controlled orientation and drinking was further expected to be moderated by race. This study consisted of 534 White and 198 Asian American participants who had at least one heavy drinking episode in the month prior to assessment. Participants completed self-report measures assessing self-determination, perceived parental/peer injunctive norms, and drinking. Results indicated that peer injunctive norms served as a mediator between controlled orientation and greater number of drinks consumed per week for Whites only. Although Asian Americans were significantly higher in controlled orientation than Whites, they drank less and perceived their peers to be less approving of drinking. In contrast, Whites who were high in controlled orientation viewed their friends as being significantly more approving of alcohol and consumed significantly more drinks per week. Results provide unique considerations for understanding cultural differences in drinking among White and Asian American young adults. PMID:23254214

  8. Associations of occupational attributes and excessive drinking.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Andrew J; Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2013-09-01

    Numerous work-related drinking mechanisms have been posited and, oftentimes, examined in isolation. We combined data from over 100 occupational attributes into several factors and tested the association of these factors with measures of alcohol use. We used the NLSY79 2006 wave, a U.S. representative sample of 6426 workers ages 41 to 49 and the 2006 Occupational Information Network database (O*NET), a nationally representative sample of nearly 1000 occupations. We conducted exploratory factor analysis on 119 occupational attributes and found three independent workplace characteristics - physical demands, job autonomy, and social engagement - explained the majority of the variation. We then tested the association of these composite attributes with three drinking measures, before and after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, and a measure of human capital using count data models. We then stratified by gender and repeated our analyses. Men working in occupations with a one standard deviation higher level of physical demand (e.g. construction) reported a higher number of heavy drinking occasions (+20%, p < 0.05). Job autonomy was not significantly associated with measures of alcohol use and when the combined association of higher levels of physical demand and lower levels of job autonomy was examined, modest support for job strain as a mechanism for work-related alcohol consumption was found. In our pooled sample, working in occupations with one standard deviation higher levels of social engagement was associated with lower numbers of drinking days (-9%, p < 0.05) after adjustment. Physical demand and social engagement were associated with alcohol consumption measures but these relationships varied by workers' gender. Future areas of research should include confirmatory analyses using other waves of O*Net data and replicating the current analysis in other samples of workers. If our results are validated, they suggest male workers in high physical demand occupations

  9. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  10. Heavy flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.; Gilman, F.J.; Gottschalk, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    A range of issues pertaining to heavy flavors at the SSC is examined including heavy flavor production by gluon-gluon fusion and by shower evolution of gluon jets, flavor tagging, reconstruction of Higgs and W bosons, and the study of rare decays and CP violation in the B meson system. A specific detector for doing heavy flavor physics and tuned to this latter study at the SSC, the TASTER, is described. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Alcohol drinking as an unfavorable prognostic factor for male patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Zhao, Bing-Cheng; Chen, Chen; Lei, Xin-Xing; Shen, Lu-Jun; Chen, Gang; Yan, Fang; Wang, Guan-Nan; Chen, Han; Jiang, Yi-Quan; Xia, Yun-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between alcohol drinking and the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unknown. To investigate the prognostic value of alcohol drinking on NPC, this retrospective study was conducted on 1923 male NPC patients. Patients were classified as current, former and non-drinkers according to their drinking status. Furthermore, they were categorized as heavy drinkers and mild/none drinkers based on the intensity and duration of alcohol drinking. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model. We found that current drinkers had significantly lower overall survival (OS) rate (5-year OS: 70.2% vs. 76.4%, P < 0.001) and locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rate (5-year LRFS: 69.3% vs. 77.5%, P < 0.001) compared with non-drinkers. Drinking ≥14 drinks/week, and drinking ≥20 years were both independent unfavorable prognostic factors for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.81, P = 0.022; HR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.09–1.75, P = 0.007). Stratified analyses further revealed that the negative impacts of alcohol were manifested mainly among older patients and among smokers. In conclusion, alcohol drinking is a useful predictor of prognosis in male NPC patients; drinkers, especially heavy drinkers have poorer prognosis. PMID:26776301

  12. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Historical trends in alcohol use among U.S. adolescents, as well as data regarding alcohol-related traffic fatalities among youth, indicate decreases in alcohol use. Nevertheless, alcohol use patterns still indicate high rates of binge drinking and drunkenness and the co-occurrence of alcohol use among youth with risky sexual activity, illicit substance use, and poor school performance. This article discusses unique elements of alcohol use among adolescents relative to adults that pose risks for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems. These differences range from patterns of drinking to differential sensitivity to alcohol. Developmental differences between adolescents and adults also are discussed with regard to age-normative developmental tasks and distinctions in brain development that may affect differences in drinking patterns. Epidemiologic findings on sexual-minority youth are provided, as are global trends in alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. It is proposed that using information about differences between youth and adults will be helpful in directing future etiologic and intervention research by capitalizing on unique biological, psychological, and social factors that may affect the success of efforts to reduce alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. PMID:27159816

  13. Relationship of age of first drink to alcohol-related consequences among college students with unhealthy alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; DeJong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents who reported ever drinking, 14% reported an AFD before age 14. These early onset drinkers were more likely than later onset drinkers to report frequent drinking, heavy drinking, and other unhealthy alcohol use behaviors. Among the subset of drinkers with unhealthy alcohol use (36%), early drinkers were more likely than later onset drinkers to report experiencing five out of 13 alcohol-related consequences, including driving while intoxicated, missing work or school due to drinking, getting into trouble at work or school due to drinking, receiving lower grades than they should have due to drinking, and developing a tolerance to alcohol. PMID:19042317

  14. Does knowledge of college drinking policy influence student binge drinking?

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Warren A; Singleton, Edward; McMillan, Tiffany B; Perrino, Carrol S

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored alcohol policies at 5 historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) to gain an understanding of how students' awareness of these policies might correlate with campus binge drinking rates. Findings indicated that male students who reported being unaware of certain alcohol policies were more likely to report binge drinking than their counterparts who reported they were aware of the policies. Gender differences in awareness of alcohol policy might be an important variable influencing binge drinking on HBCU campuses. PMID:16052735

  15. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism moderates the effect of stressful life events on drinking behavior in college students of African descent.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard; Williams, Carla; Armeli, Stephen; Taylor, Robert E; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Covault, Jonathan

    2012-07-01

    Covault et al. [Covault et al. (2007); Biol Psychiatry 61(5): 609-616] reported that the common functional polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter gene moderated the association between past-year stressful events and daily reports of drinking in a sample of European-American (EA) college students. We examined this effect in college students of African descent. Students recruited at a Historically Black University (n = 564) completed web-based measures of past-year stressful life experiences and daily reports of drinking and heavy drinking over a 30-day period. Participants were genotyped for the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and dichotomized as low-activity S' allele carriers or high-activity L' homozygotes. Generalized linear models were used to examine the effects of life stress, genotype, and their interaction on the two drinking measures. In students who completed 15 or more daily surveys (n = 393), there was a significant interaction of past-year stressful events, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and gender on the number of drinking days (P = 0.002). Similar findings were obtained in relation to heavy drinking days (P = 0.007). Men showed a main effect of past-year stressful events on both drinking outcomes (P's < 0.001), but no main or moderator effects of genotype. In women, the S' allele moderated the impact of past-year life stressors on the frequency of drinking and heavy drinking days (P's < 0.001). In college students of African descent, past-year stressful events were associated with more frequent drinking and heavy drinking, an effect that was moderated by the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. However, in contrast to the findings in EA students, in the current sample, 5-HTTLPR moderated the association only among women. PMID:22488930

  16. Relationships Between Social Host Laws and Underage Drinking: Findings From a Study of 50 California Cities

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Thomas, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many states and local communities have enacted social host (SH) laws to reduce underage drinking in private settings. However, little is known about whether such laws are effective. This study examined relationships between city SH laws and underage drinking in general and at parties in private settings. Method: SH policy data were collected for 50 California cities in 2009, and SH policies were rated for comprehensiveness and stringency. Annual telephone interviews were conducted with a cohort of 1,483 adolescents (ages 13–16 at Wave 1) from 2009 to 2011 to assess past-year alcohol use, heavy drinking, and drinking at parties. Multilevel analyses were first conducted for the total sample to examine relationships between SH laws and adolescents’ past-year drinking, with other city and individual characteristics controlled for. Parallel analyses were then conducted for a subsample of 667 youth who had reported any past-year drinking. Results: SH policy ratings were unrelated to any of the past-year drinking outcomes for the total sample of adolescents. However, among past-year drinkers, a stronger SH policy was inversely related to drinking at parties (β = -.06, p < .05) but was unrelated to past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking in general. There were no moderating effects of SH policy on change in adolescents’ past-year drinking over the 3-year period. Conclusions: Local SH policies that include strict liability and civil penalties that are imposed administratively may be associated with less frequent underage drinking in private settings, particularly among adolescents who have already initiated alcohol use. PMID:25343646

  17. Baseline Trajectories of Drinking Moderate Acamprosate and Naltrexone Effects in the COMBINE study

    PubMed Central

    Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Donovan, Dennis; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Couper, David; Krystal, John H.; O’Malley, Stephanie S

    2010-01-01

    Background The COMBINE Study evaluated the effects of acamprosate, naltrexone and the Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI). In secondary analyses, our goals were to identify trajectories of any drinking prior to randomization, to characterize subjects in these trajectories, and to assess whether pre-randomization trajectories predict drinking outcomes and moderate treatment response. Methods We analyzed daily indicators of any drinking in 90 days prior to randomization using a trajectory-based approach. General linear models and generalized logistic regression assessed main and interactive effects of pre-randomization drinking trajectories and treatment on summary drinking measures during active treatment. Results We identified five trajectories of any drinking prior to randomization: “T1: frequent drinkers”, “T2: very frequent drinkers”, “T3: nearly daily drinkers”, “T4: consistent daily drinkers” and “T5: daily drinkers stopping early”. During treatment, “T3: nearly daily drinkers” and “T4: consistent daily drinkers” had significantly worse drinking outcomes than “T1: frequent drinkers” while “T5: daily drinkers stopping early” had comparable drinking outcomes to “T1: frequent drinkers”. Acamprosate significantly increased the chance of abstinence from heavy drinking for the “T2: very frequent drinking” trajectory but decreased the chance of abstinence from heavy drinking for “T5: daily drinkers stopping early”. Naltrexone differentially improved rates of continuous abstinence for very frequent drinkers. Conclusions Acamprosate benefited very frequent drinkers and contrary to expectations was associated with poorer response compared to placebo for consistent daily drinkers who had longer durations of pretreatment abstinence (e.g., ≥ 14 days). Baseline drinking trajectories also moderated naltrexone effects. These findings may help clinicians identify patients for whom acamprosate and naltrexone may be most

  18. “Hey Everyone, I’m Drunk.” An Evaluation of Drinking-Related Twitter Chatter

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The promotion of drinking behaviors correlates with increased drinking behaviors and intent to drink, especially when peers are the promotion source. Similarly, online displays of peer drinking behaviors have been described as a potential type of peer pressure that might lead to alcohol misuse when the peers to whom individuals feel attached value such behaviors. Social media messages about drinking behaviors on Twitter (a popular social media platform among young people) are common but understudied. In response, and given that drinking alcohol is a widespread activity among young people, we examined Twitter chatter about drinking. Method: Tweets containing alcohol- or drinking-related keywords were collected from March 13 to April 11, 2014. We assessed a random sample (n = 5,000) of the most influential Tweets for sentiment, theme, and source. Results: Most alcohol-related Tweets reflected a positive sentiment toward alcohol use, with pro-alcohol Tweets outnumbering anti-alcohol Tweets by a factor of more than 10. The most common themes of pro-drinking Tweets included references to frequent or heavy drinking behaviors and wanting/needing/planning to drink alcohol. The most common sources of pro-alcohol Tweets were organic (i.e., noncommercial). Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need for online prevention messages about drinking to counter the strong pro-alcohol presence on Twitter. However, to enhance the impact of anti-drinking messages on Twitter, it may be prudent for such Tweets to be sent by individuals who are widely followed on Twitter and during times when heavy drinking is more likely to occur (i.e., weekends, holidays). PMID:26098041

  19. Benefit finding as a moderator of the relationship between spirituality/religiosity and drinking

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Quist, Michelle C.; Young, Chelsie M.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Nguyen, Mai-Ly; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated benefit finding as a moderator of the relationship between spiritual and religious attitudes and drinking. Previous research indicates that undergraduates who drink heavily experience negative alcohol-related consequences. Literature also suggests that spirituality and religiosity (S/R) is protective against heavy drinking (e.g., Yonker, Schnabelrauch, & DeHaan, 2012) and that finding meaning, which is conceptually related to benefit finding, is negatively associated with alcohol use (e.g., Wells, 2010). Seven hundred undergraduate students completed study materials including measures of drinking, benefit finding, and S/R. Based on previous research, we expected that S/R and benefit finding would be negatively associated with drinking. Furthermore, we expected that benefit finding would moderate the association between S/R and drinking, such that S/R would be more negatively associated with drinking among those higher in benefit finding. Consistent with expectations, a negative association between S/R and drinking was present, and was stronger among those high in benefit finding. These findings extend previous research by demonstrating that the protective effect of S/R on drinking appears to be particularly true among those who find benefit following traumatic experiences. This study extends previous research showing that S/R is negatively associated with drinking by evaluating benefit finding (measured via the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) as a potential moderator of the relationship between S/R and drinking. This study contributes to the alcohol literature seeking to understand and identify individual factors in drinking and determine how S/R and benefit finding relate to drinking. PMID:23899427

  20. Endorsed reasons for not drinking alcohol: a comparison of college student drinkers and abstainers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiun-Hau; DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari K; Towvim, Laura G

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about how the reasons that college student drinkers and abstainers have for choosing not to drink might differ. The present study examined this issue among a sample of 2,500 U.S. college students from 18 colleges and universities. Abstainers endorsed significantly more reasons for not drinking than drinkers, and among drinkers, light drinkers endorsed more reasons than heavy drinkers. Abstainers' decision not to drink appeared to be a lifestyle choice that was supported by multiple reasons, including personal values, religious beliefs, not wanting the image of a drinker, and beliefs about alcohol's effect on behavior. Heavy drinkers were more likely to endorse situational reasons such as having to drive home later or being concerned about school work or weight gain from drinking. Implications of these findings for alcohol prevention work on college and university campuses are discussed. PMID:20559703

  1. Triple monoamine uptake inhibitors demonstrate a pharmacologic association between excessive drinking and impulsivity in high-alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice.

    PubMed

    O'Tousa, David S; Warnock, Kaitlin T; Matson, Liana M; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Linn, Michael Van; Tiruveedhula, Veera Venkata; Halcomb, Meredith E; Cook, James; Grahame, Nicholas J; June, Harry L

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 30% of current drinkers in the United States drink excessively, and are referred to as problem/hazardous drinkers. These individuals, who may not meet criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, comprise binge, heavy drinkers, or both. Given their high prevalence, interventions that reduce the risk of binge and heavy drinking have important public health implications. Impulsivity has been repeatedly associated with excessive drinking in the clinical literature. As impulsivity is correlated with, and may play a critical role in, the initiation and maintenance of excessive drinking, this behavior may be an important target for therapeutic intervention. Hence, a better understanding of pharmacological treatments capable of attenuating excessive drinking and impulsivity may markedly improve clinical outcomes. The high-alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice represent a strong rodent model to study the relationship between impulsivity and excessive alcohol drinking, as recent evidence indicates they consume high levels of alcohol throughout their active cycle and are innately impulsive. Using this model, the present study demonstrates that the triple monoamine uptake inhibitors (TUIs) amitifadine and DOV 102, 677 effectively attenuate binge drinking, heavy drinking assessed via a 24-hour free-choice assay, and impulsivity measured by the delay discounting procedure. In contrast, 3-PBC, a GABA-A α1 preferring ligand with mixed agonist-antagonist properties, attenuates excessive drinking without affecting impulsivity. These findings suggest that in HAP mice, monoamine pathways may predominate as a common mechanism underlying impulsivity and excessive drinking, while the GABAergic system may be more salient in regulating excessive drinking. We further propose that TUIs such as amitifadine and DOV 102, 677 may be used to treat the co-occurrence of impulsivity and excessive drinking. PMID:24118509

  2. Management of heavy drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A.; Wiseman, S.

    1992-01-01

    1. The amount of alcohol consumed per capita in the UK has approximately doubled since 1950. 2. One unit of alcohol is equivalent to around 8 g of pure alcohol (half a pint of beer, a single bar measure of spirits or glass of wine). 3. Consumption of above 21 units a week for men and 14 units a week for women carries an increasing risk of alcohol-related damage. Pregnant women are usually advised to abstain. 4. Newly registered patients should be asked if they have consumed any alcohol in the last three months and if so how much they consume in an average week using a quantity frequency scale. 5. In those in whom there is concern about their drinking a systematic 7-day history gives the best estimate of consumption. 6. Heavy drinking should also be considered in a wide range of clinical circumstances, including hypertension, injuries and accidents, marital disharmony and child abuse, dyspepsia, hepatic damage, memory impairment and dementia. Sudden withdrawal may cause fits which may lead to a mistaken diagnosis of epilepsy. 7. Laboratory tests pick up only 30-50% of heavy drinkers but may be useful in monitoring progress and in motivating patients to cut down. 8. It is important to decide whether a patient is dependent on alcohol as dependent drinkers are unlikely to be able to keep their consumption at modest levels. The possibility of psychological and social problems due to alcohol should also be considered. The use of drugs should be explored in dependent drinkers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1345154

  3. Computerized versus motivational interviewing alcohol interventions: impact on discrepancy, motivation, and drinking.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Skidmore, Jessica R; Martens, Matthew P; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E

    2010-12-01

    The authors conducted two randomized clinical trials with ethnically diverse samples of college student drinkers in order to determine (a) the relative efficacy of two popular computerized interventions versus a more comprehensive motivational interview approach (BASICS) and (b) the mechanisms of change associated with these interventions. In Study 1, heavy drinking participants recruited from a student health center (N = 74, 59% women, 23% African American) were randomly assigned to receive BASICS or the Alcohol 101 CD-ROM program. BASICS was associated with greater post-session motivation to change and self-ideal and normative discrepancy relative to Alcohol 101, but there were no group differences in the primary drinking outcomes at 1-month follow-up. Pre to post session increases in motivation predicted lower follow-up drinking across both conditions. In Study 2, heavy drinking freshman recruited from a core university course (N = 133, 50% women, 30% African American) were randomly assigned to BASICS, a web-based feedback program (e-CHUG), or assessment-only. BASICS was associated with greater post-session self-ideal discrepancy than e-CHUG, but there were no differences in motivation or normative discrepancy. There was a significant treatment effect on typical weekly and heavy drinking, with participants in BASICS reporting significantly lower follow-up drinking relative to assessment only participants. In Study 2, change in the motivation or discrepancy did not predict drinking outcomes. Across both studies, African American students assigned to BASICS reported medium effect size reductions in drinking whereas African American students assigned to Alcohol 101, e-CHUG, or assessment did not reduce their drinking. PMID:21198224

  4. Recent sexual victimization and drinking behavior in newly matriculated college students: a latent growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Melissa J; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-12-01

    College matriculation is a time of developmental and social change and is often a time of heavy drinking. Sexual victimization (SV) is prevalent in late adolescence and poses additional risk for problem drinking behavior. Thus, matriculating students with a SV history may be at heightened risk for maladaptive alcohol use while transitioning through the first year of college. Furthermore, victimization that has occurred close to college matriculation may confer particular risk for problem alcohol use, because the added stressor of coping with a SV while negotiating the transition into college may lead to risky drinking behavior. Therefore, examining the influence of SV timing (i.e., recency) on drinking patterns in freshman year was the aim of the present study. Matriculating undergraduates with a history of SV were assessed at six points during freshman year. Using latent growth curve modeling, we tested differences in trajectories of drinking behavior (i.e., alcohol use, binge drinking) between students who reported a recent SV and those who reported a more distal SV. Students endorsing a recent SV evidenced greater overall levels of alcohol use and higher levels of binge drinking than individuals with SV that was less recent. Moreover, the recent SV group showed significantly more variability in drinking outcomes over freshman year, with escalations mapping onto more salient periods of transition over the first college year. SV that occurs close to college entry is associated with specific and persistent risk for maladaptive drinking behavior in newly matriculated college students. PMID:23528195

  5. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throttle 8 oz. 111 Monster Energy Drink (Low Carb) 16 oz. 10 Monster Energy Drink 16 oz. 200 Red Bull Energy Drink 16 oz. 220 Red Bull Energy Drink (Red, Silver, and Blue) 16 oz. 226 Rockstar Energy Drink 16 oz. 280

  6. Problematic drinking, impulsivity, and physical IPV perpetration: A dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Leone, Ruschelle M; Crane, Cory A; Parrott, Dominic J; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use and impulsivity are 2 known risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV). The current study examined the independent and interactive effects of problematic drinking and 5 facets of impulsivity (i.e., negative urgency, positive urgency, sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance) on perpetration of physical IPV within a dyadic framework. Participants were 289 heavy drinking heterosexual couples (total N = 578) with a recent history of psychological and/or physical IPV recruited from 2 metropolitan U.S. cities. Parallel multilevel actor partner interdependence models were used and demonstrated actor problematic drinking, negative urgency, and lack of perseverance were associated with physical IPV. Findings also revealed associations between partner problematic drinking and physical IPV as well as significant Partner Problematic Drinking × Actor Impulsivity (Negative Urgency and Positive Urgency) interaction effects on physical IPV. Findings highlight the importance of examining IPV within a dyadic framework and are interpreted using the I3 metatheoretical model. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26828640

  7. Differences in College Student Typical Drinking and Celebration Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodyard, Catherine Dane; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…

  8. Minocycline reduces ethanol drinking.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R G; Hewetson, A; George, C M; Syapin, P J; Bergeson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease characterized by continued alcohol consumption despite recurring negative consequences. Thus, medications that reduce the drive to consume alcohol can be beneficial in treating alcoholism. The neurobiological systems that regulate alcohol consumption are complex and not fully understood. Currently, medications are available to treat alcoholism that act either by causing accumulation of a toxic metabolite of ethanol, or by targeting specific transmitter receptors. The purpose of our study was to investigate a new potential therapeutic pathway, neuroimmune interactions, for effects on ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that neuroimmune activity of brain glia may have a role in drinking. We utilized minocycline, a second generation tetracycline antibiotic that has immune modulatory actions, to test our hypothesis because it is known to suppress microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia, activity following many types of insults to the brain. Treatment with 50mg/kg minocycline significantly reduced ethanol intake in male and female C57Bl/6J mice using a free choice voluntary drinking model. Saline injections did not alter ethanol intake. Minocycline had little effect on water intake or body weight change. The underlying mechanism whereby minocycline reduced ethanol intake requires further study. The results suggest that drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways may represent a new approach to developing additional therapies to treat alcoholism. PMID:21397005

  9. Conditional covariation of binge drinking with predictors of college students' cheating.

    PubMed

    Bichler, Gisela; Tibbetts, Stephen G

    2003-12-01

    Recent research has identified a variety of significant predictors of academic dishonesty, but virtually no studies have examined the conditional relation of binge drinking and students' cheating. Using a survey sample of 289 college students, this study tested the mediating relations of binge drinking with the correlation of independent variables--including opportunity, strain, and self-control--on self-reported academic dishonesty. Low self-control had a stronger correlation with students' cheating behaviors for those who were heavy binge drinkers (beta = -.52) than for students who were nonbingers (beta = -.38). Differential relations were found for other key variables, namely, opportunity and strain, at varying severities of binge drinking. PMID:14723437

  10. Environmental Predictors of Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Short, Brian; Wagenaar, Alexander; Toomey, Tracie; Murray, David; Wolfson, Mark; Forster, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Examined relationships among drinking norms, peer alcohol use, alcohol availability, drinking location, alcohol consumption, and drinking-related problems among young adult drinkers (N=3,095). Results show that drinking norms and peer alcohol use influenced alcohol consumption and drinking consequences. Drinking in public contributed to alcohol…

  11. Drinking Settings, Alcohol Consumption, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Smolenski, Derek; Brady, Sonya S.; Wilkerson, Michael; Rosser, Simon

    2012-01-01

    We sought to 1) describe the settings or groups of settings where men who have sex with men (MSM) consume alcohol in 16 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSA); and 2) investigate whether certain drinking settings or groups of settings are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption, problem drinking, and sexual risk behavior. Latent class analysis was used to develop our measure of drinking settings. The final latent class model consisted of four distinct classes which captured the typical settings where MSM consumed alcohol: “home” “social,” “bar/social,” and “general” drinkers (i.e., drinks in all settings). Regression models showed that “general” drinkers were more likely than “social” drinkers to engage in frequent heavy drinking. Compared to `social' drinkers, general drinkers were also more likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAIMP) and UAIMP with men met in bars and other venues (e.g., private parties, bath houses) while intoxicated. Assessment of drinking settings may be a means of identifying MSM who are at greater risk for frequent, heavy drinking and related sexual risk behavior. PMID:23261495

  12. Lay epidemiology and the interpretation of low‐risk drinking guidelines by adults in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Eadie, Douglas; Meier, Petra S.; Li, Jessica; Bauld, Linda; Hastings, Gerard; Holmes, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims To explore how the concept of lay epidemiology can enhance understandings of how drinkers make sense of current UK drinking guidelines. Methods Qualitative study using 12 focus groups in four sites in northern England and four sites in central Scotland. Participants were 66 male and female drinkers, aged between 19 and 65 years, of different socio‐economic backgrounds. Data were analysed thematically using a conceptual framework of lay epidemiology. Results Current drinking guidelines were perceived as having little relevance to participants' drinking behaviours and were generally disregarded. Daily guidelines were seen as irrelevant by drinkers whose drinking patterns comprised heavy weekend drinking. The amounts given in the guidelines were seen as unrealistic for those motivated to drink for intoxication, and participants measured alcohol intake in numbers of drinks or containers rather than units. Participants reported moderating their drinking, but this was out of a desire to fulfil work and family responsibilities, rather than concerns for their own health. The current Australian and Canadian guidelines were preferred to UK guidelines, as they were seen to address many of the above problems. Conclusions Drinking guidelines derived from, and framed within, solely epidemiological paradigms lack relevance for adult drinkers who monitor and moderate their alcohol intake according to their own knowledge and risk perceptions derived primarily from experience. Insights from lay epidemiology into how drinkers regulate and monitor their drinking should be used in the construction of drinking guidelines to enhance their credibility and efficacy. PMID:26212155

  13. Drivers within natural drinking groups: an exploration of role selection, motivation, and group influence on driver sobriety.

    PubMed

    Lange, James E; Johnson, Mark B; Reed, Mark B

    2006-01-01

    Young people consume alcohol almost exclusively in social contexts, but natural drinking group dynamics are poorly understood. Our research focuses on the drivers' role within natural drinking groups. We conducted breath-test surveys of existing groups of young people at the US/Mexico border crossing before they headed to Tijuana bars, and surveyed them again upon their return. Results indicated an individual's perception of other group member's drinking plans predicts drinking intentions to a greater degree for passengers than drivers. Additionally, drivers who anticipated heavy drinking among other group members returned to the United States with BACs nearly identical to drivers who reported that other group members would not drink at all. This suggests drivers were resistant to normative pressures to drink. Evidence that group-dynamic variables may impact drinking behavior underscores the importance of systematic exploration of natural drinking groups. Furthermore, the knowledge gleaned from studying the dynamics and decision making processes of natural drinking groups could be used to design intervention designed to increase designated driver use and to reduce drinking among designated drivers. PMID:16595327

  14. Sex differences in sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol and social drinking during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Truxell, Eric M.; Spear, Linda P.

    2015-01-01

    In human adolescents, sociable males frequently drink to enhance positive emotional states, whereas anxious females often drink to avoid negative affective states. This study used a rat model of adolescence to provide information regarding possible sex differences in contributors to social drinking. The effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, and 0.75 g/kg) on play fighting and social preference were assessed on P30, P32, and P34 using a within-subject design. Then animals were tested in a social drinking paradigm (P37-P40), with this testing revealing high drinkers and low drinkers. Sex differences in sensitivity to ethanol emerged among high and low drinkers. High socially drinking males, but not females, when tested prior to drinking sessions, showed significant increases in play fighting at both doses. In low drinking males, play fighting was increased by 0.5 g/kg ethanol, whereas the higher dose of 0.75 g/kg produced significant decreases in play fighting. High drinking females initially showed low levels of social preference than high drinking males and low drinking females and were extremely sensitive to ethanol-induced enhancement of this social measure. Low social drinkers, both males and females, were more sensitive to the suppressing effects of ethanol on social preference following 0.75 g/kg ethanol. These findings indicate that during adolescence enhanced sensitivity to the facilitating effects of ethanol on play fighting is associated with heavy drinking among males, whereas low social preference together with high sensitivity to ethanol-induced enhancement of social preference is related to high social drinking in females. PMID:25557799

  15. Sex differences in sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol and social drinking during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric M; Spear, Linda P

    2015-04-01

    In human adolescents, sociable males frequently drink to enhance positive emotional states, whereas anxious females often drink to avoid negative affective states. This study used a rat model of adolescence to provide information regarding possible sex differences in contributors to social drinking. The effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, and 0.75g/kg) on play fighting and social preference were assessed on P30, P32, and P34 using a within-subject design. Then animals were tested in a social drinking paradigm (P37-P40), with this testing revealing high drinkers and low drinkers. Sex differences in sensitivity to ethanol emerged among high and low drinkers. High socially drinking males, but not females, when tested prior to drinking sessions, showed significant increases in play fighting at both doses. In low drinking males, play fighting was increased by 0.5g/kg ethanol, whereas the higher dose of 0.75g/kg produced significant decreases in play fighting. High drinking females initially showed low levels of social preference than high drinking males and low drinking females and were extremely sensitive to ethanol-induced enhancement of this social measure. Low social drinkers, both males and females, were more sensitive to the suppressing effects of ethanol on social preference following 0.75g/kg ethanol. These findings indicate that during adolescence enhanced sensitivity to the facilitating effects of ethanol on play fighting is associated with heavy drinking among males, whereas low social preference together with high sensitivity to ethanol-induced enhancement of social preference is related to high social drinking in females. PMID:25557799

  16. Binge Drinking and Its Relation to Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Im, Ho-Jin; Choi, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background It is reported that heavy drinking increases the risk of metabolic syndrome. But there have been few studies on the relationship between the intensity of drinking and metabolic syndrome when drinking the same amount of alcohol. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome in Korean adult men. Methods From the database of the 4th and 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2007-2010, data of 8,305 adult men (≥19 years of age) was included in this analysis. Cross-sectional relationship between the frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome was investigated adjusting for pure alcohol consumed per day. Results Adjusting for various confounders including pure alcohol consumed per day, the adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in those in higher frequency (more than 1/wk) binge drinking group was 1.62 (95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 2.03; P for trend = <0.001) compared to those in the non-binge drinking group. Through analysis of the relationship between pure alcohol consumed per day and metabolic syndrome, it was found that pure alcohol consumed per day had a positive relation to metabolic syndrome in the higher frequency binge drinking group (P for trend = 0.041). The relationship was inverse in the non-binge drinking group (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusion Our study found a positive relationship between frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome in adult men. And the effect of drinking on metabolic syndrome may depend on the frequency of binge drinking. Further studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:25120888

  17. Perceived Norms Moderate the Association Between Mental Health Symptoms and Drinking Outcomes Among At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Hunter, Sarah B.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There has been limited research examining the association between mental health symptoms, perceived peer alcohol norms, and alcohol use and consequences among samples of adolescents. The current study used a sample of 193 at-risk youths with a first-time alcohol and/or other drug offense in the California Teen Court system to explore the moderating role of perceived peer alcohol norms on the association between mental health symptoms and drinking outcomes. Method: Measures of drinking, consequences, mental health symptoms, and perceived peer alcohol norms were taken at baseline, with measures of drinking and consequences assessed again 6 months later. Regression analyses examined the association of perceived norms and mental health symptoms with concurrent and future drinking and consequences. Results: We found that higher perceived drinking peer norms were associated with heavy drinking behavior at baseline and with negative alcohol consequences both at baseline and 6 months later. Also, perceived drinking norms moderated the association between mental health symptoms and alcohol-related consequences such that better mental health was related to increased risk for alcohol-related consequences both concurrently and 6 months later among those with higher baseline perceptions of peer drinking norms. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate the value of norms-based interventions, especially among adolescents with few mental health problems who are at risk for heavy drinking. PMID:23948533

  18. Sexual assault related distress and drinking: the influence of daily reports of social support and coping control.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hassija, Christina M; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Introduction. A history of sexual assault (SA) is often associated with increased distress and heavy drinking. One's ability to cope with the distress and seek social support has been associated with drinking more generally. However, SA-related distress, drinking, and the extent to which a woman engages in adaptive coping or seeks social support is known to vary day-to-day. The goal of the present investigation was to examine the moderating influence of perceived coping control and social support on the event-level association between SA-related distress and drinking. Methods. This study included 133 college women with a history of SA who reported recent heavy drinking. Participants provided daily reports of their SA-related distress, perceived coping control, perceived social support, and alcohol consumption every day for 30days. Results. Results of generalized estimating equation models suggest that coping control moderated the association between distress and drinking such that those with less perceived coping control drank more as their SA-related distress increased from their average. Although social support did not moderate between distress and drinking, decreases in perceived social support were associated with more drinking on that day. Conclusions. The results suggest that daily deviations in SA-related distress may influence alcohol consumption more than average levels of distress, especially among women with low coping control. Interventions for women with SA histories should help them build coping skills as well as adequate social support in order to reduce drinking. PMID:25437266

  19. Lead in School Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

  20. Underage Drinking. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Underage drinking is a major problem across the country. Many communities are trying to reduce the injuries and deaths that occur as a result of this problem. Community groups have been instrumental in working at the state level to pass stricter laws curbing underage drinking and to tighten the laws that already exist. This paper provides tips and…

  1. Drinking Styles of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellott, Ramona N.; Swartz, Jody L.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to determine whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) on college campuses have a more problematic style of drinking compared with non-ACOAs. Results indicate ACOAs endorse more problematic drinking patterns. Discusses implications for counselors who undertake prevention and intervention for ACOA student population. (Author/JDM)

  2. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  3. Binge Drinking on College Campuses. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Karen

    This digest discusses binge drinking on U.S. college campuses. Male binge drinking is defined as five or more drinks in a row one or more times during a 2-week period; female binge drinking is defined as four or more drinks in a row one or more times during a two-week period. A drink is defined as twelve ounces of beer or wine cooler, four ounces…

  4. Why Heavy Drinking Seems to Boost Desire to Smoke More

    MedlinePlus

    ... to an increase in the rate of nicotine metabolism, which could be one contributing factor to the ... alcohol," said senior study author Maciej Goniewicz. Nicotine metabolism is the term used to describe how quickly ...

  5. Parent-Child Communication to Reduce Heavy Alcohol Use among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremeens, Jennifer L.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Brock-Martin, Amy; Martin, Ryan J.; Watkins, Ken

    2008-01-01

    With extreme rates of binge drinking among young adults, college students continue to be a primary focus for a range of alcohol prevention efforts. Most universities are attempting to change the alcohol environment by implementing a variety of strategies to reduce heavy drinking among college students. With the exception of parental notification…

  6. Drinking Patterns and Victimization among Male and Female Students in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández–Ávila, Carlos A.; Fernández-Varela, Héctor; Solís-Torres, Cuauhtémoc

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences, identify drinking profiles using latent profile analysis (LPA), and investigate associations between profiles and violent victimization among young people in Mexico. Methods: LPA identified profiles of drinking behavior in a survey of entering first year university students. Multinomial and logistic regression examined associations between drinking patterns, socio-demographic variables and violent victimization. Results: The LPA identified five profiles of behaviors and consequences among the 22,224 current, former and never drinkers: Non/Infrequent-No Consequences, Occasional-Few Consequences, Regular-Some Consequences, Heavy-Many Consequences and Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers. The Occasional-Few Consequences profile comprised the largest, and the Excessive-Many Consequences profile the smallest, group of drinkers. Multinomial regression showed males and older students more likely to be Heavy or Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers. Living alone was associated with higher odds, and higher maternal education with lower odds, of being a Non/Infrequent-No Consequences drinker. Heavier drinking profiles were more likely to experience violent victimization adverse consequences. Logistic regression showed male and female Heavy and Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers had the highest odds, and Non/Infrequent drinkers the lowest odds, of experiencing any victimization. Conclusion: Findings suggest changes in male and female drinking behavior and a continuation of the established pattern of infrequent but high consumption among Mexican youths. Both male and female Heavy and Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers were at elevated risk for experiencing victimization. Identifying cultural gender norms about drinking including drinker expectations and drinking context that contribute to these patterns can inform prevention efforts. PMID:25534933

  7. Sports drinks hazard to teeth.

    PubMed Central

    Milosevic, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental hazards associated with sports supplement drinks by investigating the chemicophysical properties of eight brands of sports drinks. METHODS: The pH and titratable acidity against 0.1 M NaOH was measured. Calcium, phosphate, and fluoride concentrations and viscosities of Carbolode, Gatorade, High Five, Isostar, Lucozade Sport Lemon, Lucozade Sport Orange, Maxim, and PSP22 were determined. RESULTS: The pH values of the drinks ranged from 4.46 (Maxim) to 2.38 (Isostar) and therefore were below the critical pH value (5.5) for enamel demineralisation. Both Lucozade varieties had high titratable acidities (16.30 ml 0.1M NaOH to neutrality) with Gatorade, High Five, and Isostar displaying intermediate titratable acidity, although Isostar had 74.5 ppm calcium and 63.6 ppm phosphate. The fluoride concentration of all drinks was low, and none of the drinks was particularly viscous (range 3.1-1.4 mPa.s). CONCLUSIONS: The chemicophysical analyses indicate that all the sports drinks in this study have erosive potential. However, drinks with higher pH, lower titratable acidity, and higher concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride will reduce this erosive potential. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9132205

  8. Prevalence of problem-related drinking among doctors: a review on representative samples

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Aims: This paper is a review of the literature on problem-related drinking of alcohol among medical doctors, and it deals with the epidemiology and results. Methods: A search of computer literature databases - PubMed and ETOH - was performed to locate articles reporting problem-related drinking among doctors, using population-based samples of doctors within the last two decades. Results: In the light of different definitions of problem-related drinking, there was found a breadth of prevalence of problem-related drinking - from heavy drinking and hazardous drinking (12%-16%) to misuse and dependence (6%-8%) - within the population-based samples of doctors. An increased risk was positively related to male doctors and doctors of the age of 40-45 years and older, and to some factors of work, lifestyle and health. Conclusion: For the future, it seems necessary to sensitise the research for problem-related drinking of doctors in Germany, e.g. initiating a representative survey, analysing the drinking of alcohol in the context of health, life-style and work-related factors. PMID:19675724

  9. Hazardous drinking and family functioning in National Guard veterans and spouses postdeployment.

    PubMed

    Blow, Adrian J; Gorman, Lisa; Ganoczy, Dara; Kees, Michelle; Kashy, Deborah A; Valenstein, Marcia; Marcus, Sheila M; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Chermack, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    The current study examined rates of alcohol misuse among National Guard (NG) service members and their spouses/partners, concordance of drinking behaviors among couples, and the effects of alcohol misuse, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on three measures of family functioning. This study is important because it addresses the topics of heavy drinking and family functioning in an at-risk population-NG service members returning from a combat zone deployment. We surveyed NG service members (1,143) and their partners (674) 45-90 days after returning from a military deployment. Service member rates of hazardous drinking were 29.2% and spouses/partners 10.7%. Of the 661 linked couples, 26.2% were discrepant where only one member met the criteria for hazardous drinking and 5.4% were congruent for alcohol misuse where both members met hazardous drinking criteria. Service members belonging to either congruent or discrepant drinking groups were more distressed in their marriages/relationships than those in the nonhazardous group. In dyadic analyses, an unexpected partner effect was found for parenting outcomes; that is, when service members drink more, their spouses/partners are less stressed when it comes to parenting. Importantly, both service member and spouse/partner depression was significantly associated with negative family outcomes. Results from this study suggest that when working with these families, it is important to understand the drinking status of both soldier and spouse and to treat depression in addition to alcohol misuse. PMID:23544925

  10. Empirically based guidelines for moderate drinking: 1-year results from three studies with problem drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Craig, M; Wilkinson, D A; Davila, R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The study was conducted to refine guidelines on moderate drinking for problem drinkers, persons whose alcohol use is hazardous or harmful. Information on levels of alcohol intake unlikely to cause problems is useful for health professionals, educators, and policymakers. METHODS. Based on their reports of alcohol-related problems, participants in three studies assessing interventions to reduce heavy drinking (114 men, 91 women) were categorized as "problem-free" or "problem" drinkers at follow-up. Drinking measures were examined to identify patterns separating these outcome categories. RESULTS. Analyses using 95% confidence intervals for means on drinking measures showed that guidelines should be sex-specific. Based on analyses of positive and negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity, it is recommended that men consume no more than 4 standard drinks in any day and 16 drinks in any week, and that women consume no more than 3 drinks in any day and 12 drinks in any week. CONCLUSIONS. These guidelines are consistent with those from several official bodies and should be useful for advising problem drinkers when moderation is a valid treatment goal. Their applicability to the general population is unevaluated. PMID:7762717

  11. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22730801

  12. Are endocrine disrupting compounds a health risk in drinking water?

    PubMed

    Falconer, Ian R

    2006-06-01

    . In some places at which heavy anthropogenic contamination of drinking water sources occurs, advanced drinking water treatment is increasingly being implemented. This treatment employs particle removal, ozone oxidation of organic material and activated charcoal adsorption of the oxidation products. Such processes will remove industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, detergents, pharmaceutical products and hormones. Populations for which only basic wastewater and drinking water treatment are available remain vulnerable. PMID:16823090

  13. High-Risk Drinking in College: What We Know and What We Need To Learn. Final Report of the Panel on Contexts and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Alcohol on college campuses is not a new problem, but recent concerns have centered on heavy episodic drinking, binge drinking. To address these concerns, the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established two panels of nongovernmental experts to help develop a national research agenda. This report represents the work of one…

  14. How To Reduce High-Risk College Drinking: Use Proven Strategies, Fill Research Gaps. Final Report of the Panel on Prevention and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Alcohol on college campuses is not a new problem, but recent concerns have centered on heavy episodic drinking, binge drinking. To address these concerns, the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established two panels of nongovernment experts to help develop a national research agenda. This report represents the work of the…

  15. When you are drinking too much - tips for cutting back

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol - drinking too much; Alcohol use disorder - drinking too much; Alcohol abuse - drinking too much; Risky drinking - cutting back ... This can help you cut back on your alcohol use. Keep track of how much you drink ...

  16. Event-level associations between objective and subjective alcohol intoxication and driving after drinking across the college years.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim

    2012-09-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is strongly associated with driving after drinking, yet there has been mixed evidence regarding whether the disinhibiting effects of alcohol intoxication contribute to the decision to drive after drinking. This investigation tested whether greater alcohol intoxication increased the probability of driving after drinking particularly during drinking episodes in which students experienced reduced subjective feelings of intoxication. A sample of 1,350 college students completed up to 30 days of web-based daily diary monitoring in each of 4 consecutive years. Participants reported daily on their alcohol consumption, subjective intoxication, and whether they drove after drinking on the previous day or night. In generalized estimating equation models, daily estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) was more strongly associated with driving after drinking during episodes in which subjective intoxication was lower. That is, students were most likely to drive after drinking when they were objectively more intoxicated but perceived themselves as less intoxicated. These event-level associations did not change over time nor did they differ as a function of gender. Further, the effects persisted when predicting driving at eBACs above the legal limit for operating a motor vehicle. Greater subjective intoxication may serve to inhibit driving after drinking, particularly when students are objectively more intoxicated. In the absence of subjective intoxication, however, other salient pressures might impel driving after drinking. Prevention efforts should incorporate the importance of variability in subjective intoxication. PMID:21688876

  17. Criticism of drinking as informal social control: a study in 18 countries

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Jan; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Derickx, Mieke; Selin, Klara Hradilova; Holmila, Marja

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on informal control of drinking, indicated by criticism of people in the social network on someone's alcohol consumption. It studies country and gender differences in the extent drinkers suffering from typical symptoms of heavy or prolonged alcohol use report informal control from others (reactive informal control), and country and gender differences in the extent comments on someone's drinking are (also) directed at those who do not suffer from these symptoms (pro-active informal control). The data come from eighteen general population surveys, selected from an integrated dataset on drinking and drinking-related factors including more than 35 countries. The criteria for inclusion were that data for both men and women were available and that at least 3 items about symptoms of severe physiological consequences and about criticism of drinking had valid responses. The results show that men suffering from typical symptoms of heavy or prolonged alcohol use are more likely to be criticized than equivalent women (reactive control). Irrespective of gender, reactive informal control is more prevalent in poorer countries and in countries with a high proportion of abstainers. Concerning pro-active control, among women a larger part of criticism appeared to be directed at those who (as yet) do not suffer from symptoms typical for heavy or prolonged alcohol use. There is a lot of variation between countries in pro-active informal control. This variation is only weakly related to prosperity of a country but not to its proportion of abstainers. PMID:21691455

  18. "Binge" Drinking: Not the Word of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhart, Fern Walter; Lederman, Linda C.; Stewart, Lea P.; Laitman, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Educators and researchers strive to use terms that reflect a replicable measure of behavior. A term commonly used to describe drinking of a problematic nature is "binge drinking". Binge drinking defines behavior by a number of drinks of an alcoholic beverage consumed in a space of time. The authors argue that the term does not describe drinking…

  19. Maori Identification, Drinking Motivation and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…

  20. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER MORTALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of understanding the possible adverse health effects of organic chemical contaminants in drinking water is not new, but national concern has intensified in recent years. Despite this concern and regulatory efforts, no definitive relationship has been established betwe...

  1. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... is not only an adult problem. Most American high school seniors have had an alcoholic drink within the ... Local hospitals Public or private mental health agencies School or work counselors Student or employee health centers

  2. Fraternity membership and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2007-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship that social fraternity and sorority membership has with binge drinking incidence and frequency among 18-24 year old full-time 4-year college students who participated in the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. To net out unobserved heterogeneity, several measures of situational and total alcohol use are entered into the regressions as explanatory variables. Fraternity membership coefficients are substantially reduced in size, but remain large and highly significant, suggesting a causal effect on binge drinking. Otherwise, the estimates identify idiosyncratic selection into fraternities and binge drinking across students with similar overall drinking profiles. Particularly notable is that behavior by underage students appears to drive the relationship. PMID:17320225

  3. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  4. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. Results: At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25543129

  5. Real-time assessment of alcohol drinking and drug use in opioid-dependent polydrug users.

    PubMed

    Preston, Kenzie L; Jobes, Michelle L; Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H

    2016-10-01

    We investigated relationships between drinking, other drug use, and drug craving, using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in a sample of polydrug users who were not heavy drinkers. In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, 114 heroin and cocaine users on methadone-maintenance treatment carried handheld electronic diaries during waking hours and were screened for drug and alcohol use for up to 25 weeks. Individuals who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence were excluded. Participants responded to 2-5 random prompts per day to report on their moods, cravings, and activities and initiated entries when they used or acutely craved heroin or cocaine. Drinking alcohol was assessed in both types of entries. Breath alcohol was measured three times weekly. Participants reported drinking alcohol in 1.6% of random-prompt entries, 3.7% of event-contingent entries when craving cocaine and/or heroin, and 11.6% of event-contingent entries when using cocaine and/or heroin. Alcohol drinking was also associated with higher craving ratings and prestudy alcohol use. More drinking was detected by ambulatory self-report than by in-clinic breath testing. Even though we had screened out heavy drinkers from our sample of polydrug users, drinking was associated with heroin and cocaine craving and actual use. PMID:27579810

  6. New Perspectives in Monitoring Drinking Water Microbial Quality

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Ma José; Borrego, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs), in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of dinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated. PMID:21318002

  7. Encouraging responsible drinking among underage drinkers.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Laura A; Pilling, Valerie K

    2005-01-01

    Public Service Announcements tailored to specific college drinking rituals (Treise, Wolburg and Otnes 1999) were tested on 133 underage undergraduate drinkers. More significant reductions in drinking intentions were found when using appeals focusing on drinking rituals pertaining to Maturity/Order (older students drink moderately: "Don't drink like a freshman.") than to Transformation (desired personality and mood changes), Community (social bonding and camaraderie), or a no-message Control. Gender did not moderate this effect. Underage drinkers may drink, in part, to feel more "grown up." Emphasizing that more senior students actually drink responsibly may diminish this belief and result in reduced alcohol consumption among underage students. PMID:17182459

  8. Personality, Alcohol Use, and Drinking Motives: A Comparison of Independent and Combined Internal Drinking Motives Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Abby L.; Flett, Gordon L.

    2009-01-01

    It is well-established that coping and enhancement drinking motives predict college student drinking and that personality traits predict drinking motives. Little is known, however, about personality and drinking patterns among individuals who drink for both enhancement and coping reasons. University students in the current study completed…

  9. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  10. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    PubMed

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body. PMID:26475300

  11. The risks of drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    1984-04-01

    Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

  12. The equal right to drink.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls. PMID:25303360

  13. An Event-Level Analysis of Drinking Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Anne Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control and Prevention indicates that alcohol use is the third leading preventable cause of death in the United States and results in approximately 79,000 deaths annually. College students are at particular risk of alcohol-related consequences due to their heavy drinking tendencies, with multiple studies indicating over 40%…

  14. EVIDENCE FOR THE ROLE OF COPPER IN THE INJURY PROCESS OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low levels of copper in chlorine-free distribution water caused injury of coliform populations. Monitoring of 44 drinking water samples indicated that 64% of the coliform population was injured. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, including three heavy metals (Cu, Cd,...

  15. A Review of Exercise as Intervention for Sedentary Hazardous Drinking College Students: Rationale and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Jeremiah

    2010-01-01

    College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity--exercise--as an intervention for…

  16. The Effect of Types of Postsecondary Education on Drinking: Does Age of Enrollment Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kara; Stockwell, Tim; Leadbeater, Bonnie; Homel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from early adolescence through young adulthood, this study examined the association between different types of postsecondary education (PSE), age of enrollment in PSE, and the trajectory of alcohol use for Canadian young adults (N = 521). Trajectories of alcohol use were compared across young adults at 2-year colleges, 4-year universities, transfer programs (started at a 2-year college and transferred to a 4-year university), and terminal high school graduates. While initial findings revealed significant differences in the drinking trajectories of 2-year college students and 4-year university students, all differences were accounted for by variability in the age of enrollment. Overall, there were few differences in heavy drinking across types of institutions, but younger students increased their alcohol use more than older students following enrollment. However, young adults who do not attend PSE may be at greatest risk for heavy drinking over time. PMID:27308184

  17. Does comparing alcohol use along a single dimension obscure within-group differences? Investigating men's hazardous drinking by sexual orientation and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Paul A.; Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Conron, Kerith J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Some studies have found that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher odds of alcohol abuse and dependence than heterosexual men, but others have found no differences. We investigated whether the association between sexual orientation and hazardous drinking varied by race/ethnicity. Methods We estimated the odds of past-year heavy daily, heavy weekly, and binge drinking by sexual orientation and race/ethnicity among non-Latino White, non-Latino Black, and Latino (any race) men (n=9,689) who reported current alcohol use in the 2004-2005 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Interaction terms were included in multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate possible effect modification. Results In most comparisons, sexual minority men reported equivalent or lower levels of hazardous drinking than heterosexual peers. There was no association between sexual orientation and heavy daily drinking. Sexual minority Black men had lower odds of heavy weekly drinking and binge drinking than both heterosexual White men and heterosexual Black men. Among Latinos, the odds of heavy weekly drinking were higher for sexual minority men than heterosexuals; there was no difference by sexual orientation for binge drinking among Latinos. Conclusions With one exception, sexual minority men were at equivalent or lower risk of hazardous drinking than heterosexual men. The Black-White advantage observed in other alcohol studies was observed in our study and was heightened among sexual minority men, suggesting the presence of protective factors that curb hazardous drinking. Additional research is necessary to identify the mechanisms responsible for these patterns. PMID:25835229

  18. Childhood ADHD Potentiates the Association between Problematic Drinking and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Excessive alcohol consumption increases risk of perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with problematic drinking and IPV, but it is unclear whether problem drinkers with ADHD are more likely than those without ADHD to perpetrate IPV. Method We compared the strength of association between problem drinking trajectories and IPV perpetration among 19 to 24 year-old men with (n=241) and without (n=180) childhood ADHD. Results Men with ADHD who reported higher heavy episodic drinking or alcohol use problems at age 19, and slower decreases in alcohol use problems from age 19 to 24, were more likely to perpetrate IPV than problem drinkers without ADHD, among whom the same associations were non-significant. Associations between problem drinking and IPV were not attenuated in adults with ADHD upon controlling for antisocial personality disorder. Conclusion Study findings highlight the heightened risk of problem drinkers with ADHD perpetrating IPV. PMID:25394520

  19. Problem Drinking among transnational mexican migrants: Exploring migrant Status and Situational Factors.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Victor

    2008-01-01

    We present research finding son problem drinking among transnational Mexican migrants employed in the mushroom industry of southeastern Pennsylvania. Our research explored the relationship between situational factors-living arrangements, social isolation, and peer pressure to drink-and problem drinking. Individual characteristics of the migrants, such as age, education level, migration history, and work experience in the mushroom industry are also considered. The premise of our study is that the migrants' judicial status in the country-as foreign solo men and, at times, undocumented or illegal migrants-places them at a high risk to binge drink. The men mainly live without their families in relatively isolated, grower-provided housing or overcrowded apartment units for months, if not years, away from traditional community and kin deterrents to heavy drinking. We employed the ethnographic method in two complementary field studies: a community ethnography, designed to identify the community context of problem drinking, and a series of case studies of migrant drinkers, designed to identify the relationships between situational factors and problem drinking. Focus groups were used to explore and verify the findings being generated in the two studies. Our findings reveal that there is an alcohol abuse problem among the migrants as a consequence of situational and other factors, such as festive occasions, bad news from home, and a long workweek. Their binge drinking does not always result in negative behavior because the migrants follow drinking norms, and violators of these norms are dealt with accordingly. Nonetheless, binge drinking does place them at a high risk for negative behavior, which results in problems in their housing units and in local communities. PMID:21990944

  20. Naltrexone and Combined Behavioral Intervention Effects on Trajectories of Drinking in the COMBINE study

    PubMed Central

    Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Donovan, Dennis; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Couper, David; Krystal, John H.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective COMBINE is the largest study of pharmacotherapy for alcoholism in the United States to date, designed to answer questions about the benefits of combining behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Trajectory-based analyses of daily drinking data allowed identification of distinct drinking trajectories in smaller studies and demonstrated significant naltrexone effects even when primary analyses on summary drinking measures were unsuccessful. The objective of this study was to replicate and refine trajectory estimation and to assess effects of naltrexone, acamprosate and therapy on the probabilities of following particular trajectories in COMBINE. It was hypothesized that different treatments may affect different trajectories of drinking. Methods We conducted exploratory analyses of daily indicators of any drinking and heavy drinking using a trajectory-based approach and assessed trajectory membership probabilities and odds ratios for treatment effects. Results We replicated the trajectories (“abstainer”, “sporadic drinker”, “consistent drinker”) established previously in smaller studies. However, greater numbers of trajectories better described the heterogeneity of drinking over time. Naltrexone reduced the chance to follow a “nearly daily” trajectory and Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI) reduced the chance to be in an “increasing to nearly daily” trajectory of any drinking. The combination of naltrexone and CBI increased the probability of membership in a trajectory in which the frequency of any drinking declined over time. Trajectory membership was associated with different patterns of treatment compliance. Conclusion The trajectory-analyses identified specific patterns of drinking that were differentially influenced by each treatment and provided support for hypotheses about the mechanisms by which these treatments work. PMID:19969427

  1. MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION PRODUCING FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS (FASD): QUANTITY, FREQUENCY, AND TIMING OF DRINKING

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K.; Adnams, Colleen M.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Methods Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Results Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p<.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. Conclusions There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. PMID:23932841

  2. Stabilization of heavy metals in sludge ceramsite.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Zou, J L; Li, G B

    2010-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the stabilization behaviours of heavy metals in ceramsite made from wastewater treatment sludge (WWTS) and drinking-water treatment sludge (DWTS). Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of sintering temperature, (Fe(2)O(3) + CaO + MgO)/(SiO(2) + Al(2)O(3)) (defined as F/SA ratios), pH, and oxidative condition. Results show that sintering exhibits good binding capacity for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb in ceramsite and leaching contents of heavy metals will not change above 1000 degrees C. The main crystalline phases in ceramsite sintered at 1000 degrees C are kyanite, quartz, Na-Ca feldspars, sillimanite, and enstatite. The main compounds of heavy metals are crocoite, chrome oxide, cadmium silicate, and copper oxide. Leaching contents of Cd, Cu, and Pb increase as the F/SA ratios increase. Heavy metals in ceramsite with variation of F/SA ratios are also in same steady forms, which prove that stronger chemical bonds are formed between these heavy metals and the components. Leaching contents of heavy metals decrease as pH increases and increase as H(2)O(2) concentration increases. The results indicate that when subjected to rigorous leaching conditions, the crystalline structures still exhibit good chemical binding capacity for heavy metals. In conclusion, it is environmentally safe to use ceramsite in civil and construction fields. PMID:20219229

  3. Early adolescent cognitions as predictors of heavy alcohol use in high school.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Judy A; Hampson, Sarah; Peterson, Missy

    2011-05-01

    The present study predicts heavy alcohol use across the high school years (aged 14 through 18) from cognitions regarding the use of alcohol assessed in middle school. Using Latent Growth Modeling, we examined a structural model using data from 1011 participants in the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project. In this model, social images and descriptive norms regarding alcohol use in grade 7 were related to willingness and intention to drink alcohol in grade 8 and these variables were subsequently related to the intercept and slope of extent of heavy drinking across the high school years (grades 9 through 12). Across the sample, both descriptive norms and social images influenced the intercept of heavy drinking (in the 9th grade) through willingness to drink alcohol. Multiple sample analyses showed that social images also were directly related to the intercept of heavy drinking, for girls only. Results suggest that cognitions regarding alcohol use in middle school predict subsequent heavy drinking in high school. These findings emphasize the need for prevention programs targeting changing students' social images and encouraging a more accurate perception of peers' use when students are in middle school. PMID:21195554

  4. Utility of the Athlete Drinking Scale for assessing drinking motives among high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Herring, Tracy E; Zamboanga, Byron L; Olthuis, Janine V; Pesigan, Ivan Jacob Agaloos; Martin, Jessica L; McAfee, Nicholas W; Martens, Matthew P

    2016-09-01

    Research suggests that high school athletes are at greater risk for heavy alcohol use and alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Drinking motives unique to the athletic experience may contribute to elevated use. The Athlete Drinking Scale (ADS) was designed to assess sport-related motives for alcohol use, but has not yet been validated among high school athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ADS among a sample of high school athletes. Participants were 216 high school student-athlete drinkers who completed anonymous self-report surveys. A confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a revised three-factor solution with a satisfactory overall model fit. Path analyses indicated that the Positive Reinforcement motives subscale was the only ADS subscale that was significantly associated with alcohol use and alcohol-related problems when controlling for the effects of the other factors (i.e., age and gender) in this population. The ADS may be a valuable assessment tool for researchers and clinicians involved in alcohol prevention efforts for high school athletes. PMID:27082264

  5. Reduction of Alcohol Drinking in Young Adults by Naltrexone: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; DeMartini, Kelly S.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Ikomi, Jolomi; Romano, Denise M.; Wu, Ran; Toll, Benjamin A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, may facilitate reduction in drinking among young adults. We compared the efficacy and safety of naltrexone administered daily plus targeted dosing with placebo to reduce drinking in heavy drinking young adults. Methods Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, outpatient research center, March 2008-January 2012. Participants were ages 18-25, reporting ≥ 4 heavy drinking days in the prior 4 weeks. Interventions included naltrexone 25 mg daily plus 25 mg targeted (at most daily) in anticipation of drinking (n = 61) or daily/targeted placebo (n = 67). All received a personalized feedback session and brief counseling every other week. Primary outcomes were percent days heavy drinking (PHDD) and percent days abstinent (PDA) over the 8-week treatment period. Secondary outcomes included drinks/drinking day and percent days with estimated blood alcohol levels ≥0.08 g/dL. Results Of 140 randomized, 128 began treatment, comprising the evaluable sample. During treatment, PHDD (Naltrexone M=21.60, SD=16.05; Placebo M=22.90, SD=13.20) (p=0.58) and PDA (Naltrexone M=56.60, SD=22.52; Placebo M=62.50, SD=15.75) (p=0.39) did not differ by group. Naltrexone significantly reduced drinks per drinking day (Naltrexone M=4.90, SD=2.28; Placebo M=5.90, SD=2.51) (p=0.009) and percentage of drinking days with estimated BAC ≥0.08 g/dL (Naltrexone M=35.36, SD=28.40; Placebo M=45.74, SD=26.80) (p=0.042). There were no serious adverse events. Sleepiness was more common with naltrexone. Conclusions Naltrexone did not reduce frequency of drinking or heavy drinking days, but reduced secondary measures of drinking intensity. While effects were modest, the risk-benefit ratio favors offering naltrexone to help young adult heavy drinkers reduce their drinking. Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00568958 PMID:25742208

  6. Identifying Factors that Increase the Likelihood of Driving After Drinking among College Students

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Mirza, Tehniat; Lac, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Driving after drinking (DAD) is a serious public health concern found to be more common among college students than those of other age groups or same-aged non-college peers. The current study examined potential predictors of DAD among a dual-site sample of 3,753 (65% female, 58% Caucasian) college students. Results showed that 19.1% of respondents had driven after 3 or more drinks and 8.6% had driven after 5 or more drinks in the past three months. A logistic regression model showed that male status, fraternity or sorority affiliation, family history of alcohol abuse, medium or heavy drinking (as compared to light drinking), more approving self-attitudes towards DAD, and alcohol expectancies for sexual enhancement and risk/aggression, were independently associated with driving after drinking over and above covariates. These results extend the current understanding of this high risk drinking behavior in collegiate populations and provide implications for preventive strategies. Findings indicate that in addition to targeting at-risk subgroups, valuable directions for DAD-related interventions may include focusing on lowering both self-approval of DAD and alcohol-related expectancies, particularly those associated with risk/aggression and sexuality. PMID:21545868

  7. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. PMID:25307601

  8. Do college drinkers learn from their mistakes? Effects of recent alcohol-related consequences on planned protective drinking strategies among college freshmen.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Norma; Walters, Scott T; Wyatt, Todd M; DeJong, William

    2013-12-01

    This study examined whether recent alcohol-related consequences affect intentions to use protective drinking strategies. Responses were collected from incoming college freshmen (N = 84,367) at 279 U.S. colleges and universities. Plans to limit future drinking were significantly lower among students who were male, younger, White, or were in or intending to join a fraternity or sorority. For heavy drinkers, having recently experienced a higher level of external harms predicted increased plans to limit drinking. For all drinkers, a lower level of recent impaired driving predicted increased plans to limit drinking. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23750616

  9. Different Choices of Drinking Water Source and Different Health Risks in a Rural Population Living Near a Lead/Zinc Mine in Chenzhou City, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; He, Liping; Li, Jun; Yang, Fei; Tan, Hongzhuan

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the households' choices of drinking water sources, and evaluate the risk of human exposure to heavy metals via different drinking water sources in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province, Southern China. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey of 192 householders in MaTian and ZhuDui village was conducted. The concentrations of heavy metals in their drinking water sources were analyzed. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was performed according to the method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In total, 52.60% of the households used hand-pressed well water, and 34.89% used barreled water for drinking. In total, 6.67% of the water samples exceeded the Chinese drinking water standards. The total health risk of five metals is 5.20 × 10(-9)~3.62 × 10(-5). The total health risk of five metals was at acceptable levels for drinking water sources. However, the total risk of using hand-pressed well water's highest value is 6961 times higher than the risk of using tap water. Household income level was significantly associated with drinking water choices. Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are priority controlled pollutants in this region. Using safe drinking water (tap water, barreled water and so on) can remarkably reduce the risk of ingesting heavy metals. PMID:26569281

  10. Different Choices of Drinking Water Source and Different Health Risks in a Rural Population Living Near a Lead/Zinc Mine in Chenzhou City, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao; He, Liping; Li, Jun; Yang, Fei; Tan, Hongzhuan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the households’ choices of drinking water sources, and evaluate the risk of human exposure to heavy metals via different drinking water sources in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province, Southern China. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey of 192 householders in MaTian and ZhuDui village was conducted. The concentrations of heavy metals in their drinking water sources were analyzed. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was performed according to the method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In total, 52.60% of the households used hand-pressed well water, and 34.89% used barreled water for drinking. In total, 6.67% of the water samples exceeded the Chinese drinking water standards. The total health risk of five metals is 5.20 × 10−9~3.62 × 10−5. The total health risk of five metals was at acceptable levels for drinking water sources. However, the total risk of using hand-pressed well water’s highest value is 6961 times higher than the risk of using tap water. Household income level was significantly associated with drinking water choices. Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are priority controlled pollutants in this region. Using safe drinking water (tap water, barreled water and so on) can remarkably reduce the risk of ingesting heavy metals. PMID:26569281

  11. Marital Histories and Heavy Alcohol Use among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Umberson, Debra

    2016-03-01

    We develop a gendered marital biography approach-which emphasizes the accumulating gendered experiences of singlehood, marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage-to examine the relationship between marital statuses and transitions and heavy alcohol use. We test this approach using individual-level (n = 10,457) and couple-level (n = 2,170) longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, and individual-level (n = 46) and couple-level (n = 42) in-depth interview data. Quantitative results show that marriage, including remarriage, reduces men's but increases women's drinking relative to being never married and previously married, whereas divorce increases men's but decrease women's drinking, with some variation by age. Our qualitative findings reveal that social control and convergence processes underlie quantitative results. We call attention to how men's and women's heavy drinking trajectories stop, start, and change direction as individuals move through their distinctive marital biography. PMID:26957135

  12. Mental Health Service Utilization and Drinking Outcomes in a National Population Sample: Are There Racial/ Ethnic Differences?

    PubMed Central

    Minich, Lisa M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been well-documented. Less information is available about possible disparities in outcomes related to mental health services utilization. The differential effect of mental health services use by race on drinking outcomes was examined. Wave 2 of a national population sample of employed adults who reported having at least one alcoholic drink in the past year (n=1058) encompassed measures of the prevalence of mental health services use in response to stress, and alcohol-related outcomes. Nonwhite participants who reported using any mental health services, 4 or more mental health visits in the past year, and 8 or more mental health visits in the past year reported lower rates of problematic drinking behaviors, including frequency of drinking to intoxication, heavy episodic drinking, and modified Brief MAST scores, than whites who reported similar use of mental health services. PMID:20155599

  13. Are All Alcohol and Energy Drink Users the Same? Examining Individual Variation in Relation to Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drink Use, Risky Drinking and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Marzell, Miesha; Scaglione, Nichole; Hultgren, Brittney; Turrisi, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) have been identified as higher-risk drinkers, as they are more prone to drink increased amounts of alcohol and experience more consequences compared to non-AmED users. The present study examined differential AmED use and alcohol consumption simultaneously as multi-dimensional risk behaviors among AmED users. Students who identified as drinkers and current AmED users (n = 195) completed a web-based survey related to their AmED consumption and typical drinking patterns. Latent profile analysis was used to classify participants into distinct AmED user profiles. Profiles were then compared on AmEd-based cognitive factors (e.g., expectancies, norms) and alcohol-related consequences. Four AmED user profiles emerged: Moderate drinker, low proportion AmEd users (ML); Heavy drinker, low proportion AmED users (HL); Moderate drinker, high proportion AmED users (MH); and Heavy drinker, high proportion AmED users (HH). Membership in higher-proportion AmED groups was associated with more positive AmED expectancies and perceived norms. No significant differences were observed in the amount of consequences endorsed by HL and HHs, however MHs experienced significantly more alcohol-related physical consequences than MLs. This suggests increased use of AmEDs is associated with increased risk of experiencing alcohol related consequences for moderate drinkers. Screening students for AmED use could be used as a novel, inexpensive tool to identify high-risk drinkers for targeted interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. PMID:23528198

  14. Heavy loads

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, D.

    1982-01-01

    The extreme pressures on the roof and walls of an earth-sheltered residential home are discussed and the need for careful planning is stressed. Pertinent terms are defined. Footings and wall structure (reinforced concrete walls and concrete block walls) are described. Roofing systems are discussed in detail and illustrated: (1) poured-in-place concrete roof slabs; (2) pre-cast concrete planks; and (3) heavy timber roofs. Insulation of earth-sheltered homes is reviewed in terms of using: (1) urethanes; (2) extruded polystyrene; and (3) expanded polystyrene. Advantages, disadvantages, R-factors, costs, and installation are discussed. (MJJ)

  15. Drinking patterns of adolescents who develop alcohol use disorders: results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Craig A; Romaniuk, Helena; Salinger, Jodi; Staiger, Petra K; Bonomo, Yvonne; Hulbert, Carol; Patton, George C

    2016-01-01

    Objective We identify drinking styles that place teens at greatest risk of later alcohol use disorders (AUD). Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants A representative sample of 1943 adolescents living in Victoria in 1992. Outcome measures Teen drinking was assessed at 6 monthly intervals (5 waves) between mean ages 14.9 and 17.4 years and summarised across waves as none, one, or two or more waves of: (1) frequent drinking (3+ days in the past week), (2) loss of control over drinking (difficulty stopping, amnesia), (3) binge drinking (5+ standard drinks in a day) and (4) heavy binge drinking (20+ and 11+ standard drinks in a day for males and females, respectively). Young Adult Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) was assessed at 3 yearly intervals (3 waves) across the 20s (mean ages 20.7 through 29.1 years). Results We show that patterns of teen drinking characterised by loss of control increase risk for AUD across young adulthood: loss of control over drinking (one wave OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8; two or more waves OR 1.9, CI 1.4 to 2.7); binge drinking (one wave OR 1.7, CI 1.3 to 2.3; two or more waves OR 2.0, CI 1.5 to 2.6), and heavy binge drinking (one wave OR 2.0, CI 1.4 to 2.8; two or more waves OR 2.3, CI 1.6 to 3.4). This is not so for frequent drinking, which was unrelated to later AUD. Although drinking was more common in males, there was no evidence of sex differences in risk relationships. Conclusions Our results extend previous work by showing that patterns of drinking that represent loss of control over alcohol consumption (however expressed) are important targets for intervention. In addition to current policies that may reduce overall consumption, emphasising prevention of more extreme teenage bouts of alcohol consumption appears warranted. PMID:26868948

  16. An Exploration of the Four-Factor Structure of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised Among Undergraduate Students in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Windle, Michael; Thompson, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Background College drinking has become a significant health issue in China; the current study addressed the gap that no prior research has investigated drinking motives among Chinese undergraduate students. Objectives This study aimed to replicate the four-factor structure of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R) reported for Western populations. Additionally, the relationships between drinking motives and alcohol use were investigated. Methods In 2012, 436 participants (mean age = 20.49 and SD = 1.49; 50% male) recruited from a college in China completed a self-administered survey in their classroom setting. Drinking motives were measured by the Chinese version of the DMQ-R; three indicators of alcohol use were assessed. Factor analysis was conducted to examine the factor structure of the DMQ-R, followed by regression analysis to investigate the associations between drinking motives and alcohol-related outcomes. Results Confirmatory factor analysis failed to replicate the measurement model tested, but exploratory factor analysis identified a similar four-dimensional factor structure. Reliability and convergent and discriminant validity of the four factors were acceptable. The results also showed that social motives were related to alcohol use and heavy drinking; conformity motives were related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Enhancement motives were the strongest correlates of alcohol use; coping motives were the strongest correlates of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions/Importance The DMQ-R was a reliable and valid scale measuring four types of drinking motives among Chinese college students. Findings suggested that the motivational model of alcohol use may apply to studying college drinking in China. PMID:26576670

  17. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy. PMID:22784412

  18. State Patty’s Day: College Student Drinking and Local Crime Increased on a Student-constructed Holiday

    PubMed Central

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Patrick, Megan E.; Morgan, Nicole R.; Bezemer, Denille H.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2012-01-01

    College student alcohol consumption is a major concern, and is known to increase during the celebration of special events. This study examined a student-constructed holiday, State Patty’s Day, at a university with a dominant drinking culture using three sources of data – coded data from Facebook groups, daily web surveys from first-year students (N= 227, 51% male, age 18 to 20; 27.3% Hispanic/Latino; of non-Hispanic/Latino, 26.9% of sample European American/White, 19.4% Asian American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 15.9% African American/Black, 10.6% more than one race), and criminal offense data from police records. Results indicated that messages about State Patty’s Day on Facebook focused on drinking and social aspects of the holiday, such as the social context of drinking, a sense of belonging to a larger community, and the social norms of drinking. These messages were rarely about consequences and rarely negative. On State Patty’s Day, 51% of students consumed alcohol, compared to 29% across other sampled weekend days. Students consumed more drinks (M = 8.2 [SD = 5.3] drinks per State Patty’s Day drinker) and were more likely to engage in heavy drinking on State Patty’s Day, after controlling for gender, drinking motives, and weekend, demonstrating the event-specific spike in heavy drinking associated with this holiday. The impact of this student-constructed holiday went beyond individual drinking behavior; alcohol-specific and other crime also peaked on State Patty’s Day and the day after. Event-specific prevention strategies may be particularly important in addressing these spontaneous, quickly-constructed, and dynamic events. PMID:22685369

  19. Laboratory alcohol self-administration experiments do not increase subsequent real-life drinking in young adult social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Christian; Seipt, Christian; Spreer, Maik; Blümke, Toni; Markovic, Alexandra; Jünger, Elisabeth; Plawecki, Martin H.; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Background While the utility of experimental free-access alcohol self-administration paradigms is well-established, little data exist addressing the question of whether study participation influences subsequent natural alcohol consumption. We here present drinking reports of young adults before and after participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration studies. Methods Timeline Follow-back (TLFB) drinking reports for the 6 weeks immediately preceding the first, and the 6 weeks after the last experimental alcohol challenge were examined from subjects completing one of two similar alcohol self-administration paradigms. In study 1, eighteen social drinkers (9 females, mean age 24.1 years) participated in 3 alcohol self-infusion sessions up to a maximum blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 160 mg%. Study 2 involved 60 participants (30 females, mean age 18.3 years) of the Dresden Longitudinal Study on Alcohol Use in Young Adults (D-LAYA), who participated in 2 sessions of alcohol self-infusion up to a maximum BAC of 120 mg%, and a non-exposed age- matched control group of 42 (28 females, mean age 18.4 years) subjects. Results In study 1, participants reported (3.7%) fewer heavy drinking days as well as a decrease of 2.5 drinks per drinking day after study participation compared to pre-study levels (p<.05 respectively).. In study 2, alcohol-exposed participants reported 7.1% and non- alcohol-exposed controls 6.5% fewer drinking days at post-study measurement (p<.001), while percent heavy drinking days and drinks per drinking day did not differ. Conclusion These data suggest that participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration experiments does not increase subsequent real-life drinking of young adults. PMID:25903217

  20. Hazardously Drinking Women Leaving Jail: Time to First Drink

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Jennifer G.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated time to first drink in women being released from jail to determine predictors of early relapse among women with hazardous drinking and HIV risk behaviors. Between February 2004 and June 2007, 245 participants were recruited from the Rhode Island Department of Corrections. Following the baseline assessment, participants were randomized to a motivational intervention group or to a control condition. Follow-up assessments at 1, 3, and 6 months were completed for 210 participants. Alcohol use during follow-up occurred in 86.7% of participants; 42.4% initiated alcohol use on day 1. The rate of initiation was associated with norms favorable to using alcohol (p < .01) and having a partner with an alcohol problem (HR = 1.62, p < .01). The rate of drink initiation decreased significantly (HR = 0.82, p < .05) as length of incarceration increased. The intervention was not associated with decreased drinking. Interventions to maintain abstinence need to reach women within their first days postrelease. PMID:21278321

  1. Does Knowledge of College Drinking Policy Influence Student Binge Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Warren A.; Singleton, Edward; McMillan, Tiffany B.; Perrino, Carrol S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored alcohol policies at 5 historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) to gain an understanding of how students' awareness of these policies might correlate with campus binge drinking rates. Findings indicated that male students who reported being unaware of certain alcohol policies were more likely to report binge…

  2. A behavioral economic supplement to brief motivational interventions for college drinking

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James G.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Martens, Matthew P.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Basic behavioral and neurobiological research has demonstrated that deficiencies in naturally occurring substance-free rewards are both a cause and a consequence of substance abuse that are due in part to the systematic discounting of delayed substance-free rewards. Existing brief motivational interventions (BMIs) for alcohol abuse do not target this mechanism of change. The goal of this uncontrolled pilot study was to evaluate a behavioral economic Substance-Free Activity Session (SFAS) to traditional alcohol BMIs. Participants were 13 college freshmen who reported two or more heavy drinking episodes (>5/4 drinks in an occasion for men/ women) in the past month. All participants completed a baseline assessment and a BMI that addressed alcohol use. In addition, participants received the SFAS, a 50-min individual session that attempts to increase engagement in constructive alternatives to drinking by enhancing the salience of delayed rewards (academic and career success) and the patterns of behavior (academic and extracurricular engagement) leading to these outcomes. At the 1-month follow-up assessment, participants reported significant reductions in heavy drinking, and moderate to large effect size reductions in weekly drinking and peak blood alcohol levels. The results of this pilot study provide preliminary support for the efficacy of this behavioral economic intervention session as a supplement to traditional alcohol BMIs. PMID:24039620

  3. The Valued Living Questionnaire for Alcohol Use: Measuring value-behavior discrepancy in college student drinking.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary Beth; Meier, Ellen; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leavens, Eleanor L; Grant, DeMond M; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-09-01

    Developing discrepancy between one's values and behaviors is theoretically important in motivating change; however, existing studies lack a validated measure of value-behavior discrepancy for alcohol misuse. The current studies aimed to modify Wilson & DuFrene (2008) Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ) to assess consistency of alcohol use with important values. In Study 1, the initial factor structure and test-retest reliability of the VLQ for Alcohol Use (VLQ-A) was tested in a sample of college students who regularly drink alcohol (N = 150). Results guided modifications to the measure. In Study 2, the revised measure's factor structure and predictive validity were tested with a second sample of college students who drink alcohol (N = 222). In both studies, exploratory factor analysis supported a unidimensional factor structure. Perceived discrepancy between alcohol use and important values predicted greater readiness to change, while perceived consistency between alcohol use and important values predicted more frequent heavy episodic drinking. Certain values were more useful in predicting outcomes than others. Alcohol use (heavy vs. moderate drinking) did not moderate outcomes. The VLQ-A is a brief and reliable self-report measure of perceived discrepancy between drinking behaviors and important values that may increase readiness to change. Future research examining the generalizability of findings to various samples and the efficacy of the VLQ-A as a supplement to brief interventions is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537000

  4. Problem Drinking among transnational mexican migrants: Exploring migrant Status and Situational Factors

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Victor

    2011-01-01

    We present research finding son problem drinking among transnational Mexican migrants employed in the mushroom industry of southeastern Pennsylvania. Our research explored the relationship between situational factors—living arrangements, social isolation, and peer pressure to drink—and problem drinking. Individual characteristics of the migrants, such as age, education level, migration history, and work experience in the mushroom industry are also considered. The premise of our study is that the migrants’ judicial status in the country—as foreign solo men and, at times, undocumented or illegal migrants—places them at a high risk to binge drink. The men mainly live without their families in relatively isolated, grower-provided housing or overcrowded apartment units for months, if not years, away from traditional community and kin deterrents to heavy drinking. We employed the ethnographic method in two complementary field studies: a community ethnography, designed to identify the community context of problem drinking, and a series of case studies of migrant drinkers, designed to identify the relationships between situational factors and problem drinking. Focus groups were used to explore and verify the findings being generated in the two studies. Our findings reveal that there is an alcohol abuse problem among the migrants as a consequence of situational and other factors, such as festive occasions, bad news from home, and a long workweek. Their binge drinking does not always result in negative behavior because the migrants follow drinking norms, and violators of these norms are dealt with accordingly. Nonetheless, binge drinking does place them at a high risk for negative behavior, which results in problems in their housing units and in local communities. PMID:21990944

  5. Marriage a Buffer Against Drinking Problems?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158887.html Marriage a Buffer Against Drinking Problems? Study found protective benefit for both men ... News) -- Married people are less likely to have drinking problems than single people, and that protective effect ...

  6. Teenage Drinking: Does Advertising Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed teenagers (grades 7-12) about their drinking behavior, their exposure to alcohol advertising, relevant demographic information, and other communication influences. Concluded that exposure to alcohol advertising is significantly associated with teenage drinking behavior and intentions. (PD)

  7. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Related Sites Get Email Updates ...

  8. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Related Sites Get Email Updates ...

  9. DRINKING WATER MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 direct EPA to conduct research to strengthen the scientific foundation for standards that limit public exposure to drinking water contaminants. The Amendments contain specific requirements for research on waterborne pathogens, such a...

  10. Drinking More Water May Help Your Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157636.html Drinking More Water May Help Your Diet Sugar, salt and overall ... March 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Plain old tap water might be the best diet drink around, scientists ...

  11. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html. Accessed May 7, 2014.

  12. Adolescent Binge Drinking Linked to Abnormal Spatial Working Memory Brain Activation: Differential Gender Effects

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence, and its effect on neurocognitive development is of concern. In adult and adolescent populations, heavy substance use has been associated with decrements in cognitive functioning, particularly on tasks of spatial working memory (SWM). Characterizing the gender-specific influences of heavy episodic drinking on SWM may help elucidate the early functional consequences of drinking on adolescent brain functioning. Methods 40 binge drinkers (13 females, 27 males) and 55 controls (24 females, 31 males) ages 16 to 19, completed neuropsychological testing, substance use interviews, and a spatial working memory task (SWM) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results Significant binge drinking status x gender interactions were found (p<.05) in 8 brain regions spanning bilateral frontal, anterior cingulate, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. In all regions, female binge drinkers showed less SWM activation than female controls, while male bingers exhibited greater SWM response than male controls. For female binge drinkers, less activation was associated with poorer sustained attention and working memory performances (ps<.025). For male binge drinkers, greater activation was linked to better spatial performance (p<.025). Conclusion Binge drinking during adolescence is associated with gender-specific differences in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar brain activation during a SWM task, which in turn relate to cognitive performance. Activation correlates with neuropsychological performance, strengthening the argument that BOLD activation is both affected by alcohol use and is an important indicator of behavioral functioning. Females may be more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of heavy alcohol use during adolescence, while males may be more resilient to the deleterious effects of binge drinking. Future longitudinal research will examine the significance of SWM brain activation as an early neurocognitive

  13. Alcohol Impairment and Social Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marsha E.

    Cognitive abilities of social drinkers are generally thought to be affected by alcohol only during acute intoxication, but several studies suggest that sober-state performance may be affected by the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking episode. Although the findings regarding sober-state mental deficits in social drinkers are inconclusive,…

  14. INJURED COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after convent...

  15. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 μg L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 μg L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 μg L(-1) and median 1.6 μg L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 μg L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 μg L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations. PMID:24070912

  16. Decisional Balance and Collegiate Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgen, Keith; Gunneson, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the perceived benefits and costs of alcohol use among undergraduates (N=462) perceiving their drinking as normal or abnormal as well as those undergraduates who met or did not meet the DSM-IV-TR criteria for an alcohol disorder. A 2x2 MANOVA and univariate analyses on the benefits (pros) and costs (cons) scales of the Alcohol…

  17. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... impairment 0.30 -- confusion 0.40 -- stupor 0.50 -- coma 0.60 -- respiratory paralysis and death You can have symptoms of "being drunk" at blood alcohol levels below the legal definition of being drunk. Also, people who drink alcohol frequently may not have symptoms ...

  18. Examining Drinking Patterns and High-Risk Drinking Environments among College Athletes at Different Competition Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzell, Miesha; Morrison, Christopher; Mair, Christina; Moynihan, Stefanie; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking patterns of three different college student groups: (a) intercollegiate athletes, (b) intramural/club athletes, and (c) nonathletes. Additionally, we investigated whether a relationship exists between drinking setting and risk of increased drinking. We analyzed data on the athletic involvement, drinking behaviors, and…

  19. Alcohol drinking and blood pressure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jerez, S J; Coviello, A

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alcohol consumption among adolescents from Tucuman, Argentina, and to determine its possible relationship with increased levels of blood pressure. Three hundred fifty-six students aged 13-18 included in the study were asked to answer questionnaires anonymously. Two blood pressures measures were then taken. Differences between both sexes were found in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption. Enjoyment was determined to be the main reason for drinking. There was an association between frequency and alcohol-related problems, and smoking habits. There were also differences in blood pressure among males and females. A weak, but significant, relationship between quantity/frequency index and diastolic blood pressure was found. A greater prevalence of hypertension in male heavy drinkers was noted as well. Because this addiction implies multiple social problems and it also accounts for a hypertension risk factor, the importance of aiming at developing prevention strategies for alcohol abuse among adolescents is stressed. PMID:9650629

  20. Portable Nanomesh Creates Safer Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.

  1. Teen Drinking Prevention Program: Teen Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This guide was designed to help teenagers become involved in fun, alcohol-free activities. It provides youth with ideas on how to influence and change the factors that encourage teenage drinking. The guide has four purposes: (1) raise public awareness of the underage drinking crisis; (2) change community norms that encourage underage drinking; (3)…

  2. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  7. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  8. Teen Tipplers: America's Underage Drinking Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    In preparing for this report, surveys and focus groups were conducted with adults (N=900), with or without children under the legal drinking age, to determine their attitudes, views, and thoughts regarding the problem of underage drinking. The survey was designed to identify opportunities for civic engagement on the issue of underage drinking and…

  9. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  10. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Conference Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  11. College Drinking Needs More Research, Scientists Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donodeo, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes presentations at a symposium (Denver, CO, June 5, 1998) on college drinking which examined: the impact of developmental issues of late adolescence; influence of college drinking on human biology and on substance abuse in later life; student drinking during the academic year; and campus program evaluation. Concluded there was a need for…

  12. Problem drinking and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, K; Phaswana-Mafuya, N

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alcohol abuse poses special risks for increased morbidity and mortality among older adults. Little attention has focused on assessing alcohol use and associated factors among older adults in transitional societies such as South Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors in older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in 2008. Method We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3840 aged 50 years or older in South Africa in 2008. In this study we analysed data from all 2144 participants who were over 60 years old. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol intake as well as comorbidity. Risky drinking was defined in two ways: heavy drinkers (>7 drinks/week) and binge drinkers (>3 drinks/one occasion/week). Results Four percent of participants reported heavy drinking and 3.7% binge drinking. Male gender (Odds Ratio (OR) =3.79, Confidence Interval (CI) =1.38-10.37) and white population group (OR=3.01, CI=1.31-6.89) were associated with risky drinking in multivariate analysis; as well as tobacco use (OR=5.25, CI=2.20-12.52) and not being obese (OR=0.14, CI=0.05-0.35). Hypertension, diabetes and depression were not associated. Conclusion This study reveals moderate rates of risky drinking among older adults (60 years and more) in South Africa that puts them at risk of morbidity. Alcohol problems among older adults are commonly under-recognized, indicating a need for health care worker intervention. PMID:23595529

  13. Flank pain and acute renal failure after binge drinking: a growing concern?

    PubMed

    Calviño, Jesús; Bravo, Juan; Millán, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Tabares, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    We describe two cases of acute renal failure (ARF) after heavy alcohol intake. Remarkable features included a few days latency period after binge drinking, acute flank pain resembling pyelonephritis, lack of rhabdomyolysis or liver injury, and concomitant intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Renal function improved with conservative treatment, and despite NSAIDs use, hyperkalemia was not clinically significant. Since binge drinking is common in the Western population, early recognition of this syndrome may be helpful when examining a patient with flank pain and ARF of unclear etiology. PMID:23477481

  14. Associations of White Matter Microstructure with Clinical and Demographic Characteristics in Heavy Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Monnig, Mollie A.; Yeo, Ronald A.; Tonigan, J. Scott; McCrady, Barbara S.; Thoma, Robert J.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    Damage to the brain’s white matter is a signature injury of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), yet understanding of risks associated with clinical and demographic characteristics is incomplete. This study investigated alcohol problem severity, recent drinking behavior, and demographic factors in relation to white matter microstructure in heavy drinkers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), were collected from 324 participants (mean age = 30.9 ± 9.1 years; 30% female) who reported five or more heavy drinking episodes in the past 30 days. Drinking history and alcohol problem severity were assessed. A common white matter factor was created from fractional anisotropy (FA) values of five white matter tracts: body of corpus callosum, fornix, external capsule, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and cingulate gyrus. Previous research has implicated these tracts in heavy drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested the hypothesis that, after controlling for duration of alcohol exposure, clinical and behavioral measures of alcohol use severity would be associated with lower white matter factor scores. Potential interactions with smoking status, gender, age, treatment-seeking status, and depression or anxiety symptoms also were tested. Controlling for number of years drinking, greater alcohol problem severity and recent drinking frequency were significantly associated with lower white matter factor scores. The effect of drinking frequency differed significantly for men and women, such that higher drinking frequency was linked to lower white matter factor scores in women but not in men. In conclusion, alcohol problem severity was a significant predictor of lower white matter FA in heavy drinkers, after controlling for duration of alcohol exposure. In addition, more frequent drinking contributed to lower FA in women but not men, suggesting gender-specific vulnerability to alcohol neurotoxicity. PMID:26529515

  15. Dietary behavior of French men according to alcohol drinking pattern.

    PubMed

    Herbeth, B; Didelot-Barthelemy, L; Lemoine, A; Le Devehat, C

    1988-05-01

    Relationships of alcohol consumption with diet were studied in 216 French men aged 18-44. The sample was divided on the basis of alcohol intake in the preceding 7 days: controls (less than or equal to 43 g/day), moderate drinkers (44-87 g/day) and heavy drinkers (88-200 g/day). Moderate and heavy drinkers consumed more meat and meat products, bread and toast, dried vegetables and potatoes than controls but fewer nonalcoholic drinks and less milk, yogurt, cooked vegetables, raw and cooked fruits, pastries and confectioneries. Total energy intake was higher in drinkers than in controls but nonalcoholic energy intake was not significantly different; alcohol was simply added to food intake. Moderate and heavy drinkers consumed significantly less carbohydrates but more fat and protein than controls. Vitamins A and C intakes were lower in the moderate and heavy drinkers than in controls but folate and iron intakes were higher. The differences in dietary habits between controls and drinkers were not related to age nor to socioprofessional status since after adjustment for these two parameters the same relationships were still found. PMID:3374141

  16. Combining alcohol and energy drinks: An examination of psychosocial constructs and alcohol outcomes among college students using a longitudinal design

    PubMed Central

    Marzell, Miesha; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly; Ray, Anne E.; Scaglione, Nichole Marie

    2013-01-01

    Combining alcohol and energy drinks (e.g., Red Bull and vodka) is a significant problem on college campuses. To date, few studies have examined psychosocial constructs specific to alcohol-energy drink cocktail (AmED) consumption that could be amenable to change via prevention efforts targeting this population. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in AmED-specific attitudes, beliefs, normative perceptions among students who report AmED use compared to college student drinkers who consume alcohol only. In addition, these two groups were compared on their intentions to consume AmEDs, actual AmED use, and other drinking outcomes using a longitudinal design. Participants (N = 386, 59% female) completed a web-based survey in the spring of their first year of college and fall of their second year assessing alcohol-energy drink cocktail use, psychosocial decision-making constructs, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Findings revealed that combiners of alcohol and energy drinks had more positive attitudes and beliefs about AmED use, higher perceived peer norms, and stronger intentions toward future use. Accordingly, at Time 2, this group reported significantly higher AmED use, along with high-risk drinking and related consequences. The findings reinforce that AmED use is associated with risky drinking practices, and suggest potential targets for change for future prevention efforts. PMID:25346654

  17. Combining alcohol and energy drinks: An examination of psychosocial constructs and alcohol outcomes among college students using a longitudinal design.

    PubMed

    Marzell, Miesha; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly; Ray, Anne E; Scaglione, Nichole Marie

    2014-04-01

    Combining alcohol and energy drinks (e.g., Red Bull and vodka) is a significant problem on college campuses. To date, few studies have examined psychosocial constructs specific to alcohol-energy drink cocktail (AmED) consumption that could be amenable to change via prevention efforts targeting this population. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in AmED-specific attitudes, beliefs, normative perceptions among students who report AmED use compared to college student drinkers who consume alcohol only. In addition, these two groups were compared on their intentions to consume AmEDs, actual AmED use, and other drinking outcomes using a longitudinal design. Participants (N = 386, 59% female) completed a web-based survey in the spring of their first year of college and fall of their second year assessing alcohol-energy drink cocktail use, psychosocial decision-making constructs, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Findings revealed that combiners of alcohol and energy drinks had more positive attitudes and beliefs about AmED use, higher perceived peer norms, and stronger intentions toward future use. Accordingly, at Time 2, this group reported significantly higher AmED use, along with high-risk drinking and related consequences. The findings reinforce that AmED use is associated with risky drinking practices, and suggest potential targets for change for future prevention efforts. PMID:25346654

  18. Anxiety sensitivity and hazardous drinking among persons living with HIV/AIDS: An examination of the role of emotion dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Daniel J; Jardin, Charles; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Sharp, Carla; Woods, Steven Paul; Lemaire, Chad; Leonard, Amy; Neighbors, Clayton; Brandt, Charles P; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous drinking is prevalent among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Anxiety sensitivity is a vulnerability factor that is highly associated with hazardous drinking among seronegatives, but has yet to be tested in PLWHA. Additionally, there is a need to examine potential mechanisms underlying associations of anxiety sensitivity and hazardous drinking. Emotion dysregulation is one potential construct that may explain the association between anxiety sensitivity and hazardous drinking. The current study examined emotion dysregulation as a potential explanatory variable between anxiety sensitivity and four, clinically significant alcohol-related outcomes among PLWHA: hazardous drinking, symptoms of alcohol dependence, number of days consuming alcohol within the past month, and degree of past heavy episodic drinking. The sample included 126 PLWHA (Mage=48.3; SD=7.5; 65.9% male). Results indicated significant indirect effects of anxiety sensitivity via emotion dysregulation in all models. Indirect effects (κ(2)) were of medium effect size. Alternative models were run reversing the predictor with mediator and, separately, reversing the mediator with the proposed outcome(s); alternative models yielded non-significant indirect effects in all but one case. Together, the current results indicate that anxiety sensitivity is associated emotion dysregulation, which, in turn, is associated with hazardous drinking outcomes. Overall, these findings may provide initial empirical evidence that emotion dysregulation may be a clinical intervention target for hazardous drinking. PMID:27497249

  19. [The hygiene of drinking water after purification in practices and households].

    PubMed

    Sonntag, H G

    1989-04-01

    According to the drinking water regulations which were modified in 1986 drinking water in FRG fulfills high standards. But there are still special needs for an additional processing of drinking water including --disinfection and removal of pyrogenous substances, --water softening, --removal of heavy metals and solvents, --removal of substances of bad taste. Methods actually used for processing of drinking water like disinfection, filtration, UV-treatment, exchange of ions, are described and the hygienic problems in connection with these methods are pointed out. Results of our own studies on water filtration systems and on contaminated water pipe lines in dental units are demonstrated. Our data obtained suggest that additional processing of drinking water should fulfill the following demands: --the need of processing should be confirmed strictly, --the methods used should be controlled according to their propagated effectiveness by independent specialists, --there should be a reasonable relation between operation costs and efficacy of processing system, --there should be no loss of quality of drinking water during processing with the risk of induction of infection or intoxication in man. PMID:2500801

  20. The spatial and temporal development of binge drinking in England 2001-2009: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Liz; Moon, Graham

    2013-08-01

    Binge drinking has been linked to escalating costs of hospitalisation and to premature mortality, and implicated in a range of acute and chronic health problems as well as crime, violence and other negative aspects of the wider well-being agenda. Variously defined, it can be characterised as brief periods of heavy drinking (across one day or evening) within a longer time-frame of lower consumption or even abstinence (across a week or several weeks). In England the current binge drinking epidemic has become particularly salient in the past decade and has been seen largely in terms of excessive consumption by younger people, particularly women in urban centres. It has also been linked to the liberalisation of licencing laws and the promotion of 24 h club cultures. This paper presents an observational study of the regional development of binge drinking between 2001 and 2009 as evidenced in the Health Survey for England. We innovate by using two different definitions of binge drinking within a multivariate multilevel modelling framework, with a focus on the random effects attributable to the year of study and region. We control for age, sex, ethnicity, marital status and individual socio-economic status, and confounding by neighbourhood deprivation and urbanisation. The paper identifies pronounced regional geographies that persist in the face of controls and vary little over time, and strong spatio-temporal gender differences which reflect the definition of binge drinking. PMID:23608600

  1. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    PubMed

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents. PMID:26311274

  2. Examining the relationships between acculturation orientations, perceived and actual norms, and drinking behaviors of short-term american sojourners in foreign environments.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Cruz, Rick A; Labrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F

    2011-12-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students' alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  3. Examining the Relationships Between Acculturation Orientations, Perceived and Actual Norms, and Drinking Behaviors of Short-Term American Sojourners in Foreign Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Rick A.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2013-01-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students’ alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  4. Correlates of college student binge drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, H; Dowdall, G W; Davenport, A; Castillo, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examines the individual correlates of college student binge drinking. METHODS. Questionnaires were completed by a representative national sample (n = 17,592) of students on 140 campuses in 1993. Binge drinking was defined as five or more drinks per episode for men and as four or more drinks per episode for women. RESULTS. Overall, 44% of the students (50% of the men and 39% of the women) binged. While demographic factors such as sex and race were significantly related to binge drinking, prior binging in high school was crucial, suggesting that for many students, binge drinking begins before college. The strongest predictors of college binge drinking were residence in a fraternity or sorority, adoption of a party-centered life-style, and engagement in other risky behaviors. CONCLUSIONS. Interventions must be targeted at high school binge drinking as well as at several characteristics of college life--most notably fraternity residence. Legal drinking age fails to predict binge drinking, raising questions about the effectiveness of the legal minimum drinking age of 21 in college alcohol policies. PMID:7604914

  5. Psychological Distress and Problem Drinking.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Roberts, Bayard; Suhrcke, Marc; McKee, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We examine the influence of harmful alcohol use on mental health using a flexible two-step instrumental variables approach and household survey data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union. Using alcohol advertisements to instrument for alcohol, we show that problem drinking has a large detrimental effect on psychological distress, with problem drinkers exhibiting a 42% increase in the number of mental health problems reported and a 15% higher chance of reporting very poor mental health. Ignoring endogeneity leads to an underestimation of the damaging effect of excessive drinking. Findings suggest that more effective alcohol policies and treatment services in the former Soviet Union may have added benefits in terms of reducing poor mental health. PMID:25640167

  6. Energy Drinks: Ergolytic or Ergogenic?

    PubMed Central

    SILLIVENT, JOE; BLEVINS, JENNIFER; PEAK, KAYLA

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of energy drinks, many do not realize the negative effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of energy drink ingestion on estimated VO2max, heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP, respectively), rate pressure product (RPP), and RPE at rest and during exercise. Seven healthy adults (age: 24.3 ± 3.5 yrs; body mass: = 66.0 ± 2.2 kg) participated in this randomized double blind, crossover study. Subjects ingested a placebo (PL) or Redline (RL) energy drink (240ml; 250 mg caffeine) 40 minutes before maximal graded exercise test (GXT). Estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was lower in the RL trial (37.9±5.7 ml·kg−1·min−1) compared to the PL trial (39.7±6.5 ml·kg−1·min−1; P= 0.02). Although no significant differences were noted for the number of ectopic beats (ETB) between the trials, a five to one ratio for the RL and PL existed (RL = 106 total ectopic beats; PL = 21 total ectopic beats). Sub-maximal exercise heart demand (RPP: systolic BP × HR) at the same workload was considerably higher in the RL trial (224.9 ± 39.9 mmHg·bts·min−1; P=0.04) compared to PL (195.8 ± 22.9 mmHg·bts·min−1). Recovery DBP was significantly higher at one min. in the RL trial (51.6 ± 25.1 mmHg) compared to PL (25.4 ± 33.8 mmHg; P=0.05). Based on the results of this study, it was determined that energy drinks lowered estimated VO2max while elevating RPP and recovery DBP. PMID:27182384

  7. Drinking and mortality: long-term follow-up of drinking-discordant twin pairs

    PubMed Central

    Sipilä, Pyry; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    Aims To determine if associations of alcohol consumption with all-cause mortality replicate in discordant monozygotic twin comparisons that control for familial and genetic confounds. Design A 30-year prospective follow-up. Setting Population-based older Finnish twin cohort. Participants Same-sex twins, aged 24–60 years at the end of 1981, without overt comorbidities, completed questionnaires in 1975 and 1981 with response rates of 89 and 84%. A total of 15 607 twins were available for mortality follow-up from the date of returned 1981 questionnaires to 31 December 2011; 14 787 twins with complete information were analysed. Measurements Self-reported monthly alcohol consumption, heavy drinking occasions (HDO) and alcohol-induced blackouts. Adjustments for age, gender, marital and smoking status, physical activity, obesity, education and social class. Findings Among twins as individuals, high levels of monthly alcohol consumption (≥ 259 g/month) associated with earlier mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.47–1.81]. That association was replicated in comparisons of all informatively drinking-discordant twin pairs (HR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.49–2.45) and within discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs (HR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.31–3.85), with comparable effect size. Smaller samples of MZ twins discordant for HDO and blackouts limited power; a significant association with mortality was found for multiple blackouts (HR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.30–6.08), but not for HDO. Conclusions The associations of high levels of monthly alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced blackouts with increased all-cause mortality among Finnish twins cannot be explained by familial or genetic confounds; the explanation appears to be causal. PMID:26359785

  8. Heavy rainfall events and diarrhea incidence: the role of social and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Elizabeth J; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Goldstick, Jason; Cevallos, William; Trostle, James; Levy, Karen

    2014-02-01

    The impact of heavy rainfall events on waterborne diarrheal diseases is uncertain. We conducted weekly, active surveillance for diarrhea in 19 villages in Ecuador from February 2004 to April 2007 in order to evaluate whether biophysical and social factors modify vulnerability to heavy rainfall events. A heavy rainfall event was defined as 24-hour rainfall exceeding the 90th percentile value (56 mm) in a given 7-day period within the study period. Mixed-effects Poisson regression was used to test the hypothesis that rainfall in the prior 8 weeks, water and sanitation conditions, and social cohesion modified the relationship between heavy rainfall events and diarrhea incidence. Heavy rainfall events were associated with increased diarrhea incidence following dry periods (incidence rate ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.87) and decreased diarrhea incidence following wet periods (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.92). Drinking water treatment reduced the deleterious impacts of heavy rainfall events following dry periods. Sanitation, hygiene, and social cohesion did not modify the relationship between heavy rainfall events and diarrhea. Heavy rainfall events appear to affect diarrhea incidence through contamination of drinking water, and they present the greatest health risks following periods of low rainfall. Interventions designed to increase drinking water treatment may reduce climate vulnerability. PMID:24256618

  9. Heavy Rainfall Events and Diarrhea Incidence: The Role of Social and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Elizabeth J.; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.; Goldstick, Jason; Cevallos, William; Trostle, James; Levy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The impact of heavy rainfall events on waterborne diarrheal diseases is uncertain. We conducted weekly, active surveillance for diarrhea in 19 villages in Ecuador from February 2004 to April 2007 in order to evaluate whether biophysical and social factors modify vulnerability to heavy rainfall events. A heavy rainfall event was defined as 24-hour rainfall exceeding the 90th percentile value (56 mm) in a given 7-day period within the study period. Mixed-effects Poisson regression was used to test the hypothesis that rainfall in the prior 8 weeks, water and sanitation conditions, and social cohesion modified the relationship between heavy rainfall events and diarrhea incidence. Heavy rainfall events were associated with increased diarrhea incidence following dry periods (incidence rate ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.87) and decreased diarrhea incidence following wet periods (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.92). Drinking water treatment reduced the deleterious impacts of heavy rainfall events following dry periods. Sanitation, hygiene, and social cohesion did not modify the relationship between heavy rainfall events and diarrhea. Heavy rainfall events appear to affect diarrhea incidence through contamination of drinking water, and they present the greatest health risks following periods of low rainfall. Interventions designed to increase drinking water treatment may reduce climate vulnerability. PMID:24256618

  10. Characterizing high school students who play drinking games using latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Borsari, Brian; Zamboanga, Byron L; Correia, Christopher; Olthuis, Janine V; Van Tyne, Kathryne; Zadworny, Zoe; Grossbard, Joel R; Horton, Nicholas J

    2013-10-01

    Heavy alcohol use and its associated negative consequences continue to be an important health issue among adolescents. Of particular concern are risky drinking practices such as playing drinking games. Although retrospective accounts indicate that drinking game participation is common among high school students, it has yet to be assessed in current high school students. Utilizing data from high school students who reported current drinking game participation (n=178), we used latent class analysis to investigate the negative consequences resulting from gaming and examined underlying demographic and alcohol-related behavioral characteristics of students as a function of the resultant classes. Three classes of "gamers" emerged: (1) a "lower-risk" group who had a lower probability of endorsing negative consequences compared to the other groups, (2) a "higher-risk" group who reported that they experienced hangovers and difficulties limiting their drinking, got physically sick, and became rude, obnoxious, or insulting, and (3) a "sexual regret" group who reported that they experienced poor recall and unplanned sexual activity that they later regretted. Although the frequency of participating in drinking games did not differ between these three groups, results indicated that the "lower-risk" group consumed fewer drinks in a typical gaming session compared to the other two groups. The present findings suggest that drinking games are common among high school students, but that mere participation and frequency of play are not necessarily the best indicators of risk. Instead, examination of other constructs such as game-related alcohol consumption, consequences, or psychosocial variables such as impulsivity may be more useful. PMID:23778317

  11. Characterizing High School Students Who Play Drinking Games Using Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borsari, Brian; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Correia, Christopher; Olthuis, Janine V.; Van Tyne, Kathryne; Zadworny, Zoe; Grossbard, Joel R.; Horton, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use and its associated negative consequences continue to be an important health issue among adolescents. Of particular concern are risky drinking practices such as playing drinking games. Although retrospective accounts indicate that drinking game participation is common among high school students, it has yet to be assessed in current high school students. Utilizing data from high school students who reported current drinking game participation (n = 178), we used latent class analysis to investigate the negative consequences resulting from gaming and examined underlying demographic and alcohol-related behavioral characteristics of students as a function of the resultant classes. Three classes of “gamers” emerged: (1) a “lower-risk” group who had a lower probability of endorsing negative consequences compared to the other groups, (2) a “higher-risk” group who reported that they experienced hangovers and difficulties limiting their drinking, got physically sick, and became rude, obnoxious, or insulting, and (3) a “sexual regret” group who reported that they experienced poor recall and unplanned sexual activity that they later regretted. Although the frequency of participating in drinking games did not differ between these three groups, results indicated that the “lower-risk” group consumed fewer drinks in a typical gaming session compared to the other two groups. The present findings suggest that drinking games are common among high school students, but that mere participation and frequency of play is not necessarily the best indicator of risk. Instead, examination of other constructs such as game-related alcohol consumption, consequences, or psychosocial variables such as impulsivity may be more useful. PMID:23778317

  12. Associations of descriptive and reflective injunctive norms with risky college drinking.

    PubMed

    Collins, Susan E; Spelman, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    The current study describes the relative predictive power of descriptive norms (i.e., how much the target student believes referents "drink until they get drunk") and reflective injunctive norms (i.e., target student's perception of referents' approval of the target student drinking until drunk) across various reference groups. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into which types of norms and reference groups are most highly concurrently correlated with risky drinking. It was hypothesized that both reflective injunctive and descriptive norms would be significantly positively correlated with risky drinking outcomes, and that more proximal reference group norms would be more highly predictive than more distal reference group norms. Participants (N = 837) were college students on the U.S. west coast who completed questionnaires in the context of a longitudinal parent study. Cross-sectional, zero-inflated negative binomial regressions were used to test the relative strengths of correlations between descriptive and reflective injunctive norms (i.e., for typical college students, closest friend, person whose opinion they value most, and closest family member) and risky drinking (i.e., peak alcohol quantity, frequency of heavy drinking episodes, and alcohol-related problems). Findings showed that descriptive and reflective injunctive norms were most consistently, strongly and positively correlated with risky drinking when they involved referents who were closer to the target college drinkers (i.e., closest friend and person whose opinion you value the most). Norms for typical college students were less consistent correlates of risky drinking. These findings may contribute to the knowledge base for enhancing normative reeducation and personalized normative feedback interventions to include more personally salient and powerful normative information. PMID:24364691

  13. Associations of descriptive and reflective injunctive norms with risky college drinking

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Susan E.; Spelman, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the relative predictive power of descriptive norms (i.e., how much the target student believes referents “drink until they get drunk”) and reflective injunctive norms (i.e., target student’s perception of referents’ approval of the target student drinking until drunk) across various reference groups. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into which types of norms and reference groups are most highly concurrently correlated with risky drinking. It was hypothesized that both reflective injunctive and descriptive norms would be significantly positively correlated with risky drinking outcomes, and that more proximal reference group norms would be more highly predictive than more distal reference group norms. Participants (N = 837) were college students on the US west coast who completed questionnaires in the context of a longitudinal parent study. Cross-sectional, zero-inflated negative binomial regressions were used to test the relative strengths of correlations between descriptive and reflective injunctive norms (i.e., for typical college students, closest friend, person whose opinion they value most and closest family member) and risky drinking (i.e., peak alcohol quantity, frequency of heavy drinking episodes, and alcohol-related problems). Findings showed that descriptive and reflective injunctive norms were most consistently, strongly and positively correlated with risky drinking when they involved referents who were closer to the target college drinkers (i.e., closest friend and person whose opinion you value the most). Norms for typical college students were less consistent correlates of risky drinking. These findings may contribute to the knowledge base for enhancing normative re-education and personalized normative feedback interventions to include more personally salient and powerful normative information. PMID:24364691

  14. Examining Drinking Patterns and High-Risk Drinking Environments Among College Athletes at Different Competition Levels

    PubMed Central

    Marzell, Miesha; Morrison, Christopher; Mair, Christina; Moynihan, Stefanie; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking patterns of three different college student groups: (a) intercollegiate athletes, (b) intramural/club athletes, and (c) nonathletes. Additionally, we investigated whether a relationship exists between drinking setting and risk of increased drinking. We analyzed data on the athletic involvement, drinking behaviors, and drinking settings of 16,745 undergraduate students. The findings revealed that drinking patterns for intramural/club athletes remained relatively consistent at all quantity levels; however, intercollegiate athletes consumed alcohol in higher quantities. Further, intramural/club athletes drank in almost every drinking setting, whereas intercollegiate athletes were more limited. The drinking patterns and settings suggest a stronger social motivation for drinking among intramural/club athletes than among intercollegiate athletes and point to a need to specify competition level when studying college athletes. PMID:25767148

  15. Female College Drinking and the Social Learning Theory: An Examination of the Developmental Transition Period from High School to College.

    PubMed

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Huchting, Karie; Pedersen, Eric R; Hummer, Justin F; Shelesky, Kristin; Tawalbeh, Summer

    2007-05-01

    Problematic drinking among college students remains a national issue with large percentages of college students reporting heavy episodic or binge drinking (Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport, & Castillo, 1995) and experiencing severe alcohol-related consequences ranging from poor academic performance, to sexual assault, vandalism, and even death (Hingson, Heeren, Winter, & Wechsler, 2005; Wechsler et al., 2002). According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA, 2002), the first 6 weeks on a college campus are critical to first-year student success. However, during these first weeks many students initiate heavy drinking that may interfere with their ability to adapt to campus life, and patterns of drinking established during these first weeks persist throughout college (Schulenberg et al., 2001). Approximately one third of first-year students fail to enroll for their second year due to difficulties with the transition to college (Upcraft, 1995). Drinking may compromise successful negotiation of the transition into college and therefore jeopardize overall collegiate success. Therefore, the ability to identify specific students as they enter college who may develop problematic drinking patterns and related negative consequences would allow student affairs personnel to more effectively design and target risk-reduction programs and interventions. PMID:25374438

  16. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-08-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

  17. I Drink, Therefore I'm Man: Gender Discourses, Alcohol and the Construction of British Undergraduate Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article provides insights into the discourses that legitimate and perpetuate male undergraduate drinking cultures and considers the role of alcohol in communicating hegemonic masculinity within one British university. Taking laddishness as a template of hegemonic masculinity, the article contends that male students' heavy alcohol use is…

  18. Natural mentors and youth drinking: a qualitative study of Mexican youths

    PubMed Central

    Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A.; Pantridge, Caroline E.; Fernández-Varela, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Parental influences on youth drinking are well documented but not the influence of extended family members. This article explores extended family influences on alcohol use among Mexican youths and whether extended family members can be considered natural mentors. We conducted a qualitative study using ethnographic open ended interviews with 117 first year university students in Mexico City. The ethnographic interviews revealed six drinking groups: excessive, heavy, regular, occasional, abstainers and non drinkers. Youths reported close relationships with extended family members who provided counsel and acted as representatives of familial norms and values. The alcohol beliefs and behaviors of these family members, including their alcohol misuse, had a positive influence on youths’ alcohol attitudes. The naturally occurring mentoring relationships of Mexican extended family members can positively influence moderate youth drinking. Natural mentoring relationships should be encouraged and facilitated in prevention efforts for Mexican youths, Mexican-American youths and potentially other Hispanic/Latino youths. PMID:26187913

  19. Natural mentors and youth drinking: a qualitative study of Mexican youths.

    PubMed

    Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez, L Rosa; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A; Pantridge, Caroline E; Fernández-Varela, Héctor

    2015-08-01

    Parental influences on youth drinking are well documented but not the influence of extended family members. This article explores extended family influences on alcohol use among Mexican youths and whether extended family members can be considered natural mentors. We conducted a qualitative study using ethnographic open ended interviews with 117 first year university students in Mexico City. The ethnographic interviews revealed six drinking groups: excessive, heavy, regular, occasional, abstainers and non drinkers. Youths reported close relationships with extended family members who provided counsel and acted as representatives of familial norms and values. The alcohol beliefs and behaviors of these family members, including their alcohol misuse, had a positive influence on youths' alcohol attitudes. The naturally occurring mentoring relationships of Mexican extended family members can positively influence moderate youth drinking. Natural mentoring relationships should be encouraged and facilitated in prevention efforts for Mexican youths, Mexican-American youths and potentially other Hispanic/Latino youths. PMID:26187913

  20. Behavioral Economic Analysis of Natural Resolution of Drinking Problems using IVR Self-Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Foushee, H. Russell; Black, Bethany C.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons predicted patterns of alcohol consumption shortly after natural resolution when the risk of relapse is high. Using a computerized Interactive Voice Response (IVR) telephone system, untreated problem drinkers (n = 41) self-monitored their daily drinking, monetary expenditures, and surrounding contexts over intervals that ranged from a maximum of 42 to 128 days. Expanded Timeline Followback interviews were conducted before and after the IVR interval and one year after the baseline assessment. Stable resolutions generally and moderation resolutions specifically were associated with proportionally more pre-resolution expenditures on savings and less on alcohol compared to heavy drinking outcomes. The findings replicated and extended earlier research and suggested that the extent to which problem drinkers organized their behavior over longer intervals, even when drinking abusively, helped identify who resolved, including who transitioned to stable moderation. PMID:18729688

  1. The effects of merit-based financial aid on drinking in college.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Benjamin W; White, Dustin R

    2015-12-01

    We study the effect of state-level merit aid programs (such as Georgia's HOPE scholarship) on alcohol consumption among college students. Such programs have the potential to affect drinking through a combination of channels--such as raising students' disposable income and increasing the incentive to maintain a high GPA--that could theoretically raise or lower alcohol use. We find that the presence of a merit-aid program in one's state generally leads to an overall increase in (heavy) drinking. This effect is concentrated among men, students with lower parental education, older students, and students with high college GPA's. Our findings are robust to several alternative empirical specifications including event-study analyses by year of program adoption. Furthermore, no difference in high-school drinking is observed for students attending college in states with merit-aid programs. PMID:26476389

  2. General and Religious Coping Predict Drinking Outcomes for Alcohol Dependent Adults in Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; Ellingsen, Victor J.; Tzilos, Golfo K.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Religiosity is associated with improved treatment outcomes among adults with alcohol dependence; however, it is unknown whether religious coping predicts drinking outcomes above and beyond the effects of coping in general, and whether gender differences exist. Methods We assessed 116 alcohol-dependent adults (53% women; mean age = 37, SD = 8.6) for use of religious coping, general coping and alcohol use within two weeks of entering outpatient treatment, and again 6 months after treatment. Results Religious coping at 6 months predicted fewer heavy alcohol use days and fewer drinks per day. This relationship was no longer significant after controlling for general coping at 6 months. Conclusion The relationship between the use of religious coping strategies and drinking outcomes is not independent of general coping. Coping skills training that includes religious coping skills, as one of several coping methods, may be useful for a subset of adults early in recovery. PMID:25662479

  3. Health risks of chronic moderate and heavy alcohol consumption: how much is too much?

    PubMed

    Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Bode, Christiane; Nixon, Sara Jo; de Bruin, Eveline A; Bode, J Christian; Seitz, Helmut K

    2005-07-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium held at the meeting of the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA) in Mannheim, Germany, in October 2004. Most of what we know about the deleterious effects of alcohol in vivo has been gleaned from studies in sober alcoholics recruited from substance abuse treatment programs. Little is known about effects of chronic drinking in the moderate or heavy range encountered in a much larger fraction of modern society. Extrapolation of information on the adverse effects of chronic drinking on organ function from clinical samples to social drinkers in the general population has to be met with great skepticism, as it may lead to wrong conclusions about the chronic effects of alcohol in social drinkers. Several recent studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption has certain beneficial health effects, whereas heavy social alcohol consumption has recently been associated with organ abnormalities and cognitive deficits. These social drinking effects have attracted great public interest; reports of benefits of moderate drinking have also inspired inappropriate publications by the media, including misleading advertisements by the alcohol producing and distributing industry. Although adverse effects of moderate to heavy drinking on heart, liver, and cancer development have attracted attention by clinicians and researchers for some time, its compromising effects on brain and cognition have only recently been studied. This symposium brought together researchers from different disciplines, who reviewed and presented new data on consequences of social drinking in the areas of clinical neuropsychology and behavior (Drs. Nixon and Meyerhoff), neurophysiology (Dr. Nixon, Ms. De Bruin), neuroimaging (Ms. de Bruin, Dr. Meyerhoff), hepatic disease (Dr. Bode), and cancer (Dr. Seitz). The symposium aimed to clarify both the potential health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption and risks of moderate and

  4. Alcohol consumption and dietary patterns: the FinDrink study.

    PubMed

    Fawehinmi, Timothy O; Ilomäki, Jenni; Voutilainen, Sari; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to investigate differences in dietary patterns in relation to the level of alcohol consumption among Finnish adults. This study was part of the FinDrink project, an epidemiologic study on alcohol use among Finnish population. It utilized data from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. A total of 1720 subjects comprising of 816 men and 904 women aged 53-73 years were included in the study in 1998-2001. Food intake was collected via a 4-day food diary method. Self-reported alcohol consumption was assessed with quantity-frequency method based on the Nordic Alcohol Consumption Inventory. Weekly alcohol consumption was categorized into three groups: non-drinkers (<12 grams), moderate drinkers (12-167.9 grams for men, 12-83.9 grams for women) and heavy drinkers (≥ 168 grams for men, ≥ 84 grams for women). Data were analyzed for men and women separately using multiple linear regression models, adjusted for age, occupational status, marital status, smoking, body mass index and leisure time physical activity. In women, moderate/heavy drinkers had lower fibre intake and moderate drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Male heavy drinkers had lower fibre, retinol, calcium and iron intake, and moderate/heavy drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Fish intake was higher among women moderate drinkers and men moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In men, moderate drinkers had lower fruit intake and heavy drinkers had lower milk intake than non-drinkers. Moderate drinkers had higher energy intake from total fats and monosaturated fatty acids than non-drinkers. In contrast, energy intake from carbohydrates was lower among moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In conclusion, especially male heavy drinkers had less favorable nutritional intake than moderate and non-drinkers. Further studies on the relationship between alcohol consumption and dietary habits are needed to plan a

  5. Varenicline effects on drinking, craving and neural reward processing among non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals

    PubMed Central

    Schacht, Joseph P.; Anton, Raymond F.; Randall, Patrick K.; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Myrick, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist varenicline has been reported to reduce drinking among both heavy-drinking smokers and primary alcoholics, and this effect may be related to varenicline-mediated reduction of alcohol craving. Among smokers, varenicline has been reported to modulate cigarette cue-elicited brain activation in several reward-related areas. Objectives This pilot study tested varenicline’s effects on drinking, alcohol craving, and alcohol cue-elicited activation of reward-related brain areas among non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals. Methods Thirty-five such individuals (mean age = 30, 57% male, 76% heavy drinking days in the past month, 15 smokers) were randomized to either varenicline (titrated to 2 mg) or placebo for 14 days, and were administered an alcohol cue reactivity fMRI task on day 14. A priori regions of interest (ROIs) were bilateral and medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), right ventral striatum (VS), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Results Despite good medication adherence, varenicline did not reduce heavy drinking days or other drinking parameters. It did, however, increase self-reported control over alcohol-related thoughts and reduced cue-elicited activation bilaterally in the OFC, but not in other brain areas. Conclusions These data indicate that varenicline reduces alcohol craving and some of the neural substrates of alcohol cue reactivity. However, varenicline effects on drinking mediated by cue-elicited brain activation and craving might be best observed among treatment-seekers motivated to reduce their alcohol consumption. PMID:24647921

  6. Flavored Alcoholic Beverage Use, Risky Drinking Behaviors, and Adverse Outcomes Among Underage Drinkers: Results From the ABRAND Study

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Alison Burke; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between consumption of different types of flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) and risky drinking and drinking-related harms among underage drinkers. Methods. For the Alcohol Brand Research among Underage Youth study, we applied multivariable logistic regression analyses to data from underage drinkers (n = 1031, aged 13–20 years), recruited from a national Internet panel in 2011 to 2012, to estimate associations between consumption of malt-based drinks; spirits-based, premixed- or ready-to-drink cocktails; and supersized alcopops, alone or in combination, and alcohol-related outcomes. Results. After adjustment for confounding variables, the exclusive consumption of alcopops was associated with episodic heavy drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 4.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 15.31; P < .05) and alcohol-related injuries (OR = 6.25; 95% CI = 1.34, 29.10; P < .05). Exclusive consumption of cocktails was associated with episodic heavy drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.26, 5.41; P < .05) and injuries requiring medical attention (OR = 6.50; 95% CI = 2.09, 20.17; P < .001. Exclusive consumption of 2 or more FABs was associated with episodic heavy drinking (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.25, 6.16; P < .05), fighting (OR = 3.30; 95% CI = 1.46, 7.47; P < .001), and alcohol-related injuries (OR = 2.83; 95% CI = 1.43, 5.58; P < .001). Conclusions. FABs present an emerging public health problem among youths. PMID:25713955

  7. Binge drinking among gay, and lesbian youths: The role of internalized sexual stigma, self-disclosure, and individuals' sense of connectedness to the gay community.

    PubMed

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2010-10-01

    We examined the prevalence of binge drinking among lesbian and gay (LG) youths, and evaluated whether experiences such as internalized sexual stigma, the experience of "coming out" to family and friends, and the individuals' sense of "connectedness" to the gay community could be associated with alcohol abuse. The research involved 119 gay (58.9%) and 83 lesbian (41.1%) Italian youths (18 to 24 years old). According to previous research, youths were categorized in non-drinkers, social, binge and heavy drinkers. Results showed that the estimated percentage of binge drinking among gay and lesbian youths is 43.6%. The survey revealed that social, binge, and heavy drinkers differ in terms of some drinking variables, internalized sexual stigma, family and peer self-disclosure, and connectedness gay community. Implications for the prevention of binge drinking in LG youths are currently under discussion even if further investigation is urgently needed. PMID:20584573

  8. Binge drinking among Brazilians: Higher drinking frequency increases related problems.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Daniel Sócrates; Sanchez, Zila M; Zaleski, Marcos; Palhares Alves, Hamer Nastasy; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos

    2014-05-14

    Abstract Aims: To correlate binge drinking (BD) with alcohol-related problems (ARP) in the Brazilian population. Methods: A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted in 143 Brazilian cities. Associations between the frequencies of BD and ARP were gathered using an ordered logit regression model. Results: Higher BD frequencies significantly increased the chance of injury in accidents, job loss, and involvement in intense arguments and assaults over the year. High frequency in BD increases the odds of all ARP. Conclusion: There is a dose-response association between the frequency BD and ARP and is therefore a possible target for public prevention policies. PMID:24829095

  9. Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: an evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Foster, Dawn W; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be negatively associated with self-awareness; 2) implicit drinking identity would moderate the association between self-awareness and alcohol consumption; and 3) this association would depend on whether participants were higher or lower in drink refusal self-efficacy. Participants included 218 undergraduate students. Results revealed that drinking behavior was not associated with self-awareness but was positively associated with implicit drinking identity. Of the four drinking variables (peak drinking, drinking frequency, drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems), only alcohol-related problems were positively associated with self-awareness. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction emerged between private (but not public) self-consciousness and drinking identity to predict drinking. Consistent with expectations, three-way interactions emerged between self-awareness, implicit drinking identity, and DRSE in predicting drinking. For participants low in DRSE: 1) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinking frequency when private self-consciousness was low; and 2) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinks per week and peak drinks when public self-consciousness was low. This suggests that alcohol-related IATs may be useful tools in predicting drinking, particularly among those low in self-awareness and DRSE. PMID:24169372

  10. Mechanisms underlying alcohol-approach action tendencies: the role of emotional primes and drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Cousijn, Janna; Luijten, Maartje; Wiers, Reinout W

    2014-01-01

    The tendency to approach alcohol-related stimuli is known as the alcohol-approach bias and has been related to heavy alcohol use. It is currently unknown whether the alcohol-approach bias is more pronounced after emotional priming. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether positive and negative emotional primes would modulate the alcohol-approach bias. For this purpose, a new contextual emotional prime-approach avoidance task was developed, containing both negative and positive emotional primes. Explicit coping drinking motives were expected to be related to an increased alcohol-approach bias after negative primes. Results of 65 heavy and 50 occasional drinkers showed that the alcohol-approach bias was increased in both groups during negative emotional priming. This appeared to be due to slower alcohol avoidance rather than faster alcohol approach. This change in alcohol-approach bias was positively related to explicit enhancement drinking motives and negatively related to alcohol use-related problems. A stronger alcohol-approach bias in heavy compared to occasional drinkers could not be replicated here, and coping drinking motives were not related to the alcohol-approach bias in any of the emotional contexts. The current findings suggest that both occasional and heavy drinkers have a selective difficulty to avoid alcohol-related cues in a negative emotional context. Negative reinforcement may therefore be involved in different types of drinking patterns. The influence of emotional primes on alcohol-related action tendencies may become smaller when alcohol use becomes more problematic, which is in line with habit accounts of addiction. PMID:24834057

  11. Drinking in Youth Ages 13-21 Attending and Not Attending College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifman, Alan; Ro, Hye-Sun; Barnes, Grace M.; Feng, Du

    2010-01-01

    This study used a representative metropolitan sample to make longitudinal comparisons of college-bound and non-college-bound youth on incidents and predictors of heavy drinking. Respondents in the six-wave study were ages 13-16 at wave 1 and 18-21 at wave 6 (n's ranged from roughly 425-500 for different analyses). College/non-college comparisons…

  12. An experimental study on the effects of peer drinking norms on adolescents’ drinker prototypes

    PubMed Central

    Teunissen, Hanneke A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents form impressions about the type of peers who drink (i.e., drinker prototypes). The evaluation of, and perceived similarity to these prototypes are related to adolescents’ drinking. Peer drinking norms play an important role in the formation of prototypes. We experimentally examined whether manipulation of peer norms changed the evaluation of and perceived similarity to drinker prototypes and whether these changes were moderated by peers’ popularity. Methods In a pre-test, we assessed heavy drinker, moderate drinker and abstainer prototypes, drinking behaviors and peer-perceived popularity among 599 adolescents. Additionally, 88 boys from this sample participated in a simulated chat room, in which they interacted with peers from school. These peers were in fact pre-programmed e-confederates, who were either popular or unpopular and who communicated either pro-alcohol or anti-alcohol norms. After the chat room interaction we assessed participants’ drinker prototypes. Results Participants exposed to anti-alcohol norms were more negative about, and perceived themselves as less similar to heavy drinker prototypes, than participants exposed to pro-alcohol norms. We found no effects of peer norms on moderate drinker and abstainer prototypes. Effects were not moderated by peers’ popularity. We did find a main effect of popularity on perceived similarity to all prototypes. This indicated that participants rated themselves as more similar to heavy and moderate drinker prototypes and less similar to abstainer prototypes when they interacted with unpopular peers than with popular peers. Conclusions Exposure to anti-alcohol norms of peers leads adolescents to form more negative prototypes of the heavy drinker. This could be an important finding for prevention and intervention programs aimed to reduce alcohol consumption among adolescents. PMID:24104050

  13. Drinking Trajectories Following an Initial Lapse

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Masyn, Katherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Relapse following alcohol treatment is a major problem for individuals who are alcohol dependent, yet little is known about the course of drinking after the initial lapse. In the current study, discrete-time survival analysis and latent growth mixture modeling were used to evaluate the time to first lapse and the trajectories of postlapse drinking in a sample of 563 individuals who received community alcohol treatment. Results showed a decreasing risk of lapsing over time. After the initial lapse, 3 trajectory subgroups provided a parsimonious representation of the heterogeneity in postlapse drinking frequency and quantity, with the majority of individuals reporting light, infrequent drinking. Covariate analyses incorporating demographics, distal risk factors, time to first lapse, and coping behavior as predictors of time to lapse and postlapse drinking trajectories indicated that alcohol dependence and coping behavior were the strongest predictors of lapsing and postlapse drinking behavior. PMID:18540713

  14. Parents' rules about underage drinking: a qualitative study of why parents let teens drink.

    PubMed

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W; Moore, Roland S; Jennings, Vanessa K

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semistructured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous, and harm reduction. Deliberate reasons included passing on knowledge about drinking responsibly and appreciating alcohol. Parents also spontaneously decided to let their teen drink. Some of these spontaneous situations involved feeling pressure from other adults to let their teen drink. Another reason was a desire to reduce potential harm. Parents feared that forbidding underage drinking would harm their relationship with their teen and potentially lead to drunk driving. Prevention efforts aimed at parents should take into account parents' motivations to let teens drink. PMID:25031481

  15. EPA’s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

  16. Parents' rules about underage drinking: A qualitative study of why parents let teens drink

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2013-01-01

    Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semi-structured interviews (n=44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous and harm reduction. Deliberate reasons included passing on knowledge about drinking responsibly and appreciating alcohol. Parents also spontaneously decided to let their teen drink. Some of these spontaneous situations involved feeling pressure from other adults to let their teen drink. Another reason was a desire to reduce potential harm. Parents feared that forbidding underage drinking would harm their relationship with their teen and potentially lead to drunk driving. Prevention efforts aimed at parents should take into account parents' motivations to let teens drink. PMID:25031481

  17. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  18. Drinking water regulations and health advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The report provides maximum contaminant level of goals, maximum contaminant levels, reference doses, and drinking water equivalent levels for over 250 organic and inorganic chemicals, radionuclides, and microbes.

  19. Update on energy drinks and youth.

    PubMed

    Fogger, Susanne; McGuinness, Teena M

    2011-12-01

    Energy drinks are attractive and readily available in every grocery store and gas station. While most youth verbalize an understanding that too much caffeine is bad for one's health, at an age of multiple demands, an over-the-counter offer of increased energy and alertness is hard to ignore. What makes energy drinks different from regular coffee? Although the heavily caffeinated drinks promise increased energy and stamina and are loaded with healthy natural ingredients, excessive consumption is of concern on many levels. This article will discuss some of the effects of excessive caffeine, as well as risks associated with energy drinks mixed with alcohol. PMID:22085613

  20. Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

  1. A Drop to Drink. . .A Report on the Quality of Our Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Jack

    Basic information about the quality of our nation's drinking water is contained in this brochure. Written for the general public to familiarize them with the situation, it will also help them evaluate the state of the nation's drinking water as well as that of their own communities. The need to assure reliable sources of healthful drinking water…

  2. Measuring College Student Drinking: Illustrating the Feasibility of a Composite Drinking Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiun-Hau; Dejong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility of a "Composite Drinking Scale" (CDS) designed to capture fully the phenomenon of problem drinking among college students while allowing easy public understanding. A survey conducted at 32 four-year U.S. colleges included four consumption measures: 30-day frequency; average number of drinks per week; number of…

  3. Protective behavioral strategy use and motivations for drinking: exploring Alternatives to Drinking strategies.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ashley N; Kite, Benjamin A; Braitman, Abby L; Henson, James M

    2014-02-01

    Protective behavioral strategy (PBS) use is associated with less alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related problems. Further, greater endorsement of social or enhancement drinking motives (i.e., positive motives) is associated with less frequent PBS use. Limited research has, however, explored coping or conformity motives (i.e., negative motives) in relation to PBS. Consequently, the present study aimed to (1) identify the types of PBS most strongly associated with negative and positive motives and (2) examine different types of PBS as mediators of the relationship between each drinking motive and alcohol outcomes. Participants were college students (n=303; 70% women) who completed measures of drinking motives, PBS, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that greater endorsement of positive drinking motives were more strongly associated with less frequent use of PBS while drinking whereas negative motives were more strongly related to less frequent Alternatives to Drinking strategy use. Further, strategies used while drinking were more relevant in a model of positive drinking motives and Alternatives to Drinking strategies were more relevant in a model of negative motives. These findings may suggest that whereas individuals with stronger positive motives have difficulty using strategies while drinking, individuals who drink to cope or conform have greater difficulty utilizing Alternatives to Drinking strategies. Based on our results demonstrating that different types of PBS are more relevant for various types of drinkers, it may be important for future interventions to discuss not only the participant's PBS use but also their motivations for consuming alcohol. PMID:24229844

  4. Parents' Rules about Underage Drinking: A Qualitative Study of Why Parents Let Teens Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semistructured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous, and harm reduction. Deliberate…

  5. Turning 21 and the Associated Changes in Drinking and Driving after Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromme, Kim; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Neal, Dan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined drinking and driving after drinking before and after turning 21. Participants: Participants were drawn from first time college students who were taking part in a 4-year longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks. Methods: Web-based longitudinal surveys collected data on drinking and driving after…

  6. Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:24841178

  7. Through the Drinking Glass: An Analysis of the Cultural Meanings of College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Andy Soon Leong

    2012-01-01

    College drinking and its adverse consequences on students' health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the…

  8. Natural organic matter removal by coagulation during drinking water treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Matilainen, Anu; Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Sillanpää, Mika

    2010-09-15

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is found in all surface, ground and soil waters. An increase in the amount of NOM has been observed over the past 10-20 years in raw water supplies in several areas, which has a significant effect on drinking water treatment. The presence of NOM causes many problems in drinking water and drinking water treatment processes, including (i) negative effect on water quality by causing colour, taste and odor problems, (ii) increased coagulant and disinfectant doses (which in turn results in increased sludge volumes and production of harmful disinfection by-products), (iii) promoted biological growth in distribution system, and (iv) increased levels of complexed heavy metals and adsorbed organic pollutants. NOM can be removed from drinking water by several treatment options, of which the most common and economically feasible processes are considered to be coagulation and flocculation followed by sedimentation/flotation and sand filtration. Most of the NOM can be removed by coagulation, although, the hydrophobic fraction and high molar mass compounds of NOM are removed more efficiently than hydrophilic fraction and the low molar mass compounds. Thus, enhanced and/or optimized coagulation, as well as new process alternatives for the better removal of NOM by coagulation process has been suggested. In the present work, an overview of the recent research dealing with coagulation and flocculation in the removal of NOM from drinking water is presented. PMID:20633865

  9. Regional assessment of groundwater for drinking purpose subject to water-quality parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2010-05-01

    Owing to limited surface water during a long term drought, this work attempted to locate safe groundwater for drinking in aquifers of the Choushui River alluvial fan, Taiwan subject to its water-quality parameters. Because the aquifers contained multiple pollutions, such as the salinity pollution, the organic pollution, the nitrogen pollution and the heavy metal pollution, multiple-variable indicator kriging (MVIK) was adopted to estimate integration of several pollutions in groundwater based on water-quality standards for drinking and to characterize spatial uncertainty. According to probabilities estimated by MVIK, safe scopes were determined for four treatment conditions - no treatment, ammonium-N removal, manganese removal, and ammonium-N and manganese removals. The analyzed results reveal that, because of exceeding the standards of manganese and/or ammonium-N, groundwater in proximal-fan aquifers (a natural recharging zone) has to be treated appropriately, such as dilution and removals with some treatment approaches, before being drunk. The proximal-fan, southeastern and central regions are the best locations to pump clean and safe groundwater for drinking when devices of ammonium-N and manganese removals are available. Deep aquifers of exceeding 200 m depth have wider safe regions to obtain excellent groundwater for drinking than shallow aquifers do. Keywords: Multiple-variable indicator kriging; groundwater; pollution; drinking

  10. Drinking Water Quality of Water Vending Machines in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, N. H.; Yusop, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    An increased in demand from the consumer due to their perceptions on tap water quality is identified as one of the major factor on why they are mentally prepared to pay for the price of the better quality drinking water. The thought that filtered water quality including that are commercially available in the market such as mineral and bottled drinking water and from the drinking water vending machine makes they highly confident on the level of hygiene, safety and the mineral content of this type of drinking water. This study was investigated the vended water quality from the drinking water vending machine in eight locations in Parit Raja are in terms of pH, total dissolve solids (TDS), turbidity, mineral content (chromium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, total colony-forming units (CFU) and total coliform. All experiments were conducted in one month duration in triplicate samples for each sampling event. The results indicated the TDS and all heavy metals in eight vended water machines in Parit Raja area were found to be below the Food Act 1983, Regulation 360C (Standard for Packaged Drinking Water and Vended water, 2012) and Malaysian Drinking Water Quality, Ministry of Health 1983. No coliform was presence in any of the vended water samples. pH was found to be slightly excess the limit provided while turbidity was found to be 45 to 95 times more higher than 0.1 NTU as required by the Malaysian Food Act Regulation. The data obtained in this study would suggest the important of routine maintenance and inspection of vended water provider in order to maintain a good quality, hygienic and safety level of vended water.

  11. Underage drinking in the UK: changing trends, impact and interventions. A rapid evidence synthesis.

    PubMed

    Healey, Christine; Rahman, Atif; Faizal, Mohammad; Kinderman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The UK is a high prevalence country for underage alcohol use. We conducted an evidence synthesis to examine (1) the changing trends in underage drinking in the UK compared to Europe and the USA, (2) the impact of underage drinking in terms of hospital admissions, (3) the association between underage drinking and violent youth offending, and (4) the evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction interventions aimed at children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. The following databases were searched from November 2002 until November 2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, The Evidence for Policy and Practice Information, DARE, Medline, The Campbell Collaboration, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Psych INFO and Social Care Online. Our findings revealed changes in the way children drink in the UK and how much they drink. Alcohol related harms are increasing in the UK despite overall population levels of consumption reducing in this age group. Girls aged 15-16 years report binge drinking and drunkenness more than boys. Girls are also more likely than boys to be admitted to hospital for alcohol related harm. The evidence suggests a strong association between heavy episodic binge drinking and violent youth offending. Only 7 out of 45 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified for this review included children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. Most were delivered in the emergency department (ED) and involved a brief intervention. All were characterised by a wide age range of participants, heterogeneous samples and high rates of refusal and attrition. The authors conclude that whilst the ED might be the best place to identify children and adolescents at risk of harm related to alcohol use it might not be the best place to deliver an intervention. Issues related to a lack of engagement with alcohol harm reduction interventions have been previously overlooked and warrant

  12. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  13. Drinking water quality management: a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rizak, S; Cunliffe, D; Sinclair, M; Vulcano, R; Howard, J; Hrudey, S; Callan, P

    2003-01-01

    A growing list of water contaminants has led to some water suppliers relying primarily on compliance monitoring as a mechanism for managing drinking water quality. While such monitoring is a necessary part of drinking water quality management, experiences with waterborne disease threats and outbreaks have shown that compliance monitoring for numerical limits is not, in itself, sufficient to guarantee the safety and quality of drinking water supplies. To address these issues, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) has developed a Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality (the Framework) for incorporation in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, the primary reference on drinking water quality in Australia. The Framework was developed specifically for drinking water supplies and provides a comprehensive and preventive risk management approach from catchment to consumer. It includes holistic guidance on a range of issues considered good practice for system management. The Framework addresses four key areas: Commitment to Drinking Water Quality Management, System Analysis and System Management, Supporting Requirements, and Review. The Framework represents a significantly enhanced approach to the management and regulation of drinking water quality and offers a flexible and proactive means of optimising drinking water quality and protecting public health. Rather than the primary reliance on compliance monitoring, the Framework emphasises prevention, the importance of risk assessment, maintaining the integrity of water supply systems and application of multiple barriers to assure protection of public health. Development of the Framework was undertaken in collaboration with the water industry, regulators and other stakeholder, and will promote a common and unified approach to drinking water quality management throughout Australia. The Framework has attracted international interest. PMID:12830937

  14. Voluntary drinking versus imposed drinking in the methodology of investigations about the drinking-induced thermoregulatory sweating

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Khamnei, Saeed; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that dehydrated humans or animals in a warm environment begin to sweat within seconds to minutes after drinking. This phenomenon is one of the drinking-induced thermoregulatory responses; being investigated from different aspects. Our objective is to show the difference of voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the methodology of these experiments. Six healthy subjects 23.7 ± 0.6 yr old and 80.7 ± 5.7 kg wt were dehydrated by performing mild exercise (ergometer cycling) in a hot and humid chamber (38-40°C, 20-28% relative humidity). We incorporated two protocols: after dehydration, subjects were allowed to drink water with 1) imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/kg and 2) voluntary volumes; on four separate days. The sweating rate was measured on the forehead area before and after drinking. Sweating increased markedly just a few minutes after the onset of drinking. The mean sweat rates of the imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/Kg were 0.33 ± 0.15, 0.31 ± 0.17, 0.47 ± 0.21 respectively and for the voluntary volume it was 0.54 ± 0.19. The mean intake in the voluntary trial was 6.58 ± 1.14 ml/Kg, more than the imposed volume of 5 ml/Kg. The trend of the rate of the sweating response in the imposed trials was distinct from the response in the voluntary trial. Conclusion: There exists a difference between voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the sweating response that follows rehydration. So it is suggested to use the methods of voluntary drinking in the investigations of this phenomenon, to reveal the natural events that happen in the actual circumstances. PMID:25419429

  15. Maternal Drinking and Risky Sexual Behavior in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2015-01-01

    Teenage mothers are more likely to use drugs, and their children are more likely to use substances and become pregnant during adolescence. Teenage mothers’ substance use may play a role in the intergenerational risk for adolescent pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents (12–18 years) were seen during pregnancy and postnatal years 6, 10, 14, and 16 (n = 332). Teenage mothers reported on substance use and family characteristics. The offspring reported substance use (starting at age 10) and sexual behavior (ages 14 and 16). Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with offspring (a) having a risky first sex partner and (b) multiple sex partners in the past year. Heavy maternal drinking during childhood was associated with offspring reports of a risky first sex partner and early teenage pregnancy. Findings from this unique birth cohort have implications for alcohol prevention efforts with girls during and after a teenage pregnancy and interventions to prevent risky sex in high-risk youth. PMID:25156314

  16. Craving Predicts Within Session Drinking Behavior Following Placebo

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Tiffany’s (1990) cognitive processing model postulates that craving will only occur when access to alcohol is blocked. To test a hypothesis based on this model, we analyzed data from a naturalistic laboratory alcohol challenge study involving moderate-to-heavy drinking young adults (N = 174) with a focus on the placebo beverage condition of this study. Our hypothesis was that self-reports of “wanting more alcohol” (i.e., craving) in the lab, following placebo, would predict subsequent ad libitum consumption because placebo administration would constitute partial blocking of access to alcohol. We also tested the possibility that craving might mediate associations between personality traits and ad libitum consumption. Both trait disinhibition and reports of craving following the placebo beverage significantly predicted ad libitum consumption. Further, craving partially mediated the association between trait disinhibition and ad libitum consumption. Potential implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20161258

  17. Helping a loved one with a drinking problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000815.htm Helping a loved one with a drinking problem To use the sharing features on this ... worse, not better, if you wait. When is Drinking a Problem? Drinking problems are not measured by ...

  18. Underage Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Underage Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Research ... the victim of physical or sexual assault. Underage Drinking Warning Signs Academic and/or behavioral problems Changing ...

  19. Rethinking Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Rethinking Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Do ... samhsa.gov Do You Have a Problem with Drinking? Ever felt you should cut down on your ...

  20. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory



    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...