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Sample records for heavy duty diesel

  1. Review of light-duty diesel and heavy-duty diesel gasoline inspection programs.

    PubMed

    St Denis, Michael; Lindner, Jim

    2005-12-01

    Emissions from diesel vehicles and gas-powered heavy-duty vehicles are becoming a new focus of many inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs. Diesel particulate matter (PM) is increasingly becoming more recognized as an important health concern, while at the same time, the public awareness of diesel PM emissions because of their visibility have combined to increase the focus on diesel emissions in the United States. This has resulted in an increased interest by some states in including heavy-duty vehicle testing in their I/M program. This paper provides an overview of existing I/M programs focused on testing light-duty diesel vehicles, heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and heavy-duty gasoline vehicles (HDGVs). Information on 39 I/M programs in 27 different states in the United States plus 9 international inspection programs is included. Information on the status of diesel emissions technology and current test procedures is also presented. The goal is to provide useful information for air quality managers as they work to decide whether such I/M programs would be worth pursuing in their respective areas and in evaluating the emissions measurement technology to be used in the program. Testing of HDGVs is generally limited to idle testing, because dynamometer testing of these vehicles is not practical, and most were not certified on a chassis basis. Testing of diesel vehicles has mostly been limited to SAE J1667 "snap-idle" opacity testing. Cost-effective technology for measuring diesel emissions currently does not exist, and, therefore, opacity-type measurements, although not effective at reducing the pollutants of most significant health concern, will continue to be used. PMID:16408692

  2. Noise reduction of diesel engine for heavy duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Y.; Arai, S.

    1989-01-01

    Noise reduction of diesel engines installed in heavy duty vehicles is one of the highest priorities from the viewpoints of meeting the regulations for urban traffic noise abatement and noise reduction in the cabin for lightening fatigue with comfortable long driving. It is necessary that noise reduction measures then be applied to those causes. All noise reduction measures for the diesel engine researched for the purpose of practical use are described in this paper.

  3. HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL FINE PM EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine PM emissions from diesel powered vehicles continues to be a concern for those responsible for implementating the PM-2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Diesel generated PM is nanometer in size, incorporates a number of toxic air pollutants (including carcinog...

  4. Characterization of heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenthal, Douglas H.; Zielinska, Barbara; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Gautam, Mridul; Ferguson, Donald H.; Neuroth, Gary R.; Stevens, Kathy D.

    Emissions of heavy duty diesel-powered vehicles were measured at the Phoenix Transit Yard in South Phoenix between 31 March 1992 and 25 April 1992 using the West Virginia University Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Mobile Lab). Thirteen heavy-duty trucks and buses were tested over this period. The vehicles were operated with diesel No. 2 and Jet A fuels, with and without a fuel additive, and with and without particulate control traps. The chassis dynamometer Mobile Lab tested vehicles over the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. Particulate matter in the diluted exhaust was sampled proportionally from a total-exhaust dilution tunnel. Emission rates and compositions of PM 2.5 particulate mass, elements, ions, bulk organic and elemental carbon, and gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were averaged for various classes of fuels and particulate matter control. Emission rates for PM 2.5 mass averaged 0.2 and 1 g mile -1 for trucks and buses with and without particulate traps, respectively. Emission rates for elemental carbon averaged 0.02 and 0.5 g mile -1 for trucks and buses with and without particulate traps, respectively. Diesel particulate exhaust was comprised mainly of organic and elemental carbon (80-90%) and sulfate (up to 14%). The new diesel source composition profiles are similar to one determined earlier in Phoenix. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons comprised no more than a few percent of the particulate organic carbon but their relative abundances may be useful for distinguishing diesel emissions from those of other combustion sources.

  5. Factors affecting heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nigel N; Kern, Justin M; Atkinson, Christopher M; Nine, Ralph D

    2002-01-01

    Societal and governmental pressures to reduce diesel exhaust emissions are reflected in the existing and projected future heavy-duty certification standards of these emissions. Various factors affect the amount of emissions produced by a heterogeneous charge diesel engine in any given situation, but these are poorly quantified in the existing literature. The parameters that most heavily affect the emissions from compression ignition engine-powered vehicles include vehicle class and weight, driving cycle, vehicle vocation, fuel type, engine exhaust aftertreatment, vehicle age, and the terrain traveled. In addition, engine control effects (such as injection timing strategies) on measured emissions can be significant. Knowing the effect of each aspect of engine and vehicle operation on the emissions from diesel engines is useful in determining methods for reducing these emissions and in assessing the need for improvement in inventory models. The effects of each of these aspects have been quantified in this paper to provide an estimate of the impact each one has on the emissions of diesel engines. PMID:15152668

  6. 77 FR 54384 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... and diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) prices. The derivation of the final penalties is described in a support... the public comment period related to fuel and diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) prices. The derivation of the... standard for heavy heavy-duty diesel engines. 77 FR 4736 (January 31, 2012).\\2\\ Although we did...

  7. Dynamic response of heavy duty diesel engine structures

    SciTech Connect

    Anderton, D.; Ghazy, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation to identify the sources of forces which cause the vibration of different parts of the engine structure in a turbocharged heavy duty diesel engine of 2 litres/cylinder capacity. The differences in vibration response at the main bearings and on the engine outer surfaces is shown. Results of overall dynamic stiffness measurements at the main bearings indicate that the oil film has a negligible effect on the behaviour of the major vibration response. A model is put forward for an absolute prediction of the engine outer surface vibration. The model can be seen as an alternative or complement to current F.E. techniques. A comparison between predicted and measured vibration on the crankcase is presented. Predicted vibration response spectra are used to show the relative contribution of liner and bearing forces to the overall crankcase and cylinder block vibration of the engine.

  8. Diesel fuel sulfur and cylinder liner wear of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, E.K.J.; Busenthuer, B.B.; Hardenberg, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    Cylinder liner wear of a heavy-duty diesel engine was measured by means of radionuclide technology to identify the combined effects of diesel fuel sulfur and coolant temperature under engine operating conditions. Higher cylinder liner wear results from increasing load and decreasing engine speed. At low cooling temperatures, i.e, during engine cold start and warm-up, any reduction of the sulfur content leads to substantially reduced wear. At normal operational coolant temperatures, however, the effect of sulfur is extremely small. At higher than normal operating temperatures, diesel fuels with very low sulfur content, e.g. 0.05%, lead to increased wear, when compared with those of usual sulfur levels of 0.3 to 0.5%.

  9. [Impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality and control of their emissions].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Wang, Bo-Guang; Tang, Da-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Through an analysis of the characteristics of diesel vehicle emissions and motor vehicle emissions inventories, this paper examines the impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality in China as well as issues related to the control of their emissions. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides is one of the important precursors for the formation of secondary particles and ozone in the atmosphere, causing regional haze. Diesel particulate matter is a major toxic air pollutant with adverse effect on human health, and in particular, the ultrafine particles in 30-100 nm size range can pose great health risks because of its extremely small sizes. Motor vehicles have become a major source of air pollution in many metropolitan areas and city cluster in China, and among them the heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a dominant contributor of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions. Hence, controlling heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions should be a key component of an effective air quality management plan, and a number of issues related to heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions need to be addressed. PMID:22619934

  10. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  11. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  12. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  13. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  14. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While lower emissions limits that took effect in 2004 and reduced sulfur content in diesel fuels will reduce emissions from new heavy-duty engines, the existing diesel fleet, which pollutes at much higher levels, may still have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years. Fleet operators seekin...

  16. Idle emissions from medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks.

    PubMed

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Gautam, Mridul; Wayne, W Scott; Thompson, Gregory J; Lyons, Donald W

    2009-03-01

    Idle emissions data from 19 medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks are presented in this paper. Emissions from these trucks were characterized using full-flow exhaust dilution as part of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Project E-55/59. Idle emissions data were not available from dedicated measurements, but were extracted from the continuous emissions data on the low-speed transient mode of the medium heavy-duty truck (MHDTLO) cycle. The four gasoline trucks produced very low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and negligible particulate matter (PM) during idle. However, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HCs) from these four trucks were approximately 285 and 153 g/hr on average, respectively. The gasoline trucks consumed substantially more fuel at an hourly rate (0.84 gal/hr) than their diesel counterparts (0.44 gal/hr) during idling. The diesel trucks, on the other hand, emitted higher NOx (79 g/hr) and comparatively higher PM (4.1 g/hr), on average, than the gasoline trucks (3.8 g/hr of NOx and 0.9 g/hr of PM, on average). Idle NOx emissions from diesel trucks were high for post-1992 model year engines, but no trends were observed for fuel consumption. Idle emissions and fuel consumption from the medium heavy-duty diesel trucks (MHDDTs) were marginally lower than those from the heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs), previously reported in the literature. PMID:19320273

  17. Urban driving cycle results of retrofitted diesel oxidation catalysts on heavy duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.F.; Rideout, G.

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents the emissions testing results of various heavy duty engines and vehicles with and without retrofitted diesel oxidation catalyst technology. 1987 Cummins L10 and 1991 DDC 6V92TA DDECII engine results over the US Heavy Duty Transient Test are presented for comparison to chassis test results. The vehicles in this study include two urban buses, two school buses and three heavy duty trucks. The Central Business District, New York Bus and New York Composite urban driving cycles have been used to evaluate baseline emissions and the catalyst performance on a heavy duty chassis dynamometer. The results demonstrate that 25--45% particulate reduction is readily achievable on a wide variety of heavy duty vehicles. Significant carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon reductions were also observed.

  18. Fuel quality effects on particulate matter emissions from light- and heavy-duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Den Ouden, C.J.J.; Clark, R.H.; Cowley, L.T.; Stradling, R.J.; Lange, W.W.; Maillard, C.

    1994-10-01

    This paper gives an update of Shell`s ongoing research on correlations between diesel fuel quality and particulate emissions in both heavy and light duty applications. An exhaust oxidation catalyst selectively decreases the particulate hydrocarbon fraction, leaving the fixed carbon fraction unaffected. This overall particulates reduction mechanism explains why particulate emissions from catalyst vehicles are less sensitive towards changes in fuel quality. An attempt has been made to explain the differences observed between particulate emissions from heavy- and light-duty engines. It is tentatively concluded that differences originate mainly from intrinsic differences between the heavy- and light-duty test cycles. 27 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Diesel particle filter and fuel effects on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Matthew A; Dane, A John; Williams, Aaron; Ireland, John; Luecke, Jon; McCormick, Robert L; Voorhees, Kent J

    2010-11-01

    The impacts of biodiesel and a continuously regenerated (catalyzed) diesel particle filter (DPF) on the emissions of volatile unburned hydrocarbons, carbonyls, and particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH, were investigated. Experiments were conducted on a 5.9 L Cummins ISB, heavy-duty diesel engine using certification ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD, S ≤ 15 ppm), soy biodiesel (B100), and a 20% blend thereof (B20). Against the ULSD baseline, B20 and B100 reduced engine-out emissions of measured unburned volatile hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and nitro-PAH by significant percentages (40% or more for B20 and higher percentage for B100). However, emissions of benzene were unaffected by the presence of biodiesel and emissions of naphthalene actually increased for B100. This suggests that the unsaturated FAME in soy-biodiesel can react to form aromatic rings in the diesel combustion environment. Methyl acrylate and methyl 3-butanoate were observed as significant species in the exhaust for B20 and B100 and may serve as markers of the presence of biodiesel in the fuel. The DPF was highly effective at converting gaseous hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and total nitro-PAH. However, conversion of 1-nitropyrene by the DPF was less than 50% for all fuels. Blending of biodiesel caused a slight reduction in engine-out emissions of acrolein, but otherwise had little effect on carbonyl emissions. The DPF was highly effective for conversion of carbonyls, with the exception of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde emissions were increased by the DPF for ULSD and B20. PMID:20886845

  20. Survey of heavy-duty diesel-engine rebuilding, reconditioning, and remanufacturing practices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the emissions impact of rebuilt, reconditioned, and remanufactured heavy-duty diesel engines sold in California. Information was collected from fleet maintenance shops, independent rebuild shops, and diesel-injection repair specialists on the frequency of improper rebuilding practices observed in the field. Data were also collected from manufacturers and regulatory agencies on the emissions impact of improper rebuilding practices.

  1. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engine shall not exceed: (i) 20 percent..., or any naturally-aspirated diesel heavy-duty engine. For petroleum-fueled engines only, this... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of...

  2. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engine shall not exceed: (i) 20 percent..., or any naturally-aspirated diesel heavy-duty engine. For petroleum-fueled engines only, this... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of...

  3. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engine shall not exceed: (i) 20 percent..., or any naturally-aspirated diesel heavy-duty engine. For petroleum-fueled engines only, this... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of...

  4. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engine shall not exceed: (i) 20 percent..., or any naturally-aspirated diesel heavy-duty engine. For petroleum-fueled engines only, this... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of...

  5. 75 FR 28820 - Notice of Public Meeting by Teleconference Concerning Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Consent Decrees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Public Meeting by Teleconference Concerning Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Consent Decrees The Department of Justice and the Environmental Protection Agency will hold a public meeting on June 14, 2010 at 3 p.m. by telephone conference. The subject...

  6. GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE- AND DIESEL-POWERED HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous and particulate emission rates from seven class 2B, one class 5 and six class 6 heavy-duty gasoline- and diesel-powered trucks were determined using transient chassis dynamometer test procedures. All vehicles were tested at approximately 70% of their rated gross vehicle w...

  7. ON-ROAD EMISSIONS OF PCDDS AND PCDFS FROM HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work characterized emission factors, homologue profiles, and isomer patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from on-road sampling of three heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVS) under various conditions of city and highway drivi...

  8. Ceramic valve development for heavy-duty low heat rejection diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, K. E.; Micu, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic valves can be successfully operated in a heavy-duty diesel engine, even under extreme low heat rejection operating conditions. This paper describes the development of a silicon nitride valve from the initial design stage to actual engine testing. Supplier involvement, finite element analysis, and preliminary proof of concept demonstration testing played a significant role in this project's success.

  9. HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE MODAL EMISSION MODEL (HDDV-MEM): VOLUME I: MODAL EMISSION MODELING FRAMEWORK; VOLUME II: MODAL COMPONENTS AND OUTPUTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research outlines a proposed Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Modal Emission Modeling Framework (HDDV-MEMF) for heavy-duty diesel-powered trucks and buses. The heavy-duty vehicle modal modules being developed under this research effort, although different, should be compatible wi...

  10. PARTICLE TRAP EFFECTS ON HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ceramic trap used in this study was highly effective in reducing particle emissions in the diesel exhaust; the weight of emitted particles and their associated chemicals in the filtered exhaust was reduced by over 90% under the two different work loads. As a consequence...

  11. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. This section applies to 2004 and later model year diesel HDEs. (a)(1) Exhaust emissions from new...

  12. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. This section applies to 2004 and later model year diesel HDEs. (a)(1) Exhaust emissions from new...

  13. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. This section applies to 2004 and later model year diesel HDEs. (a)(1) Exhaust emissions from new...

  14. Using Extractive FTIR to Measure N2O from Medium Heavy Duty Vehicles Powered with Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to measure N2O and other pollutant gases during an evaluation of two medium heavy-duty diesel trucks equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The emissions of these trucks were characterized under a variety of oper...

  15. Prediction of in-use emissions of heavy-duty diesel vehicles from engine testing.

    PubMed

    Yanowitz, Janet; Graboski, Michael S; McCormick, Robert L

    2002-01-15

    A model of a heavy-duty vehicle driveline with automatic transmission has been developed for estimating engine speed and load from vehicle speed. The model has been validated using emissions tests conducted on three diesel vehicles on a chassis dynamometer and then on the engines removed from the vehicles tested on an engine dynamometer. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were proportional to work done by the engine. For two of the engines, the NOx/horsepower(HP) ratio was the same on the engine and on the chassis dynamometer tests. For the third engine NOx/HP was significantly higher from the chassis test, possibly due to the use of dual engine maps. The engine certification test generated consistently less particulate matter emissions on a gram per brake horsepower-hour basis than the Heavy Duty Transient and Central Business District chassis cycles. A good linear correlation (r2 = 0.97 and 0.91) was found between rates of HP increase integrated over the test cycle and PM emissions for both the chassis and the engine tests for two of the vehicles. The model also shows how small changes in vehicle speeds can lead to a doubling of load on the engine. Additionally, the model showed that it is impossible to drive a vehicle cycle equivalent to the heavy-duty engine federal test procedure on these vehicles. PMID:11827062

  16. Chassis dynamometer study of emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Graboski, M.S.; Ryan, L.B.A.; Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L.

    1999-01-15

    Regulated emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles were measured on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer via three driving cycles using a low-sulfur diesel fuel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and PM sulfate fraction were measured. For hot start tests, emissions ranged from 0.30 to 7.43 g/mi (mean 1.96) for PM; 4.15--54.0 g/mi (mean 23.3) for NO{sub x}; 2.09--86.2 g/mi (mean 19.5) for CO; and 0.25--8.25 g/mi (mean 1.70) for THC. When emissions are converted to a g/gal basis, the effect of driving cycle is eliminated for NO{sub x} and largely eliminated for PM. Sulfate comprised less than 1% of the emitted PM for all vehicles and test cycles. A strong correlation is observed between emissions of CO and PM. Cold starting at 77 F produced an 11% increase in PM emissions. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that in-use PM emissions have decreased at a slower rate than anticipated based on the stricter engine certification test standards put into effect since 1985. NO{sub x} emissions do not decrease with model year for the vehicles tested here. Smoke opacity measurements are not well correlated with mass emissions of regulated pollutants.

  17. Technical support information for the development of heavy duty diesel vehicle rules for the California federal implementation plans. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to gather information to use in the development of technical support documentation for the preparation of regulations to control exhaust emissions from heavy duty diesel vehicles in the California Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) areas. This report identifies the State, Federal, and local regulations for reducing oxide of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The report also identifies the various control strategies for reducing the overall NOx emissions inventory. The control strategies include both technological methods (vehicle emission control systems) as well as the types of strategies related to limiting the activity level of heavy duty diesel vehicles.

  18. Idle emissions from heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles at high altitude.

    PubMed

    McCormick, R L; Graboski, M S; Alleman, T L; Yanowitz, J

    2000-11-01

    Idle emissions of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) were measured from 24 heavy-duty diesel-fueled (12 trucks and 12 buses) and 4 heavy-duty compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. The volatile organic fraction (VOF) of PM and aldehyde emissions were also measured for many of the diesel vehicles. Experiments were conducted at 1609 m above sea level using a full exhaust flow dilution tunnel method identical to that used for heavy-duty engine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing. Diesel trucks averaged 0.170 g/min THC, 1.183 g/min CO, 1.416 g/min NOx, and 0.030 g/min PM. Diesel buses averaged 0.137 g/min THC, 1.326 g/min CO, 2.015 g/min NOx, and 0.048 g/min PM. Results are compared to idle emission factors from the MOBILE5 and PART5 inventory models. The models significantly (45-75%) overestimate emissions of THC and CO in comparison with results measured from the fleet of vehicles examined in this study. Measured NOx emissions were significantly higher (30-100%) than model predictions. For the pre-1999 (pre-consent decree) truck engines examined in this study, idle NOx emissions increased with model year with a linear fit (r2 = 0.6). PART5 nationwide fleet average emissions are within 1 order of magnitude of emissions for the group of vehicles tested in this study. Aldehyde emissions for bus idling averaged 6 mg/min. The VOF averaged 19% of total PM for buses and 49% for trucks. CNG vehicle idle emissions averaged 1.435 g/min for THC, 1.119 g/min for CO, 0.267 g/min for NOx, and 0.003 g/min for PM. The g/min PM emissions are only a small fraction of g/min PM emissions during vehicle driving. However, idle emissions of NOx, CO, and THC are significant in comparison with driving emissions. PMID:11111343

  19. Size and composition distributions of particulate matter emissions: part 2--heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Robert, Michael A; Kleeman, Michael J; Jakober, Christopher A

    2007-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) were collected using a chassis dynamometer/dilution sampling system that employed filter-based samplers, cascade impactors, and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements. Four diesel vehicles with different engine and emission control technologies were tested using the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) 5 mode driving cycle. Vehicles were tested using a simulated inertial weight of either 56,000 or 66,000 lb. Exhaust particles were then analyzed for total carbon, elemental carbon (EC), organic matter (OM), and water-soluble ions. HDDV fine (< or =1.8 microm aerodynamic diameter; PM1.8) and ultrafine (0.056-0.1 microm aerodynamic diameter; PM0.1) PM emission rates ranged from 181-581 mg/km and 25-72 mg/km, respectively, with the highest emission rates in both size fractions associated with the oldest vehicle tested. Older diesel vehicles produced fine and ultrafine exhaust particles with higher EC/OM ratios than newer vehicles. Transient modes produced very high EC/OM ratios whereas idle and creep modes produced very low EC/OM ratios. Calcium was the most abundant water-soluble ion with smaller amounts of magnesium, sodium, ammonium ion, and sulfate also detected. Particle mass distributions emitted during the full 5-mode HDDV tests peaked between 100-180 nm and their shapes were not a function of vehicle age. In contrast, particle mass distributions emitted during the idle and creep driving modes from the newest diesel vehicle had a peak diameter of approximately 70 nm, whereas mass distributions emitted from older vehicles had a peak diameter larger than 100 nm for both the idle and creep modes. Increasing inertial loads reduced the OM emissions, causing the residual EC emissions to shift to smaller sizes. The same HDDV tested at 56,000 and 66,000 lb had higher PM0.1 EC emissions (+22%) and lower PM0.1 OM emissions (-38%) at the higher load

  20. THE EFFECTS OF BIODIESEL BLENDS AND ARCO EC-DIESEL ON EMISSIONS from LIGHT HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Thomas

    2001-08-05

    Chassis dynamometer tests were performed on 7 light heavy-duty diesel trucks comparing the emissions of a California diesel fuel with emissions from 4 other fuels: ARCO EC-diesel (EC-D) and three 20% biodiesel blends (1 yellow grease and 2 soy-based). The EC-D and the yellow grease biodiesel blend both showed significant reductions in THC and CO emissions over the test vehicle fleet. EC-D also showed reductions in PM emission rates. NOx emissions were comparable for the different fuel types over the range of vehicles tested. The soy-based biodiesel blends did not show significant or consistent emissions differences over all test vehicles. Total carbon accounted for more than 70% of the PM mass for 4 of the 5 sampled vehicles. Elemental and organic carbon ratios varied significantly from vehicle-to-vehicle but showed very little fuel dependence. Inorganic species represented a smaller portion of the composite total, ranging from 0.2 to 3.3% of the total PM. Total PAH emissions ranged from approximately 1.8 mg/mi to 67.8 mg/mi over the different vehicle/fuel combinations representing between 1.6 and 3.8% of the total PM mass.

  1. Effects of methanol-containing additive on emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Chao, M R; Lin, T C; Chao, H R; Chang, F H; Chen, C B

    2001-11-12

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of methanol-containing additive (MCA) on the regulated emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), as well as the unregulated carbon dioxide (CO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel engine. The engine was tested on a series of diesel fuels blended with five additive levels (0, 5, 8, 10 and 15% of MCA by volume). Emissions tests were performed under both cold- and hot-start transient heavy-duty federal test procedure (HD-FTP) cycles and two selected steady-state modes. Results show that MCA addition slightly decreases PM emissions but generally increases both THC and CO emissions. Decrease in NOx emissions was found common in all MCA blends. As for unregulated emissions, CO2 emissions did not change significantly for all MCA blends, while vapor-phase and particle-associated PAHs emissions in high load and transient cycle tests were relatively low compared to the base diesel when either 5 or 8% MCA was used. This may be attributed to the lower PAHs levels in MCA blends. Finally, the particle-associated PAHs emissions also showed trends quite similar to that of the PM emissions in this study. PMID:11712594

  2. Human health impacts of biodiesel use in on-road heavy duty diesel vehicles in Canada.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Mathieu; Egyed, Marika; Taylor, Brett; Chen, Jack; Samaali, Mehrez; Davignon, Didier; Morneau, Gilles

    2013-11-19

    Regulatory requirements for renewable content in diesel fuel have been adopted in Canada. Fatty acid alkyl esters, that is, biodiesel, will likely be used to meet the regulations. However, the impacts on ambient atmospheric pollutant concentrations and human health outcomes associated with the use of biodiesel fuel blends in heavy duty diesel vehicles across Canada have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential human health implications of the widespread use of biodiesel in Canada compared to those from ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The health impacts/benefits resulting from biodiesel use were determined with the Air Quality Benefits Assessment Tool, based on output from the AURAMS air quality modeling system and the MOBILE6.2C on-road vehicle emissions model. Scenarios included runs for ULSD and biodiesel blends with 5 and 20% of biodiesel by volume, and compared their use in 2006 and 2020. Although modeling and data limitations exist, the results of this study suggested that the use of biodiesel fuel blends compared to ULSD was expected to result in very minimal changes in air quality and health benefits/costs across Canada, and these were likely to diminish over time. PMID:24143909

  3. 75 FR 68575 - Revisions To In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...: In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles, 70 FR 34594 (June 14, 2005). The program... Measurement Systems and Program Revisions, 73 FR 13441 (March 13, 2008). The in-use testing program began with... Vehicles,'' 70 FR 34624 (June 14, 2005). 2. Particulate Matter Emission Measurement Margin for...

  4. 75 FR 68448 - Revisions to In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Engines and Vehicles, 70 FR 34594 (June 14, 2005). The program was amended in March 2008 to delay some of... Measurement Accuracy Margins for Portable Emission Measurement Systems and Program Revisions, 73 FR 13441... Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles, 70 FR...

  5. Transformation toughened ceramics for the heavy duty diesel engine technology program, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Samanta, S. C.; Architetto, P.; Feingold, E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an insulating structural ceramic for application in a heavy duty adiabatic diesel engine. The approach is to employ transformation toughening (TT) by additions of zirconia-hafnia solid solution (ZHSS). The feasibility of using ZHSS as a toughening agent in mullite and alumina has been demonstrated in Phase 1 of this work. Based on Phase 1 results, a decision was made to concentrate the Phase 2 effort on process optimization of the TT mullite. A strong factor in that decision was the low thermal conductivity and high thermal shock resistance of the mullite. Results of the Phase 2 effort indicate that optimum toughening of mullite by additions of ZHSS is difficult to achieve due to apparent sensitivity to morphology. The 48 ksi room temperature modulus-of-rupture (MOR) achieved in selected specimens is approximately 50% of the original strength target. The MOR deteriorated to 34 ksi at 800 C.

  6. Idle emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles: review and recent data.

    PubMed

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Thompson, Gregory J; Wayne, W Scott; Gautam, Mridul; Lyons, Donald W; Hawelti, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    Heavy-duty diesel vehicle idling consumes fuel and reduces atmospheric quality, but its restriction cannot simply be proscribed, because cab heat or air-conditioning provides essential driver comfort. A comprehensive tailpipe emissions database to describe idling impacts is not yet available. This paper presents a substantial data set that incorporates results from the West Virginia University transient engine test cell, the E-55/59 Study and the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study. It covered 75 heavy-duty diesel engines and trucks, which were divided into two groups: vehicles with mechanical fuel injection (MFI) and vehicles with electronic fuel injection (EFI). Idle emissions of CO, hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and carbon dioxide (CO2) have been reported. Idle CO2 emissions allowed the projection of fuel consumption during idling. Test-to-test variations were observed for repeat idle tests on the same vehicle because of measurement variation, accessory loads, and ambient conditions. Vehicles fitted with EFI, on average, emitted approximately 20 g/hr of CO, 6 g/hr of HC, 86 g/hr of NOx, 1 g/hr of PM, and 4636 g/hr of CO2 during idle. MFI equipped vehicles emitted approximately 35 g/hr of CO, 23 g/hr of HC, 48 g/hr of NOx, 4 g/hr of PM, and 4484 g/hr of CO2, on average, during idle. Vehicles with EFI emitted less idle CO, HC, and PM, which could be attributed to the efficient combustion and superior fuel atomization in EFI systems. Idle NOx, however, increased with EFI, which corresponds with the advancing of timing to improve idle combustion. Fuel injection management did not have any effect on CO2 and, hence, fuel consumption. Use of air conditioning without increasing engine speed increased idle CO2, NOx, PM, HC, and fuel consumption by 25% on average. When the engine speed was elevated from 600 to 1100 revolutions per minute, CO2 and NOx emissions and fuel consumption increased by >150%, whereas PM and HC emissions increased

  7. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  8. Computer simulation of the heavy-duty turbo-compounded diesel cycle for studies of engine efficiency and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assanis, D. N.; Ekchian, J. A.; Heywood, J. B.; Replogle, K. K.

    1984-01-01

    Reductions in heat loss at appropriate points in the diesel engine which result in substantially increased exhaust enthalpy were shown. The concepts for this increased enthalpy are the turbocharged, turbocompounded diesel engine cycle. A computer simulation of the heavy duty turbocharged turbo-compounded diesel engine system was undertaken. This allows the definition of the tradeoffs which are associated with the introduction of ceramic materials in various parts of the total engine system, and the study of system optimization. The basic assumptions and the mathematical relationships used in the simulation of the model engine are described.

  9. On-road emission characteristics of heavy-duty diesel vehicles in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changhong; Huang, Cheng; Jing, Qiguo; Wang, Haikun; Pan, Hansheng; Li, Li; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Huang, Haiying; Schipper, Lee; Streets, David G.

    On-road vehicle tests of nine heavy-duty diesel trucks were conducted using SEMTECH-D, an emissions measuring instrument provided by Sensors, Inc. The total length of roads for the tests was 186 km. Data were obtained for 37,255 effective driving cycles, including 17,216 on arterial roads, 15,444 on residential roads, and 4595 on highways. The impacts of speed and acceleration on fuel consumption and emissions were analyzed. Results show that trucks spend an average of 16.5% of the time in idling mode, 25.5% in acceleration mode, 27.9% in deceleration mode, and only 30.0% at cruise speed. The average emission factors of CO, total hydrocarbons (THC), and NO x for the selected vehicles are (4.96±2.90), (1.88±1.03) and (6.54±1.90) g km -1, respectively. The vehicle emission rates vary significantly with factors like speed and acceleration. The test results reflect the actual traffic situation and the current emission status of diesel trucks in Shanghai. The measurements show that low-speed conditions with frequent acceleration and deceleration, particularly in congestion conditions, are the main factors that aggravate vehicle emissions and cause high emissions of CO and THC. Alleviating congestion would significantly improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce CO and THC emissions.

  10. On-road emissions of PCDDs and PCDFs from heavy duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Gullett, Brian K; Ryan, Jeffrey V

    2002-07-01

    This work characterized emission factors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from on-road sampling of three heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under experimental conditions of city and highway driving; idling operation; high (>400 ppm) and low (<5 ppm) sulfur (S) fuels; and high mileage and rebuilt engine testing. Emission factors, homologue profiles, and isomer patterns were compared to determine whether the experimental conditions had an impact on PCDD/F emissions, or whether these conditions were uninfluential in determining a fleet-representative emission factor. For a single HDDV tested under conditions of a high mileage engine, a newly rebuilt engine, and the newly rebuilt engine with low S diesel fuel, emission factors were 0.023 (+/- 0.022), 0.008 (+/- 0.002), and 0.016 (+/- 0.013) ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/km, respectively. These results may infer some limited condition-specific differences in PCDD/F emissions, but these differences do not appear to have a significant effect on the HDDV emission factor. An older HDDV with mechanical fuel controls resulted in a single test value of 0.164 ng TEQ/km, significantly higher than all other results. Observed differences in emission factors, homologue profiles, and TEQ-related isomer patterns from this on-vehicle sampling and others' tunnel sampling suggest limitations in our present characterization of fleet PCDD/F emissions. PMID:12144283

  11. Particle emission from heavy-duty engine fuelled with blended diesel and biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Martins, Leila Droprinchinski; da Silva Júnior, Carlos Roberto; Solci, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Jurandir Pereira; Souza, Davi Zacarias; Vasconcellos, Pérola; Guarieiro, Aline Lefol Nani; Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Sousa, Eliane Teixeira; de Andrade, Jailson B

    2012-05-01

    In this study, particulate matter (PM) were characterized from a place impacted by heavy-duty vehicles (Bus Station) fuelled with diesel/biodiesel fuel blend (B3) in the city of Londrina, Brazil. Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were analyzed in the samples by their association with atmospheric PM, mass size distributions and major ions (fluorite, chloride, bromide, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, nitrite, oxalate; fumarate, formate, succinate and acetate; lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and ammonium). Results indicate that major ions represented 21.2% particulate matter mass. Nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, respectively, presented the highest concentration levels, indicating that biodiesel may also be a significant source for these ions, especially nitrate. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene were the main PAH found, and a higher fraction of PAH particles was found in diameters lower than 0.25 μm in Londrina bus station. The fine and ultrafine particles were dominant among the PM evaluated, suggesting that biodiesel decreases the total PAH emission. However, it does also increase the fraction of fine and ultrafine particles when compared to diesel. PMID:21713496

  12. Ultrafine PM emissions from natural gas, oxidation-catalyst diesel, and particle-trap diesel heavy-duty transit buses.

    PubMed

    Holmén, Britt A; Ayala, Alberto

    2002-12-01

    This paper addresses how current technologies effective for reducing PM emissions of heavy-duty engines may affect the physical characteristics of the particles emitted. Three in-use transit bus configurations were compared in terms of submicron particle size distributions using simultaneous SMPS measurements under two dilution conditions, a minidiluter and the legislated constant volume sampler (CVS). The compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled and diesel particulate filter (DPF)-equipped diesel configurations are two "green" alternatives to conventional diesel engines. The CNG bus in this study did not have an oxidation catalyst whereas the diesel configurations (with and without particulate filter) employed catalysts. The DPF was a continuously regenerating trap (CRT). Particle size distributions were collected between 6 and 237 nm using 2-minute SMPS scans during idle and 55 mph steady-state cruise operation. Average particle size distributions collected during idle operation of the diesel baseline bus operating on ultralow sulfur fuel showed evidence for nanoparticle growth under CVS dilution conditions relative to the minidiluter. The CRT effectively reduced both accumulation and nuclei mode concentrations by factors of 10-100 except under CVS dilution conditions where nuclei mode concentrations were measured during 55 mph steady-state cruise that exceeded baseline diesel concentrations. The CVS data suggest some variability in trap performance. The CNG bus had accumulation mode concentrations 10-100x lower than the diesel baseline but often displayed large nuclei modes, especially under CVS dilution conditions. Partly this may be explained by the lack of an oxidation catalyst on the CNG, but differences between the minidiluter and CVS size distributions suggest that dilution ratio, temperature-related wall interactions, and differences in tunnel background between the diluters contributed to creating nanoparticle concentrations that sometimes exceeded diesel

  13. The challenge to NOx emission control for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zhang, S. J.; Li, M. L.; Ge, Y. S.; Shu, J. W.; Zhou, Y.; Xu, Y. Y.; Hu, J. N.; Liu, H.; Fu, L. X.; He, K. B.; Hao, J. M.

    2012-10-01

    China's new "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" set a target for total NOx emission reduction of 10% for the period of 2011-2015. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) have been considered a major contributor to NOx emissions in China. Beijing initiated a comprehensive vehicle test program in 2008. This program included a sub-task for measuring on-road emission profiles of hundreds of HDDVs using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). The major finding is that neither the on-road distance-specific (g km-1) nor brake-specific (g kWh-1) NOx emission factors for diesel buses and heavy-duty diesel trucks improved in most cases as emission standards became more stringent. For example, the average NOx emission factors for Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV buses are 11.3 ± 3.3 g km-1, 12.5 ± 1.3 g km-1, and 11.8 ± 2.0 g km-1, respectively. No statistically significant difference in NOx emission factors was observed between Euro II and III buses. Even for Euro IV buses equipped with SCR systems, the NOx emission factors are similar to Euro III buses. The data regarding real-time engine performance of Euro IV buses suggest the engine certification cycles did not reflect their real-world operating conditions. These new on-road test results indicate that previous estimates of total NOx emissions for HDDV fleet may be significantly underestimated. The new estimate in total NOx emissions for the Beijing HDDV fleet in 2009 is 37.0 Gg, an increase of 45% compared to the previous study. Further, we estimate that the total NOx emissions for the national HDDV fleet in 2009 are approximately 4.0 Tg, higher by 1.0 Tg (equivalent to 18% of total NOx emissions for vehicle fleet in 2009) than that estimated in the official report. This would also result in 4% increase in estimation of national anthropogenic NOx emissions. More effective control measures (such as promotion of CNG buses and a new in-use compliance testing program) are urged to secure the goal of total NOx mitigation for the HDDV

  14. The challenge to NOx emission control for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zhang, S. J.; Li, M. L.; Ge, Y. S.; Shu, J. W.; Zhou, Y.; Xu, Y. Y.; Hu, J. N.; Liu, H.; Fu, L. X.; He, K. B.; Hao, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    China's new "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" set a target for total NOx emission reduction of 10% for the period of 2011-2015. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) have been considered a major contributor to NOx emissions in China. Beijing initiated a comprehensive vehicle test program in 2008. This program included a sub-task for measuring on-road emission profiles of hundreds of HDDVs using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). The major finding is that neither the on-road distance-specific (g km -1) nor brake-specific (g kW h-1) NOx emission factors for diesel buses and heavy-duty diesel trucks improved in most cases as emission standards became more stringent. For example, the average NOx emission factors for Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV buses are 11.3±3.3 g km-1, 12.5± 1.3 g km-1, and 11.8±2.0 g km-1, respectively. No statistically significant difference in NOx emission factors was observed between Euro II and III buses. Even for Euro IV buses equipped with SCR systems, the NOx emission factors are similar to Euro III buses. The data regarding real-time engine performance of Euro IV buses suggest the engine certification cycles did not reflect their real-world operating conditions. These new on-road test results indicate that previous estimates of total NOx emissions for HDDV fleet may be significantly underestimated. The new estimate in total NOx emissions for the Beijing HDDV fleet in 2009 is 37.0 Gg, an increase of 45% compared to the previous study. Further, we estimate that the total NOx emissions for the national HDDV fleet in 2009 are approximately 4.0 Tg, higher by 1.0 Tg (equivalent to 18% of total NOx emissions for vehicle fleet in 2009) than that estimated in the official report. This would also result in 4% increase in estimation of national anthropogenic NOx emissions. More effective control measures (such as promotion of CNG buses and a new in-use compliance testing program) are urged to secure the goal of total NOxmitigation for the HDDV fleet

  15. Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency (MEHE) Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M.; Veliz, M.

    2011-09-30

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UTBattelle, Inc. and Caterpillar, Inc. was to improve diesel engine efficiency by incorporating advanced materials to enable higher combustion pressures and temperatures necessary for improved combustion. The project scope also included novel materials for use in advanced components and designs associated with waste-heat recovery and other concepts for improved thermal efficiency. Caterpillar initially provided ORNL with a 2004 Tier 2 C15 ACERT diesel engine (designed for on-highway use) and two 600 hp motoring dynamometers. The first year of the CRADA effort was focused on establishing a heavy-duty experimental engine research cell. First year activities included procuring, installing and commissioning the cell infrastructure. Infrastructure components consisted of intake air handling system, water tower, exhaust handling system, and cell air conditioning. Other necessary infrastructure items included the fuel delivery system and bottled gas handling to support the analytical instrumentation. The second year of the CRADA focused on commissioning the dynamometer system to enable engine experimentation. In addition to the requirements associated with the dynamometer controller, the electrical system needed a power factor correction system to maintain continuity with the electrical grid. During the second year the engine was instrumented and baseline operated to confirm performance and commission the dynamometer. The engine performance was mapped and modeled according to requirements provided by Caterpillar. This activity was further supported by a Work-for-Others project from Caterpillar to evaluate a proprietary modeling system. A second Work-for-Others activity was performed to evaluate a novel turbocharger design. This project was highly successful and may lead to new turbocharger designs for Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engines. During the third (and final) year of the CRADA, a

  16. EVALUATION OF FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNITS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 30-50% of the time the engine is running. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e...

  17. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  18. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (b)(3) applies as specified in 40 CFR 1037.103. Evaporative emissions (total of non-oxygenated... specified in 40 CFR 1037.103. Evaporative emissions from 2004 and later model year heavy-duty vehicles... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of...

  19. A Vector Approach to Regression Analysis and Its Implications to Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, H.T.

    2001-02-14

    An alternative approach is presented for the regression of response data on predictor variables that are not logically or physically separable. The methodology is demonstrated by its application to a data set of heavy-duty diesel emissions. Because of the covariance of fuel properties, it is found advantageous to redefine the predictor variables as vectors, in which the original fuel properties are components, rather than as scalars each involving only a single fuel property. The fuel property vectors are defined in such a way that they are mathematically independent and statistically uncorrelated. Because the available data set does not allow definitive separation of vehicle and fuel effects, and because test fuels used in several of the studies may be unrealistically contrived to break the association of fuel variables, the data set is not considered adequate for development of a full-fledged emission model. Nevertheless, the data clearly show that only a few basic patterns of fuel-property variation affect emissions and that the number of these patterns is considerably less than the number of variables initially thought to be involved. These basic patterns, referred to as ''eigenfuels,'' may reflect blending practice in accordance with their relative weighting in specific circumstances. The methodology is believed to be widely applicable in a variety of contexts. It promises an end to the threat of collinearity and the frustration of attempting, often unrealistically, to separate variables that are inseparable.

  20. Uncertainties of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon and carbonyl measurements in heavy-duty diesel emission.

    PubMed

    Mabilia, Rosanna; Cecinato, Angelo; Guerriero, Ettore; Possanzini, Massimiliano

    2006-02-01

    In this note we describe the speciated particle-phase PM2.5 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and gas-phase carbonyl emissions as collected from a heavy-duty diesel bus outfitted with an oxidation catalyst for exhaust after-treatment. The vehicle was run on a chassis dynamometer during a transient cycle test reproducing a typical city bus route (Azienda Tramviaria Municipalizzata cycle). The diluted tailpipe emissions were sampled for PAH using a 2.5 microm cut size cyclone glass fiber filter assembly, while carbonyls were absorbed onto dinitrophenyl hydrazine-coated silica cartridges. The former compounds were analysed by CGC-MS, the latter by HPLC-UV. Combining the two sets of speciation data resulting from 15 identical dynamometer tests provided a profile of both unregulated organic emissions. PAH emission rates decreased with the number of benzene fused rings. Fluoranthene and pyrene amounted to 90% of total PAHs quantified; six-ring PAHs accounted only for 0.5%. Similarly, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde accounted for approximately 80% of the total carbonyl emissions. Uncertainties of the method in the determination of individual emission factors were calculated. Statistical data processing revealed that all the measurements were quite unaffected by systematic errors and repeatability percentages did not exceed 50% for the majority of components of both groups. PMID:16524107

  1. Effect of fuel properties on mutagenic activity in extracts of heavy-duty diesel exhaust particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, R.E. )

    1990-10-01

    The effect of varying fuel properties on the emission of mutagenic materials was studied in diesel exhaust particles from a heavy duty engine run under transient speed and load conditions while using nine fuels varying in aromatics, sulfur and boiling point. Mutagenic activity of the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate was determined using the Ames Salmonella test system with strain TA98 with and without S9 activation. Increasing mutagenic activity relative to fuel consumed (mutants/lb fuel) or to engine work output (mutants/hp-h) was correlated with increasing fuel aromatics (p less than 0.05), but not with fuel sulfur. Increased fuel sulfur levels were correlated with increased amounts of SOF but with decreasing mutagenic activity of the SOF (mutants/microgram SOF) (p less than 0.05). As a result, mutants/hp-h were essentially the same for high- and low-sulfur fuels with high aromatics. No association was found between the fuels' boiling points and the mutagenic activity of the SOF. Mutagenic activity with S9 was generally lower than without, but the correlations were not changed.

  2. Transformation toughened ceramics for the heavy duty diesel engine technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Feingold, E.; Rauch, H.; Samanta, S.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an advanced high temperature oxide structural ceramic for application to the heavy duty diesel engine. The approach is to employ transformation toughening by additions of ZrO.5HfO.5O2 solid solution to the oxide ceramics, mullite (2Al2O3S2SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). The study is planned for three phases, each 12 months in duration. This report covers Phase 1. During this period, processing techniques were developed to incorporate the ZrO.5HfO.5O2 solid solution in the matrices while retaining the necessary metastable tetragonal phase. Modulus of rupture and of elasticity, coefficient of thermal expansion, fracture toughness by indent technique and thermal diffusivity of representative specimens were measured. In Phase 2, the process will be improved to provide higher mechanical strength and to define the techniques for scale up to component size. In Phase 3, full scale component prototypes will be fabri-]cated.

  3. Limitations of rigid body descriptions for heavy-duty diesel engine vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.W.; Dowling, D.R.

    1999-04-01

    Internal combustion engine vibration modeling commonly relies on assuming the engine is a linearly reacting rigid body, thereby ignoring rotating, reciprocating, and nonsolid engine components. Limitations of this approach are identified from a series of experiments on a heavy-duty in-line six-cylinder Diesel engine typical of Class VIII trucks. Measurement of all three orthogonal vibration force components were made at each of three engine mounts during standard impact-excitation modal identification tests on the quiescent engine and during engine operation. The running-engine vibration forces, measured throughout the test engine load and speed operating envelope, were projected onto the quiescent-engine rigid body modes to determine the modal content and residual vibration as a function of frequency. Modal decomposition results for the running engine show that the quiescent-engine rigid body modes, with modal frequencies between 5.6 and 26.3 Hz, account for 80 percent or more of the measured engine vibration forces for all engine speeds and loads in a bandwidth from zero to 200 Hz. The likely origins of the residual vibration within this bandwidth are discussed.

  4. Analysis of heavy-duty diesel truck activity and emissions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huai, Tao; Shah, Sandip D.; Wayne Miller, J.; Younglove, Ted; Chernich, Donald J.; Ayala, Alberto

    Despite their relatively small population, heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) are (in 2005) disproportionate contributors to the emissions inventory for oxides of nitrogen (NO x) and particulate matter (PM) due to their high individual vehicle emissions rates, lack of engine aftertreatment, and high vehicle miles traveled. Beginning in the early 1990s, heavy-duty engine manufacturers began equipping their engines with electronic sensors and controls and on-board electronic computer modules (ECMs) to manage these systems. These ECMs can collect and store both periodic and lifetime engine operation data for a variety of engine and vehicle parameters including engine speed and load, time at idle, average vehicle speed, etc. The University of California, Riverside (UCR), under a contract with the California Air Resources Board (CARB), performed data analysis of 270 ECM data sets obtained from the CARB. The results from this analysis have provided insights into engine/vehicle operation that have not been obtained from previous on-board datalogger studies since those previous studies focused on vehicle operation and did not collect engine operating data. Results indicate that HDDVs spend a considerable amount of time at high-speed cruise and at idle and that a smaller percentage of time is spent under transient engine/vehicle operation. These results are consistent with other HDDV activity studies, and provide further proof of the validity of assumptions in CARB's emission factor (EMFAC2002) model. An additional important contribution of this paper is that the evaluation of vehicle ECM data provides several advantages over traditional global positioning system (GPS) and datalogger studies: (1) ECM data is significantly cheaper than the traditional method (50 record -1 vs. ˜2000 record -1) and (2) ECM data covers vehicle operation over the entire life of the vehicle, whereas traditional surveys cover only short periods of surveillance (days, weeks, or months). It is

  5. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines

    PubMed Central

    Khalek, Imad A.; Blanks, Matthew G.; Merritt, Patrick M.; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines’ regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially

  6. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  7. The effect of fuel processes on heavy duty automotive diesel engine emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, E.G.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of fuel quality on exhaust emissions from 2 heavy duty diesel engines has been measured over the ECE R49 test cycle. The engines were selected to represent technologies used to meet Euro 1 and 2 emission standards (1992/93 and 1995/96); engines 1 and 2 respectively. The test fuels were prepared by a combination of processing, blending and additive treatment. When comparing the emissions from engines 1 and 2, using base line data generated on the CEC reference fuel RF73-T-90, engine technology had the major effect on emission levels. Engine 2 reduced both particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide levels by approximately 50%, with total hydrocarbon (THC) being approximately 75% lower. Oxides of nitrogen levels were similar for both engines. The variations in test fuel quality had marginal effects on emissions, with the two engines giving directionally opposite responses in some cases. For instance, there was an effect on CO and NOx but where one engine showed a reduction the other gave an increase. There were no significant changes in THC emissions from either engine when operating on any of the test fuels. When the reference fuel was hydrotreated, engine 1 showed a trend towards reduced particulate and NOx but with CO increasing. Engine 2 also showed a trend for reduced particulate levels, with an increase in NOx and no change in CO. Processing to reduce the final boiling point of the reference fuel showed a trend towards reduced particulate emissions with CO increasing on engine 1 but decreasing on engine 2.

  8. Semivolatile organic compound emissions from heavy-duty trucks operating on diesel and bio-diesel fuel blends

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study measured semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in particle matter (PM) emitted from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern after-treatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted as described by the George et al. VOC study also presented as part of this se...

  9. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  10. Effect of methanol-containing additive on the emission of carbonyl compounds from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Chao, H R; Lin, T C; Chao, M R; Chang, F H; Huang, C I; Chen, C B

    2000-03-13

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of methanol-containing additive (MCA) on the emission of carbonyl compounds (CBCs) generated from the diesel engine. For this experiment, a heavy-duty diesel engine was connected with a full flow critical flow ventri (CFV) type dilution tunnel, a Schenck GS-350 DC dynamometer, and a DC-IV control system in series. The operating conditions of the heavy-duty diesel engine for both cold-start and hot-start Transient Cycle tests and for both low-load and high-load steady-state tests were ascertained. The exhaust of CBCs collected from a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH)-coated cartridge were first converted to corresponding hydrazone derivatives, which were then solvent-eluted and analyzed by a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC) with an ultraviolet-visible (UV) detector. When either 10% or 15% MCA was used, the emission factors of the CBCs acrolein and isovaleraldehyde increased by at least 91%. Accordingly, future studies must be done to cut down the emission of CBCs when MCA and methanol alternative fuels are used. PMID:10686377

  11. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE LOAD ESTIMATION: DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLE ACTIVITY OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Heavy-Duty Vehicle Modal Emission Model (HDDV-MEM) developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology(Georgia Tech) has a capability to model link-specific second-by-second emissions using speed/accleration matrices. To estimate emissions, engine power demand calculated usin...

  12. Application for certification 1982 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Mercedes-Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing.

  13. Effects of a zeolite-selective catalytic reduction system on comprehensive emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Gerald; Berg, Devin R; Schauer, James J

    2008-10-01

    The effects of a zeolite urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system on a comprehensive spectrum of chemical species from diesel engine emissions were investigated in this study. Representative samples were collected with a newly developed source dilution sampling system after an aging process designed to simulate atmospheric dilution and cooling conditions. Samples were analyzed with established procedures and compared between the measurements taken from a baseline heavy-duty diesel engine and also from the same engine equipped with the exhaust aftertreatment system. The results have shown significant reductions for nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organic carbon (OC) emissions. Additionally, less significant yet notable reductions were observed for particulate matter mass and metals emissions. Furthermore, the production of new species was not observed with the addition of the zeolite urea-SCR system joined with a downstream oxidation catalyst. PMID:18939772

  14. Real-world emissions of carbonyl compounds from in-use heavy-duty diesel trucks and diesel Back-Up Generators (BUGs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Aniket A.; Shah, Sandip D.; Zhu, Xiaona; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.

    Emissions of carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein are of interest to the scientific and regulatory communities due to their suspected or likely impacts on human health. The present work investigates emissions of carbonyl compounds from nine Class 8 heavy-duty diesel (HDD) tractors and also from nine diesel-powered backup generators (BUGs); the former were chosen because of their ubiquity as an emission source, and the latter because of their proximity to centers of human activity. The HDD tractors were operated on the ARB 4-Mode heavy heavy-duty diesel truck (HHDDT) driving cycle, while the BUGs were operated on the ISO 8178 Type D2 5-mode steady-state cycle and sampled using a mobile emissions laboratory (UCR MEL) equipped with a full-scale dilution tunnel. Samples were analyzed using the SAE930142 (Auto/Oil) method for 11 aldehydes, from formaldehyde to hexanaldehyde, and 2 ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone). Although absolute carbonyl emissions varied widely by BUG, the relative contributions of the different carbonyls were similar (e.g., median: 56% for formaldehyde). A slight increasing trend with engine load was observed for relative formaldehyde contribution, but not for acetaldehyde contribution, for the BUGs. On-road per-mile carbonyl emission factors were a strong function of operating mode of the ARB HHDDT cycle, and found to decrease in the order Creep>Transient>Cruise. This order is qualitatively similar to emission factors for PAHs and n-alkanes determined for the same set of Class 8 diesel tractors in an earlier work. In general, relative carbonyl contributions for the HDD tractors were similar to those for BUGs (e.g., median: 54% for formaldehyde). These results indicate that while engine operating mode and application appear to exert a strong influence on the total absolute mass emission rate of the carbonyls measured, they do not appear to exert as strong an influence on the relative mass emission rates of

  15. Effects of diesel fuel combustion-modifier additives on In-cylinder soot formation in a heavy-duty Dl diesel engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark P. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dietz, Jeff

    2005-07-01

    Based on a phenomenological model of diesel combustion and pollutant-formation processes, a number of fuel additives that could potentially reduce in-cylinder soot formation by altering combustion chemistry have been identified. These fuel additives, or ''combustion modifiers'', included ethanol and ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, polyethylene glycol dinitrate (a cetane improver), succinimide (a dispersant), as well as nitromethane and another nitro-compound mixture. To better understand the chemical and physical mechanisms by which these combustion modifiers may affect soot formation in diesel engines, in-cylinder soot and diffusion flame lift-off were measured, using an optically-accessible, heavy-duty, direct-injection diesel engine. A line-of-sight laser extinction diagnostic was employed to measure the relative soot concentration within the diesel jets (''jetsoot'') as well as the rates of deposition of soot on the piston bowl-rim (''wall-soot''). An OH chemiluminescence imaging technique was utilized to measure the lift-off lengths of the diesel diffusion flames so that fresh oxygen entrainment rates could be compared among the fuels. Measurements were obtained at two operating conditions, using blends of a base commercial diesel fuel with various combinations of the fuel additives. The ethanol additive, at 10% by mass, reduced jet-soot by up to 15%, and reduced wall-soot by 30-40%. The other fuel additives also affected in-cylinder soot, but unlike the ethanol blends, changes in in-cylinder soot could be attributed solely to differences in the ignition delay. No statistically-significant differences in the diesel flame lift-off lengths were observed among any of the fuel additive formulations at the operating conditions examined in this study. Accordingly, the observed differences in in-cylinder soot among the fuel formulations cannot be attributed to differences in fresh oxygen entrainment upstream of the soot-formation zones after ignition.

  16. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  17. Application for certification, 1992 model-year heavy-duty diesel engines - Mercedes Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines that he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  18. Application for certification 1992 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Mercedes-Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  19. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-15

    Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC+DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N(TOT)) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N(TOT) and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N(TOT) at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC+DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N(TOT) post the DOC+DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ≈ 10(4)cm(-3). This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the after treatment is highly favored. PMID:22119306

  20. Emission rates of regulated pollutants from current technology heavy-duty diesel and natural gas goods movement vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Thiruvengadam, Pragalath; Pradhan, Saroj; Carder, Daniel; Kappanna, Hemanth; Gautam, Mridul; Oshinuga, Adewale; Hogo, Henry; Miyasato, Matt

    2015-04-21

    Chassis dynamometer emissions testing of 11 heavy-duty goods movement vehicles, including diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel technology, compliant with US-EPA 2010 emissions standard were conducted. Results of the study show that three-way catalyst (TWC) equipped stoichiometric natural gas vehicles emit 96% lower NOx emissions as compared to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) equipped diesel vehicles. Characteristics of drayage truck vocation, represented by the near-dock and local drayage driving cycles, were linked to high NOx emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with a SCR. Exhaust gas temperatures below 250 °C, for more than 95% duration of the local and near-dock driving cycles, resulted in minimal SCR activity. The low percentage of activity SCR over the local and near-dock cycles contributed to a brake-specific NOx emissions that were 5-7 times higher than in-use certification limit. The study also illustrated the differences between emissions rate measured from chassis dynamometer testing and prediction from the EMFAC model. The results of the study emphasize the need for model inputs relative to SCR performance as a function of driving cycle and engine operation characteristics. PMID:25826745

  1. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung; Young, Li-Hao; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2015-10-30

    Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study. PMID:25974660

  2. Quantifying in-use PM measurements for heavy duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kent C; Durbin, Thomas D; Jung, Heejung; Cocker, David R; Bishnu, Dipak; Giannelli, Robert

    2011-07-15

    Heavy duty emissions regulations have recently expanded from the laboratory to include in-use requirements. This paradigm shift to in-use testing has forced the development of portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) for particulate matter (PM). These PM measurements are not trivial for laboratory work, and are even more complex for in-use testing. This study evaluates five PM PEMS in comparison to UCR's mobile reference laboratory under in-use conditions. Three on-highway, heavy-duty trucks were selected to provide PM emissions levels from 0.1 to 0.0003 g/hp-h, with varying compositions of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and sulfate. The on-road driving courses included segments near sea level, at elevations up to 1500 m, and coastal and desert regions. The photoacoustic measurement PEMS performed best for the non-after treatment system (ATS)-equipped engine, where the PM was mostly EC, with a linear regression slope of 0.91 and an R(2) of 0.95. The PEMS did not perform as well for the 2007 modified ATS equipped engines. The best performing PEMS showed a slope of 0.16 for the ATS-equipped engine with predominantly sulfate emissions and 0.89 for the ATS-equipped engine with predominantly OC emissions, with the next best slope at 0.45 for the predominantly OC engine. PMID:21662983

  3. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of selective catalytic reduction control technologies for highway, nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  4. 40 CFR 86.007-11 - Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavy-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start test... to 2006 model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles, but only if the vehicle or engine bears...

  5. 40 CFR 86.007-11 - Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavy-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start test... to 2006 model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles, but only if the vehicle or engine bears...

  6. Program Guide for Diesel Engine Mechanics 8742000 (IN47.060500) and Heavy Duty Truck and Bus Mechanics DIM0991 (IN47.060501).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Coll. of Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in diesel engine mechanics and heavy duty truck and bus mechanics. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education…

  7. 40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled engines and particulate emissions from all engines. 86.1310-2007 Section 86.1310-2007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL...

  8. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoseeinzadeh, Sepideh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  9. Pre- and post-injection flow characterization in a heavy-duty diesel engine using high-speed PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, R. P. C.; Luijten, C. C. M.; Dam, N. J.; de Goey, L. P. H.

    2012-09-01

    High-speed particle image velocimetry (HS-PIV) using hollow microspheres has been applied to characterize the flow in a heavy-duty diesel engine during and after fuel injection. The injection timings were varied in the range representing those used in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) regimes, and multiple injections have been applied to investigate their influence on the flow inside the combustion chamber. By injecting into pure nitrogen, combustion is avoided and the flow can be studied long after injection. The results show a sudden change of air motion at the start of injection as a result of the air entrainment at the core of the spray. Furthermore, as expected, spray injection causes a considerable increase in the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations of the flow pattern, the more so for longer injection durations.

  10. Quantifying on-road emissions from gasoline-powered motor vehicles: accounting for the presence of medium- and heavy-duty diesel trucks.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, Timothy R; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; DeMartini, Steven J; Harley, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    Vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic aerosol (OA), and black carbon (BC) were measured at the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Measurements were made in bore 2 of the tunnel, where light-duty (LD) vehicles accounted for >99% of total traffic and heavy-duty trucks were not allowed. Prior emission studies conducted in North America have often assumed that route- or weekend-specific prohibitions on heavy-duty truck traffic imply that diesel contributions to pollutant concentrations measured in on-road settings can be neglected. However, as light-duty vehicle emissions have declined, this assumption can lead to biased results, especially for pollutants such as NOx, OA, and BC, for which diesel-engine emission rates are high compared to corresponding values for gasoline engines. In this study, diesel vehicles (mostly medium-duty delivery trucks with two axles and six tires) accounted for <1% of all vehicles observed in the tunnel but were nevertheless responsible for (18 ± 3)%, (22 ± 6)%, and (45 ± 8)% of measured NOx, OA, and BC concentrations. Fleet-average OA and BC emission factors for light-duty vehicles are, respectively, 10 and 50 times lower than for heavy-duty diesel trucks. Using measured emission factors from this study and publicly available data on taxable fuel sales, as of 2010, LD gasoline vehicles were estimated to be responsible for 85%, 18%, 18%, and 6% of emissions of CO, NOx, OA, and BC, respectively, from on-road motor vehicles in the United States. PMID:24215572

  11. On-road emission rates of PAH and n-alkane compounds from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sandip D; Ogunyoku, Temitope A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2005-07-15

    This paper presents the quantification of the emission rates of PAH and n-alkane compounds from on-road emissions testing of nine heavy-duty diesel (HDD) vehicles tested using CE-CERT's Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL) over the California Air Resources Board (ARB) Four Phase Cycle. Per mile and per CO2 emission rates of PAHs and n-alkanes were highest for operation simulating congested traffic (Creep) and lowest for cruising conditions (Cruise). Significant differences were seen in emission rates over the different phases of the cycle. Creep phase fleet average emission rates (mg mi(-1)) of PAHs and n-alkanes were approximately an order of magnitude higher than Cruise phase. This finding indicates that models must account for mode of operation when performing emissions inventory estimates. Failure to account for mode of operation can potentially lead to significant over- and underpredictions of emissions inventories (up to 20 times), especially in small geographic regions with significant amounts of HDD congestion. Howeverthe PAH and n-alkane source profiles remained relatively constant for the different modes of operation. Variability of source profiles within the vehicle fleet exceeded the variability due to different operating modes. Analysis of the relative risk associated with the compounds indicated the importance of naphthalene as a significant contributor to the risk associated with diesel exhaust. This high relative risk is driven by the magnitude of the emission rate of naphthalene in comparison to other compounds. PMID:16082957

  12. Time- and space-resolved quantitative LIF measurements of formaldehyde in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Donkerbroek, A.J.; van Vliet, A.P.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Meerts, W.L.; ter Meulen, J.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Dam, N.J.

    2010-01-15

    Formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O) is a characteristic species for the ignition phase of diesel-like fuels. As such, the spatio-temporal distribution of formaldehyde is an informative parameter in the study of the ignition event in internal combustion engines, especially for new combustion modes like homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). This paper presents quantitative data on the CH{sub 2}O distribution around diesel and n-heptane fuel sprays in the combustion chamber of a commercial heavy-duty diesel engine. Excitation of the 4{sub 0}{sup 1} band (355 nm) as well as the 4{sub 0}{sup 1}2{sub 0}{sup 1} band (339 nm) is applied. We use quantitative, spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence, calibrated by means of formalin seeding, to distinguish the contribution from CH{sub 2}O to the signal from those of other species formed early in the combustion. Typically, between 40% and 100% of the fluorescence in the wavelength range considered characteristic for formaldehyde is in fact due to other species, but the latter are also related to the early combustion. Numerical simulation of a homogeneous reactor of n-heptane and air yields concentrations that are in reasonable agreement with the measurements. Formaldehyde starts to be formed at about 2 CA (crank angle degrees) before the rise in main heat release. There appears to be a rather localised CH{sub 2}O formation zone relatively close to the injector, out of which formaldehyde is transported downstream by the fuel jet. Once the hot combustion sets in, formaldehyde quickly disappears. (author)

  13. Effects of particulate oxidation catalyst on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics from heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), soot, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulphate emissions emitted from a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted with a POC were investigated on a diesel bench. The particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust was collected by Teflon membrane, and the PAHs and VOCs were analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results indicate that the POC exhibits good performance on the emission control of VOCs, PAHs and PM. The POC and the diesel particulate filters (DPF) both show a good performance on reducing the VOCs emission. Though the brake-specific emission (BSE) reductions of the total PAHs by the POC were lower than those by the DPF, the POC still removed almost more than 50% of the total PAHs emission. After the engine was retrofitted with the POC, the reductions of the PM mass, SOF and soot emissions were 45.2-89.0%, 7.8-97.7% and 41.7-93.3%, respectively. The sulphate emissions decreased at low and medium loads, whereas at high load, the results were contrary. The PAHs emissions were decreased by 32.4-69.1%, and the contributions of the PAH compounds were affected by the POC, as well as by load level. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) of PAHs emissions were reduced by 35.9-97.6% with the POC. The VOCs emissions were reduced by 21.8-94.1% with the POC, and the reduction was more evident under high load. PMID:25424012

  14. Cost of lower NO x emissions: Increased CO 2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Carder, Daniel K.; Thompson, Gregory; Gautam, Mridul

    This paper highlights the effect of emissions regulations on in-use emissions from heavy-duty vehicles powered by different model year engines. More importantly, fuel economy data for pre- and post-consent decree engines are compared. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in brake-specific emissions of NO x as a result of emission regulations, and to highlight the effect these have had on brake-specific CO 2 emission; hence, fuel consumption. For this study, in-use, on-road emission measurements were collected. Test vehicles were instrumented with a portable on-board tailpipe emissions measurement system, WVU's Mobile Emissions Measurement System, and were tested on specific routes, which included a mix of highway and city driving patterns, in order to collect engine operating conditions, vehicle speed, and in-use emission rates of CO 2 and NO x. Comparison of on-road in-use emissions data suggests NO x reductions as high as 80% and 45% compared to the US Federal Test Procedure and Not-to-Exceed standards for model year 1995-2002. However, the results indicate that the fuel consumption; hence, CO 2 emissions increased by approximately 10% over the same period, when the engines were operating in the Not-to-Exceed region.

  15. Simultaneous determination of carbonyls and NO2 in exhausts of heavy-duty diesel trucks and transit buses by HPLC following 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine cartridge collection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shida; Graham, Lisa; Shen, Ling; Zhou, Xianliang; Lanni, Thomas

    2004-11-15

    A method combining 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridge sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis has been used for the measurement of carbonyl and NO2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks and transit buses. The reaction of NO2 with DNPH allows for the simultaneous and unambiguous determination of NO2 and carbonyl concentrations in exhaust samples. The potential coelution of the NO2-DNPH derivative with the formaldehyde-DNPH derivative under certain chromatographic conditions was investigated. Successful separation of these two species was achieved allowing for simultaneous determination of carbonyls and NO2 in the exhaust samples collected from heavy-duty diesel (HDD) trucks and diesel, diesel/electric hybrid, diesel equipped with the continuously regenerating technology (CRT) particle traps, and compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses tested over various drive cycles. Elevated NO2 emissions from CRT-equipped buses were observed. The NO2/NOx volume ratios for HDD trucks and transit buses are discussed. A comparison of the DNPH derivatization with HPLC/UV-visible detection method with a chemiluminescence analyzer method for NO2 measurement is presented for a limited number of diesel/CRT and CNG buses. PMID:15573595

  16. ON-ROAD EMISSION SAMPLING OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to characterize mobile heavy diesel vehicle emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during highway and in-city driving routes was successfully conducted. The post-muffler exhaust of a diesel tractor haul...

  17. The Influence of Light Weight Materials on Fuel Economy and Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Paul C.

    2000-08-20

    Technologies being developed that will allow for the substitution of aluminum for cast iron in engine heads and blocks, while maintaining performance and durability. Development of lightweight diesel engine technology: funded by NAVY, DOE and TACOM

  18. Chemical characterization of PM2.5 emitted from on-road heavy-duty diesel trucks in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingzhi; Yao, Zhiliang; Shen, Xianbao; Liu, Huan; He, Kebin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) are gaining more attention because of their contribution to NOX and PM2.5 emissions. To evaluate their contribution to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), not only their emission factors, but also their source profile is required. We conducted on-road emissions tests to characterize the PM2.5 emission, documenting per second mass emission rates from in-use HDDTs in China, using portable emissions measurement systems. The average PM2.5 emission factors for pre-EURO and EURO 1 HDDTs were 1.104 g/km and 0.822 g/km, equivalent to 6.106 g/kg and 3.132 g/kg based on fuel consumption. Element carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were the major components: EC accounted for 45-65% of PM2.5 for pre-EURO HDDTs and 36-69% for EURO 1 HDDTs, while the OC fraction for pre-EURO and EURO 1 HDDTs ranged from 20 to 31% and 19-31%, respectively. Thus, the average EC emission factors for pre-EURO and EURO 1 HDDTs were 0.667 g/km and 0.502 g/km, showing that implementation of tighter emission standards resulted in a 25% EC output reduction from pre-EURO to EURO 1 vehicles. Sulfate, comprising about 1% of PM2.5 mass, is still an abundant species in PM2.5 from HDDTs because of the high sulfur content in diesel fuel in China. Using these data, we updated national PM2.5 emission profiles for pre-EURO and EURO 1 HDDTs.

  19. Heavy-duty diesel engine NO{sub x} reduction with nitrogen-enriched combustion air. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, S.; Energy Systems

    2010-07-28

    The concept of engine emissions control by modifying intake combustion gas composition from that of ambient air using gas separation membranes has been developed during several programs undertaken at Argonne. These have led to the current program which is targeted at heavy-duty diesel truck engines. The specific objective is reduction of NO{sub x} emissions by the target engine to meet anticipated 2007 standards while extracting a maximum of 5 percent power loss and allowing implementation within commercial constraints of size, weight, and cost. This report includes a brief review of related past programs, describes work completed to date during the current program, and presents interim conclusions. Following a work schedule adjustment in August 2002 to accommodate problems in module procurement and data analysis, activities are now on schedule and planned work is expected to be completed in September, 2004. Currently, we believe that the stated program requirements for the target engine can be met, based upon extrapolation of the work completed. Planned project work is designed to experimentally confirm these projections and result in a specification for a module package that will meet program objectives.

  20. Ozone changes in response to the heavy-duty diesel truck control in the Pearl River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Yuan, Zibing; Fung, J. C. H.; Xue, Jian; Li, Ying; Zheng, Junyu; Lau, A. K. H.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, restricting heavy-duty diesel trucks from driving within urban areas during the daytime is implemented in major PRD cities (e.g. Guangzhou and Shenzhen). Potential effects of this traffic control policy on spatial and temporal variations of O3 concentrations are examined by CMAQ model system. Temporal profiles of mobile source emissions are modified to reflect the emission characteristics after the control. Our results show that: (1) with the updated mobile emission profile, there is a notable improvement in O3 simulation performance for urban sites, with reductions in both the nighttime O3 overestimation (up to 25 ppb) and the daytime underestimation on O3 peak values (up to 20 ppb); (2) although the control policies are only applied in urban locations, their effects may extend to much larger downwind areas. The results from this study provide basic information that is useful in understanding the effects of mobile control policies on ambient O3 in highly developing regions of China where similar strategies have been widely implemented.

  1. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

  2. Chemical speciation of PM emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) retrofits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Subhasis; Verma, Vishal; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    Four heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) in six retrofitted configurations (CRT ®, V-SCRT ®, Z-SCRT ®, Horizon, DPX and CCRT ®) and a baseline vehicle operating without after--treatment were tested under cruise (50 mph), transient UDDS and idle driving modes. As a continuation of the work by Biswas et al. [Biswas, S., Hu, S., Verma, V., Herner, J., Robertson, W.J., Ayala, A., Sioutas, C., 2008. Physical properties of particulate matter (PM) from late model heavy-duty diesel vehicles operating with advanced emission control technologies. Atmospheric Environment 42, 5622-5634.] on particle physical parameters, this paper focuses on PM chemical characteristics (Total carbon [TC], Elemental carbon [EC], Organic Carbon [OC], ions and water-soluble organic carbon [WSOC]) for cruise and UDDS cycles only. Size-resolved PM collected by MOUDI-Nano-MOUDI was analyzed for TC, EC and OC and ions (such as sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium and phosphate), while Teflon coated glass fiber filters from a high volume sampler were extracted to determine WSOC. The introduction of retrofits reduced PM mass emissions over 90% in cruise and 95% in UDDS. Similarly, significant reductions in the emission of major chemical constituents (TC, OC and EC) were achieved. Sulfate dominated PM composition in vehicle configurations (V-SCRT ®-UDDS, Z-SCRT ®-Cruise, CRT ® and DPX) with considerable nucleation mode and TC was predominant for configurations with less (Z-SCRT ®-UDDS) or insignificant (CCRT ®, Horizon) nucleation. The transient operation increases EC emissions, consistent with its higher accumulation PM mode content. In general, solubility of organic carbon is higher (average ˜5 times) for retrofitted vehicles than the baseline vehicle. The retrofitted vehicles with catalyzed filters (DPX, CCRT ®) had decreased OC solubility (WSOC/OC: 8-25%) unlike those with uncatalyzed filters (SCRT ®s, Horizon; WSOC/OC ˜ 60-100%). Ammonium was present predominantly in the

  3. Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection: Heavy duty diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiczynski, P. D.; Marolewski, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this DOE program was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and sump temperatures approaching 250 C. The lubricants developed demonstrated at marginal increase in sump temperature capability, approximately 15 C, and an increase in top ring reversal temperature. A 15W-40 synthetic lubricant designated HTL-4 was the best lubricant developed in terms of stability, wear control, deposit control dispersancy, and particulate emissions.

  4. Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection heavy duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wiczynski, T.A.; Marolewski, T.A.

    1993-03-01

    Objective was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and lubricant sump temperatures approaching 250 C. Base stock screening showed that aromatic esters and diesters has the lowest deposit level, compared to polyol esters, poly-alpha-olefins, or refined mineral oil of comparable viscosity. Classical aryl and alkyl ZDP antiwear additives are ineffective in reducing wear with aromatic esters; the phosphate ester was a much better antiwear additive, and polyol esters are more amenable to ZDP treatment. Zeolites and clays were evaluated for filtration.

  5. Aftertreatment Technologies for Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M.D.

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this program was to explore a combination of advanced injection control and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to reduce the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from a Tier 2 off-highway diesel engine to Tier 3 emission targets while maintaining fuel efficiency. The engine used in this investigation was a 2004 4.5L John Deere PowerTechTM; this engine was not equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Under the original CRADA, the principal objective was to assess whether Tier 3 PM emission targets could be met solely by increasing the rail pressure. Although high rail pressure will lower the total PM emissions, it has a contrary effect to raise NOx emissions. To address this effect, a urea-SCR system was used to determine whether the enhanced NOx levels, associated with high rail pressure, could be reduced to Tier 3 levels. A key attraction for this approach is that it eliminates the need for a Diesel particulate filter (DPF) to remove PM emissions. The original CRADA effort was also performed using No.2 Diesel fuel having a maximum sulfur level of 500 ppm. After a few years, the CRADA scope was expanded to include exploration of advanced injection strategies to improve catalyst regeneration and to explore the influence of urea-SCR on PM formation. During this period the emission targets also shifted to meeting more stringent Tier 4 emissions for NOx and PM, and the fuel type was changed to ultra-low sulfur Diesel (ULSD) having a maximum sulfur concentration of 15 ppm. New discoveries were made regarding PM formation at high rail pressures and the influences of oxidation catalysts and urea-SCR catalysts. These results are expected to provide a pathway for lower PM and NOx emissions for both off- and on-highway applications. Industrial in-kind support was available throughout the project period. Review of the research results were carried out on a regular basis (annual reports and meetings) followed by

  6. Effects of Particle Filters and Accelerated Engine Replacement on Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions of Black Carbon, Nitrogen Oxides, and Ultrafine Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S. J.; Tang, N. W.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel particle filters have become widely used in the United States since the introduction in 2007 of a more stringent exhaust particulate matter emission standard for new heavy-duty diesel vehicle engines. California has instituted additional regulations requiring retrofit or replacement of older in-use engines to accelerate emission reductions and air quality improvements. This presentation summarizes pollutant emission changes measured over several field campaigns at the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay Area associated with diesel particulate filter use and accelerated modernization of the heavy-duty truck fleet. Pollutants in the exhaust plumes of hundreds of heavy-duty trucks en route to the Port were measured in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2013. Ultrafine particle number, black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were measured at a frequency ≤ 1 Hz and normalized to measured carbon dioxide concentrations to quantify fuel-based emission factors (grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of diesel consumed). The size distribution of particles in truck exhaust plumes was also measured at 1 Hz. In the two most recent campaigns, emissions were linked on a truck-by-truck basis to installed emission control equipment via the matching of transcribed license plates to a Port truck database. Accelerated replacement of older engines with newer engines and retrofit of trucks with diesel particle filters reduced fleet-average emissions of BC and NOx. Preliminary results from the two most recent field campaigns indicate that trucks without diesel particle filters emit 4 times more BC than filter-equipped trucks. Diesel particle filters increase emissions of NO2, however, and filter-equipped trucks have NO2/NOx ratios that are 4 to 7 times greater than trucks without filters. Preliminary findings related to particle size distribution indicate that (a) most trucks emitted particles characterized by a single mode of approximately

  7. Characteristics of particle number and mass emissions during heavy-duty diesel truck parked active DPF regeneration in an ambient air dilution tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David C.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Collins, John F.; Burnitzki, Mark; Chernich, Donald; Herner, Jorn D.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particle number and mass emissions were measured during parked active regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in two heavy-duty diesel trucks: one equipped with a DPF and one equipped with a DPF + SCR (selective catalytic reduction), and compliant with the 2007 and 2010 emission standards, respectively. The emission measurements were conducted using an ambient air dilution tunnel. During parked active regeneration, particulate matter (PM) mass emissions measured from a 2007 technology truck were significantly higher than the emissions from a 2010 technology truck. Particle number emissions from both trucks were dominated by nucleation mode particles having a diameter less than 50 nm; nucleation mode particles were orders of magnitude higher than accumulation mode particles having a diameter greater than 50 nm. Accumulation mode particles contributed 77.8 %-95.8 % of the 2007 truck PM mass, but only 7.3 %-28.2 % of the 2010 truck PM mass.

  8. 77 FR 4736 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... eligibility of emission standards for nonconformance penalties in any given model year (50 FR 35374, August 30... FR 51464, August 8, 2002) established NCPs for the 2004 and later model year NO X standard for heavy..., 2001 (66 FR 5001), and first applied in the 2007 model year. However, because of phase-in...

  9. COMPARISON OF THE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL EXHAUST USING A DILUTION TAIL-PIPE SAMPLER AND IN-PLUME SAMPLER DURING ON-ROAD OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper compares the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel exhaust using a dilution tail-pipe sampler and an in-plume sampler during on-road operation. EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, modified to incorporate particle measurement instrumentat...

  10. Joint measurements of black carbon and particle mass for heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emission measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xuan; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shaojun; Baldauf, Richard W.; Zhang, K. Max; Hu, Jingnan; Li, Zhenhua; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-09-01

    The black carbon (BC) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) is an important source of urban atmospheric pollution and creates strong climate-forcing impacts. The emission ratio of BC to total particle mass (PM) (i.e., BC/PM ratio) is an essential variable used to estimate total BC emissions from historical PM data; however, these ratios have not been measured using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) in order to obtain real-world measurements over a wide range of driving conditions. In this study, we developed a PEMS platform by integrating two Aethalometers and an electric low pressure impactor to realize the joint measurement of real-world BC and PM emissions for ten HDDVs in China. Test results showed that the average BC/PM ratio for five HDDVs equipped with mechanical fuel injection (MI) engines was 0.43 ± 0.06, significantly lower (P < 0.05) than another five HDDVs equipped with electronically-controlled fuel injection (EI) engines (0.56 ± 0.12). Traffic conditions also affected the BC/PM ratios with higher ratios on freeway routes than on local roads. Furthermore, higher ratios were observed for HDDVs equipped with EI engines than for the MI engines for the highway and local road routes. With an operating mode binning approach, we observed that the instantaneous BC/PM ratios of EI engine vehicles were above those of the MI engine vehicles in all operating modes except for the braking mode (i.e., Bin 0). Therefore, the complex impacts from engine technology and traffic conditions on BC/PM ratios should be carefully considered when estimating real-world BC emissions from HDDVs based on overall PM emissions data.

  11. Emissions of toxic pollutants from compressed natural gas and low sulfur diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested over multiple driving cycles.

    PubMed

    Kado, Norman Y; Okamoto, Robert A; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ayala, Alberto; Gebel, Michael E; Rieger, Paul L; Maddox, Christine; Zafonte, Leo

    2005-10-01

    The number of heavy-duty vehicles using alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and new low-sulfur diesel fuel formulations and equipped with after-treatment devices are projected to increase. However, few peer-reviewed studies have characterized the emissions of particulate matter (PM) and other toxic compounds from these vehicles. In this study, chemical and biological analyses were used to characterize the identifiable toxic air pollutants emitted from both CNG and low-sulfur-diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested on a chassis dynamometer over three transient driving cycles and a steady-state cruise condition. The CNG bus had no after-treatment, and the diesel bus was tested first equipped with an oxidation catalyst (OC) and then with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Emissions were analyzed for PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs; determined on-site), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and mutagenic activity. The 2000 model year CNG-fueled vehicle had the highest emissions of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde) of the three vehicle configurations tested in this study. The 1998 model year diesel bus equipped with an OC and fueled with low-sulfur diesel had the highest emission rates of PM and PAHs. The highest specific mutagenic activities (revertants/microg PM, or potency) and the highest mutagen emission rates (revertants/mi) were from the CNG bus in strain TA98 tested over the New York Bus (NYB) driving cycle. The 1998 model year diesel bus with DPF had the lowest VOCs, PAH, and mutagenic activity emission. In general, the NYB driving cycle had the highest emission rates (g/mi), and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) had the lowest emission rates for all toxics tested over the three transient test cycles investigated. Also, transient emissions were, in general, higher than steady-state emissions. The emissions of toxic compounds from an in-use CNG transit bus (without an oxidation

  12. Effects of a ceramic particle trap and copper fuel additive on heavy-duty diesel emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, G.D.; Baumgard, K.J.; Johnson, J.H.; Gratz, L.D.; Bagley, S.T.; Leddy, D.G.

    1994-10-01

    This research quantifies the effects of a copper fuel additive on the regulated [oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), hydrocarbons (HC) and total particulate matter (TPM)] and unregulated emissions [soluble organic fraction (SOF), vapor phase organics (XOC), polynuclear aromatic carbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, particle size distributions, and mutagenic activity] from 1988 Cummins LTA10 diesel engine using a low sulfur fuel. Engine was operated at two steady state modes (EPA modes 9 and 11, which are 75 and 25% load at rated speed, respectively) and five additive levels (0, 15, 30, 60, and 100 ppm Cu by mass) with and without a ceramic trap. Measurements of PAH and mutagenic activity were limited to the 0, 30, and 60 ppm Cu levels. The fuel additive had little effect on baseline emissions (without the trap) of TPM, SOF, XOC, HC, or NO{sub x}. The trap reduced TPM from 72 93% compared to baseline, had no effect on NO{sub x}, and reduced HC about 30% at mode 9 with no consistent change at mode 11. 23 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Development of Gas-Lubricated Pistons for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, W.

    1984-01-01

    Static testing of a segmented, gas-lubricated, piston-ring was accomplished. The ring utilizes high-pressure gas generated during the diesel cycle to energize a hydrostatic gas film between the piston and cylinder liner. The configuration was deficient in overall performance, because all segments of a ring set failed to form a fluid-film simultaneously, when exposed to internal preload. The difficulty was traced to the moment balance required to prevent the segments from overturning and contacting the cylinder walls. Some individual sectors formed a film and performed well in every respect including load capability to 6,000 N. These results produce optimism as to the ultimate feasibility of hydrostatic, gas-lubricated piston rings. In addition to test results, the principles of operation, and theoretical developments are presented. Breathable liner concepts are suggested for future consideration. In these configurations, solid hydrostatic pistons are coupled with flexible liners that elastically deform to form a gas-film under hydrostatic pressurization. Breathable liners afford the mechanical simplicity required for mass produced engines, and initial examination indicates satisfactory operation.

  14. Long-term stability and properties of zirconia ceramics for heavy duty diesel engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, D. C.; Adams, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of commercially available transformation-toughened zirconia are measured. Behavior is related to the material microstructure and phase assemblage. The stability of the materials is assessed after long-term exposure appropriate for diesel engine application. Properties measured included flexure strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, creep, thermal shock, thermal expansion, internal friction, and thermal diffusivity. Stability is assessed by measuring the residual property after 1000 hr/1000C static exposure. Additionally static fatigue and thermal fatigue testing is performed. Both yttria-stabilized and magnesia-stabilized materials are compared and contrasted. The major limitations of these materials are short term loss of properties with increasing temperature as the metastable tetragonal phase becomes more stable. Fine grain yttria-stabilized material (TZP) is higher strength and has a more stable microstructure with respect to overaging phenomena. The long-term limitation of Y-TZP is excessive creep deformation. Magnesia-stabilized PSZ has relatively poor stability at elevated temperature. Overaging, decomposition, and/or destabilization effects are observed. The major limitation of Mg-PSZ is controlling unwanted phase changes at elevated temperature.

  15. Diesel Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the diesel mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  16. Comparison of the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel exhaust using a dilution tailpipe sampler and an in-plume sampler during on-road operation.

    PubMed

    Brown, J E; Clayton, M J; Harris, D B; King, F G

    2000-08-01

    Originally constructed to develop gaseous emission factors for heavy-duty diesel trucks, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility has been modified to incorporate particle measurement instrumentation. An electrical low-pressure impactor designed to continuously measure and record size distribution data was used to monitor the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel truck exhaust. For this study, which involved a high-mileage (900,000 mi) truck running at full load, samples were collected by two different methods. One sample was obtained directly from the exhaust stack using an adaptation of the University of Minnesota's air-ejector-based mini-dilution sampler. The second sample was pulled from the plume just above the enclosed trailer, at a point approximately 11 m from the exhaust discharge. Typical dilution ratios of about 300:1 were obtained for both the dilution and plume sampling systems. Hundreds of particle size distributions were obtained at each sampling location. These were compared both selectively and cumulatively to evaluate the performance of the dilution system in simulating real-world exhaust plumes. The data show that, in its current residence-time configuration, the dilution system imposes a statistically significant bias toward smaller particles, with substantially more nanoparticles being collected than from the plume sample. PMID:11002602

  17. 75 FR 81952 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... text of the preamble. The proposed regulatory text for both NHTSA and EPA is not affected. In FR Doc... Vocational Diesel Engine Standards Over the Heavy-Duty FTP Cycle Medium Model year Standard Light heavy...) Regulatory subcategory Light heavy-duty Medium heavy-duty diesel engine diesel engine. Heavy...

  18. EFFECTS OF ENGINE SPEED AND ACCESSORY LOAD ON IDLING EMISSIONS FROM HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCK ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nontrivial portion of heavy-duty vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) occurs during idling. Regulators and the environmental community are interested in curtailing truck idling emissions, but current emissions models do not characterize them ac...

  19. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments. PMID:26866755

  20. Characterization of polar polycyclic aromatic compounds in a heavy-duty diesel exhaust particulate by capillary column gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bayona, J.M.; Markides, K.E.; Lee, M.L.

    1988-12-01

    Polar normal-phase HPLC fractions of a heavy-duty diesel exhaust particulate, a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) standard reference material (SRM) 1650, were analyzed by capillary column GC coupled to both low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) using electron impact (EI) and negative ion chemical ionization (NICI). Over 80 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), belonging to many different chemical classes (anhydrides, carboxaldehydes, diazaarenes, cyclic imides, nitrohydroxy-PAC, nitroaza-PAC, nitrodiaza-PAC, nitrolactones, and quinones) were tentatively identified. Ten of them were positively identified by comparison of retention times with authentic standards. Among them, phenazine and phthalic anhydride were positively identified for the first time in diesel exhaust particulates. In addition, cyclic imides and their alkylated derivatives were tentatively identified for the first time. Other novel polar chemical classes of PAC were evidenced by MICI MS using a direct-insertion probe.

  1. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  2. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk.

    PubMed

    Tadano, Yara S; Borillo, Guilherme C; Godoi, Ana Flávia L; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O B; Valebona, Fábio B; Errera, Marcelo R; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NOx, NO, NO2, NH3 and N2O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NOx and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH3 and N2O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH3, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NOx and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH3 concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions. PMID:25217745

  3. Heavy duty transport research needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-13

    As a result of the desire to decrease the dependence of the US on foreign petroleum as a transportation fuel, this report assesses the research needs to further develop heavy duty engines. The topics covered include diesel engines, alternative fuels, electric vehicle technology, gas turbine engines, and stirling cycle alternative engines. (GHH)

  4. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of alternative or reformulated liquid fuels, fuel additives, fuel emulsions, and lubricants for highway and nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Technology Verification Program test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR P...

  5. Real-world PM, NO x, CO, and ultrafine particle emission factors for military non-road heavy duty diesel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dongzi; Nussbaum, Nicholas J.; Kuhns, Hampden D.; Chang, M.-C. Oliver; Sodeman, David; Moosmüller, Hans; Watson, John G.

    2011-05-01

    Training on US military bases involves nonroad diesel vehicles with emissions that can affect base personnel, nearby communities, and attainment of air quality standards. Nonroad diesel engines contribute 44% of diesel PM and 12% of total NO x emissions from mobile sources nationwide. Although military sector fuel use accounts for only ≈0.4% of distillate fuel use in US, emissions factors measured for these engines improve the representation of the relatively small (as compared to onroad sources) database of nonroad emission factors. Heavy-duty multi-axle, all-wheel drive military trucks are not compatible with regular single-axle dynamometers and their emissions cannot be measured under standard laboratory conditions. We have developed a novel in-plume technique to measure in-use emissions from vehicles with elevated stack. Real-world gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emission factors (EFs) from ten 7-ton 6-wheel drive trucks and two 8-wheel drive heavy tactical Logistics Vehicle System (LVS) vehicles were measured using in-plume sampling. The EFs of these trucks are comparable to those of onroad trucks while the PM EFs of 2-stroke LVS are ≈10 times higher than those of onroad vehicles. Lower EC/PM ratio was observed for LVS compared with MTVR. PM number emission factors were 5.9 × 10 14 particles km -1 for the trucks and 2.5 × 10 16 particles km -1 for the LVSs, three orders of magnitude higher than the proposed European Union standard of 6 × 10 11 particles km -1. The EFs sampled can be extended to engines used in the broader nonroad sector including agriculture and mining and used as inputs to the NONROAD model.

  6. 77 FR 34129 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... adopting these revisions to enable fire trucks and ambulances with heavy-duty diesel engines to perform... Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements (66 FR 5001). The heavy-duty highway rule... stringent PM standards, manufacturers rely on diesel particulate filter after-treatment to clean the...

  7. Simulation of high-altitude effects on heavy-duty diesel emissions. Final report, 31 October 1988-30 September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Human, D.M.; Ullman, T.L.

    1989-09-01

    Exhaust emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines operating at high altitude are of concern. EPA and Colorado Department of Health sponsored the project to characterize regulated and selected unregulated emissions from a naturally-aspirated Caterpillar 3208 and a turbocharged Cummins NTC-350 diesel engine at both low and simulated high altitude conditions (about 6000 ft). Emissions testing was performed over cold- and hot-start transient cycles as well as selected steady-state modes. Additionally, the turbocharged engine was operated with mechanically variable and fixed retarded fuel injection timing to represent normal and malfunction conditions, respectively. High altitude operation generally reduced NOx emissions approximately 10% for both engines. Average composite transient emissions of HC, CO, particulate matter, and aldehydes measured at high altitude for the naturally-aspirated engine were 2 to 4 times the levels noted for low altitude conditions. The same emission constituents from the turbocharged engine at high altitude with normal timing were 1.2 to 2 times the low altitude levels, but were 2 to 4 times the low altitude levels with malfunction timing.

  8. Effects of Particle Filters and Selective Catalytic Reduction on Heavy-Duty Diesel Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland.

    PubMed

    Preble, Chelsea V; Dallmann, Timothy R; Kreisberg, Nathan M; Hering, Susanne V; Harley, Robert A; Kirchstetter, Thomas W

    2015-07-21

    Effects of fleet modernization and use of diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on heavy-duty diesel truck emissions were studied at the Port of Oakland in California. Nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon (BC), particle number (PN), and size distributions were measured in the exhaust plumes of ∼1400 drayage trucks. Average NOx, BC, and PN emission factors for newer engines (2010-2013 model years) equipped with both DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32%, and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than 2004-2006 engines without these technologies. Intentional oxidation of NO to NO2 for DPF regeneration increased tailpipe NO2 emissions, especially from older (1994-2006) engines with retrofit DPFs. Increased deployment of advanced controls has further skewed emission factor distributions; a small number of trucks emit a disproportionately large fraction of total BC and NOx. The fraction of DPF-equipped drayage trucks increased from 2 to 99% and the median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years between 2009 and 2013. Over this period, fleet-average BC and NOx emission factors decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. Emission changes occurred rapidly compared to what would have been observed due to natural (i.e., unforced) turnover of the Port truck fleet. These results provide a preview of more widespread emission changes expected statewide and nationally in the coming years. PMID:26083075

  9. A new alternative paraffinic-palmbiodiesel fuel for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chen, Yan-Min; Wu, Tzi-Yi

    2011-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) fuelled with paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends have been rarely addressed in the literature. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was used to analyze 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results indicate that the main species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD (octachlorinated debenzo-p-dioxin) and OCDF (octachlorodibenzofuran), and they accounted for 40-50% of the total PCDD/Fs for all test fuels. Paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends decreased PCDD/Fs by 86.1-88.9%, toxic PCDD/Fs by 91.9-93.0%, THC (total hydrocarbons) by 13.6-23.3%, CO (carbon monoxide) by 27.2-28.3%, and PM (particulate matter) by 21.3-34.2%. Using biodiesel blends, particularly BP9505 or BP8020, instead of premium diesel fuel (PDF) significantly reduced emissions of both PCDD/Fs and traditional pollutants. Using BP9505 (95vol% paraffinic fuel+5vol% palmbiodiesel) and BP8020 instead of PDF can decrease PCDD/F emissions by 5.93 and 5.99gI-TEQyear(-1) in Taiwan, respectively. PMID:20855167

  10. 40 CFR 86.007-11 - Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavy-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start test... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and...

  11. 40 CFR 86.007-11 - Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavy-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start test... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW MOBILE LABORATORY FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FINE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development of a new mobile laboratory for the determination of the fine particle and gaseous emissions from a Class 8 diesel tractor-trailer research vehicle. The new laboratory (Diesel Emissions Aerosol Laboratory or DEAL) incorporates plume sampling ca...

  13. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from legacy on-road heavy-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph; Smith, Peter L

    2012-11-01

    Exhaust emissions of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa PCDD/F homologues, 12 WHO 2005 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, mono-nona chlorinated biphenyl homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three legacy diesel engines were investigated. The three engines tested were a 1985 model year GM 6.2J-series engine, a 1987 model year Detroit Diesel Corporation 6V92 engine, and a 1993 model year Cummins L10 engine. Results were compared to United States' mobile source inventory for on-road diesel engines, as well as historic and modern diesel engine emission values. The test fuel contained chlorine at 9.8 ppm which is 1.5 orders of magnitude above what is found in current diesel fuel and 3900 ppm sulfur to simulate fuels that would have been available when these engines were produced. Results indicate PCDD/F emissions of 13.1, 7.1, and 13.6 pg International Toxic Equivalency (I-TEQ)L(-1) fuel consumed for the three engines respectively, where non-detects are equal to zero. This compares with a United States' mobile source on-road diesel engine inventory value of 946 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed and 1.28 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed for modern engines equipped with a catalyzed diesel particle filter and urea selective catalytic reduction. PCB emissions are 2 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. PAH results are representative of engines from this era based on historical values and are 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. PMID:22682896

  14. Emissions of EC, OC, and PAHs from cottonseed oil biodiesel in a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei W; He, Ke B; Wang, Jian X; Wang, Xin T; Shi, Xiao Y; Yu, Chao; Chen, Wen M; Zheng, Liang

    2011-08-01

    Biodiesel fuels, made from renewable resources, have emerged as viable alternatives to conventional diesel fuel, but their impact on emissions is not fully understood. This study examines elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions from cottonseed oil biodiesel (CSO-B100). Relative to normal diesel fuel, CSO-B100 reduced EC emissions by 64% (±16%). The bulk of EC emitted from CSO-B100 was in the fine particle mode (<1.4 μm), which is similar to normal diesel. OC was found in all size ranges, whereas emissions of OC(1.4-2.5) were proportionately higher in OC(2.5) from CSO-B100 than from diesel. The CSO-B100 emission factors derived from this study are significantly lower, even without aftertreatment, than the China-4 emission standards established in Beijing and Euro-IV diesel engine standards. The toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for CSO-B100 was half the TEFs of diesel, which suggests that PAHs emitted from CSO-B100 may be less toxic. PMID:21736340

  15. Screw expander for light duty diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary selection and sizing of a positive displacement screw compressor-expander subsystem for a light-duty adiabatic diesel engine; development of a mathematical model to describe overall efficiencies for the screw compressor and expander; simulation of operation to establish overall efficiency for a range of design parameters and at given engine operating points; simulation to establish potential net power output at light-duty diesel operating points; analytical determination of mass moments of inertia for the rotors and inertia of the compressor-expander subsystem; and preparation of engineering layout drawings of the compressor and expander are discussed. As a result of this work, it was concluded that the screw compressor and expander designed for light-duty diesel engine applications are viable alternatives to turbo-compound systems, with acceptable efficiencies for both units, and only a moderate effect on the transient response.

  16. Combination of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel fuel blend and SCR catalyst assembly to reduce emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Yunbo; He, Hong; Shuai, Shijin; Dong, Hongyi; Li, Rulong

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the efforts to reduce NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from a diesel engine using both ethanol-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx over an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst and a biodiesel-ethanol-diesel fuel blend (BE-diesel) on an engine bench test are discussed. Compared with diesel fuel, use of BE-diesel increased PM emissions by 14% due to the increase in the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of PM, but it greatly reduced the Bosch smoke number by 60%-80% according to the results from 13-mode test of European Stationary Cycle (ESC) test. The SCR catalyst was effective in NOx reduction by ethanol, and the NOx conversion was approximately 73%. Total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO emissions increased significantly during the SCR of NOx process. Two diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) assemblies were used after Ag/Al2O3 converter to remove CO and HC. Different oxidation catalyst showed opposite effect on PM emission. The PM composition analysis revealed that the net effect of oxidation catalyst on total PM was an integrative effect on SOF reduction and sulfate formation of PM. The engine bench test results indicated that the combination of BE-diesel and a SCR catalyst assembly could provide benefits for NOx and PM emissions control even without using diesel particle filters (DPFs). PMID:18574958

  17. Experimental study on filtration and continuous regeneration of a particulate filter system for heavy-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tao; Zhang, Jun; Cao, Dongxiao; Shuai, Shijin; Zhao, Yanguang

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the filtration and continuous regeneration of a particulate filter system on an engine test bench, consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF). Both the DOC and the CDPF led to a high conversion of NO to NO2 for continuous regeneration. The filtration efficiency on solid particle number (SPN) was close to 100%. The post-CDPF particles were mainly in accumulation mode. The downstream SPN was sensitively influenced by the variation of the soot loading. This phenomenon provides a method for determining the balance point temperature by measuring the trend of SPN concentration. PMID:25499491

  18. On-road comparison of a portable emission measurement system with a mobile reference laboratory for a heavy-duty diesel vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. C.; Durbin, T. D.; Cocker, D. R.; Miller, W. J.; Bishnu, D. K.; Maldonado, H.; Moynahan, N.; Ensfield, C.; Laroo, C. A.

    On-road comparisons were made between a mobile emissions laboratory (MEL) meeting federal standards and a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). These comparisons were made over different conditions; including road grade, vibration, altitude, electric fields, and humidity with the PEMS mounted inside and outside of the tractor's cab. Brake-specific emissions were calculated to explore error differences between the MEL and PEMS during the Not-To-Exceed (NTE) engine operating zone. The PEMS brake-specific NOx (bsNOx) NTE emissions were biased high relative to the MEL and, in general, were about 8% of the 2007 in-use NTE NO x standard of 2.68 g kW -1 h -1 (2.0 g hp -1 h -1). The bsCO 2 emissions for the PEMS were also consistently biased high relative to the MEL, with an average deviation of +4% ± 2%. NMHC and CO emissions were very low and typically less than 1% of the NTE threshold. This research was part of a comprehensive program to determine the "allowance" when PEMS are used for in-use compliance testing of heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs).

  19. 77 FR 65840 - Section 610 Reviews of Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... vehicles, and new quality standards for highway diesel fuel (66 FR 5002). As part of this program, new... production (68 FR 19375) on April 21, 2003. The final rule (40 CFR part 63, subpart WWWW) includes standards... promulgated revised regulations for CAFOs on February 12, 2003 (68 FR 7175). The ``2003 CAFO Rule''...

  20. Gradient effects on two-color soot optical pyrometry in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark P.B.; Singh, Satbir; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2008-04-15

    Two-color soot optical pyrometry is a widely used technique for measuring soot temperature and volume fraction in many practical combustion devices, but line-of-sight soot temperature and volume fraction gradients can introduce significant uncertainties in the measurements. For diesel engines, these uncertainties usually can only be estimated based on assumptions about the soot property gradients along the line of sight, because full three-dimensional transient diesel soot distribution data are not available. Such information is available, however, from multidimensional computer model simulations, which are phenomenologically based, and have been validated against available in-cylinder soot measurements and diesel engine exhaust soot emissions. Using the model-predicted in-cylinder soot distributions, uncertainties in diesel two-color pyrometry data are assessed, both for a conventional high-sooting, high-temperature combustion (HTC) operating condition, and for a low-sooting, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition. The simulation results confirm that the two-color soot measurements are strongly biased toward the properties of the hot soot. For the HTC condition, line-of-sight gradients in soot temperature span 600 K, causing relatively large errors. The two-color temperature is 200 K higher than the soot-mass-averaged value, while the two-color volume fraction is 50% lower. For the LTC condition, the two-color measurement errors are half as large as for the HTC condition, because the model-predicted soot temperature gradients along the line of sight are half as large. By contrast, soot temperature and volume fraction gradients across the field of view introduce much smaller errors of less than 50 K in temperature and 20% in volume fraction. (author)

  1. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than

  2. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  3. Future heavy duty trucking engine requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawhorn, L. W.; Suski, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    Developers of advanced heavy duty diesel engines are engaged in probing the opportunities presented by new materials and techniques. This process is technology driven, but there is neither assurance that the eventual users of the engines so developed will be comfortable with them nor, indeed, that those consumers will continue to exist in either the same form, or numbers as they do today. To ensure maximum payoff of research dollars, the equipment development process must consider user needs. This study defines motor carrier concerns, cost tolerances, and the engine parameters which match the future projected industry needs. The approach taken to do that is to be explained and the results presented. The material to be given comes basically from a survey of motor carrier fleets. It provides indications of the role of heavy duty vehicles in the 1998 period and their desired maintenance and engine performance parameters.

  4. In-vehicle measurement of ultrafine particles on compressed natural gas, conventional diesel, and oxidation-catalyst diesel heavy-duty transit buses.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Davyda; Jones, Steven; Lalor, Melinda

    2007-02-01

    Many metropolitan transit authorities are considering upgrading transit bus fleets to decrease ambient criteria pollutant levels. Advancements in engine and fuel technology have lead to a generation of lower-emission buses in a variety of fuel types. Dynamometer tests show substantial reductions in particulate mass emissions for younger buses (<10 years) over older models, but particle number reduction has not been verified in the research. Recent studies suggest that particle number is a more important factor than particle mass in determining health effects. In-vehicle particle number concentration measurements on conventional diesel, oxidation-catalyst diesel and compressed natural gas transit buses are compared to estimate relative in-vehicle particulate exposures. Two primary consistencies are observed from the data: the CNG buses have average particle count concentrations near the average concentrations for the oxidation-catalyst diesel buses, and the conventional diesel buses have average particle count concentrations approximately three to four times greater than the CNG buses. Particle number concentrations are also noticeably affected by bus idling behavior and ventilation options, such as, window position and air conditioning. PMID:17219245

  5. Evolution of heavy duty engine valves - materials and design

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, S.K.; Larson, J.M.; Jenkins, L.F.; Wang, Y.

    1997-12-31

    Engine poppet valves control gas flow in internal combustion engines. The combustion event and the flow of the gases formed past the valve during the intake or exhaust portion of the combustion cycle, expose heavy duty diesel valves to high temperatures, oxidizing or corroding atmospheres and high stresses from firing and seating. This paper is a review of heavy duty diesel engine valve material and design evolution over the last fifty years in North America. The primary driving forces behind the evolution have historically been the need for improved durability and more cost effective designs. However, in recent years engine emission regulatory requirements have become an equally important influence on valve material selection and design. The paper also endeavors to predict how heavy duty diesel engine valve materials and designs may change in response to these driving forces in the foreseeable future.

  6. Effects of fuel properties on white smoke emission from the latest heavy-duty DI diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, Yoshihiro; Akasaka, Yukio

    1995-12-31

    The effects of fuel properties on white smoke emission from the latest DI diesel engine were investigated with a new type of white smoke meter. The new smoke meter could distinguish fuel effects on smoke much more than the conventional PHS meter. The repeatability of the smoke meter was better than that of the PHS meter. Cetane number was the dominant factor for smoke emission. Distillation temperature and composition also affected emission. A nitrate type cetane improver was effective for reducing emission. White smoke was analyzed with GC and HPLC and compounds in white smoke from low cetane number fuel were found almost the same as in fuel. But those from high cetane number fuel consisted of compounds in fuel and many combustion products.

  7. Physical properties of particulate matter (PM) from late model heavy-duty diesel vehicles operating with advanced PM and NO x emission control technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Subhasis; Hu, Shaohua; Verma, Vishal; Herner, Jorn D.; Robertson, William H.; Ayala, Alberto; Sioutas, Constantinos

    Emission control technologies designed to meet the 2007 and 2010 emission standards for heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) remove effectively the non-volatile fraction of particles, but are comparatively less efficient at controlling the semi-volatile components. A collaborative study between the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the University of Southern California was initiated to investigate the physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of the semi-volatile and non-volatile particulate matter (PM) fractions from HDDV emissions. This paper reports the physical properties, including size distribution, volatility (in terms of number and mass), surface diameter, and agglomeration of particles emitted from HDDV retrofitted with advanced emission control devices. Four vehicles in combination with six after-treatment devices (V-SCRT ®, Z-SCRT ®, CRT ®, DPX, Hybrid-CCRT ®, EPF) were tested under three driving cycles: steady state (cruise), transient (urban dynamometer driving schedule, UDDS), and idle. An HDDV without any control device is served as the baseline vehicle. Substantial reduction of PM mass emissions (>90%) was accomplished for the HDDV operating with advanced emission control technologies. This reduction was not observed for particle number concentrations under cruise conditions, with the exceptions of the Hybrid-CCRT ® and EPF vehicles, which were efficient in controlling both—mass and number emissions. In general, significant nucleation mode particles (<50 nm) were formed during cruise cycles in comparison with the UDDS cycles, which emit higher PM mass in the accumulation mode. The nucleation mode particles (<50 nm) were mainly internally mixed, and evaporated considerably between 150 and 230 °C. Compared to the baseline vehicle, particles from vehicles with controls (except of the Hybrid-CCRT ®) had a higher mass specific surface area.

  8. Characterization of particle- and vapor-phase organic fraction emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a particle trap and regeneration controls

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, S.T.; Gratz, L.D.; Leddy, D.G.; Johnson, J.H. )

    1993-07-01

    The effects of a ceramic particle trap on the chemical and biological character of the exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine have been studied during steady-state operation and during periods of trap regeneration. Phase I of this project involved developing and refining the methods using a Caterpillar 3208 engine, and Phase II involved more detailed experiments with a Cummins LTA10-300 engine, which met Federal 1988 particulate matter standards, and a ceramic particle trap with built-in regeneration controls. During the Phase I experiments, samples wee collected at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)* steady-state mode 4 (50% load at intermediate speed). Varying the dilution ratio to obtain a constant filter-face temperature resulted in less variability in total particulate matter (TPM), particle-associated soluble organic fraction (SOF), solids (SOL), and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels than sampling with a constant dilution ratio and allowing filter-face temperature to vary. A modified microsuspension Ames assay detected mutagenicity in the SOF samples, and in the semivolatile organic fraction extracted from XAD-2 resin (XAD-2 resin organic component, XOC) with at least 10 times less sample mass than the standard plate incorporation assay. Measurement techniques for PAH and nitro-PAH in the SOF and XOC also were developed during this portion of the project. For the Phase II work, two EPA steady-state rated speed modes were selected: mode 11 (25% load) and mode 9 (75% load). With or without the trap, filter-face temperatures were kept at 45 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels less than 5 parts per million (ppm), and sampling times less than 60 minutes. Particle sizes were determined using an electrical aerosol analyzer. Similar sampling methods were used when the trap was regenerated, except that a separate dilution tunnel and sampling system was designed and built to collect all of the regeneration emissions.

  9. Catalog of selected heavy duty transport energy management models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colello, R. G.; Boghani, A. B.; Gardella, N. C.; Gott, P. G.; Lee, W. D.; Pollak, E. C.; Teagan, W. P.; Thomas, R. G.; Snyder, C. M.; Wilson, R. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A catalog of energy management models for heavy duty transport systems powered by diesel engines is presented. The catalog results from a literature survey, supplemented by telephone interviews and mailed questionnaires to discover the major computer models currently used in the transportation industry in the following categories: heavy duty transport systems, which consist of highway (vehicle simulation), marine (ship simulation), rail (locomotive simulation), and pipeline (pumping station simulation); and heavy duty diesel engines, which involve models that match the intake/exhaust system to the engine, fuel efficiency, emissions, combustion chamber shape, fuel injection system, heat transfer, intake/exhaust system, operating performance, and waste heat utilization devices, i.e., turbocharger, bottoming cycle.

  10. Heavy duty transport research needs assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-13

    As a result of the desire to decrease the dependence of the US on foreign petroleum as a transportation fuel, this report assesses the research needs to further develop heavy duty engines. The topics covered include diesel engines, alternative fuels, electric vehicle technology, gas turbine engines, and stirling cycle alternative engines. (GHH)

  11. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Lisa A.; Rideout, Greg; Rosenblatt, Deborah; Hendren, Jill

    This paper summarizes greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measurements obtained during several recent studies conducted by Environment Canada, Emissions Research and Measurement Division (ERMD). A variety of heavy-duty vehicles and engines operating on a range of different fuels including diesel, biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), hythane (20% hydrogen, 80% CNG), and liquefied natural gas (LNG), and with different advanced aftertreatment technologies were studied by chassis dynamometer testing, engine dynamometer testing or on-road testing. Distance-based emission rates of CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O are reported. Fuel consumption calculated by carbon balance from measured emissions is also reported. The measurement results show, for heavy-duty diesel vehicles without aftertreatment, that while CO 2 emissions dominate, CH 4 emissions account for between 0% and 0.11% and N 2O emissions account for between 0.16% and 0.27% of the CO 2-equivalent GHG emissions. Both of the aftertreatment technologies (diesel oxidation catalyst and active regeneration diesel particle filter) studied increased N 2O emissions compared to engine out emissions while CH 4 emissions remain essentially unchanged. No effect on tailpipe GHG emissions was found with the use of up to 20% biodiesel when the engine was equipped with an oxidation catalyst. Biodiesel use did show some reductions in tailpipe GHG emissions as compared to ULSD without aftertreatment and with the use of a diesel particle filter. Natural gas and hythane also offer decreased GHG emissions (10-20%) at the tailpipe when compared with diesel. Emission factors (g L -1 fuel) for CH 4 and N 2O are suggested for heavy-duty vehicles fueled with diesel-based fuels and natural gas. These emission factors are substantially lower than those recommended for use by IPCC methodologies for developing national inventories.

  13. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.

  14. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  15. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  16. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  17. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  18. Evaluation of the emissions from low-sulfur and biodiesel fuel used in a heavy-duty diesel truck during on-road operation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In October of 2004, EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory investigated the emissions from diesel powered tractor-trailer operating along a highway at near-zero grade. In place of a dynamometer and standard dilution tunnel, the Diesel Emissions Aerosol Laboratory (DEA...

  19. HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE IN USE EMISSION PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Nylund, N; Ikonen, M; Laurikko, J

    2003-08-24

    Engines for heavy-duty vehicles are emission certified by running engines according to specified load pattern or duty cycle. In the US, the US Heavy-Duty Transient cycle has been in use already for a number of years, and Europe is, according to the requirements of the Directive 1999/96/EC gradually switching to transient-type testing. Evaluating the in-use emission performance of heavy-duty vehicles presents a problem. Taking engines out of vehicles for engine dynamometer testing is difficult and costly. In addition, engine dynamometer testing does not take into account the properties of the vehicle itself (i.e. mass, transmission etc.). It is also debatable, how well the standardized duty cycles reflect real-life -driving patterns. VTT Processes has recently commissioned a new emission laboratory for heavy-duty vehicles. The facility comprises both engine test stand and a fully transient heavy-duty chassis dynamometer. The roller diameter of the dynamometer is 2.5 meters. Regulated emissions are measured using a full-flow CVS system. The HD vehicle chassis dynamometer measurements (emissions, fuel consumption) has been granted accreditation by the Centre of Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES, Finland). A national program to generate emission data on buses has been set up for the years 2002-2004. The target is to generate emission factors for some 50 different buses representing different degree of sophistication (Euro 1 to Euro5/EEV, with and without exhaust gas aftertreatment), different fuel technologies (diesel, natural gas) and different ages (the effect of aging). The work is funded by the Metropolitan Council of Helsinki, Helsinki City Transport, The Ministry of Transport and Communications Finland and the gas company Gasum Oy. The International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles (IANGV) has opted to buy into the project. For IANGV, VTT will deliver comprehensive emission data (including particle size distribution and chemical and biological

  20. Characterization of particle and vapor-phase organic fraction emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a particle trap and regeneration controls. Research report, July 1987-April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, S.T.; Gratz, L.D.; Leddy, D.G.; Johnson, J.H.

    1993-07-01

    The effect of a particle trap on the emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine was examined. The total particles (TPM), the particle-associated soluble organic fraction (SOF), the semivolatile organic fraction (XOC), and the sulfate-containing solid fraction (SOL) from the exhaust were collected during: (1) operation under 25% and 75% load, and (2) during trap regeneration. Particle sizes were determined and bacterial mutagenicity and 12 biologically active polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH) were measured in the SOF and XOC. The trap reduced the TPM, SOF, and SOL by approximately 90%. Although total particle volume was decreased, trap use increased the number of smaller particles. Mutagenicity in the TPM and SOF also was diminished by about 90%, reflecting a decrease in the PAH and nitro-PAH. NOx, was not changed at any load, but hydrocarbon, XOC, and sulfate were reduced by 45-80% only at 75% load. PAH and nitro-PAH in the XOC were generally not affected by trap use. However, the trap reduced XOC-associated mutagenicity to undetectable levels. There was difficulty in measuring emissions from trap regeneration tests because it was difficult to determine when the regeneration was completed. The short regeneration period produced higher concentrations of TPM and SOF, but these were small relative to average emission concentrations over the entire trap loading and regeneration period.

  1. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gas). 1.3 grams per brake horsepower-hour (0.48 gram per megajoule), as measured under transient operating conditions. (ii) Total Hydrocarbon Equivalent (for methanol-fueled diesel engines). 1.3 grams per brake horsepower-hour (0.48 gram per megajoule), as measured under transient operating conditions....

  2. 08FFL-0020Influence of High Fuel Rail Pressure and Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction on PM Formation in an Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, Michael D; Domingo, Norberto; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2008-01-01

    The influence of fuel rail pressure (FRP) and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on particulate matter (PM) formation is investigated in this paper along with notes regarding the NOx and other emissions. Increasing FRP was shown to reduce the overall soot and total PM mass for four operating conditions. These conditions included two high speed conditions (2400 rpm at 540 and 270 Nm of torque) and two moderated speed conditions (1400 rpm at 488 and 325 Nm). The concentrations of CO2 and NOx increased with fuel rail pressure and this is attributed to improved fuel-air mixing. Interestingly, the level of unburned hydrocarbons remained constant (or increased slightly) with increased FRP. PM concentration was measured using an AVL smoke meter and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS); and total PM was collected using standard gravimetric techniques. These results showed that the smoke number and particulate concentrations decrease with increasing FRP. However the decrease becomes more gradual as very high rail pressures. Additionally, the total PM decreased with increasing FRP; however, the soluble organic fraction (SOF) reaches a maximum after which it declines with higher rail pressure. The total PM was collected for the two 1400 rpm conditions downstream of the engine, diesel oxidation catalyst, and a urea-SCR catalyst. The results show that significant PM reduction occurs in the SCR catalyst even during high rates of urea dosage. Analysis of the PM indicates that residual SOF is burned up in the SCR catalyst.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER TRANSIENT DRIVING CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this program was to characterize heavy-duty diesel truck and bus emissions produced during transient driving cycles. In the initial phase of the program an improved road-load simulation method was developed for use in operating large trucks on a chassis dynamomet...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-ROAD EMISSION FACTORS FOR HEAVY- DUTY VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA project the objectives of which are to: (1) define on-road emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs); (2) assess agreement between engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamome...

  5. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  6. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  7. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  8. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  9. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  10. 49 CFR 523.8 - Heavy-duty vocational vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. 523.8 Section 523.8... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.8 Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. Heavy-duty vocational vehicles are vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) above 8,500...

  11. Light duty diesel vehicle emissions at high altitude

    SciTech Connect

    Hollman, T.W.; Gallagher, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    Twenty 1981-82 light-duty diesel vehicles were randomly selected from Denver metropolitan vehicle registration lists for Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions testing. Opacity levels were monitored during the entire FTP and during various ''short tests'', which were designed to detect FTP failures and/or excessively high opacity levels under loaded driving conditions. Regulated emissions from this fleet of vehicles were lower than an earlier study conducted in Denver of 1978-80 light-duty diesel vehicles. Five vehicles which exceeded current federal emissions standards received restorative maintenance, i.e., high altitude adjustments and kits, air filter changes, and fuel injection system maintenance (as needed). Following restorative maintenance these vehicles were retested under the third phase of the FTP (Hot transient section) to evaluate the effect of the adjustment on emissions and opacity. Both increases and decreases were seen on emissions and opacity as a result of these procedures. Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate emissions averaged decreases as a result of the adjustment maintenance, while oxides of nitrogen and mean opacity averaged increases. Mean opacity values of FTP opacity levels were calculated on all 20 vehicles. Mean opacity was used only to compare individual vehicles and groups of vehicles. The ''passed'' fleet (based on FTP regulated emissions standards) did show a lower mean opacity than the ''failed'' fleet. The restorative maintenance procedures increased mean opacity levels on four of the five ''failed'' vehicles. Initial review of the short tests did not show any incriminating evidence for detecting FTP failures. However, further analysis is on-going as of this writing to determine the value of individual short tests in detecting FTP failures and/or excessive smoke levels from light-duty diesel vehicles.

  12. Heavy duty liquid and gaseous fuel emissions database test results from four alternative fuel configurations of the Caterpillar 3406 engine

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, D.J. )

    1990-06-01

    Through the cooperation of several organizations including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) acting under the auspices of the Doe Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, heavy duty transient and steady-state emissions tests were conducted on four alternative fuel configurations of the Caterpillar 3406 engine. These included a diesel baseline, glow plug ignited methanol (diesel cycle), lean-burn spark ignited natural gas, and dual fuel (diesel pilot ignited natural gas). Results indicated methanol and natural gas both show excellent potential for low NOx and low particulate emissions. With these fuels however, unburned fuel emissions were much higher, especially in the dual fuel case, than the diesel baseline. Particulate emissions from the methanol and lean burn gas engines are thought to be almost entirely lube oil sourced. All of the configurations will require significant reduction in hydrocarbon and/or particulate emissions in order to meet the 1994 EPA emissions standards for heavy duty truck engines. 3 refs., 23 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Hennepin County`s experience with heavy-duty ethanol vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    From November 1993 to October 1996, Hennepin County, which includes Minneapolis, field-tested two heavy-duty snowplow/road maintenance trucks fueled by ethanol. The overall objective of this program was to collect data from original equipment manufacturer alternative fuel heavy-duty trucks, along with comparable data from a similarly configured diesel-powered vehicle, to establish economic, emissions, performance, and durability data for the alternative fuel technology. These ethanol trucks, along with an identical third truck equipped with a diesel engine, were operated year round to maintain the Hennepin county roads. In winter, the trucks were run in 8-hour shifts plowing and hauling snow from urban and suburban roads. For the rest of the year, the three trucks were used to repair and maintain these same roads. As a result of this project, a considerable amount of data was collected on E95 fuel use, as well as maintenance, repair, emissions, and operational characteristics. Maintenance and repair costs of the E95 trucks were considerably higher primarily due to fuel filter and fuel pump issues. From an emissions standpoint, the E95 trucks emitted less particulate matter and fewer oxides of nitrogen but more carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Overall, the E95 trucks operated as well as the diesel, as long as the fuel filters were changed frequently. This project was a success in that E95, a domestically produced fuel from a renewable energy source, was used in a heavy-duty truck application and performed the same rigorous tasks as the diesel counterparts. The drawbacks to E95 as a heavy-duty fuel take the form of higher operational costs, higher fuel costs, shorter range, and the lack of over-the-road infrastructure.

  14. Lightweight Composite Materials for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pruez, Jacky; Shoukry, Samir; Williams, Gergis; Shoukry, Mark

    2013-08-31

    The main objective of this project is to develop, analyze and validate data, methodologies and tools that support widespread applications of automotive lightweighting technologies. Two underlying principles are guiding the research efforts towards this objective: • Seamless integration between the lightweight materials selected for certain vehicle systems, cost-effective methods for their design and manufacturing, and practical means to enhance their durability while reducing their Life-Cycle-Costs (LCC). • Smooth migration of the experience and findings accumulated so far at WVU in the areas of designing with lightweight materials, innovative joining concepts and durability predictions, from applications to the area of weight savings for heavy vehicle systems and hydrogen storage tanks, to lightweighting applications of selected systems or assemblies in light–duty vehicles.

  15. A Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Thomas E; Wagner, Robert M; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Curran, Scott; Nafziger, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 44.4%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.

  16. 78 FR 11804 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Kansas; Idle Reduction of Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...EPA is proposing to approve the State Implementation Plan (SIP) submitted by the State of Kansas on July 27, 2010, to add two new rules which implement restrictions on the idling of heavy duty diesel vehicles and reduce nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions at stationary sources in the Kansas portion of the Kansas City Maintenance Area for ozone. EPA is approving this revision because the......

  17. 75 FR 39251 - Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...) Technologies'' dated December 30, 2009. \\2\\ See 74 FR 57671 (November 9, 2009). II. Public Workshop: EPA is... (SCR). EPA will be reviewing its policies regarding the operation of SCR- equipped heavy-duty diesel... the SCR system) is detected. DATES: The workshop will be held on July 20, 2010 from 10 a.m. to 4...

  18. Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C.; Anderson, J.A.; Howden, Kenneth C.

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on

  19. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks XII Appendix XII to... Appendix XII to Part 86—Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and...

  20. Feasibility evaluation of fuel cells for selected heavy-duty transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, J. R.; Murray, H. S.

    1982-10-01

    A study of the feasibility of using fuel cell power plants for heavy duty transportation applications is performed. It is concluded that it will be feasible to use fuel cell technology projected as being available by 1995 to 2000 for powering 3000-hp freight locomotives and 6000-hp river boats. The fuel cell power plant is proposed as an alternative to the currently used diesel or diesel-electric system. Phosphoric acid and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells are determined to be the only applicable technologies in the desired time frame. Methanol, chemically reformed to produce hydrogen, is determined to be the most practical fuel for the applications considered. Feasibility is determined on the basis of weight and volume constraints, compatibility with existing propulsion components, and adequate performance relative to operational requirements. Simulation results show that performance goals are met and that overall energy consumption of heavy duty fuel cell power plants is lower that of diesels for the same operating conditions. Overall energy consumption is substantially improved over diesel operation for locomotives.

  1. Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: Market Issues and Potential Energy and Emissions Impacts

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Jeff Sessions for an analysis of the environmental and energy efficiency attributes of light-duty diesel vehicles. Specifically, the inquiry asked for a comparison of the characteristics of diesel-fueled vehicles with those of similar gasoline-fueled, E85-fueled, and hybrid vehicles, as well as a discussion of any technical, economic, regulatory, or other obstacles to increasing the use of diesel-fueled vehicles in the United States.

  2. Fumigation of Alcohol in a Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broukhiyan, E. M. H.; Lestz, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    A light-duty automotive Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively in order to determine the effect of alcohol fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditons. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears that ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulated emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

  3. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  4. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  5. High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  6. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Materials for Heavy Duty and Advanced Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Wood, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature Stirling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines, and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. This paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis on heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  7. Heavy Duty Tireman. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColman, Don

    This training outline for heavy duty tiremen, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  8. DEVELOPMENT WORK FOR IMPROVED HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE MODELING CAPABILITY DATA MINING--FHWA DATASETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A heavy-duty vehicle can produce 10 to 100 times the emissions (of NOx and PM emissions especially) of a light-duty vehicle, so heavy-duty vehicle activity needs to be well characterized. Key uncertainties with the use of MOBILE6 regarding heavy-duty vehicle emissions include th...

  9. Alternative fuels for low emissions and improved performance in CI and heavy duty engines

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Contents include: Limited durability of the diesel engine with a dual-fuel system on neat sunflower oil; Analysis and testing of a high-pressure micro-compressor; Spark-assisted alcohol operation in a low heat rejection engine; Combustion improvement of heavy-duty methanol engine by using autoignition system; Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels demonstration project; Vehicle fuel economy -- the Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Safety and occupational hygiene results -- Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Vehicle reliability and maintenance -- Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Flammability tests of alcohol/gasoline vapors; Flame luminosity enhancement of neat methanol fuel by non-aromatic hydrocarbon additives; and more.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  19. Influence of methane emissions and vehicle efficiency on the climate implications of heavy-duty natural gas trucks.

    PubMed

    Camuzeaux, Jonathan R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Brooks, Susanne A; Browne, Joshua B; Sterner, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    While natural gas produces lower carbon dioxide emissions than diesel during combustion, if enough methane is emitted across the fuel cycle, then switching a heavy-duty truck fleet from diesel to natural gas can produce net climate damages (more radiative forcing) for decades. Using the Technology Warming Potential methodology, we assess the climate implications of a diesel to natural gas switch in heavy-duty trucks. We consider spark ignition (SI) and high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) natural gas engines and compressed and liquefied natural gas. Given uncertainty surrounding several key assumptions and the potential for technology to evolve, results are evaluated for a range of inputs for well-to-pump natural gas loss rates, vehicle efficiency, and pump-to-wheels (in-use) methane emissions. Using reference case assumptions reflecting currently available data, we find that converting heavy-duty truck fleets leads to damages to the climate for several decades: around 70-90 years for the SI cases, and 50 years for the more efficient HPDI. Our range of results indicates that these fuel switches have the potential to produce climate benefits on all time frames, but combinations of significant well-to-wheels methane emissions reductions and natural gas vehicle efficiency improvements would be required. PMID:25986359

  20. Development of naval diesel engine duty cycles for air exhaust emission environmental impact analysis. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Markle, S.P.

    1994-05-01

    A strategy for testing naval diesel engines for exhaust emissions was developed. A survey of existing international and national standard diesel engine duty cycles was conducted. All were found to be inadequate for testing and certification of engine exhaust emissions from naval diesel powered ships. Naval ship data covering 11,500 hours of engine operation of four U.S. Navy LSD 41 Class amphibious ships was analyzed to develop a 27 point class operating profile. A procedure combining ship hull form characteristics, ship propulsion plant parameters, and ship operating profile was detailed to derive an 11-Mode duty cycle representative for testing LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines. A similar procedure was followed for ship service diesel engines. Comparisons with industry accepted duty cycles were conducted using exhaust emission contour plots for the Colt-Pielstick PC-4B diesel engines. Results showed the 11-Mode LSD 41 Class Duty Cycle best predicted ship propulsion engine emissions compared to the 27 point operating profile propeller curve. The procedure was applied to T-AO 187 Class with similar results. The application of civilian industry standards to measure naval diesel ship propulsion engine exhaust emissions was found to be inadequate. Engine exhaust flow chemistry post turbocharger was investigated using the SANDIA Lab computer tool CHEMKIN. Results showed oxidation and reduction reactions within exhaust gases are quenched in the exhaust stack. Since the exhaust stream in the stack is unreactive, emission sampling may be performed where most convenient. A proposed emission measurement scheme for LSD 41 Class ships was presented.

  1. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  2. AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY DISTILLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

  3. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  4. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  5. Heavy Duty Mechanics Apprenticeship Training, Module One. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Leslie A.; Abercrombie, Richard, Ed.

    This training manual, the second of two volumes, comprises the final three blocks in a nine-block in-service training course for apprentices working in heavy duty mechanics. Addressed in the individual blocks included in this volume are engines, basic electricity, and winches. Each block contains a section on parts theory that gives the purpose,…

  6. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicle is any commercial medium- and heavy-duty on highway vehicle or a work truck, as defined in 49 U.S... defined in § 523.5). (3) Vehicles excluded from the definition of motor vehicle in 40 CFR 85.1703... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC...

  7. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicle is any commercial medium- and heavy-duty on highway vehicle or a work truck, as defined in 49 U.S... defined in § 523.5). (3) Vehicles excluded from the definition of motor vehicle in 40 CFR 85.1703. ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC...

  8. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vehicle is any commercial medium- and heavy-duty on highway vehicle or a work truck, as defined in 49 U.S... defined in § 523.5). (3) Vehicles excluded from the definition of motor vehicle in 40 CFR 85.1703. ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC...

  9. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vehicle is any commercial medium- and heavy-duty on highway vehicle or a work truck, as defined in 49 U.S... defined in § 523.5). (3) Vehicles excluded from the definition of motor vehicle in 40 CFR 85.1703. ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC...

  10. AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. he specific recycling units evaluated are a fleet-size unit and a portable unit, both based on the technology of chemical filtration...

  11. Impact of Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Reductions on Global Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-08-01

    The impact of a specified set of emissions reductions from heavy duty vehicles on climate change is calculated using the MAGICC 5.3 climate model. The integrated impact of the following emissions changes are considered: CO2, CH4, N2O, VOC, NOx, and SO2. This brief summarizes the assumptions and methods used for this calculation.

  12. Heavy Duty Mechanics Apprenticeship Training, Module One. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Leslie A.; Abercrombie, Richard, Ed.

    This training manual, the first of two volumes, comprises the first six blocks in a nine-block in-service training course for apprentices working in heavy duty mechanics. Addressed in the individual blocks included in this volume are the following topics: shop equipment and practices; procedures for starting, moving, and stopping equipment; the…

  13. Commercial Training Issues: Heavy Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Douglas

    The needs and opportunities in the heavy-duty alternative fuel vehicle training arena were examined in an informal ethnographic study of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the instructional materials currently being used in such training. Interviews were conducted with eight instructors from the National Alternative Fuels Training Program…

  14. Emissions of acrolein and other aldehydes from biodiesel-fueled heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas M; Okamoto, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Aldehyde emissions were measured from two heavy-duty trucks, namely 2000 and 2008 model year vehicles meeting different EPA emission standards. The tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer and emissions were collected from a constant volume dilution tunnel. For the 2000 model year vehicle, four different fuels were tested, namely California ultralow sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD), soy biodiesel, animal biodiesel, and renewable diesel. All of the fuels were tested with simulated city and high speed cruise drive cycles. For the 2008 vehicle, only soy biodiesel and CARB ULSD fuels were tested. The research objective was to compare aldehyde emission rates between (1) the test fuels, (2) the drive cycles, and (3) the engine technologies. The results showed that soy biodiesel had the highest acrolein emission rates while the renewable diesel showed the lowest. The drive cycle also affected emission rates with the cruise drive cycle having lower emissions than the urban drive cycle. Lastly, the newer vehicle with the diesel particulate filter had greatly reduced carbonyl emissions compared to the other vehicles, thus demonstrating that the engine technology had a greater influence on emission rates than the fuels. PMID:22746209

  15. 40 CFR 86.004-40 - Heavy-duty engine rebuilding practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled... rebuilding practices. The provisions of this section are applicable to heavy-duty engines subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 86.004-40 - Heavy-duty engine rebuilding practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled... rebuilding practices. The provisions of this section are applicable to heavy-duty engines subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 86.004-40 - Heavy-duty engine rebuilding practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled... rebuilding practices. The provisions of this section are applicable to heavy-duty engines subject to...

  18. Plasma Catalysis for NOx Reduction from Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2005-12-15

    On behalf of the Department of Energy's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, we are pleased to introduce the Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program. The mission of the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that enable Americans to use less petroleum for their vehicles. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program supports this mission by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines for light-, medium-, and heavy-duty highway vehicles that meet future Federal and state emissions regulations. The primary objective of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program is to improve the brake thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines from 30 to 45 percent for light-duty applications by 2010; and 40 to 55 percent for heavy-duty applications by 2012; while meeting cost, durability, and emissions constraints. R&D activities include work on combustion technologies that increase efficiency and minimize in-cylinder formation of emissions, as well as aftertreatment technologies that further reduce exhaust emissions. Work is also being conducted on ways to reduce parasitic and heat transfer losses through the development and application of thermoelectrics and turbochargers that include electricity generating capability, and conversion of mechanically driven engine components to be driven via electric motors. This introduction serves to outline the nature, current progress, and future directions of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program. The research activities of this Sub-Program are planned in conjunction with the FreedomCAR Partnership and the 21st Century Truck Partnership and are carried out in collaboration with industry, national laboratories, and universities. Because of the importance of clean fuels in achieving low emissions, R

  19. Heavy-Duty Rescue Straps For Coveralls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddell, Henry M.

    1988-01-01

    New type of strap on coveralls helps rescuers lift victims of industrial accidents. Made of heavy twill. New material, 1 in. wide and has breaking strength of 600 lb, sewn to coveralls with polyester thread in box "X" stitching. Reinforcing nylon webbing, 1 3/4 in. wide sewn with strap at attachment points.

  20. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-02

    The transportation sector accounts for approximately 65% of US petroleum consumption. Consumption for light-duty vehicles has stabilized in the last 10--15 years; however, consumption in the heavy-duty sector has continued to increase. For various reasons, the US must reduce its dependence on petroleum. One significant way is to substitute alternative fuels (natural gas, propane, alcohols, and others) in place of petroleum fuels in heavy-duty applications. Most alternative fuels have the additional benefit of reduced exhaust emissions relative to petroleum fuels, thus providing a cleaner environment. The best long-term technology for heavy-duty alternative fuel engines is the 4-stroke cycle, direct injected (DI) engine using a single fuel. This DI, single fuel approach maximizes the substitution of alternative fuel for diesel and retains the thermal efficiency and power density of the diesel engine. This report summarizes the results of the first year (Phase 1) of this contract. Phase 1 focused on developing a 4-stroke cycle, DI single fuel, alternative fuel technology that will duplicate or exceed diesel power density and thermal efficiency, while having exhaust emissions equal to or less than the diesel. Although the work is currently on a 3500 Series DING engine, the work is viewed as a basic technology development that can be applied to any engine. Phase 1 concentrated on DING engine component durability, exhaust emissions, and fuel handling system durability. Task 1 focused on identifying primary areas (e.g., ignition assist and gas injector systems) for future durability testing. In Task 2, eight mode-cycle-averaged NO{sub x} emissions were reduced from 11.8 gm/hp-hr (baseline conditions) to 2.5 gm/hp-hr (modified conditions) on a 3501 DING engine. In Task 3, a state-of-the-art fuel handling system was identified.

  1. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  2. Exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty vehicles: chemical composition, impact of exhaust after treatment, and fuel parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, R; Egebäck, K E

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results from the characterization of vehicle exhaust that were obtained primarily within the Swedish Urban Air Project, "Tätortsprojektet." Exhaust emissions from both gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles have been investigated with respect to regulated pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbon [HC], nitrogen oxides [NOx], and particulate), unregulated pollutants, and in bioassay tests (Ames test, TCDD receptor affinity tests). Unregulated pollutants present in both the particle- and the semi-volatile phases were characterized. Special interest was focused on the impact of fuel composition on heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions. It was confirmed that there exists a quantifiable relationship between diesel-fuel variables of the fuel blends, the chemical composition of the emissions, and their biological effects. According to the results from the multivariate analysis, the most important fuel parameters are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content, 90% distillation point, final boiling point, specific heat, aromatic content, density, and sulfur content. PMID:7529699

  3. Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, E.H.

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

  4. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Hanson, Reed M; Wagner, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition is a low-temperature combustion technique that has been shown, both in computational fluid dynamics modeling and single-cylinder experiments, to obtain diesel-like efficiency or better with ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions, while operating primarily on gasoline-like fuels. This paper investigates reactivity controlled compression ignition operation on a four-cylinder light-duty diesel engine with production-viable hardware using conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Experimental results are presented over a wide speed and load range using a systematic approach for achieving successful steady-state reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion. The results demonstrated diesel-like efficiency or better over the operating range explored with low engine-out nitrogen oxide and soot emissions. A peak brake thermal efficiency of 39.0% was demonstrated for 2600 r/min and 6.9 bar brake mean effective pressure with nitrogen oxide emissions reduced by an order of magnitude compared to conventional diesel combustion operation. Reactivity controlled compression ignition emissions and efficiency results are compared to conventional diesel combustion operation on the same engine.

  5. Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas). PMID:21416755

  6. Heavy-Duty Emissions Control: Plasma-Facilitated vs Reformer-Assisted Lean NOx Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aardahl, C; Rozmiarek, R; Rappe, K; Mendoza, D Park, P

    2003-08-24

    Progress has been made in the control of combustion processes to limit the formation of environmentally harmful species, but lean burn vehicles, such as those powered by diesel engines used for the majority of commercial trucking and off-road applications, remain a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Tighter control of the combustion process coupled with exhaust gas recirculation has brought emissions in line with 2004 targets worldwide. Additional modifications to the engine control system, somewhat limited NOx control, and PM filters will likely allow the 2007 limits to be met for the on-highway regulations for heavy-duty engines in the United States. Concern arises when the NOx emission limit of 0.2 g/bhphr set for the year 2010 is considered.

  7. The GREET Model Expansion for Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Burnham, Andrew; Wang, Michael; Hang, Wen; Vyas, Anant

    2015-05-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for a significant portion of the U.S. transportation sector’s fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and air pollutant emissions. In our most recent efforts, we expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model to include life-cycle analysis of HDVs. In particular, the GREET expansion includes the fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and air pollutant emissions of a variety of conventional (i.e., diesel and/or gasoline) HDV types, including Class 8b combination long-haul freight trucks, Class 8b combination short-haul freight trucks, Class 8b dump trucks, Class 8a refuse trucks, Class 8a transit buses, Class 8a intercity buses, Class 6 school buses, Class 6 single-unit delivery trucks, Class 4 single-unit delivery trucks, and Class 2b heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. These vehicle types were selected to represent the diversity in the U.S. HDV market, and specific weight classes and body types were chosen on the basis of their fuel consumption using the 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) database. VIUS was also used to estimate the fuel consumption and payload carried for most of the HDV types. In addition, fuel economy projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, transit databases, and the literature were examined. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s latest Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator was employed to generate tailpipe air pollutant emissions of diesel and gasoline HDV types.

  8. Speed control device for a heavy duty shaft. [solar sails for spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, A. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A speed control device is characterized by a reference speed shaft spatially related to a heavy duty shaft, a drive train for driving the reference speed shaft at a constant angular velocity, a drive train for driving the heavy duty shaft at a variable angular velocity and a speed control assembly for continuously comparing the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft with the angular velocity of the reference speed shaft. A brake assembly is connected to the heavy duty shaft and is adapted to respond to errors in the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft in order to reduce the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft to that of the reference speed shaft.

  9. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The roto peen scaler allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy duty flexible flap. The peens are coupled with a commercially available piece of equipment that is used to scabble or remove the concrete. The scabbled debris is then collected into 55 gallon drums by means of a vacuum system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  10. Validation of vibration measurements for heavy duty machinery diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, A.; Barszcz, T.

    2013-07-01

    Latest development of distributed condition monitoring for heavy duty machinery has revealed a major challenge concerning reliable data acquisition. Due to frequent failures of diagnostic algorithms caused by incorrectly registered data, validation of vibration signals became a very attractive field of research. The paper shows how classical data acquisition procedures might be enhanced by implementation of signal validation methods based on both machine process parameters signals and machine vibration signals. Presented validation covers analysis of process parameters, data stability constrains and also independent and comparative validation of vibration signals. Benefits of applied techniques are illustrated on real data from a wind turbine.

  11. Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

  12. Simulated fuel economy and emissions performance during city and interstate driving for a heavy-duty hybrid truck

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E; LaClair, Tim J; Pihl, Josh A; Edwards, Kevin Dean

    2013-01-01

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  13. The heavy-duty vehicle future in the United States: A parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2015-02-14

    Here, we present a parametric analysis of factors that can influence advanced fuel and technology deployments in U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. The analysis focuses on the competition between traditional diesel trucks, natural gas vehicles (NGVs), and ultra-efficient powertrains. Underlying the study is a vehicle choice and stock model of the U.S. heavy-duty vehicle market. Moreover, the model is segmented by vehicle class, body type, powertrain, fleet size, and operational type. We find that conventional diesel trucks will dominate the market through 2050, but NGVs could have significant market penetration depending on key technological and economic uncertainties. Compressed naturalmore » gas trucks conducting urban trips in fleets that can support private infrastructure are economically viable now and will continue to gain market share. Ultra-efficient diesel trucks, exemplified by the U.S. Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, are the preferred alternative in the long haul segment, but could compete with liquefied natural gas (LNG) trucks if the fuel price differential between LNG and diesel increases. However, the greatest impact in reducing petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions is had by investing in efficiency technologies that benefit all powertrains, especially the conventional diesels that comprise the majority of the stock, instead of incentivizing specific alternatives.« less

  14. The heavy-duty vehicle future in the United States: A parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2015-02-14

    Here, we present a parametric analysis of factors that can influence advanced fuel and technology deployments in U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. The analysis focuses on the competition between traditional diesel trucks, natural gas vehicles (NGVs), and ultra-efficient powertrains. Underlying the study is a vehicle choice and stock model of the U.S. heavy-duty vehicle market. Moreover, the model is segmented by vehicle class, body type, powertrain, fleet size, and operational type. We find that conventional diesel trucks will dominate the market through 2050, but NGVs could have significant market penetration depending on key technological and economic uncertainties. Compressed natural gas trucks conducting urban trips in fleets that can support private infrastructure are economically viable now and will continue to gain market share. Ultra-efficient diesel trucks, exemplified by the U.S. Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, are the preferred alternative in the long haul segment, but could compete with liquefied natural gas (LNG) trucks if the fuel price differential between LNG and diesel increases. However, the greatest impact in reducing petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions is had by investing in efficiency technologies that benefit all powertrains, especially the conventional diesels that comprise the majority of the stock, instead of incentivizing specific alternatives.

  15. Biological activity of particle exhaust emissions from light-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Carraro, E; Locatelli, A L; Ferrero, C; Fea, E; Gilli, G

    1997-01-01

    Whole diesel exhaust has been classified recently as a probable carcinogen, and several genotoxicity studies have found particulate exhaust to be clearly mutagenic. Moreover, genotoxicity of diesel particulate is greatly influenced by fuel nature and type of combustion. In order to obtain an effective environmental pollution control, combustion processes using alternative fuels are being analyzed presently. The goal of this study is to determine whether the installation of exhaust after treatment-devices on two light-duty, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve-equipped diesel engines (1930 cc and 2500 cc) can reduce the mutagenicity associated with particles collected during U.S.A. and European driving cycles. Another interesting object was to compare the ability of alternative biodiesel and conventional diesel fuels to reduce the mutagenic activity associated with collected particles from two light duty diesel engines (both 1930 cc) during the European driving cycle. SOF mutagenicity was assayed using the Salmonella/microsome test (TA 98 and TA 100 strains, +/- S9 fraction). In the first part of our study, the highest mutagenicity was revealed by TA98 strain without enzymatic activation, suggesting a direct-acting mutagenicity prevalence in diesel particulate. The 2500 cc engine revealed twofold mutagenic activity compared with the 1930 cc engine (both EGR valve equipped), whereas an opposite result was found in particulate matter amount. The use of a noncatalytic ceramic trap produced a decrease of particle mutagenic activity in the 2500 cc car, whereas an enhancement in the 1930 cc engine was found. The catalytic converter and the electrostatic filter installed on the 2500 cc engine yielded a light particle amount and an SOF mutagenicity decrease. A greater engine stress was obtained using European driving cycles, which caused the strongest mutagenicity/km compared with the U.S.A. cycles. In the second part of the investigation, even though a small number of

  16. Piston ring coating developments for use in tomorrow`s heavy duty engines

    SciTech Connect

    Delaet, M.; Coddet, C.

    1996-12-31

    Extended life and higher performance are being required for heavy duty diesel engines which have to run more than 1 million kilometers. Reducing the amount of exhaust gas pollutants from diesel engines is now a social concern from the viewpoints of an environmental conservation, air pollution and influence on human health. In order to lower the amount of particulate emission, mainly composed of unburnt fuel and oil, it is desirable to reduce oil consumption which depends largely upon the sliding surface profiles of piston top rings. In addition to some new nitriding treatment or hard chromium plating techniques, plasma spray coatings are largely developed in Perfect Circle Europe, because of the wide range of coating materials which ensure numerous tribological properties. Powder formulations and spraying parameters are of great importance to reduce the piston ring and the liner wear, to improve the adhesive and cohesive qualities of coatings and to increase their tearing and corrosive resistances. Spraying parameters and the utilized plasma gas also play a large part in obtaining coatings of high quality and in increasing the deposition efficiency. Tests on idealized samples coupled with engine tests help to characterize the tribological behavior of some molybdenum based coatings.

  17. SCR SYSTEMS FOR HEAVY DUTY TRUCKS: PROGRESS TOWARDS MEETING EURO 4 EMISSION STANDARDS IN 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, W; Huethwohl, G; Maurer, B

    2003-08-24

    Emissions of diesel engines contain some components, which support the generation of smog and which are classified hazardous. Exhaust gas aftertreatment is a powerful tool to reduce the NOx and Particulate emissions. The NOx-emission can be reduced by the SCR technology. SCR stands for Selective Catalytic Reduction. A reduction agent has to be injected into the exhaust upstream of a catalyst. On the catalyst the NOx is reduced to N2 (Nitrogen) and H2O (Water). This catalytic process was developed in Japan about 30 years ago to reduce the NOx emission of coal-fired power plants. The first reduction agent used was anhydrous ammonia (NH3). SCR technology was used with diesel engines starting mid of the 80s. First applications were stationary operating generator-sets. In 1991 a joint development between DaimlerChrysler, MAN, IVECO and Siemens was started to use SCR technology for the reduction of heavy duty trucks. Several fleet tests demonstrated the durability of the systems. To day, SCR technology is the most promising technology to fulfill the new European Regulations EURO 4 and EURO 5 being effective Oct. 2005 and Oct. 2008. The efficient NOx reduction of the catalyst allows an engine calibration for low fuel consumption. DaimlerChrysler decided to use the SCR technology on every heavy duty truck and bus in Europe and many other truck manufacturers will introduce SCR technology to fulfill the 2005 emission regulation. The truck manufacturers in Europe agreed to use aqueous solution of Urea as reducing agent. The product is called AdBlue. AdBlue is a non toxic, non smelling liquid. The consumption is about 5% of the diesel fuel consumption to reduce the NOx emissions. A small AdBlue tank has to be installed to the vehicle. With an electronically controlled dosing system the AdBlue is injected into the exhaust. The dosing system is simple and durable. It has proven its durability during winter and summer testing as well as in fleet tests. The infrastructure for Ad

  18. Positive displacement compounding of a heavy duty diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.

    1983-01-01

    A helical screw type positive displacement (PD) compressor and expander was considered as an alternative to the turbocharger and the power turbine in the Cummins advanced turbocompound engine. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) completed the design, layout, and performance prediction of the PD machines. The results indicate that a screw compressor-expander system is feasible up to at least 750 HP, dry operation of the rotors is feasible, cost and producibility are uncertain, and the system will yield about 4% improvement in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over the advanced turbocompound engine.

  19. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-05 Complete... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this program... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this program... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this program... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this program... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  8. Exhaust Fine Particle and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2010-12-01

    Heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks are a source of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions as well as primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. Heavy-duty trucks contribute significantly to elevated levels of diesel particulate matter found near highways and in communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. To reduce the air quality impact of diesel engine emissions, the California Air Resources Board has adopted new rules requiring the retrofit or replacement of in-use HD trucks. These rules take effect during 2010 at ports and railyards, and apply to all trucks operating in California by 2014. This study involves on-road measurements of PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factor distributions from individual HD trucks driving into the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay area. Measurements of exhaust plumes from individual trucks were made using a mobile laboratory equipped with fast time response (1 Hz) PM2.5, BC, NOx, and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors. The mobile laboratory was stationed on an overpass above an arterial roadway that connects the Port to a nearby highway (I-880). The air sampling inlet was thereby located above the vertical exhaust pipes of HD diesel trucks passing by on the arterial roadway below. Fuel-specific PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which concentrations of these species in an exhaust plume are normalized to CO2 concentrations. Initial field sampling was conducted in November, 2009 prior to the implementation of new emission rules. Additional emission measurements were made at the same location during June 2010 and emission factor distributions and averages will be compared.

  9. Baumot BA-B Diesel Particulate Filter with Pre-Catalyst (ETV Mobile Source Emissions Control Devices) Verification Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Baumot BA-B Diesel Particulate Filter with Pre-Catalyst is a diesel engine retrofit device for light, medium, and heavy heavy-duty diesel on-highway engines for use with commercial ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. The BA-B particulate filter is composed of a pre-catalyst ...

  10. Contributions of Diesel Truck Emissions to Indoor Elemental Carbon Concentrations in Home Proximate to Ambassador Bridge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambassador Bridge, connecting Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, is the busiest international commercial vehicle crossing in North America, with a large percentage of heavy duty diesel trucks. This study seeks to examine the contribution of diesel truck traffic across Ambass...