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Sample records for heavy fission fragments

  1. Super-heavy nuclei with Z = 118 and their mass and charge spectrum of fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslyuk, V. T.; Smolyanyuk, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The first results of the calculation of the mass and charge yields of fission fragments for over 60 isotopes which have Z = 118 are presented. The results were obtained from the condition of thermodynamic ordering of the ensemble of fission fragments. The role of neutrons shells with N = 82 or N = 126 and protons shells with Z = 50 in the realization of symmetric (or one-humped) and asymmetric (2- or 3-humped) shapes of the fission-fragment yields with the transition from neutron-proficient to neutron-deficient isotopes was investigated. The data of fragments yields had been analyzed under the conditions of a “cold” and “hot” fission. The calculations show the possibility to identify super-heavy nuclei with Z ≥ 118 produced synthetically by heavy-ion reaction on their mass/charge spectrum division.

  2. Interplay between compound and fragments aspects of nuclear fission and heavy-ion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, Peter; Iwamoto, A; Ichikawa, I

    2010-09-10

    The scission point in nuclear fission plays a special role where one-body system changes to two-body system. Inverse of this situation is realized in heavy-ion fusion reaction where two-body system changes to one body system. Among several peculiar phenomena expected to occur during this change, we focus our attention to the behavior of compound and fragments shell effects. Some aspects of the interplay between compound and fragments shell effect are discussed related to the topics of the fission valleys in the potential energy surface of actinide nuclei and the fusion-like trajectory found in the cold fusion reaction leading to superheavy nuclei.

  3. Fragmentation of spherical radioactive heavy nuclei as a novel probe of transient effects in fission

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, C.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Kelic, A.; Heinz, A.; Jurado, B.

    2010-06-15

    Peripheral collisions with radioactive heavy-ion beams at relativistic energies are discussed as an innovative approach for probing the transient regime experienced by fissile systems evolving toward quasiequilibrium and thereby studying the viscous nature of nuclear matter. A dedicated experiment using the advanced technical installations of GSI, Darmstadt, made it possible to realize ideal conditions for the investigation of relaxation effects in a metastable well. Combined with a highly sensitive experimental signature, it provides a measure of the transient effects with respect to the flux over the fission barrier. Within a two-step reaction process, 45 proton-rich unstable spherical isotopes between At and Th produced by projectile-fragmentation of a stable {sup 238}U beam have been used as secondary projectiles which impinge on lead target nuclei. The fragmentation of the radioactive projectiles results in nearly spherical compound nuclei that span a wide range in excitation energy and fissility. The decay of these excited systems by fission is studied with a dedicated setup which, together with the inverse kinematics of the reaction, permits the detection of both fission products in coincidence and the determination of their atomic numbers with high resolution. The information on the nuclear charges of the two fragments is used to sort the data according to the initial excitation energy and fissility of the compound nucleus. The width of the fission-fragment nuclear charge distribution is shown to be specifically sensitive to presaddle transient effects and is used to establish a clock for the passage of the saddle point. The comparison of the experimental results with model calculations points to a fission delay tau{sub trans} of (3.3+-0.7)x10{sup -21} s for initially spherical compound nuclei, independent of excitation energy and fissility. This value suggests a nuclear dissipation strength beta at small deformation of (4.5+-0.5)x10{sup 21} s{sup -1}. The

  4. Velocity fluctuations of fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Carmona, Belén Martínez; Martínez, Jose L. Muñoz

    2016-02-01

    We propose event by event velocity fluctuations of nuclear fission fragments as an additional interesting observable that gives access to the nuclear temperature in an independent way from spectral measurements and relates the diffusion and friction coefficients for the relative fragment coordinate in Kramers-like models (in which some aspects of fission can be understood as the diffusion of a collective variable through a potential barrier). We point out that neutron emission by the heavy fragments can be treated in effective theory if corrections to the velocity distribution are needed.

  5. Heavy fragment radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.B.

    1987-12-10

    This recently discovered mode of radioactive decay, like alpha decay and spontaneous fission, is believed to involve tunneling through the deformation-energy barrier between a very heavy nucleus and two separated fragments the sum of whose masses is less than the mass of the parent nucleus. In all known cases the heavier of the two fragments is close to doubly magic /sup 208/Pb, and the lighter fragment has even Z. Four isotopes of Ra are known to emit /sup 14/C nuclei; several isotopes of U as well as /sup 230/Th and /sup 231/Pa emit Ne nuclei; and /sup 234/U exhibits four hadronic decay modes: alpha decay, spontaneous fission, Ne decay and Mg decay.

  6. Study of near-stability nuclei populated as fission fragments in heavy-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Nelson, Ronald O; Devlin, Matthew; Cizewski, Jolie A; Krucken, Reiner; Clark, R M; Fallon, Paul; Lee, I Yang; Macchiavelli, Agusto O; Becker, John A; Younes, Walid

    2010-01-01

    Examples are presented to illustrate the power of prompt {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of fission fragments from compound nuclei with A {approx} 200 formed in fusion-evaporation reactions in experiments using the Gammasphere Ge-detector array. Complementary methods, such as Coulomb excitation and deep-inelastic processes, are also discussed. In other cases (n, xn{gamma}) reactions on stable isotopes have been used to establish neutron excitation functions for {gamma}-rays using a pulsed 'white'-neutron source, coupled to a high-energy-resolution germanium-detector array. The excitation functions can unambiguously assign {gamma}-rays to a specific reaction product. Results from all these methods bridge the gaps in the systematics of high-spin states between the neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclei. Results near shell closures should motivate new shell model calculations.

  7. Fission fragment driven neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.; Brugger, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    Fissionable uranium formed into a foil is bombarded with thermal neutrons in the presence of deuterium-tritium gas. The resulting fission fragments impart energy to accelerate deuterium and tritium particles which in turn provide approximately 14 MeV neutrons by the reactions t(d,n).sup.4 He and d(t,n).sup.4 He.

  8. Ternary fission of nuclei into comparable fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2015-07-15

    The problem of nuclear fission into three comparable fragments is considered. A mechanism of true ternary fission is proposed. In contrast to sequential fission, where the three fragments arise upon two sequential events of binary fission, the mechanism in question relies on a scenario that originally involves fission into three fragments. This mechanism is driven by a hexadecapole deformation of the fissioning nucleus, in contrast to binary fission associated with quadrupole vibrations of the nuclear surface. The fragment-mass ratios are estimated. The dynamics of formation of collinear fragments and their subsequent motion in opposite directions is traced. The calculated probability of true ternary fission complies with observed values.

  9. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: approximately twice the efficiency if the fission fragment energy can be directly converted into electricity; reduction of the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collection of the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem.

  10. Conservation of Isospin in Neutron-rich Fission Fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.K.; Choudhury, D.; Maheshwari, B.

    2014-06-15

    On the occasion of the 75{sup th} anniversary of the fission phenomenon, we present a surprisingly simple result which highlights the important role of isospin and its conservation in neutron rich fission fragments. We have analysed the fission fragment mass distribution from two recent heavyion reactions {sup 238}U({sup 18}O,f) and {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O,f) as well as a thermal neutron fission reaction {sup 245}Cm(n{sup th},f). We find that the conservation of the total isospin explains the overall trend in the observed relative yields of fragment masses in each fission pair partition. The isospin values involved are very large making the effect dramatic. The findings open the way for more precise calculations of fission fragment distributions in heavy nuclei and may have far reaching consequences for the drip line nuclei, HI fusion reactions, and calculation of decay heat in the fission phenomenon.

  11. Conservation of Isospin in Neutron-rich Fission Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A. K.; Choudhury, D.; Maheshwari, B.

    2014-06-01

    On the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the fission phenomenon, we present a surprisingly simple result which highlights the important role of isospin and its conservation in neutron rich fission fragments. We have analysed the fission fragment mass distribution from two recent heavyion reactions 238U(18O,f) and 208Pb(18O,f) as well as a thermal neutron fission reaction 245Cm(nth,f). We find that the conservation of the total isospin explains the overall trend in the observed relative yields of fragment masses in each fission pair partition. The isospin values involved are very large making the effect dramatic. The findings open the way for more precise calculations of fission fragment distributions in heavy nuclei and may have far reaching consequences for the drip line nuclei, HI fusion reactions, and calculation of decay heat in the fission phenomenon.

  12. Heavy-element fission barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Peter; Sierk, Arnold J.; Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Bengtsson, Ragnar; Uhrenholt, Henrik; Angstromberg, Sven

    2009-06-15

    We present calculations of fission properties for heavy elements. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic finite-range liquid-drop model with a 2002 parameter set. For each nucleus we have calculated the potential energy in three different shape parametrizations: (1) for 5 009 325 different shapes in a five-dimensional deformation space given by the three-quadratic-surface parametrization, (2) for 10 850 different shapes in a three-dimensional deformation space spanned by {epsilon}{sub 2}, {epsilon}{sub 4}, and {gamma} in the Nilsson perturbed-spheroid parametrization, supplemented by a densely spaced grid in {epsilon}{sub 2}, {epsilon}{sub 3}, {epsilon}{sub 4}, and {epsilon}{sub 6} for axially symmetric deformations in the neighborhood of the ground state, and (3) an axially symmetric multipole expansion of the shape of the nuclear surface using {beta}{sub 2}, {beta}{sub 3}, {beta}{sub 4}, and {beta}{sub 6} for intermediate deformations. For a fissioning system, it is always possible to define uniquely one saddle or fission threshold on the optimum trajectory between the ground state and separated fission fragments. We present such calculated barrier heights for 1585 nuclei from Z=78 to Z=125. Traditionally, actinide barriers have been characterized in terms of a ''double-humped'' structure. Following this custom we present calculated energies of the first peak, second minimum, and second peak in the barrier for 135 actinide nuclei from Th to Es. However, for some of these nuclei which exhibit a more complex barrier structure, there is no unique way to extract a double-humped structure from the calculations. We give examples of such more complex structures, in particular the structure of the outer barrier region near {sup 232}Th and the occurrence of multiple fission modes. Because our complete results are too extensive to present in a paper of this type, our aim here is limited: (1) to fully present our model and the methods for determining the

  13. Fission fragment excited laser system

    DOEpatents

    McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  14. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.; Fowler, M.M.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S.; Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50--100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components--intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: the reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicity of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Dynamical fission following peripheral heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strazzeri, A.; Italiano, A.

    2016-02-01

    A closed-form theoretical approach describing in a single picture both the evaporation component and the fast nonequilibrium component of the sequential fission of projectile-like fragments in a peripheral heavy-ion collision is derived and then applied to the dynamical fission observed in the 124Sn+64Ni semiperipheral collision at 35AMeV. Information on the reaction mechanism is obtained such as the opposite polarization effects and the estimate of the “formation-to-fast fission lifetimes” of the fissioning fragment.

  16. Multimodal Fission in Heavy-Ion Induced Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Pokrovskiy, I. V.; Bogachev, A. A.; Iitkis, M. G.; Iitkis, J. M.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Dorvaux, O.; Rowley, N.; Schmitt, Ch.; Stuttge, L.

    2006-08-14

    Mass, energy and folding angle distributions of the fission fragments as well as multiplicities of neutron and gamma-quanta emissions accompanying the fission process were measured for fission of 226Th, 227Pa and 234Pu compound nuclei produced in reactions with 18O and 26Mg projectiles over a wide energy range. Data were analyzed with respect to the presence of fission modes. Asymmetric fission was observed even at very high initial excitation for all the measured systems. The so-called fission mode S1 (caused by the proton shell Z{approx}50 and neutron shell N{approx}82 in heavy fragment) was found to be dominant in asymmetric fission of 234Pu. Reactions with not full linear momentum transfer were observed in the folding spectra for all the measured systems.

  17. Porous fission fragment tracks in fluorapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Li Weixing; Ewing, Rodney C.; Wang Lumin; Sun Kai; Lang, Maik; Trautmann, Christina

    2010-10-01

    Fission tracks caused by the spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U in minerals, as revealed by chemical etching, are extensively used to determine the age and thermal history of Earth's crust. Details of the structure and annealing of tracks at the atomic scale have remained elusive, as the original track is destroyed during chemical etching. By combining transmission electron microscopy with in situ heating, we demonstrate that fission tracks in fluorapatite are actually porous tubes, instead of having an amorphous core, as generally assumed. Direct observation shows thermally induced track fragmentation in fluoapatite, in clear contrast to the amorphous tracks in zircon, which gradually ''fade'' without fragmentation. Rayleigh instability and the thermal emission of vacancies control the annealing of porous fission tracks in fluorapatite.

  18. Fission studies of secondary beams from relativistic uranium projectiles: The proton even-odd effect in fission fragment charge yields

    SciTech Connect

    Junghans, A. R.; Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Voss, B.; Boeckstiegel, C.; Clerc, H.-G.; Grewe, A.; Heinz, A.; Jong, M. de; Mueller, J.; Steinhaeuser, S.; Pfuetzner, M.

    1999-09-02

    Nuclear-charge yields of fragments produced by fission of neutron-deficient isotopes of uranium, protactinium, actinium, and radium have been measured. These radioactive isotopes were produced as secondary beams, and electromagnetic fission was induced in a lead target with an average excitation energy around 11 MeV. The local even-odd effect in symmetric and in asymmetric fission of thorium isotopes is found to be independent of Z{sup 2}/A. The charge yields of the fission fragments of the odd-Z fissioning protactinium and actinium show a pronounced even-odd effect. In asymmetric fission the unpaired proton predominantly sticks to the heavy fragment. A statistical model based on the single-particle level density at the Fermi energy is able to reproduce the overall trend of the local even-odd effects both in even-Z and odd-Z fissioning systems.

  19. The Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments MAFF

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Gross, M.; Assmann, W.; Beck, L.; Grossmann, R.; Maier, H.-J.; Schumann, M.; Sewtz, M.; Szerypo, J.; Thirolf, P.G.; Kruecken, R.; Faestermann, T.; Maier-Komor, P.; Nebel, F.; Zech, E.; Hartung, P.; Stoepler, R.; Juettner, Ph.; Tralmer, F.L.

    2005-11-21

    The layout and status of MAFF at the Munich high flux reactor FRM-II is described. At MAFF 1014 fissions/s will be induced by thermal neutrons in a target with approx. 1 g of 235U. The situation is compared to the SPIRAL2 facility where 1014 fissions/s are expected by fast neutron fission in a target containing 5100 g of 238U. A comparison of the yields of SPIRAL2 and MAFF is performed to show the complementarity of the two ISOL-facilities for fission fragments. MAFF has approximately five times the beam intensities of SPIRAL2 for short-lived fission isotopes with lifetimes shorter than 5 s and thus will focus on the most neutron-rich nuclei, while SPIRAL2 has better perspectives for the more intense, less neutron-rich post-accelerated beams.A problem that also deserves attention is the production of {alpha} emitters, in particular plutonium. Here MAFF has the advantage to contain the Pu-producing 238U only as impurity not as the main fissile system. If SPIRAL2 would use 235U instead of 238U this problematic issue could be avoided at the cost of a further reduction in intensity of very neutron-rich fission fragments by a factor of 10. Finally new physics close to the classically doubly-magic nuclei 78Ni and 132Sn is described.

  20. Hollow fission fragment tracks in fluorapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weixing

    Spontaneous fission of uranium in minerals creates a damaged "track" along the trajectory of the fission fragments. Fission tracks in fluorapatite, enlarged by chemical etching, are widely used in geologic age-dating and the reconstruction of the thermal history of Earth's crust. However, despite this wide spread application, there have been no systematic studies of the internal structure of unetched fission tracks or the atomic-scale process of track annealing. In this research, fission tracks in fluorapatite are demonstrated to be nano-channels instead of amorphous cores as had been assumed. The formation of hollow tracks is ascribed to the highly ionizing energy deposition of fission fragments inducing radiolytic decomposition of fluorapatite accompanied by the loss of volatile elements. The mechanism for thermal annealing of hollow tracks in fluorapatite is shown to be entirely different from that of amorphous tracks in zircon. The discontinuity of fission tracks, in addition to the shrinkage, prevents chemicals from entering into the hollow tracks for further etching, and then significantly reduces the etched length. The shrinkage of hollow fission tracks results from thermo-emission of vacancies or gaseous species from the cavities to surrounding solids instead of atomic-scale recovery of the amorphous core. The high diffusivity of atoms on the surface of hollow tracks causes the discontinuity of tracks either by Rayleigh instability, by Brownian motion, or by preferential motion of track segments. The preferential motion of atoms along c-axis causes more rapid annealing of fission tracks perpendicular to the c-axis. Under the electron beam, the hollow tracks segment into droplets and the track segments randomly move at room temperature or preferentially move along c-axis at high temperatures. The radiolytic annealing results from beam-enhanced diffusion, which is similar to thermally enhanced diffusion. The similarity in the morphology of fission tracks and

  1. Fission Fragment characterization with FALSTAFF at NFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doré, D.; Farget, F.; Lecolley, F.-R.; Ledoux, X.; Lehaut, G.; Materna, T.; Pancin, J.; Panebianco, S.

    2013-03-01

    The Neutrons for Science (NFS) facility will be one of the first installations of the SPIRAL2 facility. NFS will be composed of a time-of-flight baseline and irradiation stations and will allow studying neutron-induced reactions for energies going from some hundreds of keV up to 40 MeV. Continuous and quasi-monoenergetic energy neutron beams will be available. Taking advantage of this new installation, the development of an experimental setup for a full characterization of actinide fission fragments in this energy domain has been undertaken. To achieve this goal a new detection system called FALSTAFF (Four Arm cLover for the STudy of Actinide Fission Fragments) in under development. In this paper, the characteristics of the NFS facility will be exposed and the motivations for the FALSTAFF experiment will be presented. The experimental setup will be described and the expected resolutions based on realistic GEANT4 simulations will be discussed.

  2. Anisotropic Neutron Evaporation from Spinning Fission Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuttgé, L.; Dorvaux, O.; Gönnenwein, F.; Mutterer, M.; Kopatch, Yu.; Chernysheva, E.; Hanappe, F.; Hambsch, F.-J.

    2011-10-01

    Neutron evaporation anisotropy in the centre of mass of the rotating fission fragments in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated within the CORA experiments. If it is well accepted that the bulk of emitted neutrons originate from an isotropic evaporation in the centre of mass of the moving fragments, discrepancies in experimental as well as in theoretical energy and angular distributions appear throughout many attempts performed by various authors. Scission neutrons most probably contribute but don't allow to explain totally the observed anisotropy. Due to its weak contribution to the total anisotropy, the centre of mass anisotropy is very difficult to be highlighted. A novel experimental approach has been developed to extract this effect and will be presented as well as some first results.

  3. Semiclassical approach to sequential fission in peripheral heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strazzeri, Andrea; Italiano, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    A closed-form theoretical approach describing in a single picture both the evaporation component and the fast nonequilibrium component of the sequential fission of projectilelike fragments in a semiperipheral heavy-ion collision is derived and then applied to the dynamical fission observed in the 124Sn+64Ni semiperipheral collision at 35A MeV. Information on opposite polarization effects of the fissioning projectilelike fragments and on their "formation-to-fast fission lifetimes" are obtained.

  4. DSP Algorithms for Fission Fragment and Prompt Fission Neutron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynalova, O.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Fabry, I.

    2009-10-01

    Digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are in high demand for modern nuclear fission investigation due to importance of increase the accuracy of fissile nuclear data for new generation of nuclear power stations. DSP algorithms for fission fragment (FF) and prompt fission neutron (PFN) spectroscopy are described in the present work. The twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber (GTIC) is used to measure the kinetic energy-, mass- and angular distributions of the FF in the 252Cf(SF) reaction. Along with the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurement the correlation between neutron emission and FF mass and energy is investigated. The TOF is measured between common cathode of the GTIC and the neutron detector (ND) pulses. Waveform digitizers (WFD) having 12 bit amplitude resolution and 100 MHz sampling frequency are used for the detector pulse sampling. DSP algorithms are developed as recursive procedures to perform the signal processing, similar to those available in various nuclear electronics modules, such as constant fraction discriminator (CFD), pulse shape discriminator (PSD), peak-sensitive analogue-to-digital converter (pADC) and pulse shaping amplifier (PSA). To measure the angle between FF and the cathode plane normal to the GTIC a new algorithm is developed having advantage over the traditional analogue pulse processing schemes. Algorithms are tested by comparing the numerical simulation of the data analysis of the 252Cf(SF) reaction with data available from literature.

  5. DSP Algorithms for Fission Fragment and Prompt Fission Neutron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zeynalova, O.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Fabry, I.

    2009-10-29

    Digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are in high demand for modern nuclear fission investigation due to importance of increase the accuracy of fissile nuclear data for new generation of nuclear power stations. DSP algorithms for fission fragment (FF) and prompt fission neutron (PFN) spectroscopy are described in the present work. The twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber (GTIC) is used to measure the kinetic energy-, mass- and angular distributions of the FF in the {sup 252}Cf(SF) reaction. Along with the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurement the correlation between neutron emission and FF mass and energy is investigated. The TOF is measured between common cathode of the GTIC and the neutron detector (ND) pulses. Waveform digitizers (WFD) having 12 bit amplitude resolution and 100 MHz sampling frequency are used for the detector pulse sampling. DSP algorithms are developed as recursive procedures to perform the signal processing, similar to those available in various nuclear electronics modules, such as constant fraction discriminator (CFD), pulse shape discriminator (PSD), peak-sensitive analogue-to-digital converter (pADC) and pulse shaping amplifier (PSA). To measure the angle between FF and the cathode plane normal to the GTIC a new algorithm is developed having advantage over the traditional analogue pulse processing schemes. Algorithms are tested by comparing the numerical simulation of the data analysis of the {sup 252}Cf(SF) reaction with data available from literature.

  6. Fission fragment rockets: A potential breakthrough

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.F.; Dickson, P.W.; Schnitzler, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    A new reactor concept which has the potential of enabling extremely energetic and ambitious space propulsion missions is described. Fission fragments are directly utilized as the propellant by guiding them out of a very low density core using magnetic fields. The very high fission fragment exhaust velocities yield specific impulses of approximately a million seconds while maintaining respectable thrust levels. Specific impulses of this magnitude allow acceleration of significant payload masses to several percent of the velocity of light and enable a variety of interesting missions, e.g., payloads to the nearest star, Alpha Centauri, in about a hundred years for very rapid solar system transport. The parameters reported in this paper are based on a very preliminary analysis. Considerable trade-off studies will be required to find the optimum system. We hope the optimum system proves to be as attractive as our preliminary analysis indicates, although we must admit that our limited effort is insufficient to guarantee any specific level of performance.

  7. Study of heavy-ion induced fission for heavy-element synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Hofmann, S.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Antalic, S.; Aritomo, Y.; Comas, V. F.; Düllman, Ch. E.; Gorshkov, A.; Graeger, R.; Heinz, S.; Heredia, J. A.; Hirose, K.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lommel, B.; Makii, H.; Mann, R.; Mitsuoka, S.; Nagame, Y.; Nishinaka, I.; Ohtsuki, T.; Popeko, A. G.; Saro, S.; Schädel, M.; Türler, A.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Yakushev, A.; Yeremin, A. V.

    2014-03-01

    Fission fragment mass distributions were measured in heavy-ion induced fissions using 238U target nucleus. The measured mass distributions changed drastically with incident energy. The results are explained by a change of the ratio between fusion and qasifission with nuclear orientation. A calculation based on a fluctuation dissipation model reproduced the mass distributions and their incident energy dependence. Fusion probability was determined in the analysis, and the values were consistent with those determined from the evaporation residue cross sections.

  8. Compact multiwire proportional counters for the detection of fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhingan, Akhil; Sugathan, P.; Golda, K. S.; Singh, R. P.; Varughese, T.; Singh, Hardev; Behera, B. R.; Mandal, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    Two large area multistep position sensitive (two dimensional) multiwire proportional counters have been developed for experiments involving study of fission dynamics using general purpose scattering chamber facility at IUAC. Both detectors have an active area of 20×10 cm2 and provide position signals in horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) planes, timing signal for time of flight measurements and energy signal giving the differential energy loss in the active volume. The design features are optimized for the detection of low energy heavy ions at very low gas pressures. Special care was taken in setting up the readout electronics, constant fraction discriminators for position signals in particular, to get optimum position and timing resolutions along with high count rate handling capability of low energy heavy ions. A custom made charge sensitive preamplifier, having lower gain and shorter decay time, has been developed for extracting the differential energy loss signal. The position and time resolutions of the detectors were determined to be 1.1 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and 1.7 ns FWHM, respectively. The detector could handle heavy ion count rates exceeding 20 kHz without any breakdown. Time of flight signal in combination with differential energy loss signal gives a clean separation of fission fragments from projectile and target like particles. The timing and position signals of the detectors are used for fission coincidence measurements and subsequent extraction of their mass, angular, and total kinetic energy distributions. This article describes systematic study of these fission counters in terms of efficiency, time resolution, count rate handling capability, position resolution, and the readout electronics. The detector has been operated with both five electrode geometry and four electrode geometry, and a comparison has been made in their performances.

  9. New fission-fragment detector for experiments at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusev, G.; Roman, A. R.; Daum, J. K.; Springs, R. K.; Bond, E. M.; Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Favalli, A.; Ianakiev, K. D.; Iliev, M. L.; Mosby, S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-10-01

    A fission-fragment detector based on thin scintillating films has been built to serve as a veto/trigger detector in neutron-induced fission measurements at DANCE. The fissile material is surrounded by scintillating films providing a 4 π detection of the fission fragments. The scintillation events caused by the fission fragment interactions in the films are registered with silicon photomultipliers. Design of the detector and test measurements are described. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Nuclear Physics under the Early Career Award No. LANL20135009.

  10. In-beam fission study for Heavy Element Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Katsuhisa

    2013-12-01

    Fission fragment mass distributions were measured in heavy-ion induced fissions using 238U target nucleus. The measured mass distributions changed drastically with incident energy. The results are explained by a change of the ratio between fusion and qasifission with nuclear orientation. A calculation based on a fluctuation dissipation model reproduced the mass distributions and their incident energy dependence. Fusion probability was determined in the analysis. Evaporation residue cross sections were calculated with a statistical model in the reactions of 30Si + 238U and 34S + 238U using the obtained fusion probability in the entrance channel. The results agree with the measured cross sections for seaborgium and hassium isotopes.

  11. Neutron emission from fission fragments during acceleration p

    SciTech Connect

    Hinde, D.J.; Charity, R.J.; Foote, G.S.; Leigh, J.R.; Newton, J.O.; Ogaza, S.; Chatterjee, A.

    1984-03-19

    Fission-neutron angular correlations following fusion of /sup 19/F and /sup 232/Th have been measured. Conventional analysis, based on the approximation that post-fission neutrons originate only from fully accelerated fission fragments, gives unexpectedly large numbers of ''prefission'' neutrons. Comparison with the considerably less fissile system /sup 200/Pb gives the first convincing evidence that this approach is inadequate. Consideration of neutron emission from the accelerating fragments gives results consistent with expectations.

  12. Characterization of the scission point from fission-fragment velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caamaño, M.; Farget, F.; Delaune, O.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Schmitt, C.; Audouin, L.; Bacri, C.-O.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Derkx, X.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Gaudefroy, L.; Golabek, C.; Jurado, B.; Lemasson, A.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Roger, T.; Shrivastava, A.

    2015-09-01

    The isotopic yield distributions and kinematic properties of fragments produced in the transfer-induced fission of 240Pu and fusion-induced fission of 250Cf, with 9 MeV and 45 MeV excitation energy, respectively, were measured in inverse kinematics with the spectrometer VAMOS. The kinematics of identified fission fragments allow to derive properties of the scission configuration such as the distance between fragments, the total kinetic energy, the neutron multiplicity, the total excitation energy, and, for the first time, the proton- and neutron-number sharing during the emergence of the fragments. These properties of the scission point are studied as functions of the fragment atomic number. The correlation between these observables, gathered in one single experiment and for two different fissioning systems at different excitation energies, give valuable information for the understanding and modeling of the fission process.

  13. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; et al

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally,more » individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.« less

  14. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O`Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-07-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) has been developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E-2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E-v measurement.

  15. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O׳Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally, individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.

  16. Impact of prompt-neutron corrections on final fission-fragment distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Adili, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Pomp, S.; Oberstedt, S.

    2012-11-01

    Background: One important quantity in nuclear fission is the average number of prompt neutrons emitted from the fission fragments, the prompt neutron multiplicity, ν¯. The total number of prompt fission neutrons, ν¯tot, increases with increasing incident neutron energy. The prompt-neutron multiplicity is also a function of the fragment mass and the total kinetic energy of the fragmentation. Those data are only known in sufficient detail for a few thermal-neutron-induced fission reactions on, for example, 233,235U and 239Pu. The enthralling question has always been asked how the additional excitation energy is shared between the fission fragments. The answer to this question is important in the analysis of fission-fragment data taken with the double-energy technique. Although in the traditional approach the excess neutrons are distributed equally across the mass distribution, a few experiments showed that those neutrons are predominantly emitted by the heavy fragments.Purpose: We investigated the consequences of the ν(A,TKE,En) distribution on the fission fragment observables.Methods: Experimental data obtained for the 234U(n,f) reaction with a Twin Frisch Grid Ionization Chamber, were analyzed assuming two different methods for the neutron evaporation correction. The effect of the two different methods on the resulting fragment mass and energy distributions is studied.Results: We found that the preneutron mass distributions obtained via the double-energy technique become slightly more symmetric, and that the impact is larger for postneutron fission-fragment distributions. In the most severe cases, a relative yield change up to 20-30% was observed.Conclusions: We conclude that the choice of the prompt-neutron correction method has strong implications on the understanding and modeling of the fission process and encourages new experiments to measure fission fragments in coincidence with prompt fission neutrons. Even more, the correct determination of postneutron

  17. Feasibility of an antiproton catalyzed fission fragment rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Hdinger, D.S.

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of an antiproton catalyzed fission fragment rocket (FFR). The FFR is characterized by the extraction of fission fragments from the fissile fuel, and the utilization of their kinetic energy for thrust generation. A significant drawback to previous FFR designs was the requirement to maintain a critical nuclear pile as the fission fragment source. The author examined the possibility of replacing the critical pile with a sub-critical pile driven by antiprotons. Recent experiments have revealed that antiprotons stimulate highly energetic fissions in {sup 238}U, with a neutron multiplicity of 13.7 neutrons per fission. This interaction was used as a throttled neutron source. The pile consisted of layers of fissile coated fibers which are designed to allow fission fragments to escape them, where the fragments collide with a fluid. The heated fluid is then ejected from the rocket to provide thrust. The calculations performed indicate that each antiproton injected into the pile can stimulate 8 or more fissions while maintaining a neutron multiplication of less than 0.4. Based on the results seen, the engine design presented is inadequate. Limitations introduced by the reaction fluid far outweigh the simplicity-of-design gained. Despite this, the basic idea of using the antiproton-U interaction as a source of spacecraft propulsion warrants further study.

  18. Feasibility of an antiproton catalyzed fission fragment rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidinger, David S.

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of an antiproton catalyzed fission fragment rocket (FFR). The FFR is characterized by the extraction of fission fragments from the fuel, and the utilization of their kinetic energy for thrust generation. A significant drawback to previous FFR designs was the required critical nuclear pile as the fission fragment source. The author examined the possibility of replacing the critical pile with a sub-critical pile driven by antiprotons. Recent experiments have revealed that antiprotons stimulate highly energetic fissions in 238U, with a neutron multiplicity of 13.7 neutrons per fissions. This interaction was used as a throttled neutron source. The pile consisted of layers of fissile coated fibers which are designed to allow fission fragments to escape them, where the fragments collide with a fluid. The heated fluid is then ejected from the rocket to provide thrust. The calculations performed indicate that each antiproton injected into the pile can stimulate 8 or more fissions while maintaining a neutron multiplication of less than 0.4. Based on the results, the specific design presented was inadequate. Despite this, the concept of using the antiproton-U interaction as a source of thrust warrants further study.

  19. Heavy Ion Fragmentation Experiments at the Bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using the heavy-ion capability of the Bevatron were studied. The purpose was to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Attempts were also made to: (1) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (2) test the applicability of high-energy multi-particle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (3) apply the cross-section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (4) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross sections.

  20. Dynamic approach to description of entrance channel effects in angular distributions of fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremenko, D. O.; Drozdov, V. A.; Fotina, O. V.; Platonov, S. Yu.; Yuminov, O. A.

    2016-07-01

    Background: It is well known that the anomalous behavior of angular anisotropies of fission fragments at sub- and near-barrier energies is associated with a memory of conditions in the entrance channel of the heavy-ion reactions, particularly, deformations and spins of colliding nuclei that determine the initial distributions for the components of the total angular momentum over the symmetry axis of the fissioning system and the beam axis. Purpose: We develop a new dynamic approach, which allows the description of the memory effects in the fission fragment angular distributions and provides new information on fusion and fission dynamics. Methods: The approach is based on the dynamic model of the fission fragment angular distributions which takes into account stochastic aspects of nuclear fission and thermal fluctuations for the tilting mode that is characterized by the projection of the total angular momentum onto the symmetry axis of the fissioning system. Another base of our approach is the quantum mechanical method to calculate the initial distributions over the components of the total angular momentum of the nuclear system immediately following complete fusion. Results: A method is suggested for calculating the initial distributions of the total angular momentum projection onto the symmetry axis for the nuclear systems formed in the reactions of complete fusion of deformed nuclei with spins. The angular distributions of fission fragments for the 16O+232Th,12C+235,236,238, and 13C+235U reactions have been analyzed within the dynamic approach over a range of sub- and above-barrier energies. The analysis allowed us to determine the relaxation time for the tilting mode and the fraction of fission events occurring in times not larger than the relaxation time for the tilting mode. Conclusions: It is shown that the memory effects play an important role in the formation of the angular distributions of fission fragments for the reactions induced by heavy ions. The

  1. Distribution of Prompt Neutron Emission Probability for Fission Fragments in Spontaneous Fission of 252Cf and 244,248Cm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, A. S.; Dushin, V. N.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Jakovlev, V. A.; Kalinin, V. A.; Laptev, A. B.; Petrov, B. F.; Shcherbakov, O. A.

    2005-05-01

    Neutrons emitted in fission events were measured separately for each complementary fragment in correlation with fission fragment energies. Two high-efficiency Gd-loaded liquid scintillator tanks were used for neutron registration. Fission fragment energies were measured using a twin Frisch gridded ionization chamber with a pinhole collimator. The neutron multiplicity distributions were obtained for each value of the fission fragment mass and energy and corrected for neutron registration efficiency, background, and pile-up. The dependency of these distributions on fragment mass and energy for different energy and mass bins as well as mass and energy distribution of fission fragments are presented and discussed.

  2. Fission Fragment Distributions and Delayed Neutron Yields from Photon-Induced-Fission

    SciTech Connect

    David, J.-C.; Dore, D.; Giacri-Mauborgne, M.-L.; Ridikas, D.; Lauwe, A. van

    2005-05-24

    Fission fragment distributions and delayed neutron yields for 235U and 238U are provided by a complete modelization of the photofission process below 25 MeV. The absorption cross-section parameterization and the fission fragment distributions are given and compared to experimental data. The delayed neutron yields and the half-lives in terms of six groups are presented and compared to data obtained with a bremsstrahlung spectrum of 15 MeV.

  3. True ternary fission of 252Cf(sf), the collinear decay into fragments of similar size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Oertzen, W.; Nasirov, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    The ternary decay in 252Cf(sf, fff), with three cluster fragments of different masses (e.g.132Sn,52-48Ca,68-72Ni), has been observed by the FOBOS group in JINR. This work has established a new decay mode of heavy nuclei, the collinear cluster tripartition, (CCT). This "true ternary fission" of heavy nuclei has been predicted many times in theoretical works during the last decades. In the present report we discuss true ternary fission (FFF) into three nuclei of almost equal size (e.g. Z=98 → Zi = 32, 34, 32) and other fission modes in the same system. The possible fission channels for 252 Cf(sf) are predicted from potential-energy (PES) calculations. These PES's show pronounced minima for several ternary fragmentation decays, suggesting a variety of collinear ternary fission modes. The FFF-decays have very similar dynamical features as the previously observed collinear CCT-decays, the central fragment has very small kinetic energy. The data of the cited experiment allow the extraction of the yield for some FFF-decays, by using specific gates on the measured parameters.

  4. A fission fragment detector for correlated fission output studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Tovesson, F.; Couture, A.; Duke, D. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Meharchand, R.; Meierbachtol, K.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Perdue, B.; Richman, D.; Shields, D.

    2014-09-01

    A digital data acquisition system has been combined with a double Frisch gridded ionization chamber for use at both moderated and unmoderated neutron sources at the Los Alamos Neutron Science (LANSCE) facility. The high efficiency of the instrument combined with intense LANSCE beams and new acquisition system permits fission output measurements across 11 orders of magnitude incident neutron energy. The acquisition and analysis system is presented along with the first in-beam performance tests of the setup.

  5. Sputtering yield of Pu bombarded by fission Fragments from Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Danagoulian, Areg; Klein, Andreas; Mcneil, Wendy V; Yuan, Vincent W

    2008-01-01

    We present results on the yield of sputtering of Pu atoms from a Pu foil, bombarded by fission fragments from a {sup 252}Cf source in transmission geometry. We have found the number of Pu atoms/incoming fission fragments ejected to be 63 {+-} 1. In addition, we show measurements of the sputtering yield as a function of distance from the central axis, which can be understood as an angular distribution of the yield. The results are quite surprising in light of the fact that the Pu foil is several times the thickness of the range of fission fragment particles in Pu. This indicates that models like the binary collision model are not sufficient to explain this behavior.

  6. SAPhIR: a fission-fragment detector

    SciTech Connect

    Theisen, Ch.; Gautherin, C.; Houry, M.; Korten, W.; Le Coz, Y.; Lucas, R.

    1998-10-26

    SAPhIR is the acronym for S{sub a}clay A{sub q}uitaine P{sub ho}tovoltaic cells for I{sub s}omer R{sub e}search. It consists of solar cells, used for fission-fragment detection. It is a collaboration between 3 laboratories: CEA Saclay, CENBG Bordeaux and CEA Bruyeres le Chatel. The coupling of a highly efficient fission-fragment detector like SAPhIR with EUROBALL will provide new insights in the study of very deformed nuclear matter and in the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei.

  7. Analysis of plasmas generated by fission fragments. [nuclear pumped lasers and helium plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deese, J. E.; Hassan, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    A kinetic model is developed for a plasma generated by fission fragments and the results are employed to study helium plasma generated in a tube coated with fissionable material. Because both the heavy particles and electrons play important roles in creating the plasma, their effects are considered simultaneously. The calculations are carried out for a range of neutron fluxes and pressures. In general, the predictions of the theory are in good agreement with available intensity measurements. Moreover, the theory predicts the experimentally measured inversions. However, the calculated gain coefficients are such that lasing is not expected to take place in a helium plasma generated by fission fragments. The effects of an externally applied electric field are also considered.

  8. Statistical and evaporation models for the neutron emission energy spectrum in the center-of-mass system from fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, T.; Talou, P.; Stetcu, I.; Chadwick, M. B.

    2013-09-01

    The neutron emission energy spectra in the CMS (center-of-mass) frame from two compound nuclei produced by fission are studied. The neutron spectra calculated with the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model are compared with the evaporation theory, and the definition of the temperature is revisited. Using the Monte Carlo technique we average the CMS neutron spectra from many fission fragments to construct the representative CMS spectrum from both the light and heavy fragments. The CMS spectra for each fission fragment pair are also converted into the laboratory frame to calculate the total prompt fission neutron spectrum that can be observed experimentally. This is compared to measured laboratory data for thermal neutron induced fission on 235U. We show that the Hauser-Feshbach calculation gives a different spectrum shape than the Madland-Nix model calculation.

  9. Fission fragment angular distributions for 11B and 19F+238U systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnik, A.; Kailas, S.; Chatterjee, A.; Navin, A.; Shrivastava, A.; Singh, P.; Samant, M. S.

    1995-12-01

    The fission fragment angular distributions were measured at energies above the fusion barrier, for the systems 11B and 19F + 238U. An analysis of the present data along with those already available for the systems 6,7Li, 12C, and 16O + 238U was made in terms of the saddle-point statistical model. While the anisotropies were ``normal'' for 6,7Li, 11B, 12C+238U systems, the ones for 16O and 19F+238U systems were found to be ``anomalous.'' The entrance channel mass asymmetry dependence of the anisotropies as observed here is consistent with the expectations of preequilibrium fission dynamics. This result emphasizes the importance of preequilibrium fission in heavy-ion induced fusion-fission reactions.

  10. Deduction of compound nucleus formation probability from the fragment angular distributions in heavy-ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, C.; Thomas, R. G.; Mohanty, A. K.; Kapoor, S. S.

    2015-07-01

    The presence of various fissionlike reactions in heavy-ion induced reactions is a major hurdle in the path to laboratory synthesis of heavy and super-heavy nuclei. It is known that the cross section of forming a heavy evaporation residue in fusion reactions depends on the three factors—the capture cross section, probability of compound nucleus formation PCN, and the survival probability of the compound nucleus against fission. As the probability of compound nucleus formation, PCN is difficult to theoretically estimate because of its complex dependence on several parameters; attempts have been made in the past to deduce it from the fission fragment anisotropy data. In the present work, the fragment anisotropy data for a number of heavy-ion reactions are analyzed and it is found that deduction of PCN from the anisotropy data also requires the knowledge of the ratio of relaxation time of the K degree of freedom to pre-equilibrium fission time.

  11. Heavy ion fragmentation experiments at the bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1976-01-01

    Collaborative research efforts to study the fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using heavy ion beams of the Bevatron/Bevalac are described. The goal of the program is to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Effects were also made to: (a) study processes of heavy nuclei in matter, (b) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (c) test the applicability of high energy multiparticle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (d) apply the cross section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (e) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross-sections.

  12. Coincident measurements of prompt fission γ rays and fission fragments at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. L.; Baramsai, B.; Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; Ullmann, J.; Kawano, T.; Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.

    2015-10-01

    Modern statistical approaches to modeling fission involve the calculation of not only average quantities but also fully correlated distributions of all fission products. Applications such as those involving the detection of special nuclear materials also rely on fully correlated data of fission products. Experimental measurements of correlated data are thus critical to the validation of theory and the development of important applications. The goal of this experiment was to measure properties of prompt fission gamma-ray emission as a function of fission fragments' total kinetic energy in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf. The measurement was carried out at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE), a 4 π γ-ray calorimeter. A prototype design consisting of two silicon detectors was installed in the center of DANCE, allowing simultaneous measurement of fission fragments and γ rays. Effort has been taken to simulate fragment kinetic energy losses as well as γ-ray attenuation in DANCE using such tools as GEANT4 and SRIM. Theoretical predictions generated by the code CGMF were also incorporated as input for these simulations. Results from the experiment and simulations will be presented, along with plans for future measurements.

  13. Fission Fragment Charge and Mass Distributions from Intermediate-Energy Reactions of 238-U Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souliotis, G. A.; Loveland, W.; Zyromski, K. E.; Wozniak, G. J.; Morrissey, D. J.; Aleklett, Kjell

    1999-10-01

    The charge, mass and velocity distributions of fission fragments from the interaction of 20 MeV/nucleon 238-U projectiles with 27-Al and 208-Pb have been measured using the MSU A1200 fragment separator. The observed distributions from the U+Al reaction are consistent with fission following fusion-like events giving rise to products that are very n-deficient relative to the line of beta-stability. However, the distributions from the U+Pb reaction are consistent with fission following quasielastic or deep-inelastic collisions, resulting in fragments that are neutron rich. Substantial yields of very n-rich nuclei are observed. Estimates of rates of important n-rich nuclides from a typical second generation projectile-fragmentation (PF) facility are given. Finally, the importance of the present cross section data for the planning of next generation intermediate-energy PF facilities able to produce short-lived neutron-rich radioactive beams by fission of heavy projectiles is discussed.

  14. γ -ray spectroscopy of fission fragments produced in 208Pb(18O ,f )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, P.; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Moin Shaikh, Md.; Sharma, H. P.; Chakraborty, S.; Palit, R.; Pillay, R. G.; Nanal, V.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Biswas, D. C.

    2015-08-01

    Prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy of fission fragments produced in the heavy-ion induced fusion-fission reaction 208Pb(18O,f ) at E =90 MeV has been performed. The relative isotopic yields of the fission fragments and the fragment mass distribution have been studied. Structures in the mass distribution have been discussed in the light of earlier results. Relative yields of several odd-A isotopes of Mo, Ru, Pd, and Cd and the odd-A isotones with N =62 and 64 have been studied along with the yields of the neighboring even-Z , even-N fragments and correlated to nuclear structural effects. The average total neutron multiplicity during fission has been measured to be 5.48 ±0.59 . The level schemes of the two neutron-rich nuclei 110Pd and 116Cd have been studied from γ -ray triple coincidence data. A large number of transitions, previously reported only from β -decay studies, have been observed in 110Pd for the first time. The yrast band in 116Cd has been extended up to spin (16+). In addition, a rotational sequence built upon an excited 5- state in 116Cd has been observed up to (13-). The level schemes have been discussed in the context of existing results, both experimental and theoretical, in the literature.

  15. Using Ultracold Neutrons to Characterize Fission Fragment Induced Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broussard, Leah; Makela, Mark; Morris, Chris

    2015-10-01

    One of the modern challenges in nuclear science and technology is the understanding of the nature of fission fragment damage to material and the resulting ejection of matter as the fragments pass through the surface, with implications to stockpile stewardship and nuclear energy. We have demonstrated a new technique that can be used to characterize the sputtered material with knowledge of the location of the originating fission event. Due to their very high fission cross sections, ultracold neutrons (~100 neV energy) can be used to control the depth at which fission takes place using their energy or the material enrichment. This effort represents one of the first practical applications of ultracold neutrons, which to date have been primarily used to explore questions in fundamental particle physics. We will present results of demonstration measurements including first limits on the total and fission cross sections for 100 neV scale neutrons and the status of the development of this new capability. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program, the G. T. Seaborg Institute, and LANL Science Campaign C1 for this work.

  16. Prompt Neutron Emission from Fragments in Spontaneous Fission of 244, 248Cm and 252Cf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, A. S.; Dushin, V. N.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Jakovlev, V. A.; Kalinin, V. A.; Laptev, A. B.; Petrov, B. F.; Shcherbakov, O. A.

    2005-11-01

    Neutrons emitted in fission were measured separately for each complementary fragment in correlation with fission fragment energies. Two high efficient Gd-loaded liquid scintillator tanks were used for neutron registration. Fission fragment energies were measured using a twin Frisch gridded ionization chamber with a pin-hole collimator. The neutron multiplicity distributions were obtained for each value of the fission fragment mass and energy and corrected for neutron registration efficiency, background and pile-up. The dependencies of these distributions on fragment mass and energy for different energy and mass bins, as well as the mass and energy distribution of the fission fragments are presented and discussed.

  17. Electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, H. A.; Deese, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A Boltzmann equation formulation is presented for the determination of the electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments. The formulation takes into consideration ambipolar diffusion, elastic and inelastic collisions, recombination and ionization, and allows for the fact that the primary electrons are not monoenergetic. Calculations for He in a tube coated with fissionable material shows that, over a wide pressure and neutron flux range, the distribution function is non-Maxwellian, but the electrons are essentially thermal. Moreover, about a third of the energy of the primary electrons is transferred into the inelastic levels of He. This fraction of energy transfer is almost independent of pressure and neutron flux.

  18. New Fission Fragment Distributions and r-Process Origin of the Rare-Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, S.; Sida, J.-L.; Lemaître, J.-F.; Panebianco, S.; Dubray, N.; Hilaire, S.; Bauswein, A.; Janka, H.-T.

    2013-12-01

    Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A≳140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular, the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110≲A≲170 nuclei. Here, we apply a new scission-point model, called SPY, to derive the fission fragment distribution (FFD) of all relevant neutron-rich, fissioning nuclei. The model predicts a doubly asymmetric FFD in the abundant A≃278 mass region that is responsible for the final recycling of the fissioning material. Using ejecta conditions based on relativistic NS merger calculations, we show that this specific FFD leads to a production of the A≃165 rare-earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r nuclei with A≳140.

  19. New fission fragment distributions and r-process origin of the rare-earth elements.

    PubMed

    Goriely, S; Sida, J-L; Lemaître, J-F; Panebianco, S; Dubray, N; Hilaire, S; Bauswein, A; Janka, H-T

    2013-12-13

    Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A≳140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular, the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110≲A≲170 nuclei. Here, we apply a new scission-point model, called SPY, to derive the fission fragment distribution (FFD) of all relevant neutron-rich, fissioning nuclei. The model predicts a doubly asymmetric FFD in the abundant A≃278 mass region that is responsible for the final recycling of the fissioning material. Using ejecta conditions based on relativistic NS merger calculations, we show that this specific FFD leads to a production of the A≃165 rare-earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r nuclei with A≳140. PMID:24483647

  20. Fission-fragment nuclear lasing of Ar/He/-Xe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.; Shiu, Y. J.; Williams, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear-pumped lasing of Ar-Xe and He-Xe has been demonstrated using (U-235)F6 fission-fragment excitation. Fission fragments were created by absorption of thermal neutrons in a combination of gaseous (U-235)F6 and laser-tube wall coatings formed from UF6 chemical reaction products. At a pressure of 600 torr Ar-(3%)Xe, lasing occurred at 2.65 microns in Xe. Up to 3 torr of gaseous (U-235)F6 was added to 600 torr Ar-Xe before serious laser quenching occurred. With 3 torr of (U-235)F6 added, 38% of the energy deposition came from gaseous UF6 and the remainder from the uranium wall coating. The neutron flux at lasing threshold was found to be 4 x 10 to the 15th n/sq cm sec.

  1. Analysis of Mass Distribution of Fission Fragment in Superheavy Mass Region

    SciTech Connect

    Aritomo, Y.

    2009-05-04

    Recently our FLNR theoretical group completes a calculation model to treat all reaction processes in heavy and superheavy mass region, which is so called 'Unified model'. Using a lot of available experimental data, we verify the validity of our model and establish a reliable model to describe the whole reaction process. As examples of the application of our model, we discuss two cases that are quasi-fission process and deep inelastic collision. We show the calculation results of the mass distribution of fission fragments in the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 236}U. Also, we discuss the possibility for the production of new heavy neutron-rich nuclei in the low-energy multi-neutron transfer process.

  2. Mass resolved angular distribution of fission fragments for near-barrier fusion-fission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vorkapic, D.

    1997-05-01

    It is shown that K-equilibration fission can explain the decrease of mass resolved fission fragment anisotropy at larger mass asymmetries. Two competing mechanisms contribute to the anisotropy. The effective moment of inertia and K{sub 0}{sup 2} decreases with the increase of mass asymmetry and contribute to the increase of anisotropy. On the other hand, for larger asymmetries, the barriers are higher and lifetimes are longer. Such systems are more K equilibrated and will have smaller anisotropy. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Progress in the Atomic Number Identification of Fission Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Smith, A. G.; Dare, J. A.; Pollitt, A. J.

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of nuclear-charge identification of nonaccelerated fission products by non-radiative methods. The major factors influencing Z resolution are pointed out, as well as the ways to overcome them. Two basic techniques for nuclear charge assignment are presented and discussed from the viewpoint of fast digital sampling electronics used in conjunction with specially developed algorithms at the Manchester 2v2E spectrometer: (1) analysis of the specific energy losses of fragments and (2) correlation of their mass, energy and range with atomic number. Fragments kinetic energy and range parameters are obtained, and specific energy loss is deduced, from the analysis of the fragments pulse shapes and lengths in gaseous detectors. Special attention is given to the range measurement and analysis; preliminary results on the deduced average nuclear charge parameter are demonstrated and discussed.

  4. FY04&05 LDRD Final Report Fission Fragment Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B; Trelenberg, T; Meier, T; Felter, T; Sturgeon, J; Kuboda, A; Wolfer, B

    2006-02-22

    Fission fragments born within the first 7 {micro}m of the surface of U metal can eject a thousand or more atoms per fission event. Existing data in the literature show that the sputtering yield ranges from 10 to 10,000 atoms per fission event near the surface, but nothing definitive is known about the energy of the sputtered clusters. Experimental packages were constructed allowing the neutron irradiation of natural uranium foils to investigate the amount of material removed per fission event and the kinetic energy distribution of the sputtered atoms. Samples were irradiated but were never analyzed after irradiation. Similar experiments were attempted in a non-radioactive environment using accelerator driven ions in place of fission induced fragments. These experiments showed that tracks produced parallel to the surface (and not perpendicular to the surface) are the primary source of the resulting particulate ejecta. Modeling studies were conducted in parallel with the experimental work. Because the reactor irradiation experiments were not analyzed, data on the energy of the resulting particulate ejecta was not obtained. However, some data was found in the literature on self sputtering of {sup 252}Cf that was used to estimate the velocity and hence the energy of the ejected particulates. Modeling of the data in the literature showed that the energy of the ejecta was much lower than had been anticipated. A mechanism to understand the nature of the ejecta was pursued. Initially it was proposed that the fission fragment imparts its momenta on the electrons which then impart their momenta on the nuclei. Once the nuclei are in motion, the particulate ejecta would result. This initial model was wrong. The error was in the assumption that the secondary electrons impart their momenta directly on the nuclei. Modeling and theoretical considerations showed that the secondary electrons scatter many times before imparting all their momenta. As a result, their energy transfer is

  5. Fission Cross Sections and Fission-Fragment Mass Yields via the Surrogate Reaction Method

    SciTech Connect

    Jurado, B.; Kessedjian, G.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Bidaud, A.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassie, D.; Haas, B.; Mathieu, L.; Osmanov, B.; Ahmad, I.

    2008-04-17

    The surrogate reaction method is a powerful tool to infer neutron-induced data of short-lived nuclei. After a short overview of the experimental techniques employed in the present surrogate experiments, we will concentrate on a recent measurement to determine neutron-induced fission cross sections for the actinides {sup 242,243}Cm and {sup 241}Am. The latest direct neutron-induced measurement for the {sup 243}Cm fission cross section is questioned by our results, since there are differences of more than 60% in the 0.7 to 7 MeV neutron energy range. Our experimental set-up has also enabled us to measure for the first time the fission fragment ''pseudo-mass'' distributions of {sup 243,244,245}Cm and {sup 242}Am compound nuclei in the excitation energy range from a few MeV to about 25 MeV.

  6. Determination of Nuclear Charge Distributions of Fission Fragments from ^{235}U (n_th, f) with Calorimetric Low Temperature Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabitz, P.; Andrianov, V.; Bishop, S.; Blanc, A.; Dubey, S.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Faust, H.; Gönnenwein, F.; Gomez-Guzman, J. M.; Köster, U.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Mutterer, M.; Scholz, P.; Stolte, S.

    2016-08-01

    Calorimetric low temperature detectors (CLTD's) for heavy-ion detection have been combined with the LOHENGRIN recoil separator at the ILL Grenoble for the determination of nuclear charge distributions of fission fragments produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of ^{235}U. The LOHENGRIN spectrometer separates fission fragments according to their mass-to-ionic-charge ratio and their kinetic energy, but has no selectivity with respect to nuclear charges Z. For the separation of the nuclear charges, one can exploit the nuclear charge-dependent energy loss of the fragments passing through an energy degrader foil (absorber method). This separation requires detector systems with high energy resolution and negligible pulse height defect, as well as degrader foils which are optimized with respect to thickness, homogeneity, and energy loss straggling. In the present, contribution results of test measurements at the Maier Leibnitz tandem accelerator facility in Munich with ^{109}Ag and ^{127}I beams with the aim to determine the most suitable degrader material, as well as measurements at the Institut Laue-Langevin will be presented. These include a systematic study of the quality of Z-separation of fission fragments in the mass range 82le A le 132 and a systematic measurement of ^{92}Rb fission yields, as well as investigations of fission yields toward the symmetry region.

  7. Determination of Nuclear Charge Distributions of Fission Fragments from ^{235} U (n_th , f) with Calorimetric Low Temperature Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabitz, P.; Andrianov, V.; Bishop, S.; Blanc, A.; Dubey, S.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Faust, H.; Gönnenwein, F.; Gomez-Guzman, J. M.; Köster, U.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Mutterer, M.; Scholz, P.; Stolte, S.

    2016-03-01

    Calorimetric low temperature detectors (CLTD's) for heavy-ion detection have been combined with the LOHENGRIN recoil separator at the ILL Grenoble for the determination of nuclear charge distributions of fission fragments produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of ^{235} U. The LOHENGRIN spectrometer separates fission fragments according to their mass-to-ionic-charge ratio and their kinetic energy, but has no selectivity with respect to nuclear charges Z. For the separation of the nuclear charges, one can exploit the nuclear charge-dependent energy loss of the fragments passing through an energy degrader foil (absorber method). This separation requires detector systems with high energy resolution and negligible pulse height defect, as well as degrader foils which are optimized with respect to thickness, homogeneity, and energy loss straggling. In the present, contribution results of test measurements at the Maier Leibnitz tandem accelerator facility in Munich with ^{109} Ag and ^{127} I beams with the aim to determine the most suitable degrader material, as well as measurements at the Institut Laue-Langevin will be presented. These include a systematic study of the quality of Z-separation of fission fragments in the mass range 82≤ A ≤ 132 and a systematic measurement of ^{92} Rb fission yields, as well as investigations of fission yields toward the symmetry region.

  8. Sensitivity studies of spin cut-off models on fission fragment observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thulliez, L.; Litaize, O.; Serot, O.

    2016-03-01

    A fission fragment de-excitation code, FIFRELIN, is being developed at CEA Cadarache. It allows probing the characteristics of the prompt emitted particles, neutrons and gammas, during the de-excitation process of fully accelerated fission fragments. The knowledge of the initial states of the fragments is important to accurately reproduce the fission fragment observables. In this paper a sensitivity study of various spin cut-off models, completely defining the initial fission fragment angular momentum distribution has been performed. This study shows that the choice of the model has a significant impact on gamma observables such as spectrum and multiplicity and almost none on the neutron observables.

  9. Effect of the energy spectrum and angular momentum of pre-scission neutrons on the prediction of fission fragment angular anisotropy by the models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soheyli, Saeed; Khanlari, Marzieh Varasteh

    2016-04-01

    Effects of the various neutron emission energy spectra, as well as the influence of the angular momentum of pre-scission neutrons on theoretical predictions of fission fragment angular anisotropies for several heavy-ion induced fission systems are considered. Although theoretical calculations of angular anisotropy are very sensitive to neutron emission correction, the effects of the different values of kinetic energy of emitted neutrons derived from the various neutron emission energy spectra before reaching to the saddle point on the prediction of fission fragment angular distribution by the model are not significant and can be neglected, since these effects on angular anisotropies of fission fragments for a wide range of fissility parameters and excitation energies of compound nuclei are not more than 10%. Furthermore, the theoretical prediction of fission fragment angular anisotropy is not sensitive to the angular momentum of emitted neutrons.

  10. Fission fragment mass distribution studies in 30Si +180Hf reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamlath, A.; Shareef, M.; Prasad, E.; Sugathan, P.; Thomas, R. G.; Jhingan, A.; Appannababu, S.; Nasirov, A. K.; Vinodkumar, A. M.; Varier, K. M.; Yadav, C.; Babu, B. R. S.; Nath, S.; Mohanto, G.; Mukul, Ish; Singh, D.; Kailas, S.

    2016-01-01

    Fission fragment mass-angle and mass ratio distributions have been measured for the 30Si + 180Hf reaction in the beam energy range 128-148 MeV. Quasifission signature is observed in this reaction, forming the compound system 210Rn. The results are compared with a very asymmetric reaction 16O + 194Pt, forming the same compound nucleus. Calculations assuming saddle point, scission point and DNS models have been performed to interpret the experimental results. The results strongly suggest the entrance channel dependence of quasifission in heavy ion collisions.

  11. Measurement techniques for analysis of fission fragment excited gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Carroll, E. E.; Davis, J. F.; Davie, R. N.; Maguire, T. C.; Shipman, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of fission fragment excited He, Ar, Xe, N2, Ne, Ar-N2, and Ne-N2 have been conducted. Boltzmann plot analysis of He, Ar and Xe have indicated a nonequilibrium, recombining plasma, and population inversions have been found in these gases. The observed radiating species in helium have been adequately described by a simple kinetic model. A more extensive model for argon, nitrogen and Ar-N2 mixtures was developed which adequately describes the energy flow in the system and compares favorably with experimental measurements. The kinetic processes involved in these systems are discussed.

  12. Direct nuclear pumping by a volume source of fission fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deese, J. E.; Hassan, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed kinetic model is presented for the analysis of nuclear pumped lasers when the pumping is a result of a volume source of fission fragments. The results of the model are employed to study a He-3 - Xe laser. For the range of pressures, neutron fluxes and mixtures considered, the gain and power calculations are in good agreement with experiment. Moreover, based on these calculations, it appears that the collisional recombination is the dominant pumping mechanism for 7p-7s transitions while direct excitation is the dominant pumping mechanism for the 5d-6p transitions.

  13. Science based stockpile stewardship, uncertainty quantification, and fission fragment beams

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A; McNabb, D; Burke, J; Bernstein, L A; Wu, C Y

    2009-09-14

    Stewardship of this nation's nuclear weapons is predicated on developing a fundamental scientific understanding of the physics and chemistry required to describe weapon performance without the need to resort to underground nuclear testing and to predict expected future performance as a result of intended or unintended modifications. In order to construct more reliable models, underground nuclear test data is being reanalyzed in novel ways. The extent to which underground experimental data can be matched with simulations is one measure of the credibility of our capability to predict weapon performance. To improve the interpretation of these experiments with quantified uncertainties, improved nuclear data is required. As an example, the fission yield of a device was often determined by measuring fission products. Conversion of the measured fission products to yield was accomplished through explosion code calculations (models) and a good set of nuclear reaction cross-sections. Because of the unique high-fluence environment of an exploding nuclear weapon, many reactions occurred on radioactive nuclides, for which only theoretically calculated cross-sections are available. Inverse kinematics reactions at CARIBU offer the opportunity to measure cross-sections on unstable neutron-rich fission fragments and thus improve the quality of the nuclear reaction cross-section sets. One of the fission products measured was {sup 95}Zr, the accumulation of all mass 95 fission products of Y, Sr, Rb and Kr (see Fig. 1). Subsequent neutron-induced reactions on these short lived fission products were assumed to cancel out - in other words, the destruction of mass 95 nuclides was more or less equal to the production of mass 95 nuclides. If a {sup 95}Sr was destroyed by an (n,2n) reaction it was also produced by (n,2n) reactions on {sup 96}Sr, for example. However, since these nuclides all have fairly short half-lives (seconds to minutes or even less), no experimental nuclear reaction

  14. Target conception for the Munich fission fragment accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, H. J.; Habs, D.; Gross, M. L.; Grossmann, R.; Kester, O.; Thirolf, P.

    1999-12-01

    For the new high-flux reactor FRM II, the fission fragment accelerator MAFF is under design. MAFF will supply intense mass-separated radioactive ion beams of very neutron-rich nuclei with energies around the Coulomb barrier. A central part of this accelerator is the ion source with the fission target, which is operated at a neutron flux of 1.5×10 14 cm-2 s-1. The target consists of typically 1 g of 235U dispersed in a cylindrical graphite matrix, which is encapsulated in a Re container. To enable diffusion and extraction of the fission products, the target has to be maintained at a temperature of up to 2400°C during operation. It has to stand this temperature for at least one reactor cycle of 1250 h. Comprehensive tests are required to study the long-term behaviour of the involved materials at these conditions prior to operation in the reactor. The present paper gives details of the target conception and the projected tests.

  15. Studies of Fission Fragment Rocket Engine Propelled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werka, Robert O.; Clark, Rodney; Sheldon, Rob; Percy, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Office of Chief Technologist has funded from FY11 through FY14 successive studies of the physics, design, and spacecraft integration of a Fission Fragment Rocket Engine (FFRE) that directly converts the momentum of fission fragments continuously into spacecraft momentum at a theoretical specific impulse above one million seconds. While others have promised future propulsion advances if only you have the patience, the FFRE requires no waiting, no advances in physics and no advances in manufacturing processes. Such an engine unequivocally can create a new era of space exploration that can change spacecraft operation. The NIAC (NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts) Program Phase 1 study of FY11 first investigated how the revolutionary FFRE technology could be integrated into an advanced spacecraft. The FFRE combines existent technologies of low density fissioning dust trapped electrostatically and high field strength superconducting magnets for beam management. By organizing the nuclear core material to permit sufficient mean free path for escape of the fission fragments and by collimating the beam, this study showed the FFRE could convert nuclear power to thrust directly and efficiently at a delivered specific impulse of 527,000 seconds. The FY13 study showed that, without increasing the reactor power, adding a neutral gas to the fission fragment beam significantly increased the FFRE thrust through in a manner analogous to a jet engine afterburner. This frictional interaction of gas and beam resulted in an engine that continuously produced 1000 pound force of thrust at a delivered impulse of 32,000 seconds, thereby reducing the currently studied DRM 5 round trip mission to Mars from 3 years to 260 days. By decreasing the gas addition, this same engine can be tailored for much lower thrust at much higher impulse to match missions to more distant destinations. These studies created host spacecraft concepts configured for manned round trip journeys. While the

  16. Fission fragment assisted reactor concept for space propulsion: Foil reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Steven A.

    1991-01-01

    The concept is to fabricate a reactor using thin films or foils of uranium, uranium oxide and then to coat them on substrates. These coatings would be made so thin as to allow the escaping fission fragments to directly heat a hydrogen propellant. The idea was studied of direct gas heating and direct gas pumping in a nuclear pumped laser program. Fission fragments were used to pump lasers. In this concept two substrates are placed opposite each other. The internal faces are coated with thin foil of uranium oxide. A few of the advantages of this technology are listed. In general, however, it is felt that if one look at all solid core nuclear thermal rockets or nuclear thermal propulsion methods, one is going to find that they all pretty much look the same. It is felt that this reactor has higher potential reliability. It has low structural operating temperatures, very short burn times, with graceful failure modes, and it has reduced potential for energetic accidents. Going to a design like this would take the NTP community part way to some of the very advanced engine designs, such as the gas core reactor, but with reduced risk because of the much lower temperatures.

  17. Partition between the fission fragments of the excitation energy and of the neutron multiplicity at scission in low-energy fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carjan, N.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Rizea, M.; Serot, O.

    2012-04-01

    The partition between the light (L) and the heavy (H) fission fragments of the excitation energy available at scission is studied in the framework of the sudden approximation, i.e., under the assumption that the neck rupture and the absorption of the neck pieces by the fragments happen infinitely fast. We are dealing with a sudden transition between two different nuclear configurations (αi→αf) and we only need to know the two sets of neutron eigenstates involved. The accent in the present work is put on the dependence of this share of energy on the mass asymmetry AL/AH of the primary fission fragments during the low-energy fission of 236U. In particular, for every fragment mass A we estimate the scission neutron multiplicity νsc, the average energy cost for their release , the primary fragments' excitation energy Esc*, and the corresponding temperature Tsc. The results are analyzed separately for each value of Ω (the projection of the angular momentum on the symmetry axis). As general trends, a decrease of Esc* (Tsc) and an increase of νsc () with increasing A were observed.

  18. Relativistic heavy ion fragmentation at HISS (Heavy Ion Spectrometer System)

    SciTech Connect

    Tull, C.E.

    1990-10-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to measure projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions. Charge identification was obtained by the use of a Cerenkov Hodoscope operating above the threshold for total internal reflection, while velocity measurement was performed by use of a second set of Cerenkov radiators operating at the threshold for total internal reflection. Charge and mass resolution for the system was {sigma}{sub Z} = 0.2 e and {sigma}{sub A} = 0.2 u. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic production cross sections for the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar at 1.65{center dot}A GeV have been compared with an Abrasion-Ablation Model based on the evaporation computer code GEMINI. The model proves to be an accurate predictor of the cross sections for fragments between Chlorine and Boron. The measured cross section were reproduced using simple geometry with charge dispersions induced by zero-point vibrations of the giant dipole resonance for the prompt abrasion stage, and injecting an excitation energy spectrum based on a final state interaction with scaling factor E{sub fsi} = 38.8 MeV/c. Measurement of the longitudinal momentum distribution widths for projectile fragments are consistent with previous experiment and can be interpreted as reflecting the Fermi momentum distribution in the initial projectile nucleus. Measurement of the transverse momentum indicate an additional, unexplained dependence of the reduced momentum widths on fragment mass. This dependence has the same sign and similar slope to previously measured fragments of {sup 139}La, and to predictions based on phase-space constraints on the final state of the system.

  19. Asymmetrical fission and statistical emission of complex fragments from the highly excited {sup 47}V compound nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, C.; Djerroud, B.; Haas, F.; Freeman, R.M.; Hachem, A.; Heusch, B.; Morsad, A.; Vuillet-A-Crilles, M.; Youlal, M.; Abe, Y.; Dayras, R.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Legrain, R.; Pollaco, E.; Ray, A.; Shapira, D.; Campo, J.G.D.; Kim, H.J.; Cavallaro, S.; De Fillippo, E.; Lanzano, G.; Pagano, A.; Sperduto, M.L.; Matsuse, T.; Sanders, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    The properties of the fully damped (deep-inelastic and orbiting) and fusion (evaporation and fission) processes have been investigated in three entrance channels leading to the same {sup 47} V compound nucleus at high excitation energies. No entrance channel effect has been observed in either the evaporation residue or the fission-like yields in contrast to the {sup 28}Si + {sup 12}C and {sup 24}Mg + {sup 16}O reactions in which the orbiting process still persists. The asymmetrical elemental distributions of the fully energy relaxed fragments are well described by fusion-fission models based respectively on the scission point and saddle point pictures. Finally a general discussion of the competition between orbiting and fusion-fission mechanisms in light heavy-ion reactions is presented in the framework of their calculated available number of open channels.

  20. Fusion hindrance and quasi-fission in heavy-ion induced reactions: disentangling the effect of different parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fioretto, E.; Stefanini, A. M.; Behera, B. R.; Corradi, L.; Gadea, A.; Latina, A.; Trotta, M.; Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Chizhov, A. Yu.; Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Kniajeva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Voskressensky, V. M.; Courtin, S.

    2006-04-26

    Experimental results on the fusion inhibition effect near the Coulomb barrier due to the onset of the quasi-fission mechanism are presented. The investigation was focused on reactions induced by 48Ca projectiles on different heavy targets and comparing them to reactions induced by light ions such as 12C and 16O leading to the same compound nuclei. Cross sections and angular distributions of evaporation residues and fission fragments have been measured.

  1. Dependence of Fission-Fragment Properties On Excitation Energy For Neutron-Rich Actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Caamaño, M.; Farget, F.; Audouin, L.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Clement, E.; Cortina, D.; Delaune, O.; Derkx, X.; Dijon, A.; Doré, D.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; de France, G.; Heinz, A.; Jacquot, B.; Navin, A.; Paradela, C.; Rejmund, M.; Roger, T.; Salsac, M. D.; Schmitt, C.

    2016-03-01

    Experimental access to full isotopic fragment distributions is very important to determine the features of the fission process. However, the isotopic identification of fission fragments has been, in the past, partial and scarce. A solution based on the use of inverse kinematics to study transfer-induced fission of exotic actinides was carried out at GANIL, resulting in the first experiment accessing the full identification of a collection of fissioning systems and their corresponding fission fragment distribution. In these experiments, a 238U beam at 6.14 AMeV impinged on a carbon target to produce fissioning systems from U to Am by transfer reactions, and Cf by fusion reactions. Isotopic fission yields of 250Cf, 244Cm, 240Pu, 239Np and 238U are presented in this work. With this information, the average number of neutrons as a function of the atomic number of the fragments is calculated, which reflects the impact of nuclear structure around Z=50, N=80 on the production of fission fragments. The characteristics of the Super Long, Standard I, Standard II, and Standard III fission channels were extracted from fits of the fragment yields for different ranges of excitation energy. The position and contribution of the fission channels as function of excitation energy are presented.

  2. Position reconstruction in fission fragment detection using the low pressure MWPC technique for the JLab experiment E02-017

    SciTech Connect

    Xi-Yu, Qiu; Tang, Liguang; Margaryan, Amur T.; Jin-Zhang, Xu; Bi-Tao, Hu; Xi-Meng, Chen

    2014-07-01

    When a lambda hyperon was embedded in a nucleus, it can form a hypernucleus. The lifetime and its mass dependence of stable hypernuclei provide information about the weak decay of lambda hyperon inside nuclear medium. This work will introduce the Jefferson Lab experiment (E02-017) which aims to study the lifetime of the heavy hypernuclei using a specially developed fission fragment detection technique, a multi-wire proportional chamber operated under low gas pressure (LPMWPC). Presented here are the method and performance of the reconstruction of fission position on the target foil, the separation of target materials at different regions and the comparison and verification with the Mote Carlo simulation.

  3. A fission fragment reactor concept for nuclear space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo-Anttila, A. J.; Parma, E. J.; Wright, S. A.; Vernon, M. E.; Pickard, P. S.

    1991-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) has proposed a new nuclear thermal propulsion concept that uses fission fragments to directly heat the propellant up to 1000 K or higher above the material temperatures. The concept offers significant advantages over traditional solid core nuclear rocket concepts because of higher propellant exit temperatures while at the same time providing for more reliable operation due to lower structure temperatures and lower power densities. The concept can be operated in either steady state or pulsed modes. The engine consists of tubular modules, each with its own pressure boundary and rocket nozzle. The steady state mode requires a large engine with a reflector for criticality, provides high thrust and high ISP. The pulse mode utilizes a driver reactor for criticality and can be considerably smaller with lower but scaleable thrust. The pulse mode does require an external heat radiator for reactor cooling, which limits its duty cycle.

  4. Fission fragment angular distribution for the 19F+197Au fusion-fission reaction at near-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Sodaye, S.; Reddy, A. V.; Mahata, K.; Goswami, A.

    2005-04-01

    Angular distribution of fission fragments have been measured for 19F+197Au reaction at bombarding energies from 91 to 110 MeV. Fission fragment angular distributions have been calculated by transition state model with the transmission coefficients obtained using the coupled-channels theory. The calculated angular anisotropies are in good agreement with the experimental anisotropies. The experimental fission cross sections have also been reproduced on the basis of the coupled-channels theory. The results of angular distribution measurement do not show any significant contribution from quasifission as was reported in the literature based on the measurement of evaporation residues and mass distribution.

  5. Development Of A Digital Technique For The Determination Of Fission Fragments And Emitted Prompt Neutron Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varapai, N.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Serot, O.; Barreau, G.; Kornilov, N.; Zeinalov, Sh.

    2005-11-01

    The present work demonstrates the application of the digital technique for nuclear measurements. This method has been implemented for measurements of promptly emitted fission neutrons in coincidence with fission fragments from 252Cf(sf). A double Frisch-grid ionization chamber is used as fission fragment detector. The promptly emitted neutrons are detected by a NE213 liquid scintillation detector. The experimental set-up is installed at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements. Preliminary results are presented.

  6. From ground state to fission fragments: A complex, multi-dimensional multi-path problem

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1992-03-01

    Experimental results on the fission properties of nuclei close to {sup 264}Fm show sudden and large changes with a change of only one or two neutrons or protons. The nucleus {sup 258}Fm, for instance, undergoes symmetric fission with a half-life of about 0.4 ms and a kinetic-energy distribution peaked at about 235 MeV whereas {sup 256}Fm undergoes asymmetric fission with a half-life of about 3 h and a kinetic-energy distribution peaked at about 200 MeV. Qualitatively, these sudden changes have been postulated to be due to the emergence of fragment shells in symmetric-fission products close to {sup 132}Sn. Here we present a quantitative calculation that shows where high-kinetic-energy symmetric fusion occurs and why it is associated with a sudden and large decrease in fission half-lives. We base our study on calculations of potential-energy surfaces in the macroscopic-microscopic model and a semi-empirical model for the nuclear inertia. We use the three-quadratic-surface parameterization to generate the shapes for which the potential-energy surfaces are calculated. The use of this parameterization and the use of the finite-range macroscopic model allows for the study of two touching spheres and similar shapes. Since these shapes are thought to correspond to the scission shapes for the high-kinetic-energy events it is of crucial importance that a continuous sequence of shapes leading from the nuclear ground state to these configurations can be studied within the framework of the model. We present the results of the calculations in terms of potential-energy surfaces and fission half-lives for heavy even nuclei. The surfaces are displayed in the form of contour diagrams as functions of two moments of the shape. They clearly show the appearance of a second fission valley, which leads to scission configurations close to tow touching spheres, for fissioning systems in the vicinity of {sup 264}Fm.

  7. Formation of Heavy Compound Nuclei, Their Survival and Correlation with Longtime-Scale Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Karamian, S. A.; Yakushev, A.-B.

    2007-05-22

    Fusion of two massive nuclei with formation of super-heavy compound nucleus (CN) is driven by the potential energy gradient, as follows from the analysis of nuclear reaction cross-sections. The conservative energy of the system is deduced in simple approximation using regularized nuclear mass and interaction barrier values. Different reaction for the synthesis of Zc (110-118) nuclei are compared and the favourable conditions are found for fusion of the stable (W-Pt) isotopes with radioactive fission fragment projectiles, like 94Kr or 100Sr. Thus, the cold fusion method can be extended for a synthesis of elements with Z > 113. Survival of the evaporation residue is defined by the neutron-to-fission probability ratio and by the successful emission of gammas at final step of the reaction. Numerical estimates are presented. Fixation of evaporation residue products must correlate with longtime-scale fission and available experimental results are discussed.

  8. Remarks on the fission barriers of super-heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, S.; Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; Maurer, J.; Münzenberg, G.; Antalic, S.; Barth, W.; Dahl, L.; Eberhardt, K.; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, J. H.; Henderson, R. A.; Kenneally, J. M.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lang, R.; Lommel, B.; Miernik, K.; Miller, D.; Moody, K. J.; Morita, K.; Nishio, K.; Popeko, A. G.; Roberto, J. B.; Runke, J.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Scheidenberger, C.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Tinschert, K.; Trautmann, N.; Uusitalo, J.; Yeremin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    Shell-correction energies of super-heavy nuclei are approximated by using Q_{α} values of measured decay chains. Five decay chains were analyzed, which start at the isotopes 285Fl, 294118, 291Lv, 292Lv and 293Lv. The data are compared with predictions of macroscopic-microscopic models. Fission barriers are estimated that can be used to eliminate uncertainties in partial fission half-lives and in calculations of evaporation-residue cross-sections. In that calculations, fission probability of the compound nucleus is a major factor contributing to the total cross-section. The data also provide constraints on the cross-sections of capture and quasi-fission in the entrance channel of the fusion reaction. Arguments are presented that fusion reactions for synthesis of isotopes of elements 118 and 120 may have higher cross-sections than assumed so far.

  9. Properties of fission fragments for Z =112 -116 superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gurjit; Sandhu, Kirandeep; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamical cluster decay model (DCM) is applied to understand the dynamics of 48Ca+238U,244Pu,248Cm reactions at comparable excitation energies across the barrier. To understand the capture stage of *286112 ,*292114 , and *296116 nuclei, the compound nucleus formation probability is calculated. The indication of PC N<1 in the DCM framework demonstrates the fact that some competing process such as quasifission may occur at the capture stage of the 48Ca induced reactions. To understand this further, the comparative decay analysis of *286112 ,*292114 and *296116 , nuclei is carried out using β2 i deformations within hot optimum orientation criteria, and the calculated fission cross sections find nice agreement with available data. The fission mass distribution shows a double humped structure where a symmetric peak observed around the Sn region appears to find its genesis in a symmetric quasifission component. On the other hand, the emergence of peaks around Pb in the decay of Z =112 , 114, and 116 nuclei signify the possible presence of asymmetric quasifission. Higher and broader asymmetric quasifission peaks are observed for *296116 and *292114 nuclei as compared to *286112 nucleus. Beside this, the total kinetic energy (TKE) distribution of the decay fragments is also explored by using different proximity potentials, such as Prox-77, Prox-88, and Prox-00. Prox-88 seems to perform better and the calculated TKE values find relatively better comparison at lower angular momentum states. The possible role of different radii of the decaying nuclei is also exercised to understand the TKE ¯ dynamics of 48Ca+238U,244Pu,248Cm reactions.

  10. Absence of entrance channel effects in fission fragment anisotropies of the {sup 215}Fr compound nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Appannababu, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Singh, N. L.; Rath, P. K.; Kumar, G. Kiran; Thomas, R. G.; Santra, S.; Nayak, B. K.; Saxena, A.; Choudhury, R. K.; Golda, K. S.; Jhingan, A.; Kumar, R.; Sugathan, P.; Singh, Hardev

    2009-08-15

    Fission fragment angular distributions have been measured for the reactions {sup 11}B+{sup 204}Pb and {sup 18}O+{sup 197}Au, both leading to the same compound nucleus {sup 215}Fr at near barrier energies. The measured fission fragment anisotropies as a function of E{sub c.m.}/V{sub B} are found to be consistent with the predictions of the standard saddle point statistical model (SSPM) for both the systems, suggesting the absence of entrance channel effects on fission fragment anisotropies even though the entrance channel mass asymmetries for both these systems fall on either side of the Bussinaro-Gallone critical mass asymmetry. The consistency of the present results with SSPM predictions can be understood within the framework of the pre-equilibrium fission model where fission before K equilibration is severely inhibited by the high values of ratios of fission barrier height to nuclear temperature.

  11. Fusion-fission Study at JAEA for Heavy-element Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, K.

    Fission fragment mass distributions were measured in the heavy-ion induced fission using 238U target nucleus. The mass distribu- tions changed drastically with incident energy. The results are explained by a change of the ratio between fusion and qasifission with nuclear orientation. A calculation based on a fluctuation dissipation model reproduced the mass distributions and their inci- dent energy dependence. Fusion probability was determined in the analysis. Evaporation residue cross sections were calculated with a statistical model in the reactions of 30Si+238U and 34S+238U using the obtained fusion probability in the entrance channel. The results agree with the measured cross sections of 263,264Sg and 267,268Hs, produced by 30Si+238U and 34S+238U, respectively. It is also suggested that the sub-barrier energies can be used for heavy element synthesis.

  12. SPY: A new scission point model based on microscopic ingredients to predict fission fragments properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaître, J.-F.; Dubray, N.; Hilaire, S.; Panebianco, S.; Sida, J.-L.

    2013-12-01

    Our purpose is to determine fission fragments characteristics in a framework of a scission point model named SPY for Scission Point Yields. This approach can be considered as a theoretical laboratory to study fission mechanism since it gives access to the correlation between the fragments properties and their nuclear structure, such as shell correction, pairing, collective degrees of freedom, odd-even effects. Which ones are dominant in final state? What is the impact of compound nucleus structure? The SPY model consists in a statistical description of the fission process at the scission point where fragments are completely formed and well separated with fixed properties. The most important property of the model relies on the nuclear structure of the fragments which is derived from full quantum microscopic calculations. This approach allows computing the fission final state of extremely exotic nuclei which are inaccessible by most of the fission model available on the market.

  13. Low-Energy Fusion-Fission Dynamics of Heavy Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebaev, Valery; Greiner, Walter

    2006-08-14

    A new approach is proposed for a unified description of strongly coupled deep-inelastic (DI) scattering, fusion, fission, and quasi-fission (QF) processes of heavy ion collisions. A unified driving-potential and a unified set of dynamic Langevin-type equations of motion are used in this approach. This makes it possible to perform a full (continuous) time analysis of the evolution of heavy nuclear systems, starting from the approaching stage, moving up to the formation of the compound nucleus or emerging into two final fragments. The calculated mass, charge, energy and angular distributions of the reaction products agree well with the corresponding experimental data for heavy and superheavy nuclear systems. Collisions of very heavy nuclei (such as 238U+248Cm) are investigated as an alternative way for production of superheavy elements. Large charge and mass transfer was found in these reactions due to the inverse (anti-symmetrizing) quasi-fission process leading to formation of surviving superheavy long-lived neutron-rich nuclei.

  14. A fission fragment reactor concept for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo-Anttila, Ahti J.; Parma, Edward J.; Pickard, Paul S.; Wright, Steven A.; Vernon, Milton E.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative requires the development of nuclear thermal and nuclear electric technologies for space propulsion for future Luna and Mars missions. Sandia National Laboratories has proposed a new nuclear thermal propulsion concept that uses fission fragments to directly heat the propellant up to 1000 K or higher above the material temperatures. The concept offers significant advantages over traditional solid-core nuclear rocket concepts because of higher propellent exit temperatures, while at the same time providing for more reliable operation due to lower structure temperatures and lower power densities. The reactor can be operated in either a steady-state or pulsed mode. The steady-state mode provides a high thrust and relatively high specific impulse, as compared to other nuclear thermal concepts. The pulsed mode requires an auxillary radiator for cooling, but has the possibility of achieving very high specific impulses and thrust scaleable to the radiator size. The propellant temperatures are limited only by thermal radiation and transient heat conduction back to the substrate walls.

  15. Fission fragment mass distributions in reactions forming the {sup 213}Fr compound nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Appannababu, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Deshmukh, N. N.; Rath, P. K.; Singh, N. L.; Nayak, B. K.; Thomas, R. G.; Choudhury, R. K.; Sugathan, P.; Jhingan, A.; Negi, D.; Prasad, E.

    2011-03-15

    The fission fragment mass angle correlations and mass ratio distributions have been investigated for the two systems {sup 16}O+{sup 197}Au and {sup 27}Al+{sup 186}W, leading to the same compound nucleus {sup 213}Fr around the Coulomb barrier energies. Systematic analysis of the variance of the mass distributions as a function of temperature and angular momentum suggests true compound nuclear fission for both the reactions, indicating the absence of nonequilibrium fission processes.

  16. Recent advances in heavy-ion-induced fission

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.

    1984-01-01

    Three topics are discussed. The first deals with results that have been published recently on angular-momentum-dependent fission barriers. They are discussed because of the significance that we attach to them. We feel that, after a decade of study and controversy, we have arrived at a quantitative understanding of the competition between heavy-ion-induced fission and particle emission from compound nuclei at relatively low bombarding energies. The second topic concerns the extension of our heavy-ion-induced fission studies to higher energies. It is clear that in this regime the effects, both of fission following incomplete fusion and of extra-push requirements, need to be considered. Finally, discussed are our recent conclusions concerning the fissionlike decay of products from reactions between two /sup 58/Ni nuclei at an incident energy, E/A, of 15.3 MeV, as well as the impact of our findings on the conclusions drawn from previous, similar measurements. 39 references.

  17. Fusion and fission of heavy and superheavy nuclei (experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, M. G.; Vardaci, E.; Itkis, I. M.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kozulin, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this review is to summarize the main advancements in the search of signatures of the compound nucleus fission and quasifission processes in heavy and superheavy systems. The understanding of fusion and fission in heavy and superheavy elements is needed for tracing paths aimed at reaching the island of stability situated near Z = 114- 122 and N = 184. With increasing charge of the interacting nuclei other processes, like quasifission, emerge and compete against fusion. Hence also their study must be pursued. After a brief look at the experimental techniques, the behavior of several observables is extracted from the most recent data to aid in the disentanglement of the various competing processes which hinder the production of superheavy elements.

  18. Research on fission fragment excitation of gases and nuclear pumping of lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Davie, R. N.; Davis, J. F.; Fuller, J. L.; Paternoster, R. R.; Shipman, G. R.; Sterritt, D. E.; Helmick, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental investigations of fission fragment excited gases are reported along with a theoretical analysis of population inversions in fission fragment excited helium. Other studies reported include: nuclear augmentation of gas lasers, direct nuclear pumping of a helium-xenon laser, measurements of a repetitively pulsed high-power CO2 laser, thermodynamic properties of UF6 and UF6/He mixtures, and nuclear waste disposal utilizing a gaseous core reactor.

  19. Isospin dependence of fragment spectra in heavy/super-heavy colliding nuclei at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugh, Rajiv; Kumar, Rohit; Vinayak, Karan Singh

    2016-05-01

    Using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) approach, we performed a theoretical investigation of the evolution of various kinds of fragments in heavy and superheavy-ion reactions in the intermediate/medium energy domain. We demonstrated direct impact of symmetry energy and Coulomb interactions on the evolution of fragments. Final fragment spectra (yields) obtained from the analysis of various heavy/super-heavy ion reactions at different reaction conditions show high sensitivity towards Coulomb interactions and less significant sensitivity to symmetry energy forms. No inconsistent pattern of fragment structure is obtained in case of super-heavy ion involved reactions for all the parameterizations of density dependence of symmetry energy.

  20. Shell effects in fission and quasi-fission of heavy and superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, M. G.; A¨ysto¨, J.; Beghini, S.; Bogachev, A. A.; Corradi, L.; Dorvaux, O.; Gadea, A.; Giardina, G.; Hanappe, F.; Itkis, I. M.; Jandel, M.; Kliman, J.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Kniajeva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Latina, A.; Materna, T.; Montagnoli, G.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Prokhorova, E. V.; Rowley, N.; Rubchenya, V. A.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Scarlassara, F.; Stefanini, A. M.; Stuttge, L.; Szilner, S.; Trotta, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vakhtin, D. N.; Vinodkumar, A. M.; Voskressenski, V. M.; Zagrebaev, V. I.

    2004-04-01

    Results of the experiments aimed at the study of fission and quasi-fission processes in the reactions 12C+ 204Pb, 48Ca+ 144,154Sm, 168Er, 208Pb, 244Pu, 248Cm; 58Fe+ 208Pb, 244Pu, 248Cm, and 64Ni+ 186W, 242Pu are presented in the work. The choice of the above-mentioned reactions was inspired by recent experiments on the production of the isotopes 283112, 289114 and 283116 at Dubna [1],[2] using the same reactions. The 58Fe and 64Ni projectiles were chosen since the corresponding projectile-target combinations lead to the synthesis of even heavier elements. The experiments were carried out at the U-400 accelerator of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (JINR, Russia), the XTU Tandem accelerator of the National Laboratory of Legnaro (LNL, Italy) and the Accelerator of the Laboratory of University of Jyvaskyla (JYFL, Finland) using the time-of-flight spectrometer of fission fragments CORSET[3] and the neutron multi-detector DEMON[4],[5]. The role of shell effects and the influence of the entrance channel on the mechanism of the compound nucleus fusion-fission and the competitive process of quasi-fission are discussed.

  1. Fission-fragment angular distributions and excitation functions in fission following complete fusion and targetlike-fragment fission reactions of 19F+232Th at near- and sub-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, N.; Bhattacharya, P.; Biswas, D. C.; Choudhury, R. K.; Nadkarni, D. M.; Saxena, A.

    1995-06-01

    The fragment angular distributions and excitation functions of the fission following complete fusion (FFCF) have been measured after separating them from targetlike-fragment fission (TLFF) for the 19F+232Th system in the bombarding energy range of 84.5 to 106.5 MeV. The fraction of the targetlike-fragment fission was observed to increase with decreasing bombarding energy below the Coulomb barrier. The excitation function for fission following complete fusion reaction agrees well with coupled channel calculations. However, the values derived from the fragment anisotropy data of the FFCF events are found to be much larger than those calculated using the coupled channel transmission coefficient values. The discrepancy between the experimental and calculated values increases as the bombarding energy is decreased below the barrier.

  2. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornyi, T. G.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Siem, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Csige, L.

    2014-02-01

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2π. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ΔE-E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and γ decay as a function of excitation energy.

  3. Fission-fragment detector for DANCE based on thin scintillating films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusev, G.; Roman, A. R.; Daum, J. K.; Springs, R. K.; Bond, E. M.; Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Favalli, A.; Ianakiev, K. D.; Iliev, M. L.; Mosby, S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    A fission-fragment detector based on thin scintillating films has been built to serve as a trigger/veto detector in neutron-induced fission measurements at DANCE. The fissile material is surrounded by scintillating films providing 4 π detection of the fission fragments. The scintillation photons were registered with silicon photomultipliers. A measurement of the 235U (n , f) reaction with this detector at DANCE revealed a correct time-of-flight spectrum and provided an estimate for the efficiency of the prototype detector of 11.6(7)%. Design and test measurements with the detector are described.

  4. Neutron emission as a function of fragment energy in the spontaneous fission of /sup 260/Md

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, J.F.; van Aarle, J.; Westmeiser, W.; Lougheed, R.W.; Hulet, E.K.; Moody, K.J.; Dougan, R.J.; Brandt, R.; Patzelt, P.

    1989-04-19

    We have made the first measurement of the number of neutrons emitted in the spontaneous fission of a nuclide in which very high fragment energies dominate the fission process. In bombardments of /sup 254/Es, we produced 28-d /sup 260/Md, which was neutron-counted in a 1-m-diam spherical tank containing a Gd-doped scintillator solution. The average number of neutrons emitted per fission is only 2.58 +- 0.11, substantially less than for other actinides. A direct correlation of neutron multiplicity with fragment excitation energy is clearly demonstrated. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Distribution functions in plasmas generated by a volume source of fission fragments. [in nuclear pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deese, J. E.; Hassan, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The role played by fission fragments and electron distribution functions in nuclear pumped lasers is considered and procedures for their calculations are outlined. The calculations are illustrated for a He-3/Xe mixture where fission is provided by the He-3(n,p)H-3 reaction. Because the dominant ion in the system depends on the Xe fraction, the distribution functions cannot be determined without the simultaneous consideration of a detailed kinetic model. As is the case for wall sources of fission fragments, the resulting plasmas are essentially thermal but the electron distribution functions are non-Maxwellian.

  6. Isospin dependence of mass-distribution shape of fission fragments of Hg isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Andreyev, A. N.

    2013-10-01

    Using an improved scission-point model, the mass distributions are calculated for induced fission of even Hg isotopes with mass numbers A=174to196. With increasing A of a fissioning AHg nucleus the mass distribution evolves from symmetric for 174Hg, to asymmetric for isotopes close to 180Hg, and back to more symmetric for 192,194,196Hg. In the fissioning Hg isotopes their excitation energy weakly influences the shape of the mass distribution. In 180,184Hg, the mass distributions of fission fragments remain asymmetric even at high excitation energies.

  7. Asymmetry of fission fragment mass distribution for Po and Ir isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Using the improved scission-point model, the mass distributions are calculated for induced fission of several Po and Ir isotopes. The calculated mass distributions and mean total kinetic energies of fission fragments are compared with the existing experimental data. The revealed coexistence of both symmetric and asymmetric modes in the β -delayed fission of At,196194 is in agreement with the experimental observations. The change of the shape of mass distribution with increasing A of fissioning AIr nucleus from asymmetric for 185Ir to symmetric for 193Ir is found.

  8. Concept Assessment of a Fission Fragment Rocket Engine (FFRE) Propelled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werka, Robert; Clark, Rod; Sheldon, Rob; Percy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The March, 2012 issue of Aerospace America stated that ?the near-to-medium prospects for applying advanced propulsion to create a new era of space exploration are not very good. In the current world, we operate to the Moon by climbing aboard a Carnival Cruise Lines vessel (Saturn 5), sail from the harbor (liftoff) shedding whole decks of the ship (staging) along the way and, having reached the return leg of the journey, sink the ship (burnout) and return home in a lifeboat (Apollo capsule). Clearly this is an illogical way to travel, but forced on Explorers by today's propulsion technology. However, the article neglected to consider the one propulsion technology, using today's physical principles that offer continuous, substantial thrust at a theoretical specific impulse of 1,000,000 sec. This engine unequivocally can create a new era of space exploration that changes the way spacecraft operate. Today's space Explorers could travel in Cruise Liner fashion using the technology not considered by Aerospace America, the novel Dusty Plasma Fission Fragment Rocket Engine (FFRE). This NIAC study addresses the FFRE as well as its impact on Exploration Spacecraft design and operation. It uses common physics of the relativistic speed of fission fragments to produce thrust. It radiatively cools the fissioning dusty core and magnetically controls the fragments direction to practically implement previously patented, but unworkable designs. The spacecraft hosting this engine is no more complex nor more massive than the International Space Station (ISS) and would employ the successful ISS technology for assembly and check-out. The elements can be lifted in "chunks" by a Heavy Lift Launcher. This Exploration Spacecraft would require the resupply of small amounts of nuclear fuel for each journey and would be an in-space asset for decades just as any Cruise Liner on Earth. This study has synthesized versions of the FFRE, integrated one concept onto a host spacecraft designed for

  9. Analysis of prompt fission neutrons in 235U(nth,f) and fission fragment distributions for the thermal neutron induced fission of 234U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Adili, A.; Tarrío, D.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Göök, A.; Jansson, K.; Solders, A.; Rakopoulos, V.; Gustafsson, C.; Lantz, M.; Mattera, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Vidali, M.; Österlund, M.; Pomp, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the ongoing analysis of two fission experiments. Both projects are part of the collaboration between the nuclear reactions group at Uppsala and the JRC-IRMM. The first experiment deals with the prompt fission neutron multiplicity in the thermal neutron induced fission of 235U(n,f). The second, on the fission fragment properties in the thermal fission of 234U(n,f). The prompt fission neutron multiplicity has been measured at the JRC-IRMM using two liquid scintillators in coincidence with an ionization chamber. The first experimental campaign focused on 235U(nth,f) whereas a second experimental campaign is foreseen later for the same reaction at 5.5 MeV. The goal is to investigate how the so-called sawtooth shape changes as a function of fragment mass and excitation energy. Some harsh experimental conditions were experienced due to the large radiation background. The solution to this will be discussed along with preliminary results. In addition, the analysis of thermal neutron induced fission of 234U(n,f) will be discussed. Currently analysis of data is ongoing, originally taken at the ILL reactor. The experiment is of particular interest since no measurement exist of the mass and energy distributions for this system at thermal energies. One main problem encountered during analysis was the huge background of 235U(nth,f). Despite the negligible isotopic traces in the sample, the cross section difference is enormous. Solution to this parasitic background will be highlighted.

  10. Dynamical approach to isotopic-distribution of fission fragments from actinide nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Chikako; Chiba, Satoshi; Karpov, Alexander V.; Aritomo, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of the isotope distribution of fission fragments, often denoted as the primary fission yield (pre-neutron yield) or independent fission yield (post-neutron yield) are still challenging at low excitation energies, so that it is important to investigate it within a theory. Such quantities are vital for applications as well. In this study, fragment distributions from the fission of U isotopes at low excitation energies are studied using a dynamical model. The potential energy surface is derived from the two center shell model including the shell and pairing corrections. In order to calculate the charge distribution of fission fragments, we introduce a new parameter ηZ as the charge asymmetry, in addition to three parameters describing a nuclear shape, z as the distance between two centers of mass, δ as fragment deformation, and ηA as the mass asymmetry. Using this model, we calculated the isotopic distribution of 236U for the n-induced process 235U + n → 236U at low excitation energies. As a result, we found that the current model can well reproduce isotopic fission-fragment distribution which can be compared favorably with major libraries.

  11. Measurements of fission yields in the heavy region at the recoil ass spectrometer lohengrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bail, A.; Serot, O.; Mathieu, L.; Litaize, O.; Materna, T.; Köster, U.; Faust, H.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Dupont, E.; Michel-Sendis, F.

    2009-10-01

    In spite of the huge amount of fission yield data available in different libraries, more accurate values are still needed for nuclear energy applications and to improve our understanding of the fission process. Thus measurements of fission yields were performed at the mass spectrometer Lohengrin at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France. The mass separator Lohengrin is situated at the research reactor of the institute and permits the placement of an actinide layer in a high thermal neutron flux. It separates fragments according to their atomic mass, kinetic energy and ionic charge state by the action of magnetic and electric fields. Coupled to a high resolution ionization chamber the experiment was used to investigate the mass and isotopic yields in the light mass region. Almost all fission yields of isotopes from Th to Cf have been measured at Lohengrin with this method. It has been extended in this work to the heavy mass region for the reactions 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f), and 241Pu(nth,f). For these higher masses an isotopic separation is no longer possible. So, a new method was undertaken with the reaction 239Pu(nth,f) to determine the isotopic yields by γ spectrometry. The results are presented in this paper.

  12. A position-sensitive twin ionization chamber for fission fragment and prompt neutron correlation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göök, A.; Geerts, W.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Vidali, M.; Zeynalov, Sh.

    2016-09-01

    A twin position-sensitive Frisch grid ionization chamber, intended as a fission fragment detector in experiments to study prompt fission neutron correlations with fission fragment properties, is presented. Fission fragment mass and energies are determined by means of the double kinetic energy technique, based on conservation of mass and linear momentum. The position sensitivity is achieved by replacing each anode plate in the standard twin ionization chamber by a wire plane and a strip anode, both readout by means of resistive charge division. This provides information about the fission axis orientation, which is necessary to reconstruct the neutron emission process in the fully accelerated fragment rest-frame. The energy resolution compared to the standard twin ionization chamber is found not to be affected by the modification. The angular resolution of the detector relative to an arbitrarily oriented axis is better than 7° FWHM. Results on prompt fission neutron angular distributions in 235U(n,f) obtained with the detector in combination with an array of neutron scintillation detectors is presented as a proof of principle.

  13. Kinetic energies of cluster fragments in ternary fission of 252 Cf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K. R.; von Oertzen, W.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2012-03-01

    The kinetic energy distribution and potential energies of fragments from the collinear cluster tripartition (CCT), the "true" ternary fission of 252Cf, have been calculated. It is assumed that the breakup of the nucleus into three fragments happens sequentially in two steps from a hyper-deformed shape. In the first step a first neck rupture occurs of the parent radioactive nucleus, forming two fragments (one of them is usually 132Sn) and, in the second step, one of the two fragments breaks into two other fragments, resulting finally in three fragments (the experiment is based on a binary coincidence where a missing mass is determined). We show the result for the principal combination of the three spherical fragments (semi-magic isotopes of Sn, Ca, Ni) observed recently experimentally. These isotopes are clusters with high Q -values, which produce the highest yields in the ternary fission bump. It is shown that the kinetic energies of the middle fragments have very low values, making their experimental detection quite difficult. This fact explains why the direct detection of true ternary fission with three fragments heavier than A > 40 has escaped experimental observation.

  14. Prompt neutron multiplicity in correlation with fragments from spontaneous fission of 252Cf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göök, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Vidali, M.

    2014-12-01

    The spontaneous fission of 252Cf serves as an excellent benchmark of prompt emission in fission since experimental data can be obtained without the need of an incident beam. With the purpose of providing experimental data on the prompt fission neutron properties in correlation with fission-fragment characteristics, an experiment on 252Cf(SF) has been performed. In addition, the experiment serves as a benchmark of setup and analysis procedures for measurements of fluctuations in the prompt-neutron properties as a function of incident neutron energy in fission of the major actinides 235U and 239Pu. The experiment employs a twin Frisch grid ionization chamber as fission-fragment detector while neutrons were counted by using a liquid scintillator placed along the symmetry axis of the ionization chamber. Average neutron multiplicity has been obtained as a function of fission-fragment mass and total kinetic energy (TKE). The average multiplicity as a function of mass agrees well with available data in the literature in the mass range from 80 to 170 u. The existence of additional sawtooth structures in the far asymmetric mass region could not be confirmed, although the statistical accuracy of the present experiment is as good as the previous study where such structures have been reported [Nucl. Phys. A 490, 307 (1988)., 10.1016/0375-9474(88)90508-8]. The available data in the literature on the TKE dependence of the multiplicity show strong deviations. Therefore, effort was focused on investigating experimental factors in low-efficiency neutron-counting experiments that may lead to faulty determination of this dependence. Taking these factors into account, a result that agrees well with data from high-efficiency neutron-counting experiments is obtained. The experimental arrangement allows determination of the angle between the detected neutron and the fission axis, which permits the neutron properties to be transformed into the fission-fragment rest frame. Fission neutron

  15. Fission fragment mass yield deduced from density distribution in the pre-scission configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warda, M.; Zdeb, A.

    2015-11-01

    Static self-consistent methods usually allow one to determine the most probable fission fragments mass asymmetry. We have applied random neck rupture mechanism to the nuclei in the configuration at the end of fission paths. Fission fragment mass distributions have been deduced from the pre-scission nuclear density distribution obtained from the self-consistent calculations. Potential energy surfaces as well as nuclear shapes have been calculated in the fully microscopic theory, namely the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model with the effective Gogny D1S density-dependent interaction. The method has been applied for analysis of fission of {}{256,258}Fm, 252Cf and 180Hg and compared with the experimental data.

  16. Observation of fission modes in heavy ion induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Itkis, M. G.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pashkevich, V. V.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Salamatin, V. S.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Calabretta, L.; Maiolino, C.; Lukashin, K.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Chubarian, G. G.; Hurst, B. J.; O'Kelly, D.; Schmitt, R. P.; Hanappe, F.; Liatard, E.; Huck, A.

    1998-02-15

    The fission of the systems {sup 220,224,226}Th was investigated by measuring the mass-energy distributions of the fission fragments. The corresponding excitation energies at the saddle point, E{sub sp}*, ranged from 16 to 40 MeV. As E{sub sp*} decreases, an asymmetric mass component becomes visible on the predominately symmetric mass distribution. The contribution of the asymmetric mode is characterized by the total yield ratio Y{sub s}/Y{sub a}, which decreases rapidly for the heavier isotopes of thorium. This behavior of Y{sub s}/Y{sub a} is in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations. For all isotopes studied, the subtracted asymmetric fission component, Y{sub a}=Y{sub 1}-Y{sub s}, exhibits a complex structure, actually showing two components, Y{sub a}=Y{sub a1}+Y{sub a0}, which have average masses M{sub a1}=132 and M{sub a0}=140.

  17. Observation of fission modes in heavy ion induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Itkis, M.G.; Kondratiev, N.A.; Kozulin, E.M.; Oganessian, Y.T.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Pokrovsky, I.V.; Salamatin, V.S.; Rusanov, A.Y.; Calabretta, L.; Maiolino, C.; Lukashin, K.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Chubarian, G.G.; Hurst, B.J.; OKelly, D.; Schmitt, R.P.; Hanappe, F.; Liatard, E.; Huck, A.; Stuttge, L.

    1998-02-01

    The fission of the systems {sup 220,224,226}Th was investigated by measuring the mass-energy distributions of the fission fragments. The corresponding excitation energies at the saddle point, E{sub sp}{sup {asterisk}}, ranged from 16 to 40 MeV. As E{sub sp{sup {asterisk}}} decreases, an asymmetric mass component becomes visible on the predominately symmetric mass distribution. The contribution of the asymmetric mode is characterized by the total yield ratio Y{sub s}/Y{sub a}, which decreases rapidly for the heavier isotopes of thorium. This behavior of Y{sub s}/Y{sub a} is in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations. For all isotopes studied, the subtracted asymmetric fission component, Y{sub a}=Y{sub 1}{minus}Y{sub s}, exhibits a complex structure, actually showing two components, Y{sub a}=Y{sub a1}+Y{sub a0}, which have average masses M{sub a1}=132 and M{sub a0}=140. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Fission-fragment angular distributions for the 19F + 208Pb near- and sub-barrier fusion-fission reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huanqiao, Zhang; Zuhua, Liu; Jincheng, Xu; Kan, Xu; Jun, Lu; Ming, Ruan

    1990-06-01

    Fission cross sections and angular distributions have been measured for the 19F + 208Pb reaction at bombarding energies from 83 to 105 MeV. The fission excitation function is well reproduced on the basis of the coupled-channels theory. The fission-fragment angular distributions are calculated in terms of the transition-state theory, with the transmission coefficients extracted from the excitation function calculation. It is found that a discrepancy between the observations and the predictions in angular anisotropy of fission fragments exists at near- and sub-barrier energies, except for lower and higher energy regions where the discrepancy tends to disappear. Moreover, the anisotropies as a function of the center-of-mass energy show a shoulder around 82 MeV. Our results clearly indicate the considerable effects of the coupling on the sub-barrier fusion cross section and on the near-barrier compound-nucleus spin distribution, and confirm the prediction of an approximately constant value for the mean square spin of a compound nucleus produced in a far sub-barrier fusion reaction.

  19. Development of a thin scintillation films fission-fragment detector and a novel neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusev, G.; Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Daum, J. K.; Favalli, A.; Ianakiev, K. D.; Iliev, M. L.; Mosby, S.; Roman, A. R.; Springs, R. K.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-08-01

    Investigation of prompt fission and neutron-capture Υ rays from fissile actinide samples at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) requires use of a fission-fragment detector to provide a trigger or a veto signal. A fission-fragment detector based on thin scintillating films and silicon photomultipliers has been built to serve as a trigger/veto detector in neutron-induced fission measurements at DANCE. The fissile material is surrounded by scintillating films providing a 4π detection of the fission fragments. The scintillations were registered with silicon photomultipliers. A measurement of the 235U(n,f) reaction with this detector at DANCE revealed a correct time-of-flight spectrum and provided an estimate for the efficiency of the prototype detector of 11.6(7)%. Design and test measurements with the detector are described. A neutron source with fast timing has been built to help with detector-response measurements. The source is based on the neutron emission from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf and the same type of scintillating films and silicon photomultipliers. Overall time resolution of the source is 0.3 ns. Design of the source and test measurements with it are described. An example application of the source for determining the neutron/gamma pulse-shape discrimination by a stilbene crystal is given.

  20. Development of position-sensitive time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragment research

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Arnold, C. W.; Tovesson, F.; Meierbachtol, K.; Bredeweg, T.; Jandel, M.; Jorgenson, H. J.; Laptev, A.; Rusev, G.; Shields, D. W.; White, M.; et al

    2014-07-09

    A position-sensitive, high-resolution time-of-flight detector for fission fragments has been developed. The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) is a 2E–2v spectrometer designed to measure the mass of light fission fragments to a single mass unit. The time pick-off detector pairs to be used in SPIDER have been tested with α-particles from 229Th and its decay chain and α-particles and spontaneous fission fragments from 252Cf. Each detector module is comprised of thin electron conversion foil, electrostatic mirror, microchannel plates, and delay-line anodes. Particle trajectories on the order of 700 mm are determined accurately to within 0.7 mm. Flightmore » times were measured with 250 ps resolution FWHM. Computed particle velocities are accurate to within 0.06 mm/ns corresponding to a precision of 0.5%. As a result, an ionization chamber capable of 400 keV energy resolution coupled with the velocity measurements described here will pave the way for modestly efficient measurements of light fission fragments with unit mass resolution.« less

  1. Development of position-sensitive time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragment research

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, C. W.; Tovesson, F.; Meierbachtol, K.; Bredeweg, T.; Jandel, M.; Jorgenson, H. J.; Laptev, A.; Rusev, G.; Shields, D. W.; White, M.; Blakeley, R. E.; Mader, D. M.; Hecht, A. A.

    2014-07-09

    A position-sensitive, high-resolution time-of-flight detector for fission fragments has been developed. The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) is a 2E–2v spectrometer designed to measure the mass of light fission fragments to a single mass unit. The time pick-off detector pairs to be used in SPIDER have been tested with α-particles from 229Th and its decay chain and α-particles and spontaneous fission fragments from 252Cf. Each detector module is comprised of thin electron conversion foil, electrostatic mirror, microchannel plates, and delay-line anodes. Particle trajectories on the order of 700 mm are determined accurately to within 0.7 mm. Flight times were measured with 250 ps resolution FWHM. Computed particle velocities are accurate to within 0.06 mm/ns corresponding to a precision of 0.5%. As a result, an ionization chamber capable of 400 keV energy resolution coupled with the velocity measurements described here will pave the way for modestly efficient measurements of light fission fragments with unit mass resolution.

  2. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions measured with a Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinrath, Verena

    2015-04-28

    The subject is presented in a series of slides with the following organization: Introduction (What is anisotropy? Relevance (Theory and ratio cross section), Previous measurements); Experiment (Particle tracking in the fissionTPC, Neutron time of flight, Data analysis & uncertainty calculation, Preliminary result for 235U); and Future Work (Refine 235U result, Process 239Pu data).

  3. Optical model analyses of heavy ion fragmentation in hydrogen targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical optical-model methods for calculating cross sections for the fragmentation of high-energy heavy ions by hydrogen targets are presented. The cross sections are calculated with a knockout-ablation collision formalism which has no arbitrary fitting parameters. Predictions of elemental production cross sections from the fragmentation of 1.2A Ge(V(La-139) nuclei and of isotope production cross sections from the fragmentation of 400A MeV(S-32) nuclei are in good agreement with recently reported experimental measurements.

  4. Measurement of fragment mass distributions in neutron-induced fission reactions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutkin, V. D.; Ryzhov, I. V.; Tutin, G. A.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Blomgren, J.; Pomp, S.; Österlund, M.; Andersson, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Meulders, J. P.; Prieels, R.

    2009-10-01

    Fragment mass distributions from neutron-induced fission of 232Th and 238U have been measured at quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam of the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility CYCLONE. The measurements have been carried out making use of a multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber. The measurement technique as well as the data processing is described. Preliminary data on primary fragment mass yields are given for an incident neutron energy of 32.8 MeV.

  5. SPIDER: A new instrument for fission fragment research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Arnold, Charles; Blakeley, Rick; Hecht, Adam; Laptev, Alexander; Mader, Drew; Meierbachtol, Krista; Snyder, Lucas; White, Morgan

    2013-12-01

    The study of fission fragment yields and how they behave as a function of excitation energy provides insight into the process in which they are formed. Fission yields are also important for nuclear applications, as they can be used as a diagnostic tool. A new instrument, SPIDER (Spectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research), is being developed for measuring fission yields as a function of incident neutron energy at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The instrument employs a time-of-flight mass spectrometry method in which the velocity and kinetic energy of the fragments are measured in order to determine their mass. Additionally, by using Bragg peak spectroscopy, the charge of the fragments can be identified. A prototype instrument has been developed and preliminary results indicate that ˜ 1 mass unit resolution is feasible using this approach. A larger detector array is currently being designed, and will be used at study fission yields from thermal neutron energies up to at least 20 MeV.

  6. Fission and fragmentation of {sup 208}Pb nuclei in collisions with gold nuclei at an energy of 158 GeV per nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Yurevich, V. I. Fomenko, K. A.

    2013-06-15

    The fission and fragmentation of ultrarelativistic {sup 208}Pb nuclei in collisionswith gold nuclei were studied by using a beam from the SPS accelerator at CERN at an energy of 158 GeV per nucleon. The detectors of the target area of the NA45/CERES spectrometer were used in respective measurements. The value obtained for the fission cross section is 301 {+-} 44 mb, where about 77% of events stem from the electromagnetic interaction of colliding nuclei, while the remaining part is the contribution of peripheral nuclear interactions. The spallation of lead nuclei that involves the formation of heavy fragments occurs only in collisions where the impact parameter satisfies the condition b > 10 fm. A complete disintegration of lead nuclei to intermediate-mass fragments and light particles is observed in some peripheral collisions.

  7. Angular Correlations Between Fragment Spin and Prompt Neutron Evaporation in Spontaneous Fission of 252Cf: CORA-Demon Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhorova, E.; Goennenwein, F.; Kopatch, Yu.; Mutterer, M.; Hanappe, F.; Kinnard, V.; Stuttge, L.; Dorvaux, O.; Wollersheim, H.-J.

    2007-05-22

    A novel method to search for the anisotropic emission of prompt neutrons in the center-of-mass system of fission fragments is presented. The anisotropy is conjectured to be due to the large spins of fission fragments are known to carry. Triple neutron- neutron-fragment correlations in spontaneous fission of 252Cf were investigated in an exploratory experiment dubbed CORA-DEMON experiment. Fission fragments were intercepted in a double ionization chamber while neutrons were spotted in 2 two-dimensional cylindrical walls of Demon detectors with the target on the vertical cylinder axis. A new method of analysis of triple angular correlations between 2 neutrons and a fission fragment was applied. Preliminary results are reported.

  8. Angular Correlations Between Fragment Spin and Prompt Neutron Evaporation in Spontaneous Fission of 252Cf: CORA-Demon Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorova, E.; Gönnenwein, F.; Kopatch, Yu.; Mutterer, M.; Hanappe, F.; Kinnard, V.; Stuttgé, L.; Dorvaux, O.; Wollersheim, H.-J.

    2007-05-01

    A novel method to search for the anisotropic emission of prompt neutrons in the center-of-mass system of fission fragments is presented. The anisotropy is conjectured to be due to the large spins of fission fragments are known to carry. Triple neutron- neutron-fragment correlations in spontaneous fission of 252Cf were investigated in an exploratory experiment dubbed CORA-DEMON experiment. Fission fragments were intercepted in a double ionization chamber while neutrons were spotted in 2 two-dimensional cylindrical walls of Demon detectors with the target on the vertical cylinder axis. A new method of analysis of triple angular correlations between 2 neutrons and a fission fragment was applied. Preliminary results are reported.

  9. Student Experiments in Spontaneous Fission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becchetti, F. D.; Ying, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced undergraduate experiments utilizing a commercially available, thin spontaneous fission source are described, including studies of the energy and mass distribution of the fission fragments and their energy and angular correlation. The experiments provide a useful introduction to fission, nuclear mass equations, heavy-ion physics, and…

  10. Feasibility of Traveling Wave Direct Energy Conversion of Fission Reaction Fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarditi, A. G.; George, J. A.; Miley, G. H.; Scott, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fission fragment direct energy conversion has been considered in the past for the purpose of increasing nuclear power plant efficiency and for advanced space propulsion. Since the fragments carry electric charge (typically in the order of 20 e) and have 100 MeV-range kinetic energy, techniques utilizing very high-voltage DC electrodes have been considered. This study is focused on a different approach: the kinetic energy of the charged fission fragments is converted into alternating current by means of a traveling wave coupling scheme (Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter, TWDEC), thereby not requiring the utilization of high voltage technology. A preliminary feasibility analysis of the concept is introduced based on a conceptual level study and on a particle simulation model of the beam dynamics.

  11. Calculated fission-fragment yield systematics in the region 74 <=Z <= 94 and 90 <=N <= 150

    SciTech Connect

    Möller, Peter; Randrup, Jørgen

    2015-04-01

    Background: In the seminal experiment by Schmidt et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 665, 221 (2000)] in which fission-fragment charge distributions were obtained for 70 nuclides, asymmetric distributions were seen above nucleon number A ≈ 226 and symmetric ones below. Because asymmetric fission had often loosely been explained as a preference for the nucleus to always exploit the extra binding of fragments near ¹³²Sn it was assumed that all systems below A ≈ 226 would fission symmetrically because available isotopes do not have a proton-to-neutron Z/N ratio that allows division into fragments near ¹³²Sn. But the finding by Andreyev et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252502 (2010)] did not conform to this expectation because the compound system ¹⁸⁰Hg was shown to fission asymmetrically. It was suggested that this was a new type of asymmetric fission, because no strong shell effects occur for any possible fragment division. Purpose: We calculate a reference database for fission-fragment mass yields for a large region of the nuclear chart comprising 987 nuclides. A particular aim is to establish whether ¹⁸⁰Hg is part of a contiguous region of asymmetric fission, and if so, its extent, or if not, in contrast to the actinides, there are scattered smaller groups of nuclei that fission asymmetrically in this area of the nuclear chart. Methods: We use the by now well benchmarked Brownian shape-motion method and perform random walks on the previously calculated five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces. The calculated shell corrections are damped out with energy according to a prescription developed earlier. Results: We have obtained a theoretical reference database of fission-fragment mass yields for 987 nuclides. These results show an extended region of asymmetric fission with approximate extension 74 ≤ Z ≤ 85 and 100 ≤ N ≤ 120. The calculated yields are highly variable. We show 20 representative plots of these variable features and summarize the

  12. Calculated fission-fragment yield systematics in the region 74 <=Z <= 94 and 90 <=N <= 150

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Möller, Peter; Randrup, Jørgen

    2015-04-01

    Background: In the seminal experiment by Schmidt et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 665, 221 (2000)] in which fission-fragment charge distributions were obtained for 70 nuclides, asymmetric distributions were seen above nucleon number A ≈ 226 and symmetric ones below. Because asymmetric fission had often loosely been explained as a preference for the nucleus to always exploit the extra binding of fragments near ¹³²Sn it was assumed that all systems below A ≈ 226 would fission symmetrically because available isotopes do not have a proton-to-neutron Z/N ratio that allows division into fragments near ¹³²Sn. But the finding by Andreyev et al.more » [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252502 (2010)] did not conform to this expectation because the compound system ¹⁸⁰Hg was shown to fission asymmetrically. It was suggested that this was a new type of asymmetric fission, because no strong shell effects occur for any possible fragment division. Purpose: We calculate a reference database for fission-fragment mass yields for a large region of the nuclear chart comprising 987 nuclides. A particular aim is to establish whether ¹⁸⁰Hg is part of a contiguous region of asymmetric fission, and if so, its extent, or if not, in contrast to the actinides, there are scattered smaller groups of nuclei that fission asymmetrically in this area of the nuclear chart. Methods: We use the by now well benchmarked Brownian shape-motion method and perform random walks on the previously calculated five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces. The calculated shell corrections are damped out with energy according to a prescription developed earlier. Results: We have obtained a theoretical reference database of fission-fragment mass yields for 987 nuclides. These results show an extended region of asymmetric fission with approximate extension 74 ≤ Z ≤ 85 and 100 ≤ N ≤ 120. The calculated yields are highly variable. We show 20 representative plots of these variable features and summarize the main

  13. Planetary Surface Power and Interstellar Propulsion Using Fission Fragment Magnetic Collimator Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.; Hart, Ron R.; King, Don B.; Rochau, Gary E.

    2006-01-20

    Fission energy can be used directly if the kinetic energy of fission fragments is converted to electricity and/or thrust before turning into heat. The completed US DOE NERI Direct Energy Conversion (DEC) Power Production project indicates that viable DEC systems are possible. The US DOE NERI DEC Proof of Principle project began in October of 2002 with the goal to demonstrate performance principles of DEC systems. One of the emerging DEC concepts is represented by fission fragment magnetic collimator reactors (FFMCR). Safety, simplicity, and high conversion efficiency are the unique advantages offered by these systems. In the FFMCR, the basic energy source is the kinetic energy of fission fragments. Following escape from thin fuel layers, they are captured on magnetic field lines and are directed out of the core and through magnetic collimators to produce electricity and thrust. The exiting flow of energetic fission fragments has a very high specific impulse that allows efficient planetary surface power and interstellar propulsion without carrying any conventional propellant onboard. The objective of this work was to determine technological feasibility of the concept. This objective was accomplished by producing the FFMCR design and by analysis of its performance characteristics. The paper presents the FFMCR concept, describes its development to a technologically feasible level and discusses obtained results. Performed studies offer efficiencies up to 90% and velocities approaching speed of light as potentially achievable. The unmanned 10-tons probe with 1000 MW FFMCR propulsion unit would attain mission velocity of about 2% of the speed of light. If the unit is designed for 4000 MW, then in 10 years the unmanned 10-tons probe would attain mission velocity of about 10% of the speed of light.

  14. Fission Fragment Spectroscopy Using a Frisch-Gridded Chamber in RPI's Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Catherine

    2006-10-01

    A double sided Frisch-gridded fission chamber for use in RPI's Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer (LSDS) is being developed at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Placing this fission chamber in the high neutron flux of the LSDS allows measurements of neutron induced fission cross sections, as well as the mass and kinetic energy of the fission fragments of various isotopes. The fission chamber consists of two anodes shielded by Frisch grids on either side of a single cathode. The sample is deposited on a thin polyimide film located in the center of the cathode. Samples are made by dissolving small amounts of actinides in solution, placing the solution on the films and allowing the solution to evaporate. The anode signal and the sum of the anode and grid signals are collected by the data acquisition system. These values are used to calculate the angle of emission of the fission fragments which is then used to determine their energies and masses. RPI's LSDS is a 75 ton, 1.8m cube of lead. The RPI 60MeV Linac creates neutrons through a (γ,n) reaction when the electrons interact with a tantalum target inside the lead spectrometer. The resulting neutron flux is about 4 orders of magnitude larger than an equivalent resolution time-of-flight experiment. The high neutron flux allows for the measurement of isotopes that are not available in large quantities (sub-micrograms) or with small fission cross sections (microbarns). In collaboration with Ezekiel Blain, Zack Goldstein, Yaron Danon and Robert Block at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Funded by Stewardship Science Academic Alliance, National Nuclear Security Agency.

  15. Fission fragment angular distributions for the system 19F+232Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailas, S.; Navin, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Singh, P.; Choudhury, R. K.; Saxena, A.; Nadkarni, D. M.; Kapoor, S. S.; Ramamurthy, V. S.; Nayak, B. K.; Suryanarayana, S. V.

    1991-03-01

    The fission fragment angular distributions for the system 19F+232Th have been measured at several bombarding energies between 94 and 108 MeV. Even though the anisotropy values measured in the present work are considerably smaller than the ones reported by Zhang et al. for the same system at similar energies, they are still anomalous when compared with the predictions of the standard saddle-point statistical model and fit into the systematics of entrance-channel dependence of fission anisotropies reported by us earlier.

  16. No influence of a N =126 neutron-shell closure in fission-fragment mass distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, A.; Ghosh, T. K.; Banerjee, K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Kundu, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Meena, J. K.; Mukherjee, G.; Saha, A. K.; Asgar, Md. A.; Dey, A.; Manna, S.; Pandey, R.; Rana, T. K.; Roy, P.; Roy, T.; Srivastava, V.; Bhattacharya, P.; Biswas, D. C.; Joshi, B. N.; Mahata, K.; Shrivastava, A.; Vind, R. P.; Pal, S.; Behera, B. R.; Singh, Varinderjit

    2015-10-01

    Mass distributions of the fragments in the fission of 206Po and the N =126 neutron shell closed nucleus 210Po have been measured. No significant deviation of mass distributions has been found between 206Po and 210Po, indicating the absence of shell correction at the saddle point in both the nuclei, contrary to the reported angular anisotropy and prescission neutron multiplicity results. This result provides benchmark data to test the new fission dynamical models to study the effect of shell correction on the potential energy surface at saddle point.

  17. Neutron-fragment and Neutron-neutron Correlations in Low-energy Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestone, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    A computational method has been developed to simulate neutron emission from thermal-neutron induced fission of 235U and from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Measured pre-emission mass-yield curves, average total kinetic energies and their variances, both as functions of mass split, are used to obtain a representation of the distribution of fragment velocities. Measured average neutron multiplicities as a function of mass split and their dependence on total kinetic energy are used. Simulations can be made to reproduce measured factorial moments of neutron-multiplicity distributions with only minor empirical adjustments to some experimental inputs. The neutron-emission spectra in the rest-frame of the fragments are highly constrained by ENDF/B-VII.1 prompt-fission neutron-spectra evaluations. The n-f correlation measurements of Vorobyev et al. (2010) are consistent with predictions where all neutrons are assumed to be evaporated isotropically from the rest frame of fully accelerated fragments. Measured n-f and n-n correlations of others are a little weaker than the predictions presented here. These weaker correlations could be used to infer a weak scission-neutron source. However, the effect of neutron scattering on the experimental results must be studied in detail before moving away from a null hypothesis that all neutrons are evaporated from the fragments.

  18. Fission fragment mass distributions in 35Cl+Sm,154144 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sodaye, S.; Sudarshan, K.; Nayak, B. K.; Jhingan, A.; Pujari, P. K.; Mahata, K.; Santra, S.; Saxena, A.; Mirgule, E. T.; Thomas, R. G.

    2015-08-01

    Background: A new type of asymmetric fission was observed in β -delayed fission of 180Tl [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252502 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.252502] as symmetric mass distribution would be expected based on conventional shell effects leading to the formation of N =50 fragments. Following this observation, theoretical calculations were carried out which predict asymmetric mass distribution for several mercury isotopes around mass region of ˜180 at low and moderate excitation energies [Moller, Randrup, and Sierk, Phys. Rev. C 85, 024306 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.024306; Andreev, Adamian, and Antonenko, Phys. Rev. C 86, 044315 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.86.044315]. Studies on fission fragment mass distribution are required in this mass region to investigate this newly observed phenomenon. Purpose: The fission fragment mass distributions have been measured in 35Cl+Sm,154144 reactions at Elab=152.5 ,156.1 ,and 163.7 MeV populating compound nuclei in the mass region of ˜180 with variable excitation energy and neutron number to investigate the nature of mass distribution. Method: The fission fragment mass distribution has been obtained by measuring the "time of flight (TOF)" of fragments with respect to the beam pulse using two multiwire proportional counters placed at θlab=±65 .5∘ with respect to the beam direction. From the TOF of fragments, their velocities were determined, which were used to obtain mass distribution taking the compound nucleus as the fissioning system. Results: For both systems, mass distributions, although, appear to be symmetric, could not be fitted well by a single Gaussian. The deviation from a single Gaussian fit is more pronounced for the 35Cl+144Sm reaction. A clear flat top mass distribution has been observed for the 35Cl+144Sm reaction at the lowest beam energy. The mass distribution is very similar to that observed in the 40Ca+142Nd reaction, which populated a similar compound nucleus, but for the pronounced dip in the

  19. Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass distribution for 258Fm

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, Peter; Ickhikawa, Takatoshi; Iwamoto, Akira

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the origin of the narrowness of the single peak at mass-symmetric division in the fragment mass-yield curve for spontaneous fission of {sup 258}Fm. For this purpose, we employ the macroscopic-microscopic model and calculate a potential-energy curve at the mass-symmetric compact scission configuration, as a function of the fragment mass number, which is obtained from the single-particle wave-function densities. In the calculations, we minimize total energies by varying the deformations of the two fragments, with constraints on the mass quadrupole moment, and by keeping the neck radius zero. The energies thus become functions of mass asymmetry. Using the obtained potential, we solve the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation with a microscopic coordinate-dependent inertial mass to calculate the fragment mass-yield curve. The calculated mass yield, expressed in terms of the microscopic mass density, is consistent with the extremely narrow experimental mass distribution.

  20. Hadronic and electromagnetic fragmentation of ultrarelativistic heavy ions at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, H. H.; Fassò, A.; Ferrari, A.; Jowett, J. M.; Sala, P. R.; Smirnov, G. I.

    2014-02-01

    Reliable predictions of yields of nuclear fragments produced in electromagnetic dissociation and hadronic fragmentation of ion beams are of great practical importance in analyzing beam losses and interactions with the beam environment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN as well as for estimating radiation effects of galactic cosmic rays on the spacecraft crew and electronic equipment. The model for predicting the fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions is briefly described, and then applied to problems of relevance for LHC. The results are based on the fluka code, which includes electromagnetic dissociation physics and dpmjet-iii as hadronic event generator. We consider the interaction of fully stripped lead ions with nuclei in the energy range from about one hundred MeV to ultrarelativistic energies. The yields of fragments close in the mass and charge to initial ions are calculated. The approach under discussion provides a good overall description of Pb fragmentation data at 30 and 158A GeV as well as recent LHC data for √sNN =2.76 TeV Pb-Pb interactions. Good agreement with the calculations in the framework of different models is found. This justifies application of the developed simulation technique both at the LHC injection energy of 177A GeV and at its collision energies of 1.38, 1.58, and 2.75A TeV, and gives confidence in the results obtained.

  1. Radioluminescence of solid neodymium-doped laser materials excited by {alpha}-particles and fission fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Seregina, E A; Seregin, A A

    2013-02-28

    The characteristics of radioluminescence of Nd{sup 3+} : Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystals and laser glasses under excitation by plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) {alpha}-particles, as well as by {alpha}-particles and spontaneous fission fragments of californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf), are studied. The radioluminescence branching ratios {beta}{sub ij} for the transition from the {sup 2}F2{sub 5/2} level to the {sup 2S+1}L{sub J} levels in Nd{sup 3+} : Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystals are measured. Radioluminescence from the {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} level to low-lying levels is observed. The {beta}{sub ij} ratios for transitions from the high-lying {sup 2}F2{sub 5/2}, {sup 4}D{sub 3/2}, and {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} levels are theoretically calculated. The lifetimes of metastable levels of Nd{sup 3+} excited by {sup 252}Cf fission fragments are measured. The efficiency of the conversion of energy of {alpha}-particles and fission fragments to the energy of optical radiation of Nd{sup 3+} : Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystals and laser glasses is determined. (active media)

  2. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n, f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verriere, M.

    2016-05-13

    Here, accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data are available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics.

  3. Effects of T-odd asymmetry of the emission of light charged particles and photons during fission of heavy nuclei by polarized neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gagarskii, A. M.; Guseva, I. S.; Goennenwein, F.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Mutterer, M.; Kuz'mina, T. E.; Petrov, G. A.; Tyurin, G.; Nesvizhevsky, V.

    2011-12-15

    The new physical effects of T-odd asymmetry of the emission of light charged particles (LCPs) during the ternary fission of some heavy nuclei by cold polarized neutrons have been experimentally studied. The coefficients of triple scalar and vector correlation of the pulses of light particles and fission fragments (TRI effect) and the fivefold correlation of the same vectors (ROT effect) have been measured. These effects are believed to be caused by the rotation of polarized fissioning system around its polarization direction. The treatment of the experimental data for LCPs in the framework of this hypothesis leads to a good agreement between the calculation results and experimental data. The calculated value of the angle of rotation of the fission axis in the ternary fission of the polarized fissioning {sup 236}U* compound nucleus was used to process the results of measuring the ROT effect for {gamma} photons from binary-fission fragments of the same nucleus. A satisfactory description of these experimental data is obtained which serves a convincing confirmation of the rotation hypothesis.

  4. A heavy ion spectrometer system for the measurement of projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelage, J.; Crawford, H. J.; Albergo, S.; Kuo, C.; Caccia, Z.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Cronqvist, M.; Flores, L.; Fonte, R.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Insolia, A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1996-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the LBL Bevalac provided a unique facility for measuring projectile fragmentation cross sections important in deconvolving the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) source composition. The general characteristics of the apparatus specific to this application are described and the main features of the event reconstruction and analysis used in the TRANSPORT experiment are discussed.

  5. Optical model calculations of heavy-ion target fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Norbury, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The fragmentation of target nuclei by relativistic protons and heavy ions is described within the context of a simple abrasion-ablation-final-state interaction model. Abrasion is described by a quantum mechanical formalism utilizing an optical model potential approximation. Nuclear charge distributions of the excited prefragments are calculated by both a hypergeometric distribution and a method based upon the zero-point oscillations of the giant dipole resonance. Excitation energies are estimated from the excess surface energy resulting from the abrasion process and the additional energy deposited by frictional spectator interactions of the abraded nucleons. The ablation probabilities are obtained from the EVA-3 computer program. Isotope production cross sections for the spallation of copper targets by relativistic protons and for the fragmenting of carbon targets by relativistic carbon, neon, and iron projectiles are calculated and compared with available experimental data.

  6. Accurate measurements of fission-fragment yields in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f) with the SOFIA set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatillon, A.; Taïeb, J.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.; Boutoux, G.; Gorbinet, T.; Grente, L.; Bélier, G.; Laurent, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamaño, M.; Audouin, L.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Farget, F.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Heinz, A.; Jurado, B.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Lindberg, S.; Löher, B.; Nociforo, C.; Paradela, C.; Pietri, S.; Ramos, D.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.-L.; Rodrìguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Tassan-Got, L.; Törnqvist, H.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Yan, Y.

    2016-03-01

    SOFIA (Studies On Fission with Aladin) is a new experimental set-up dedicated to accurate measurement of fission-fragments isotopic yields. It is located at GSI, the only place to use inverse kinematics at relativistic energies in order to study the (γ,f) electromagnetic-induced fission. The SOFIA set-up is a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer, which allows to fully identify both fission fragments in coincidence on the whole fission-fragment range. This paper will report on fission yields obtained in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f) reactions.

  7. Fragment properties from fission of actinide nuclei induced by 6-10 MeV bremsstrahlungI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gook, A.; Eckardt, C.; Enders, J.; Freudenberger, M.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Richter, A.

    Experiments to investigate the photon-induced fission of actinide nuclei at excitation energies in the vicinity of the fission barrier are carried out at the superconducting Darmstadt linear electron accelerator S-DALINAC. A twin-Frisch-grid ionization chamber is used to deduce mass, total kinetic energy, and angular distributions of the fission fragments. First experiments on 238U and 234U have shown that the experimental setup provides excellent conditions for investigating low-energy bremsstrahlung induced fission. Further experiments on 234U and 232Th are currently in progress. In this contribution results from the first experiment on fission fragment mass and total kinetic energy distributions from 234,238U are presented along with preliminary data from an on-going investigation of angular distributions from 234U(γ, f)

  8. The electron Boltzmann equation in a plasma generated by fission fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, H. A.; Deese, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A Boltzmann equation formulation is presented for the determination of the electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments. The formulation takes into consideration ambipolar diffusion, elastic and inelastic collisions, recombination and ionization, and allows for the fact that the primary electrons are not monoenergetic. Calculations for He in a tube coated with fissionable material show that, over a wide pressure and neutron flux range, the distribution function is non-Maxwellian, but the electrons are essentially thermal. Moreover, about a third of the energy of the primary electrons is transferred into the inelastic levels of He. This fraction of energy transfer is almost independent of pressure and neutron flux but increases sharply in the presence of a sustainer electric field.

  9. Fission and cluster decay of the {sup 76}Sr nucleus in the ground state and formed in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Raj K.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Singh, Sarbjit; Nouicer, Rachid; Beck, Christian

    1997-12-01

    Calculations for fission and cluster decay of {sup 76}Sr are presented for this nucleus to be in its ground state or formed as an excited compound system in heavy-ion reactions. The predicted mass distribution, for the dynamical collective mass transfer process assumed for fission of {sup 76}Sr, is clearly asymmetric, favoring {alpha} nuclei. Cluster decay is studied within a preformed cluster model, both for ground-state to ground-state decays and from excited compound system to the ground state(s) or excited states(s) of the fragments. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Fission Fragment Mass Distributions and Total Kinetic Energy Release of 235-Uranium and 238-Uranium in Neutron-Induced Fission at Intermediate and Fast Neutron Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, Dana Lynn

    2015-11-12

    This Ph.D. dissertation describes a measurement of the change in mass distributions and average total kinetic energy (TKE) release with increasing incident neutron energy for fission of 235U and 238U. Although fission was discovered over seventy-five years ago, open questions remain about the physics of the fission process. The energy of the incident neutron, En, changes the division of energy release in the resulting fission fragments, however, the details of energy partitioning remain ambiguous because the nucleus is a many-body quantum system. Creating a full theoretical model is difficult and experimental data to validate existing models are lacking. Additional fission measurements will lead to higher-quality models of the fission process, therefore improving applications such as the development of next-generation nuclear reactors and defense. This work also paves the way for precision experiments such as the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for fission cross section measurements and the Spectrometer for Ion Determination in Fission (SPIDER) for precision mass yields.

  11. SPY: a new scission-point model based on microscopic inputs to predict fission fragment properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panebianco, Stefano; Dubray, Nöel; Goriely, Stéphane; Hilaire, Stéphane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Sida, Jean-Luc

    2014-04-01

    Despite the difficulty in describing the whole fission dynamics, the main fragment characteristics can be determined in a static approach based on a so-called scission-point model. Within this framework, a new Scission-Point model for the calculations of fission fragment Yields (SPY) has been developed. This model, initially based on the approach developed by Wilkins in the late seventies, consists in performing a static energy balance at scission, where the two fragments are supposed to be completely separated so that their macroscopic properties (mass and charge) can be considered as fixed. Given the knowledge of the system state density, averaged quantities such as mass and charge yields, mean kinetic and excitation energy can then be extracted in the framework of a microcanonical statistical description. The main advantage of the SPY model is the introduction of one of the most up-to-date microscopic descriptions of the nucleus for the individual energy of each fragment and, in the future, for their state density. These quantities are obtained in the framework of HFB calculations using the Gogny nucleon-nucleon interaction, ensuring an overall coherence of the model. Starting from a description of the SPY model and its main features, a comparison between the SPY predictions and experimental data will be discussed for some specific cases, from light nuclei around mercury to major actinides. Moreover, extensive predictions over the whole chart of nuclides will be discussed, with particular attention to their implication in stellar nucleosynthesis. Finally, future developments, mainly concerning the introduction of microscopic state densities, will be briefly discussed.

  12. Stochastic model of angular distributions of fragments originating from the fission of excited compound nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hiryanov, R. M.; Karpov, A. V.; Adeev, G. D.

    2008-08-15

    The anisotropy of angular distributions of fission fragments and the average multiplicity of prescission neutrons were calculated within a stochastic approach to fission dynamics on the basis of three-dimensional Langevin equations. This approach was combined with a Monte Carlo algorithm for the degree of freedom K (projection of the total angular momentum I onto the fission axis). The relaxation time {tau}{sub K} in the coordinate K was considered as a free parameter of the model; it was estimated on the basis of a fit to experimental data on the anisotropy of angular distributions. Specifically, the relaxation time {tau}{sub K} was estimated at 2 x 10{sup -21} s for the compound nuclei {sup 224}Th and {sup 225}Pa and at 4 x 10{sup -21} s for the heavier nuclei {sup 248}Cf, {sup 254}Fm, and {sup 264}Rf. The potential energy was calculated on the basis of the liquid-drop model with allowance for finiteness of the range of nuclear forces and for the diffuseness of the nuclear surface. A modified one-body viscosity mechanism featuring a coefficient k{sub s} that takes into account the reduction of the contribution from the wall formula was used to describe collective-energy dissipation. The coefficient k{sub s} was also treated as a free parameter and was estimated at 0.5 on the basis of a fit to experimental data on the average prescission multiplicity of neutrons.

  13. A Monte Carlo Simulation of Prompt Gamma Emission from Fission Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, D.; Litaize, O.; Serot, O.

    2013-03-01

    The prompt fission gamma spectra and multiplicities are investigated through the Monte Carlo code FIFRELIN which is developed at the Cadarache CEA research center. Knowing the fully accelerated fragment properties, their de-excitation is simulated through a cascade of neutron, gamma and/or electron emissions. This paper presents the recent developments in the FIFRELIN code and the results obtained on the spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Concerning the decay cascades simulation, a fully Hauser-Feshbach model is compared with a previous one using a Weisskopf spectrum for neutron emission. A particular attention is paid to the treatment of the neutron/gamma competition. Calculations lead using different level density and gamma strength function models show significant discrepancies of the slope of the gamma spectra at high energy. The underestimation of the prompt gamma spectra obtained regardless our de-excitation cascade modeling choice is discussed. This discrepancy is probably linked to an underestimation of the post-neutron fragments spin in our calculation.

  14. Investigation of the reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O, f): Fragment spins and phenomenological analysis of the angular anisotropy of fission fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Rusanov, A. Ya. Adeev, G. D.; Itkis, M. G.; Karpov, A. V.; Nadtochy, P. N.; Pashkevich, V. V.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Salamatin, V. S.; Chubarian, G. G.

    2007-10-15

    The average multiplicity of gamma rays emitted by fragments originating from the fission of {sup 226}Th nuclei formed via a complete fusion of {sup 18}O and {sup 208}Pb nuclei at laboratory energies of {sup 18}O projectile ions in the range E{sub lab} = 78-198.5 MeV is measured and analyzed. The total spins of fission fragments are found and used in an empirical analysis of the energy dependence of the anisotropy of these fragments under the assumption that their angular distributions are formed in the vicinity of the scission point. The average temperature of compound nuclei at the scission point and their average angular momenta in the entrance channel are found for this analysis. Also, the moments of inertia are calculated for this purpose for the chain of fissile thorium nuclei at the scission point. All of these parameters are determined at the scission point by means of three-dimensional dynamical calculations based on Langevin equations. A strong alignment of fragment spins is assumed in analyzing the anisotropy in question. In that case, the energy dependence of the anisotropy of fission fragments is faithfully reproduced at energies in excess of the Coulomb barrier (E{sub c.m.} - E{sub B} {>=} 30 MeV). It is assumed that, as the excitation energy and the angular momentum of a fissile nucleus are increased, the region where the angular distributions of fragments are formed is gradually shifted from the region of nuclear deformations in the vicinity of the saddle point to the region of nuclear deformations in the vicinity of the scission point, the total angular momentum of the nucleus undergoing fission being split into the orbital component, which is responsible for the anisotropy of fragments, and the spin component. This conclusion can be qualitatively explained on the basis of linear-response theory.

  15. Investigation of the maximum accessible kinetic energy of fragments in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Khryachkov, V. A. Bondarenko, I. P.; Ivanova, T. A.; Kuzminov, B. D.; Semenova, N. N.; Sergachev, A. I.

    2013-03-15

    The masses, total kinetic energies (TKE), and emission angles of fragments originating from the fission of {sup 238}U nuclei that was induced by 5- and 6.5-MeV neutrons were measured by using digital methods for processing signals. A detailed analysis of the shape of digital signals made it possible to reduce substantially the contribution of fragments whose TKE values were distorted because of a superimposition of signals from recoil protons and from alpha particles produced in the spontaneous decay of uranium. The total statistics exceeded two million events for either neutron energy, and this permitted performing a detailed analysis of fission-fragment yields in the region of the highest attainable TKE values. An analysis of fragment yields made it possible to draw specific conclusions on the structure of the potential surface of fissile nuclei.

  16. Selective population of states in fission fragments from the [sup 32]S+[sup 24]Mg reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, S.J.; Hasan, A.; Prosser, F.W. ); Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.; Carpenter, M.P.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L.; Moore, E.F.; Wilt, P.R.; Wolfs, F.L.H.; Wuosmaa, A.H. ); Beard, K.B. ); Benet, P. )

    1994-02-01

    The symmetric and near-symmetric mass fission yields from the [sup 32]S+[sup 24]Mg reaction have been studied in a particle-particle-[gamma] coincidence measurement. Evidence is presented for a selective population of states in [sup 28]Si fragments arising from the symmetric fission of the [sup 56]Ni compound nucleus. A statistical-model calculation of the expected strength to specific mutual excitations of the fission fragments is presented and compared to the experimental results. This calculation is found to describe the structures observed at high excitation energy in the fission [ital Q]-value spectra quite well. Analysis of the [gamma]-ray spectra indicates, however, that a specific set of states in [sup 28]Si, corresponding to a highly deformed prolate band, is populated more strongly than expected based on a purely spin-weighted, statistical decay of the compound nucleus. It is suggested that the population pattern of states in the fission fragments may reflect nuclear structure effects at the point of scission.

  17. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n ,f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data are available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. Purpose: In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Methods: Our theoretical framework is the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large-amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically by using the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). In practice, the TDGCM is implemented in two steps. First, a series of constrained EDF calculations map the configuration and potential-energy landscape of the fissioning system for a small set of collective variables (in this work, the axial quadrupole and octupole moments of the nucleus). Then, nuclear dynamics is modeled by propagating a collective wave packet on the potential-energy surface. Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. Results: We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in two-dimensional collective spaces. Theory and experiment agree typically within two mass units for the position of the asymmetric peak. As expected, calculations are sensitive to the structure of the initial state and the prescription for the collective inertia. We emphasize that results are also sensitive to the continuity of the collective landscape near scission. Conclusions: Our analysis confirms

  18. Permissible overheating of the gaseous medium in a gas-flow laser excited by fission fragments from uranium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhod'ko, E V; Sizov, A N

    1999-09-30

    The limits on the permissible overheating of the gaseous mixtures in gas-flow lasers excited by uranium-nuclear-fission fragments are examined. The first limit is associated with the possibility of growth of a heat-removal zone near the walls and the second arises from the need to preserve the cavity stability. (active media)

  19. Energy dependence of fission fragment angular distributions for 19F, 24Mg and 28Si induced reactions on 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, M. B.; Utsunomiya, H.; Gelbke, C. K.; Lynch, W. G.; Back, B. B.; Saini, S.; Baisden, P. A.; McMahan, M. A.

    1983-09-01

    The energy dependence of fission fragment angular distributions was measured for reaction induced by 19F, 24Mg, and 28Si on 208Pb over the range of incident energies of {E}/{A} = 5.6-10 MeV. For all three systems the angular distributions are inconsistent with the saddle point deformations of the rotating liquid drop model.

  20. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    1991-09-04

    This report discusses the following topics: High energy photon production in a HI collision; the mechanism for the disassembly of excited {sup 16}O projectiles into four alpha particles; the disassembly of excited {sup 28}Si projectiles; large pre-fission multiplicities from temperature; dependent friction and fission barriers; multiplicity correlations; molecular beam induced fusion; dwarf ball and wall; mini wall; and computer and local data acquisition systems.

  1. Effect of transverse vibrations of fissile nuclei on the angular and spin distributions of low-energy fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G.; Lyubashevsky, D. E.

    2016-05-01

    It is shown that A. Bohr's classic theory of angular distributions of fragments originating from low-energy fission should be supplemented with quantum corrections based on the involvement of a superposition of a very large number of angular momenta L m in the description of the relative motion of fragments flying apart along the straight line coincidentwith the symmetry axis. It is revealed that quantum zero-point wriggling-type vibrations of the fissile system in the vicinity of its scission point are a source of these angular momenta and of high fragment spins observed experimentally.

  2. Isotopic yield measurement in the heavy mass region for 239Pu thermal neutron induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bail, A.; Serot, O.; Mathieu, L.; Litaize, O.; Materna, T.; Köster, U.; Faust, H.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.

    2011-09-01

    Despite the huge number of fission yield data available in the different evaluated nuclear data libraries, such as JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, and JENDL-4.0, more accurate data are still needed both for nuclear energy applications and for our understanding of the fission process itself. It is within the framework of this that measurements on the recoil mass spectrometer Lohengrin (at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France) was undertaken, to determine isotopic yields for the heavy fission products from the 239Pu(nth,f) reaction. In order to do this, a new experimental method based on γ-ray spectrometry was developed and validated by comparing our results with those performed in the light mass region with completely different setups. Hence, about 65 fission product yields were measured with an uncertainty that has been reduced on average by a factor of 2 compared to that previously available in the nuclear data libraries. In addition, for some fission products, a strongly deformed ionic charge distribution compared to a normal Gaussian shape was found, which was interpreted as being caused by the presence of a nanosecond isomeric state. Finally, a nuclear charge polarization has been observed in agreement, with the one described on other close fissioning systems.

  3. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    Our work involves the study of intermediate energy heavy-ion nuclear reactions. This work has two foci. On the one hand, we desire to learn about the properties of nuclear matter under abnormal conditions, in this energy domain, predominately low densities. This purpose runs abreast of the second, which is the study of the relevant reaction mechanisms. The two objectives are inexorably linked because our experimental laboratory for studying nuclear matter properties is a dynamic one. We are forced to ask how nuclear matter properties, such as phase transitions, are reflected in the dynamics of the reactions. It may be that irrefutable information about nuclear matter will not be extracted from the reaction work. Nevertheless, we are compelled to undertake this effort not only because it is the only game in town and as yet we do not know that information cannot be extracted, but also because of our second objective. The process leads to an understanding of the reaction mechanism themselves and therefore to the response characteristics of finite, perhaps non-equilibrium, strongly interacting systems. Our program has been: To study energy, mass, and angular momentum deposition by studying incomplete fusion reactions. To gain confidence that we understand how highly excited systems decompose by studying all emissions from the highly excited systems. To push these kinds of studies into the intermediate energy domain, with excitation function studies. And attempt to learn about the dynamics of the decays using particle-particle correlations. In the last effort, we have decided to focus on simple systems, where we believe, definitive statements are possible. These avenues of research share a common theme, large complex fragment production.

  4. Fission Fragment Angular Distribution measurements of 235U and 238U at CERN n_TOF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Durán, I.; Paradela, C.; Tarrío, D.; Leong, L. S.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Robles, M. S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2016-03-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections of 238U and 235U are used as standards in the fast neutron region up to 200 MeV. A high accuracy of the standards is relevant to experimentally determine other neutron reaction cross sections. Therefore, the detection effciency should be corrected by using the angular distribution of the fission fragments (FFAD), which are barely known above 20 MeV. In addition, the angular distribution of the fragments produced in the fission of highly excited and deformed nuclei is an important observable to investigate the nuclear fission process. In order to measure the FFAD of neutron-induced reactions, a fission detection setup based on parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) has been developed and successfully used at the CERN-n_TOF facility. In this work, we present the preliminary results on the analysis of new 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) data in the extended energy range up to 200 MeV compared to the existing experimental data.

  5. Capture and Fusion-Fission Processes in Heavy Ion Induced Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, M. G.; Beghini, S.; Behera, B. R.; Bogatchev, A. A.; Bouchat, V.; Corradi, L.; Dorvaux, O.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Hanappe, F.; Itkis, I. M.; Jandel, M.; Kliman, J.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Latina, A.; Lyapin, V. G.; Materna, T.; Montagnoli, G.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Prokhorova, E. V.; Rowley, N.; Rubchenya, V. A.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Scarlassara, F.; Schmitt, C.; Stefanini, A. M.; Stuttge, L.; Szilner, S.; Trotta, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Voskresenski, V. M.

    2005-11-01

    Results of the experiments aimed at the study of fission and quasi-fission processes in the reactions 12C+204Pb, 48Ca+144,154Sm, 168Er, 208Pb, 238U, 244Pu, 248Cm; 58Fe+208Pb, 244Pu, 248Cm, and 64Ni+186W, 242Pu are presented. The choice of the above-mentioned reactions was inspired by the experiments on the production of the isotopes 283112, 289114 and 283116 at Dubna using the same reactions. The 58Fe and 64Ni projectiles were chosen since the corresponding projectile-target combinations lead to the synthesis of even heavier elements. The experiments were carried out at the U-400 accelerator of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (JINR, Russia), the XTU Tandem accelerator of the National Laboratory of Legnaro (LNL, Italy) and the Accelerator of the Laboratory of University of Jyvaskyla (JYFL, Finland) using the time-of-flight spectrometer of fission fragments CORSET and the neutron multi-detector DEMON. The role of shell effects and the influence of the entrance channel asymmetry and the deformations of colliding nucleus on the mechanism of the fusion-fission and the competitive process of quasi-fission are discussed.

  6. Nucleon-induced fission cross sections of heavy nuclei in the intermediate energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokofiev, Alexander V.

    Fission is the most important nuclear reaction for society at large today due to its use in energy production. However, this has raised the problem of how to treat the long-lived radioactive waste from nuclear reactors. A radical solution would be to change the composition of the waste into stable or short-lived nuclides, which could be done through nuclear transmutation. Such a concept requires accelerator-driven systems to be designed, where those for transmutation are reactor hybrids. This thesis is a contribution to the knowledge base for developing transmutation systems, specifically with respect to the computational modeling of the underlying nuclear reactions, induced by the incident and secondary particles. Intermediate energy fission cross sections are one important type of such data. Moreover, they are essential for understanding the fission process itself and related nuclear interactions. The experimental part of this work was performed at the neutron beam facility of The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. Fission cross sections of 238U, 209Bi, natPb, 208Pb, 197Au, natW, and 181Ta were measured for neutrons in the range En = 30-160 MeV using thin-film breakdown counters for the fission fragment detection. A model was developed for the determination of the efficiency of such detectors. A compilation of existing data on proton-induced fission cross sections for nuclei from 165Ho to 239Pu was performed. The results, which constitute the main body of information in this field, were added to the worldwide EXFOR database. The dependences of the cross sections on incident energy and target nucleus were studied, which resulted in systematics that make it possible to give estimates for unmeasured nuclides. Nucleon-induced fission cross sections were calculated using an extended version of the cascade exciton model. A comparison with the systematics and the experimental data obtained in the present work revealed significant discrepancies. A modification of the model

  7. Isotope Harvesting at Heavy-Ion Fragmentation Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastren, Tara

    Isotope harvesting from heavy-ion fragmentation facilities is a potential source of isotopes of interest for applications research. With the upgrade of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) to the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) usable quantities of many isotopes of interest will be produced and available for harvest from an aqueous beam dump. If available, these isotopes would be of interest to a broad range of applications such as medicine, geology, and stockpile stewardship. Preliminary experiments were performed at the NSCL in order to determine the feasibility of isotope harvesting at (FRIB). A water target station that consisted of a 100 mL beam dump was designed and built to collect secondary beams at the NSCL. This target station could be controlled remotely from outside of the experimental vault allowing for multiple collections with minimal exposure to radioactivity. Three secondary beam collections were made with the water target station: a 24Na beam, an analyzed 67Cu beam, and an unanalyzed 67Cu beam. To test the durability of the target station, a 73% pure 85 MeV/u 24Na secondary beam was stopped and collected in the beam dump. Multiple collections were made with currents up to 2 x 106 particles per second without visible radiolytic damage to the target cell. The station operated without any observed release of radiolytic gases, spills, or loss of radioactive liquids. The water target station was then used collect a 77% pure 76 MeV/u 67Cu secondary beam. 67Cu was separated from the other secondary beam contaminants with an average recovery of 88 +/- 3 % and used to radiolabel an antibody. The radiochemical yield of 67Cu-NOTA-Bz-NCS-Trastuzumab was >95%. To better mimic the conditions that would be present in the beam dump at FRIB an unanalyzed beam was collected. This secondary beam was 2.6% pure and contained many contaminants most of which are located in period four of the periodic table. 67Cu was separated from the beam

  8. The effect of meson wave function on heavy-quark fragmentation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi Nejad, S. Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the process-independent fragmentation functions (FFs) for a heavy quark to fragment into heavy mesons considering the effects of meson wave function. In all previous works, where the FFs of heavy mesons or heavy baryons were calculated, a delta function form was approximated for the wave function of hadrons. Here, for the first time, we consider a typical mesonic wave function which is different from the delta function and is the nonrelativistic limit of the solution of Bethe-Salpeter equation with the QCD kernel. We shall present our numerical results for the heavy FFs and show how the proposed wave function improves the previous results. As an example, we focus on the fragmentation function for c -quark to split into S -wave D^0 -meson and compare our results with experimental data from BELLE and CLEO.

  9. Brownian shape motion on five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces:nuclear fission-fragment mass distributions.

    PubMed

    Randrup, Jørgen; Möller, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Although nuclear fission can be understood qualitatively as an evolution of the nuclear shape, a quantitative description has proven to be very elusive. In particular, until now, there existed no model with demonstrated predictive power for the fission-fragment mass yields. Exploiting the expected strongly damped character of nuclear dynamics, we treat the nuclear shape evolution in analogy with Brownian motion and perform random walks on five-dimensional fission potential-energy surfaces which were calculated previously and are the most comprehensive available. Test applications give good reproduction of highly variable experimental mass yields. This novel general approach requires only a single new global parameter, namely, the critical neck size at which the mass split is frozen in, and the results are remarkably insensitive to its specific value. PMID:21517377

  10. Brownian Shape Motion on Five-Dimensional Potential-Energy Surfaces:Nuclear Fission-Fragment Mass Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, Joergen; Moeller, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Although nuclear fission can be understood qualitatively as an evolution of the nuclear shape, a quantitative description has proven to be very elusive. In particular, until now, there existed no model with demonstrated predictive power for the fission-fragment mass yields. Exploiting the expected strongly damped character of nuclear dynamics, we treat the nuclear shape evolution in analogy with Brownian motion and perform random walks on five-dimensional fission potential-energy surfaces which were calculated previously and are the most comprehensive available. Test applications give good reproduction of highly variable experimental mass yields. This novel general approach requires only a single new global parameter, namely, the critical neck size at which the mass split is frozen in, and the results are remarkably insensitive to its specific value.

  11. Relativistic and binding energy corrections to heavy quark fragmentation functions

    SciTech Connect

    Yusuf, M.A.; Bashir, A.

    1997-11-01

    We calculate the fragmentation function for a charm quark to decay inclusively into S-wave charmonium states, including relativistic and binding energy corrections in powers of the quark relative velocity v. We also use these fragmentation functions to estimate their contribution to the production rate of {eta}{sub c} and J/{psi} in Z{sup 0} decay. These corrections contribute about 38{percent} to the integrated c{r_arrow}J/{psi}+X fragmentation. For {eta}{sub c}, these corrections are found to be small. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Fragment characteristics from fission of 238U and 234U induced by 6.5-9.0 MeV bremsstrahlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göök, A.; Chernykh, M.; Eckardt, C.; Enders, J.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Richter, A.

    2011-02-01

    Fission of 238U and 234U induced by bremsstrahlung of 6.5-9.0 MeV endpoint energy has been investigated at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC. Using a twin Frisch grid ionization chamber, fission-fragment energy and mass distributions have been determined by means of the double kinetic-energy technique. Results on the fission-fragment characteristics from U238(γ,f) are in agreement with results from the literature. In addition fission-fragment mass and energy distributions from U234(γ,f) are presented for the first time in this energy region. An analysis of fission modes within the Brosa model has been performed. The relative yield of the S1 mode was found to be (13±3)% in 234U and (35±2)% in 238U.

  13. Correlations of neutron multiplicity and γ -ray multiplicity with fragment mass and total kinetic energy in spontaneous fission of 252Cf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Taofeng; Li, Guangwu; Zhu, Liping; Meng, Qinghua; Wang, Liming; Han, Hongyin; Zhang, Wenhui; Xia, Haihong; Hou, Long; Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The dependence of correlations of neutron multiplicity ν and γ -ray multiplicity Mγ in spontaneous fission of 252Cf on fragment mass A* and total kinetic energy (TKE) have been investigated by employing the ratio of Mγ/ν and the form of Mγ(ν ) . We show for the first time that Mγ and ν have a complex correlation for heavy fragment masses, while there is a positive dependence of Mγ for light fragment masses and for near-symmetric mass splits. The ratio Mγ/ν exhibits strong shell effects for neutron magic number N =50 and near doubly magic number shell closure at Z =50 and N =82 . The γ -ray multiplicity Mγ has a maximum for TKE=165 -170 MeV. Above 170 MeV Mγ(TKE) is approximately linear, while it deviates significantly from a linear dependence at lower TKE. The correlation between the average neutron and γ -ray multiplicities can be partly reproduced by model calculations.

  14. Local even-odd effect based on the number of configurations of pre-formed and formed fragmentations in a fissioning nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Giubega, G.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper proposes a modeling of the local even-odd effect based on the number of configurations in a nucleus undergoing fission at two stages along its fission path. One is the fissioning nucleus stage just after passing through the outer saddle point when the fragments are considered as pre-formed and the intrinsic energy is not yet shared. The other stage is at the end of the fission path when the scission is imminent. Then the intrinsic energy is already partitioned and the fragments are completely formed. The probability that a pre-formed fragmentation arrives at the end of the fission path (i.e. at scission) when the fragmentation is completely formed is expressed by the ratio of the number of configurations of the formed fragmentation to the one of pre-formed fragmentation. The local even-odd effect is defined as half of the difference between these normalized ratios corresponding to even-Z and odd-Z fragmentations. Both numbers of configurations in the fissioning nucleus, in which the fragments are pre-formed and completely formed, are calculated using level densities described by the constant temperature function (justified by the small values of the intrinsic energy before scission). The obtained local even-odd effect results describe well the experimental data, including the increase at asymmetry values corresponding to fragmentations in which one of the fragments is magic or double magic (i.e. fragmentations in which ZH = 50 and/or NH = 82 and very asymmetric fragmentations in which ZL = 28).

  15. Angular correlations of projectilelike and fission fragments in the reaction [sup 16]O+[sup 238]U at 110 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, A.; Aiello, S.; De Filippo, E.; Lanzano, G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Milone, C. ); Mermaz, M.C. )

    1994-08-01

    In-plane and out-of-plane angular correlations of fission fragments detected in coincidence with projectilelike residues produced in the nuclear collisions [sup 16]O+[sup 238]U at 110 MeV have been investigated. The data present the essential features of a targetlike sequential fission process. A quantitative description of the experimental angular anisotropies requires the storage in the fissioning nucleus of a mean angular momentum in agreement with a dominant mass transfer mechanism.

  16. Competition between {alpha} decay and spontaneous fission for heavy and superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Chang; Ren Zhongzhou; Guo Yanqing

    2008-10-15

    We systematically investigate the {alpha}-decay and spontaneous fission half-lives for heavy and superheavy nuclei with proton number Z{>=}90. The {alpha}-decay half-lives are obtained by the deformed version of the density-dependent cluster model (DDCM). In the DDCM, the microscopic potential between the {alpha} particle and the daughter nucleus is evaluated numerically from the double-folding model with the M3Y interaction. The influence of the core deformation on the double-folding potential is also properly taken into account by the multipole expansion method. The spontaneous fission half-lives of nuclei from {sup 232}Th to {sup 286}114 are calculated with the parabolic potential approximation by taking nuclear structure effects into account. The agreement between theoretical results and the newly observed data is satisfactory for both {alpha} emitters and spontaneous fission nuclei. The competition between {alpha} decay and spontaneous fission is analyzed in detail and the branching ratios of these two decay modes are predicted for the unknown cases.

  17. Neutron emission effects on fragment mass and kinetic energy distribution from fission of 239{sup Pu} induced by thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J.; Lobato, I.

    2010-08-04

    The average of fragment kinetic energy (E-bar sign*) and the multiplicity of prompt neutrons ({nu}(bar sign)) as a function of fragment mass (m*), as well as the fragment mass yield (Y(m*)) from thermal neutron-induced fission of {sup 239}Pu have been measured by Tsuchiya et al.. In that work the mass and kinetic energy are calculated from the measured kinetic energy of one fragment and the difference of time of flight of the two complementary fragments. However they do not present their results about the standard deviation {sigma}{sub E}*(m*). In this work we have made a numerical simulation of that experiment which reproduces its results, assuming an initial distribution of the primary fragment kinetic energy (E(A)) with a constant value of the standard deviation as function of fragment mass ({sigma}{sub E}(A)). As a result of the simulation we obtain the dependence {sigma}{sub E}*(m*) which presents an enhancement between m* = 92 and m* = 110, and a peak at m* = 121.

  18. Heavy-ion fragmentation studies in thick water absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Miller, J.; Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed long-term space missions could expose crewmembers to significant fluxes of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) particles and secondary particles created from nuclear collisions. An assessment of radiobiological risks is dependent upon an accurate description of the charged-particle radiation field inside the human body. As shield thickness increases and the incident ions are slowed, the production of secondary particles contributes an increasingly significant fraction of the total dose until eventually secondary particles become more important than the primary particles. The nuclear mean free path of the GCR ions (which usually have nuclear charge between 1 (protons) and 26 (iron), both inclusive) are comparable with thicknesses typical of spacecraft structures and the human body. Collisions in these media will create projectile and target fragments with charge less than that of the primary particle, and each interaction event can have a multiplicity of more than one emerging interaction product. Projectile fragments usually continue on with very nearly the velocity of the primary ion (the so-called straightahead approximation). Having sufficient energy, the fragments may collide with atomic nuclei in thick shields and create a second generation of fragments, and so on. Target fragments are emitted from a struck nucleus, usually with much lower energy than projectile fragments and nearly isotropically in the rest frame of the absorbing medium. The resulting spectrum of particles and their energy loss rates will be very different from that in the unshielded environment, will determine the radiobiological impact on exposed living tissues -- whether in space or in ground-based radiobiology experiments -- and will play an important role in radiation effects on microelectronics.

  19. Hybrid molecular ions emitted from CO-NH3 ice bombarded by fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, R.; Ponciano, C. R.; Farenzena, L. S.; Iza, P.; Homem, M. G. Pe; Naves de Brito, A.; da Silveira, E. F.; Wien, K.

    2007-05-01

    CO-NH3 ice at 25 K is bombarded by 65 MeV fission fragments and the emitted secondary ions are analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The yields of the specific ion species (those formed only from CO or from NH3 molecules) and of the hybrid ion species (formed from both CO and NH3 molecules) are determined as a function of the ice temperature. The time-temperature dependence of desorption yields has been used for secondary ion identification because its behavior characterizes the ion's origin around the sublimation temperature of CO ice (~30 K). The mass spectrum of positive ions measured before CO sublimation is decomposed into three spectra corresponding to CO specific ions, NH3 specific ions and hybrid molecular ions, respectively. The observed spectrum after CO sublimation is very similar to that of a pure NH3 specific spectrum. The total yield of all positive hybrid molecular ions over 600 u mass range is found to be about 2 ions/impact: 20% of this is attributed to N and NH3 containing ions and 80% are ions having the CnOmHl+ structure. The ions Cn

  20. Experimental study of the three-component structure of mass-energy distributions of fission fragments of nuclei in the vicinity of Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Gruzintsev, E.N.; Itkis, M.G.; Kotlov, Y.V.; Okolovich, V.N.; Rusanov, A.Y.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1988-05-01

    Measurements and a regression analysis of mass-energy distributions of fission fragments of the nuclei /sup 213/At, /sup 210/Po, and /sup 205/Bi were carried out, demonstrating a three-component structure in the kinetic energy spectra of fragments. The nature of this phenomenon is discussed, as well as its similarity to the recently observed bimodal spontaneous fission of nuclei in the vicinity of Fm.

  1. Theoretical investigation of shape parametrization’s effects on characteristics of fission fragments in 18O-induced fission of 154Sm, 197Au, 238U and 246Cm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavani, M. R.; Mirfathi, S. M.

    2015-06-01

    The multi-dimensional Langevin equations are employed to investigate mass and energy distributions of fission fragments. The calculations have been performed with two different shape classes of parametrization, namely Funny Hills and Cassinian Ovaloids. It was shown that inclusion of the Funny Hills parameterizations in the dynamical model produced considerable increase in neutron multiplicity as compared with available experimental data for 18O-induced fission of 154Sm, 197Au, 238U and 246Cm. The proposed shape-dependent multi-dimensional dynamical model reproduces well experimental data for mass distribution, neutron multiplicity and average kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of mass-energy regions.

  2. Fission of transactinide elements described in terms of generalized Cassinian ovals: Fragment mass and total kinetic energy distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carjan, N.; Ivanyuk, F. A.; Oganessian, Yu.; Ter-Akopian, G.

    2015-10-01

    The total deformation energy at scission for Z = 100, 102, 104 and 106 isotopes is calculated using the Strutinsky's procedure and nuclear shapes described in terms of Cassinian ovals generalized by the inclusion of three additional shape parameters: α1, α4 and α6. The corresponding fragment-mass distributions are estimated supposing they are due to thermal fluctuations in the mass asymmetry degree of freedom. For these four series of isotopes the experimentally observed transition from asymmetric to symmetric fission, that happens with increasing mass number A, is qualitatively reproduced. In lighter isotopes (e.g. 254Fm and 254Rf) two mass-asymmetric fission modes are predicted to occur with comparable yields: one having relatively compact and the other relatively elongated scission configurations. On the other hand, in heavier isotopes (e.g. 264Fm and 264Rf) the fragment-mass distributions are predicted to be narrow single-peaked around A / 2 corresponding to essentially one mass-symmetric fission mode. The mass distributions are estimated separately for each fission mode, in the case of Fm and Rf isotopes, in order to display their inversion when A increases. Finally the distributions of the total kinetic energy of the fragments are calculated, for the same isotopes, in the point-charge approximation. Non-Gaussian shapes are obtained. With increasing mass number A, a transition from a distribution tailing towards higher energies to a distribution tailing towards lower energies and an increase of the difference in the peak positions of the two modes were observed; again in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  3. Isotope yield ratios of fragments from heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Deak, F.; Kiss, A. ); Seres, Z. ); Galonsky, A.; Heilbronn, L. )

    1991-05-01

    Isotope yield ratios produced in collisions of 35 MeV/nucleon {sup 14}N with targets of C, Ni, Ag, and Ho have an exponential dependence on total neutron-to-proton ratio. A statistical multifragmentation model including particle emission from excited fragments predicted such behavior for yield ratios measured earlier at the higher energy of 84 MeV/nucleon.

  4. Background Simulation of a Fission Fragment Chamber in the Experiment of 209Bi(e, e'K+)209ΛPb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yushou; Liu, Huilan; Xi, Yinyin; Yan, Qiang; Hu, Bitao

    2012-05-01

    An experiment for measuring the hyperon-related fission rate was carried out with the reaction 209Bi(e, e'K+)209ΛPb at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (Jlab). In the experiment, the performance of the fission fragment detector (FFD) was dramatically crashed by the background particles in comparison with that during the test without beam. The scattering of the high intensity (500 nA) primary electrons was the dominant cause. Using the GEANT4 toolkit, this report simulates the experimental situation of the target chamber in which the FFD was located. The simulation results indicate that the background particles were dominantly δ electrons, and protons and alpha particles were the important heavy background particles. The performance of the multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPCs) depends not only on the background-particle intensity but also the current density, which was also given by the simulation code. Furthermore, the measures to suppress the background particles were also investigated with the simulation code.

  5. Electromagnetic dissociation effects in galactic heavy-ion fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for calculating cross sections for the breakup of galactic heavy ions by the Coulomb fields of the interacting nuclei are presented. By using the Weizsacker-Williams method of virtual quanta, estimates of electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for a variety of reactions applicable to galactic cosmic ray shielding studies are presented and compared with other predictions and with available experimental data.

  6. Preliminary Results of a Full Hauser-feshbach Simulation of the Prompt Neutron and Gamma Emission from Fission Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regniera, D.; Litaizea, O.; Serota, O.

    The prompt neutron and gamma emission from fission fragments are investigated through the Monte Carlo code FIFRELIN which is developed at the CEA Cadarache research center. In a previous release of the code, the de-excitation of the fragments was treated in a two steps process. First the emission of all the prompt neutrons was simulated using a Weisskopf spectrum for the distribution of their kinetic energy. In a second step, the excitation energy still available was dissipated by the fragments as an electromagnetic decay cascade. This paper presents a new procedure for fragment de-excitation using an Hauser-Feshbach treatment of prompt particles emission. The neutron/gamma competition is then accounted for during the whole cascade. Moreover, the neutron emission is now ruled by the transmission coefficients directly coming from an optical model calculation performed with TALYS-1.4. The implementation of these models in the code FIFRELIN is quickly highlighted. The results in terms of neutrons and gamma multiplicities and spectra for one simulation of a 252Cf spontaneous fission are emphasized. The neutron multiplicity experimental data are used to constraint the parameters of our simulation. The prompt gamma spectrum calculated is then consistent with experimental data and the structures observed experimentally in the low energy range are well reproduced. However, the same simulation performed with several different nuclear models and parameters reveals high variation of these fission observables. For example, the average total gamma energy (Eγ,tot) is shown to vary up to 20% with changes in the level density or radiative strength function model.

  7. Fission fragment mass and energy distributions as a function of incident neutron energy measured in a lead slowing-down spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, C.; Danon, Y.; Block, R.; Thompson, J.; Blain, E.; Bond, E.

    2010-01-01

    A new method of measuring fission fragment mass and energy distributions as a function of incident neutron energy in the range from below 0.1 eV to 1 keV has been developed. The method involves placing a double-sided Frisch-gridded fission chamber in Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS). The high neutron flux of the LSDS allows for the measurement of the energy-dependent, neutron-induced fission cross sections simultaneously with the mass and kinetic energy of the fission fragments of various small samples. The samples may be isotopes that are not available in large quantities (submicrograms) or with small fission cross sections (microbarns). The fission chamber consists of two anodes shielded by Frisch grids on either side of a single cathode. The sample is located in the center of the cathode and is made by depositing small amounts of actinides on very thin films. The chamber was successfully tested and calibrated using 0.41±0.04 ng of Cf252 and the resulting mass distributions were compared to those of previous work. As a proof of concept, the chamber was placed in the LSDS to measure the neutron-induced fission cross section and fragment mass and energy distributions of 25.3±0.5μg of U235. Changes in the mass distributions as a function of incident neutron energy are evident and are examined using the multimodal fission mode model.

  8. Doubly differential cross sections for galactic heavy-ion fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Norbury, John W.; Khandelwal, Govind S.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1987-01-01

    An abrasion-ablation T-matrix formulation is applied to the calculation of double differential-cross sections in projectile fragmentation of 2.1 GeV/nucleon O-16 on Be-9 and 86 MeV/nucleon C-12 on C-12 and Ag-108. An exponential parameterization of the ablation T-matrix is used and the total width of the intermediate states is taken as a parameter. Fitted values of the total width to experimental results are used to predict the lifetime of the ablation stage and indicate a decay time on the order of 10 to the -19th power sec.

  9. Investigation of the {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O, f) fission reaction: Mass-energy distributions of fission fragments and their correlation with the gamma-ray multiplicity

    SciTech Connect

    Rusanov, A. Ya.; Itkis, M. G.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Pashkevich, V. V.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Salamatin, V. S.; Chubarian, G. G.

    2008-06-15

    The mass-energy distributions of fragments originating from the fission of the compound nucleus {sup 226}Th and their correlations with the multiplicity of gamma rays emitted from these fragments are measured and analyzed in {sup 18}O + {sup 208}Pb interaction induced by projectile oxygen ions of energy in the range E{sub lab} = 78-198.5 MeV. Manifestations of an asymmetric fission mode, which is damped exponentially with increasing E{sub lab}, are demonstrated. Theoretical calculations of fission valleys reveal that only two independent valleys, symmetric and asymmetric, exist in the vicinity of the scission point. The dependence of the multiplicity of gamma rays emitted from both fission fragments on their mass, M{sub {gamma}}(M), has a complicated structure and is highly sensitive to shell effects in both primary and final fragments. A two-component analysis of the dependence M{sub {gamma}}(M) shows that the asymmetric mode survives in fission only at low partial-wave orbital angular momenta of compound nuclei. It is found that, for all E{sub lab}, the gamma-ray multiplicity M{sub {gamma}}as a function of the total kinetic energy (TKE) of fragments, M{sub {gamma}}(TKE), decreases linearly with increasing TKE. An analysis of the energy balance in the fission process at the laboratory energy of E{sub lab} = 78 MeV revealed the region of cold fission of fragments whose total kinetic energy is TKE {approx}Q{sub max}.

  10. Project 242: Fission fragments direct heating for space propulsion—Programme synthesis and applications to space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augelli, M.; Bignami, G. F.; Genta, G.

    2013-02-01

    The status and the main results achieved by Project 242 are presented. Project 242 is a programme (funded by ASI—1999/2002 from an idea of Carlo Rubbia) that studied a new concept of space propulsion motor by using direct conversion of the kinetic energy of fission fragments into increasing of enthalpy of a propellant gas. Project 242 studied the application of this propulsion system to a manned mission to Mars. Preliminary results were very satisfactory and it has been observed that a propulsion system with these characteristics could make the mission feasible. Results for other unmanned missions to the outer solar system are also presented.

  11. Fission barriers for the emission of odd-numbered fragments from multicharged C{sub 60} prepared in Ar{sup 8+}-C{sub 60} collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.; Chen, L.; Bernard, J.; Buchet-Poulizac, M. C.; Wei, B.; Bredy, R.

    2006-01-15

    We report on measurements of the branching ratios of emission of small C{sub n}{sup +} fragments in asymmetrical fission of highly charged C{sub 60}{sup r+} ions (r=4-6). For the channels corresponding to the emission of one fragment, only small fragments with an even number of carbon atoms are observed. For the channels with the emission of two fragments, successive emission of small fragments with an odd number of carbon atoms has been observed with a surprisingly high branching ratio (30%). In order to reproduce the experimental branching ratios in the framework of a statistical evaporation model, the height of fission barriers for the emission of one odd numbered fragment has to be reduced at higher temperature in order to allow the opening of these channels that are forbidden at lower temperature.

  12. Isotopic production cross sections and recoil velocities of spallation-fission fragments in the reaction {sup 238}U(1A GeV)+d

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, J.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Armbruster, P.; Enqvist, T.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Bernas, M.; Mustapha, B.; Rejmund, F.; Stephan, C.; Taieeb, J.; Tassan-Got, L.; Boudard, A.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Volant, C.; Wlazlo, W.

    2007-01-15

    Fission fragments of 1A GeV{sup 238}U nuclei interacting with a deuterium target have been investigated with the Fragment Separator (FRS) at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) by measuring their isotopic production cross sections and velocities. Results, along with those obtained recently for spallation-evaporation fragments, provide a comprehensive analysis of the spallation nuclear productions in this reaction. Details about the experimental performance, data reduction and results are presented.

  13. Investigation of the reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O, f): Folding angular distributions of fission fragments and gamma-ray multiplicity

    SciTech Connect

    Rusanov, A. Ya. Itkis, M. G.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Salamatin, V. S.; Chubarian, G. G.

    2007-10-15

    Correlations between folding angular distributions of fission fragments and the gamma-ray multiplicity are studied for {sup 18}O + {sup 208}Pb interactions at energies of the beam of {sup 18}O ions in the range E{sub lab} = 78-198.5 MeV. The probabilities are determined for complete-and incomplete-fusion processes inevitably followed by the fission of nuclei formed in these processes. It is found that the probability of incomplete fusion followed by fission increases with increasing energy of bombarding ions. It is shown that, for the incomplete-fusion process, folding angular distributions of fission fragments have a two-component structure. The width of folding angular distributions (FWHM) for complete fusion grows linearly with increasing energy of {sup 18}O ions. The multiplicity of gamma rays from fission fragments as a function of the linear-momentum transfer behaves differently for different energies of projectile ions. This circumstance is explained here by the distinction between the average angular momenta of participant nuclei in the fusion and fission channels, which is due to the difference in the probabilities of fission in the cases where different numbers of nucleons are captured by the target nucleus.

  14. Combining Random Gene Fission and Rational Gene Fusion To Discover Near-Infrared Fluorescent Protein Fragments That Report on Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Gene fission can convert monomeric proteins into two-piece catalysts, reporters, and transcription factors for systems and synthetic biology. However, some proteins can be challenging to fragment without disrupting function, such as near-infrared fluorescent protein (IFP). We describe a directed evolution strategy that can overcome this challenge by randomly fragmenting proteins and concomitantly fusing the protein fragments to pairs of proteins or peptides that associate. We used this method to create libraries that express fragmented IFP as fusions to a pair of associating peptides (IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3) and proteins (CheA and CheY) and screened for fragmented IFP with detectable near-infrared fluorescence. Thirteen novel fragmented IFPs were identified, all of which arose from backbone fission proximal to the interdomain linker. Either the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides or CheA and CheY proteins could assist with IFP fragment complementation, although the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides consistently yielded higher fluorescence. These results demonstrate how random gene fission can be coupled to rational gene fusion to create libraries enriched in fragmented proteins with AND gate logic that is dependent upon a protein–protein interaction, and they suggest that these near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments will be suitable as reporters for pairs of promoters and protein–protein interactions within whole animals. PMID:25265085

  15. Combining random gene fission and rational gene fusion to discover near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments that report on protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Naresh; Nobles, Christopher L; Zechiedrich, Lynn; Maresso, Anthony W; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2015-05-15

    Gene fission can convert monomeric proteins into two-piece catalysts, reporters, and transcription factors for systems and synthetic biology. However, some proteins can be challenging to fragment without disrupting function, such as near-infrared fluorescent protein (IFP). We describe a directed evolution strategy that can overcome this challenge by randomly fragmenting proteins and concomitantly fusing the protein fragments to pairs of proteins or peptides that associate. We used this method to create libraries that express fragmented IFP as fusions to a pair of associating peptides (IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3) and proteins (CheA and CheY) and screened for fragmented IFP with detectable near-infrared fluorescence. Thirteen novel fragmented IFPs were identified, all of which arose from backbone fission proximal to the interdomain linker. Either the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides or CheA and CheY proteins could assist with IFP fragment complementation, although the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides consistently yielded higher fluorescence. These results demonstrate how random gene fission can be coupled to rational gene fusion to create libraries enriched in fragmented proteins with AND gate logic that is dependent upon a protein-protein interaction, and they suggest that these near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments will be suitable as reporters for pairs of promoters and protein-protein interactions within whole animals. PMID:25265085

  16. The FRS Ion Catcher - A facility for high-precision experiments with stopped projectile and fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaß, W. R.; Dickel, T.; Purushothaman, S.; Dendooven, P.; Geissel, H.; Ebert, J.; Haettner, E.; Jesch, C.; Ranjan, M.; Reiter, M. P.; Weick, H.; Amjad, F.; Ayet, S.; Diwisch, M.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Greiner, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Lang, J.; Moore, I.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Petrick, M.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rink, A.-K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Schäfer, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Winfield, J. S.; Yavor, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    At the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI, projectile and fission fragments are produced at relativistic energies, separated in-flight, range-focused, slowed down and thermalized in a cryogenic stopping cell. A multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) is used to perform direct mass measurements and to provide an isobarically clean beam for further experiments, such as mass-selected decay spectroscopy. A versatile RF quadrupole transport and diagnostics unit guides the ions from the stopping cell to the MR-TOF-MS, provides differential pumping, ion identification and includes reference ion sources. The FRS Ion Catcher serves as a test facility for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), where the cryogenic stopping cell and the MR-TOF-MS will be key devices for the research with stopped projectile and fission fragments that will be performed with the experiments MATS and LaSpec. Off-line tests of the stopping cell yield a combined ion survival and extraction efficiency for 219Rn ions of about 30% and an extraction time of about 25 ms. The stopping cell and the MR-TOF-MS were commissioned on-line as part of the FRS Ion Catcher. For the first time, a stopping cell for exotic nuclei was operated on-line at cryogenic temperatures. Using a gas density almost two times higher than ever reached before for a stopping cell with RF ion repelling structures, various 238U projectile fragments were thermalized and extracted with very high efficiency. Direct mass measurements of projectile fragments were performed with the MR-TOF-MS, among them the nuclide 213Rn with a half-life of 19.5 ms only.

  17. Decay heat and anti-neutrino energy spectra in fission fragments from total absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-10-01

    Decay studies of over forty 238U fission products have been studied using ORNL's Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer. The results are showing increased decay heat values, by 10% to 50%, and the energy spectra of anti-neutrinos shifted towards lower energies. The latter effect is resulting in a reduced number of anti-neutrinos interacting with matter, often by tens of percent per fission product. The results for several studied nuclei will be presented and their impact on decay heat pattern in power reactors and reactor anti-neutrino physics will be discussed.

  18. Heavy fragment radioactivity of /sup 238/Pu: Si and Mg emission

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Snowden-Ifft, D.; Price, P.B.; Moody, K.J.; Hulet, E.K.

    1989-04-01

    In addition to its two known hadronic decay modes: alpha decay (half-life 88 yr) and spontaneous fission (5 x 10/sup 10/ yr): we have found that /sup 238/Pu also decays by emission of a Mg nucleus (/similar to/2 x 10/sup 18/ yr) and by emission of a Si nucleus (/similar to/6 x 10/sup 17/ yr). This extends to four (the other two being /sup 14/C emission and Ne emission) the number of known modes of decay by emission of a fragment of mass between that of an alpha particle and that resulting from fission. The branching ratios relative to alpha decay are the lowest yet observed: /similar to/6 x 10/sup -17/ for Mg emission and 1.4 x 10/sup -16/ for Si emission.

  19. Spontaneous fission half-lives and their systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1998-03-01

    Spontaneous fission is a phenomenon exhibited by heavy nuclei, which can be a major mode of decay of nuclei of elements heavier than thorium and can be a determining factor in their stability. For purposes of this paper, spontaneous fission will be considered a process in which a nucleus breaks up into two approximately equal parts. The emission of light nuclei or heavy ions such as {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, or {sup 32}S will not be considered. This radioactive decay mode is often much smaller than the spontaneous fission decay mode, although this is not true in all cases. Barwick noted that this might indicate that the assumed half-life for spontaneous fission of some older experiments might be partially due to heavy fragment radioactivity. Other than taking note of this potential correction to spontaneous fission half-lives, this decay mode of heavy fragment radioactivity will be ignored. Excited states of some heavy nuclei may decay via spontaneous fission. These so-called fission isomers will not be discussed here. Electron capture (EC) or beta-delayed fission is a process in which prompt fission of a sufficiently excited daughter state occurs following population by EC or beta decay. The fission activity will appear to decay with the half-life of the parent and was earlier confused in some cases with SF. This process has been discussed in detail in a review and will not be considered in this paper.

  20. Measurement of Fragment Mass Yields in Neutron-Induced Fission of 232TH and 238U at 33, 45 and 60 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutkin, V. D.; Pomp, S.; Blomgren, J.; Österlund, M.; Andersson, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Ryzhov, I. V.; Tutin, G. A.; Khlopin, V. G.; Onegin, M. S.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Meulders, J. P.; Prieels, R.

    2011-10-01

    Over the past years, a significant effort has been devoted to measurements of neutron-induced fission cross-sections at intermediate energies but there is a lack of experimental data on fission yields. Here we describe recent measurements of pre-neutron emission fragment mass distributions from intermediate energy neutron-induced fission of 232Th and 238U. The measurements have been done at the quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam of the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility CYCLONE and neutron peak energies at 32.8, 45.3 and 59.9 MeV. A multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber was used as a fission fragment detector. The measurement results are compared with available experimental data. Some TALYS code modifications done to describe the experimental results are discussed.

  1. Extreme population inversion in the fragments formed by UV photoinduced S-H bond fission in 2-thiophenethiol.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Rebecca A; Karsili, Tolga N V; Dennis, Gregg J; Staniforth, Michael; Stavros, Vasilios G; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2016-04-20

    H atom loss following near ultraviolet photoexcitation of gas phase 2-thiophenethiol molecules has been studied experimentally, by photofragment translational spectroscopy (PTS) methods, and computationally, by ab initio electronic structure calculations. The long wavelength (277.5 ≥ λphot ≥ 240 nm) PTS data are consistent with S-H bond fission after population of the first (1)πσ* state. The partner thiophenethiyl (R) radicals are formed predominantly in their first excited Ã(2)A' state, but assignment of a weak signal attributable to H + R(X[combining tilde](2)A'') products allows determination of the S-H bond strength, D0 = 27 800 ± 100 cm(-1) and the Ã-X[combining tilde] state splitting in the thiophenethiyl radical (ΔE = 3580 ± 100 cm(-1)). The deduced population inversion between the à and X[combining tilde] states of the radical reflects the non-planar ground state geometry (wherein the S-H bond is directed near orthogonal to the ring plane) which, post-photoexcitation, is unable to planarise sufficiently prior to bond fission. This dictates that the dissociating molecules follow the adiabatic fragmentation pathway to electronically excited radical products. π* ← π absorption dominates at shorter excitation wavelengths. Coupling to the same (1)πσ* potential energy surface (PES) remains the dominant dissociation route, but a minor yield of H atoms attributable to a rival fragmentation pathway is identified. These products are deduced to arise via unimolecular decay following internal conversion to the ground (S0) state PES via a conical intersection accessed by intra-ring C-S bond extension. The measured translational energy disposal shows a more striking change once λphot ≤ 220 nm. Once again, however, the dominant decay pathway is deduced to be S-H bond fission following coupling to the (1)πσ* PES but, in this case, many of the evolving molecules are deduced to have sufficiently near-planar geometries to allow passage through the

  2. SOFIA, a Next-Generation Facility for Fission Yields Measurements and Fission Study. First Results and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouin, L.; Pellereau, E.; Taieb, J.; Boutoux, G.; Béliera, G.; Chatillon, A.; Ebran, A.; Gorbinet, T.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Tassan-Got, L.; Jurado, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Paradela, C.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.-L.; Vargas, J.; Casarejos, E.; Heinz, A.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Fission fragments play an important role in nuclear reactors evolution and safety. However, fragments yields are poorly known : data are essentially limited to mass yields from thermal neutron-induced fissions on a very few nuclei. SOFIA (Study On FIssion with Aladin) is an innovative experimental program on nuclear fission carried out at the GSI facility, which aims at providing isotopic yields on a broad range of fissioning systems. Relativistic secondary beams of actinides and pre-actinides are selected by the Fragment Separator (FRS) and their fission is triggered by electromagnetic interaction. The resulting excitation energy is comparable to the result of an interaction with a low-energy neutron, thus leading to useful data for reactor simulations. For the first time ever, both fission fragments are completely identified in charge and mass in a new recoil spectrometer, allowing for precise yields measurements. The yield of prompt neutrons can then be deduced, and the fission mechanism can be ascribed, providing new constraints for fission models. During the first experiment, all the technical challenges were matched : we have thus set new experimental standards in the measurements of relativistic heavy ions (time of flight, position, energy loss).This communication presents a first series of results obtained on the fission of 238U; many other fissioning systems have also been measured and are being analyzed presently. A second SOFIA experiment is planned in September 2014, and will be focused on the measurement of the fission of 236U, the analog of 235U+n.

  3. Development of a higher power fission-fragment-excited CO laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcarthur, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Moderate dilution of the CO with Ar lowers the reactor excitation threshold for lasing. Fission coatings on ceramic substrates have been developed which minimize fouling of laser mirrors. A new laser apparatus was constructed which more closely resembles large electrically excited CO lasers. Measurements of the energy emerging from the foils indicate that excitation of the gas is still below optimum values. Laser action at room temperature has also been observed.

  4. Optical model methods of predicting nuclide production cross sections from heavy ion fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Ramsey, C. R.; Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Norbury, J. W.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Quantum mechanical optical potential methods for calculating inclusive isotope and element production cross sections from the fragmenting of heavy nuclei by intermediate- and high-energy protons and heavy ions are presented based upon a modified abrasion-ablation-FSI (frictional spectator interaction) collision model. The abrasion stage is treated as a quantum mechanical knockout process that leaves the residual prefragment in an excited state. Prefragment excitation energies are estimated using a combined liquid drop and FSI method. In ablation the prefragment deexcites by particle and photon emission to produce the final fragment. Contributions from electromagnetic dissociation to single nucleon removal cross sections are incorporated using a Weiszacker-Williams theory that includes electric dipole and electric quadrupole interactions. Estimates of elemental and isotopic production cross sections are in good agreement with published cross section measurements for a variety of projectile-target-beam energy combinations.

  5. Angular-anisotropy coefficients for fragment originating from the resonance-neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U oriented nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Tambovtsev, D. I.

    2008-04-15

    Statistical distributions of the coefficients measured for the angular distribution of fragments originating from the fission of {sup 235}U oriented nuclei that was induced by resonance neutrons obtained by using booster targets at the electron accelerator in Harwell and at a pulsed reactor in Dubna were approximated by a curve that was calculated under the assumption of a normal distribution of partial-wave fission amplitudes. A cutoff from below at a level of one-half of the average partial-wave width was introduced in this distribution. The calculation was performed with allowance for the K = 0, 1 and 2 channels for J = 3 and the K = 1 and 2 channels for J =4. The contributions of the K channels to the total probability were in the ratio 0.15 : 0.53 : 0.32 for J = 3 and in the ratio 0.625 : 0.375 for J = 4. A strong suppression of the K = 0 channel in the J = 3 spin subsystem in contrast to the situation observed in photofission can be interpreted as an indication of the possible partial conservation of K in resonance states formed from the entrance channel, which features only maximum values of K equal to J and J - 1.

  6. A T-matrix theory of galactic heavy-ion fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Deutchman, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of galactic heavy ion fragmentation is furthered by incorporating a T matrix approach into the description of the three step process of abrasion, ablation, and final state interations. The connection between this T matrix and the interaction potential is derived. For resonant states, the substitution of complex energies for real energies in the transition rate is formerly justified for up to third order processes. The previously developed abrasion-ablation fragmentation theory is rederived from first principles and is shown to result from time ordering, classical probability, and zero width resonance approximations. Improvements in the accuracy of the total fragmentation cross sections require an alternative to the latter two approximations. A Lorentz invariant differential abrasion-ablation cross section is derived which explicitly includes the previously derived abrasion total cross sections. It is demonstrated that spectral and angular distributions can be obtained from the general Lorentz invariant form.

  7. Cluster ion emission from LiF induced by MeV Nq+ projectiles and 252Cf fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijazi, H.; Farenzena, L. S.; Rothard, H.; Boduch, Ph.; Grande, P. L.; da Silveira, E. F.

    2011-08-01

    Ion cluster desorption yields from LiF were measured at PUC-Rio with ≈0.1 MeV/u N q+ ( q = 2,4,5,6) ion beams by means of a time-of-fight (TOF) mass spectrometer. A 252Cf source mounted in the irradiation chamber allows immediate comparison of cluster emissions induced by ≈65 MeV fission fragments (FF). Emission of (LiF) n Li+ clusters are observed for both the N beams and the 252Cf fission fragments. The observed cluster size n varies from 1 to 6 for N q+ projectiles and from 1 to ≈40 for the 252Cf-FF. The size dependence of the Y( n) distributions suggests two cluster formation regimes: (i) recombination process in the outgoing gas phase after impact and (ii) emission of pre-formed clusters from the periphery of the impact site. The corresponding distribution of ejected negative cluster ions (LiF) n F- closely resembles that of the positive secondary (LiF) n Li+ ions. The desorption yields of positive ions scale as Y( n) ˜ q 5. A calculation with the CASP code shows that this corresponds to a cubic scaling ˜S{/e 3} with the electronic stopping power S e , as predicted by collective shock wave models for sputtering and models involving multiple excitons (Frenkel pair sputtering). We discuss possible interpretations of the functional dependence of the evolution of the cluster emission yield Y( n) with cluster size n, fitted by a number of statistical distributions.

  8. The Processes of Fusion-Fission and Quasi-Fission of Superheavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, M. G.; Bogachev, A. A.; Itkis, I. M.; Kliman, J.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Prokhorova, E. V.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Behera, B. R.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Latina, A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Szilner, S.; Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Trotta, M.; Bouchat, V.; Hanappe, F.; Materna, T.; Dorvaux, O.; Rowley, N.; Schmitt, C.; Stuttge, L.

    2008-11-01

    Results of the experiments aimed at the study of fission and quasi-fission processes in the reactions 48Ca + 144,154Sm, 168Er, 208Pb, 238U, 244Pu, 248Cm; 50Ti + 208Pb, 244Pu; 58Fe + 208Pb, 244Pu, 248Cm, and 64Ni + 186W, 242Pu leading to the formation of heavy and super-heavy systems with Z = 82-122 are presented. Cross sections, mass-energy and angular distributions for fission and quasi-fission fragments have been studied at energies close and below the Coulomb barrier. The influence of the reaction entrance channel properties such as mass asymmetry, deformations, neutron excess, shell effects in the interacting nuclei and producing compound nucleus, the mechanism of the fusion-fission and the competitive process of quasi-fission are discussed.

  9. Energy dependence of the probability for asymmetric fission of /sup 213/At

    SciTech Connect

    Gruzintsev, E.N.; Itkis, M.G.; Okolovich, V.N.; Rusanov, A.Y.; Smirenkin, G.N.; Tolstikov, V.N.

    1982-10-20

    The mass distribution of the fragments of the fission of /sup 213/At in the reaction /sup 209/Bi(..cap alpha.., f) has been measured for ..cap alpha.. energies in the range 34.7--50 MeV. Over the entire energy range studied, the asymmetric mode is an improbable, slightly energy-dependent mode for the /sup 213/At fission. This property of the /sup 213/At fission represents a qualitative distinction from the fission of heavy nuclei.

  10. Fragment-mass distributions in neutron-induced fission of Th232 and U238 at 33, 45, and 60 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, I. V.; Yavshits, S. G.; Tutin, G. A.; Kovalev, N. V.; Saulski, A. V.; Kudryashev, N. A.; Onegin, M. S.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Grudzevich, O. T.; Simutkin, V. D.; Pomp, S.; Blomgren, J.; Österlund, M.; Andersson, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Meulders, J. P.; Prieels, R.

    2011-05-01

    We have measured fission fragment-mass yields for neutron-induced fission of Th232 and U238 at energies 32.8, 45.3, and 59.9 MeV. The experiments were done at quasimonoenergetic neutron beams of the Cyclotron Research Center at Louvain-la-Neuve. To detect the fission fragments, a multisection Frisch-gridded ionization chamber was used. The measurement and data analysis techniques are discussed in detail. The obtained mass yields are compared to model calculations with the intermediate-energy nuclear reaction code MCFX. The MCFX code is used to calculate the fraction of fissioning nuclei after cascade, preequilibrium, and statistical reaction stages. The formation of mass distributions is considered as a result of oscillations of the mass-asymmetry degree of freedom in the potential well calculated with the temperature-dependent shell correction method. The experimental results as well as the results of the model calculations demonstrate that the probability of symmetric fission increases with incident neutron energy for both nuclei. The comparison also shows that the symmetric fission is more enhanced for thorium than for uranium with increasing neutron energy. We also compare U238 results with available experimental data; the Th232 data were measured for the first time.

  11. Total Absorption Spectroscopy of Fission Fragments Relevant for Reactor Antineutrino Spectra and Decay Heat Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porta, A.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.; Fallot, M.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Valencia, E.; Rice, S.; Bui, V. M.; Cormon, S.; Estienne, M.; Agramunt, J.; Äystö, J.; Bowry, M.; Briz, J. A.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cucouanes, A.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Estévez, E.; Farrelly, G. F.; Garcia, A. R.; Gelletly, W.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gorlychev, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Jordan, M. D.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Kondev, F. G.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Molina, F.; Moore, I.; Perez-Cerdán, A. B.; Podolyák, Zs.; Penttilä, H.; Regan, P. H.; Reponen, M.; Rissanen, J.; Rubio, B.; Shiba, T.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Weber, C.

    2016-03-01

    Beta decay of fission products is at the origin of decay heat and antineutrino emission in nuclear reactors. Decay heat represents about 7% of the reactor power during operation and strongly impacts reactor safety. Reactor antineutrino detection is used in several fundamental neutrino physics experiments and it can also be used for reactor monitoring and non-proliferation purposes. 92,93Rb are two fission products of importance in reactor antineutrino spectra and decay heat, but their β-decay properties are not well known. New measurements of 92,93Rb β-decay properties have been performed at the IGISOL facility (Jyväskylä, Finland) using Total Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS). TAS is complementary to techniques based on Germanium detectors. It implies the use of a calorimeter to measure the total gamma intensity de-exciting each level in the daughter nucleus providing a direct measurement of the beta feeding. In these proceedings we present preliminary results for 93Rb, our measured beta feedings for 92Rb and we show the impact of these results on reactor antineutrino spectra and decay heat calculations.

  12. Fission fragment angular distributions in the reactions {sup 16}O+{sup 188}Os and {sup 28}Si+{sup 176}Yb

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Sharma, S. K.; Reddy, A. V. R.; Pujari, P. K.; Goswami, A.; Ramachandran, K.

    2009-06-15

    Fission fragment angular distributions have been measured in the reactions {sup 16}O+{sup 188}Os and {sup 28}Si+{sup 176}Yb to investigate the contribution from noncompound nucleus fission. Parameters for statistical model calculations were fixed using fission cross section data in the {sup 16}O+{sup 188}Os reaction. Experimental anisotropies were in reasonable agreement with those calculated using the statistical saddle point model for both reactions. The present results are also consistent with those of mass distribution studies in the fission of {sup 202}Po, formed in the reactions with varying entrance channel mass asymmetry. However, the present studies do not show a large fusion hindrance as reported in the pre-actinide region based on the measurement of evaporation residue cross section.

  13. Investigation of the fission fragment properties of the reaction 238U(n,f) at incident neutron energies up to 5.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivès, F.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Bax, H.; Oberstedt, S.

    2000-01-01

    The fission fragment properties of the reaction 238U(n,f) have been studied, at different incident neutron energies ranging from En=1.2 to 5.8 MeV. The pre-neutron emission mass, kinetic energy and fission fragment angular distributions have been investigated with a double Frisch-gridded ionization chamber. The influence of the subthreshold vibrational resonances and of the proton pairing effect on the fission fragment properties is clearly visible. The total kinetic energy averaged over all fission fragment masses ( overlineTKE) shows an increasing trend up to En=3.5 MeV with a sudden drop at roughly En=3.8 MeV which has been attributed to the onset of pair breaking at the barrier. Above En=3.8 MeV, the overlineTKE is again continuously increasing. The changes in the mass yield and overlineTKE( A) distributions have been studied as a function of the compound nuclear excitation energy and their contribution to the observed variations in the overlineTKE have been determined. The two-dimensional mass-TKE distributions have been described in terms of fission modes and compared with theoretical calculations performed recently in the frame of the multi-modal random neck-rupture model. Although theoretically six asymmetric fission modes are predicted which all surpass individual outer barriers, an interpretation in terms of only two asymmetric modes has physical meaning. This points to an influence of shell structure effects to the observed distributions. In any case, the super-long symmetric mode has to be included, in order to explain the dip in overlineTKE( A) distribution close to symmetry.

  14. Fission and quasifission modes in heavy-ion-induced reactions leading to the formation of Hs{sup *}

    SciTech Connect

    Itkis, I. M.; Kozulin, E. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Bogachev, A. A.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Krupa, L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Goennenwein, F.; Dorvaux, O.; Stuttge, L.; Hanappe, F.; Vardaci, E.; Goes Brennand, E. de

    2011-06-15

    Mass and energy distributions of binary reaction products obtained in the reactions {sup 22}Ne+{sup 249}Cf,{sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U, and {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb have been measured. All reactions lead to Hs isotopes. At energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of Hs{sup *}, formed in the reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, is observed. In the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U, leading to the formation of a similar compound nucleus, the main part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasifission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier fusion-fission is the main process leading to the formation of symmetric fragments for both reactions with Mg and S ions. In the case of the {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb reaction the quasifission process dominates at all measured energies.

  15. Final report: Accelerated beta decay for disposal of fission fragment wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, Howard R.

    2000-03-06

    The fundamental theory of the interaction of intense, low-frequency electromagnetic fields with certain radioactive nuclei has been fully formulated. The nuclei are of the type that exists in high-level radioactive wastes that are end products of the production of energy from nuclear fission. The basic physical mechanisms that underlie the coupling of the applied field to the nucleus have been identified. Both the basic theory and numerical predictions that stem from it support the conclusion that high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of by substantially accelerating the rate of radioactive decay. Some old experiments on the acceleration of this type of radioactivity, with results that were not understood at the time, have been re-examined. Their interpretation is now clear, and the experiments are found to be in agreement with the theory.

  16. New statistical scission-point model to predict fission fragment observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Panebianco, Stefano; Sida, Jean-Luc; Hilaire, Stéphane; Heinrich, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The development of high performance computing facilities makes possible a massive production of nuclear data in a full microscopic framework. Taking advantage of the individual potential calculations of more than 7000 nuclei, a new statistical scission-point model, called SPY, has been developed. It gives access to the absolute available energy at the scission point, which allows the use of a parameter-free microcanonical statistical description to calculate the distributions and the mean values of all fission observables. SPY uses the richness of microscopy in a rather simple theoretical framework, without any parameter except the scission-point definition, to draw clear answers based on perfect knowledge of the ingredients involved in the model, with very limited computing cost.

  17. Prompt {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of the {sup 104}Mo and {sup 108}Mo fission fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Guessous, A.; Schulz, N.; Bentaleb, M.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Durell, J.L.; Pearson, C.J.; Phillips, W.R.; Shannon, J.A.; Urban, W.; Varley, B.J.; Ahmad, I.; Lister, C.J.; Morss, L.R.; Nash, K.L.; Williams, C.W.; Khazrouni, S.

    1996-03-01

    The level structures of the neutron-rich {sup 104}Mo and {sup 108}Mo nuclei have been investigated by observing prompt {gamma} rays emitted in the spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm with the EUROGAM spectrometer. Levels with spins up to 12{h_bar} have been observed and {gamma} branching obtained. The data can be satisfactorily described when {sup 104,108}Mo are considered as axially symmetric nuclei: in {sup 104}Mo, rotational bands based on the ground state, the one-phonon and the two-phonon {gamma}-vibrational states and a quasiparticle state have been observed, whereas in {sup 108}Mo the information is limited to the yrast band and the one phonon {gamma} band. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. Realistic fission model and the r-process in neutron star mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Shibagaki, S.; Kajino, T.; Chiba, S.; Mathews, G. J.

    2014-05-09

    About half of heavy elements are considered to be produced by the rapid neutron-capture process, r-process. The neutron star merger is one of the viable candidates for the astrophysical site of r-process nucleosynthesis. Nuclear fission reactions play an important role in the r-process of neutron star mergers. However theoretical predictions about fission properties of neutron-rich nuclei have some uncertainties. Especially, their fission fragment distributions are totally unknown and the phenomenologically extrapolated distribution was often applied to nucleosynthesis calculations. In this study, we have carried out r-process nucleosynthesis calculations based upon new theoretical estimates of fission fragment distributions. We discuss the effects on the r-process in neutron star mergers from the nuclear fission of heavy neutron-rich actinide elements. We also discuss how variations in the fission fragment distributions affect the abundance pattern.

  19. Heavy metal tolerance in the fission yeast requires an ATP-binding cassette-type vacuolar membrane transporter.

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, D F; Kreppel, L; Speiser, D M; Scheel, G; McDonald, G; Ow, D W

    1992-01-01

    In response to heavy metal stress, plants and certain fungi, such as the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, synthesize small metal-binding peptides known as phytochelatins. We have identified a cadmium sensitive S. pombe mutant deficient in the accumulation of a sulfide-containing phytochelatin-cadmium complex, and have isolated the gene, designated hmt1, that complements this mutant. The deduced protein sequence of the hmt1 gene product shares sequence identity with the family of ABC (ATP-binding cassette)-type transport proteins which includes the mammalian P-glycoproteins and CFTR, suggesting that the encoded product is an integral membrane protein. Analysis of fractionated fission yeast cell components indicates that the HMT1 polypeptide is associated with the vacuolar membrane. Additionally, fission yeast strains harboring an hmt1-expressing multicopy plasmid exhibit enhanced metal tolerance along with a higher intracellular level of cadmium, implying a relationship between HMT1 mediated transport and compartmentalization of heavy metals. This suggests that tissue-specific overproduction of a functional hmt1 product in transgenic plants might be a means to alter the tissue localization of these elements, such as for sequestering heavy metals away from consumable parts of crop plants. Images PMID:1396551

  20. A modular solid state detector for measuring high energy heavy ion fragmentation near the beam axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C. J.; Frankel, K. A.; Gong, W.; Heilbronn, L.; Lampo, E. J.; Leres, R.; Miller, J.; Schimmerling, W.

    1994-01-01

    A multi-element solid state detector has been designed to measure fluences of fragments produced near the beam axis by high energy heavy ion beams in thick targets. The detector is compact and modular, so as to be readily reconfigured according to the range of fragment charges and energies to be measured. Preamplifier gain settings and detector calibrations are adjustable remotely under computer control. We describe the central detector, its associated detectors and electronics, triggering scheme, data acquisition and particle identification techniques, illustrated by data taken with 600 MeV/u 56Fe beams and thick polyethylene targets at the LBL Bevalac. The applications of this work to space radiation protection are discussed.

  1. Clusterization in Ternary Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamanin, D. V.; Pyatkov, Y. V.

    This lecture notes are devoted to the new kind of ternary decay of low excited heavy nuclei called by us "collinear cluster tri-partition" (CCT) due to the features of the effect observed, namely, decay partners fly away almost collinearly and at least one of them has magic nucleon composition. At the early stage of our work the process of "true ternary fission" (fission of the nucleus into three fragments of comparable masses) was considered to be undiscovered for low excited heavy nuclei. Another possible prototype—three body cluster radioactivity—was also unknown. The most close to the CCT phenomenon, at least cinematically, stands so called "polar emission", but only very light ions (up to isotopes of Be) were observed so far.

  2. Nuclear fragmentation energy and momentum transfer distributions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of energy and momentum transfer in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. Transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers to the projectile are shown to arise from the real and absorptive part of the optical potential, respectively. Comparisons of fragment momentum distribution observables with experiments are made and trends outlined based on our knowledge of the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. Corrections to the above calculations are discussed. Finally, use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is indicated.

  3. Dynamical Aspects of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliman, J.; Itkis, M. G.; Gmuca, Š.

    2008-11-01

    Fission dynamics. Dependence of scission-neutron yield on light-fragment mass for [symbol]=1/2 [et al.]. Dynamics of capture quasifission and fusion-fission competition / L. Stuttgé ... [et al.] -- Fission-fission. The processes of fusion-fission and quasi-fission of superheavy nuclei / M. G. Itkis ... [et al.]. Fission and quasifission in the reactions [symbol]Ca+[symbol]Pb and [symbol]Ni+[symbol]W / G. N. Knyazheva ... [et al.]. Mass-energy characteristics of reactions [symbol]Fe+[symbol][symbol][symbol]266Hs and [symbol]Mg+[symbol]Cm[symbol][symbol]Hs at Coulomb barrier / L. Krupa ... [et al.]. Fusion of heavy ions at extreme sub-barrier energies / Ş. Mişicu and H. Esbensen. Fusion and fission dynamics of heavy nuclear system / V. Zagrebaev and W. Greiner. Time-dependent potential energy for fusion and fission processes / A. V. Karpov ... [et al.] -- Superheavy elements. Advances in the understanding of structure and production mechanisms for superheavy elements / W. Greiner and V. Zagrebaev. Fission barriers of heaviest nuclei / A. Sobiczewski ... [et al.]. Possibility of synthesizing doubly magic superheavy nuclei / Y Aritomo ... [et al.]. Synthesis of superheavy nuclei in [symbol]Ca-induced reactions / V. K. Utyonkov ... [et al.] -- Fragmentation. Production of neutron-rich nuclei in the nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy / M. Veselský. Signals of enlarged core in [symbol]Al / Y. G. Ma ... [et al.] -- Exotic modes. New insight into the fission process from experiments with relativistic heavy-ion beams / K.-H. Schmidt ... [et al.]. New results for the intensity of bimodal fission in binary and ternary spontaneous fission of [symbol]Cf / C. Goodin ... [et al.]. Rare fission modes: study of multi-cluster decays of actinide nuclei / D. V. Kamanin ... [et al.]. Energy distribution of ternary [symbol]-particles in [symbol]Cf(sf) / M. Mutterer ... [et al.]. Preliminary results of experiment aimed at searching for collinear cluster tripartition of

  4. Calculation of Beta Decay Half-Lives and Delayed Neutron Branching Ratio of Fission Fragments with Skyrme-QRPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minato, Futoshi

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear β-decay and delayed neutron (DN) emission is important for the r-process nucleosynthesis after the freeze-out, and stable and safe operation of nuclear reactors. Even though radioactive beam facilities have enabled us to measure β-decay and branching ratio of neutron-rich nuclei apart from the stability line in the nuclear chart, there are still a lot of nuclei which one cannot investigate experimentally. In particular, information on DN is rather scarce than that of T1/2. To predict T1/2 and the branching ratios of DN for next JENDL decay data, we have developed a method which comprises the quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation (QRPA) and the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model (HFSM). In this work, we calculate fission fragments with T1/2 ≤ 50 sec. We obtain the rms deviation from experimental half-life of 3:71. Although the result is still worse than GT2 which has been adopted in JENDL decay data, DN spectra are newly calculated. We also discuss further subjects to be done in future for improving the present approach and making next generation of JENDL decay data.

  5. Heavy flavor puzzle at LHC: a serendipitous interplay of jet suppression and fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2014-01-31

    Both charged hadrons and D mesons are considered to be excellent probes of QCD matter created in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. Surprisingly, recent experimental observations at LHC show the same jet suppression for these two probes, which--contrary to pQCD expectations--may suggest similar energy losses for light quarks and gluons in the QCD medium. We here use our recently developed energy loss formalism in a finite-size dynamical QCD medium to analyze this phenomenon that we denote as the "heavy flavor puzzle at LHC." We show that this puzzle is a consequence of an unusual combination of the suppression and fragmentation patterns and, in fact, does not require invoking the same energy loss for light partons. Furthermore, we show that this combination leads to a simple relationship between the suppressions of charged hadrons and D mesons and the corresponding bare quark suppressions. Consequently, a coincidental matching of jet suppression and fragmentation allows considerably simplifying the interpretation of the corresponding experimental data. PMID:24580442

  6. Fragmentation of DNA components by hyperthermal heavy ion (Ar+ and Xe+) impact in the condensed phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Sarvenaz Sarabipour, Ms; Michaud, Marc; Deng, Zongwu; Huels, Michael A.

    The overriding environmental factor that presently limits human endeavors in space is exposure to heavy ion radiation. While knowledge of its damage to living tissue is essential for radiation protection and risk estimates for astronauts, very little data exists at the molecular level regarding the nascent DNA damage by the primary particle track, or by secondary species during subsequent reaction cascades. This persistent lack of a basic understanding of nascent damage induced by such low dose, high LET radiation, introduces unacceptable errors in radiation risk estimates (based mainly on extrapolation from high dose, low LET radiation), particularly for long term exposure. Mutagenic effects induced by heavy ion radiation to cells are largely due to DNA damage by secondary transient species, i.e. secondary ballistic ions, electrons and radicals generated along the ion tracks; the secondary ions have hyperthermal energies up to several 100 eV, which they will deposit within a few nm in the surrounding medium; thus their LET is very high, and yields lethal clustered DNA lesions. We present measurements of molecular damage induced in films of DNA components by ions with precisely such low energies (1-100 eV) and compare results to conventional electron impact measurements. Experiments are conducted in UHV using a mass selected low energy ion source, and a high-resolution quadrupole MS to monitor ion yields desorbing from molecular films. Among the major fragments, NH4 + is identified in the desorption mass spectra of irradiated films of Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, indicating efficient deamination; in cells this results in pre-mutagenic lesions. Experiments with 5-amino-Uracil, and comparison to previous results on uracil and thymine show that deamination is a key step in the NH4 + fragment formation. For Adenine, we also observe formation of amine aducts in the films, viz. amination of Adenine, and global fragmentation in all ion impact mass spectra, attributed

  7. An abrasion-ablation model description of galactic heavy-ion fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    1984-01-01

    The fragmentation of high-energy galactic heavy ions by nuclear interactions with arbitrary target nuclei is described within the context of a simple abrasion-ablation fragmentation model. The abrasion part of the theory utilizes a quantum-mechanical formalism based upon an optical model potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series. Nuclear charge distributions of the excited prefragments are calculated using either a hypergeometric distribution or a method based upon the zero-point oscillations of the giant dipole resonance. The excitation energy of the prefragment is estimated from the geometric clean-cut abrasion-ablation model. The decay probabilities for the various particle emission channels, in the ablation stage of the fragmentation, are obtained from the EVAP-4 Monte Carlo computer program. Elemental production cross sections for 1.88-GeV/nucleon iron colliding with carbon, silver, and lead targets are calculated and compared with experimental data and with the predictions from the semiempirical relations of Silberberg and Tsao.

  8. Effects of Neutron Emission on Fragment Mass and Kinetic Energy Distribution from Thermal Neutron-Induced Fission of {sup 235}U

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J.; Saetone, E.

    2007-10-26

    The mass and kinetic energy distribution of nuclear fragments from thermal neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f) have been studied using a Monte-Carlo simulation. Besides reproducing the pronounced broadening in the standard deviation of the kinetic energy at the final fragment mass number around m = 109, our simulation also produces a second broadening around m = 125. These results are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained by Belhafaf et al. and other results on yield of mass. We conclude that the obtained results are a consequence of the characteristics of the neutron emission, the sharp variation in the primary fragment kinetic energy and mass yield curves. We show that because neutron emission is hazardous to make any conclusion on primary quantities distribution of fragments from experimental results on final quantities distributions.

  9. New results from isochronous mass measurements of neutron-rich uranium fission fragments with the FRS-ESR-facility at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knöbel, R.; Diwisch, M.; Geissel, H.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Patyk, Z.; Plaß, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sun, B.; Weick, H.; Bosch, F.; Boutin, D.; Chen, L.; Dimopoulou, C.; Dolinskii, A.; Franczak, B.; Franzke, B.; Hausmann, M.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, S. A.; Matoš, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Münzenberg, G.; Nakajima, S.; Nociforo, C.; Nolden, F.; Ohtsubo, T.; Ozawa, A.; Stadlmann, J.; Steck, M.; Suzuki, T.; Walker, P. M.; Winkler, M.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2016-05-01

    Masses of uranium fission fragments have been measured with the FRagment Separator (FRS) combined with the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI. A 410-415 MeV/u 238U projectile beam was fast extracted from the synchrotron SIS-18 with an average intensity of 109/spill. The projectiles were focused on a 1g/cm2 beryllium target at the entrance of the FRS to create neutron-rich isotopes via abrasion-fission. The fission fragments were spatially separated with the FRS and injected into the isochronous storage ring ESR for fast mass measurements without applying cooling. The Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) was performed under two different experimental conditions, with and without B ρ-tagging at the high-resolution dispersive central focal plane of the FRS. The evaluation has been done for the combined data sets from both experiments with a new method of data analysis. The use of a correlation matrix has provided experimental mass values for 23 different neutron-rich isotopes for the first time and 6 masses with improved values. The new masses were obtained for nuclides in the element range from Se to Ce. The applied analysis has given access even to rare isotopes detected with an intensity of a few atoms per week. The novel data analysis and systematic error determination are described and the results are compared with extrapolations of experimental values and theoretical models.

  10. Enhanced trigger for the NIFFTE fissionTPC in presence of high-rate alpha backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundgaard, Jeremy; Niffte Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear physics and nuclear energy communities call for new, high precision measurements to improve existing fission models and design next generation reactors. The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking experiment (NIFFTE) has developed the fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) to measure neutron induced fission with unrivaled precision. The fissionTPC is annually deployed to the Weapons Neutron Research facility at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center where it operates with a neutron beam passing axially through the drift volume, irradiating heavy actinide targets to induce fission. The fissionTPC was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's TPC lab, where it measures spontaneous fission from radioactive sources to characterize detector response, improve performance, and evolve the design. To measure 244Cm, we've developed a fission trigger to reduce the data rate from alpha tracks while maintaining a high fission detection efficiency. In beam, alphas from 239Pu are a large background when detecting fission fragments; implementing the fission trigger will greatly reduce this background. The implementation of the cathode fission trigger in the fissionTPC will be presented along with a detailed study of its efficiency.

  11. Fission dynamics within time-dependent Hartree-Fock: Deformation-induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Philip; Stevenson, Paul; Rios, Arnau

    2015-11-01

    Background: Nuclear fission is a complex large-amplitude collective decay mode in heavy nuclei. Microscopic density functional studies of fission have previously concentrated on adiabatic approaches based on constrained static calculations ignoring dynamical excitations of the fissioning nucleus and the daughter products. Purpose: We explore the ability of dynamic mean-field methods to describe fast fission processes beyond the fission barrier, using the nuclide Pu240 as an example. Methods: Time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations based on the Skyrme interaction are used to calculate nonadiabatic fission paths, beginning from static constrained Hartree-Fock calculations. The properties of the dynamic states are interpreted in terms of the nature of their collective motion. Fission product properties are compared to data. Results: Parent nuclei constrained to begin dynamic evolution with a deformation less than the fission barrier exhibit giant-resonance-type behavior. Those beginning just beyond the barrier explore large-amplitude motion but do not fission, whereas those beginning beyond the two-fragment pathway crossing fission to final states which differ according to the exact initial deformation. Conclusions: Time-dependent Hartree-Fock is able to give a good qualitative and quantitative description of fast fission, provided one begins from a sufficiently deformed state.

  12. Fission foil detector calibrations with high energy protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Fission foil detectors (FFD's) are passive devices composed of heavy metal foils in contact with muscovite mica films. The heavy metal nuclei have significant cross sections for fission when irradiated with neutrons and protons. Each isotope is characterized by threshold energies for the fission reactions and particular energy-dependent cross sections. In the FFD's, fission fragments produced by the reactions are emitted from the foils and create latent particle tracks in the adjacent mica films. When the films are processed surface tracks are formed which can be optically counted. The track densities are indications of the fluences and spectra of neutrons and/or protons. In the past, detection efficiencies have been calculated using the low energy neutron calibrated dosimeters and published fission cross sections for neutrons and protons. The problem is that the addition of a large kinetic energy to the (n,nucleus) or (p,nucleus) reaction could increase the energies and ranges of emitted fission fragments and increase the detector sensitivity as compared with lower energy neutron calibrations. High energy calibrations are the only method of resolving the uncertainties in detector efficiencies. At high energies, either proton or neutron calibrations are sufficient since the cross section data show that the proton and neutron fission cross sections are approximately equal. High energy proton beams have been utilized (1.8 and 4.9 GeV, 80 and 140 MeV) for measuring the tracks of fission fragments emitted backward and forward.

  13. Novel apparatus to measure hyperthermal heavy ion damage to DNA: Strand breaks, base loss, and fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Sellami, L.; Lacombe, S.; Hunting, D.; Wagner, R. J.; Huels, M. A.

    2007-08-15

    We have developed a novel apparatus that allows us to irradiate nonvolatile organic films of high mass (1-100 {mu}g range) spread out over a large surface area (42 cm{sup 2}) with low energy (kT-100 eV) heavy ions and to quantitatively analyze the film substance via standard biochemical techniques afterwards. Here we discuss the details of the apparatus and method and show that it allows us to measure substantial damage to double stranded DNA molecules (plasmids) and its fundamental subunits induced by heavy ions with unprecedented low energies, i.e., 2.5 eV/amu; these energies correspond to track end energies of stopping ions or secondary ions created along primary ion tracks. We find that hyperthermal Ar{sup +} ions interacting with plasmid DNA will lead to the formation of single and double strand breaks, as well as fragmentation of nucleosides, which also involve chemical modifications and site specific rupture along the N1-C1 glycosidic bond, resulting in base release. In cells, such localized clustered damage will enhance the severity of DNA strand lesions, thus making them harder to repair.

  14. Prospects for further studies of effects of T-odd asymmetry in the emission of light particles in the polarized-neutron-induced ternary fission of heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, G. A.; Gagarskii, A. M.; Guseva, I. S.; Kopatch, Yu. N.; Gönnenwein, F.; Mutterer, M.

    2008-07-01

    Prospects for further studies of TRI and ROT effects of T-odd asymmetry in the emission of light particles in the ternary and binary fission of heavy nuclei that is induced by slow polarized neutrons are considered with a view to studying the mechanism for the formation of these effects and using them to get new information about fission dynamics. It is planned to investigate the dependence of the corresponding T-odd-asymmetry coefficients on the main characteristics of the fission reaction.

  15. Preferred Modes of Decay in Nuclear Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda, Alfredo; López, Jorge A.; Wu, Zehua

    1997-04-01

    Recent experiments show a characteristic energy dependence of the different fragmentation modes in heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies. In this work we study this effect and find that, in nuclear fragmentation, like in binary fission, some modes of decay are more probable than the rest. We argue that these high probability mass partitions are ultimately responsible for the observed energy dependence. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation grant PHY-9600038 and Artemio de la Vega Foundation.

  16. Isotopic dependence of the cross section for the induced fission of heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bolgova, O. N.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.; Ivanova, S. P.; Scheid, W.

    2009-06-15

    The cross sections for the induced fission of {sup 211-223}Ra, {sup 203-211}Rn, and {sup 221-231}Th nuclei undergoing peripheral collisions with {sup 208}Pb nuclei are calculated on the basis of the statistical model. The role of the N = 126 neutron shell is studied. The level density in excited nuclei is determined within the Fermi gas model and a model that takes into account the collective enhancement of the level density. The inclusion of a particle-hole excitation in addition to a collective Coulomb excitation makes it possible to obtain a satisfactory description of experimental cross sections for the fission of radium isotopes. The calculated ratios of the cross sections for the induced fission of {sup 236}U ({sup 237}U) and {sup 238}U ({sup 239}U) nuclei agree with experimental data.

  17. Fission barriers for Po nuclei produced in complete fusion reactions with heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sagaidak, R. N.; Andreyev, A. N.

    2009-05-15

    Evaporation residues and fission excitation functions obtained in complete fusion reactions leading to Po compound nuclei have been analyzed in the framework of the standard statistical model. Macroscopic fission barriers deduced from the cross-section data analysis are compared with the predictions of various theoretical models and available data. A drop in the Po barriers with the decrease in a neutron number was found, which is stronger than predicted by any theory. The presence of entrance channel effects and collective excitations in the compound nucleus decay is considered as a possible reason for the barrier reduction.

  18. Angular momentum effects in multimodal fission of {sup 226}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Chubarian, G. G.; Hurst, B. J.; O'Kelly, D.; Schmitt, R. P.; Itkis, M. G.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pashkevich, V. V.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Salamatin, V. S.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Calabretta, L.; Maiolino, C.; Lukashin, K.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Hanappe, F.; Liatard, E.; Huck, A.

    1998-12-21

    The {gamma}-rays from the multimodal fission of the {sup 226}Th formed in {sup 18}O+{sup 208}Pb was investigated at the near- and sub-barrier energies. The corresponding excitation energies at the saddle point, E{sub sp}*, ranged from 23 to 26 MeV. The average {gamma}-ray multiplicities and relative {gamma}-ray energies as a function of the mass of the fission fragments exhibits a complex structure and strong variations. Such strong variations have never been previously observed in heavy ion-induced fusion-fission reactions. Obtained results may be explained with the influence of shell effects on the properties of the fission fragments. Present work is the one in series of investigation of the multimodal fission phenomena in At-Th region.

  19. Angular momentum effects in multimodal fission of {sup 226}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Chubarian, G.G.; Hurst, B.J.; OKelly, D.; Schmitt, R.P.; Itkis, M.G.; Kondratiev, N.A.; Kozulin, E.M.; Oganessian, Y.T.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Pokrovsky, I.V.; Salamatin, V.S.; Rusanov, A.Y.; Calabretta, L.; Maiolino, C.; Lukashin, K.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Hanappe, F.; Liatard, E.; Huck, A.; Stuttge, L.

    1998-12-01

    The {gamma}-rays from the multimodal fission of the {sup 226}Th formed in {sup 18}O+{sup 208}Pb was investigated at the near- and sub-barrier energies. The corresponding excitation energies at the saddle point, E{sub sp}{sup {asterisk}}, ranged from 23 to 26 MeV. The average {gamma}-ray multiplicities and relative {gamma}-ray energies as a function of the mass of the fission fragments exhibits a complex structure and strong variations. Such strong variations have never been previously observed in heavy ion-induced fusion-fission reactions. Obtained results may be explained with the influence of shell effects on the properties of the fission fragments. Present work is the one in series of investigation of the multimodal fission phenomena in At-Th region. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Fission Mode Influence on Prompt Neutrons and γ-rays Emitted in the Reaction 239Pu(nth,f)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serot, O.; Litaize, O.; Regnier, D.

    Recently, a Monte-Carlo code, which simulates the fission fragment de-excitation process, has been developed at CEA- Cadarache. Our aim is to get a tool capable to predict spectra and multiplicities of prompt particles (neutron and gamma) and to investigate possible correlations between fission observables. One of the main challenges is to define properly the share of the available excitation energy at scission between the two nascent fission fragments. Initially, after the full acceleration of the fission fragments, these excitation energies were treated within a Fermi-gas approximation in aT2 (where a and T stand for the level density parameter and the nuclear temperature) and a mass dependent law of the temperature ratio (RT=TL/TH, with TL and TH the temperature of the light and heavy fragment) has been proposed. With this RT-law, the main fission observables of the 252Cf(sf) could be reproduced. Here, in order to take into account the fission modes by which the fissioning nucleus undergoes to fission, we have adopted a specific RT-law for each fission mode. For actinides, the main fission modes are called Standard I, Standard II and Super Long (following Brosa's terminology). This new procedure has been applied in the case of the thermal neutron induced fission of 239Pu, reaction for which fission modes are rather well known.

  1. A method to calculate fission-fragment yields Y(Z,N) versus proton and neutron number in the Brownian shape-motion model

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, Peter; Ichikawa, Takatoshi

    2015-12-23

    In this study, we propose a method to calculate the two-dimensional (2D) fission-fragment yield Y(Z,N) versus both proton and neutron number, with inclusion of odd-even staggering effects in both variables. The approach is to use the Brownian shape-motion on a macroscopic-microscopic potential-energy surface which, for a particular compound system is calculated versus four shape variables: elongation (quadrupole moment Q2), neck d, left nascent fragment spheroidal deformation ϵf1, right nascent fragment deformation ϵf2 and two asymmetry variables, namely proton and neutron numbers in each of the two fragments. The extension of previous models 1) introduces a method to calculate this generalized potential-energy function and 2) allows the correlated transfer of nucleon pairs in one step, in addition to sequential transfer. In the previous version the potential energy was calculated as a function of Z and N of the compound system and its shape, including the asymmetry of the shape. We outline here how to generalize the model from the “compound-system” model to a model where the emerging fragment proton and neutron numbers also enter, over and above the compound system composition.

  2. A method to calculate fission-fragment yields Y(Z,N) versus proton and neutron number in the Brownian shape-motion model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moller, Peter; Ichikawa, Takatoshi

    2015-12-23

    In this study, we propose a method to calculate the two-dimensional (2D) fission-fragment yield Y(Z,N) versus both proton and neutron number, with inclusion of odd-even staggering effects in both variables. The approach is to use the Brownian shape-motion on a macroscopic-microscopic potential-energy surface which, for a particular compound system is calculated versus four shape variables: elongation (quadrupole moment Q2), neck d, left nascent fragment spheroidal deformation ϵf1, right nascent fragment deformation ϵf2 and two asymmetry variables, namely proton and neutron numbers in each of the two fragments. The extension of previous models 1) introduces a method to calculate this generalizedmore » potential-energy function and 2) allows the correlated transfer of nucleon pairs in one step, in addition to sequential transfer. In the previous version the potential energy was calculated as a function of Z and N of the compound system and its shape, including the asymmetry of the shape. We outline here how to generalize the model from the “compound-system” model to a model where the emerging fragment proton and neutron numbers also enter, over and above the compound system composition.« less

  3. Fission dynamics within time-dependent Hartree-Fock. II. Boost-induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Philip; Stevenson, Paul; Rios, Arnau

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nuclear fission is a complex large-amplitude collective decay mode in heavy nuclei. Microscopic density functional studies of fission have previously concentrated on adiabatic approaches based on constrained static calculations ignoring dynamical excitations of the fissioning nucleus and the daughter products. Purpose: We explore the ability of dynamic mean-field methods to describe induced fission processes, using quadrupole boosts in the nuclide 240Pu as an example. Methods: Following upon the work presented in Goddard et al. [Phys. Rev. C 92, 054610 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.92.054610, quadrupole-constrained Hartree-Fock calculations are used to create a potential energy surface. An isomeric state and a state beyond the second barrier peak are excited by means of instantaneous as well as temporally extended gauge boosts with quadrupole shapes. The subsequent deexcitation is studied in a time-dependent Hartree-Fock simulation, with emphasis on fissioned final states. The corresponding fission fragment mass numbers are studied. Results: In general, the energy deposited by the quadrupole boost is quickly absorbed by the nucleus. In instantaneous boosts, this leads to fast shape rearrangements and violent dynamics that can ultimately lead to fission. This is a qualitatively different process than the deformation-induced fission. Boosts induced within a finite time window excite the system in a relatively gentler way and do induce fission but with a smaller energy deposition. Conclusions: The fission products obtained using boost-induced fission in time-dependent Hartree-Fock are more asymmetric than the fragments obtained in deformation-induced fission or the corresponding adiabatic approaches.

  4. Fission yield calculation using toy model based on Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jubaidah; Kurniadi, Rizal

    2015-09-30

    Toy model is a new approximation in predicting fission yield distribution. Toy model assumes nucleus as an elastic toy consist of marbles. The number of marbles represents the number of nucleons, A. This toy nucleus is able to imitate the real nucleus properties. In this research, the toy nucleons are only influenced by central force. A heavy toy nucleus induced by a toy nucleon will be split into two fragments. These two fission fragments are called fission yield. In this research, energy entanglement is neglected. Fission process in toy model is illustrated by two Gaussian curves intersecting each other. There are five Gaussian parameters used in this research. They are scission point of the two curves (R{sub c}), mean of left curve (μ{sub L}) and mean of right curve (μ{sub R}), deviation of left curve (σ{sub L}) and deviation of right curve (σ{sub R}). The fission yields distribution is analyses based on Monte Carlo simulation. The result shows that variation in σ or µ can significanly move the average frequency of asymmetry fission yields. This also varies the range of fission yields distribution probability. In addition, variation in iteration coefficient only change the frequency of fission yields. Monte Carlo simulation for fission yield calculation using toy model successfully indicates the same tendency with experiment results, where average of light fission yield is in the range of 90heavy fission yield is in about 135

  5. Compact fission counter for DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C Y; Chyzh, A; Kwan, E; Henderson, R; Gostic, J; Carter, D; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J

    2010-11-06

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) consists of 160 BF{sub 2} crystals with equal solid-angle coverage. DANCE is a 4{pi} {gamma}-ray calorimeter and designed to study the neutron-capture reactions on small quantities of radioactive and rare stable nuclei. These reactions are important for the radiochemistry applications and modeling the element production in stars. The recognition of capture event is made by the summed {gamma}-ray energy which is equivalent of the reaction Q-value and unique for a given capture reaction. For a selective group of actinides, where the neutron-induced fission reaction competes favorably with the neutron capture reaction, additional signature is needed to distinguish between fission and capture {gamma} rays for the DANCE measurement. This can be accomplished by introducing a detector system to tag fission fragments and thus establish a unique signature for the fission event. Once this system is implemented, one has the opportunity to study not only the capture but also fission reactions. A parallel-plate avalanche counter (PPAC) has many advantages for the detection of heavy charged particles such as fission fragments. These include fast timing, resistance to radiation damage, and tolerance of high counting rate. A PPAC also can be tuned to be insensitive to {alpha} particles, which is important for experiments with {alpha}-emitting actinides. Therefore, a PPAC is an ideal detector for experiments requiring a fast and clean trigger for fission. A PPAC with an ingenious design was fabricated in 2006 by integrating amplifiers into the target assembly. However, this counter was proved to be unsuitable for this application because of issues related to the stability of amplifiers and the ability to separate fission fragments from {alpha}'s. Therefore, a new design is needed. A LLNL proposal to develop a new PPAC for DANCE was funded by NA22 in FY09. The design goal is to minimize the mass for the proposed counter

  6. Dynamics of fragments and associated phenomena in heavy-ion collisions using a modified secondary algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohit

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the stability of fragments identified by secondary algorithms used to construct fragments within quantum molecular dynamics model. For this purpose we employ three different algorithms for fragment identification. 1) The conventional minimum spanning tree (MST) method based on the spatial correlations, 2) an improved version of MST with additional binding energy constraints of cold nuclear matter, 3) and that of hot matter. We find significant role of thermal binding energies over cold matter binding energies. Significant role is observed for fragment multiplicities and stopping of fragments. Whereas insignificant effect is observed on fragment's flow.

  7. Dynamical Dipole Mode in Heavy-Ion Fusion-Evaporation and Fission Reactions in the {sup 192}Pb Mass Region

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestri, R.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Martin, B.; Sandoli, M.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Parascandolo, C.; Boiano, A.; Romoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Baran, V.; De Filippo, E.; Di Toro, M.; Rizzo, C.

    2011-10-28

    The prompt {gamma}-ray emission related with the dynamical dipole mode decay was investigated in the {sup 192}Pb mass region by means of the {sup 40}Ca+{sup 152}Sm and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 144}Sm fusion-evaporation and fission reactions at E{sub lab} = 11 and 10.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively. The two reactions populate, through entrance channel having different charge asymmetries, the {sup 192}Pb compound nucleus at an excitation energy of 236 MeV with identical spin distribution. Preliminary results of this experiment show that the dynamical dipole mode survives in collisions involving heavier mass reaction partners than those studied previously. As a fast cooling mechanism on the fusion path, the prompt dipole {gamma} radiation could be of interest for the synthesis of super-heavy elements through ''hot'' fusion reactions.

  8. The fusion fission and quasi-fission processes in the reaction 48Ca + 208Pb at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorova, E. V.; Bogachev, A. A.; Itkis, M. G.; Itkis, I. M.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Pashkevich, V. V.; Rusanov, A. Ya.

    2008-04-01

    Mass-energy distributions (MEDs) and capture-fission cross sections have been measured in the reaction 48Ca + 208Pb → 256No at the energies E=206-242 MeV using a double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer CORSET. It has been observed that MED of the fragments consists of two parts, namely, the classical fusion-fission process corresponding to the symmetric fission of 256No and quasi-fission "shoulders" corresponding to the light fragment masses ˜60-90 u and complimentary heavy fragment masses. The quasi-fission "shoulders" have a higher total kinetic energy (TKE) as compared with that expected for the classical fission. A mathematical formalism was employed for the MEDs fragment decomposition into fusion-fission and quasi-fission components. In the fusion-fission process a high-energy Super-Short mode has been discovered for the masses M=130-135 u and the TKE of ≈233 MeV.

  9. Experimental Neutron-induced Fission Fragment Mass Yields of 232Th and 238U at Energies from 10 to 33 Me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutkin, V. D.; Pomp, S.; Blomgren, J.; Österlund, M.; Bevilacqua, R.; Andersson, P.; Ryzhov, I. V.; Tutin, G. A.; Yavshits, S. G.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Onegin, M. S.; Meulders, J. P.; Prieels, R.

    2014-05-01

    Development of nuclear energy applications requires data for neutron-induced reactions for actinides in a wide neutron energy range. Here we describe measurements of pre-neutron emission fission fragment mass yields of 232Th and 238U at incident neutron energies from 10 to 33 MeV. The measurements were done at the quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam of the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility CYCLONE; a multi-section twin Frisch-gridded ionization chamber was used to detect fission fragments. For the peak neutron energies at 33, 45 and 60 MeV, the details of the data analysis and the experimental results were published in Ref. [I.V. Ryzhov, S.G. Yavshits, G.A. Tutin et al., Phys. Rev. C 83, 054603 (2011)]. In this work we present data analysis in the low-energy tail of the neutron energy spectra. The preliminary measurement results are compared with available experimental data and theoretical predictions.

  10. Competition between fusion and quasi-fission in heavy ion induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.B.

    1986-09-01

    Quantitative analyses of angular distributions and angle-mass correlations have been applied to the U + Ca reaction to obtain upper limit estimates for the cross sections for complete fusion near or below the interaction barrier. Extrapolating to the systems Ca + Cm and Ca + Es using the well established scaling properties of the extra push model, an estimate of the cross sections relevant to the efforts of synthesizing super-heavy elements in the region Z = 116 and N = 184 via heavy-ion fusion reactions are obtained. A simple evaporation calculation using properties of the super heavy elements shows that the failure to observe super-heavy elements with the Ca + Cm reaction is consistent with estimates of the complete fusion process. 33 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Spontaneous Fission

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Segre, Emilio

    1950-11-22

    The first attempt to discover spontaneous fission in uranium was made by [Willard] Libby, who, however, failed to detect it on account of the smallness of effect. In 1940, [K. A.] Petrzhak and [G. N.] Flerov, using more sensitive methods, discovered spontaneous fission in uranium and gave some rough estimates of the spontaneous fission decay constant of this substance. Subsequently, extensive experimental work on the subject has been performed by several investigators and will be quoted in the various sections. [N.] Bohr and [A.] Wheeler have given a theory of the effect based on the usual ideas of penetration of potential barriers. On this project spontaneous fission has been studied for the past several years in an effort to obtain a complete picture of the phenomenon. For this purpose the spontaneous fission decay constants {lambda} have been measured for separated isotopes of the heavy elements wherever possible. Moreover, the number {nu} of neutrons emitted per fission has been measured wherever feasible, and other characteristics of the spontaneous fission process have been studied. This report summarizes the spontaneous fission work done at Los Alamos up to January 1, 1945. A chronological record of the work is contained in the Los Alamos monthly reports.

  12. True ternary fission of superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebaev, V. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Greiner, Walter

    2010-04-15

    True ternary fission with formation of a heavy third fragment is quite possible for superheavy nuclei because of the strong shell effects leading to a three-body clusterization with the two doubly magic tinlike cores. The simplest way to discover this phenomenon in the decay of excited superheavy nuclei is a detection of two tinlike clusters with appropriate kinematics in low-energy collisions of medium-mass nuclei with actinide targets. The three-body quasi-fission process could be even more pronounced for giant nuclear systems formed in collisions of heavy actinide nuclei. In this case a three-body clusterization might be proved experimentally by the detection of two coincident leadlike fragments in low-energy U + U collisions.

  13. In-beam Fission Study at JAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Katsuhisa

    2013-12-01

    Fission fragment mass distributions were measured in heavy-ion induced fissions using 238U target nucleus. The measured mass distributions changed drastically with incident energy. The results are explained by a change of the ratio between fusion and quasifission with nuclear orientation. A calculation based on a fluctuation dissipation model reproduced the mass distributions and their incident energy dependence. Fusion probability was determined in the analysis. Evaporation residue cross sections were calculated with a statistical model in the reactions of 30Si + 238U and 34S + 238U using the obtained fusion probability in the entrance channel. The results agree with the measured cross sections for seaborgium and hassium isotopes.

  14. Short DNA Fragments Are a Hallmark of Heavy Charged-Particle Irradiation and May Underlie Their Greater Therapeutic Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Dalong; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Rodgers, James E.; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Growing interest in proton and heavy ion therapy has reinvigorated research into the fundamental biological mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of charged-particle radiation. To improve our understanding of the greater biological effectiveness of high-LET radiations, we have investigated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) following exposure of plasmid DNA to low-LET Co-60 gamma photon and electron irradiation and to high-LET Beryllium and Argon ions with atomic force microscopy. The sizes of DNA fragments following radiation exposure were individually measured to construct fragment size distributions from which the DSB per DNA molecule and DSB spatial distributions were derived. We report that heavy charged particles induce a significantly larger proportion of short DNA fragments in irradiated DNA molecules, reflecting densely and clustered damage patterns of high-LET energy depositions. We attribute the enhanced short DNA fragmentation following high-LET radiations as an important determinant of the observed, enhanced biological effectiveness of high-LET irradiations. PMID:27376024

  15. Short DNA Fragments Are a Hallmark of Heavy Charged-Particle Irradiation and May Underlie Their Greater Therapeutic Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pang, Dalong; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Rodgers, James E; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Growing interest in proton and heavy ion therapy has reinvigorated research into the fundamental biological mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of charged-particle radiation. To improve our understanding of the greater biological effectiveness of high-LET radiations, we have investigated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) following exposure of plasmid DNA to low-LET Co-60 gamma photon and electron irradiation and to high-LET Beryllium and Argon ions with atomic force microscopy. The sizes of DNA fragments following radiation exposure were individually measured to construct fragment size distributions from which the DSB per DNA molecule and DSB spatial distributions were derived. We report that heavy charged particles induce a significantly larger proportion of short DNA fragments in irradiated DNA molecules, reflecting densely and clustered damage patterns of high-LET energy depositions. We attribute the enhanced short DNA fragmentation following high-LET radiations as an important determinant of the observed, enhanced biological effectiveness of high-LET irradiations. PMID:27376024

  16. 12. 3-min /sup 256/Cf and 43-min /sup 258/Md and systematics of the spontaneous fission propertiesof heavy nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Weber, J.; Daniels, W.R.; Hulet, E.K.; Lougheed, R.W.; Landrum, J.H.; Wild, J.F.; Dupzyk, R.J.

    1980-03-01

    The new isotope 12.3-min /sup 256/Cf was produced via the /sup 254/Cf(t,p) reaction, and a new 43-min isomer of /sup 258/Md was produced via the /sup 255/Es(..cap alpha..,n) reaction. The fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions from the spontaneous fission of /sup 256/Cf were found to be very similar to those from the spontaneous fission of lighter Cf isotopes. The mass division is primarily asymmetric, and the average total kinetic energy is 189.8 +- 0.9 MeV. The 43-min /sup 258/Md presumably decays by electron capture and provides an opportunity to study the mass and kinetic energy distributions from the spontaneous fission of the 380-..mu..s /sup 258/Fm daughter. The observed narrow, symmetric mass distribution and the most probable total kinetic energy of 238 +- 3 MeV are similar to those reported for the spontaneous fission of /sup 259/Fm but show a sharp increase in symmetric mass division and total kinetic energy compared to /sup 257/Fm and the lighter Fm isotopes. No such abrupt change in properties was observed for /sup 256/Cf, which, like /sup 258/Fm, has 158 neutrons. The marked difference between the spontaneous fission properties of the heavier Fm isotopes and those of other spontaneously fissioning nuclides is compared to some theoretical predictions.

  17. Characteristic features of first and second moments of fission-fragment energy distribution as functions of nucleon composition

    SciTech Connect

    Gruzintsev, E.N.; Itkis, M.G.; Mul'gin, S.I.; Okolovich, V.N.; Rusanov, A.Y.; Serdyuk, O.I.; Smirenkin, G.N.; Subbotin, M.I.

    1988-08-01

    We discuss the totality of experimental data obtained at the Alma-Ata isochronous cyclotron for the mean kinetic energy /similar to/(E/sub k/) and energy dispersion sigma/sub E//sup 2/ for nuclei with Z = 68--85, A = 165--213. The dependences of these first two moments of the E/sub k/ distribution as functions of the nucleon composition of the fissioning nucleus are found to have a new feature: a ''break'' in the curve in the vicinity of (Z/sup 2//A/sup 1//sup ///sup 3/)/sub 0/approx. =1000. This effect is due to the fact that the descent-to-scission stage is absent for fissioning nuclei with Z/sup 2//A/sup 1//sup ///sup 3/<(Z/sup 2//A/sup 1//sup ///sup 3/)/sub 0/.

  18. Progress towards the production of the 236gNp standard sources and competing fission fragment production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larijani, C.; Pickford, O. L.; Collins, S. M.; Ivanov, P.; Jerome, S. M.; Keightley, J. D.; Pearce, A. K.; Regan, P. H.

    2015-11-01

    The isobaric distribution of fission residues produced following the bombardment of a natural uranium target with a beam of 25 MeV protons has been evaluated. Decay analysis of thirteen isobarically distinct fission residues were carried out using high-resolution γ-spectrometry at the UK National Physical Laboratory. Stoichiometric abundances were calculated via the determination of absolute activity concentrations associated with the longest-lived members of each isobaric chain. This technique was validated by computational modelling of likely sequential decay processes through an isobaric decay chain. The results were largely in agreement with previously published values for neutron bombardments on 238U at energies of 14 MeV. Higher yields of products with mass numbers A~110-130 were found, consistent with the increasing yield of these radionuclides as the bombarding energy is increased.

  19. Probing Temperature from Intermediate Mass Fragment by Isobaric Yield Ratio in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mian; Wei, Hui-Ling; Ma, Chun-Wang

    2015-12-01

    A probe to extract the temperature (TIYR) from intermediate-mass fragment has been proposed using the isobaric yield ratio (IYR) difference based on the modified Fisher model. By analyzing the isobaric cross section in the measured 140A MeV 40,48Ca+9Be reactions, the TIYR can well fit the IYR difference for the large mass fragments. Because of the fragments are produced in different colliding regions, it is also suggested to select the fragments according to different mechanisms when using TIYR. Supported by Program for Science & Technology Innovation Talents in Universities of Henan Province under Grant No. 13HASTIT046

  20. Investigations of the Space Parity Violation and Interference Effects in the Fragment Angular Distributions of 235U, 233U, and 239Pu Fission by Resonance Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V. E.; Gagarski, A. M.; Guseva, I. S.; Golosovskaya, S. P.; Krasnoshchokova, I. S.; Petrov, G. A.; Petrova, V. I.; Petukhov, A. K.; Pleva, Yu. S.; Alfimenkov, V. P.; Chernikov, A. N.; Lason, L.; Mareev, Yu. D.; Novitski, V. V.; Pikelner, L. B.; Pikelner, T. L.; Tsulaya, M. I.

    2005-05-01

    Investigations of the space parity nonconserving (PNC) asymmetry of 233U, 235U, and 239Pu fission fragment emission and parity conserving (PC) interference effects of left-right and forward-backward asymmetries were carried out on the neutron beams of the reactor IBR-30 (JINR, Dubna) over the range of neutron energies from 0.02 eV to about 100 eV. All experimental results obtained have been found to be in a good mutual accordance within the frames of modern theoretical conceptions about the mechanisms of PNC and PC effects forming in fission process induced by slow neutrons. In case of the P-even interference effects of asymmetry the evident mutual well-marked irregularities in their neutron energy dependencies up to about 100 eV were observed. It is connected with the interference of s, p-resonances at fission compound stage according to modern theory. As a remarkable result of the PNC effect measurements the resonance behavior of the PNC asymmetry coefficients in the low neutron energy region (En < 2 eV) was observed. Unfortunately, the statistical accuracy of the PNC effect measurements is not enough for observation of these resonance effects in other cases of more high energies. Results of simultaneous analysis of all three asymmetry effects for all three nuclei are presented. The satisfactory combined description of the experimental points is received. As a result of theoretical evaluation of these data main parameters and the estimates of nuclear matrix elements of the weak interaction for some p-resonances in the low energy range were extracted.

  1. Fission-fragment excited xenon/rare gas mixtures. II. Small signal gain of the 2. 03 [mu]m xenon transition

    SciTech Connect

    Hebner, G.A.; Hays, G.N. )

    1993-04-15

    The results of small signal gain measurements of the 2.03 [mu]m (5[ital d][3/2][sub 1][minus]6[ital p][3/2][sub 1]) xenon transition in fission-fragment excited Ar/Xe, He/Ar/Xe, Ne/Ar/Xe, and He/Ne/Ar/Xe gas mixtures is presented. Time resolved small signal gain was probed using a cw He/Xe discharge laser as a function of total pressure, xenon concentration, pump power, He/Ne/Ar buffer ratio, and impurity concentration. Small signal gains of up to 6%/cm were observed for pump rates of 15 W/cm[sup 3]. Addition of helium and/or neon to the argon buffer increased the width of the laser gain and reduced the absorption observed under some experimental conditions. Experimentally determined gain scaling laws for several gas mixtures are presented.

  2. Multi-layer ²³⁵UF₄-⁶LiF-Au targets for high-resolution fission fragment measurements.

    PubMed

    Sibbens, G; Moens, A; Vanleeuw, D; Eykens, R; Oberstedt, S

    2014-05-01

    Multi-layer (235)UF4-(6)LiF-Au targets have been produced by vacuum deposition on thin polyimide foils with an areal density, measured by spectrophotometry, of about 33µgcm(-2). The foils were first covered with an Au-layer and then, with a second layer of (6)LiF, both by vapour deposition. The (235)UF4 layer was prepared by fluoride sublimation. Each deposited mass was characterized separately by means of differential weighing for the Au and (6)LiF layers and by low-geometry alpha-particle counting for the (235)UF4 layer. The atomic abundances of the uranium base material have been measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The targets were prepared for measuring fission-fragment emission yields with high mass-resolution. PMID:24355303

  3. Fission-Fusion Neutron Source Progress Report Sept 30, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G F; Daffin, F; Clark, R

    2010-02-19

    In this report the authors describe the progress made in FY09 in evaluating the feasibility of a new concept for using the DT fusion reaction to produce intense pulses of 14 MeV neutrons. In this new scheme the heating of the DT is accomplished using fission fragments rather than ion beams as in conventional magnet confinement fusion schemes or lasers in inertial confinement schemes. As a source of fission fragments they propose using a dust reactor concept introduced some time ago by one of us (RC). An attractive feature of this approach is that there is no need for a large auxiliary power source to heat the DT plasma to the point where self-sustaining fusion become possible. Their scheme does require pulsed magnetic fields, but generating these fields requires only a modest power source. The dust reactor that they propose using for their neutron source would use micron-sized UC pellets suspended in a vacuum as the reactor fuel. Surrounding the fuel with a moderator such as heavy water (D{sub 2}O) would allow the reactor to operate as a thermal reactor and require only modest amounts of HEU. The scheme for using fission fragments to generate intense pulses of 14 MeV neutrons is based on the fission fragment rocket idea. In the fission fragment rocket scheme it was contemplated that the fission fragments produced in a low density reactor core could be guided out of the reactor by large magnetic fields used to form a 'rocket exhaust'. Their adaptation of this idea for the purposes of making a neutron source involves using the fission fragments escaping from one side of a tandem magnet mirror to heat DT gas confined in the adjacent magnetic trap.

  4. Analysis of angular distribution of fragments in relativistic heavy-ion collisions by quantum molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Niita, Koji

    2016-05-01

    To predict angular distribution of fragments produced in nucleusnucleus collisions, JAERI quantum molecular dynamics model (JQMD) was improved. Because JQMD underestimated fragments in the forward angle, which were mainly produced by peripheral collisions, JQMD was revised so as to simulate peripheral collisions accurately. Density-dependent in-medium effect and relativistic effect on nucleonnucleon interactions were incorporated for this purpose. The revised version of JQMD coupled with a statistical decay model was used to calculate differential fragment production cross sections measured in earlier studies. Comparison of the measured data and calculation by the revised and old JQMD showed that the revised JQMD can predict fragment angular distribution better than old JQMD. Particularly, agreement of fragment yield in the forward angle is substantially improved.

  5. Fragment emission studies in low energy light heavy-ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, T. K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Manna, S.; Srivastava, V.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Roy, P.; Pandey, R.; Chaudhuri, A.; Roy, T.; Ghosh, T. K.; Mukherjee, G.; Bhattacharya, S.; Meena, J. K.; Pandit, S. K.; Mahata, K.; Patale, P.; Shrivastava, A.; Nanal, V.

    2015-01-01

    Fragment emission mechanisms have been studied in 12C on 12C and 13C on 12C reactions at same excitation energy. The inclusive energy distributions of the complex fragments (3≤ Z ≤ 5) emitted from the composite system have been measured in the angular range 14° to 36°. The present experiments have been performed with the motivation to study the isotopic dependence of fragment yields in these two reactions. From the preliminary analysis, it has been observed that fragments are emitted from a completely equilibrated and long lived composite system for both 12C + 12C and 13C + 12C reactions. It has also been observed that the emission of neutron-rich fragments are more in 13C + 12C compared to 12C + 12C reaction.

  6. Measurement of isospin diffusion from isoscaling of heavy fragment yields in 70 MeV/u Sn+Sn collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelbauer, Jack; Showalter, R. H.; Tsang, M. B.; Lynch, W. G.; Chajecki, Z.; Youngs, M. D.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Lu, Fei; Sanetullaev, A.; Shane, R.; Tangwancharoen, S.; Famiano, M.; George, S.; Charity, R.; Sobotka, L.; Elson, J.; de Souza, R.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Much effort has been undertaken recently to improve constraints on the symmetry energy term in the nuclear equation of state. Specifically, the behavior of the symmetry energy above and below saturation density plays a significant role in the properties of neutron stars, the structure of heavy nuclei, and the dynamics of nuclear reactions. The tendency for neutrons to drift from a neutron-rich region to a neutron-deficient region during a peripheral collision of heavy nuclei is known as isospin diffusion, and has been shown to be sensitive to the symmetry energy at sub-saturation densities. Isospin diffusion between projectiles of 112 , 118 , 124Sn at 70 MeV/u and targets of 112 , 118 , 124Sn has been measured, using isoscaling ratios of heavy fragments as a tracer of the isospin content of the excited projectile-like fragment. The validity of using isoscaling as a surrogate for the isospin asymmetry will be discussed, and the associated isospin diffusion results will be presented.

  7. EVIDENCE FOR ANOMALOUS NUCLEI AMONG RELATIVISTIC PROJECTILE FRAGMENTS FROM HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT BEVALAC ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, E.M.; Gimpel, R.W.; Heckman, H.H.; Karant, Y.J.; Judek, B.; Ganssauge, E.

    1980-06-01

    Two independent emulsion experiments using Bevalac beams of {sup 16}O and {sup 56}Fe at {approx}2 GeV/nucleon find with > 99.7% confidence that the reaction mean-free paths of projectile fragments, 3 {approx}< Z {approx}< 26, are shorter for a few centimeters after their emission than at larger distances, or than predicted from experiments on beam nuclei. This effect, which is enhanced in later generations of fragments, can be interpreted by the relatively rare occurrence of fragments that interact with an unexpectedly large cross section.

  8. Ternary fission of 466, 476 184X formed in U + U collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikraj, C.; Subramanian, S.; Selvaraj, S.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the very rare process of nuclear ternary fission has been of great interest in nuclear dynamics. Based on the statistical theory of fission, we discuss here the ternary-fission mass distribution of 466, 476 184X formed in low-energy U + U collisions for different heavy third fragments at T = 1 and 2MeV. The expected ternary configurations 208 Pb + 208 Pb + 50 Ca and 204 Hg + 204 Hg + 58 Cr are obtained from the ternary fission of 466 184X at T = 2 MeV. In addition, for both the systems, various possible ternary modes are listed for different heavy third fragments. Our results clearly indicate that the favored ternary configurations have either proton and/or neutron shell closure nucleus as one of their partners.

  9. Preferred modes of decay in nuclear fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Aranda, A.; Lopez, J.A.; Wu, Z.

    1997-02-01

    Recent experimental studies show a characteristic energy dependence of the different fragmentation modes in heavy-ion reactions at intermediate energies. In this work we study this dependence and find that, in multifragmentation, just like in low-energy fission, some modes of decay are more probable than the rest. We argue that these high-probability mass partitions are ultimately responsible for the observed energy dependence. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Quantum effects in low-energy photofission of heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipenyuk, Y.M.; Ostapenko, Y.B.; Smirenkin, G.N.; Soldatov, A.S.

    1984-09-01

    The article is devoted to quantum effects in highly deformed nuclei and the related features of the fission mechanism in the low-energy photofission of heavy nuclei. The following questions are considered: the spectrum of transition states (fission channels), the symmetry of the nuclear configuration in the deformation process, the features of the passage through the barrier due to the existence in the second well of quasistationary states of fissile and nonfissile modes, the isomeric-shelf phenomenon in deep sub-barrier fission, and the relation between the fragment mass distribution and the structure of the fission barrier.

  11. Characterization of fragmented heavy-ion beams using a three-stage telescope detector: detector configuration and instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Llacer, J; Schmidt, J B; Tobias, C A

    1990-01-01

    Accelerated heavy-ion beams used in biological and medical research are often utilized in conjunction with absorbers which lead to the fragmentation of the beam. The BERKLET, initially a two-stage solid-state telescope detector, was designed to make rapid, on-line energy and linear energy transfer (LET) measurements of individual particles in a heavy-ion beam, thus allowing characterization of fragmented beams. From data collected with the BERKLET, one is able to determine a number of important parameters. These include: residual energy and LET histograms for the full beam and for the individual Z components, relative number of particles with a given Z, and dose and track average LET's for the full beam and for the individual Z's. Improvements to the BERKLET design and changes in data analysis are discussed and contrasted with the results of an earlier BERKLET configuration. The most notable improvements are the addition of a thin scintillation detector for improved LET measurement, a tenfold improvement in the dynamic range of the event discriminator, reported here as 1:2000, and dual high-and low-gain amplification of the LET signals, permitting the identification of particles with Z's ranging from 12 down to 1. PMID:2333041

  12. Formation of fragments in heavy-ion collisions using a modified clusterization method

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Supriya; Puri, Rajeev K.

    2011-04-15

    We study the formation and stability of the fragments by extending the minimum spanning tree method (MST) for clusterization. In this extension, each fragment is subjected to a binding-energy check calculated using the modified Bethe-Weizsaecker formula. Earlier, a constant binding-energy cut of 4 MeV/nucleon was imposed. Our results for {sup 197}Au+{sup 197}Au collisions are compared with ALADiN data and also with the calculations based on the simulated annealing technique. We shall show that the present modified version improves the agreement compared to the MST method.

  13. The fundamental role of fission during r-process nucleosynthesis in neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, S.

    2015-02-01

    The rapid neutron-capture process, or r-process, is known to be of fundamental importance for explaining the origin of approximately half of the A > 60 stable nuclei observed in nature. Despite important efforts, the astrophysical site of the r-process remains unidentified. Here we study r-process nucleosynthesis in a material that is dynamically ejected by tidal and pressure forces during the merging of binary neutron stars. r-process nucleosynthesis during the decompression is known to be largely insensitive to the detailed astrophysical conditions because of efficient fission recycling, producing a composition that closely follows the solar r-abundance distribution for nuclei with mass numbers A > 140. Due to the important role played by fission in such a scenario, the impact of fission is carefully analyzed. We consider different state-of-the-art global models for the determination of the fission paths, nuclear level densities at the fission saddle points and fission fragment distributions. Based on such models, the sensitivity of the calculated r-process abundance distribution is studied. The fission path is found to strongly affect the region of heavy nuclei responsible for the fission recycling, while the fission fragment distribution of nuclei along the A ≃ 278 isobars defines the abundance pattern of nuclei produced in the 110 ≲ A ≲ 170 region. The late capture of prompt fission neutrons is also shown to affect the abundance distribution, and in particular the shape of the third r-process peak around A ≃ 195.

  14. An Isoratio Method to Study Free Energy and Temperature Effects in Intermediate Mass Fragments Produced in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Qiao, Chun-Yuan; Ding, Tian-Tian; Niu, Fei; Song, Yi-Dan; Niu, Yi-Fei

    2016-07-01

    An isoratio method, i.e., the isotopic (isotonic) ratio among three isotopes (isotones), is proposed to study the free energy and temperature effects in the intermediate mass fragments produced in heavy-ion collisions. The parameterizations for the free energy of nucleus at low temperature, which have been proposed in the framework of the density functional theory using the SKM skymre interaction, are adopted to calculate the temperature-dependent free energy of fragment. By analyzing the measured yields of fragments in the 140A MeV 58,64Ni + 9Be reactions, it is verified that the free energy in the isoratio is almost the same for different reactions. A temperature-dependent pairing-energy is introduced into the parameterizations for free energy, which reveals that the weakened pairing energy at the low temperature accounts for the weakened or disappearing odd-even staggering in isoratio. Supported by the Program for Science and Technology Innovation Talents in Universities of Henan Province under Grant No. 13HASTIT046, the Creative Experimental Project of National Undergraduate Students (CEPNU201510476017)

  15. Low-mass fission detector for the fission neutron spectrum measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C Y; Henderson, R; Gostic, J; Haight, R C; Lee, H Y

    2010-10-20

    For the fission neutron spectrum measurement, the neutron energy is determined in a time-of-flight experiment by the time difference between the fission event and detection of the neutron. Therefore, the neutron energy resolution is directly determined by the time resolution of both neutron and fission detectors. For the fission detection, the detector needs not only a good timing response but also the tolerance of radiation damage and high {alpha}-decay rate. A parallel-plate avalanche counter (PPAC) has many advantages for the detection of heavy charged particles such as fission fragments. These include fast timing, resistance to radiation damage, and tolerance of high counting rate. A PPAC also can be tuned to be insensitive to particles, which is important for experiments with - emitting actinides. Therefore, a PPAC is an ideal detector for experiments requiring a fast and clean trigger for fission. In the following sections, the description will be given for the design and performance of a new low-mass PPAC for the fission-neutron spectrum measurements at LANL.

  16. Nonuniform character of the population of spin projections K for a fissile nucleus at the scission point and anisotropies in the angular distributions of fragments originating from the induced fission of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. S.

    2012-11-15

    It is shown that the emergence of anisotropies in the angular distributions of fragments originating from the spontaneous and induced fission of oriented actinide nuclei is possible only if nonuniformities in the population of the projectionsM (K) of the fissile-nucleus spin onto the z axis of the laboratory frame (fissile-nucleus symmetry axis) appear simultaneously in the vicinity of the scission point but not in the vicinity of the outer saddle point of the deformation potential. The possibilities for creating the orientation of fissile nuclei for spontaneous and induced fission and the effect of these orientations on the anisotropies under analysis are considered. The role of Coriolis interaction as a unique source of the mixing of different-K fissile-nucleus states at all stages of the fission process is studied with allowance for the dynamical enhancement of this interaction for excited thermalized states of the nucleus involved that is characterized by a high energy density. It is shown that the absence of thermalization of excited states of the fissile nucleus that appear because of the effect of nonadiabaticity of its collective deformation motion in the vicinity of the scission point is a condition of conservation of the influence that transition fission states formed at the inner and outer fission barriers exerts on the distribution of the spin projections K for lowenergy spontaneous nuclear fission. It is confirmed that anisotropies observed in the angular distributions of fragments originating from the fission of nuclei that is induced by fast light particles (multiply charged ions) are due to the appearance of strongly excited equilibrium(nonequilibrium) states of the fissile nucleus in the vicinity of its scission point that have a Gibbs (non-Gibbs) distribution of projections K.

  17. Particle and light fragment emission in peripheral heavy ion collisions at Fermi energies

    SciTech Connect

    Piantelli, S.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Bardelli, L.; Bartoli, A.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Coppi, C.; Mangiarotti, A.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Taccetti, N.; Vanzi, E.

    2006-09-15

    A systematic investigation of the average multiplicities of light charged particles and intermediate mass fragments emitted in peripheral and semiperipheral collisions is presented as a function of the beam energy, violence of the collision, and mass of the system. The data have been collected with the FIASCO setup in the reactions {sup 93}Nb+{sup 93}Nb at (17,23,30,38)A MeV and {sup 116}Sn+{sup 116}Sn at (30,38)A MeV. The midvelocity emission has been separated from the emission of the projectile-like fragment. This last component appears to be compatible with an evaporation from an equilibrated source at normal density, as described by the statistical code GEMINI at the appropriate excitation energy. On the contrary, the midvelocity emission presents remarkable differences in both the dependence of the multiplicities on the energy deposited in the midvelocity region and the isotopic composition of the emitted light charged particles.

  18. Ternary fission of 260No in collinear configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M.; Seif, W. M.; Hashem, A. S.; Botros, M. M.; Abdul-Magead, I. A. M.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the collinear ternary fission of the 260No isotope. The calculations are performed in the framework of the three cluster model for all possible accompanied light particles of even mass numbers A = 4 - 52. The folding nuclear and Coulomb interaction potentials are used, based on the M3Y-Reid nucleon-nucleon force for the nuclear part. The deformation of the involved fragments and their relative orientations with respect to each other inside the fissioning nuclei are considered. Among all possible fragmentation channels, the suggested most probable channels are indicated as the ones showing a peak in the Q-value and a local minimum in the fragmentation potential, with respect to the mass and charge asymmetries. The indicated favored fragmentation channels from the approximate spherical calculations and those obtained after considering the deformations of the produced fragments are discussed in detail. In addition to the preferred heavy fragments of closed shells, favored prolate ones of high deformations appear when the nuclear deformations are taken into account. Among indicated fifty six favored channels, a collinear ternary fission of the 260No isotope is indicated to be most favored through the fragmentation channels of 15058Ce+410Be+40100Zr,60152Nd+412Be+3896Sr,58150Ce+614C+3896Sr,58148Ce+616C+3896Sr,54140Xe+822O+4098Zr,42106Mo+1848Ar+42106Mo and 41104Nb+2052Ca+41104Nb.

  19. Fission-fragment excited xenon/rare gas mixtures. I. Laser parameters of the 1. 73 [mu]m xenon transition

    SciTech Connect

    Hebner, G.A.; Hays, G.N. )

    1993-04-15

    Laser parameters for the 1.73 [mu]m (5[ital d][3/2][sub 1][minus]6[ital p][5/2][sub 2]) xenon transition in fission-fragment excited Ar/Xe, He/Ar/Xe, Ne/Ar/Xe, and He/Ne/Ar/Xe gas mixtures are presented. Using a cw F center laser, time resolved small signal gain was probed as a function of total pressure, xenon concentration, pump power, He/Ne/Ar buffer ratio and impurity concentration. Small signal gains of up to 2%/cm were observed for pump rates of 30 W/cm[sup 3]. Addition of helium and/or neon to the argon buffer increased the width of the time resolved laser gain pulse and reduced the absorption observed under some experimental conditions. Experimentally determined gain scaling laws for several gas mixtures are presented. The measured small signal gain was coupled with the results of laser cavity measurements to calculate the saturation intensity for several gas mixtures. The addition of helium or neon increases the saturation intensity for several gas mixtures. Laser cavity measurements as well as the gain [times] saturation intensity product indicate that the 1.73 [mu]m power efficiency is approximately 2% for several gas mixtures.

  20. Pion-Induced Fission of 209Bi and 119Sn:. Measurements, Calculations, Analyses and Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Mukhtar Ahmed; Sher, Gul; Manzoor, Shahid; Shehzad, M. I.

    Cross-sections for the π--induced fission of 209Bi and 119Sn have been measured using the most sensitive CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detector. In experiments, target-detector stacks were exposed to negative pions of energy 500, 672, 1068, and 1665 MeV at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA. An important aspect of the present paper is the comparison of pion-induced fission fragment spectra of above mentioned nuclei with the spontaneous fission fragment spectra of 252Cf. This comparison is made in terms of fission fragment track lengths in the CR-39 detectors. Measurement results are compared with calculations of Monte Carlo and statistical weight functions methods using the computer code CEM95. Agreement between measurements and calculations is fairly good for 209Bi target nuclei whereas it is indigent for the case of 119Sn. The possibilities of the trustworthy calculations, using the computer code CEM95, comparable with measurements of pion-induced fission in intermediate and heavy nuclei are explored by employing various systematics available in the code. Energy dependence of pion-induced fission in 119Sn and 209Bi is analyzed employing a newly defined parameter geometric-size-normalized fission cross-section (χfg). It is found that the collective nuclear excitations, which may lead to fission, become more probable for both 209Bi and 119Sn nuclei with increasing energy of negative pions from 500 to 1665 MeV.

  1. General Description of Fission Observables: GEF Model Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K.-H.; Jurado, B.; Amouroux, C.; Schmitt, C.

    2016-01-01

    consistent with the collective enhancement of the level density. The exchange of excitation energy and nucleons between the nascent fragments on the way from saddle to scission is estimated according to statistical mechanics. As a result, excitation energy and unpaired nucleons are predominantly transferred to the heavy fragment in the superfluid regime. This description reproduces some rather peculiar observed features of the prompt-neutron multiplicities and of the even-odd effect in fission-fragment Z distributions. For completeness, some conventional descriptions are used for calculating pre-equilibrium emission, fission probabilities and statistical emission of neutrons and gamma radiation from the excited fragments. Preference is given to simple models that can also be applied to exotic nuclei compared to more sophisticated models that need precise empirical input of nuclear properties, e.g. spectroscopic information. The approach reveals a high degree of regularity and provides a considerable insight into the physics of the fission process. Fission observables can be calculated with a precision that complies with the needs for applications in nuclear technology without specific adjustments to measured data of individual systems. The GEF executable runs out of the box with no need for entering any empirical data. This unique feature is of valuable importance, because the number of systems and energies of potential significance for fundamental and applied science will never be possible to be measured. The relevance of the approach for examining the consistency of experimental results and for evaluating nuclear data is demonstrated.

  2. Dynamical simulation of energy dissipation in asymmetric heavy-ion induced fission of {sup 200}Pb, {sup 213}Fr, and {sup 251}Es

    SciTech Connect

    Mirfathi, S. M.; Pahlavani, M. R.

    2008-12-15

    The dynamical model based on the asymmetric mass division has been applied to calculate pre-scission neutron multiplicity from heavy-ion induced fusion-fission reactions. Links between the pre-scission neutron multiplicity, excitation energy, and asymmetric mass distribution are clarified based on the Monte Carlo simulation and Langevin dynamics. The pre-scission neutron multiplicity is calculated and compared with the respective experimental data over a wide range of excitation energy and nonconstant viscosity. The analysis indicates a different effect for the application of asymmetric mass division in different energy regions of such processes.

  3. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  4. Entropy driven excitation energy sorting in superfluid fission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Jurado, Beatriz

    2010-05-28

    It is shown that the constant-temperature behavior of nuclei in the superfluid regime leads to an energy-sorting process if two nuclei are in thermal contact, as is the case in the fission process. This effect explains why an increase of the initial excitation energy leads an increase of the number of emitted neutrons from the heavy fission fragment, only. The observed essentially complete energy sorting may be seen as a new counterintuitive manifestation of quantum-mechanical properties of microscopic systems. PMID:20867088

  5. Significance of the Fragmentation Region in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-08-01

    We present measurements of the pseudorapidity distribution of primary charged particles produced in Au+Au collisions at three energies, (sNN)=19.6, 130, and 200GeV, for a range of collision centrali­ties. The distribution narrows for more central collisions and excess particles are produced at high pseudorapidity in peripheral collisions. For a given centrality, however, the distributions are found to scale with energy according to the “limiting fragmentation” hypothesis. The universal fragmentation region described by this scaling grows in pseudorapidity with increasing collision energy, extending well away from the beam rapidity and covering more than half of the pseudorapidity range over which particles are produced. This approach to a universal limiting curve appears to be a dominant feature of the pseudorapidity distribution and therefore of the total particle production in these collisions.

  6. The Impact of Fission on R-Process Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, M.; Arcones, A.; Käppeli, R.; Korobkin, O.; Liebendörfer, M.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Panov, I. V.; Rauscher, T.; Rosswog, S.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Winteler, C.

    2016-01-01

    We have performed r-process calculations in neutron star mergers (NSM) and jets of magnetohydrodynamically driven (MHD) supernovae. In these very neutron-rich environments the fission model of heavy nuclei has an impact on the shape of the final abundance distribution and the second r-process peak in particular. We have studied the effect of different fission fragment mass distribution models in calculations of low-Ye ejecta, ranging from a simple parametrization to extensive statistical treatments (ABLA07). The r-process path ends when it reaches an area in the nuclear chart where fission dominates over further neutron captures. The position of this point is determined by the fission barriers and the neutron separation energies of the nuclei involved. As these values both depend on the choice of the nuclear mass model, so does the r-process path. Here we present calculations using the FRDM (Finite Range Droplet Model) and the ETFSI (Extended Thomas Fermi with Strutinsky Integral) mass model with the related TF and ETFSI fission barrier predictions. Utilizing sophisticated fission fragment distribution leads to a highly improved abundance distribution.

  7. Mechanical Design of a Heavy Ion Beam Dump for the RIA Fragmentation Line

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W; Ahle, L E; Conner, D L

    2005-04-28

    The RIA fragmentation line requires a beam stop for the primary beam downstream of the first dipole magnet. The beam may consist of U, Ca, Sn, Kr, or O ions. with a variety of power densities. The configuration with highest power density is for the U beam, with a spot size of 3 cm x 3 cm and a total power of up to 300 kW. The mechanical design of the dump that meets these criteria consists of a 70 cm diameter aluminum wheel with water coolant channels. A hollow drive shaft supplies the coolant water and connects the wheel to an electrical motor located in an adjacent air space. The beam strikes the wheel along the outer perimeter and passes through a thin window of aluminum where 15% of its power is absorbed and the remainder of the beam is absorbed in flowing water behind the window. Rotation of the wheel at 400 RPM results in maximum aluminum temperatures below 100 C and acceptably low thermal stresses of 3 ksi. Rotating the wheel also results in low radiation damage levels by spreading the damage out over the whole perimeter of the wheel. For some of the other beams, a stationary dump consisting of a thin aluminum window with water acting as a coolant and absorber appears to be feasible.

  8. Recycling of a fine, heavy fluff automobile shredder residue by density and differential fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Gent, M R; Menéndez, M; Muñiz, H; Torno, S

    2015-09-01

    A compilation of the physical properties of materials which might typically occur in automobile shredder residue and an analysis of their suitability for the separation of materials in fine (<15mm) heavy fluff ASR (fhf-ASR) is presented. Differences in density and resistance to crushing of fhf-ASR materials were identified as potentially the most suitable low cost, technologically simple means for the separating this waste into its three principal components - metals, minerals (glass/stones) and organics (plastics). Results presented of laboratory scale tests demonstrate that fhf-ASR can in large part be separated into three principal components. Tests were conducted with 0.63-2.0mm and 2-10mm fractions. Recovery of plastics by density separations were conducted with water only jigs for the 2-10mm fraction and shaker tables for the 0.63-2mm fraction. Comparisons are presented of the separations of glass and stones from metals obtained by linear screening and vibratory screening of roller mill and impact mill crushing products of the high density 2-10mm fraction. Equipment used for these tests are of a laboratory or demonstrative scale. It is reasonable to anticipate that industrial scale processing would produce significantly better results. The 2-15mm fraction was found to constitute 91.6% of the fhf-ASR sampled. The metals content of the 2-10mm portion of this fraction was upgraded from 2.5% to 31% and 76.9% with recoveries varying inversely with grade from 91.9% to 40.1%. From 63.6% to 17.1% with a recovery of 93.5% of the organic materials. A residual product of fine sand of crushed glass/stones of 99.4% purity recovered 71.3% of these. PMID:26119010

  9. Experimental determination of particle range and dose distribution in thick targets through fragmentation reactions of stable heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaniwa, Taku; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Tomitani, Takehiro; Urakabe, Eriko; Sato, Shinji; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2006-09-01

    In radiation therapy with highly energetic heavy ions, the conformal irradiation of a tumour can be achieved by using their advantageous features such as the good dose localization and the high relative biological effectiveness around their mean range. For effective utilization of such properties, it is necessary to evaluate the range of incident ions and the deposited dose distribution in a patient's body. Several methods have been proposed to derive such physical quantities; one of them uses positron emitters generated through projectile fragmentation reactions of incident ions with target nuclei. We have proposed the application of the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method to a detected annihilation gamma-ray distribution for determination of the range of incident ions in a target and we have demonstrated the effectiveness of the method with computer simulations. In this paper, a water, a polyethylene and a polymethyl methacrylate target were each irradiated with stable 12C, 14N, 16O and 20Ne beams. Except for a few combinations of incident beams and targets, the MLE method could determine the range of incident ions RMLE with a difference between RMLE and the experimental range of less than 2.0 mm under the circumstance that the measurement of annihilation gamma rays was started just after the irradiation of 61.4 s and lasted for 500 s. In the process of evaluating the range of incident ions with the MLE method, we must calculate many physical quantities such as the fluence and the energy of both primary ions and fragments as a function of depth in a target. Consequently, by using them we can obtain the dose distribution. Thus, when the mean range of incident ions is determined with the MLE method, the annihilation gamma-ray distribution and the deposited dose distribution can be derived simultaneously. The derived dose distributions in water for the mono-energetic heavy-ion beams of four species were compared with those measured with an ionization chamber

  10. Superfluid fission dynamics with microscopic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simenel, C.; Scamps, G.; Lacroix, D.; Umar, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent progresses in the description of the latter stage of nuclear fission are reported. Dynamical effects during the descent of the potential towards scission and in the formation of the fission fragments are studied with the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach with dynamical pairing correlations at the BCS level. In particular, this approach is used to compute the final kinetic energy of the fission fragments. Comparison with experimental data on the fission of 258Fm are made.

  11. Observation of asymmetric fission of /sup 213/At in the reaction /sup 209/Bi (. cap alpha. ,f)

    SciTech Connect

    Gruzintsev, E.N.; Itkis, M.G.; Okolovich, V.N.; Rusanov, A.Y.; Smirenkin, G.N.; Tolstikov, V.N.

    1982-05-20

    The fragment mass distribution in the fission of the nucleus /sup 213/At by 36-MeV ..cap alpha.. particles is a bell-shaped curve Y/sub s/ (M) with a clearly expressed asymmetric admixture Y/sub ..cap alpha../ (M), for which the ratio of the yields at the peaks is Y/sup max//sub s//Y/sup max//sub ..cap alpha../ approx. = 2.5 x 10/sup 2/. This new type of fission of preactinide nuclei exhibits several of the properties typical of the asymmetric fission of heavy nuclei.

  12. The Various Collinear Ternary Fission Decays in 252Cf(sf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Oertzen, W.; Nasirov, A. K.; Pyatkov, Yu. V.; Kamanin, D. V.

    2015-06-01

    The collinear cluster decay in 252Cf(sf,fff), with three cluster fragments of different masses (e.g.132Sn,52-48Ca,68-72Ni), which has been observed by the FOBOS group in JINR, has established a new decay mode, the CCT (Collinear Cluster Tri-partition) of heavy nuclei. The same type of ternary fission decay has been observed in the reaction 235U(nth,fff). This collinear "true ternary fission" of heavy nuclei has been predicted many times in theoretical works during the last decades. In the present contribution we show that other ternary decay modes occur, in particular the symmetric ternary fission (FFF) into three fragments of almost equal size (e.g. Z=98→Zi = 32, 34, 32) in the same system. The different ternary fission channels are predicted with potential energy (PES) calculations for two mass parameters, M1(A1) and M3(A3). The deeper valleys point to the favored decay channels. An important aspect for the probability of the ternary decay modes are the internal barriers, which are presented here. The PES's show pronounced minima for several choices for favored ternary fragmentations. With these predictions, a variety of collinear ternary fission modes in the experimental data have been established.

  13. Preliminary Results on Direct Observation of True Ternary fission in the reaction {sup 232}Th+d (10 MeV)

    SciTech Connect

    Pyatkov, Yu.; Kamanin, D.; Alexandrov, A.; Alexandrova, I.; Kondratyev, N.; Kuznetsova, E.; Tyukavkin, A.; Zhuchko, V.; Krasznohorkay, A.; Csatlos, M.; Csige, L.; Gulyas, J.; Naqvi, F.; Tornyi, T.

    2010-04-30

    Results of the first direct observation of the true ternary fission of {sup 234}Pa* nucleus are presented. The yield of the effect depending of the experimental geometry is about 10{sup -5}/binary fission. Mass of the lightest fragment in the triplet lies mainly in the range of (20 divide 40) a.m.u. Connection between the effect and known heavy ion or lead radioactivity is discussed.

  14. A method to calculate fission-fragment yields Y(Z,N) versus proton and neutron number in the Brownian shape-motion model. Application to calculations of U and Pu charge yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Peter; Ichikawa, Takatoshi

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to calculate the two-dimensional (2D) fission-fragment yield Y(Z,N) versus both proton and neutron number, with inclusion of odd-even staggering effects in both variables. The approach is to use the Brownian shape-motion on a macroscopic-microscopic potential-energy surface which, for a particular compound system is calculated versus four shape variables: elongation (quadrupole moment Q2), neck d , left nascent fragment spheroidal deformation ɛ_{f1}, right nascent fragment deformation ɛ_{f2} and two asymmetry variables, namely proton and neutron numbers in each of the two fragments. The extension of previous models 1) introduces a method to calculate this generalized potential-energy function and 2) allows the correlated transfer of nucleon pairs in one step, in addition to sequential transfer. In the previous version the potential energy was calculated as a function of Z and N of the compound system and its shape, including the asymmetry of the shape. We outline here how to generalize the model from the "compound-system" model to a model where the emerging fragment proton and neutron numbers also enter, over and above the compound system composition.

  15. Production of new neutron-rich isotopes of heavy elements in fragmentation reactions of {sup 238}U projectiles at 1A GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez-Pol, H.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Pereira, J.; Audouin, L.; Enqvist, T.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Yordanov, O.; Junghans, A. R.; Jurado, B.; Rejmund, F.

    2010-10-15

    The production of heavy neutron-rich nuclei has been investigated using cold-fragmentation reactions of {sup 238}U projectiles at relativistic energies. The experiment performed at the high-resolving-power magnetic spectrometer Fragment Separator at GSI made it possible to identify 40 new heavy neutron-rich nuclei: {sup 205}Pt, {sup 207-210}Au, {sup 211-216}Hg, {sup 214-217}Tl, {sup 215-220}Pb, {sup 219-224}Bi, {sup 223-227}Po, {sup 225-229}At, {sup 230,231}Rn, and {sup 233}Fr. The production cross sections of these nuclei were also determined and used to benchmark reaction codes that predict the production of nuclei far from stability.

  16. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions. Progress report, January 1, 1990--August 5, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    1992-09-01

    Our work involves the study of intermediate energy heavy-ion nuclear reactions. This work has two foci. On the one hand, we desire to learn about the properties of nuclear matter under abnormal conditions, in this energy domain, predominately low densities. This purpose runs abreast of the second, which is the study of the relevant reaction mechanisms. The two objectives are inexorably linked because our experimental laboratory for studying nuclear matter properties is a dynamic one. We are forced to ask how nuclear matter properties, such as phase transitions, are reflected in the dynamics of the reactions. It may be that irrefutable information about nuclear matter will not be extracted from the reaction work. Nevertheless, we are compelled to undertake this effort not only because it is the only game in town and as yet we do not know that information cannot be extracted, but also because of our second objective. The process leads to an understanding of the reaction mechanism themselves and therefore to the response characteristics of finite, perhaps non-equilibrium, strongly interacting systems. Our program has been: To study energy, mass, and angular momentum deposition by studying incomplete fusion reactions. To gain confidence that we understand how highly excited systems decompose by studying all emissions from the highly excited systems. To push these kinds of studies into the intermediate energy domain, with excitation function studies. And attempt to learn about the dynamics of the decays using particle-particle correlations. In the last effort, we have decided to focus on simple systems, where we believe, definitive statements are possible. These avenues of research share a common theme, large complex fragment production.

  17. Fission induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments was investigated, as well as the probability of utilizing the energy of these particles to create population inversion leading to laser action. Eventually, it is hoped that the same medium could be used for both fissioning and lasing, thus avoiding inefficiences in converting one form of energy to the other. A central problem in understanding a fission induced plasma is to obtain an accurate model of the electron behavior; some calculations are presented to this end. The calculations are simple, providing a compendium of processes for reference.

  18. Realistic fission models, new beta-decay half-lives and the r-process in neutron star mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Shibagaki, S.; Kajino, T.; Chiba, S.; Lorusso, G.; Nishimura, S.; Mathews, G. J.

    2014-05-02

    Almost half of heavy nuclei beyond iron are considered to be produced by rapid neutron capture process (r-process). This process occurs in the neutron-rich environment such as core-collapse supernovae or neutron star mergers, but the main production site is still unknown. In the r-process of neutron star mergers, nuclear fission reactions play an important role. Also beta-decay half-lives of magic nuclei are crucial for the r-process. We have carried out r-process nucleosynthesis calculations based upon new theoretical estimates of fission fragment distributions and new beta-decay half-lives for N=82 nuclei measured at RIBF-RIKEN. We investigate the effect of nuclear fission on abundance patterns in the matter ejected from neutron star mergers with two different fission fragment mass distributions. We also discuss how the new experimental beta-decay half-lives affect the r-process.

  19. The Reaction Mechanism in Heavy-Ion Collisions Leading to the Superheavy Compound Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, M. G.; Beghini, S.; Behera, B. R.; Bogatchev, A. A.; Corradi, L.; Dorvaux, O.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Hanappe, F.; Itkis, I. M.; Kliman, J.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Latina, A.; Montagnoli, G.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Prokhorova, E. V.; Rowley, N.; Rubchenya, V. A.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Scarlassara, F.; Stefanini, A. M.; Stuttge, L.; Szilner, S.; Trotta, M.; Trzaska, W. H.

    2008-08-01

    Results of the experiments aimed at the study of fission and quasi-fission processes in the reactions 36S+238U, 48Ca+144,154Sm, 168Er, 208Pb, 238U, 244Pu, 248Cm; 50Ti+208Pb, 244Pu;58Fe+208Pb, 244Pu, 248Cm, and 64Ni+186W, 242Pu leading to the formation of heavy and super-heavy systems with Z=82-122 are presented. Cross sections, mass-energy and angular distributions for fission and quasifission fragments have been studied at energies close and below the Coulomb barrier. The influence of the reaction entrance channel properties as mass asymmetry, deformations and neutron excess, shell effects in the interacting nuclei and producing compound nucleus the mechanism of the fusion-fission and the competitive process of quasi-fission are discussed.

  20. Dynamics of neutron-induced fission of 235U using four-dimensional Langevin equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavani, M. R.; Mirfathi, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    Background: Langevin equations have been suggested as a key approach to the dynamical analysis of energy dissipation in excited nuclei, formed during heavy-ion fusion-fission reactions. Recently, a few researchers theoretically reported investigations of fission for light nuclei in a low excitation energy using the Langevin approach, without considering the contribution of pre- and post-scission particles and γ -ray emission. Purpose: We study the dynamical evolution of mass distribution of fission fragments, and neutron and γ -ray multiplicity for 236U as compound nuclei that are constructed after fusion of a neutron and 235U. Method: Energy dissipation of the compound nucleus through fission is calculated using the Langevin dynamical approach combined with a Monte Carlo method. Also the shape of the fissioning nucleus is restricted to "funny hills" parametrization. Results: Fission fragment mass distribution, neutron and γ -ray multiplicity, and the average kinetic energy of emitted neutrons and γ rays at a low excitation energy are calculated using a dynamical model, based on the four-dimensional Langevin equations. Conclusions: The theoretical results show reasonable agreement with experimental data and the proposed dynamical model can well explain the energy dissipation in low energy induced fission.

  1. Multi-modal fission in collinear ternary cluster decay of 252Cf(sf, fff)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Oertzen, W.; Nasirov, A. K.; Tashkhodjaev, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the multiple decay modes of collinear fission in 252Cf(sf, fff), with three fragments as suggested by the potential energy surface (PES). Fission as a statistical decay is governed by the phase space of the different decay channels, which are suggested in the PES-landscape. The population of the fission modes is determined by the minima in the PES at the scission points and on the internal potential barriers. The ternary collinear decay proceeds as a sequential process, in two steps. The originally observed ternary decay of 252Cf(sf) into three different masses (e.g. 132-140Sn, 52-48Ca, 68-72Ni), observed by the FOBOS group in the FLNR (Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions) of the JINR (Dubna) the collinear cluster tripartition (CCT), is one of the ternary fission modes. This kind of "true ternary fission" of heavy nuclei has often been predicted in theoretical works during the last decades. In the present note we discuss different ternary fission modes in the same system. The PES shows pronounced minima, which correspond to several modes of ternary fragmentations. These decays have very similar dynamical features as the previously observed CCT-decays. The data obtained in the experiments on CCT allow us to extract the yields for different decay modes using specific gates on the measured parameters, and to establish multiple modes of the ternary fission decay.

  2. Urine of patients with early prostate cancer contains lower levels of light chain fragments of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor and saposin B but increased expression of an inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 fragment.

    PubMed

    Jayapalan, Jaime J; Ng, Keng L; Shuib, Adawiyah S; Razack, Azad H A; Hashim, Onn H

    2013-06-01

    The present study was aimed at the identification of proteins that are differentially expressed in the urine of patients with prostate cancer (PCa), those with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and age-matched healthy male control subjects. Using a combination of 2DE and MS/MS, significantly lower expression of urinary saposin B and two different fragments of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor light chain (ITIL) was demonstrated in the PCa patients compared to the controls. However, only one of the ITIL fragments was significantly different between the PCa and BPH patients. When image analysis was performed on urinary proteins that were transferred onto NC membranes and detected using a lectin that binds to O-glycans, a truncated fragment of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 was the sole protein found to be significantly enhanced in the PCa patients compared to the controls. Together, these urinary peptide fragments might be useful complementary biomarkers to indicate PCa as well as to distinguish it from BPH, although further epidemiological evidence on the specificity and sensitivity of the protein candidates is required. PMID:23417432

  3. Low-energy fission investigated in reactions of 750 AMeV238U-ions with Pb and Be targets. I. Nuclear charge distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.; Czajkowski, S.; Geissel, H.; Aumann, T.; Dessagne, Ph.; Donzaud, C.; Hanelt, E.; Heinz, A.; Hesse, M.; Kozhuharov, C.; Miehe, Ch.; Münzenberg, G.; Pfützner, M.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Schwab, W.; Stéphan, C.; Sümmerer, K.; Tassan-Got, L.; Voss, B.

    1996-12-01

    Charge distributions of fragments from low energy nuclear fission are investigated in reactions of highly fissile238U projectiles at relativistic energies (750 A·MeV) with a heavy (Pb) and a light (Be) target. The fully stripped fission fragments are separated by the Fragment Separator (FRS). Their high kinetic energies in the laboratory system allow the identification of all atomic numbers by using Multiple-Sampling Ionization Chambers (MUSIC). The elemental distributions of fragments observed at larger magnetic rigidities than the238U projectiles show asymmetric break-up and odd-even effects. They indicate a low energy fission process, induced mainly by dissociation in the electro-magnetic field for the U/Pb-system, or by peripheral nuclear interactions for the U/Be-system.

  4. ''Subthreshold'' reactions involving nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.; Shrock, R.

    2001-02-01

    We analyze reactions of several types that are naively below threshold but can proceed because of the release of binding energy from nuclear fission and occasionally the formation of Coulombic bound states. These reactions include (i) photofission with pion production and (ii) charged current neutrino-nucleus reactions that lead to fission and/or formation of a Coulomb bound state of a {mu}{sup -} with the nucleus of a fission fragment. We comment on the possible experimental observation of these reactions.

  5. Microscopic dynamical description of proton-induced fission with the constrained molecular dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonta, N.; Souliotis, G. A.; Veselsky, M.; Bonasera, A.

    2015-08-01

    The microscopic description of nuclear fission still remains a topic of intense basic research. Understanding nuclear fission, apart from a theoretical point of view, is of practical importance for energy production and the transmutation of nuclear waste. In nuclear astrophysics, fission sets the upper limit to the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements via the r process. In this work we initiated a systematic study of intermediate-energy proton-induced fission using the constrained molecular dynamics (CoMD) code. The CoMD code implements an effective interaction with a nuclear matter compressibility of K =200 (soft equation of state) with several forms of the density dependence of the nucleon-nucleon symmetry potential. Moreover, a constraint is imposed in the phase-space occupation for each nucleon restoring the Pauli principle at each time step of the collision. A proper choice of the surface parameter of the effective interaction has been made to describe fission. In this work, we present results of fission calculations for proton-induced reactions on: (a) 232Th at 27 and 63 MeV; (b) 235U at 10, 30, 60, and 100 MeV; and (c) 238U at 100 and 660 MeV. The calculated observables include fission-fragment mass distributions, total fission energies, neutron multiplicities, and fission times. These observables are compared to available experimental data. We show that the microscopic CoMD code is able to describe the complicated many-body dynamics of the fission process at intermediate and high energy and give a reasonable estimate of the fission time scale. Sensitivity of the results to the density dependence of the nucleon symmetry potential (and, thus, the nuclear symmetry energy) is found. Further improvements of the code are necessary to achieve a satisfactory description of low-energy fission in which shell effects play a dominant role.

  6. Azimuthal distributions of fission fragments and. alpha. particles emitted in the reactions sup 36 Ar+ sup 238 U at E / A =20 and 35 MeV and sup 14 N+ sup 238 U at E / A =50 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, M.B.; Kim, Y.D.; Carlin, N.; Chen, Z.; Gelbke, C.K.; Gong, W.G.; Lynch, W.G.; Murakami, T.; Nayak, T.; Ronningen, R.M.; Xu, H.M.; Zhu, F. Department of Physics Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI ); Sobotka, L.G.; Stracener, D.W.; Sarantites, D.G.; Majka, Z.; Abenante, V. )

    1990-07-01

    Azimuthal correlations between coincident fission fragments and {alpha} particles were measured for the reactions {sup 36}Ar+{sup 238}U at {ital E}/{ital A}=20 and 35 MeV and {sup 14}N+{sup 238}U at {ital E}/{ital A}=50 MeV. At all energies, coplanar emission is enhanced. The azimuthal distributions for fission fragments and {alpha} particles are decoupled using a simple parametrization. Both azimuthal distributions are highly anisotropic at lower incident energies; these anisotropies decrease with energy. At the highest incident energies, energetic {alpha} particles emitted at large transverse momenta appear to be more suited than fission fragments to tag the orientation of the entrance channel reaction plane.

  7. Fission Particle Emission Multiplicity Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-09-27

    Simulates discrete neutron and gamma-ray emission from the fission of heavy nuclei that is either spontaneous or neutron induced. This is a function library that encapsulates the fission physics and is intended to be called Monte Carlo transport code.

  8. DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells exposed to gamma-rays and very heavy ions. Fragment-size distributions determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kraxenberger, F; Weber, K J; Friedl, A A; Eckardt-Schupp, F; Flentje, M; Quicken, P; Kellerer, A M

    1998-07-01

    The spatial distribution of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) was assessed after treatment of mammalian cells (V79) with densely ionizing radiation. Cells were exposed to beams of heavy charged particles (calcium ions: 6.9 MeV/u, 2.1.10(3) keV/microm; uranium ions: 9.0 MeV/u, 1.4.10(4) keV/microm) at the linear accelerator UNILAC of GSI, Darmstadt. DNA was isolated in agarose plugs and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis under conditions that separated DNA fragments of size 50 kbp to 5 Mbp. The measured fragment distributions were compared to those obtained after gamma-irradiation and were analyzed by means of a convolution and a deconvolution technique. In contrast to the finding for gamma-radiation, the distributions produced by heavy ions do not correspond to the random breakage model. Their marked overdispersion and the observed excess of short fragments reflect spatial clustering of DSB that extends over large regions of the DNA, up to several mega base pairs (Mbp). At fluences of 0.75 and 1.5/microm2, calcium ions produce nearly the same shape of fragment spectrum, merely with a difference in the amount of DNA entering the gel; this suggests that the DNA is fragmented by individual calcium ions. At a fluence of 0.8/microm2 uranium ions produce a profile that is shifted to smaller fragment sizes in comparison to the profile obtained at a fluence of 0.4/microm2; this suggests cumulative action of two separate ions in the formation of fragments. These observations are not consistent with the expectation that the uranium ions, with their much larger LET, should be more likely to produce single particle action than the calcium ions. However, a consideration of the greater lateral extension of the tracks of the faster uranium ions explains the observed differences; it suggests that the DNA is closely coiled so that even DNA locations several Mbp apart are usually not separated by less than 0. 1 or 0.2 microm. PMID:9728743

  9. Phase space analysis and contribution of participant-spectator matter towards fragments formed in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Sukhjit

    2016-05-01

    We study the contribution of participant and spectator matter towards different kinds of fragments. We find higher contribution of spectator matter towards heavier fragments compared to lighter fragments. We also notice that heavier IMFs preserve the time correlations. The nucleons emerging as lighter IMFs however, are well separated in the phase space at the start of the reaction and form the cluster at later times. The neutron-richness of the reacting partners is found to have negligible effect on the participant-spectator matter.

  10. First experimental results of a cryogenic stopping cell with short-lived, heavy uranium fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Haettner, E.; Dendooven, P.; Dickel, T.; Geissel, H.; Ebert, J.; Jesch, C.; Plass, W. R.; Ranjan, M.; Weick, H.; Amjad, F.; Ayet, S.; Diwisch, M.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Greiner, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Lang, J.; Moore, I. D.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Petrick, M.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rink, A.-K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Winfield, J. S.; Yavor, M. I.

    2013-11-01

    A cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) has been commissioned with 238U projectile fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u. The spatial isotopic separation in flight was performed with the FRS applying a monoenergetic degrader. For the first time, a stopping cell was operated with exotic nuclei at cryogenic temperatures (70 to 100 K). A helium stopping gas density of up to 0.05\\ \\text{mg/cm}^3 was used, about two times higher than reached before for a stopping cell with RF ion repelling structures. An overall efficiency of up to 15%, a combined ion survival and extraction efficiency of about 50%, and extraction times of 24 ms were achieved for heavy α-decaying uranium fragments. Mass spectrometry with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer has demonstrated the excellent cleanliness of the CSC. This setup has opened a new field for the spectroscopy of short-lived nuclei.

  11. Strong enhancement of dynamical emission of heavy fragments in the neutron-rich {sup 124}Sn+{sup 64}Ni reaction at 35A MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Russotto, P.; Amorini, F.; Cavallaro, S.; Di Toro, M.; Giustolisi, F.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Cardella, G.; Lanzano, G.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Piasecki, E.; Auditore, L.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.

    2010-06-15

    A quantitative comparison is made between the absolute cross sections associated with statistical and dynamical emission of heavy fragments in the {sup 124}Sn+{sup 64}Ni and {sup 112}Sn+{sup 58}Ni collisions experimentally investigated at 35A MeV beam energy using the multidetector CHIMERA. The result shows that the dynamical process is about twice as probable in the neutron-rich {sup 124}Sn+{sup 64}Ni system as in the {sup 112}Sn+{sup 58}Ni neutron-poor one. This unexpected and significant difference indicates that the reaction mechanism is strongly dependent on the entrance-channel isospin (N/Z) content.

  12. Angular correlations between heavy and light fragments in the reaction sup 32 S+ sup 26 Mg at E sub lab =163. 5 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, S. ); Prete, G. ); Viesti, G. )

    1990-04-01

    Angular correlation measurements between heavy residues ({ital Z}{sub {ital R}}=23--13) and light fragments ({ital Z}{sub {ital L}}=2--10) have been performed for the reaction {sup 32}S+{sup 26}Mg at {ital E}{sub lab}=163.5 MeV. The binary nature of the mechanisms competing with fusion-evaporation is evidenced. Linear momentum analysis and velocity plots indicate contributions of binary reactions also for those elements that are generally believed to be produced by fusion-evaporation mechanisms.

  13. Neutron productions in the fragmentation of relativistic heavy nuclei and formation of a beam of high-energy neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurevich, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    The production of quasimonoenergetic high-energy neutrons at zero angle (0°) in the spallation of relativistic heavy nuclei is discussed by considering the example of the interaction of lead nuclei with light target nuclei. It is shown that this process can be used to generate a beam of high-energy neutrons at existing heavy ion accelerators. At the same time, itmay lead to the appearance of a parasitic neutron beam because of the interaction of the heavy-ion beam used with beam line and experimental setup materials.

  14. Recent Results from Lohengrin on Fission Yields and Related Decay Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serot, O.; Amouroux, C.; Bidaud, A.; Capellan, N.; Chabod, S.; Ebran, A.; Faust, H.; Kessedjian, G.; Köester, U.; Letourneau, A.; Litaize, O.; Martin, F.; Materna, T.; Mathieu, L.; Panebianco, S.; Regis, J.-M.; Rudigier, M.; Sage, C.; Urban, W.

    2014-05-01

    The Lohengrin mass spectrometer is one of the 40 instruments built around the reactor of the Institute Laue-Langevin (France) which delivers a very intense thermal neutron flux. Usually, Lohengrin was combined with a high-resolution ionization chamber in order to obtain good nuclear charge discrimination within a mass line, yielding an accurate isotopic yield determination. Unfortunately, this experimental procedure can only be applied for fission products with a nuclear charge less than about 42, i.e. in the light fission fragment region. Since 2008, a large collaboration has started with the aim of studying various fission aspects, mainly in the heavy fragment region. For that, a new experimental setup which allows isotopic identification by γ-ray spectrometry has been developed and validated. This technique was applied on the 239Pu(nth,f) reaction where about 65 fission product yields were measured with an uncertainty that has been reduced on average by a factor of 2 compared with what was that previously available in nuclear data libraries. The same γ-ray spectrometric technique is currently being applied to the study of the 233U(nth,f) reaction. Our aim is to deduce charge and mass distributions of the fission products and to complete the experimental data that exist mainly for light fission fragments. The measurement of 41 mass yields from the 241Am(2nth,f) reaction has been also performed. In addition to these activities on fission yield measurements, various new nanosecond isomers were discovered. Their presence can be revealed from a strong deformed ionic charge distribution compared to a 'normal' Gaussian shape. Finally, a new neutron long-counter detector designed to have a detection efficiency independent of the detected neutron energy has been built. Combining this neutron device with a Germanium detector and a beta-ray detector array allowed us to measure the beta-delayed neutron emission probability Pn of some important fission products for reactor

  15. Fission modelling with FIFRELIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litaize, Olivier; Serot, Olivier; Berge, Léonie

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear fission process gives rise to the formation of fission fragments and emission of particles (n,γ , e-) . The particle emission from fragments can be prompt and delayed. We present here the methods used in the FIFRELIN code, which simulates the prompt component of the de-excitation process. The methods are based on phenomenological models associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic ingredients. Input data can be provided by experiment as well as by theory. The fission fragment de-excitation can be performed within Weisskopf (uncoupled neutron and gamma emission) or a Hauser-Feshbach (coupled neutron/gamma emission) statistical theory. We usually consider five free parameters that cannot be provided by theory or experiments in order to describe the initial distributions required by the code. In a first step this set of parameters is chosen to reproduce a very limited set of target observables. In a second step we can increase the statistics to predict all other fission observables such as prompt neutron, gamma and conversion electron spectra but also their distributions as a function of any kind of parameters such as, for instance, the neutron, gamma and electron number distributions, the average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of fission fragment mass, charge or kinetic energy, and so on. Several results related to different fissioning systems are presented in this work. The goal in the next decade will be i) to replace some macroscopic ingredients or phenomenological models by microscopic calculations when available and reliable, ii) to be a support for experimentalists in the design of detection systems or in the prediction of necessary beam time or count rates with associated statistics when measuring fragments and emitted particle in coincidence iii) extend the model to be able to run a calculation when no experimental input data are available, iv) account for multiple chance fission and gamma emission before fission, v) account for the

  16. True ternary fission, the collinear cluster tripartition (CCT) of {sup 252}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Oertzen, W. von; Pyatkov, Y. V.; Kamanin, D.

    2012-10-20

    In systematic work over the last decade (see Pyatkov et al. [12] and refs therein), the ternary fission decay of heavy nuclei, in {sup 235}U(n,fff) and {sup 252}Cf(sf) has been studied in a collinear geometry. The name used for this process is (CCT), with three fragments of similar size in a collinear decay, it is the true ternary fission. This decay has been observed in spontaneous fission as well as in a neutron induced reaction. The measurements are based on different experimental set-ups, with binary coincidences containing TOF and energy determinations. With two detector telescopes placed at 180 Degree-Sign , the measurements of masses and energies of each of the registered two fragments, give complete kinematic solutions. Thus the missing mass events in binary coincidences can be determined, these events are obtained by blocking one of the lighter fragments on a structure in front of the detectors. The relatively high yield of CCT (more than 10{sup -3} per binary fission) is explained. It is due to the favourable Q-values (more positive than for binary) and the large phase space of the ternary CCT-decay, dominated by three (magic) clusters: e.g. isotopes of Sn, Ca and Ni, {sup 132}Sn+{sup 50}Ca+{sup 70}Ni. It is shown that the collinear (prolate) geometry has the favoured potential energy relative to the oblate shapes. The ternary fission is considered to be a sequential process. With this assumption the kinetic energies of the fragments have been calculated by Vijay et al.. The third fragments have very low kinetic energies (below 20 MeV) and have thus escaped their detection in previous work on 'ternary fission', where in addition an oblate shape and a triangle for the momentum vectors have been assumed.

  17. Population kinetics of laser levels of neodymium ions in POCl{sub 3}-SnCl{sub 4}-{sup 235}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-Nd{sup 3+} excited by fission fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Seregina, E A; Dobrovol'skii, A F; Kabakov, D V; Seregin, A A; Tikhonov, G V

    2009-08-31

    The population kinetics of laser levels of neodymium ions in the uranium-containing POCl{sub 3}-SnCl{sub 4}-{sup 235}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-Nd{sup 3+} laser liquid irradiated in a BARS-6 pulsed reactor is studied experimentally and theoretically. The relations between the populations of the upper and lower laser levels are studied at different time moments with respect to the pump pulse. An inverse population of laser levels is observed and found to be directly proportional to the pump power. The efficiency of pumping of the upper laser level of neodymium ions in the laser medium by uranium fission fragments is determined, and quantitative information is obtained on the inverse population, gain, and their dependences on the pump power. (active media)

  18. Recent applications of the Boltzmann master equation to heavy ion precompound decay phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1988-06-01

    The Boltzmann master equation (BME) is described and used as a tool to interpret preequilibrium neutron emission from heavy ion collisions gated on evaporation residue or fission fragments. The same approach is used to interpret neutron spectra gated on deep inelastic and quasi-elastic heavy ion collisions. Less successful applications of BME to proton inclusive data with 40 MeV/u incident /sup 12/C ions are presented, and improvements required in the exciton injection term are discussed.

  19. Effective field theories in the study of KAON(LONG) TO PION+ PION- POSITRON ELECTRON and heavy quark fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwood, John Kenneth

    1997-03-01

    This thesis examines several situations in which effective field theories may be used to generate perturbative predictions for nonperturbative phenomena. The decay mode K-long to Pi(plus) Pi(minus) e(plus) e(minus) is analyzed in great detail using chiral perturbation theory, and the form factors for the decay are determined, along with the sizes of various CP violating observables. One of these variables turns out to be quite sizeable, approaching 20% for appropriate cuts on the lepton pair invariant mass. Fragmentation of a c quark to the excited charmed baryon doublet Lambda- c(*) is also studied within the framework of a chiral theory, and various decay distributions are expressed in terms of nonperturbative fragmentation parameters. A perturbative calculation of related fragmentation parameters is also briefly discussed.

  20. Mechanism of dissipation in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss a new surface-plus-window mechanism for the conversion of nuclear collective energy into internal degrees of freedom at intermediate excitation energies. This novel dissipation mechanism, which results from the long mean free path of nucleons inside a nucleus, involves interactions of either one or two nucleons with the moving nuclear surface and also, for dumbbell-like shapes encountered in heavy-ion reactions and fission, the transfer of nucleons through the window separating the two portions of the system. To illustrate the effect of surface-plus-window dissipation on heavy-ion-fusion reactions we present dynamical calculations for values of the dissipation strength corresponding to 27% and 100% of the Swiatecki wall-formula value, as well as for no dissipation. In addition to dynamical thresholds for compound-nucleus formation in heavy-ion reactions, our new picture describes such other phenomena as experimental mean fission-fragment kinetic energies for the fission of nuclei throughout the periodic system, enhancement in neutron emission prior to fission, short scission-to-scission times in sequential ternary fission, widths of mass and charge distributions in deep-inelastic heavy-ion reactions, and widths of isoscalar giant quadrupole and giant octupole resonances. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  1. A scaling phenomenon in the difference of Shannon information uncertainty of fragments in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Song, Yi-Dan; Qiao, Chun-Yuan; Wang, Shan-Shan; Wei, Hui-Ling; Ma, Yu-Gang; Cao, Xi-Guang

    2016-08-01

    Shannon information-entropy uncertainty is used to analyze fragments in the measured 140A MeV {}{40,48}Ca + 9Be and {}{58,64}Ni + 9Be reactions. A scaling phenomenon is found in the information-uncertainty difference of fragments between the reactions. The scaling phenomenon is explained in the manner of canonical ensemble theory, and is reproduced in simulated reactions using the antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) and AMD + GEMINI models. The probes based on information uncertainty, requiring no equilibrium state of reaction, can be used in the non-equilibrium system, and bridge the results of the static thermodynamics models and the evolving dynamical transport models.

  2. Prompt Fission Neutron Emission in Resonance Fission of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Varapai, Natallia; Zeinalov, Shakir; Oberstedt, Stephan; Serot, Olivier

    2005-05-01

    The prompt neutron emission probability from neutron-induced fission in the resonance region is being investigated at the time-of-flight facility GELINA of the IRMM. A double Frisch-gridded ionization chamber is used as a fission-fragment detector. For the data acquisition of both the fission-fragment signals as well as the neutron detector signals the fast digitization technique has been applied. For the neutron detection, large-volume liquid scintillation detectors from the DEMON collaboration are used. A specialized data analysis program taking advantage of the digital filtering technique has been developed to treat the acquired data. Neutron multiplicity investigations for actinides, especially in resonance neutron-induced fission, are rather scarce. They are, however, important for reactor control and safety issues as well as for understanding the basic physics of the fission process. Fission yield measurements on both 235U and 239Pu without prompt neutron emission coincidence have shown that fluctuation of the fission-fragment mass distribution exists from resonance to resonance, larger in the case of 235U. To possibly explain these observations, the question now is whether the prompt neutron multiplicity shows similar fluctuations with resonance energy.

  3. Event-by-event evaluation of the prompt fission neutron spectrum from 239Pu(n,f)

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J; Brown, D A; Descalle, M A; Ormand, W E

    2011-11-28

    We have developed an improved evaluation method for the spectrum of neutrons emitted in fission of {sup 239}Pu induced by incident neutrons with energies up to 20 MeV. The covariance data, including incident energy correlations introduced by the evaluation method, were used to fix the input parameters in our event-by-event model of fission, FREYA, by applying formal statistical methods. Formal estimates of uncertainties in the evaluation were developed by randomly sampling model inputs and calculating likelihood functions based on agreement with the evaluated . Our approach is able to employ a greater variety of fission measurements than the relatively coarse spectral data alone. It also allows the study of numerous fission observables for more accurate model validation. The combination of an event-by-event Monte Carlo fission model with a statistical-likelihood analysis is thus a powerful tool for evaluation of fission-neutron data. Our empirical model FREYA follows the complete fission event from birth of the excited fragments through their decay via neutron emission until the fragment excitation energy is below the neutron separation energy when neutron emission can no longer occur. The most recent version of FREYA incorporates pre-equilibrium neutron emission, the emission of the first neutron before equilibrium is reached in the compound nucleus, and multi-chance fission, neutron evaporation prior to fission when the incident neutron energy is above the neutron separation energy. Energy, momentum, charge and mass number are conserved throughout the fission process. The best available values of fragment masses and total kinetic energies are used as inputs to FREYA. We fit three parameters that are not well under control from previous measurements: the shift in the total fragment kinetic energy; the energy scale of the asymptotic level density parameter, controlling the fragment 'temperature' for neutron evaporation; and the relative excitation of the

  4. Advanced Monte Carlo modeling of prompt fission neutrons for thermal and fast neutron-induced fission reactions on Pu239

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talou, P.; Becker, B.; Kawano, T.; Chadwick, M. B.; Danon, Y.

    2011-06-01

    Prompt fission neutrons following the thermal and 0.5 MeV neutron-induced fission reaction of Pu239 are calculated using a Monte Carlo approach to the evaporation of the excited fission fragments. Exclusive data such as the multiplicity distribution P(ν), the average multiplicity as a function of fragment mass ν¯(A), and many others are inferred in addition to the most used average prompt fission neutron spectrum χ(Ein,Eout), as well as average neutron multiplicity ν¯. Experimental information on these more exclusive data help constrain the Monte Carlo model parameters. The calculated average total neutron multiplicity is ν¯c=2.871 in very close agreement with the evaluated value ν¯e=2.8725 present in the ENDF/B-VII.0 library. The neutron multiplicity distribution P(ν) is in very good agreement with the evaluation by Holden and Zucker. The calculated average spectrum differs in shape from the ENDF/B-VII.0 spectrum, evaluated with the Madland-Nix model. In particular, we predict more neutrons in the low-energy tail of the spectrum (below about 300 keV) than the Madland-Nix calculations, casting some doubts on how much scission neutrons contribute to the shape of the low-energy tail of the spectrum. The spectrum high-energy tail is very sensitive to the total kinetic energy distribution of the fragments as well as to the total excitation energy sharing at scission. Present experimental uncertainties on measured spectra above 6 MeV are too large to distinguish between various theoretical hypotheses. Finally, comparisons of the Monte Carlo results with experimental data on ν¯(A) indicate that more neutrons are emitted from the light fragments than the heavy ones, in agreement with previous works.

  5. Primary isotope yields and characteristic properties of the fragmenting source in heavy-ion reactions near the Fermi energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Lin, W.; Wada, R.; Huang, M.; Chen, Z.; Xiao, G. Q.; Zhang, S.; Jin, X.; Han, R.; Liu, J.; Shi, F.; Zheng, H.; Natowitz, J. B.; Bonasera, A.

    2014-07-01

    For central collisions of Ca40+Ca40 at 35 MeV/nucleon, the density and temperature of a fragmenting source have been evaluated in a self-consistent manner using the ratio of the symmetry energy coefficient relative to the temperature, asym/T, extracted from the yields of primary isotopes produced in antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations. The asym/T values are extracted from all isotope yields using an improved method based on the modified Fisher model (MFM). The values of asym/T obtained, using different interactions with different density dependencies of the symmetry energy term, are correlated with the values of the symmetry energies at the density of fragment formation. Using this correlation, the fragment formation density is found to be ρ /ρ0=0.67±0.02. Using the input symmetry energy value for each interaction temperature values are extracted as a function of isotope mass A. The extracted temperature values are compared with those evaluated from the fluctuation thermometer with a radial flow correction.

  6. ANOMALOUS REACTION MEAN FREE PATHS OF NUCLEAR PROJECTILE FRAGMENTS FROM HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT 2 AGeV

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, E.M.; Gimpel, R.W.; Heckman, H.H.; Karant, Y.J.; Judek, B.; Ganssauge, E.

    1982-08-01

    We present in detail the description and the analysis of two independent experiments using Bevalac beams of {sup 16}O and {sup 56}Fe. From their results it is concluded that the reaction mean free paths of relativistic projectile fragments, 3 {<=} Z {<=} 26, are shorter for a few centimeters after emission than at large distances where they are compatible with values predicted from experiments on beam nuclei. The probability that this effect is due to a statistical fluctuation is <10{sup -3}. The effect is enhanced in later generations of fragments, the correlation between successive generations suggesting a kind of "memory" for the anomaly. Various systematic and spurious effects as well as conventional explanations are discussed mainly on the basis of direct experimental observations internal to our data, and found not to explain our results. The data can be interpreted by the relatively rare occurrence of anomalous fragments that interact with an unexpectedly large cross section. The statistical methods used in the analysis of the observations are fully described.

  7. Potentials of fissioning plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, K.

    1979-01-01

    Successful experiments with the nuclear pumping of lasers have demonstrated that in a gaseous medium the kinetic energy of fission fragments can be converted directly into nonequilibrium optical radiation. This confirms the concept that the fissioning medium in a gas-phase nuclear reactor shows an internal structure such as a plasma in near thermal equilibrium varying up to a state of extreme nonequilibrium. During 20 years of research under NASA support major elements of the fissioning plasma reactor were demonstrated in theory and experiment, culminating in a proof-of-principle reactor test conducted at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. It is concluded that the construction of a gaseous fuel reactor power plant is within the reach of present technology.

  8. Frustrated fragmentation and re-aggregation in nuclei: A non-equilibrium description in spallation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitani, P.; Colonna, M.

    2015-09-01

    Heavy nuclei bombarded with protons and deuterons in the 1 GeV range have a large probability of undergoing a process of evaporation and fission; less frequently, the prompt emission of a few intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs) can also be observed. We employ a recently developed microscopic approach, based on the Boltzmann-Langevin transport equation, to investigate the role of mean-field dynamics and phase-space fluctuations in these reactions. We find that the formation of few IMFs can be confused with asymmetric fission when relying on yield observables, but it cannot be ascribed to the statistical decay of a compound nucleus when analyzing the dynamics and kinematic observables; it can be described as a fragmentation process initiated by phase-space fluctuations, and successively frustrated by the mean-field resilience. As an extreme situation, which corresponds to non-negligible probability, the number of fragments in the exit channel reduces to two, so that fission-like events are obtained by re-aggregation processes. This interpretation, inspired by nuclear-spallation experiments, can be generalized to heavy-ion collisions from Fermi to relativistic energies, for situations when the system is closely approaching the fragmentation threshold.

  9. Probing the direct step of relativistic heavy ion fragmentation: (/sup 12/C, /sup 11/B+p) at 2. 1 GeV/nucleon with C and CH/sub 2/ targets

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.L.

    1987-06-01

    Relativistic heavy ion collisions may be classified as central (and near central), peripheral, and grazing with each collision type producing different proton and other charged projectile fragment scattering mechanisms and characteristics. This report focuses on peripheral and grazing collisions in the fragmentation of Carbon-12 into Boron-11 and a proton, testing models of the kinetics involved in this reaction. The data were measured at the Heavy Ion Superconducting Spectrometer (HISS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and include excitation energy for the p/Boron-11 pair, and rapidity versus transverse momentum for protons and Boron-11. 58 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs. (DWL)

  10. Energy dependence of fission observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paşca, Horia

    2016-01-01

    The mass, charge and isotopic distributions of fission fragments are studied within an improved scission-point statistical model in the reaction 235U+n at different energies of the incident neutron. The available experimental data are well reproduced and the energy-dependencies of the observable characteristics of fission are predicted for future experiments. The calculated mass distribution of 238U+n is also compared with experimental data.

  11. Fusion, fission, and quasi-fission using TDHF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Sait; Oberacker, Volker

    2014-03-01

    We study fusion, fission, and quasi-fission reactions using the time-dependent Hartee-Fock (TDHF) approach together with the density-constrained TDHF method for fusion. The only input is the Skyrme NN interaction, there are no adjustable parameters. We discuss the identification of quasi-fission in 40Ca+238U, the scission dynamics in symmetric fission of 264Fm, as well as calculating heavy-ion interaction potentials V (R) , mass parameters M (R) , and total fusion cross sections from light to heavy systems. Some of the effects naturally included in these calculations are: neck formation, mass exchange, internal excitations, deformation effects, as well as nuclear alignment for deformed systems. Supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER40975.

  12. Ternary fission of superheavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, M.; Vijayaraghavan, K. R.; Manimaran, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ternary fission of superheavy nuclei is studied within the three-cluster model potential energy surfaces (PESs). Due to shell effects, the stability of superheavy nuclei has been predicted to be associated with Z =114 , 120, and 126 for protons and N =184 for neutrons. Taking some representative nuclei we have extended the ternary fission studies to superheavy nuclei. We adopted two minimization procedures to minimize the potential and considered different arrangements of the fragments. The PES from one-dimensional minimization reveals a strong cluster region favoring various ternary breakups for an arrangement in which the lightest fragment is kept at the center. The PES obtained from two-dimensional minimization reveals strong preference of ternary fragmentation in the true ternary fission region. Though the dominant decay mode of superheavy nuclei is α decay, the α -accompanied ternary breakup is found to be a nonfavorable one. Further, the prominent ternary combinations are found to be associated with the neutron magic number.

  13. Nuclear Fission Research at IRMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2005-05-24

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) will celebrate its 45th anniversary in 2005. With its 150-MeV Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA) and 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator as multi-purpose neutron sources, it served the nuclear physics community for this period.The research in the field of nuclear fission was focused in recent years on both the measurement and calculation of fission cross sections, and the measurement of fission fragment properties.Fission cross sections were determined for 233Pa and 234U; the fission process was studied in the resolved resonance region of 239Pu(n,f) and for 251Cf(nth,f). These measurements derive their interest from accelerator driven systems, the thorium fuel cycle, high temperature reactors, safety issues of current reactors, and basic physics. The measurements are supported by several modeling efforts that aim at improving model codes and nuclear data evaluation.

  14. The fusion-fission process in the reaction 34S +186W near the interaction barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harca, I. M.; Dmitriev, S.; Itkis, J.; Kozulin, E. M.; Knyazheva, G.; Loktev, T.; Novikov, K.; Azaiez, F.; Gottardo, A.; Matea, I.; Verney, D.; Chubarian, G.; Hanappe, F.; Piot, J.; Schmitt, C.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vardaci, E.

    2015-02-01

    The reaction 34S +186W at Elab=160 MeV was investigated with the aim of diving into the features of the fusion-fission process. Gamma rays in coincidence with binary reaction fragments were measured using the high efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer ORGAM at the TANDEM Accelerator facility of I.P.N., Orsay, and the time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments (FF) registration CORSET of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), Dubna. The coupling of the ORGAM and CORSET setups offers the unique opportunity of extracting details for characterizing the fusion-fission process and gives information regarding production of neutron-rich heavy nuclei. The FF-γ coincidence method is of better use then the γ - γ coincidence method when dealing with low statistic measurements and also offers the opportunity to precisely correct the Dopler shift for in-flight emitted gamma rays. Evidence of symmetric and asymmetric fission modes were observed in the mass and TKE distributions, occurring due to shell effects in the fragments. Coincident measurements allow for discrimination between the gamma rays by accepting a specific range within the mass distribution of the reaction products. Details regarding the experimental setup, methods of processing the acquisitioned data and preliminary results are presented.

  15. Cluster aspects of binary fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2013-04-01

    With the improved scission-point model the mass distributions are calculated for induced fission of different Hg isotopes with even mass numbers A =180, 184, 188, 192, 196, 198. The calculated mass distribution and mean total kinetic energy of fission fragments are in a good agreement with the existing experimental data. The change in the shape of the mass distribution from asymmetric to more symmetric is revealed with increasing A of the fissioning AHg nucleus, and the reactions are proposed to verify this prediction experimentally.

  16. Coincidence measurements between fragment ions and the number of emitted electrons in heavy ion collisions with polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, T.; Majima, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Tsuchida, H.; Itoh, A.

    2012-11-01

    We have studied multiple ionization and multifragmentation of a chlorofluorocarbon molecule, CH2FCF3, induced by collisions of 580-keV C+ ions. Coincidence measurements of product ions and the number of emitted electrons from CH2FCF3 were performed under charge-changing conditions of C+ → Cq+ (q = 0, 2, 3). A fully inclusive measurement regardless of outgoing projectile charge state was also performed by making coincidence with a pulsed ion beam. Mass distributions of fragment ions and number distributions of emitted electrons were both found to change greatly according to charge-changing conditions. Highly multiple ionization emitting up to about 10 electrons was observed in electron loss collisions.

  17. Measurements of the fragmentation cross sections of relativistic heavy nuclei and their application to cosmic-ray propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Kertzman, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The fragmentation cross sections of relativistic krypton, xenon, holmium and gold nuclei in targets of aluminium, carbon and polyethylene were measured. The beams were accelerated to maximum rigidity at the LBL Bevalac, corresponding to energies per nucleon of 1.5, 1.2, 1.1, and 1.0 Gev/amu for Kr, Xe, Ho, and Au respectively. The total and partial charge changing cross sections were determined for each beam and target combination, and cross sections in hydrogen were derived from the polyethylene (CH/sub 2/) and carbon data. The total cross sections were found to be 10% to 15% smaller than the predictions of a formula derived from measurements made with lower charge nuclei, and a new representation of the dependence of the total charge changing cross sections on beam and target charge was determined.

  18. Superheavy nuclei and fission barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing-Nan; Zhao, Jie; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    In this chapter, we will present relativistic mean field (RMF) description of heavy and superheavy nuclei (SHN). We will discuss the shell structure and magic numbers in the mass region of SHN, binding energies and α decay Q values, shapes of ground states and potential energy surfaces and fission barriers. We particularly focus on the multidimensionally-constrained covariant density functional theories (CDFT) and the applications of CDFT to the study of exotic nuclear shapes and fission barriers.

  19. Fission of actinides through quasimolecular shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Guy; Zhang, Hongfei; Eudes, Philippe; Moustabchir, Rachid; Moreau, Damien; Jaffré, Muriel; Morabit, Youssef; Particelli, Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    The potential energy of heavy nuclei has been calculated in the quasimolecular shape path from a generalized liquid drop model including the proximity energy, the charge and mass asymmetries and the microscopic corrections. The potential barriers are multiple-humped. The second maximum is the saddle-point. It corresponds to the transition from compact one-body shapes with a deep neck to two touching ellipsoids. The scission point lies at the end of an energy plateau well below the saddle-point and where the effects of the nuclear attractive forces between two separated fragments vanish. The energy on this plateau is the sum of the kinetic and excitation energies of the fragments. The shell and pairing corrections play an essential role to select the most probable fission path. The potential barrier heights agree with the experimental data and the theoretical half-lives follow the trend of the experimental values. A third peak and a shallow third minimum appear in asymmetric decay paths when one fragment is close to a double magic quasi-spherical nucleus, while the smaller one changes from oblate to prolate shapes.

  20. Microscopic description of fission in uranium isotopes with the Gogny energy density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Guzmán, R.; Robledo, L. M.

    2014-05-01

    The most recent parametrizations D1S, D1N, and D1M of the Gogny energy density functional are used to describe fission in the isotopes 232-280U. Fission paths, collective masses, and zero-point quantum corrections, obtained within the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation, are used to compute the systematics of the spontaneous fission half-lives tSF, the masses and charges of the fission fragments, and their intrinsic shapes. The Gogny-D1M parametrization has been benchmarked against available experimental data on inner and second barrier heights, excitation energies of the fission isomers, and half-lives in a selected set of Pu, Cm, Cf, Fm, No, Rf, Sg, Hs, and Fl nuclei. It is concluded that D1M represents a reasonable starting point to describe fission in heavy and superheavy nuclei. Special attention is also paid to understand the uncertainties in the predicted tSF values arising from the different building blocks entering the standard semiclassical Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin formula. Although the uncertainties are large, the trend with mass or neutron numbers are well reproduced and therefore the theory still has predictive power. In this respect, it is also shown that modifications of a few percent in the pairing strength can have a significant impact on the collective masses leading to uncertainties in the tSF values of several orders of magnitude.

  1. Successive composition of two laser channels upon excitation of He-Ar-Xe (2.03 {mu}m) and Ar-Xe (1.73 {mu}m) mixtures by uranium fission fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Pikulev, A A; Tsvetkov, V M; Sosnin, P V; Sinyanskii, A A

    2009-06-30

    The operation efficiency of the scheme with successive composition of two laser channels upon excitation of the active medium by uranium-235 fission fragments is studied experimentally and numerically. For the He:Ar:Xe = 380:380:1 mixture (at a pressure of 1 atm and the lasing wavelength {lambda} = 2.03 {mu}m) the maximum lasing power of a double channel (1 kW) is almost twice that of a single channel (540 W). Calculations show that in the case of ideal composition (without losses on mirrors) the lasing power of the double channel can be increased to 1.2 kW. For the Ar:Xe = 380:1 mixture (the pressure is 0.5 atm, {lambda} = 1.73 {mu}m) the maximum lasing power of the double channel (620 W) is slightly above that of the single channel (520 W), which is caused by the losses on aluminum mirrors employed for channel doubling and by a negative effect of optical inhomogeneities. In the case of ideal composition, the lasing power can be increased to 830 W. (lasers)

  2. Complete and Incomplete Fusion Competition in 11B-INDUCED Fission Reactions on 197Au at the Intermediate Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demekhina, N. A.; Karapetyan, G. S.; Balabekyan, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    Above Coulomb barrier cross sections of fission fragment production were measured in reactions of 11B with 197Au target. Induced-activity method was used for measurement the fission decay channel of the composite nuclei. Systematic of the fission fragment charge and mass distributions was used for fission cross section calculation. Fission fraction of the composite nuclei decay was compared with PACE-4 mode calculations. Estimated suppression for fission fraction followed the complete fusion have been obtained 35%.

  3. Fission-Fusion: A new reaction mechanism for nuclear astrophysics based on laser-ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.; Gross, M.; Allinger, K.; Bin, J.; Henig, A.; Kiefer, D.; Ma, W.; Schreiber, J.

    2011-10-01

    We propose to produce neutron-rich nuclei in the range of the astrophysical r-process around the waiting point N = 126 by fissioning a dense laser-accelerated thorium ion bunch in a thorium target (covered by a CH2 layer), where the light fission fragments of the beam fuse with the light fission fragments of the target. Via the `hole-boring' mode of laser Radiation Pressure Acceleration using a high-intensity, short pulse laser, very efficiently bunches of 232Th with solid-state density can be generated from a Th target and a deuterated CD2 foil, both forming the production target assembly. Laser-accelerated Th ions with about 7 MeV/u will pass through a thin CH2 layer placed in front of a thicker second Th foil (both forming the reaction target) closely behind the production target and disintegrate into light and heavy fission fragments. In addition, light ions (d,C) from the CD2 layer of the production target will be accelerated as well, inducing the fission process of 232Th also in the second Th layer. The laser-accelerated ion bunches with solid-state density, which are about 1014 times more dense than classically accelerated ion bunches, allow for a high probability that generated fission products can fuse again. The high ion beam density may lead to a strong collective modification of the stopping power, leading to significant range and thus yield enhancement. Using a high-intensity laser as envisaged for the ELI-Nuclear Physics project in Bucharest (ELI-NP), order-of-magnitude estimates promise a fusion yield of about 103 ions per laser pulse in the mass range of A = 180-190, thus enabling to approach the r-process waiting point at N = 126.

  4. Feasibility of Colliding-beam fast-fission reactor via 238U80++238 U80+ --> 4 FF + 5n + 430 MeV beam with suppressed plutonium and direct conversion of fission fragment (FF) energy into electricity and/or Rocket propellant with high specific impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglich, Bogdan; Hester, Tim; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Uranium-uranium colliding beam experiment1, used fully ionized 238U92+ at energy 100GeV --> <-- 100 GeV, has measured total σ = 487 b. Reaction rate of colliding beams is proportional to neutron flux-squared. First functional Auto-Collider3-6, a compact Migma IV, 1 m in diameter, had self-colliding deuterons, D+, of 725 KeV --> <-- 725 KeV, resulting in copious production of T and 3He. U +U Autocollider``EXYDER'' will use strong-focusing magnet7, which would increase reaction rate by 104. 80 times ionized U ions accelerated through 3 MV accelerator, will collide beam 240 MeV --> <-- 240 MeV. Reaction is: 238U80+ +238 U80+ --> 4 FF + 5n + 430 MeV. Using a simple model1 fission σf ~ 100 b. Suppression of Pu by a factor of 106 will be achieved because NO thermal neutron fission can take place; only fast, 1-3 MeV, where σabs is negligible. Direct conversion of 95% of 430 MeV produced is carried by electrically charged FFs which are magnetically funneled for direct conversion of energy of FFs via electrostatic decelerators4,11. 90% of 930 MeV is electrically recoverable. Depending on the assumptions, we project electric _ power density production of 20 to 200 MWe m-3, equivalent to Thermal 1.3 - 13 GWthm-3. If one-half of unburned U is used for propulsion while rest powers system, heavy FF ion mass provides specific impulse Isp = 106 sec., 103 times higher than current rocket engines.

  5. Prompt Fission Gamma-ray Spectra and Multiplicities for Various Fissioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litaize, Olivier; Regnier, David; Serot, Olivier

    The prompt fission gamma spectra (PFGS) and multiplicities (PFGM) are investigated from a Monte Carlo simulation of the fission fragment deexcitation. The fission fragment characteristics are sampled from mass, charge, kinetic energy, spin and parity distributions from experimental data or theoretical models. Initial excitation energy is shared between the two complementary fragments using a mass dependent temperature ratio law and a level density parameter law based on Ignatyuk's prescription. Details can be found elsewhere in the literature. The deexcitation process can be performed with different calculation schemes. The first one is based on a Weisskopf model for neutron evaporation and nuclear transition sampling (from level density and strength function models) for gamma evaporation. In this case, the competition between neutrons and gammas is taken into account by using a spin dependent excitation energy limit under which gamma emission takes place. The second one is based on an Hauser-Feshbach model for neutron/gamma evaporation based on neutron transmission coefficients (from optical model calculations) and the same model as above for gammas. The n/γ competition is then automatically taken into account at the very beginning of the primary fission fragments evaporation process. Fission observables, especially related to prompt fission gammas are presented and discussed for spontaneous fission (252Cf, 240Pu), thermal fission (235U+nth) and fast fission (238U+n1.8MeV). Comparisons with experimental data are shown when available.

  6. Fission measurements with PPAC detectors using a coincidence technique

    SciTech Connect

    Paradela, C.; Duran, I.; Tarrio, D.; Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Stephan, C.

    2011-07-01

    A fission detection setup based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) has been constructed and used at the CERN n-TOF facility. The setup takes advantage of the coincidence detection of both fission fragments to discriminate the background reactions produced by high energy neutrons and it allows obtaining neutron-induced fission cross section up to 1 GeV. (authors)

  7. Two-dimensional Langevin modeling of fission dynamics of the excited compound nuclei 188Pt, 227Pa and 251Es

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslamizadeh, H.

    2016-02-01

    A stochastic approach based on one- and two-dimensional Langevin equations is applied to calculate the pre-scission neutron multiplicity, fission probability, anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution, fission cross section and the evaporation cross section for the compound nuclei 188Pt, 227Pa and 251Es in an intermediate range of excitation energies. The chaos weighted wall and window friction formula are used in the Langevin equations. The elongation parameter, c, is used as the first dimension and projection of the total spin of the compound nucleus onto the symmetry axis, K, considered as the second dimension in Langevin dynamical calculations. A constant dissipation coefficient of K, γK = 0.077(MeV zs)-1/2, is used in two-dimensional calculations to reproduce the above mentioned experimental data. Comparison of the theoretical results of the pre-scission neutron multiplicity, fission probability, fission cross section and the evaporation cross section with the experimental data shows that the results of two-dimensional calculations are in better agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, it is shown that the two-dimensional Langevin equations together with a dissipation coefficient of K, γK = 0.077(MeV zs)-1/2, can satisfactorily reproduce the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution for the heavy compound nucleus 251Es. However, a larger value of γK = 0.250(MeV zs)-1/2 is needed to reproduce the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution for the lighter compound nucleus 227Pa.

  8. Fission of actinide nuclei using multi-nucleon transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léguillon, Romain; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Hirose, Kentaro; Orlandi, Riccardo; Makii, Hiroyuki; Nishinaka, Ichiro; Ishii, Tetsuro; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Asai, Masato; Chiba, Satoshi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Araki, Shohei; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Tatsuzawa, Ryotaro; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2014-09-01

    We are promoting a campaign to measure fission-fragment mass distributions for neutron-rich actinide nuclei populated by transfer reactions from their ground state up to an excitation energy of several tens MeV. We thus obtain the excitation energy dependence of the mass distribution. The experiment was carried out at the 20 MV JAEA tandem facility at Tokai. We report on the data obtained in the direct reaction 18 O + 232 Th . Transfer-channels and excitation energies of the fissioning nuclei were identified using silicon dE-E detectors located at forward angle. Two fission fragments were detected in coincidence using multi-wire proportional counters. Fission fragment masses were determined by kinematic consideration. We obtained the fission fragment mass distributions for 13 nuclei from actinium to uranium and some fission barrier heights. We are promoting a campaign to measure fission-fragment mass distributions for neutron-rich actinide nuclei populated by transfer reactions from their ground state up to an excitation energy of several tens MeV. We thus obtain the excitation energy dependence of the mass distribution. The experiment was carried out at the 20 MV JAEA tandem facility at Tokai. We report on the data obtained in the direct reaction 18 O + 232 Th . Transfer-channels and excitation energies of the fissioning nuclei were identified using silicon dE-E detectors located at forward angle. Two fission fragments were detected in coincidence using multi-wire proportional counters. Fission fragment masses were determined by kinematic consideration. We obtained the fission fragment mass distributions for 13 nuclei from actinium to uranium and some fission barrier heights. Present study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  9. Secondary ion emission induced by fission fragment impact in CO-NH(3) and CO-NH(3)-H(2)O ices: modification in the CO-NH(3) ice structure.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R; Farenzena, L S; Iza, P; Ponciano, C R; Homem, M G P; de Brito, A Naves; Wien, K; da Silveira, E F

    2007-10-01

    CO-NH(3) and CO-NH(3)-H(2)O ices at 25-130 K were bombarded by (252)Cf fission fragments ( approximately 65 MeV at the target surface) and the emitted secondary ions were analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). It is observed that the mass spectra obtained from both ices have similar patterns. The production of hybrid ions (formed from CO and NH(3) molecules) emitted from CO-NH(3) ice has already been reported by R. Martinez et al., Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. 262 (2006) 195; here, the secondary ion emission and the modifications of the CO--NH(3) ice structure during the temperature increase of the ice are addressed. These studies are expected to throw light on the sputtering from planetary and interstellar ices and the possible formation of new organic molecules in CO-NH(3)-H(2)O ice by megaelectronvolt ion bombardment. The presence of water in the CO-NH(3) ice mixture generates molecular ion series such as (NH(3))(p-q)(H(2)O)(q)CO(+) and replaces the cluster series (NH(3))(n)NH(4) (+) emission by the hybrid series (NH(3))(I-i)(H(2)O)(i=1, 2...I)H(+). The distribution of NH(3) and H(2)O molecules within the cluster groups indicates that ammonia and water mix homogeneously in the icy condensate at T = 25 K. The desorption yield distribution of the cluster series (NH(3))(n)NH(4) (+) is described by the sum of two exponential functions: one, slow-decreasing, attributed to the fragmentation of the solid target into clusters; and another, fast-decreasing, due to a local sublimation followed by recombination of ammonia molecules. The analysis of the time-temperature dependence of these two yield components gives information on the formation process of molecular ions, the transient composition of the ice target and structural changes of the ice. Data suggest that the amorphous and porous structure of the NH(3) ice, formed by the condensation of the CO--NH(3) gas at T = 25 K, survives CO sublimation until the occurrence of a phase transition around 80 K

  10. Investigations of fission characteristics and correlation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundorin, N. A.; Zeinalov, Sh. S.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Popov, A. B.; Furman, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    We review the experimental results on the P-even and P-odd angular correlations of fission fragments in the fission of the 235U and 239Pu nuclei induced by unpolarized and polarized resonance neutrons, and on the TRI and ROT effects in the ternary and binary fission of actinides induced by polarized thermal neutrons. Also reported are the measured yields of prompt and delayed neutrons per fission event. The experimental data are analyzed within a novel theoretical framework developed by the JINR—RNC KI Collaboration, whereby the reduction of the multidimensional phase space of fission fragments to the JπK-channel space is consistently validated and the role of resonance interference in the observed correlation effects is revealed.

  11. Experimental study of some important characteristics of the thermal neutron induced fission of 237Np

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagemans, C.; Allaert, E.; Caïtucoli, F.; D'hondt, P.; Barreau, G.; Perrin, P.

    1981-10-01

    Fission fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions and their correlations have been studied for the thermal neutron induced fission of 237Np. The global mass distribution is rather smooth, apart from a weak shoulder at μH = 140-141. When low excitation events are selected, fine structures associated with the charge of the fragments are observed. Furthermore, there is a sudden increase in Ek for μH > 155, which is probably due to a spherical shell N = 50 in the light fragment and the corresponding deformed (but stable) heavy fragments with masses in the rare earth region. For the average (pre-neutron emission) total fragment kinetic energy, a value of 176.4 ± 0.6 MeV has been obtained, in agreement with the systematics. Also the prompt neutron emission curve v(m ∗) has been calculated, which shows the well-known saw-tooth shape. Finally, the energy distribution and the emission probability of the ternary α-particles have been determined.

  12. The fusion-fission process in the reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W near the interaction barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Harca, I. M.; Dmitriev, S.; Itkis, J.; Kozulin, E. M.; Knyazheva, G.; Loktev, T.; Novikov, K.; Azaiez, F.; Gottardo, A.; Matea, I.; Verney, D.; Hanappe, F.; Piot, J.; Schmitt, C.; Vardaci, E.

    2015-02-24

    The reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W at E{sub lab}=160 MeV was investigated with the aim of diving into the features of the fusion-fission process. Gamma rays in coincidence with binary reaction fragments were measured using the high efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer ORGAM at the TANDEM Accelerator facility of I.P.N., Orsay, and the time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments (FF) registration CORSET of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), Dubna. The coupling of the ORGAM and CORSET setups offers the unique opportunity of extracting details for characterizing the fusion-fission process and gives information regarding production of neutron-rich heavy nuclei. The FF–γ coincidence method is of better use then the γ – γ coincidence method when dealing with low statistic measurements and also offers the opportunity to precisely correct the Dopler shift for in-flight emitted gamma rays. Evidence of symmetric and asymmetric fission modes were observed in the mass and TKE distributions, occurring due to shell effects in the fragments. Coincident measurements allow for discrimination between the gamma rays by accepting a specific range within the mass distribution of the reaction products. Details regarding the experimental setup, methods of processing the acquisitioned data and preliminary results are presented.

  13. Description of true and delayed ternary nuclear fission accompanied by the emission of various third particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G. Kadmensky, S. S.; Lyubashevsky, D. E.

    2010-08-15

    The mechanisms and the features of the main types of nuclear ternary fission (that is, true ternary fission, in which a third particle is emitted before the rupture of the fissioning nucleus into fragments, and delayed ternary fission, in which a third particle is emitted from fission fragments going apart) are investigated within quantum-mechanical fission theory. The features of T-odd asymmetry in true ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons are investigated for the cases where alpha particles, prescission neutrons, and photons appear as third particles emitted by fissioning nuclei, the Coriolis interaction of the spin of the polarized fissioning nucleus with the spin of the third particle and the interference between the fission amplitudes for neutron resonances excited in the fissioning nucleus in the case of projectile-neutron capture being taken into account. For the cases where third particles emitted by fission fragments are evaporated neutrons or photons, T-odd asymmetries in delayed ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons are analyzed with allowance for the mechanism of pumping of large fission-fragment spins oriented orthogonally to the fragment-emission direction and with allowance for the interference between the fission amplitudes for neutron resonances.

  14. The scission point configuration of fissioning nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyuk, Fedir

    2016-06-01

    We define the optimal shape which fissioning nuclei attain just before the scission and calculate the deformation energy as function of the mass asymmetry at the scission point. The calculated deformation energy is used in quasi-static approximation for the estimation of mass distribution, total kinetic and excitation energy of fission fragments, and the total number of prompt neutrons. The calculated results reproduce rather well the experimental data on the position of the peaks in the mass distribution of fission fragments, the total kinetic and excitation energy of fission fragments. The calculated value of neutron multiplicity is somewhat larger than experimental results. The saw-tooth structure of neutron multiplicity is qualitatively reproduced.

  15. A method to measure prompt fission neutron spectrum using gamma multiplicity tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, E.; Daskalakis, A.; Block, R. C.; Barry, D.; Danon, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve on current prompt fission neutron spectrum measurements, a gamma multiplicity tagging method was developed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Gearttner Linear Accelerator Center. This method involves using a coincidence requirement on an array of BaF2 gamma detectors to determine the timing of a fission event. This allows for much larger fission samples to be used due to the higher penetrability of gammas compared to fission fragments. Additionally, since the method relies on gammas as opposed to fission fragments, the effects of the low level discriminator, used in fission chambers to eliminate alpha events, are not seen. A 252Cf fission chamber was constructed in order to determine the viability of this method as well as the efficiency when compared to a fission chamber. The implemented multiple gamma tagging method was found to accurately reproduce the prompt fission neutron spectrum for the spontaneous fission of 252Cf and to detect 30% of fission events.

  16. Fission decay of N=Z nuclei at high angular momentum: {sup 60}Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Oertzen, W. von; Zherebchevsky, V.; Gebauer, B.; Schulz, Ch.; Thummerer, S.; Wilpert, Th.; Kamanin, D.; Royer, G.

    2008-10-15

    Using a unique two-arm detector system for heavy ions (the BRS, binary reaction spectrometer), coincident fission events have been measured from the decay of {sup 60}Zn compound nuclei formed at 88 MeV excitation energy in the reactions with {sup 36}Ar beams on a {sup 24}Mg target at E{sub lab}({sup 36}Ar)=195 MeV. The detectors consisted of two large-area position-sensitive (x,y) gas telescopes with Bragg-ionization chambers. From the binary coincidences in the two detectors, inclusive and exclusive cross sections for fission channels with differing losses of charge were obtained. Narrow out-of-plane correlations corresponding to coplanar decay are observed for two fragments emitted in binary events, and in the data for ternary decay with missing charges from 4 up to 8. After subtraction of broad components, these narrow correlations are interpreted as a ternary fission process at high angular momentum through an elongated shape. The lighter mass in the neck region consists dominantly of two or three {alpha} particles. Differential cross sections for the different mass splits for binary and ternary fission are presented. The relative yields of the binary and ternary events are explained using the statistical model based on the extended Hauser-Feshbach formalism for compound nucleus decay. The ternary fission process can be described by the decay of hyper-deformed states with angular momenta around 4552({Dirac_h}/2{pi})

  17. Simulation of neutron production in heavy metal targets using Geant4 software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldin, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Kudashkin, I. V.; Mogildea, G.; Mogildea, M.; Paraipan, M.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic hadronic interactions in heavy targets have been simulated using Geant4 and compared with experimental data for thin and thick lead and uranium targets. Special attention is paid to neutron and fission fragment production. Good agreement in the description of proton-beam interaction with thick targets is demonstrated, which is important for the simulation of experiments aimed at the development of subcritical reactors.

  18. Fast fission phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In these lectures we have described two different phenomena occuring in dissipative heavy ion collisions : neutron-proton asymmetry and fast fission. Neutron-proton asymmetry has provided us with an example of a fast collective motion. As a consequence quantum fluctuations can be observed. The observation of quantum or statistical fluctuations is directly connected to the comparison between the phonon energy and the temperature of the intrinsic system. This means that this mode might also provide a good example for the investigation of the transition between quantum and statistical fluctuations which might occur when the bombarding energy is raised above 10 MeV/A. However it is by no means sure that in this energy domain enough excitation energy can be put into the system in order to reach such high temperatures over the all system. The other interest in investigating neutron-proton asymmetry above 10 MeV/A is that the interaction time between the two incident nuclei will decrease. Consequently, if some collective motion should still be observed, it will be one of the last which can be seen. Fast fission corresponds on the contrary to long interaction times. The experimental indications are still rather weak and mainly consist of experimental data which cannot be understood in the framework of standard dissipative models. We have seen that a model which can describe both the entrance and the exit configuration gives this mechanism in a natural way and that the experimental data can, to a good extend, be explained. The nicest thing is probably that our old understanding of dissipative heavy ion collisions is not changed at all except for the problems that can now be understood in terms of fast fission. Nevertheless this area desserve further studies, especially on the experimental side to be sure that the consistent picture which we have on dissipative heavy ion collisions still remain coherent in the future.

  19. HC fragment (C-terminal portion of the heavy chain) of tetanus toxin activates protein kinase C isoforms and phosphoproteins involved in signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Gil, C; Chaib-Oukadour, I; Blasi, J; Aguilera, J

    2001-01-01

    A recent report [Gil, Chaib-Oukadour, Pelliccioni and Aguilera (2000) FEBS Lett. 481, 177-182] describes activation of signal transduction pathways by tetanus toxin (TeTx), a Zn(2+)-dependent endopeptidase synthesized by the Clostridium tetani bacillus, which is responsible for tetanus disease. In the present work, specific activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and of intracellular signal-transduction pathways, which include nerve-growth-factor (NGF) receptor trkA, phospholipase C(PLC)gamma-1 and extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, by the recombinant C-terminal portion of the TeTx heavy chain (H(C)-TeTx) is reported. The activation of PKC isoforms was assessed through their translocation from the soluble (cytosolic) compartment to the membranous compartment, showing that clear translocation of PKC-alpha, -beta, -gamma and -delta isoforms exists, whereas PKC-epsilon showed a slight decrease in its soluble fraction immunoreactivity. The PKC-zeta isoform showed no consistent response. Using immunoprecipitation assays against phosphotyrosine residues, time- and dose-dependent increases in tyrosine phosphorylation were observed in the trkA receptor, PLCgamma-1 and ERK-1/2. The effects shown by the H(C)-TeTx fragment on tyrosine phosphorylation were compared with the effects produced by NGF. The trkA and ERK-1/2 activation were corroborated using phospho-specific antibodies against trkA phosphorylated on Tyr(490), and antibodies against Thr/Tyr phosphorylated ERK-1/2. Moreover, PLCgamma-1 phosphorylation was supported by its H(C)-TeTx-induced translocation to the membranous compartment, an event related to PLCgamma-1 activation. Since H(C)-TeTx is the domain responsible for membrane binding and lacks catalytic activity, the activations described here must be exclusively triggered by the interaction of TeTx with a membrane component. PMID:11336640

  20. In vivo detection of amyloid-β deposits using heavy chain antibody fragments in a transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nabuurs, Rob J A; Rutgers, Kim S; Welling, Mick M; Metaxas, Athanasios; de Backer, Maaike E; Rotman, Maarten; Bacskai, Brian J; van Buchem, Mark A; van der Maarel, Silvère M; van der Weerd, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the in vivo properties of two heavy chain antibody fragments (V(H)H), ni3A and pa2H, to differentially detect vascular or parenchymal amyloid-β deposits characteristic for Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Blood clearance and biodistribution including brain uptake were assessed by bolus injection of radiolabeled V(H)H in APP/PS1 mice or wildtype littermates. In addition, in vivo specificity for Aβ was examined in more detail with fluorescently labeled V(H)H by circumventing the blood-brain barrier via direct application or intracarotid co-injection with mannitol. All V(H)H showed rapid renal clearance (10-20 min). Twenty-four hours post-injection (99m)Tc-pa2H resulted in a small yet significant higher cerebral uptake in the APP/PS1 animals. No difference in brain uptake were observed for (99m)Tc-ni3A or DTPA((111)In)-pa2H, which lacked additional peptide tags to investigate further clinical applicability. In vivo specificity for Aβ was confirmed for both fluorescently labeled V(H)H, where pa2H remained readily detectable for 24 hours or more after injection. Furthermore, both V(H)H showed affinity for parenchymal and vascular deposits, this in contrast to human tissue, where ni3A specifically targeted only vascular Aβ. Despite a brain uptake that is as yet too low for in vivo imaging, this study provides evidence that V(H)H detect Aβ deposits in vivo, with high selectivity and favorable in vivo characteristics, making them promising tools for further development as diagnostic agents for the distinctive detection of different Aβ deposits. PMID:22675537

  1. In Vivo Detection of Amyloid-β Deposits Using Heavy Chain Antibody Fragments in a Transgenic Mouse Model for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Welling, Mick M.; Metaxas, Athanasios; de Backer, Maaike E.; Rotman, Maarten; Bacskai, Brian J.; van Buchem, Mark A.; van der Maarel, Silvère M.; van der Weerd, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the in vivo properties of two heavy chain antibody fragments (VHH), ni3A and pa2H, to differentially detect vascular or parenchymal amyloid-β deposits characteristic for Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Blood clearance and biodistribution including brain uptake were assessed by bolus injection of radiolabeled VHH in APP/PS1 mice or wildtype littermates. In addition, in vivo specificity for Aβ was examined in more detail with fluorescently labeled VHH by circumventing the blood-brain barrier via direct application or intracarotid co-injection with mannitol. All VHH showed rapid renal clearance (10–20 min). Twenty-four hours post-injection 99mTc-pa2H resulted in a small yet significant higher cerebral uptake in the APP/PS1 animals. No difference in brain uptake were observed for 99mTc-ni3A or DTPA(111In)-pa2H, which lacked additional peptide tags to investigate further clinical applicability. In vivo specificity for Aβ was confirmed for both fluorescently labeled VHH, where pa2H remained readily detectable for 24 hours or more after injection. Furthermore, both VHH showed affinity for parenchymal and vascular deposits, this in contrast to human tissue, where ni3A specifically targeted only vascular Aβ. Despite a brain uptake that is as yet too low for in vivo imaging, this study provides evidence that VHH detect Aβ deposits in vivo, with high selectivity and favorable in vivo characteristics, making them promising tools for further development as diagnostic agents for the distinctive detection of different Aβ deposits. PMID:22675537

  2. Ballistic piston fissioning plasma experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. E.; Schneider, R. T.; Thom, K.; Lalos, G. T.

    1971-01-01

    The production of fissioning uranium plasma samples such that the fission fragment stopping distance is less than the dimensions of the plasma is approached by using a ballistic piston device for the compression of uranium hexafluoride. The experimental apparatus is described. At room temperature the gun can be loaded up to 100 torr UF6 partial pressure, but at compression a thousand fold increase of pressure can be obtained at a particle density on the order of 10 to the 19th power per cu cm. Limited spectral studies of UF6 were performed while obtaining the pressure-volume data. The results obtained and their implications are discussed.

  3. Benchmarking nuclear fission theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsch, G. F.; Loveland, W.; Nazarewicz, W.; Talou, P.

    2015-05-14

    We suggest a small set of fission observables to be used as test cases for validation of theoretical calculations. Thus, the purpose is to provide common data to facilitate the comparison of different fission theories and models. The proposed observables are chosen from fission barriers, spontaneous fission lifetimes, fission yield characteristics, and fission isomer excitation energies.

  4. Fission-induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Shiu, Y. J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments, and to utilize the energy of the particles to create population inversion that would lead to laser action is investigated. An investigation was made of various laser materials which could be used for nuclear-pumped lasing. The most likely candidate for a fissioning material in the gaseous form is uranium hexafluoride - UF6, and experiments were performed to investigate materials that would be compatible with it. One of the central problems in understanding a fission-induced plasma is to obtain a model of the electron behavior, and some preliminary calculations are presented. In particular, the rates of various processes are discussed. A simple intuitive model of the electron energy distribution function is also shown. The results were useful for considering a mathematical model of a nuclear-pumped laser. Next a theoretical model of a (3)He-Ar nuclear-pumped laser is presented. The theory showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Fission and Properties of Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Joseph H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Carter, H. K.

    2008-08-01

    Opening session. Nuclear processes in stellar explosions / M. Wiescher. In-beam [symbol]-ray spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei at NSCL / A. Gade -- Nuclear structure I. Shell-model structure of neutron-rich nuclei beyond [symbol]Sn / A. Covello ... [et al.]. Shell structure and evolution of collectivity in nuclei above the [symbol]Sn core / S. Sarkar and M. S. Sarkar. Heavy-ion fusion using density-constrained TDHF / A. S. Umar and V. E. Oberacker. Towards an extended microscopic theory for upper-fp shell nuclei / K. P. Drumev. Properties of the Zr and Pb isotopes near the drip-line / V. N. Tarasov ... [et al.]. Identification of high spin states in [symbol] Cs nuclei and shell model calculations / K. Li ... [et al.]. Recent measurements of spherical and deformed isomers using the Lohengrin fission-fragment spectrometer / G. S. Simpson ... [et al.] -- Nuclear structure II. Nuclear structure investigation with rare isotope spectroscopic investigations at GSI / P. Boutachkov. Exploring the evolution of the shell structures by means of deep inelastic reactions / G. de Anaelis. Probing shell closures in neutron-rich nuclei / R. Krücken for the S277 and REX-ISOLDEMINIBALL collaborations. Structure of Fe isotopes at the limits of the pf-shell / N. Hoteling ... [et al.]. Spectroscopy of K isomers in shell-stabilized trans-fermium nuclei / S. K. Tandel ... [et al.] -- Radioactive ion beam facilities. SPIRAL2 at GANIL: a world leading ISOL facility for the next decade / S. Gales. New physics at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) next to GSI / I. Augustin ... [et al.]. Radioactive beams from a high powered ISOL system / A. C. Shotter. RlKEN RT beam factory / T. Motobayashi. NSCL - ongoing activities and future perspectives / C. K. Gelbke. Rare isotope beams at Argonne / W. F. Henning. HRIBF: scientific highlights and future prospects / J. R. Beene. Radioactive ion beam research done in Dubna / G. M. Ter-Akopian ... [et al.] -- Fission I

  6. Fission-Fusion Neutron Source Progress Report July 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G; Daffin, F; Clarke, R

    2010-02-19

    In this report the authors describe progress in evaluating the feasibility of a novel concept for producing intense pulses of 14 MeV neutrons using the DT fusion reaction. In this new scheme the heating of the DT is accomplished using fission fragments rather than ion beams as in conventional magnet fusion schemes or lasers in ICF schemes. This has the great advantage that there is no need for any large auxiliary power source. The scheme does require large magnetic fields, but generating these fields, e.g. with superconducting magnets, requires only a modest power source. As a source of fission fragments they propose using a dusty reactor concept introduced some time ago by one of us (RC). The version of the dusty reactor that they propose using for our neutron source would operate as a thermal neutron reactor and use highly enriched uranium in the form of micron sized pellets of UC. Our scheme for using the fission fragments to produce intense pulses of 14 MeV neutrons is based on the fission fragment rocket idea. In the fission fragment rocket scheme it was contemplated that the fission fragments produced in a low density reactor core would then be guided out of the reactor by large magnetic fields. A simple version of this idea would be to use the fission fragments escaping from one side of a tandem magnet mirror to heat DT gas confined in the adjacent magnetic trap.

  7. Mass distributions for induced fission of different Hg isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2012-10-01

    With the improved scission-point model mass distributions are calculated for induced fission of different Hg isotopes with even mass numbers A=180, 184, 188, 192, 196, and 198. The calculated mass distribution and mean total kinetic energy of fission fragments are in good agreement with the existing experimental data. The asymmetric mass distribution of fission fragments of 180Hg observed in the recent experiment is explained. The change in the shape of the mass distribution from asymmetric to more symmetric is revealed with increasing A of the fissioning AHg nucleus, and reactions are proposed to verify this prediction experimentally.

  8. Fluctuations in nuclear fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Aranda, A.; Dorso, C.O.; Furci, V.; Lopez, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Heavy ion collisions can be used to study the thermodynamics of hot and dense nuclear matter only if the initial mass and energy fluctuations that lead to fragmentation are of thermal origin and survive the disassembly process. If this is the case, the observed fragment multiplicity should be directly related to those initial fluctuations and to the conditions of temperature and density causing them. The feasibility of this scenario is demonstrated with a molecular dynamics study of the evolution of mass and energy fluctuations, and fluctuations of the phase-space density. First, it is verified that the fluctuations leading to fragmentation are indeed early ones. Second, it is determined that different initial conditions of density and temperature can indeed produce varying final fragment multiplicities. The {rho}-{ital T} plane is mapped to the fragment multiplicity with good precision. This mapping should be easily reproducible with existing experimental data.

  9. Ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gönnenwein, Friedrich

    2013-12-01

    Ternary fission of (e,e) U- and Pu- isotopes induced by cold polarized neutrons discloses some new facets of the process. In the so-called ROT effect shifts in the angular distributions of ternary particles relative to the fission fragments show up. In the so-called TRI effect an asymmetry in the emission of ternary particles relative to a plane formed by the fragment momentum and the spin of the neutron appear. The two effects are shown to be linked to the components of angular momentum perpendicular and parallel to the fission axis at the saddle point of fission. Based on theoretical models the spectroscopic properties of the collective transitional states at the saddle point are inferred from experiment.

  10. Fission meter

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Snyderman, Neal J.

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source.

  11. Application of the dinuclear system model to fission process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Shneidman, T. M.; Ventura, A.

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical evaluation of the collective excitation spectra of nucleus at large deformations is possible within the framework of the dinuclear system model, which treats the wave function of the fissioning nucleus as a superposition of a mononucleus configuration and two-cluster configurations in a dynamical way, permitting exchange of nucleons between clusters. In this work the method of calculation of the potential energy and the collective spectrum of fissioning nucleus at scission point is presented. Combining the DNS model calculations and the statistical model of fission we calculate the mass, total kinetic energy, and angular distribution of fission fragments for the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu.

  12. Innovative Fission Measurements with a Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, M D; Barnes, P D; Klay, J L

    2005-11-16

    This study explores a pioneering idea to utilize a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to measure fission cross sections and other fission quantities. The TPC is inherently capable of measuring fragments from fission events, decay alphas, and beam-material scatters. This document explores whether the TPC can improve the precision of the {sup 239}Pu(n,f) cross section and measure other new and significant fission quantities simultaneously. This work shows that the TPC can in fact deliver sub-1% cross section measurements and should provide breakthroughs in both the quality and quantity of information available from neutron-induced fission experiments.

  13. Fission dynamics at low excitation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aritomo, Y.; Chiba, S.; Ivanyuk, F.

    2014-11-01

    The mass asymmetry in the fission of 236U at low excitation energy is clarified by the analysis of the trajectories obtained by solving the Langevin equations for the shape degrees of freedom. It is demonstrated that the position of the peaks in the mass distribution of fission fragments is determined mainly by the saddle point configuration originating from the shell correction energy. The width of the peaks, on the other hand, results from the shape fluctuations close to the scission point caused by the random force in the Langevin equation. We have found out that the fluctuations between elongated and compact shapes are essential for the fission process. According to our results the fission does not occur with continuous stretching in the prolate direction, similarly to that observed in starch syrup, but is accompanied by the fluctuations between elongated and compact shapes. This picture presents a new viewpoint of fission dynamics and the splitting mechanism.

  14. Event-by-Event Fission with FREYA

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, J; Vogt, R

    2010-11-09

    The recently developed code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) generates large samples of complete fission events, consisting of two receding product nuclei as well as a number of neutrons and photons, all with complete kinematic information. Thus it is possible to calculate arbitrary correlation observables whose behavior may provide unique insight into the fission process. The presentation first discusses the present status of FREYA, which has now been extended up to energies where pre-equilibrium emission becomes significant and one or more neutrons may be emitted prior to fission. Concentrating on {sup 239}Pu(n,f), we discuss the neutron multiplicity correlations, the dependence of the neutron energy spectrum on the neutron multiplicity, and the relationship between the fragment kinetic energy and the number of neutrons and their energies. We also briefly suggest novel fission observables that could be measured with modern detectors.

  15. A new approach to prompt fission neutron TOF data treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynalov, Sh.; Zeynalova, O. V.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics along with associated digital signal processing algorithms. A new mathematical approach, applicable to single events, was developed for prompt fission neutron (PFN) time-offlight distribution unfolding. The main goal was to understand the reasons of the long existing discrepancy between theoretical calculations and the measurements of prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission dependence on the total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fission fragments (FF). Since the 252Cf (sf) reaction is one of the main references for nuclear data the understanding of the PFN emission mechanism is very important both for nuclear fission theory and nuclear data. The experimental data were taken with a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in an experimental setup similar to the well known work of C. Budtz-Jorgensen and H.-H. Knitter. About 2.5 × 105 coincidences between fission fragment (FF) and neutron detector response to prompt fission neutron detection have been registered (∼ 1.6 × 107 of total recorded fission events). Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12-bit waveform digitizer. The signal waveforms have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. The main goal of this work was a detailed description of the prompt fission neutron treatment.

  16. Shielding and fragmentation studies.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, C; Guetersloh, S; Heilbronn, L; Miller, J

    2005-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry for manned spaced missions depends on the ability to adequately describe the process of high-energy ion transport through many materials. Since the types of possible nuclear interactions are many and complex, transport models are used which depend upon a reliable source of experimental data. To expand the heavy ion database used in the models we have been measuring charge-changing cross sections and fragment production cross sections from heavy-ion interactions in various elementa targets. These include materials flown on space missions such as carbon and aluminium, as well as those important in radiation dosimetry such as hydrogen, nitrogen and water. Measuring heavy-ion fragmentation through these targets also gives us the ability to determine the effectiveness of new materials proposed for shielding such as graphite composites and polyethylene hybrids. Measurement without a target present gives an indication of the level of contamination of the primary beam, which is also important in radiobiology experiments. PMID:16604611

  17. Prompt fission neutron spectra of n+235U above the (n,nf) fission threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Neng-Chuan; Jia, Min; Chen, Yong-Jing; Liu, Ting-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Calculations of prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) from the 235U(n, f) reaction were performed with a semi-empirical method for En = 7.0 and 14.7 MeV neutron energies. The total PFNS were obtained as a superposition of (n,xnf) pre-fission neutron spectra and post-fission spectra of neutrons which were evaporated from fission fragments, and these two kinds of spectra were taken as an expression of the evaporation spectrum. The contributions of (n,xnf) fission neutron spectra on the calculated PFNS were discussed. The results show that emission of one or two neutrons in the (n,nf) or (n,2nf) reactions influences the PFNS shape, and the neutron spectra of the (n,xnf) fission-channel are soft compared with the neutron spectra of the (n,f) fission channel. In addition, analysis of the multiple-chance fission component showed that second-chance fission dominates the PFNS with an incident neutron energy of 14.7 MeV whereas first-chance fission dominates the 7 MeV case. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205246, 91126010, U1230127, 91226102), IAEA CRP (15905), and Defense Industrial Technology Development Program (B0120110034)

  18. Spontaneous fission of 256Rf, new data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirikhin, A. I.; Yeremin, A. V.; Izosimov, I. N.; Isaev, A. V.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Malyshev, O. N.; Popeko, A. G.; Popov, Yu. A.; Sokol, E. A.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Andel, B.; Asfari, M. Z.; Gall, B.; Yoshihiro, N.; Kalaninova, Z.; Mullins, S.; Piot, J.; Stefanova, E.; Tonev, D.

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous fission properties of the short-lived neutron-deficient 256Rf nucleus produced in the complete fusion reaction with a beam of multiply charged heavy 50Ti ions from the U-400 cyclotron (FLNR, JINR) are experimentally investigated. Its half-life and decay branching ratio are measured. The average number of neutrons per spontaneous fission of 256Rf (bar v = 4.47 ± 0.09) is determined for the first time.

  19. Observation of anomalous reaction mean free paths of nuclear-projectile fragments in research emulsion from 2 A GeV heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Karant, Y.J.

    1981-07-01

    From an analysis of 1460 projectile fragment collisions in nuclear research emulsion exposed to 2.1 A GeV /sup 16/O and 1.9 A GeV /sup 56/Fe at the Bevalac, evidence is presented for the existence of an anomalously short interaction mean free path of projectile fragments for the first several cm after emission. The result is significant to beyond the 3 standard deviation confidence level.

  20. New experimental approaches to investigate the fission dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlliure, J.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Taïeb, J.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2016-07-01

    The first ever achieved full identification of both fission fragments, in atomic and mass number, made it possible to define new observables sensitive to the fission dynamics along the fission path up to the scission point. Moreover, proton-induced fission of 208Pb at high energies offers optimal conditions for the investigation of dissipative, and transient effects, because of the high-excitation energy of the fissioning nuclei, its low angular momentum, and limited shape distortion by the reaction. In this work we show that the charge distribution of the final fission fragments can constrain the ground-to-saddle dynamics while the mass distribution is sensitive to the dynamics until the scission point.

  1. Electron-capture delayed fission properties of 244Es

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, Dawn A.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Adams, Jeb L.; Lane, Michael R.; Laue, Carola A.; Lee, Diana M.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Ninov, Victor; Patin, Joshua B.; Strellis, Dan A.; Sylwester, Eric R.; Wilk, Philip A.; Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2001-03-16

    Electron-capture delayed fission was observed in {sup 244}Es produced via the {sup 237}Np({sup 12}C,5n){sup 244}Es reaction at 81 MeV (on target) with a production cross section of 0.31{+-}0.12 {micro}b. The mass-yield distribution of the fission fragments is highly asymmetric. The average preneutron-emission total kinetic energy of the fragments was measured to be 186{+-}19 MeV. Based on the ratio of the number of fission events to the measured number of {alpha} decays from the electron-capture daughter {sup 244}Cf (100% {alpha} branch), the probability of delayed fission was determined to be (1.2{+-}0.4) x 10{sup -4}. This value for the delayed fission probability fits the experimentally observed trend of increasing delayed fission probability with increasing Q value for electron-capture.

  2. Low scatter lightweight fission spectrometer constructed for biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.

    1968-01-01

    Low scatter, lightweight fission spectrometer provides a simple, reliable method for determining absolute neutron fluxes in a fixed neutron. It minimizes neutron scatter and energy degradation effects, and has a counting volume large enough to intercept the most energetic fission fragments, yet small enough to be discriminating.

  3. A New Method of Prompt Fission Neutron Energy Spectrum Unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynalova, O. V.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2010-11-01

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics along with associated digital signal processing algorithms. The goal was to find out the reasons of a long time existing discrepancy between theoretical calculations and the measurements of prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission dependence on the total kinetic energy (TKE) of fission fragments (FF). On the one hand the 252Cf (sf) reaction is one of the main references for nuclear data, on the other hand the understanding of PFN emission mechanism is very important for nuclear fission theory. Using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber for fission fragment (FF) detection and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in total about 107 fission fragment-neutron coincidences have been registered. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer. The signal waveforms have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. For the first time the dependence of the number of emitted neutrons as a function of total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fragments is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations in the range of TKE from 140-220 MeV.

  4. A New Method of Prompt Fission Neutron Energy Spectrum Unfolding

    SciTech Connect

    Zeynalova, O. V.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2010-11-25

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics along with associated digital signal processing algorithms. The goal was to find out the reasons of a long time existing discrepancy between theoretical calculations and the measurements of prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission dependence on the total kinetic energy (TKE) of fission fragments (FF). On the one hand the {sup 252}Cf(sf) reaction is one of the main references for nuclear data, on the other hand the understanding of PFN emission mechanism is very important for nuclear fission theory. Using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber for fission fragment (FF) detection and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in total about 10{sup 7} fission fragment-neutron coincidences have been registered. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer. The signal waveforms have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. For the first time the dependence of the number of emitted neutrons as a function of total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fragments is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations in the range of TKE from 140-220 MeV.

  5. Opaque rock fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit, B.; Molinaroli, E.; Olsen, J.

    1987-05-01

    The authors describe a new, rare, but petrogenetically significant variety of rock fragments from Holocene detrital sediments. Approximately 50% of the opaque heavy mineral concentrates from Holocene siliciclastic sands are polymineralic-Fe-Ti oxide particles, i.e., they are opaque rock fragments. About 40% to 70% of these rock fragments show intergrowth of hm + il, mt + il, and mt + hm +/- il. Modal analysis of 23,282 opaque particles in 117 polished thin sections of granitic and metamorphic parent rocks and their daughter sands from semi-arid and humid climates show the following relative abundances. The data show that opaque rock fragments are more common in sands from igneous source rocks and that hm + il fragments are more durable. They assume that equilibrium conditions existed in parent rocks during the growth of these paired minerals, and that the Ti/Fe ratio did not change during oxidation of mt to hm. Geothermometric determinations using electron probe microanalysis of opaque rock fragments in sand samples from Lake Erie and the Adriatic Sea suggest that these rock fragments may have equilibrated at approximately 900/sup 0/ and 525/sup 0/C, respectively.

  6. Nuclear-breakup mechanisms in the interaction of relativistic projectiles with heavy targets

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    The breakup of a Au nucleus under bombardment with relativistic p, ..cap alpha.., and /sup 20/Ne has been investigated in an extensive, multi-detector study. The present discussion addresses some of the many aspects of the experimental results. A broad distribution of coincident fragment masses is observed, with the total fragment kinetic energy being higher than expected for a fission mechanism for total fragment mass less than or equal to 120. The formation of light fragments is shown to be inconsistent with a binary breakup mechanism, and a multi-fragment target breakup is suggested. In general, the results indicate a broad spectrum of violence in the collisions, from gentle, leading to the production of heavy spallation products and fission, to essentially explosive, leading to multi-fragment breakup into light mas products. These aspects of the reactions represent a late-stage breakup of the target residues and are positively correlated with the violence of the initial fast stage of the collision as measured by the charged particle multiplicity.

  7. Non-equilibrium fission processes in intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Loveland, W.; Casey, C.; Xu, Z.; Seaborg, G.T.; Aleklett, K.; Sihver, L.

    1989-04-01

    We have measured the target fragment yields, angular and energy distributions for the interaction of 12-16 MeV/A/sup 32/S with /sup 165/Ho and /sup 197/Au and for the interaction of 32 and 44 MeV/A /sup 40/Ar with /sup 197/Au. The Au fission fragments associated with the peripheral collision peak in the folding angle distribution originate in a normal, ''slow'' fission process in which statistical equilibrium has been established. At the two lowest projectile energies, the Au fission fragments associated with the central collision peak in the folding angle distribution originate in part from ''fast'' (/tau//approximately//sup /minus/23/s), non-equilibrium processes. Most of the Ho fission fragments originate in non- equilibrium processes. The fast, non-equilibrium process giving rise to these fragments has many of the characteristics of ''fast fission'', but the cross sections associated with these fragments are larger than one would expect from current theories of ''fast fission. '' 14 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Studies of heavy ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, August 1, 1983-August 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Huizenga, J.R.; Schroeder, W.U.

    1984-08-01

    The status of the current understanding of the microscopic mechanisms operating in damped nuclear reactions is reviewed. Several experimental and conceptual problems of attempts to determine the nuclear interaction potential for distances inside the fusion barrier are discussed. An explanation of the unexpectedly large angular anisotropies of fragments from fission of heavy systems produced at large spins has been found in terms of the statistical scission model. In this model, the phase space available to the final deformed fission fragments governs the fission probability. Processes associated with incomplete linear-momentum transfer have been studied for 292-MeV /sup 20/Ne-induced fission with targets of /sup 165/Ho, /sup 181/Ta, /sup 197/Au, /sup 209/Bi, and /sup 238/U. Preequilibrium neutron emission has been studied in central and peripheral /sup 165/Ho + /sup 20/Ne and /sup 165/Ho + /sup 12/C collisions at bombarding energies between 11 and 25 MeV/nucleon. In preparation of kinematically complete coincidence experiments, a fast, position-sensitive avalanche detector with a large active area has been developed. The theoretical framework of the statistical scission model for fission has been reconsidered. Exclusive measurements were made of alpha particles emitted in the damped reaction /sup 165/Ho + /sup 56/Fe at E/sub Lab/ = 465 MeV. The data were interpreted with the aid of rather detailed Monte Carlo evaporation simulations. As part of an extensive coincidence study of equilibration mechanisms in damped reactions, inclusive measurements of projectile-like and fusion-fission-like fragments have been performed for the /sup 197/Au + /sup 51/V system at E/sub Lab/ = 447 MeV. The damped reaction features have been interpreted in terms of phenomenological reaction models. (WHK)

  9. Interpretation of the low energy fission process in the framework of dinuclear system conception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, V. V.; Kalandarov, Sh. A.

    2016-03-01

    The possibility of the interpretation of fission of heavy nuclei as the process of formation, evolution and decay of dinuclear system is discussed. The interpretation is based on the nuclear interaction data obtained in heavy-ion nuclear physics investigations.

  10. Fission dynamics study in 243Am and 254Fm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, K.; Ghosh, T. K.; Roy, P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chaudhuri, A.; Bhattacharya, C.; Pandey, R.; Kundu, S.; Mukherjee, G.; Rana, T. K.; Meena, J. K.; Mohanto, G.; Dubey, R.; Saneesh, N.; Sugathan, P.; Guin, R.; Das, S.; Bhattacharya, P.

    2016-06-01

    Fission fragment mass distributions in the reactions 11B + 232Th and 11B + 243Am were measured in an energy range around the barrier. No sudden change in the width of the mass distribution as a function of center-of-mass energy was observed at near-barrier energies, indicating no quasifission transition in the near-barrier energies. Interestingly, the previous measurements of fission fragment angular anisotropies for the same systems showed significant departure from the statistical saddle-point model predictions at near-barrier energies, indicating the presence of nonequilibrium fission processes.

  11. Possible origin of transition from symmetric to asymmetric fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paşca, H.; Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    The charged distributions of fragments produced in the electromagnetic-induced fission of the even-even isotopes of Rn, Ra, Th, and U are described within an improved scission-point model and compared with the available experimental data. The three-equal-peaked charge distributions are predicted for several fissioning nuclei with neutron number N = 136. The possible explanation of the transition from a symmetric fission mode to an asymmetric one around N ∼ 136 is presented. The excitation energy dependencies of the asymmetric and symmetric fission modes are anticipated.

  12. Cross correlation method application to prompt fission neutron investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynalova, O. V.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Nazarenko, M. A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2012-10-01

    Do The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated applying cross correlation method and digital signal processing algorithms. A new mathematical approach for neutron/gamma pulse shape separation was developed and implemented for prompt fission neutron (PFN) time-of-flight measurement. The main goal was development of automated data analysis algorithms and procedures for data analysis with minimum human intervention. Experimental data was taken with a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in an experimental setup similar to well work of C. Budtz-Jorgensen and H.-H. Knitter [1]. About 2*107 fission events were registered with 2*105 neutron/gamma detection in coincidence with fission fragments. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer.

  13. New type of asymmetric fission in proton-rich nuclei.

    PubMed

    Andreyev, A N; Elseviers, J; Huyse, M; Van Duppen, P; Antalic, S; Barzakh, A; Bree, N; Cocolios, T E; Comas, V F; Diriken, J; Fedorov, D; Fedosseev, V; Franchoo, S; Heredia, J A; Ivanov, O; Köster, U; Marsh, B A; Nishio, K; Page, R D; Patronis, N; Seliverstov, M; Tsekhanovich, I; Van den Bergh, P; Van De Walle, J; Venhart, M; Vermote, S; Veselsky, M; Wagemans, C; Ichikawa, T; Iwamoto, A; Möller, P; Sierk, A J

    2010-12-17

    A very exotic process of β-delayed fission of 180Tl is studied in detail by using resonant laser ionization with subsequent mass separation at ISOLDE (CERN). In contrast to common expectations, the fission-fragment mass distribution of the post-β-decay daughter nucleus 180Hg (N/Z=1.25) is asymmetric. This asymmetry is more surprising since a mass-symmetric split of this extremely neutron-deficient nucleus would lead to two 90Zr fragments, with magic N=50 and semimagic Z=40. This is a new type of asymmetric fission, not caused by large shell effects related to fragment magic proton and neutron numbers, as observed in the actinide region. The newly measured branching ratio for β-delayed fission of 180Tl is 3.6(7) × 10(-3)%, approximately 2 orders of magnitude larger than in an earlier study. PMID:21231583

  14. Diabetes regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and fission in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J.L.; Quattrini, A.; Lentz, S.I.; Figueroa-Romero, C.; Cerri, F.; Backus, C.; Hong, Y.; Feldman, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Normal mitochondrial (Mt) activity is a critical component of neuronal metabolism and function. Disruption of Mt activity by altered Mt fission and fusion is the root cause of both neurodegenerative disorders and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 2A inherited neuropathy. The current study addressed the role of Mt fission in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods Mt biogenesis and fission were assayed in both in vivo and in vitro models of DN. Gene, protein, mitochondrial DNA and ultrastructural analyses were used to assess Mt biogenesis and fission. Results Our data reveal increased Mt biogenesis in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from diabetic compared to non-diabetic mice. An essential step in Mt biogenesis is Mt fission, regulated by the Mt fission protein Drp1. Evaluation of in vivo diabetic neurons indicated small, fragmented Mt, suggesting increased fission. In vitro studies reveal short-term hyperglycemic exposure increased expression of Drp1. The influence of hyperglycemia-mediated Mt fission on cellular viability was evaluated by knockdown of Drp1. Knockdown of Drp1 resulted in decreased susceptibility to hyperglycemic damage. Conclusions We propose that: 1) Mt undergo biogenesis in response to hyperglycemia, but the increased biogenesis is insufficient to accommodate the metabolic load; 2) hyperglycemia causes an excess of Mt fission, creating small, damaged mitochondria; and 3) reduction of aberrant Mt fission increases neuronal survival and indicates an important role for the fission-fusion equilibrium in the pathogenesis of DN. PMID:19847394

  15. Delayed neutrons in fission of polonium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazanov, R.; Urikbaev, Z.S.; Maksyutenko, B.P.; Ignat'ev, S.V.

    1988-06-01

    A strong difference is found in the relative yields of delayed neutrons in the production of compound nuclei of polonium isotopes in reactions in which bismuth and lead are bombarded by various charged particles. The effect can be partially explained by the different lengths of the ..beta..-decay chains of the light and heavy fission products.

  16. Theoretical Description of the Fission Process

    SciTech Connect

    Witold Nazarewicz

    2009-10-25

    Advanced theoretical methods and high-performance computers may finally unlock the secrets of nuclear fission, a fundamental nuclear decay that is of great relevance to society. In this work, we studied the phenomenon of spontaneous fission using the symmetry-unrestricted nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Our results show that many observed properties of fissioning nuclei can be explained in terms of pathways in multidimensional collective space corresponding to different geometries of fission products. From the calculated collective potential and collective mass, we estimated spontaneous fission half-lives, and good agreement with experimental data was found. We also predicted a new phenomenon of trimodal spontaneous fission for some transfermium isotopes. Our calculations demonstrate that fission barriers of excited superheavy nuclei vary rapidly with particle number, pointing to the importance of shell effects even at large excitation energies. The results are consistent with recent experiments where superheavy elements were created by bombarding an actinide target with 48-calcium; yet even at high excitation energies, sizable fission barriers remained. Not only does this reveal clues about the conditions for creating new elements, it also provides a wider context for understanding other types of fission. Understanding of the fission process is crucial for many areas of science and technology. Fission governs existence of many transuranium elements, including the predicted long-lived superheavy species. In nuclear astrophysics, fission influences the formation of heavy elements on the final stages of the r-process in a very high neutron density environment. Fission applications are numerous. Improved understanding of the fission process will enable scientists to enhance the safety and reliability of the nation’s nuclear stockpile and nuclear reactors. The deployment of a fleet of safe and efficient advanced reactors, which will also minimize radiotoxic

  17. Ternary Fission Studies by Correlation Measurements with Ternary Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutterer, Manfred

    2011-10-01

    The rare ternary fission process has been studied mainly by inclusive measurements of the energy distributions and fractional yields of the light charged particles (LCPs) from fission, or by experiments on the angular and energy correlation between LCPs and fission fragments (FFs). The present contribution presents a brief overview of more elaborate correlation measurements that comprise the emission of neutrons and γ rays with LCPs and FFs, or the coincident registration of two LCPs. These measurements have permitted identification of new modes of particle-accompanied fission, such as the population of excited states in LCPs, the formation of neutron-unstable nuclei as short-lived intermediate LCPs, as well as the sequential decay of particle-unstable LCPs and quaternary fission. Furthermore, the neutron multiplicity numbers bar ν (A) and distributions of fragment masses A, measured for the ternary fission modes with various LCP isotopes, give a valuable hint of the role played by nuclear shell structure in the fission process near scission. Finally, two different hitherto unknown asymmetries in ternary α-particle emission with respect to the fission axis, called the TRI and ROT effect, were studied in fission reactions induced by polarised cold neutrons.

  18. Angular momentum effects in fusion-fission and fusion-evaporation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.

    1980-01-01

    The study of heavy-ion fusion reactions is complicated by the possible contributions of several mechanisms. The various types of heavy-ion-induced fission are discussed. Then compound-nucleus fission is considered with reference to fission barriers deduced from heavy-ion-induced fission. Next, the problems associated with measured values of evaporation-residue cross sections and the angular momentum dependence of incomplete fusion are examined. Finally, the de-excitation of compound nuclei is again taken up, this time with reference to the greatly enhanced ..cap alpha.. emission predicted on the basis of the rotating liquid drop model. 24 figures. (RWR)

  19. Identification of fission-like events in the {sup 16}O + {sup 181}Ta system: Mass and isotopic yield distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Devendra P.; Unnati,; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kumar, R.; Golda, K. S.; Sinha, A. K.

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, nuclear reaction cross sections for 24 fission-like fragments (30{<=}Z{<=}60) have been measured for the 6.5 MeV/A {sup 16}O + {sup 181}Ta system. The recoil-catcher activation technique was employed followed by off-line {gamma} spectroscopy. The isotopic yield distributions for yttrium and indium isotopes have been obtained from the experimental data. The variance of the presently measured isotopic yield distributions have been found to be in agreement with the literature values. However, the variance of the mass distribution of fission residues has found to be narrower as compared to other relatively heavier systems. A self-consistent approach to determining the isobaric charge dispersion parameters has been adopted. The measured fission cross sections at 97 and 100 MeV are satisfactorily described by a statistical model code. An attempt has been made to explain the production cross sections of intermediate mass residues in the fission of heavy residues populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion processes.

  20. Prompt fission gamma-ray studies at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M.. M; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Keksis, A. L.; Mosby, S. M.; O’Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Stoyer, M. A.; Haslett, R. J.; Henderson, R. A.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-11-26

    Measurements of correlated data on prompt-fission γ-rays (PFG) have been carried out for various actinide isotopes in recent years using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed a model that conveniently parametrizes the correlated data of γ-ray multiplicity and energy. New results on two- dimensional prompt-fission γ-ray multiplicity versus energy distributions from spontaneous fission on ²⁵²Cf and neutron-induced fission on 242mAm are presented together with previously obtained results on 233,235U and ²³⁹Pu. Correlated PFG data from ²⁵²Cf are also compared to results of the detailed theoretical model developed at LANL, for different thresholds of PFG energies. Future plans to measure correlated data on fission fragments, prompt fission neutrons and γ-rays at DANCE are presented.

  1. Critical insight into the influence of the potential energy surface on fission dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurek, K.

    2011-07-15

    The present work is dedicated to a careful investigation of the influence of the potential energy surface on the fission process. The time evolution of nuclei at high excitation energy and angular momentum is studied by means of three-dimensional Langevin calculations performed for two different parametrizations of the macroscopic potential: the Finite Range Liquid Drop Model (FRLDM) and the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop (LSD) prescription. Depending on the mass of the system, the topology of the potential throughout the deformation space of interest in fission is observed to noticeably differ within these two approaches, due to the treatment of curvature effects. When utilized in the dynamical calculation as the driving potential, the FRLDM and LSD models yield similar results in the heavy-mass region, whereas the predictions can be strongly dependent on the Potential Energy Surface (PES) for medium-mass nuclei. In particular, the mass, charge, and total kinetic energy distributions of the fission fragments are found to be narrower with the LSD prescription. The influence of critical model parameters on our findings is carefully investigated. The present study sheds light on the experimental conditions and signatures well suited for constraining the parametrization of the macroscopic potential. Its implication regarding the interpretation of available experimental data is briefly discussed.

  2. The quantum and thermodynamical characteristics of fission taking into account adiabatic and nonadiabatic modes of motion

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G.

    2007-09-15

    In the framework of the quantum theory of spontaneous and low-energy induced fission, the nature of quantum and thermodynamical properties of a fissioning system is analyzed taking into account adiabatic and nonadiabatic modes of motion for different fission stages. It is shown that, owing to the influence of the Coriolis interaction, the states of the fissile nucleus and of primary fission products are cold and strongly nonequilibrium. The important role of superfluid and pairing nucleon-nucleon correlations for binary and ternary fission is demonstrated. The mechanism of pumping of high values of relative orbital momenta and spins of fission fragments for binary and ternary fission and the nonevaporation mechanism of formation of third particles for ternary fission are investigated. The anisotropies and P-odd, P-even, and T-odd asymmetries for angular distributions of fission products are analyzed.

  3. Fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions for /sup 242/Pu(sf), /sup 241/Pu(n/sub th/,f), and /sup 242/Pu(. gamma. ,f)

    SciTech Connect

    Thierens, H.; Jacobs, E.; D'hondt, P.; De Clercq, A.; Piessens, M.; De Frenne, D.

    1984-02-01

    Energy correlation measurements were performed for the spontaneous fission of /sup 242/Pu, the thermal-neutron-induced fission of /sup 241/Pu, and the photofission of /sup 242/Pu with 12-, 15-, 20-, and 30-MeV bremsstrahlung. The photofission cross section for /sup 242/Pu was determined up to 30 MeV. For /sup 242/Pu(sf) the overall kinetic energy distribution is strongly asymmetric and the overall mass distribution has a very high peak yield (9%). Important deviations of the average total kinetic energy release and the average light and heavy fragment masses and from the systematics of Unik et al. are also observed for this fissioning system. These effects can be explained in the framework of the static scission point model by the strong preferential formation of a shell-stabilized scission configuration with the neutron number of the heavy and light fragments in the vicinity of the spherical N = 82 neutron shell and the deformed N = 66 neutron shell, respectively. A decrease of with the average excitation energy , d/d = -0.30 +- 0.04, is observed in the photofission of /sup 242/Pu.

  4. Neutron induced fission of 234U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Al-Adili, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Pomp, S.

    2012-02-01

    The fission fragment properties of 234U(n,f) were investigated as a function of incident neutron energy from 0.2 MeV up to 5 MeV. The fission fragment mass, angular distribution and kinetic energy were measured with a double Frisch-grid ionization chamber using both analogue and digital data acquisition techniques. The reaction 234U(n,f) is relevant, since it involves the same compound nucleus as formed after neutron evaporation from highly excited 236U*, the so-called second-chance fission of 235U. Experimental data on fission fragment properties like fission fragment mass and total kinetic energy (TKE) as a function of incident neutron energy are rather scarce for this reaction. For the theoretical modelling of the reaction cross sections for Uranium isotopes this information is a crucial input parameter. In addition, 234U is also an important isotope in the Thorium-based fuel cycle. The strong anisotropy of the angular distribution around the vibrational resonance at En = 0.77 MeV could be confirmed using the full angular range. Fluctuations in the fragment TKE have been observed in the threshold region around the strong vibrational resonance at En = 0.77 MeV. The present results are in contradiction with corresponding literature values. Changes in the mass yield around the vibrational resonance and at En = 5 MeV relative to En = 2 MeV show a different signature. The drop in mean TKE around 2.5 to 3 MeV points to pair breaking as also observed in 235,238U(n,f). The measured two-dimensional mass yield and TKE distribution have been described in terms of fission modes. The yield of the standard 1 (S1) mode shows fluctuations in the threshold of the fission cross section due to the influence of the resonance and levels off at about 20% yield for higher incident neutron energies. The S2 mode shows the respective opposite behaviour. The mean TKE of both modes decreases with En. The decrease in mean TKE overrules the increase in S1 yield, so the mean TKE is dropping

  5. Investigating Prompt Fission Neutron Emission from 235U(n,f) in the Resolved Resonance Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göök, Alf; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Investigations of prompt emission in fission is of importance in understanding the fission process in general and the sharing of excitation energy among the fission fragments in particular. Experimental activities at IRMM on prompt neutron emission from fission in response to OECD/NEA nuclear data requests is presented in this contribution. Main focus lies on currently on-going investigations of prompt neutron emission from the reaction 235U(n,f) in the region of the resolved resonances. For this reaction strong fluctuations of fission fragment mass distributions and mean total kinetic energy have been observed [Nucl. Phys. A 491, 56 (1989)] as a function of incident neutron energy in the resonance region. In addition fluctuations of prompt neutron multiplicities were also observed [Phys. Rev. C 13, 195 (1976)]. The goal of the present study is to verify the current knowledge of prompt neutron multiplicity fluctuations and to study correlations with fission fragment properties.

  6. Spontaneous fission of the heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1989-04-01

    Although spontaneous fission was discovered in /sup 238/U in 1940, detailed studies of the process were first made possible in the 1960's with the availability of milligram quantities of /sup 252/Cf. The advent of solid-state detectors made it possible to perform measurements of coincident fission fragments from even very short-lived spontaneous fission activities or those available in only very small quantities. Until 1971 it was believed that the main features of the mass and kinetic-energy distributions were essentially the same as those for thermal neutron-induced fission and that all low-energy fission proceeded via asymmetric mass division with total kinetic energies which could be derived by linear extrapolation from those of lighter elements. In 1971, measurements of /sup 257/Fm showed an increase in symmetric mass division with anomalously high TKE's. Subsequent experiments showed that in /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, the most probable mass split was symmetric with very high total kinetic energy. Measurements for the heavier elements have shown symmetric mass distributions with both high and low total kinetic energies. Recent results for spontaneous fission properties of the heaviest elements are reviewed and compared with theory. 31 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Mitochondrial fragmentation in excitotoxicity requires ROCK activation.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Riera, Alejandro; Segarra-Mondejar, Marc; Reina, Manuel; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Soriano, Francesc X

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria morphology constantly changes through fission and fusion processes that regulate mitochondrial function, and it therefore plays a prominent role in cellular homeostasis. Cell death progression is associated with mitochondrial fission. Fission is mediated by the mainly cytoplasmic Drp1, which is activated by different post-translational modifications and recruited to mitochondria to perform its function. Our research and other studies have shown that in the early moments of excitotoxic insult Drp1 must be nitrosylated to mediate mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons. Nonetheless, mitochondrial fission is a multistep process in which filamentous actin assembly/disassembly and myosin-mediated mitochondrial constriction play prominent roles. Here we establish that in addition to nitric oxide production, excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial fragmentation also requires activation of the actomyosin regulator ROCK. Although ROCK1 has been shown to phosphorylate and activate Drp1, experiments using phosphor-mutant forms of Drp1 in primary cortical neurons indicate that in excitotoxic conditions, ROCK does not act directly on Drp1 to mediate fission, but may act on the actomyosin complex. Thus, these data indicate that a wider range of signaling pathways than those that target Drp1 are amenable to be inhibited to prevent mitochondrial fragmentation as therapeutic option. PMID:25789413

  8. Magma Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.

    2015-05-01

    Magma fragmentation is the breakup of a continuous volume of molten rock into discrete pieces, called pyroclasts. Because magma contains bubbles of compressible magmatic volatiles, decompression of low-viscosity magma leads to rapid expansion. The magma is torn into fragments, as it is stretched into hydrodynamically unstable sheets and filaments. If the magma is highly viscous, resistance to bubble growth will instead lead to excess gas pressure and the magma will deform viscoelastically by fracturing like a glassy solid, resulting in the formation of a violently expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. In either case, fragmentation represents the conversion of potential energy into the surface energy of the newly created fragments and the kinetic energy of the expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. If magma comes into contact with external water, the conversion of thermal energy will vaporize water and quench magma at the melt-water interface, thus creating dynamic stresses that cause fragmentation and the release of kinetic energy. Lastly, shear deformation of highly viscous magma may cause brittle fractures and release seismic energy.

  9. Influence of shell effects on mass asymmetry in fission of different Hg isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2013-12-01

    With the improved scission-point model mass distributions are calculated for induced fission of Hg isotopes with even mass numbers A = 174 - 198. The calculated mass distributions and mean total kinetic energy of fission fragments are in good agreement with the existing experimental data. The asymmetric mass distribution of fission fragments of 180Hg observed in the recent experiment is explained. The change in the shape of the mass distribution with increasing A of the fissioning AHg nucleus from symmetric for 174Hg to asymmetric around 180Hg, and to more symmetric for 192-198Hg is revealed.

  10. Determination of the cross sections for the production of fragments from relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions. II. Parametric fits

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.R.; Binns, W.R.; Garrard, T.L.; Israel, M.H.; Klarmann, J.; Stone, E.C.; Waddington, C.J. Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO )

    1990-12-01

    Measurements of the partial charge-changing cross sections for the fragmentation of relativistic iron, lanthanum, holmium, and gold nuclei of several different energies incident on targets of polyethylene, carbon, aluminum, and copper have been reported in an accompanying paper. This paper describes the systematics of the variations of these cross sections with energy, projectile, target, and fragment. We have been able to generate a seven-parameter global fit to 795 measured cross sections for the heavy targets which fits the data with a standard deviation of 7%. We have also generated a similar global fit to 303 measured cross sections for a hydrogen target which fits the data with a standard deviation of 10%. These representations imply that the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation is only accurate to some 20--30 %. Weak factorization can apply, but fits that are marginally better, and more physically plausible, can be obtained without factorization. We have identified, and discussed, a number of caveats to the applicability of these fits outside, and inside, the range of energies and masses covered. Excessively large cross sections for the loss of a single proton from the projectile nuclei suggest electromagnetic dissociation. The cross sections for fragments that experience large charge changes appear to become independent of the size of the charge change. Very heavy projectiles have a significant probability of experiencing fission.

  11. Microscopic Calculations of 240Pu Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2007-09-11

    Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations have been performed with the Gogny finite-range effective interaction for {sup 240}Pu out to scission, using a new code developed at LLNL. A first set of calculations was performed with constrained quadrupole moment along the path of most probable fission, assuming axial symmetry but allowing for the spontaneous breaking of reflection symmetry of the nucleus. At a quadrupole moment of 345 b, the nucleus was found to spontaneously scission into two fragments. A second set of calculations, with all nuclear moments up to hexadecapole constrained, was performed to approach the scission configuration in a controlled manner. Calculated energies, moments, and representative plots of the total nuclear density are shown. The present calculations serve as a proof-of-principle, a blueprint, and starting-point solutions for a planned series of more comprehensive calculations to map out a large set of scission configurations, and the associated fission-fragment properties.

  12. A Time Projection Chamber for High Accuracy and Precision Fission Cross-Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hill; K. Jewell; M. Heffner; D. Carter; M. Cunningham; V. Riot; J. Ruz; S. Sangiorgio; B. Seilhan; L. Snyder; D. M. Asner; S. Stave; G. Tatishvili; L. Wood; R. G. Baker; J. L. Klay; R. Kudo; S. Barrett; J. King; M. Leonard; W. Loveland; L. Yao; C. Brune; S. Grimes; N. Kornilov; T. N. Massey; J. Bundgaard; D. L. Duke; U. Greife; U. Hager; E. Burgett; J. Deaven; V. Kleinrath; C. McGrath; B. Wendt; N. Hertel; D. Isenhower; N. Pickle; H. Qu; S. Sharma; R. T. Thornton; D. Tovwell; R. S. Towell; S.

    2014-09-01

    The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4p acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

  13. Fusion and quasi-fission dynamics in nearly-symmetric reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Zhao, Kai; Li, ZhuXia

    2015-11-01

    Some nearly-symmetric fusion reactions are systematically investigated with the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model. By introducing two-body inelastic scattering in the Fermi constraint procedure, the stability of an individual nucleus and the description of fusion cross sections at energies near the Coulomb barrier can be further improved. Simultaneously, the quasifission process in 154Sm+160Gd is also investigated with the microscopic dynamics model for the first time. We find that at energies above the Bass barrier, the fusion probability is smaller than 10-5 for this reaction, and the nuclear contact time is generally smaller than 1500 fm/ c. From the central collisions of Sm+Gd, the neutron-rich fragments such as 164,165Gd, 192W can be produced in the ImQMD simulations, which implies that the quasi-fission reaction could be an alternative way to synthesize new neutron-rich heavy nuclei.

  14. Dynamical simulation of neutron-induced fission of uranium isotopes using four-dimensional Langevin equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavani, M. R.; Mirfathi, S. M.

    2016-04-01

    Four-dimensional Langevin equations have been suggested for the dynamical simulation of neutron-induced fission at low and medium excitation energies. The mass distribution of the fission fragments, the neutron multiplicity, and the fission cross section for the thermal and fast neutron-induced fission of 233U, 235U, and 238U is studied by considering energy dissipation of the compound nucleus through the fission using four-dimensional Langevin equations combined with a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The calculated results using this approach indicate reasonable agreement with available experimental data.

  15. Forest Fragmentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes forest fragmentation in the contiguous United States circa 2001. This information provides a broad, recent picture of the spatial pattern of the nation’s forests and the extent to which they are being broken into smaller patches and pierced or interspe...

  16. Fate of a muon in prompt fission of a nucleus in muonic atoms in connection with prospects of study of fission dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Karpeshin, F.F.; Kaschiev, M.S.; Kaschieva, V.A.

    1987-06-01

    We calculate the probabilities W/sub l/ of entrainment of a muon by light fragments in fission of /sup 238/U induced by negative muons. The mean value is approx. =0.05. The possibility of influence of fission dynamics on the quantity W/sub l/ is discussed.

  17. Fission barriers of compound superheavy nuclei.

    PubMed

    Pei, J C; Nazarewicz, W; Sheikh, J A; Kerman, A K

    2009-05-15

    The dependence of fission barriers on the excitation energy of the compound nucleus impacts the survival probability of superheavy nuclei synthesized in heavy-ion fusion reactions. In this work, we investigate the isentropic fission barriers by means of the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory. The relationship between isothermal and isentropic descriptions is demonstrated. Calculations have been carried out for 264Fm, 272Ds, ;{278}112, ;{292}114, and ;{312}124. For nuclei around ;{278}112 produced in "cold-fusion" reactions, we predict a more rapid decrease of fission barriers with excitation energy as compared to the nuclei around ;{292}114 synthesized in "hot-fusion" experiments. This is explained in terms of the difference between the ground-state and saddle-point temperatures. The effect of the particle gas is found to be negligible in the range of temperatures studied. PMID:19518948

  18. C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin heavy chain activates Akt and MEK/ERK signalling pathways in a Trk receptor-dependent manner in cultured cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Carles; Chaib-Oukadour, Imane; Aguilera, José

    2003-01-01

    Previous publications from our group [Gil, Chaib, Pelliccioni and Aguilera (2000) FEBS Lett. 481, 177-182; Gil, Chaib, Blasi and Aguilera (2001) Biochem. J. 356, 97-103] have reported the activation, in rat brain synaptosomes, of several phosphoproteins, such as neurotrophin tyrosine kinase (Trk) A receptor, phospholipase Cgamma-1, protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK-1/2). In the present study, we examined, by means of phospho-specific antibodies, the activation of the signalling cascades involving neurotrophin Trk receptor, Akt kinase and ERK pathway, in cultured cortical neurons from foetal rat brain, by tetanus toxin (TeTx) as well as by the C-terminal part of its heavy chain (H(C)-TeTx). TeTx and H(C)-TeTx induce fast and transient phosphorylation of Trk receptor at Tyr(674) and Tyr(675), but not at Tyr(490), although the potency of TeTx in this action was higher when compared with H(C)-TeTx action. Moreover, H(C)-TeTx and TeTx also induced phosphorylation of Akt (at Ser(473) and Thr(308)) and of ERK-1/2 (Thr(202)/Tyr(204)), in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The detection of TeTx- and H(C)-TeTx-induced phosphorylation at Ser(9) of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta confirms Akt activation. In the extended analysis of the ERK pathway, phosphorylation of the Raf, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-1/2 and p90Rsk kinases and phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP-response-element-binding protein were detected. The use of tyrphostin AG879, an inhibitor of Trk receptors, demonstrates their necessary participation in the H(C)-TeTx-induced activation of Akt and ERK pathways, as well as in the phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma-1. Furthermore, both pathways are totally dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase action, and they are independent of PKC action, as assessed using wortmannin and Ro-31-8220 as inhibitors. The activation of PKC isoforms was determined by their translocation

  19. Transfer-induced fission in inverse kinematics: Impact on experimental and evaluated nuclear data bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farget, F.; Caamaño, M.; Ramos, D.; Rodrıguez-Tajes, C.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Audouin, L.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Clément, E.; Cortina, D.; Delaune, O.; Derkx, X.; Dijon, A.; Doré, D.; Fernández-Domınguez, B.; Gaudefroy, L.; Golabek, C.; Heinz, A.; Jurado, B.; Lemasson, A.; Paradela, C.; Roger, T.; Salsac, M. D.; Schmitt, C.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse kinematics is a new tool to study nuclear fission. Its main advantage is the possibility to measure with an unmatched resolution the atomic number of fission fragments, leading to new observables in the properties of fission-fragment distributions. In addition to the resolution improvement, the study of fission based on nuclear collisions in inverse kinematics beneficiates from a larger view with respect to the neutron-induced fission, as in a single experiment the number of fissioning systems and the excitation energy range are widden. With the use of spectrometers, mass and kinetic-energy distributions may now be investigated as a function of the proton and neutron number sharing. The production of fissioning nuclei in transfer reactions allows studying the isotopic yields of fission fragments as a function of the excitation energy. The higher excitation energy resulting in the fusion reaction leading to the compound nucleus 250Cf at an excitation energy of 45MeV is also presented. With the use of inverse kinematics, the charge polarisation of fragments at scission is now revealed with high precision, and it is shown that it cannot be neglected, even at higher excitation energies. In addition, the kinematical properties of the fragments inform on the deformation configuration at scission.

  20. Applications of Event-by-Event Fission Modeling with FREYA

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J

    2011-09-16

    The recently developed code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) generates large samples of complete fission events, consisting of two receding product nuclei as well as a number of neutrons and photons, all with complete kinematic information. Thus it is possible to calculate arbitrary correlation observables whose behavior may provide unique insight into the fission process. We first discuss the present status of FREYA, which has now been extended to include spontaneous fission. Concentrating on {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th},f), {sup 240}Pu(sf) and {sup 252}Cf(sf), we discuss the neutron multiplicity correlations, the dependence of the neutron energy spectrum on the neutron multiplicity, and the relationship between the fragment kinetic energy and the number of neutrons and their energies. We also suggest novel fission observables that could be measured with modern detectors.

  1. Experimental Studies of Prompt Fission Neutron Energy Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardet, A.; Granier, T.; Laurent, B.; Oberstedt, A.

    Prompt fission neutron spectra were measured in the reactions 238U(n,f), 235U(n,f) and 237Np(n,f) at different incident neutron energies. The neutrons were detected using a coaxial doped p-terphenyl scintillation detector in coincidence with fission fragments and their time-of-flight was recorded. The properties of the neutron detector were determined and the results are presented in this work. A preliminary neutron detection efficiency was applied to data from the neutron-induced fission of 238U at En = 5.2 MeV, leading to encouraging results.

  2. Fission of Actinides Induced by Neutrons at nTOF

    SciTech Connect

    Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Berthier, B.; Ferrant, L.; Isaev, S.; Le Naour, C.; Stephan, C.; Trubert, D.; Duran, I.; Paradela, C.; Moreau, C.

    2005-05-24

    The neutron-induced fission cross sections of 233U, 234U, 232Th, 237Np, 209Bi, natPb have been measured on the nTOF facility at CERN, which allows an accurate energy measurement owing to the long path. Parallel plate avalanche counters were used to detect the 2 fission fragments in coincidence. This method allows an efficient discrimination of fission reactions among other types of reactions especially at high energies, and it is well suited for the very large energy range available at nTOF. The case of 234U will be used as an example of the quality of the data obtained in these measurements.

  3. Fissioning uranium plasmas and nuclear-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Thom, K.

    1975-01-01

    Current research into uranium plasmas, gaseous-core (cavity) reactors, and nuclear-pumped lasers is discussed. Basic properties of fissioning uranium plasmas are summarized together with potential space and terrestrial applications of gaseous-core reactors and nuclear-pumped lasers. Conditions for criticality of a uranium plasma are outlined, and it is shown that the nonequilibrium state and the optical thinness of a fissioning plasma can be exploited for the direct conversion of fission fragment energy into coherent light (i.e., for nuclear-pumped lasers). Successful demonstrations of nuclear-pumped lasers are described together with gaseous-fuel reactor experiments using uranium hexafluoride.

  4. Constraining the level density using fission of lead projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Taïeb, J.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2015-10-01

    The nuclear level density is one of the main ingredients for the statistical description of the fission process. In this work, we propose to constrain the description of this parameter by using fission reactions induced by protons and light ions on 208Pb at high kinetic energies. The experiment was performed at GSI (Darmstadt), where the combined use of the inverse kinematics technique with an efficient detection setup allowed us to measure the atomic number of the two fission fragments in coincidence. This measurement permitted us to obtain with high precision the partial fission cross sections and the width of the charge distribution as a function of the atomic number of the fissioning system. These data and others previously measured, covering a large range in fissility, are compared to state-of-the-art calculations. The results reveal that total and partial fission cross sections cannot unambiguously constrain the level density at ground-state and saddle-point deformations and additional observables, such as the width of the charge distribution of the final fission fragments, are required.

  5. Towards high accurate neutron-induced fission cross sections of 240,242Pu: Spontaneous fission half-lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bryś, T.; Eykens, R.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Moens, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Pretel, C.; Sibbens, G.; Vanleeuw, D.; Vidali, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fast spectrum neutron-induced fission cross sections of transuranic isotopes are being of special demand in order to provide accurate data for the new GEN-IV nuclear power plants. To minimize the uncertainties on these measurements accurate data on spontaneous fission half-lives and detector efficiencies are a key point. High α-active actinides need special attention since the misinterpretation of detector signals can lead to low efficiency values or underestimation in fission fragment detection. In that context, 240,242Pu isotopes have been studied by means of a Twin Frisch-Grid Ionization Chamber (TFGIC) for measurements of their neutron-induced fission cross section. Gases with different drift velocities have been used, namely P10 and CH4. The detector efficiencies for both samples have been determined and improved spontaneous fission half-life values were obtained.

  6. Collinear versus triangular geometry: A ternary fission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K. R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; von Oertzen, W.

    2014-08-01

    We study in this work the preference of the arrangements of fragments leading to ternary fission. Earlier experimental investigations on this subject have established the fact that the emission of a third particle happens in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the fission axis. Recently, within the missing mass approach, it has been reported that for fragments of comparable masses, the so-called collinear cluster tripartition (CCT), collinear emission of the fragments occurs. The ternary potential energy surface (PES) of three-body fragmentation of Cf252 is studied. The PESs are calculated for the fragment arrangements starting from a collinear configuration to a triangular configuration by varying the angle between the end fragments with respect to the fragment positioned in the middle. Furthermore, the role of the positioning of the three fragments is analyzed. Our results indicate that there is a clear preference for an arrangement in which the lightest fragment is positioned in the middle. Furthermore, for all possible third fragments, collinear geometry is found to be favored over orthogonal geometry.

  7. Cell bank characterization and fermentation optimization for production of recombinant heavy chain C-terminal fragment of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (rBoNTE(H(c)): antigen E) by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Jayanta; Inan, Mehmet; Fanders, Sarah; Taoka, Shinichi; Gouthro, Mark; Swanson, Todd; Barent, Rick; Barthuli, Ardis; Loveless, Bonnie M; Smith, Leonard A; Smith, Theresa; Henderson, Ian; Ross, John; Meagher, Michael M

    2007-01-10

    A process was developed for production of a candidate vaccine antigen, recombinant C-terminal heavy chain fragment of the botulinum neurotoxin serotype E, rBoNTE(H(c)) in Pichia pastoris. P. pastoris strain GS115 was transformed with the rBoNTE(H(c)) gene inserted into pHILD4 Escherichia coli-P. pastoris shuttle plasmid. The clone was characterized for genetic stability, copy number, and BoNTE(H(c)) sequence. Expression of rBoNTE(H(c)) from the Mut(+) HIS4 clone was confirmed in the shake-flask, prior to developing a fed-batch fermentation process at 5 and 19 L scale. The fermentation process consists of a glycerol growth phase in batch and fed-batch mode using a defined medium followed by a glycerol/methanol transition phase for adaptation to growth on methanol and a methanol induction phase resulting in the production of rBoNTE(H(c)). Specific growth rate, ratio of growth to induction phase, and time of induction were critical for optimal rBoNTE(H(c)) production and minimal proteolytic degradation. A computer-controlled exponential growth model was used for process automation and off-gas analysis was used for process monitoring. The optimized process had an induction time of 9 h on methanol and produced up to 3 mg of rBoNTE(H(c)) per gram wet cell mass as determined by HPLC and Western blot analysis. PMID:17010465

  8. DNA vaccines targeting heavy chain C-terminal fragments of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A, B, and E induce potent humoral and cellular immunity and provide protection from lethal toxin challenge

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Veronica L; Villarreal, Daniel O; Hutnick, Natalie A; Walters, Jewell N; Ragwan, Edwin; Bdeir, Khalil; Yan, Jian; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Finnefrock, Adam C; Casimiro, Danilo R; Weiner, David B

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are deadly, toxic proteins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum that can cause significant diseases in humans. The use of the toxic substances as potential bioweapons has raised concerns by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the United States Military. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine to prevent botulinum intoxication. Here we present an immunogenicity study to evaluate the efficacy of novel monovalent vaccines and a trivalent cocktail DNA vaccine targeting the heavy chain C-terminal fragments of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A, B, and E. These synthetic DNA vaccines induced robust humoral and polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses which fully protected animals against lethal challenge after just 2 immunizations. In addition, naïve animals administered immunized sera mixed with the lethal neurotoxin were 100% protected against intoxication. The data demonstrate the protective efficacy induced by a combinative synthetic DNA vaccine approach. This study has importance for the development of vaccines that provide protective immunity against C. botulinum neurotoxins and other toxins. PMID:26158319

  9. Prompt fission neutron spectra in fast-neutron-induced fission of 238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, V. V.; Nayak, B. K.; Saxena, A.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Capote, R.

    2015-07-01

    Prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) measurements for the neutron-induced fission of 238U are carried out at incident neutron energies of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 MeV, respectively. The time-of-flight technique is employed to determine the energy of fission neutrons. The prompt fission neutron energy spectra so obtained are analyzed using Watt parametrization to derive the neutron multiplicity and average prompt fission neutron energy. The present experimental PFNS data are compared with the evaluated spectra taken from the ENDF/B-VII.1 library and the predictive calculations carried out using the empire-3.2 (Malta) code with built-in Los Alamos (LA) and Kornilov PFNS models. The sensitivity of the empire-3.2 LA model-calculated PFNS to the nuclear level density parameter of the average fission fragment and to the total kinetic energy is investigated. empire-3.2 LA model PFNS calculations that use Madland 2006-recommended values [D. G. Madland, Nucl. Phys. A 772, 113 (2006), 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.03.013] of the total kinetic energy and the level density parameter a =A /(10 ±0.5 ) compare very well to measured data at all incident neutron incident energies.

  10. Dissipative effects in fission investigated with proton-on-lead reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Taïeb, J.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2016-05-01

    The complete kinematic measurement of the two fission fragments permitted us to investigate dissipative effects at large deformations, between the saddle-point and the corresponding scission configurations. Up to now, this kind of study has only been performed with fusionfission reactions using a limited number of observables, such as the mass distribution of the fission fragments or the neutron multiplicities. However, the large angular momenta gained by the compound nucleus could affect the conclusions drawn from such experiments. In this work, the use of spallation reactions, where the fissioning systems are produced with low angular momentum, small deformations and high excitation energies, favors the study of dissipation, and allowed us to define new observables, such as postscission neutron multiplicities and the neutron excess of the final fission fragments as a function of the atomic number of the fissioning system. These new observables are used to investigate the dissipation at large deformations.

  11. a Study of Prompt Neutron Emission in Thermal Neutron-Induced Fission of URANIUM-235.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklyn, Christopher Barry

    An original experiment was performed to measure the angular correlation of fission neutrons from thermal -neutron-induced fission of ('235)U, with respect to the light fission fragment direction, as a function of fragment mass division and neutron energy. A Monte Carlo model, with a realistic description of the fission fragment de -excitation process, was developed to simulate the observed neutron-fragment angular correlation data. The model was capable of investigating various possible forms of neutron emission which were classified into emission before, during and after full fragment acceleration, and correspondingly named scission acceleration and prompt neutron emission. Simulated neutron-fragment angular correlations displaying similar distributions with respect to the light fragment direction for different forms of neutron emission are shown to exhibit differing distributions when examined as a function of fragment mass division or neutron energy, thus illustrating the sensitivity of the experiment to the forms of neutron emission occurring in fission. A primary conclusion of the investigation was that neutron emission solely from fully accelerated fragments, whether isotropically or anisotropically emitted in the fragment centre of mass system, was unable to adequately describe the observed neutron-fragment angular correlations. Simulation of the fission process with some neutron emission before or during fragment acceleration exhibited a closer correspondence with observed phenomena. Within the scope of this work the form of neutron emission that produced the closest overall correspondence with experimental data was a simulation in which 20% of the emitted neutrons were isotropically emitted scission neutrons with a Maxwellian energy distribution of temperature 1.0 MeV. The remaining neutrons were emitted from fully accelerated fragments, being isotropic in the fragment centre of mass frame, except for the n-th(n > 1) neutrons from the light fragment, which

  12. Electromagnetic Dissociation of Uranium in Heavy Ion Collisions at 120 Mev/a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, Marvin Lealon

    The heavy-ion induced electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) of a 120 MeV/A ^{238}U beam incident on five targets (^9Be, ^{27}Al, ^ {nat}Cu, ^{nat} Ag, and ^{nat}U) has been studied experimentally. Electromagnetic dissociation at this beam energy is essentially a two step process involving the excitation of a giant resonance followed by particle decay. At 120 MeV/A there is predicted to be a significant contribution (~25%) of the giant quadrupole resonance to the EMD cross sections. The specific exit channel which was looked at was projectile fission. The two fission fragments were detected in coincidence by an array of solid-state DeltaE-E detectors, allowing the charges of the fragments to be determined to within +/- .5 units. The events were sorted on the basis of the sums of the fragments' charges, acceptance corrections were applied, and total cross sections for the most peripheral events (i.e. those leading to charge sums of approximately 92) were determined. Electromagnetic fission at the beam energy of this experiment always leads to a true charge sum of 92. Due to the imperfect resolution of the detectors, charge sums of 91 and 93 were included in order to account for all of the electromagnetic fission events. The experimentally observed cross sections are due to nuclear interaction processes as well as electromagnetic processes. Under the conditions of this experiment, the cross sections for the beryllium target are almost entirely due to nuclear processes. The nuclear cross sections for the other four targets were determined by extrapolation from the beryllium data using a geometrical scaling model. After subtraction of the nuclear cross sections, the resulting electromagnetic cross sections are compared to theoretical calculations based on the equivalent photon approximation. Systematic uncertainties associated with the normalization of the data make quantitative comparisons with theory difficult, however. The systematic uncertainties are discussed and

  13. Fission Xenon on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, K. J.; Marti, K.; Marty, B.

    2002-01-01

    Fission Xe components due to Pu-244 decay in the early history of Mars have been identified in nakhlites; as in the case of ALH84001 and Chassigny the fission gas was assimilated into indigenous solar-type Xe. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Fission gas detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  15. Fission Spectrum Related Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    G. Aliberti; I. Kodeli; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores

    2007-10-01

    The paper presents a preliminary uncertainty analysis related to potential uncertainties on the fission spectrum data. Consistent results are shown for a reference fast reactor design configuration and for experimental thermal configurations. However the results obtained indicate the need for further analysis, in particular in terms of fission spectrum uncertainty data assessment.

  16. The Fission Barrier Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Phair, L.; Moretto, L. G.

    2008-04-17

    Fission excitation functions have been measured for a chain of neighboring compound nuclei from {sup 207}Po to {sup 212}Po. We present a new analysis which provides a determination of the fission barriers and ground state shell effects with nearly spectroscopic accuracy. The accuracy achieved in this analysis may lead to a future detailed exploration of the saddle mass surface and its spectroscopy.

  17. Biomodal spontaneous fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K. )

    1989-09-26

    Investigations of mass and kinetic-energy distributions from spontaneous fission have been extended in recent years to an isotope of element 104 and, for half-lives, to an isotope of element 108. The results have been surprising in that spontaneous fission half-lives have turned out to be much longer than expected and mass and kinetic- energy distributions were found to abruptly shift away from those of the lighter actinides, showing two modes of fission. These new developments have caused a re-evaluation of our understanding of the fission process, bringing an even deeper appreciation of the role played by nuclear shell effects upon spontaneous fission properties. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  18. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, A.F.

    1997-06-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Perturbative fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Pirner, H.-J.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Tarasov, A. V.

    2008-03-01

    The Berger model of perturbative fragmentation of quarks to pions is improved by providing an absolute normalization and keeping all terms in a (1-z) expansion, which makes the calculation valid at all values of fractional pion momentum z. We also replace the nonrelativistic wave function of a loosely bound pion by the more realistic procedure of projecting to the light-cone pion wave function, which in turn is taken from well known models. The full calculation does not confirm the (1-z){sup 2} behavior of the fragmentation function (FF) predicted in [E. L. Berger, Z. Phys. C 4, 289 (1980); Phys. Lett. 89B, 241 (1980] for z>0.5, and only works at very large z>0.95, where it is in reasonable agreement with phenomenological FFs. Otherwise, we observe quite a different z-dependence which grossly underestimates data at smaller z. The disagreement is reduced after the addition of pions from decays of light vector mesons, but still remains considerable. The process dependent higher twist terms are also calculated exactly and found to be important at large z and/or p{sub T}.

  20. Neutron-induced fission: properties of prompt neutron and γ rays as a function of incident energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Kawano, T.

    2016-06-01

    We have applied the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory, in a Monte-Carlo implementation, to the de-excitation of fission fragments, obtaining a reasonable description of the characteristics of neutrons and gamma rays emitted before beta decays toward stability. Originally implemented for the spontaneous fission of 252Cf and the neutroninduced fission of 235U and 239Pu at thermal neutron energy, in this contribution we discuss the extension of the formalism to incident neutron energies up to 20 MeV. For the emission of pre-fission neutrons, at incident energies beyond second-chance fission, we take into account both the pre-equilibrium and statistical pre-fission components. Phenomenological parameterizations of mass, charge and TKE yields are used to obtain the initial conditions for the fission fragments that subsequently decay via neutron and emissions. We illustrate this approach for 239Pu(n,f).

  1. Spontaneous Fission Barriers Based on a Generalized Liquid Drop Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shu-Qing; Bao, Xiao-Jun; Li, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Fei

    2014-05-01

    The barrier against the spontaneous fission has been determined within the Generalized Liquid Drop Model (GLDM) including the mass and charge asymmetry, and the proximity energy. The shell correction of the spherical parent nucleus is calculated by using the Strutinsky method, and the empirical shape-dependent shell correction is employed during the deformation process. A quasi-molecular shape sequence has been defined to describe the whole process from one-body shape to two-body shape system, and a two-touching-ellipsoid is adopted when the superdeformed one-body system reaches the rupture point. On these bases the spontaneous fission barriers are systematically studied for nuclei from 230Th to 249Cm for different possible exiting channels with the different mass and charge asymmetries. The double, and triple bumps are found in the fission potential energy in this region, which roughly agree with the experimental results. It is found that at around Sn-like fragment the outer fission barriers are lower, while the partner of the Sn-like fragment is in the range near 108Ru where the ground-state mass is lowered by allowing axially symmetric shapes. The preferable fission channels are distinctly pronounced, which should be corresponding to the fragment mass distributions.

  2. Status and prospects of investigations into the collinear cluster decay of heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pyatkov, Yu. V.; Kamanin, D. V.; Alexandrov, A. A.; Alexandrova, I. A.; Mkaza, N.; Zhuchko, V. E.; Kondratyev, N. A.; Kuznetsova, E. A. Mishinsky, G. V.; Malaza, V.; Strekalovsky, A. O.; Strekalovsky, O. V.

    2014-12-15

    Basic experimental results confirming the existence a new cluster-decay type called collinear cluster tripartition (CCT) are presented. Decays of this type manifest themselves, in particular, as a two-dimensional region of a locally enhanced yield of fragments (bump) that corresponds to specific missing-mass values in the mass-mass distribution of fission fragments. One of the decay modes that contribute to the bump can be treated as a cluster-decay type that is new in relation to the well-known heavy-ion or lead radioactivity. The conclusions drawn from an analysis of correlation mass distributions are confirmed by the results obtained from neutron-gated data, measurements of the nuclear charge for CCT events, and the direct detection of new-decay products.

  3. Status and prospects of investigations into the collinear cluster decay of heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyatkov, Yu. V.; Kamanin, D. V.; Alexandrov, A. A.; Alexandrova, I. A.; Mkaza, N.; Zhuchko, V. E.; Kondratyev, N. A.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Mishinsky, G. V.; Malaza, V.; Strekalovsky, A. O.; Strekalovsky, O. V.

    2014-12-01

    Basic experimental results confirming the existence a new cluster-decay type called collinear cluster tripartition (CCT) are presented. Decays of this type manifest themselves, in particular, as a two-dimensional region of a locally enhanced yield of fragments (bump) that corresponds to specific missing-mass values in the mass-mass distribution of fission fragments. One of the decay modes that contribute to the bump can be treated as a cluster-decay type that is new in relation to the well-known heavy-ion or lead radioactivity. The conclusions drawn from an analysis of correlation mass distributions are confirmed by the results obtained from neutron-gated data, measurements of the nuclear charge for CCT events, and the direct detection of new-decay products.

  4. Reducing Uncertainties in Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections Using a Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Brett; Niffte Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections for actinides have long been of great interest for nuclear energy and stockpile stewardship. Traditionally, measurements were performed using fission chambers which provided limited information about the detected fission events. For the case of 239Pu(n,f), sensitivity studies have shown a need for more precise measurements. Recently the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) has developed the fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) to measure fission cross sections to better than 1% uncertainty by providing 3D tracking of fission fragments. The fissionTPC collected data to calculate the 239Pu(n,f) cross section at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center during the 2014 run cycle. Preliminary analysis has been focused on studying particle identification and target and beam non-uniformities to reduce the uncertainty on the cross section. Additionally, the collaboration is investigating other systematic errors that could not be well studied with a traditional fission chamber. LA-UR-15-24906.

  5. Neutron angular distribution in plutonium-240 spontaneous fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcath, Matthew J.; Shin, Tony H.; Clarke, Shaun D.; Peerani, Paolo; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear safeguards applications require accurate fission models that exhibit prompt neutron anisotropy. In the laboratory reference frame, an anisotropic neutron angular distribution is observed because prompt fission neutrons carry momentum from fully accelerated fission fragments. A liquid organic scintillation detector array was used with pulse shape discrimination techniques to produce neutron-neutron cross-correlation time distributions and angular distributions from spontaneous fission in a 252Cf, a 0.84 g 240Pueff metal, and a 1.63 g 240Pueff metal sample. The effect of cross-talk, estimated with MCNPX-PoliMi simulations, is removed from neutron-neutron coincidences as a function of the angle between detector pairs. Fewer coincidences were observed at detector angles near 90°, relative to higher and lower detector angles. As light output threshold increases, the observed anisotropy increases due to spectral effects arising from fission fragment momentum transfer to emitted neutrons. Stronger anisotropy was observed in Cf-252 spontaneous fission prompt neutrons than in Pu-240 neutrons.

  6. Electron-capture delayed fission properties of {sup 242}Es

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, D. A.; Adams, J. L.

    2000-04-01

    Electron-capture delayed fission of {sup 242}Es produced via the {sup 233}U({sup 14}N,5n){sup 242}Es reaction at 87 MeV (on target) was observed to decay with a half-life of 11{+-}3 s, consistent with the reported {alpha}-decay half-life of {sup 242}Es of 16{sub -4}{sup +6} s. The mass-yield distribution of the fission fragments is highly asymmetric. The average pre-neutron emission total kinetic energy of the fragments was measured to be 183{+-}18 MeV. Based on the ratio of the measured number of fission events to the measured number of {alpha} decays from the electron-capture daughter {sup 242}Cf (100% {alpha} branch), the probability of delayed fission was determined to be 0.006{+-}0.002. This value for the delayed fission probability fits the experimental trend of increasing delayed fission probability with increasing Q value for electron capture. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  7. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting 230,232Th and 235,238U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for 230,232Th and 235,238U are around 0.7-0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  8. Energy Correlation of Prompt Fission Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elter, Zs.; Pázsit, I.

    2016-03-01

    In all cases where neutron fluctuations in a branching process (such as in multiplicity measurements) are treated in an energy dependent description, the energy correlations of the branching itself (energy correlations of the fission neutrons) need to be known. To date, these are not known from experiments. Such correlations can be theoretically and numerically derived by modelling the details of the fission process. It was suggested earlier that the fact that the prompt neutrons are emitted from the moving fission targets, will influence their energy and angular distributions in the lab system, which possibly induces correlations. In this paper the influence of the neutron emission process from the moving targets on the energy correlations is investigated analytically and via numerical simulations. It is shown that the correlations are generated by the random energy and direction distributions of the fission fragments. Analytical formulas are derived for the two-point energy distributions, and quantitative results are obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations. The results lend insight into the character of the two-point distributions, and give quantitative estimates of the energy correlations, which are generally small.

  9. Photo-fission at the S-DALINAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göök, Alf; Barday, Roman; Chernykh, Maksym; Eckardt, Christian; Eichhorn, Ralf; Enders, Joachim; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; von Neumann-Cosef, Peter; Oberstedt, Andreas; Oberstedt, Stephan; Poltoratska, Yuliya; Richter, Achim; Wagner, Markus

    2009-10-01

    Experiments on photo-induced fission of 238U and 234U using bremsstrahlung with endpoint energies between 6 MeV and 9 MeV have been carried out at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC. A twin Frisch grid ionization chamber has been used to determine energy and mass distributions via the 2E-technique. The fission fragment emission angle, which is used to correct for energy loss in the target and backing material for a correct determination of fragment energy and mass, is deduced from the time difference between cathode and anode signals. The research program including the foreseen search for parity violation in photo-induced fission and first experimental results will be presented.

  10. Cold fission description with constant and varying mass asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, S. B.; Rodríguez, O.; Tavares, O. A. P.; Gonçalves, M.; García, F.; Guzmán, F.

    1998-05-01

    Different descriptions for varying the mass asymmetry in the fragmentation process are used to calculate the cold fission barrier penetrability. The relevance of the appropriate choice for both the description of the prescission phase and inertia coefficient to unify alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and spontaneous cold fission processes in the same theoretical framework is explicitly shown. We calculate the half-life of all possible partition modes of nuclei of A>200 following the most recent Mass Table by Audi and Wapstra. It is shown that if one uses the description in which the mass asymmetry is maintained constant during the fragmentation process, the experimental half-life values and mass yield of 234U cold fission are satisfactorily reproduced.

  11. Neutron emission in fission of 252Cf(sf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Fabry, I.

    2009-10-01

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics. The goal was to compare the results of this digital data acquisition and digital signal processing analysis to the results of the pioneering work of Budtz-Jo/rgensen and Knitter. Using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber for fission fragment (FF) detection and a NE213 equivalent neutron detector in total about 10 neutron coincidences have been registered. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution have been investigated using a 10 bit waveform digitizer. Neutron time- of- flight and pulse shape have been measured using analogue CAMAC modules, a 1 ns TDC and a pair of 12 bit charge-to-digital-converters. The fission fragment signals have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. The results are in very good agreement with literature. For the first time the dependence of the number of neutrons as a function of total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fragments does not drop at low TKE.

  12. Prompt Neutron Emission in 252CF Spontaneous Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Zeynalov, Sh.

    2011-10-01

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics. The goal was to compare the results from digital data acquisition and digital signal processing analysis with results of the pioneering work of Budtz-Jørgensen and Knitter. Using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber for fission fragment (FF) detection and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in total about 107 fission fragment-neutron coincidences have been registered. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer. The signal waveforms have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. The results are in very good agreement with literature. For the first time the dependence of the number of emitted neutrons as a function of total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fragments is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations in the range of TKE from 140-220 MeV.

  13. Fragmentation of hot classical drops

    SciTech Connect

    Vicentini, A.; Jacucci, G.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1985-05-01

    Time evolution of hot drops of matter containing approx.230 or approx.130 particles is studied by classical molecular dynamics. Initially, the drops have uniform density and a sharp surface. The chosen initial conditions include three values of density and a range of temperatures wide enough to study the phenomena of evaporation, fragmentation, and total vaporization in a unified fashion. The average density and temperature of central matter is measured periodically to obtain trajectories of the evolution in the rho,T plane. These trajectories indicate that the matter expands almost adiabatically until it reaches the region of adiabatic instabilities. Density inhomogeneities develop in this region, but the matter fragments only if the expansion continues to average densities of less than one-fourth the liquid density, otherwise it recondenses into a single blob. The recondensed matter and fragments have very crooked surfaces. If the temperature is high enough, the expanding matter does not enter the region of adiabatic instabilities and totally vaporizes. For initial densities of the order of equilibrium density, matter does not fragment or develop large inhomogeneities in the region enclosed by the isothermal and adiabatic spinodals. Thus it appears unlikely that fragmentation of small drops (nuclei) can be used to study the isothermal critical region of gas-liquid phase transition. A detailed tabulation of the energies and number of monomers, dimers, light, and heavy fragments emitted in each event is presented.

  14. Investigations of Extreme Subbarrier Fission of URANIUM-235

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Arjun

    An efficient detection setup has been devised for the measurement of thick target fission yields in coincidence with gamma-rays. Based on a new and versatile detector (PVD - Photo Voltaic Device), this arrangement has the sensitivity to detect fission events with cross sections of the order of 10^ {-9} barns (10^{-33 } cm^2) with a fragment -gamma coincidence detection efficiency of 40%. A computer code (PONTF) has been developed in order to simulate this detector geometry as well as effects of the thick target, thus enabling the translation of thick target yields to cross sections. For the reaction system 4-12 MeV ^1 H + ^{238}{U }, it was found that this arrangement was insensitive to backscattered protons and the thick target fission fragment energy spectra compared very well with spectra simulated by PONTF. The fission of ^{235} U in the deep sub-barrier region has also been investigated using 200 MeV ^{197}Au and 20-80 MeV ^{12}C projectiles. Multiple Coulomb excitation computer codes (COULEX and GOSIA) have been used to investigate the possibility of the fission of ^{235}U following Coulomb excitation. The first study used the reaction system 200 MeV ^{197}Au + ^ {235}U. No fission fragments were observed in coincidence with gamma-rays for ~10^{14} incident projectiles. The excitation function for the fission of ^{235}U induced by ^{12}C was measured for projectiles with energies of 20-80 MeV. An enhancement was observed over the extrapolated fusion-fission yields for beam energies below 55 MeV. Deduced branching ratios have been compared for the four experimental systems (1) 1.5-2.5 MeV ^1H + ^{235}U, (2) 3-4 Mev ^4He ^ {235}U, (3) 200 MeV ^{197 }Au + ^{235}U and (4) 20-55 MeV ^{12}C ^{235}U. These values were compared to test the hypothesis that one level in ^{235}U, with a large fission branch, was solely responsible for the cross section enhancement in the deep sub-barrier region. This hypothesis is not consistent with the data and we conclude that more

  15. Fission Systems for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, T.; Dorney, D. J.; Swint, Marion Shayne

    2012-01-01

    Fission systems are used extensively on earth, and 34 such systems have flown in space. The energy density of fission is over 10 million times that of chemical reactions, giving fission the potential to eliminate energy density constraints for many space missions. Potential safety and operational concerns with fission systems are well understood, and strategies exist for affordably developing such systems. By enabling a power-rich environment and highly efficient propulsion, fission systems could enable affordable, sustainable exploration of Mars.

  16. Dynamical effects in fission investigated at high excitation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlliure, J.

    2016-05-01

    The experimental techniques used for the investigation of nuclear fission have progressed considerably during the last decade. Most of this progress is based on the use of the inverse kinematics technique allowing for the first time the complete isotopic and kinematic characterization of both fission fragments. These measurements make possible to characterize the fissioning system at saddle and at scission, and can be used to benchmark fission model calculations. One of the important ingredients in transport models describing the dynamics of the process is the dissipation parameter, governing the coupling between intrinsic and collective degrees of freedom. Recent experiments got access to the magnitude of this parameter and could also investigate its dependence in temperature and deformation.

  17. Lanl Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section Measurement Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptev, A. B.; Tovesson, F.; Hill, T. S.

    2014-09-01

    A well established program of neutron-induced fission cross section measurement at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is supporting the Fuel Cycle Research program (FC R&D). Combining measurements at two LANSCE facilities, the Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research facility (WNR), cover neutron energies over 10 orders of magnitude: from sub-thermal up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate fission ionization chamber was used as a fission fragment detector. The 235U(n,f) standard was used as the reference. Fission cross sections have been measured for multiple actinides. The new data presented here completes the suite of long-lived Uranium isotopes that were investigated with this experimental approach. The cross section data are presented in comparison with existing evaluations and previous measurements.

  18. Transition from Asymmetric to Symmetric Fission in the 235U(n,f) Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; McGrath, C A; McNabb, D P; Nelson, R O; Johns, G D; Wilburn, W S; Drake, D M

    2001-07-19

    Prompt {gamma} rays from the neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U have been studied using the GEANIE spectrometer situated at the LANSCE/WNR ''white'' neutron facility. Gamma-ray production cross sections for 29 ground-state-band transitions in 18 even-even fission fragments were obtained as a function of incident neutron energy, using the time-of-flight technique. Independent yields were deduced from these cross sections and fitted with standard formulations of the fragment charge and mass distributions to study the transition from asymmetric to symmetric fission. The results are interpreted in the context of the disappearance of shell structure at high excitation energies.

  19. Prompt neutron emission from the spontaneous fission of sup 260 Md

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, J.F.; van Aarle, J.; Westmeier, W.; Lougheed, R.W.; Hulet, E.K.; Moody, K.J.; Dougan, R.J.; Koop, E.; Glaser, R.E.; Brandt, R.; Patzelt, P. Philipps University, D-3550, Marburg an der Lahn, )

    1990-02-01

    We have made the first measurement of the number of neutrons emitted from the spontaneous fission of a nuclide in which very high fragment energies dominate the fission process. In bombardments of {sup 254}Es, we produced a large sample of 28-d {sup 260}Md, which was neutron counted in a 1-m-diameter spherical tank containing a Gd-doped scintillator solution. The average number of neutrons emitted per fission is only 2.58{plus minus}0.11, substantially less than for other actinides. A linear dependence of neutron multiplicity on fragment-excitation energy is observed to the highest values of total kinetic energy.

  20. Fission Barriers of Compound Superheavy Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Junchen; Nazarewicz, Witold; Sheikh, J. A.; Kerman, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of fission barriers on the excitation energy of the compound nucleus impacts the survival probability of superheavy nuclei synthesized in heavy-ion fusion reactions. We study the temperature-dependent fission barriers by means of the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory. The equivalence of isothermal and isentropic descriptions is demonstrated. The effect of the particle gas is found to be negligible in the range of temperatures studied. Calculations have been carried out for ^{264}Fm, ^{272}Ds, ^{278}112, ^{292}114, and ^{312}124. For nuclei around ^{278}112 produced in "cold fusion" reactions, we predict a more rapid decrease of fission barriers with temperature as compared to the nuclei around ^{292}114 synthesized in "hot fusion" experiments. This is explained in terms of the difference between the ground-state and fission-barrier temperatures. Our calculations are consistent with the long survival probabilities of the superheavy elements produced in Dubna with the ^{48}Ca beam.

  1. Nuclear Fission Investigation with Twin Ionization Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Zeynalova, O.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Nazarenko, M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2011-11-29

    The purpose of the present paper was to report the recent results, obtained in development of digital pulse processing mathematics for prompt fission neutron (PFN) investigation using twin ionization chamber (TIC) along with fast neutron time-of-flight detector (ND). Due to well known ambiguities in literature (see refs. [4, 6, 9 and 11]), concerning a pulse induction on TIC electrodes by FF ionization, we first presented detailed mathematical analysis of fission fragment (FF) signal formation on TIC anode. The analysis was done using Ramo-Shockley theorem, which gives relation between charged particle motion between TIC electrodes and so called weighting potential. Weighting potential was calculated by direct numerical solution of Laplace equation (neglecting space charge) for the TIC geometry and ionization, caused by FF. Formulae for grid inefficiency (GI) correction and digital pulse processing algorithms for PFN time-of-flight measurements and pulse shape analysis are presented and discussed.

  2. Investigation of n+238U Fission Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litaize, O.; Serot, O.; Regnier, D.; Manailescu, C.

    2014-04-01

    The prompt fission observables related to the 238U(n,f) reaction were investigated through a Monte Carlo simulation. Two models were tested in the FIFRELIN Monte Carlo code to simulate the de-excitation of the primary fission fragments. In the first one, prompt neutrons are emitted before prompt gammas and a Weisskopf model is used for neutrons while a level-density plus gamma-strength function statistical model is used for gammas. In the second one, an Hauser-Feshbach statistical model is used for the n/γ coupled emission using neutron-transmission coefficients provided by TALYS-1.4 and gamma-transmission coefficients calculated as in the previous model.

  3. Nuclear fission of neutron-deficient protactinium nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Nishinaka, I.; Nagame, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Sueki, K.; Nakahara, H.; Tanikawa, M.; Ohtsuki, T.

    1997-08-01

    Fragment velocity, kinetic energy, mass yield, and element yield distributions in the fission of neutron-deficient Pa isotopes produced in the reactions of {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O on {sup 209}Bi have been measured at incident beam energies near and above the Coulomb barriers by the time-of-flight and radiochemical methods. An asymmetric mass-division component has been observed. Measured fission cross sections were compared with the results of statistical model calculations which take into account two fission barrier heights for symmetric and asymmetric yields. The fission barrier height deduced for the asymmetric fission is found slightly lower than that for the symmetric one. The difference between the two barrier heights in the fission of the present protactinium nuclides (N{approximately}135) is considerably smaller than that in the neutron-rich nuclide of {sup 233}Pa (N{approximately}142), indicating that the difference sensitively depends on the neutron number of the fissioning nuclide. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Fission cross-sections, prompt fission neutron and γ-ray emission in request for nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Oberstedt, S.; Göök, A.; Billnert, R.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years JRC-IRMM has been investigating fission cross-sections of 240,242Pu in the fast-neutron energy range relevant for innovative reactor systems and requested in the High Priority Request List (HPRL) of the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). In addition to that, prompt neutron multiplicities are being investigated for the major isotopes 235U, 239Pu in the neutron-resonance region using a newly developed scintillation detector array (SCINTIA) and an innovative modification of the Frisch-grid ionisation chamber for fission-fragment detection. These data are highly relevant for improved neutron data evaluation and requested by the OECD/Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC). Thirdly, also prompt fission γ-ray emission is investigated using highly efficient lanthanide-halide detectors with superior timing resolution. Again, those data are requested in the HPRL for major actinides to solve open questions on an under-prediction of decay heat in nuclear reactors. The information on prompt fission neutron and γ-ray emission is crucial for benchmarking nuclear models to study the de-excitation process of neutron-rich fission fragments. Information on γ-ray emission probabilities is also useful in decommissioning exercises on damaged nuclear power plants like Fukushima Daiichi to which JRC-IRMM is contributing. The results on the 240,242Pu fission cross section, 235U prompt neutron multiplicity in the resonance region and correlations with fission fragments and prompt γ-ray emission for several isotopes will be presented and put into perspective.

  5. Kinetic energy deficit in the symmetric fission of /sup 259/Md. [Light particle emission in /sup 256/Fm fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Baisden, P.A.; Dougan, R.J.; Mustafa, M.G.

    1980-10-01

    The fragment energies of about 725 coincidence events have now been observed in the spontaneous fission (SF) decay of 105-min /sup 259/Md since its discovery in 1977. The fission of /sup 259/Md is characterized by a symmetric mass distribution, similar to those of /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, but with a broad total kinetic energy (anti TKE) distribution which peaks at about 195 MeV, in contrast to those of /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, for which the anti TKE is about 240 MeV. This kinetic energy deficit, approx. 40 MeV, has been postulated to be due to the emission of hydrogen-like particles by /sup 259/Md at the scission point in a large fraction of the fissions, leaving the residual fissioning nucleus with 100 protons. The residual nucleus would then be able to divide into two ultrastable tin-like fission fragments, but with less kinetic energy than that observed in the SF of /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, because of binding-energy losses and a reduction in the Coulomb repulsion of the major fragments. To test this hypothesis, counter-telescope experiments aimed at detecting and identifying these light particles were performed. In 439 SF events 3 + 3 protons of the appropriate energy were observed, too few to account for the kinetic energy deficit in the fission of /sup 259/Md. There seems to be no explanation for this problem within the framework of current fission theory. These results are discussed along with preliminary measurements of light-particle emission in the SF of /sup 256/Fm. 5 figures.

  6. FREYA-a new Monte Carlo code for improved modeling of fission chains

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, C A; Randrup, J; Vogt, R L

    2012-06-12

    A new simulation capability for modeling of individual fission events and chains and the transport of fission products in materials is presented. FREYA ( Fission Yield Event Yield Algorithm ) is a Monte Carlo code for generating fission events providing correlated kinematic information for prompt neutrons, gammas, and fragments. As a standalone code, FREYA calculates quantities such as multiplicity-energy, angular, and gamma-neutron energy sharing correlations. To study materials with multiplication, shielding effects, and detectors, we have integrated FREYA into the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP. This new tool will allow more accurate modeling of detector responses including correlations and the development of SNM detectors with increased sensitivity.

  7. Singlet exciton fission photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiye; Jadhav, Priya; Reusswig, Philip D; Yost, Shane R; Thompson, Nicholas J; Congreve, Daniel N; Hontz, Eric; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission, a process that generates two excitons from a single photon, is perhaps the most efficient of the various multiexciton-generation processes studied to date, offering the potential to increase the efficiency of solar devices. But its unique characteristic, splitting a photogenerated singlet exciton into two dark triplet states, means that the empty absorption region between the singlet and triplet excitons must be filled by adding another material that captures low-energy photons. This has required the development of specialized device architectures. In this Account, we review work to develop devices that harness the theoretical benefits of singlet exciton fission. First, we discuss singlet fission in the archetypal material, pentacene. Pentacene-based photovoltaic devices typically show high external and internal quantum efficiencies. They have enabled researchers to characterize fission, including yield and the impact of competing loss processes, within functional devices. We review in situ probes of singlet fission that modulate the photocurrent using a magnetic field. We also summarize studies of the dissociation of triplet excitons into charge at the pentacene-buckyball (C60) donor-acceptor interface. Multiple independent measurements confirm that pentacene triplet excitons can dissociate at the C60 interface despite their relatively low energy. Because triplet excitons produced by singlet fission each have no more than half the energy of the original photoexcitation, they limit the potential open circuit voltage within a solar cell. Thus, if singlet fission is to increase the overall efficiency of a solar cell and not just double the photocurrent at the cost of halving the voltage, it is necessary to also harvest photons in the absorption gap between the singlet and triplet energies of the singlet fission material. We review two device architectures that attempt this using long-wavelength materials: a three-layer structure that uses

  8. Excitation of Energy Levels of Fissionable Nucleus Shape Isomers in the Doorway State in Reactions with Neutrons and Deuterons

    SciTech Connect

    Serov, V.I.; Andreev, M.F.; Zavgorodny, V.A.

    2005-05-24

    Measurements were conducted for the fission neutron yields with fission fragments in the (d,pf) reactions at some excitation energies, where threshold neutrons were discovered. These data on the neutron yields in 233U(d,pfn) and 239Pu(d,pfn) reactions have been compared with the dependence of the average of fission neutrons vp(En) in the 233U(n,f) reaction as well as fission probability in the 239Pu(d,pf) reaction on excitation energy, which provides a better understanding of the nuclear fission process in a (d,pf) reaction and the vp(En) dependence on neutron energy.

  9. Relative Contributions of the Weak, Main, and Fission-recycling r-process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibagaki, S.; Kajino, T.; Mathews, G. J.; Chiba, S.; Nishimura, S.; Lorusso, G.

    2016-01-01

    There has been a persistent conundrum in attempts to model the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements by rapid neutron capture (the r-process). Although the locations of the abundance peaks near nuclear mass numbers 130 and 195 identify an environment of rapid neutron capture near closed nuclear shells, the abundances of elements just above and below those peaks are often underproduced by more than an order of magnitude in model calculations. At the same time, there is a debate in the literature as to what degree the r-process elements are produced in supernovae or the mergers of binary neutron stars. In this paper we propose a novel solution to both problems. We demonstrate that the underproduction of nuclides above and below the r-process peaks in main or weak r-process models (like magnetohydrodynamic jets or neutrino-driven winds in core-collapse supernovae) can be supplemented via fission fragment distributions from the recycling of material in a neutron-rich environment such as that encountered in neutron star mergers (NSMs). In this paradigm, the abundance peaks themselves are well reproduced by a moderately neutron-rich, main r-process environment such as that encountered in the magnetohydrodynamical jets in supernovae supplemented with a high-entropy, weakly neutron-rich environment such as that encountered in the neutrino-driven-wind model to produce the lighter r-process isotopes. Moreover, we show that the relative contributions to the r-process abundances in both the solar system and metal-poor stars from the weak, main, and fission-recycling environments required by this proposal are consistent with estimates of the relative Galactic event rates of core-collapse supernovae for the weak and main r-process and NSMs for the fission-recycling r-process.

  10. Electromagnetic dissociation of {sup 238}U in heavy-ion collisions at 120 MeV/A

    SciTech Connect

    Justice, M.L.

    1991-04-01

    This thesis describes a measurement of the heavy-ion induced electromagnetic dissociation of a 120 MeV/A {sup 238}U beam incident on five targets: {sup 9}Be, {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, {sup nat}Ag, and {sup nat}U. Electromagnetic dissociation at this beam energy is essentially a two step process involving the excitation of a giant resonance followed by particle decay. At 120 MeV/A there is predicted to be a significant contribution of the giant quadrupole resonance to the EMD cross sections. The specific exit channel which was looked at was projectile fission. The two fission fragments were detected in coincidence by an array of solid-state {Delta}E-E detectors, allowing the changes of the fragments to be determined to within {plus_minus} .5 units. The events were sorted on the basis of the sums of the fragments` charges, acceptance corrections were applied, and total cross sections for the most peripheral events were determined. Electromagnetic fission at the beam energy of this experiment always leads to a true charge sum of 92. Due to the imperfect resolution of the detectors, charge sums of 91 and 93 were included in order to account for all of the electromagnetic fission events. The experimentally observed cross sections are due to nuclear interaction processes as well as electromagnetic processes. Under the conditions of this experiment, the cross sections for the beryllium target are almost entirely due to nuclear processes. The nuclear cross sections for the other four targets were determined by extrapolation from the beryllium data using a geometrical scaling model. After subtraction of the nuclear cross sections, the resulting electromagnetic cross sections are compared to theoretical calculations based on the equivalent photon approximation. Systematic uncertainties are discussed and suggestions for improving the experiment are given.

  11. Electromagnetic dissociation of sup 238 U in heavy-ion collisions at 120 MeV/A

    SciTech Connect

    Justice, M.L.

    1991-04-01

    This thesis describes a measurement of the heavy-ion induced electromagnetic dissociation of a 120 MeV/A {sup 238}U beam incident on five targets: {sup 9}Be, {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, {sup nat}Ag, and {sup nat}U. Electromagnetic dissociation at this beam energy is essentially a two step process involving the excitation of a giant resonance followed by particle decay. At 120 MeV/A there is predicted to be a significant contribution of the giant quadrupole resonance to the EMD cross sections. The specific exit channel which was looked at was projectile fission. The two fission fragments were detected in coincidence by an array of solid-state {Delta}E-E detectors, allowing the changes of the fragments to be determined to within {plus minus} .5 units. The events were sorted on the basis of the sums of the fragments' charges, acceptance corrections were applied, and total cross sections for the most peripheral events were determined. Electromagnetic fission at the beam energy of this experiment always leads to a true charge sum of 92. Due to the imperfect resolution of the detectors, charge sums of 91 and 93 were included in order to account for all of the electromagnetic fission events. The experimentally observed cross sections are due to nuclear interaction processes as well as electromagnetic processes. Under the conditions of this experiment, the cross sections for the beryllium target are almost entirely due to nuclear processes. The nuclear cross sections for the other four targets were determined by extrapolation from the beryllium data using a geometrical scaling model. After subtraction of the nuclear cross sections, the resulting electromagnetic cross sections are compared to theoretical calculations based on the equivalent photon approximation. Systematic uncertainties are discussed and suggestions for improving the experiment are given.

  12. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates mitochondrial fission in response to energy stress

    PubMed Central

    Courchet, Julien; Lewis, Tommy L.; Losón, Oliver C.; Hellberg, Kristina; Young, Nathan P.; Chen, Hsiuchen; Polleux, Franck; Chan, David C.; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria undergo fragmentation in response to electron transport chain (ETC) poisons and mitochondrial DNA–linked disease mutations, yet how these stimuli mechanistically connect to the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery is poorly understood. We found that the energy-sensing adenosine monophosphate (AMP)–activated protein kinase (AMPK) is genetically required for cells to undergo rapid mitochondrial fragmentation after treatment with ETC inhibitors. Moreover, direct pharmacological activation of AMPK was sufficient to rapidly promote mitochondrial fragmentation even in the absence of mitochondrial stress. A screen for substrates of AMPK identified mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), a mitochondrial outer-membrane receptor for DRP1, the cytoplasmic guanosine triphosphatase that catalyzes mitochondrial fission. Nonphosphorylatable and phosphomimetic alleles of the AMPK sites in MFF revealed that it is a key effector of AMPK-mediated mitochondrial fission. PMID:26816379

  13. Metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates mitochondrial fission in response to energy stress.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Erin Quan; Herzig, Sébastien; Courchet, Julien; Lewis, Tommy L; Losón, Oliver C; Hellberg, Kristina; Young, Nathan P; Chen, Hsiuchen; Polleux, Franck; Chan, David C; Shaw, Reuben J

    2016-01-15

    Mitochondria undergo fragmentation in response to electron transport chain (ETC) poisons and mitochondrial DNA-linked disease mutations, yet how these stimuli mechanistically connect to the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery is poorly understood. We found that the energy-sensing adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is genetically required for cells to undergo rapid mitochondrial fragmentation after treatment with ETC inhibitors. Moreover, direct pharmacological activation of AMPK was sufficient to rapidly promote mitochondrial fragmentation even in the absence of mitochondrial stress. A screen for substrates of AMPK identified mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), a mitochondrial outer-membrane receptor for DRP1, the cytoplasmic guanosine triphosphatase that catalyzes mitochondrial fission. Nonphosphorylatable and phosphomimetic alleles of the AMPK sites in MFF revealed that it is a key effector of AMPK-mediated mitochondrial fission. PMID:26816379

  14. Power deposition in volumetric /U-235/F6-He fission-pumped nuclear lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Deyoung, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The power deposition in (U-235)F6-He fission-pumped nuclear lasers is studied. Specifically, means to maximize the energy density in the He gas are assessed. Primary loss mechanisms are identified as the fission-fragment transport to the laser-cell wall and UF6 gas excitation. The losses are thus strongly dependent on UF6 concentration. It is found that maximum power will be deposited in a laser tube when the tube radius is as large as the range of fission fragments. Experimental results indicate that when the tube radius equals the fission-fragment range, the ratio of a UF6 partial pressure to total pressure is 0.15, and the UF6-He mixing ratio is 1:6, maximum power will be deposited.

  15. Applications for fission product data to problems in stellar nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.

    1983-10-01

    A general overview of the nucleosynthesis mechanisms for heavy (A greater than or equal to 70) nuclei is presented with particular emphasis on critical data needs. The current state of the art in nucleosynthesis models is described and areas in which fission product data may provide useful insight are proposed. 33 references, 10 figures.

  16. Fission track dating of kimberlitic zircons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggerty, S.E.; Raber, E.; Naeser, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The only reliable method for dating kimberlites at present is the lengthy and specialized hydrothermal procedure that extracts 206Pb and 238U from low-uranium zircons. This paper describes a second successful method by fission track dating of large single-crystal zircons, 1.0-1.5 cm in dimension. The use of large crystals overcomes the limitations imposed in conventional fission track analysis which utilizes crushed fragments. Low track densities, optical track dispersion, and the random orientation of polished surfaces in the etch and irradiation cycle are effectively overcome. Fission track ages of zircons from five African kimberlites are reported, from the Kimberley Pool (90.3 ?? 6.5 m.y.), Orapa (87.4 ?? 5.7 and 92.4 ?? 6.1 m.y.), Nzega (51.1 ?? 3.8 m.y.), Koffiefontein (90.0 ?? 8.2 m.y.), and Val do Queve (133.4 ?? 11.5 m.y.). In addition we report the first radiometric ages (707.9 ?? 59.6 and 705.5 ?? 61.0 m.y.) of crustal zircons from kimberlites in northwest Liberia. The fission track ages agree well with earlier age estimates. Most of the zircons examined in this study are zoned with respect to uranium but linear correlations are established (by regression analysis) between zones of variable uranium content, and within zones of constant uranium content (by analysis of variance). Concordance between the fission track method and the U/Pb technique is established and we concluded that track fading from thermal annealing has not taken place. Kimberlitic zircons dated in this study, therefore, record the time of eruption. ?? 1983.

  17. Production of Mass-Separated Fission Fragment Beams at ALTO

    SciTech Connect

    Lebois, M.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Curaudeau, J. M.; Ducourtieux, M.; Essabaa, S.; Franchoo, S.; Gales, S.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Ibrahim, F.; Lau, C.; Lesrel, J.; Mueller, A.; Raynaud, M.; Roussiere, B.; Said, A.; Verney, D.; Vogel, C.

    2007-05-22

    Yields of neutron-rich isotopes produced by the photofission were measured at the ISOL ALTO facility. The identification was achieved by a combined measurement of {beta} and {gamma}-rays. Production rates for Xe, Kr, Sn, In and I isotopes are presented here. In parallel, empirical estimations for the yields based on the PARRNe experimental data and the results provided by a very recent FLUKA simulation are presented.

  18. Nuclear fission fragment excitation of electronic transition laser media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorents, D. C.; Mccusker, M. V.; Rhodes, C. K.

    1976-01-01

    Specific characteristics of the media including density, excitation rates, wavelength, kinetics, fissile material, scale size, and medium uniformity are assessed. The use of epithermal neutrons, homogeneously mixed fissile material, and special high cross section nuclear isotopes to optimize coupling of the energy to the medium are shown to be important considerations maximizing the scale size, energy deposition, and medium uniformity. It is demonstrated that e-beam excitation can be used to simulate nuclear pumping conditions to facilitate the search for candidate media.

  19. Finite Element Solver for Fission Dynamics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-01-30

    FELIX is a physics computer code used to model fission fragment mass distributions in a fully quantum-mechanical, misroscopic framework that only relies on our current knowledge of nuclear forces. It is an implementation of the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM), which simulates the dynamics of a collective quantum wave-packet assuming the motion is adiabatic. In typical applications of the TDGCM, the nuclear collective wavepacket is obtained as a superposition of wavefunctions obtained by solving themore » Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations of nuclear density functional theory (DFT). The program calculates at each time step the coefficients of that superposition.« less

  20. Finite Element Solver for Fission Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    FELIX is a physics computer code used to model fission fragment mass distributions in a fully quantum-mechanical, misroscopic framework that only relies on our current knowledge of nuclear forces. It is an implementation of the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM), which simulates the dynamics of a collective quantum wave-packet assuming the motion is adiabatic. In typical applications of the TDGCM, the nuclear collective wavepacket is obtained as a superposition of wavefunctions obtained by solving the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations of nuclear density functional theory (DFT). The program calculates at each time step the coefficients of that superposition.

  1. Computer Model Of Fragmentation Of Atomic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Norbury, John W.; KHAN FERDOUS; Badavi, Francis F.

    1995-01-01

    High Charge and Energy Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model (HZEFRG1) computer program developed to be computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program for generating data bases on fragmentation of atomic nuclei. Data bases generated used in calculations pertaining to such radiation-transport applications as shielding against radiation in outer space, radiation dosimetry in outer space, cancer therapy in laboratories with beams of heavy ions, and simulation studies for designing detectors for experiments in nuclear physics. Provides cross sections for production of individual elements and isotopes in breakups of high-energy heavy ions by combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of interacting nuclei. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  2. Isotopic yield in cold binary fission of even-even 244-258Cf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Cyriac, Annu; Krishnan, Sreejith

    2016-05-01

    The cold binary fission of even-even 244-258Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold valley plot (plot of driving potential vs. mass number of fragments) and by calculating the yield for charge minimized fragments. It is found that for 244,246,248Cf isotopes highest yield is for the fragments with isotope of Pb (Z = 82) as one fragment, whereas for 250Cf and 252Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with isotope of Hg (Z = 80) as one fragment. In the case of 254,256,258Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with Sn (Z = 50) as one fragment. Thus, the fragment combinations with maximum yield reveal the role of doubly magic and near doubly magic nuclei in binary fission. It is found that asymmetric splitting is favored for Cf isotopes with mass number A ≤ 250 and symmetric splitting is favored for Cf isotopes with A > 252. In the case of Cf isotope with A = 252, there is an equal probability for asymmetric and symmetric splitting. The individual yields obtained for the cold fission of 252Cf isotope are compared with the experimental data taken from the γ- γ- γ coincidences technique using Gammasphere.

  3. The fission track record of Apennine Front KREEP basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    Whitlockite grains in two Apennine Front KREEP soil fragments contain extremely high densities of fission tracks. A new method is described in which particle tracks are examined in an actinide-poor phase bordering an actinide-rich whitlockite phase. This method clearly distinguishes the fission track contributions from other track sources; e.g., Fe-group cosmic rays, spallation recoils, and dislocations. Observed track excesses, when corrected for U- and Th-related fission sources, are 4-20 times greater than the contribution from spontaneous fission of U-238 (based on an age of 4 b.y.), and probably represent a large and variable contribution from the fission of Pu-244. These fragments may have pre-Imbrium ages, underscoring the importance of KREEP as a constituent of the pre-mare lunar crust. Track excesses are not correlated with the U or Th contents of the whitlockite grains. This behavior suggests that Pu fractionates differently from U and Th in lunar igneous KREEP.

  4. Beta-delayed fission probabilities of transfermium nuclei, involved in the r-process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, I.; Lutostansky, Yu; Thielemann, F.-K.

    2016-01-01

    For the nucleosynthesis of heavy and superheavy nuclei fission becomes very important when the r-process runs in a very high neutron density environment. In part, fission is responsible for the formation of heavy nuclei due to the inclusion of fission products as new seed nuclei (fission cycling). More than that, beta-delayed fission, along with spontaneous fission, is responsible in the late stages of the r-process for the suppression of superheavy element yields. For beta-delayed fission probability calculations a model description of the beta-strength- functions is required. Extended theoretical predictions for astro-physical applications were provided long ago, and new predictions also for superheavy nuclei with uptodate nuclear input are needed. For the further extension of data to heavier transactinides the models of strength- functions should be modified, taking into account more complicated level schemes. In our present calculations the strength-function model is based on the quasi-particle approximation of Finite Fermi Systems Theory. The probabilities of beta-delayed fission and beta-delayed neutron emission are calculated for some transfermium neutron-rich nuclei, and the influence of beta-delayed fission upon superheavy element formation is discussed.

  5. Probing energy dissipation, γ-ray and neutron multiplicity in the thermal neutron-induced fission of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavani, M. R.; Mirfathi, S. M.

    2016-04-01

    The incorporation of the four-dimensional Langevin equations led to an integrative description of fission cross-section, fragment mass distribution and the multiplicity and energy distribution of prompt neutrons and γ-rays in the thermal neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. The dynamical approach presented in this paper thoroughly reproduces several experimental observables of the fission process at low excitation energy.

  6. Fission and Quasifission in the 'Warm' Fusion Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Itkis, M. G.; Bogachev, A. A.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Itkis, I. M.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kozulin, E. M.

    2010-06-01

    Mass-energy distributions, as well as capture cross-section of fission-like fragments for the reactions of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 58}Fe and {sup 64}Ni ions with actinides leading to the formation of superheavy compound system with Z = 112-120 at energies near the Coulomb barrier have been measured. Fusion-fission cross sections were estimated from the analysis of mass and total kinetic energy distributions. It was found that the fusion probability is approximately the same for the reactions with {sup 48}Ca ions and drops three orders of magnitude at the transition to {sup 64}Ni ions.

  7. Process for treating fission waste

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.; Wick, Oswald J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  8. Prompt fission gamma-ray studies at DANCE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M.. M; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Keksis, A. L.; et al

    2014-11-26

    Measurements of correlated data on prompt-fission γ-rays (PFG) have been carried out for various actinide isotopes in recent years using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed a model that conveniently parametrizes the correlated data of γ-ray multiplicity and energy. New results on two- dimensional prompt-fission γ-ray multiplicity versus energy distributions from spontaneous fission on ²⁵²Cf and neutron-induced fission on 242mAm are presented together with previously obtained results on 233,235U and ²³⁹Pu. Correlated PFG data from ²⁵²Cf are also compared to results of the detailed theoretical model developed at LANL,more » for different thresholds of PFG energies. Future plans to measure correlated data on fission fragments, prompt fission neutrons and γ-rays at DANCE are presented.« less

  9. Compound Nucleus Reactions in LENR, Analogy to Uranium Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Heinrich; Miley, George; Philberth, Karl

    2008-03-01

    The discovery of nuclear fission by Hahn and Strassmann was based on a very rare microanalytical result that could not initially indicate the very complicated details of this most important process. A similarity is discussed for the low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) with analogies to the yield structure found in measurements of uranium fission. The LENR product distribution measured earlier in a reproducible way in experiments with thin film electrodes and a high density deuteron concentration in palladium has several striking similarities with the uranium fission fragment yield curve.ootnotetextG.H. Miley and J.A. Patterson, J. New Energy 1, 11 (1996); G.H. Miley et al, Proc ICCF6, p. 629 (1997).This comparison is specifically focussed to the Maruhn-Greiner local maximum of the distribution within the large-scale minimum when the fission nuclei are excited. Implications for uranium fission are discussed in comparison with LENR relative to the identification of fission a hypothetical compound nuclear reaction via a element ^306X126 with double magic numbers.

  10. Event-by-Event Simulation of Induced Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J

    2007-12-13

    We are developing a novel code that treats induced fission by statistical (or Monte-Carlo) simulation of individual decay chains. After its initial excitation, the fissionable compound nucleus may either deexcite by evaporation or undergo binary fission into a large number of fission channels each with different energetics involving both energy dissipation and deformed scission prefragments. After separation and Coulomb acceleration, each fission fragment undergoes a succession of individual (neutron) evaporations, leading to two bound but still excited fission products (that may further decay electromagnetically and, ultimately, weakly), as well as typically several neutrons. (The inclusion of other possible ejectiles is planned.) This kind of approach makes it possible to study more detailed observables than could be addressed with previous treatments which have tended to focus on average quantities. In particular, any type of correlation observable can readily be extracted from a generated set of events. With a view towards making the code practically useful in a variety of applications, emphasis is being put on making it numerically efficient so that large event samples can be generated quickly. In its present form, the code can generate one million full events in about 12 seconds on a MacBook laptop computer. The development of this qualitatively new tool is still at an early stage and quantitative reproduction of existing data should not be expected until a number of detailed refinement have been implemented.

  11. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A.; et al

    2015-12-23

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on 235U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomericmore » states in 236U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables.« less

  12. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on 235U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in 236U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables.

  13. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-12-23

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on 235U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in 236U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables.

  14. Radiation Detection from Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.

    2004-11-17

    This report briefly describes the neutrons and gamma rays emitted in fission, briefly discusses measurement methods, briefly discusses sources and detectors relevant to detection of shielded HEU in sealand containers, and lists the measurement possibilities for the various sources. The brief descriptions are supplemented by reference.

  15. Experimental Progress Report--Modernizing the Fission Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Macri, R A

    2012-02-17

    In 2010 a proposal (Modernizing the Fission Basis) was prepared to 'resolve long standing differences between LANL and LLNL associated with the correct fission basis for analysis of nuclear test data'. Collaboration between LANL/LLNL/TUNL has been formed to implement this program by performing high precision measurements of neutron induced fission product yields as a function of incident neutron energy. This new program benefits from successful previous efforts utilizing mono-energetic neutrons undertaken by this collaboration. The first preliminary experiment in this new program was performed between July 24-31, 2011 at TUNL and had 2 main objectives: (1) demonstrating the capability to measure characteristic {gamma}-rays from specific fission products; (2) studying background effects from room scattered neutrons. In addition, a new dual fission ionization chamber has been designed and manufactured. The production design of the chamber is shown in the picture below. The first feasibility experiment to test this chamber is scheduled at the TUNL Tandem Laboratory from September 19-25, 2011. The dual fission chamber design will allow simultaneous exposure of absolute fission fragment emission rate detectors and the thick fission activation foils, positioned between the two chambers. This document formalizes the earlier experimental report demonstrating the experimental capability to make accurate (< 2 %) precision gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements of the excitation function of high fission product yields of the 239Pu(n,f) reaction (induced by quasimonoenergetic neutrons). A second experiment (9/2011) introduced an compact double-sided fission chamber into the experimental arrangement, and so the relative number of incident neutrons striking the sample foil at each bombarding energy is limited only by statistics. (The number of incident neutrons often limits the experimental accuracy.) Fission chamber operation was so exceptional that 2 more chambers have been

  16. A Multiparameter Nuclear-fission Experiment: Can All be Obtained at Once?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matarranz, J.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Smith, A. G.; Dare, J. A.; Murray, L.; Pollitt, A. J.; Soldner, T.; Koster, U.; Biswas, D. C.

    A large variety of experimental works has been done since the discovery of nuclear fission, aimed at studying different aspects of the phenomenon. Yet our comprehension of the fission process is not complete. This is, among others, due to a certain lack in multi-parameter experimental data. An example here is the correlation between fractional independent yields of fission products and neutron and gamma-ray multiplicities. Fragment-gamma-neutron measurements, especially if correlated with fission- fragment kinetic energies, give the complete set of observables and are therefore of interest from the point of view of modeling and understanding of the fission process. A two-arm spectrometer of fission products (STEFF) has been recently built at the Manchester University. In addition to the identification of masses from complementary fission products, by the double energy/double velocity measurement, the spectrometer is capable of delivering information on their nuclear charges, on the event-by-event basis. The spectrometer also comprises an array of NaI and may house a further array of neutron detectors. In such configuration, STEFF has been used at the ILL neutron guide at the benchmark experiment 235U(nth, f). Details on the experiment will be presented, results on the identification of atomic numbers in the light group of fission products will be demonstrated and the perspectives discussed.

  17. Bimodal Behavior of the Heaviest Fragment Distribution in Projectile Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Rivet, M. F.; Dayras, R.; Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Parlog, M.; Rosato, E.; Vigilante, M.

    2009-08-14

    The charge distribution of the heaviest fragment detected in the decay of quasiprojectiles produced in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions has been observed to be bimodal. This feature is expected as a generic signal of phase transition in nonextensive systems. In this Letter, we present new analyses of experimental data from Au on Au collisions at 60, 80, and 100 MeV/nucleon showing that bimodality is largely independent of the data selection procedure and of entrance channel effects. An estimate of the latent heat of the transition is extracted.

  18. Determination of the time evolution of fission from particle emission

    SciTech Connect

    Lestone, J.P. )

    1993-04-12

    Recently measured properties of the prescission particle emission from heavy-ion induced fission of systems with [ital A][similar to]200 were analyzed using the statistical model. Simultaneous fits to prescission neutron, proton, and [alpha]-particle multiplicities and mean kinetic energies can be obtained when the deformation dependence of both the particle transmission coefficients and particle binding energies are taken into account. The experimental data are consistent with a total fission time scale of (30[plus minus]10)[times]10[sup [minus]21] s, with more than half of this time being spent beyond the saddle point.

  19. Elastocapillary Instability in Mitochondrial Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Sart, Sébastien; Babataheri, Avin; Tareste, David; Barakat, Abdul I.; Clanet, Christophe; Husson, Julien

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic cell organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion events. These dynamical processes, which tightly regulate mitochondrial morphology, are essential for cell physiology. Here we propose an elastocapillary mechanical instability as a mechanism for mitochondrial fission. We experimentally induce mitochondrial fission by rupturing the cell's plasma membrane. We present a stability analysis that successfully explains the observed fission wavelength and the role of mitochondrial morphology in the occurrence of fission events. Our results show that the laws of fluid mechanics can describe mitochondrial morphology and dynamics.

  20. Antiproton Powered Gas Core Fission Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, T.

    Extensive research in recent years has demonstrated that “at rest” annihilation of antiprotons in the uranium isotope U238 leads to fission at nearly 100% efficiency. The resulting highly-ionizing, energetic fission fragments can heat a suitable medium to very high temperatures, making such a process particularly suitable for space propulsion applications. Such an ionized medium, which would serve as a propellant, can be confined by a magnetic field during the heating process, and subsequently ejected through a magnetic nozzle to generate thrust. The gasdynamic mirror (GDM) magnetic configuration is especially suited for this application since the underlying confinement principle is that the plasma be of such density and temperature as to make the ion-ion collision mean free path shorter than the plasma length. Under these conditions the plasma behaves like a fluid, and its escape from the system is analogous to the flow of a gas into vacuum from a vessel with a hole. For the system we propose we envisage radially injecting atomic or U238 plasma beam at a pre-determined position and axially pulsing an antiproton beam which upon interaction with the uranium target gives rise to near isotropic ejection of fission fragments with a total mass of 212 amu and total energy of about 160 MeV. These particles, along with the annihilation products (i.e. pions and muons) will heat the background U238 gas - inserted into the chamber just prior to the release of the antiproton - to one keV temperature. Preliminary analysis reveals that such a propulsion system can produce a specific impulse of about 3000 seconds at a thrust of about 50 kN. When applied to a round trip Mars mission, we find that such a journey can be accomplished in about 142 days with 2 days of thrusting and requiring only one gram of antiprotons to achieve it.