Science.gov

Sample records for heavy ion spectrometers

  1. Relativistic heavy ion fragmentation at HISS (Heavy Ion Spectrometer System)

    SciTech Connect

    Tull, C.E.

    1990-10-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to measure projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions. Charge identification was obtained by the use of a Cerenkov Hodoscope operating above the threshold for total internal reflection, while velocity measurement was performed by use of a second set of Cerenkov radiators operating at the threshold for total internal reflection. Charge and mass resolution for the system was {sigma}{sub Z} = 0.2 e and {sigma}{sub A} = 0.2 u. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic production cross sections for the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar at 1.65{center dot}A GeV have been compared with an Abrasion-Ablation Model based on the evaporation computer code GEMINI. The model proves to be an accurate predictor of the cross sections for fragments between Chlorine and Boron. The measured cross section were reproduced using simple geometry with charge dispersions induced by zero-point vibrations of the giant dipole resonance for the prompt abrasion stage, and injecting an excitation energy spectrum based on a final state interaction with scaling factor E{sub fsi} = 38.8 MeV/c. Measurement of the longitudinal momentum distribution widths for projectile fragments are consistent with previous experiment and can be interpreted as reflecting the Fermi momentum distribution in the initial projectile nucleus. Measurement of the transverse momentum indicate an additional, unexplained dependence of the reduced momentum widths on fragment mass. This dependence has the same sign and similar slope to previously measured fragments of {sup 139}La, and to predictions based on phase-space constraints on the final state of the system.

  2. A heavy ion spectrometer system for the measurement of projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelage, J.; Crawford, H. J.; Albergo, S.; Kuo, C.; Caccia, Z.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Cronqvist, M.; Flores, L.; Fonte, R.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Insolia, A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1996-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the LBL Bevalac provided a unique facility for measuring projectile fragmentation cross sections important in deconvolving the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) source composition. The general characteristics of the apparatus specific to this application are described and the main features of the event reconstruction and analysis used in the TRANSPORT experiment are discussed.

  3. Heavy-ion reaction mechanisms studied with the spin spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Halbert, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data and statistical-model calculations for xn and ..cap alpha..xn products of the reaction /sup 20/Ne + /sup 146/Nd at 136 MeV are shown to be in generally good agreement, indicating that equilibrium processes are dominant. Preliminary results on the heavy-ion ejectiles from /sup 19/F + /sup 159/Tb are presented.

  4. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1998-07-21

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high (n,f) reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  5. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1998-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  6. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1999-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  7. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1999-02-16

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  8. Pion correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Heavy Ion Spectrometer Systems (HISS)

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, W.B. Jr.

    1990-05-01

    This thesis contains the setup, analysis and results of experiment E684H Multi-Pion Correlations in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions''. The goals of the original proposal were: (1) To initiate the use of the HISS facility in the study of central Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions (RHIC). (2) To perform a second generation experiment for the detailed study of the pion source in RHIC. The first generation experiments, implied by the second goal above, refer to pion correlation studies which the Riverside group had performed at the LBL streamer chamber. The major advantage offered by moving the pion correlation studies to HISS is that, being an electronic detector system, as opposed to the Streamer Chamber which is a visual detector, one can greatly increase the statistics for a study of this sort. An additional advantage is that once one has written the necessary detector and physics analysis code to do a particular type of study, the study may be extended to investigate the systematics, with much less effort and in a relatively short time. This paper discusses the Physics motivation for this experiment, the experimental setup and detectors used, the pion correlation analysis, the results, and the conclusions possible future directions for pion studies at HISS. If one is not interested in all the details of the experiment, I believe that by reading the sections on intensity interferometry, the section the fitting of the correlation function and the systematic corrections applied, and the results section, one will get a fairly complete synopsis of the experiment.

  9. Spin spectrometer at the holified heavy-ion research facility and some planned experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantites, D. G.; Jaaskelainen, M.; Hood, J. T.; Woodward, R.; Barker, J. H.; Hensley, D. C.; Halbert, M. L.; Chan, Y. D.

    1980-01-01

    The 4..pi.. multidetector ..gamma..-ray spectrometer at the Holified Heavy-ion Research Facility (HHIRF) is described in some detail. The following important features of this spectrometer are discussed: (a) the geometric arrangement, (b) the actual performance of the individual detector elements, (c) the associated electronics and data acquisition system, and (d) the response of the system to input ..gamma..-cascades including the effect of crystal-to-crystal scattering and the response to neutrons. The first few experiments to be performed are briefly described.

  10. Detection Efficiency of a ToF Spectrometer from Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara, E. de; Marti, G. V.; Capurro, O. A.; Fimiani, L.; Mingolla, M. G.; Negri, A. E.; Arazi, A.; Figueira, J. M.; Pacheco, A. J.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.

    2010-08-04

    The detection efficiency of a time-of-flight system based on two micro-channel plates (MCP) time zero detectors plus a conventional silicon surface barrier detector was obtained from heavy ion elastic recoil measurements (this ToF spectrometer is mainly devoted to measurements of total fusion cross section of weakly bound projectiles on different mass-targets systems). In this work we have used beams of {sup 7}Li, {sup 16}O, {sup 32}S and {sup 35}Cl to study the mass region of interest for its application to measurements fusion cross sections in the {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 27}Al systems at energies around and above the Coulomb barrier (0.8V{sub B{<=}}E{<=}2.0V{sub B}). As the efficiency of a ToF spectrometer is strongly dependent on the energy and mass of the detected particles, we have covered a wide range of the scattered particle energies with a high degree of accuracy at the lowest energies. The different experimental efficiency curves obtained in that way were compared with theoretical electronic stopping power curves on carbon foils and were applied.

  11. Large solid angle tracking of Monte Carlo events of heavy ion collisions in TPC magnetic spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.P.V.

    1986-01-01

    The collision of 15 GeV/nucleon sulfur and carbon or oxygen ions with various fixed targets such as carbon, sulfur, and gold is to be observed in the MPS magnetic spectrometer with a time projection chamber (TPC) module. This TPC will be placed just downstream of the target and be able to track approximately 50% of all charged particles. The design and construction of the TPC is proceeding, and prototypes of the TPC readout system have been tested and production devices are to be delivered. A TPC track reconstruction program has been developed. Monte Carlo events have been generated and tracked. The track reconstruction program consists of three parts: a local pattern recognition which associates contiguous readouts on adjacent readout wires to form a single hit; a subroutine which positions the hits into slices in the vertical plane; and the track reconstruction section. (LEW)

  12. Ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Inventor); Clay, D. R.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.

    1984-01-01

    An ion mass spectrometer is described which detects and indicates the characteristics of ions received over a wide angle, and which indicates the mass to charge ratio, the energy, and the direction of each detected ion. The spectrometer includes a magnetic analyzer having a sector magnet that passes ions received over a wide angle, and an electrostatic analyzer positioned to receive ions passing through the magnetic analyzer. The electrostatic analyzer includes a two dimensional ion sensor at one wall of the analyzer chamber, that senses not only the lengthwise position of the detected ion to indicate its mass to charge ratio, but also detects the ion position along the width of the chamber to indicate the direction in which the ion was traveling.

  13. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, William J. (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250.degree. C., and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  14. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jason A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Battel, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Observations of newly ionized atoms that are picked up by the magnetic field in the expanding solar wind contain crucial information about the gas or dust compositions of their origins. The pickup ions (PUIs) are collected by plasma mass spectrometers and analyzed for their density, composition, and velocity distribution. In addition to measurements of PUIs from planetary sources, in situ measurements of interstellar gas have been made possible by spectrometers capable of differentiating between heavy ions of solar and interstellar origin. While important research has been done on these often singly charged ions, the instruments that have detected many of them were designed for the energy range and ionic charge states of the solar wind and energized particle populations, and not for pickup ions. An instrument optimized for the complete energy and time-of-flight characterization of pickup ions will unlock a wealth of data on these hitherto unobserved or unresolved PUI species. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer (PICSpec) is one such instrument and can enable the next generation of pickup ion and isotopic mass composition measurements. By combining a large-gap time-of-flight-energy sensor with a -100 kV high-voltage power supply for ion acceleration, PUIs will not only be above the detection threshold of traditional solid-state energy detectors but also be resolved sufficiently in time of flight that isotopic composition can be determined. This technology will lead to a new generation of space composition instruments, optimized for measurements of both heliospheric and planetary pickup ions.

  15. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  16. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  17. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-12-26

    A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

  18. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  19. First spatial separation of a heavy ion isomeric beam with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickel, T.; Plaß, W. R.; Ayet San Andres, S.; Ebert, J.; Geissel, H.; Haettner, E.; Hornung, C.; Miskun, I.; Pietri, S.; Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Rink, A.-K.; Scheidenberger, C.; Weick, H.; Dendooven, P.; Diwisch, M.; Greiner, F.; Heiße, F.; Knöbel, R.; Lippert, W.; Moore, I. D.; Pohjalainen, I.; Prochazka, A.; Ranjan, M.; Takechi, M.; Winfield, J. S.; Xu, X.

    2015-05-01

    211Po ions in the ground and isomeric states were produced via 238U projectile fragmentation at 1000 MeV/u. The 211Po ions were spatially separated in flight from the primary beam and other reaction products by the fragment separator FRS. The ions were energy-bunched, slowed-down and thermalized in a gas-filled cryogenic stopping cell (CSC). They were then extracted from the CSC and injected into a high-resolution multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS). The excitation energy of the isomer and, for the first time, the isomeric-to-ground state ratio were determined from the measured mass spectrum. In the subsequent experimental step, the isomers were spatially separated from the ions in the ground state by an ion deflector and finally collected with a silicon detector for decay spectroscopy. This pioneering experimental result opens up unique perspectives for isomer-resolved studies. With this versatile experimental method new isomers with half-lives longer than a few milliseconds can be discovered and their decay properties can be measured with highest sensitivity and selectivity. These experiments can be extended to studies with isomeric beams in nuclear reactions.

  20. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  1. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  2. A cometary ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Simpson, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flight suitable analyzer units for that part of the GIOTTO Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) experiment designated the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) is discussed. Topics covered include: design of the total ion-optical system for the HERS analyzer; the preparation of the design of analyzing magnet; the evaluation of microchannel plate detectors and associated two-dimensional anode arrays; and the fabrication and evaluation of two flight-suitable units of the complete ion-optical analyzer system including two-dimensional imaging detectors and associated image encoding electronics.

  3. An electrostatic autoresonant ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ermakov, A. V.; Hinch, B. J.

    2010-01-15

    A new method for ion extraction from an anharmonic electrostatic trap is introduced. Anharmonicity is a common feature of electrostatic traps which can be used for small scale spatial confinement of ions, and this feature is also necessary for autoresonant ion extraction. With the aid of ion trajectory simulations, novel autoresonant trap mass spectrometers (ART-MSs) have been designed based on these very simple principles. A mass resolution {approx}60 is demonstrated for the prototypes discussed here. We report also on the pressure dependencies, and the (mV) rf field strength dependencies of the ART-MS sensitivity. Importantly the new MS designs do not require heavy magnets, tight manufacturing tolerances, introduction of buffer gases, high power rf sources, nor complicated electronics. The designs described here are very inexpensive to implement relative to other instruments, and can be easily miniaturized. Possible applications are discussed.

  4. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  5. Miniature Ion-Array Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    A figure is shown that depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would share many features of design and operation of the instrument described in another article. The main differences between that instrument and this one would lie in the configuration and mode of operation of the filter and detector electrodes. A filter electrode and detector electrodes would be located along the sides of a drift tube downstream from the accelerator electrode. These electrodes would apply a combination of (1) a transverse AC electric field that would effect differential transverse dispersal of ions and (2) a transverse DC electric field that would drive the dispersed ions toward the detector electrodes at different distances along the drift tube. The electric current collected by each detector electrode would be a measure of the current, and thus of the abundance of the species of ions impinging on that electrode. The currents collected by all the detector electrodes could be measured simultaneously to obtain continuous readings of abundances of species. The downstream momentum of accelerated ions would be maintained through neutralization on the electrodes; the momentum of the resulting neutral atoms would serve to expel gases from spectrometer, without need for a pump.

  6. Miniature Ion-Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would be fabricated by micromachining. Unlike prior ion-mobility spectrometers, the proposed instrument would not be based on a time-of-flight principle and, consequently, would not have some of the disadvantageous characteristics of prior time-of-flight ion-mobility spectrometers. For example, one of these characteristics is the need for a bulky carrier-gas-feeding subsystem that includes a shutter gate to provide short pulses of gas in order to generate short pulses of ions. For another example, there is need for a complex device to generate pulses of ions from the pulses of gas and the device is capable of ionizing only a fraction of the incoming gas molecules; these characteristics preclude miniaturization. In contrast, the proposed instrument would not require a carrier-gas-feeding subsystem and would include a simple, highly compact device that would ionize all the molecules passing through it. The ionization device in the proposed instrument would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several megavolts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. Ionization (but not avalanche arcing) would occur because the distance between the ionizing electrodes would be less than the mean free path of gas molecules at the operating pressure of instrument. An accelerating grid would be located inside the instrument, downstream from the ionizing membrane. The electric potential applied to this grid would be negative relative to the potential on the inside electrode of the ionizing membrane and would be of a magnitude sufficient to

  7. Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Willen, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a proposed research facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to study the collision of beams of heavy ions, up to gold in mass and at beam energies up to 100 GeV/nucleon. The physics to be explored by this collider is an overlap between the traditional disciplines of nuclear physics and high energy physics and is a continuation of the planned program of light and heavy ion physics at BNL. The machine is to be constructed in the now-empty tunnel built for the former CBA project. Various other facilities to support the collider are either in place or under construction at BNL. The collider itself, including the magnets, is in an advanced state of design, and a construction start is anticipated in the next several years.

  8. (Relativistic heavy ion research)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, participation in the E802 Experiment, which is the first major heavy-ion experiment at the BNL-AGS, was the main focus of the group during the past four years. The emphases of the E802 experiment were on (a) accurate particle identification and measurements of spectra over a wide kinematical domain (5{degree} < {theta}{sub LAB} < 55{degree}, p < 20 GeV/c); and (b) measurements of small-angle two-particle correlations, with event characterization tools: multiplicity array, forward and large-angle calorimeters. This experiment and other heavy ion collision experiments are discussed in this report.

  9. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  10. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1990-11-27

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

  11. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

  12. Moon originating heavy ions associated with CIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Nishino, Masaki; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    Existance of a tenuous alkali atmosphere around the Moon was discovered by ground-based optical observations in 1980s. Since then the generation mechanism of the alkali atmosphere has been actively investigated. Currently, photon-stimulated desorption is regarded as the major generation process of the lunar alkai atmosphere such as sodium and potassium. MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya found four typical ion populations on the dayside of the Moon. These includes (1) solar wind protons backscattered at the lunar surface, (2) solar wind protons reflected by magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, (3) reflected/backscattered protons picked-up by the solar wind, and (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere. One of these populations: (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere usually consisted of heavy ions such as carbon, oxygen, sodium, and potassium. Some of these ions were generated on the lunar surface by photon-stimulated desorption especially for alkali ions such as sodium and potassium and some others were generated by solar wind sputtering. Photo-ionized neutral particles were also included in these ions. These heavy ions were accelerated by the solar wind convection electric field and detected by the ion energy mass spectrometer MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya. Since the gyro-radius of these heavy ions was much larger than the Moon, the energy of these ions detected at 100km altitude was in most cases lower than the incident solar wind ion energy. Two special examples were found where the energy of the heavy ions was higher than the incident solar wind ion energy. These high-energy heavy ions were observed on the dayside of the Moon when CIR (Corotating Interaction Region) passed the Moon. The high energy heavy ions were observed for several hours with the highest heavy ion flux observed when the solar wind pressure increased due to the passage of the CIR. The mass spectrum of the heavy ions observed associated with CIR showed H+, He++, He

  13. Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2007-04-15

    This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

  14. Suprathermal Minor Heavy Ions In Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christon, S. P.; Difabio, R. D.; Hamilton, D. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2010-12-01

    Minor heavy ions, with MPQ > ~25 amu/e, have been measured at energies >~64 keV/e in Saturn's inner magnetosphere using the Cassini/MIMI/CHEMS Charge Energy Mass Spectrometer. CHEMS measures atomic and molecular ions in the mass-per-charge, MPQ, range 1-80 amu/e. The predominant minor heavy ions, N2+1 and O2+1, share general spatial characteristics with the dominant water group ions (taken as O+1, OH+1, H2O+1, and H3O+1). Using an extended collection interval (mid-2004 to 2010) for CHEMS, we have also found several rare heavy ion groups with MPQ > ~40 amu/e, at ~40, ~42-48, and ~52-58 amu/e. CHEMS cannot distinguish atomic from molecular species in this MPQ range, but possible candidates at these masses are Ar+1, CO2+1 or C3H8+1, and Fe+1 or C4H8+1, respectively. These rare heavy ions exhibit somewhat different spatial characteristics than the more abundant water group and N2+1 and O2+1 ions. The compositional characteristics of these suprathermal ion groups will be discussed in the context of recent results concerning liquid water on Enceladus and the composition of dark material on the moons and rings.

  15. Spectrometer for cluster ion beam induced luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuto, H. Sakata, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Takaoka, G. H.; Musumeci, F.

    2015-02-15

    A spectrometer to detect the ultra-weak luminescence originated by the collision of cluster ions on the surfaces of solid materials was constructed. This spectrometer consists of 11 photomultipliers with band-pass interference filters that can detect the luminescence within the wavelength ranging from 300 to 700 nm and of a photomultiplier without filter. The calibration of the detection system was performed using the photons emitted from a strontium aluminate fluorescent tape and from a high temperature tungsten filament. Preliminary measurements show the ability of this spectrometer to detect the cluster ion beam induced luminescence.

  16. Rare Suprathermal Heavy Ions in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christon, S. P.; Hamilton, D. C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; DiFabio, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Cassini/MIMI/CHEMS ion spectrometer has measured suprathermal (~83-167 keV/e) ions in Saturn's magnetosphere since mid-2004. We report on three rare, heavy ion groups measured in Saturn's ~4-20 Rs magnetosphere at ~40, ~46, and ~56 amu/e, with the separation from other species best at higher mass. These masses suggest possible singly-charged ion identifications as Ar+, CO2+, and Fe+, respectively. The presence of these species or compounds containing them has been suggested in composition studies of Saturn's particle populations using data from other instruments on Cassini. The observed rare ion intensities are highly variable in time and space. Broad temporal and spatial averaging is needed to examine these rare ion groups because their detection levels are much lower than the dominant water ion group, W+ (which includes O+, OH+, H2O+, and H3O+). W+ itself can be quite variable. We show that these rare ions display unique spatial and temporal variations, with similarities and differences from the dominant ion group W+ as well as O2+ and M28+, all local origin ions. We compare and contrast these rare, heavy ion species to W+ and the recently characterized [Christon et al., 2013, 10.1002/jgra.50383] minor ions M28+ (C2H5+, HCNH+, N2+, and/or CO+) and O2+ (M32+).

  17. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  18. Heavy ion beam probing

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  19. Heavy ion measurement on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Jonathal, D.; Enge, W.

    1992-01-01

    A stack of CR-39 and Kodak CN track detectors was exposed on the NASA satellite LDEF and recovered after almost six years in space. The quick look analysis yielded heavy ion tracks on a background of low energy secondaries from proton interaction. The detected heavy ions show a steep energy spectrum which indicates a radiation belt origin.

  20. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  1. Imaging using accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1982-05-01

    Several methods for imaging using accelerated heavy ion beams are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using the HILAC (Heavy-Ion Linear Accelerator) as an injector, the Bevalac can accelerate fully stripped atomic nuclei from carbon (Z = 6) to krypton (Z = 34), and partly stripped ions up to uranium (Z = 92). Radiographic studies to date have been conducted with helium (from 184-inch cyclotron), carbon, oxygen, and neon beams. Useful ranges in tissue of 40 cm or more are available. To investigate the potential of heavy-ion projection radiography and computed tomography (CT), several methods and instrumentation have been studied.

  2. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  3. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time

  4. Halo ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel E; Wang, Miao; Tolley, Samuel E; Maas, Jeffrey D; Hawkins, Aaron R; Rockwood, Alan L; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Edgar D; Lee, Milton L

    2007-04-01

    We describe a novel radio frequency ion trap mass analyzer based on toroidal trapping geometry and microfabrication technology. The device, called the halo ion trap, consists of two parallel ceramic plates, the facing surfaces of which are imprinted with sets of concentric ring electrodes. Radii of the imprinted rings range from 5 to 12 mm, and the spacing between the plates is 4 mm. Unlike conventional ion traps, in which hyperbolic metal electrodes establish equipotential boundary conditions, electric fields in the halo ion trap are established by applying different radio frequency potentials to each ring. The potential on each ring can be independently optimized to provide the best trapping field. The halo ion trap features an open structure, allowing easy access for in situ ionization. The toroidal geometry provides a large trapping and analyzing volume, increasing the number of ions that can be stored and reducing the effects of space-charge on mass analysis. Preliminary mass spectra show resolution (m/Deltam) of 60-75 when the trap is operated at 1.9 MHz and 500 Vp-p. PMID:17335180

  5. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Witten, William B.; Kornienko, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  6. Frequency-scanning MALDI linear ion trap mass spectrometer for large biomolecular ion detection.

    PubMed

    Lu, I-Chung; Lin, Jung Lee; Lai, Szu-Hsueh; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2011-11-01

    This study presents the first report on the development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) linear ion trap mass spectrometer for large biomolecular ion detection by frequency scan. We designed, installed, and tested this radio frequency (RF) scan linear ion trap mass spectrometer and its associated electronics to dramatically extend the mass region to be detected. The RF circuit can be adjusted from 300 to 10 kHz with a set of operation amplifiers. To trap the ions produced by MALDI, a high pressure of helium buffer gas was employed to quench extra kinetic energy of the heavy ions produced by MALDI. The successful detection of the singly charged secretory immunoglobulin A ions indicates that the detectable mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of this system can reach ~385 000 or beyond. PMID:21932813

  7. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  8. The ion mass spectrometer on Giotto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsiger, H.; Altwegg, K.; Buehler, F.; Fischer, J.; Geiss, J.; Benson, J.; Hemmerich, P.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Neugebauer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the Giotto ion mass spectrometer (IMS) system, its calibration, and the initial flight performance are discussed. The IMS system consists of two sensors: one optimized for the outer coma, the other for the inner coma, with each sensor obtaining complementary information in the region for which it was not optimized. Both sensors feature mass-imaging characteristics, permitting simultaneous measurements of several ion species by means of multi-detector arrays, with resultant mass per charge resolution of not less than 20. In addition to mass per charge, the energy per charge and the elevation and azimuth of the incident ions were measured during the Giotto flight.

  9. Thermalization of Heavy Ions in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Patrick J.; Kasper, Justin C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Shearer, Paul; Gilbert, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Observations of velocity distribution functions from the Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer heavy ion composition instrument are used to calculate ratios of kinetic temperature and Coulomb collisional interactions of an unprecedented 50 ion species in the solar wind. These ions cover a mass per charge range of 1-5.5 amu/e and were collected in the time range of 1998-2011. We report the first calculation of the Coulomb thermalization rate between each of the heavy ion (A > 4 amu) species present in the solar wind along with protons (H+) and alpha particles (He2+). From these rates, we find that protons are the dominant source of Coulomb collisional thermalization for heavy ions in the solar wind and use this fact to calculate a collisional age for those heavy ion populations. The heavy ion thermal properties are well organized by this collisional age, but we find that the temperature of all heavy ions does not simply approach that of protons as Coulomb collisions become more important. We show that He2+ and C6+ follow a monotonic decay toward equal temperatures with protons with increasing collisional age, but O6+ shows a noted deviation from this monotonic decay. Furthermore, we show that the deviation from monotonic decay for O6+ occurs in solar wind of all origins, as determined by its Fe/O ratio. The observed differences in heavy ion temperature behavior point toward a local heating mechanism that favors ions depending on their charge and mass.

  10. Chemistry of heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1988-10-01

    The use of heavy ions to induce nuclear reactions was reported as early as 1950. Since that time it has been one of the most active areas of nuclear research. Intense beams of ions as heavy as uranium with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of even the heaviest elements are available. The wide variety of possible reactions gives rise to a multitude of products which have been studied by many ingenious chemical and physical techniques. Chemical techniques have been of special value for the separation and unequivocal identification of low yield species from the plethora of other nuclides present. Heavy ion reactions have been essential for the production of the trans-Md elements and a host of new isotopes. The systematics of compound nucleus reactions, transfer reactions, and deeply inelastic reactions have been elucidated using chemical techniques. A review of the variety of chemical procedures and techniques which have been developed for the study of heavy ion reactions and their products is given. Determination of the chemical properties of the trans-Md elements, which are very short-lived and can only be produced an ''atom-at-a-time'' via heavy ion reactions, is discussed. 53 refs., 19 figs.

  11. Ion mobility spectrometers and methods for ion mobility spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, David A; Scott, Jill R; Appelhans, Anthony D; McJunkin, Timothy R; Olson, John E

    2009-04-14

    An ion mobility spectrometer may include an inner electrode and an outer electrode arranged so that at least a portion of the outer electrode surrounds at least a portion of the inner electrode and defines a drift space therebetween. The inner and outer electrodes are electrically insulated from one another so that a non-linear electric field is created in the drift space when an electric potential is placed on the inner and outer electrodes. An ion source operatively associated with the ion mobility spectrometer releases ions to the drift space defined between the inner and outer electrodes. A detector operatively associated with at least a portion of the outer electrode detects ions from the drift space.

  12. AFE ion mass spectrometer design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1989-01-01

    This final technical report covers the activities engaged in by the University of Texas at Dallas, Center for Space Sciences in conjunction with the NASA Langley Research Center, Systems Engineering Division in design studies directed towards defining a suitable ion mass spectrometer to determine the plasma parameter around the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle during passage through the earth's upper atmosphere. Additional studies relate to the use of a Langmuir probe to measure windward ion/electron concentrations and temperatures. Selected instrument inlet subsystems were tested in the NASA Ames Arc-Jet Facility.

  13. Augmenting Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers Using a Frequency Modulated Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kelsey A; Siems, William F; Clowers, Brian H

    2016-03-15

    Historically, high pressure ion mobility drift tubes have suffered from low ion duty cycles and this problem is magnified when such instrumentation is coupled with ion trap mass spectrometers. To significantly alleviate these issues, we outline the result from coupling an atmospheric pressure, dual-gate drift tube ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT-MS) via modulation of the ion beam with a linear frequency chirp. The time-domain ion current, once Fourier transformed, reveals a standard ion mobility drift spectrum that corresponds to the standard mode of mobility analysis. By multiplexing the ion beam, it is possible to successfully obtain drift time spectra for an assortment of simple peptide and protein mixtures using an LIT-MS while showing improved signal intensity versus the more common signal averaging technique. Explored here are the effects of maximum injection time, solution concentration, total experiment time, and frequency swept on signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and resolving power. Increased inject time, concentration, and experiment time all generally led to an improvement in SNR, while a greater frequency swept increases the resolving power at the expense of SNR. Overall, chirp multiplexing of a dual-gate IMS system coupled to an LIT-MS improves ion transmission, lowers analyte detection limits, and improves spectral quality. PMID:26854901

  14. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothard, Hermann; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM). This conference was held in Darmstadt, from 18 to 21 May 2015. SHIM is a triennial series, which started about 25 years ago by a joint initiative of CIRIL - Caen and GSI - Darmstadt, with the aim of promoting fundamental and applied interdisciplinary research in the field of high-energy, heavy-ion interaction processes with matter. SHIM was successively organized in Caen (1989), Bensheim (1992), Caen (1995), Berlin (1998), Catania (2002), Aschaffenburg (2005), Lyon (2008), and Kyoto (2012). The conference attracts scientists from many different fields using high-energy heavy ions delivered by large accelerator facilities and characterized by strong and short electronic excitations.

  15. Intense Pulsed Heavy Ion Beam Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al(1-3)+) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89 %. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were succesively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration.

  16. Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-05-01

    A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Heavy ions in Jupiter's environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extended atmosphere of the Jupiter system consists of atoms and ions of heavy elements. This material originates on the satellite Io. Energy is lost from the thermal plasma in collisionally excited optical and ultraviolet emission. The juxtaposition of Earth and spacecraft measurements provide insight concerning the underlying processes of particle transport and energy supply.

  18. Future relativistic heavy ion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned. (GHT)

  19. Summary of heavy ion theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.

    1994-09-01

    Can we study hot QCD using nuclear collisions? Can we learn about metallic hydrogen from the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter? The answer to both questions may surprise you! I summarize progress in relativistic heavy ion theory reported at DPF `94 in the parallel sessions.

  20. Heavy Ion Temperatures As Observed By ACE/Swics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, P.; Zurbuchen, T.; Raines, J. M.; Shearer, P.; Kasper, J. C.; Gilbert, J. A.; Alterman, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Heavy ions observed near 1 AU, especially in fast solar wind, tend to have thermal speeds that are approximately equal, indicative of a mass proportional temperature. Additionally, observations near 1 AU have shown a streaming of heavy ions (Z>4) along the magnetic field direction at speeds faster than protons. The differential velocities observed are of the same order but typically less than the Alfven speed. Previous analysis of the behavior of ion thermal velocities with Ulysses-SWICS, focusing on daily average properties of 35 ion species at 5 AU, found only a small systematic trend with respect to q2/m. Utilizing improved data processing techniques, results from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) shed new light on the thermal properties of the heavy ion population at 1 AU. A clear dependence of heavy ion thermal behavior on q2/m has now been found in the recent ACE-SWICS two hour cadence data set at 1 AU. Examining the thermal velocities of about 70 heavy ion species relative to alpha particles (He2+) shows a distinct trend from equal thermal speed toward equal temperature with increasing q2/m. When examined for solar winds of different collisional ages, the observations indicate the extent of thermal relaxation present in different solar wind types. We explore this collisional dependence with a model for the collisional thermal relaxation of the heavy ions as the solar wind propagates out to 1 AU. This model is used to subtract out the collisional effects seen in the ACE-SWICS data, providing an estimate for the temperature distribution among heavy ions at the corona to be compared to remote sensing observations that have shown that heavy ions are preferentially heated at the corona. We will discuss how this new analysis elucidates the thermal behavior and evolution of heavy ions in the solar wind, along with implications for the upcoming Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter missions.

  1. Ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.

    1995-09-01

    The development of ion sources for heavy ion fusion will be reported with particular emphasis on a recently built 2 MV injector. The new injector is based on an electrostatic quadrupole configuration, and has produced pulsed K{sup +} ions of 950 mA peak from a 6.7 inch curved alumino silicate source. The ion beam has reached 2.3 MV with an energy flatness of {+-}0.2% over 1 {micro}s. The measured normalized edge emittance of less than 1 {pi} mm-mr is close to the source temperature limit. The design, construction, performance, and comparisons with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations will be described.

  2. Method of multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-06-02

    A method for analyzing analytes from a sample introduced into a Spectrometer by generating a pseudo random sequence of a modulation bins, organizing each modulation bin as a series of submodulation bins, thereby forming an extended pseudo random sequence of submodulation bins, releasing the analytes in a series of analyte packets into a Spectrometer, thereby generating an unknown original ion signal vector, detecting the analytes at a detector, and characterizing the sample using the plurality of analyte signal subvectors. The method is advantageously applied to an Ion Mobility Spectrometer, and an Ion Mobility Spectrometer interfaced with a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer.

  3. Exotics from Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Akira; Jido, Daisuke; Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Yazaki, Koichi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2011-10-21

    Discriminating hadronic molecular and multi-quark states is a long standing problem in hadronic physics. We propose here to utilize relativistic heavy ion collisions to resolve this problem, as exotic hadron yields are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model, we find that the exotic hadron yield relative to the statistical model result is typically an order of magnitude smaller for a compact multi-quark state, and larger by a factor of two or more for a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured at RHIC and LHC.

  4. In situ measurement of ions parameters of laser produced ion source using high resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasia, S.; Kaur, C.; Rastogi, V.; Poswal, A. K.; Munda, D. S.; Bhatia, R. K.; Nataraju, V.

    2016-08-01

    The laser produced plasma based heavy ion source has become an outstanding front end for heavy ion accelerators. Before being implemented in the heavy ion accelerators its detailed characterization is required. For this purpose, a high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola spectrometer comprising of Time-of-Flight diagnostics has been developed for the characterization of ions with energy in the range from 1 keV to 1 MeV/nucleon and incorporated in the Laser plasma experimental chamber. The ion spectrometer is optimized with graphite target. The carbon ions of charge states C1+ to C6+ are observed in the energy range from 3 keV to 300 keV, which has also been verified by Time-of-Flight measurement. Experimental results were matched with simulation done by SIMION 7.0 code which is used for the design of the spectrometer. We also developed data analysis software using Python language to measure in situ ion's parameters and the results are in better agreement to the experimental results than the commercially available software SIMION 7.0. The resolution of the spectrometer is ΔE/E = 0.026 @ 31 keV for charge state (C4+) of carbon.

  5. Central collisions of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

  6. Proton Transfer Reaction Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Prazeller, Peter; Palmer, Peter T.; Boscaini, Elena; Jobson, B Tom T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth

    2003-06-11

    Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry is a relatively new field that has attracted a great deal of interest in the last few years. This technique uses H₃Oþ as a chemical ionization (CI) reagent to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to parts per trillion by volume (pptv) range. Mass spectra acquired with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) are simple because proton transfer chemical ionization is ‘soft’ and results in little or no fragmentation. Unfortunately, peak identification can still be difficult due to isobaric interferences. A possible solution to this problem is to couple the PTR drift tube to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). The use of an ITMS is appealing because of its ability to perform MS/MS and possibly distinguish between isomers and other isobars. Additionally, the ITMS duty cycle is much higher than that of a linear quadrupole so faster data acquisition rates are possible that will allow for detection of multiple compounds. Here we present the first results from a proton transfer reaction ion trap mass spectrometer (PTR-ITMS). The aim of this study was to investigate ion injection and storage efficiency of a simple prototype instrument in order to estimate possible detection limits of a second-generation instrument. Using this prototype a detection limit of 100 ppbv was demonstrated. Modifications are suggested that will enable further reduction in detection limits to the low-ppbv to high-pptv range. Furthermore, the applicability of MS/MS in differentiating between isobaric species was determined. MS/MS spectra of the isobaric compounds methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) are presented and show fragments of different mass making differentiation possible, even when a mixture of both species is present in the same sample. However, MS/MS spectra of acetone and propanal produce fragments with the same molecular masses but with different intensity ratios

  7. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  8. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  9. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument - IMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retinò, Alessandro; Kucharek, Harald; Saito, Yoshifumi; Fraenz, Markus; Verdeil, Christophe; Leblanc, Frederic; Techer, Jean-Denis; Jeandet, Alexis; Macri, John; Gaidos, John; Granoff, Mark; Yokota, Shoichiro; Fontaine, Dominique; Berthomier, Matthieu; Delcourt, Dominique; Kistler, Lynn; Galvin, Antoniette; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. Specifically, THOR will study how turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales heat and accelerate particles in different turbulent environments within the near-Earth space. To achieve this goal, THOR payload is being designed to measure electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functions with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Here we present the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) instrument that will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of near-Earth main ion species (H+, He+, He++ and O+) at high time resolution (~ 150 ms for H+ , ~ 300 ms for He++) with energy resolution down to ~ 10% in the range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q and angular resolution ~ 10°. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting multiple sensors around the spacecraft body, in similar fashion to the MMS/FPI instrument. Each sensor combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCP) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion (TDC). IMS is being designed to address many of THOR science requirements, in particular ion heating and acceleration by turbulent fluctuations in foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built by an international consortium of scientific institutes with main hardware contributions from France, USA, Japan and Germany.

  10. Toward an Intelligent Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. McJunkin; Jill R. Scott; Carla J. Miller

    2003-07-01

    The ultimate goal is to design and build a very smart ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) that can operate autonomously. To accomplish this, software capable of interpreting spectra so that it can be used in control loops for data interpretation as well as adjusting instrument parameters is being developed. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy numbers are used in this IMS spectra classification scheme. Fuzzy logic provides a straight forward method for developing a classification/detection system, whenever rules for classifying the spectra can be described linguistically. Instead of using 'max' and 'min' values, the product of the truth values is used to determine class membership. Using the product allows rule-bases that utilize the AND function to allow each condition to discount truth value in determining membership, while rule-bases with an OR function are allowed to accumulate membership. Fuzzy numbers allow encapsulation of the uncertainties due to ion mobility peak widths as well as measured instrumental parameters, such as pressure and temperature. Associating a peak with a value of uncertainty, in addition to making adjustments to the mobility calculation based on variations in measured parameters, enables unexpected shifts to be more reliably detected and accounted for; thereby, reducing the opportunity for 'false negative' results. The measure of uncertainty is anticipated to serve the additional purpose of diagnosing the operational conditions of the IMS instrument.

  11. Radiation Design of Ion Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Ed; Cooper, John; Christian, Eric; Moore, Tom; Sturner, Steve; Paschalidis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    In the harsh radiation environment of Jupiter and with the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE) mission including two Europa flybys where local intensities are approx. 150 krad/month behind 100 mils of Al shielding, so background from penetrating radiation can be a serious issue for detectors inside an Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). This can especially be important for minor ion detection designs. Detectors of choice for time-of-flight (TOF) designs are microchannel plates (MCP) and some designs may include solid state detectors (SSD). The standard approach is to use shielding designs so background event rates are low enough that the detector max rates and lifetimes are first not exceeded and then the more stringent requirement that the desired measurement can successfully be made (i.e., desired signal is sufficiently greater than background noise after background subtraction is made). GEANT codes are typically used along with various electronic techniques, but such designs need to know how the detectors will respond to the simulated primary and secondary radiations produced within the instrument. We will be presenting some preliminary measurements made on the response of MCPs to energetic electrons (20 ke V to 1400 ke V) using a Miniature TOF (MTOF) device and the High Energy Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center which has a Van de Graaff accelerator.

  12. Proton Transfer Reaction Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Prazeller, Peter; Palmer, Peter T.; Boscaini, Elena; Jobson, B Tom; Alexander, M. Lizabeth

    2003-07-07

    Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a relatively new field that has attracted a great deal of interest in the last several years. This technique uses H3O+ as a chemical ionization (CI) agent for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the parts per billion by volume (ppbv) - parts per trillion by volume (pptv) range. PTR-MS mass spectra are simple because the ionization method of proton transfer is “soft”, resulting in little or no fragmentation. Unfortunately, the simplicity of the mass spectra can cause problems in peak identification due to isobaric interferences. A possible solution to this problem is to couple the PTR drift tube to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). ITMS is appealing because of the ability to perform MS/MS and possibly distinguish between isomers and other isobars. Additionally, the ITMS duty cycle is much higher than that of a linear quadrupole so faster data acquisition rates can be realized for detection of multiple compounds. We present here the first results from a Proton Transfer Reaction Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ITMS). The aim of this study was to investigate ion injection and storage efficiency of a simple prototype interface in order to estimate possible detection limits of a second generation instrument. Using this prototype a detection limit of 100 ppbv was demonstrated for the PTR-ITMS. Modifications are suggested that will enable further reduction in detection limits to the low ppbv to pptv range. Furthermore the applicability of MS/MS to differentiate between isobaric species was determined. MS/MS spectra of the isobaric compounds methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) are presented and show fragments of different mass making a differentiation possible even when a mixture of both species is present in the same sample. MS/MS spectra of acetone and propanal produce fragments with the same molecular weight but different ratios, allowing quantitative distinction only if one species

  13. Comparative SEU sensitivities to relativistic heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, R.; Crain, S.H.; Crain, W.R.; Crawford, K.B.; Hansel, S.J.

    1998-12-01

    SEU sensitivity of microcircuits to relativistic heavy ions is compared to that measured with low-energy ions of comparable LET values. Multiple junction charge collection in a complex circuit seems to mask the effect of varying charge generations due to different iron track structures. Heavy ions at sub-relativistic speeds may generate nuclear fragments, sometimes resulting in SEUs.

  14. Mass spectrometer and methods of increasing dispersion between ion beams

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.; Delmore, James E.

    2006-01-10

    A mass spectrometer includes a magnetic sector configured to separate a plurality of ion beams, and an electrostatic sector configured to receive the plurality of ion beams from the magnetic sector and increase separation between the ion beams, the electrostatic sector being used as a dispersive element following magnetic separation of the plurality of ion beams. Other apparatus and methods are provided.

  15. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  16. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  17. Heavy ion measurement on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Jonathal, D.; Enge, W.

    1991-01-01

    The Kiel Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment M0002, mounted on experiment tray E6, was designed to measure the heavy ion environment by means of CR-39 plastic solid state track detectors. The detector stack with a size of 40x34x4.5 cu cm was exposed in vacuum covered by thermal protection foils with a total thickness of approx. 14 mg/sq cm. After etching small samples of the detector foils tracks with Z greater than or = 6 could be easily detected on a background of small etch pits, which were probably produced by secondaries from proton interactions. The LDEF orientation with respect to the magnetic field lines within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is expected to be constant during the mission. Therefore, the azimuth angle distribution was measured on the detector foils for low energy stopping particles. All detected arrival directions are close to a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field line of -20 deg declination and -40 deg inclination at location 34 deg W and 27 deg S. Together with the steep energy spectrum, this spatial distribution close to the mirror plane in the SAA is an evidence that heavy ions were detected from a radiation belt population.

  18. Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer Measurements from Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Niemann, H.; Yelle, R. V.; Kasprzak, W.; Cravens, T.; Luhmann, J.; McNutt, R.; Ip, W.-H.; Gell, D.; Muller-Wordag, I. C. F.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) aboard the Cassini orbiter has obtained the first in situ composition measurements of the neutral densities of molecular nitrogen, methane, argon, and a host of stable carbon-nitrile compounds in its first flyby of Titan. The bulk composition and thermal structure of the moon s upper atmosphere do not appear to be changed since the Voyager flyby in 1979. However, the more sensitive techniques provided by modern in-situ mass spectrometry also give evidence for large-spatial-scale large-amplitude atmospheric waves in the upper atmosphere and for a plethora of stable carbon-nitrile compounds above 1174 km. Furthermore, they allow the first direct measurements of isotopes of nitrogen, carbon, and argon, which provide interesting clues about the evolution of the atmosphere. The atmosphere was first accreted as ammonia and ammonia ices from the Saturn sub-nebula. Subsequent photochemistry likely converted the atmosphere into molecular nitrogen. The early atmosphere was 1.5 to 5 times more substantial and was lost via escape over the intervening 4.5 billion years due to the reduced gravity associated with the relatively small mass of Titan. Carbon in the form of methane has continued to outgas over time from the interior with much of it being deposited in the form of complex hydrocarbons on the surface and some of it also being lost to space.

  19. Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

    2008-08-03

    For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

  20. heavy ion acceleration at shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. I.; Galinsky, V.

    2009-12-01

    The theoretical study of alpha particle acceleration at a quasi-parallel shock due to interaction with Alfven waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model [1]. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or dumped and hence particles will be pitch--angle scattered as well as the change of the wave energy due to instability or damping. It includes in consideration the total distribution function (the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no any assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. In previous studies heavy ions were treated as perfect test particles, they only experienced the Alfven turbulence excited by protons and didn’t contribute to turbulence generation. In contrast to this approach, we consider the ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves. It is important for alpha particles with their relatively large mass-loading parameter that defines efficiency of the wave excitation by alpha particles. The energy spectra of alpha particles is found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation. [1] Galinsky, V.L., and V.I. Shevchenko, Astrophys. J., 669, L109, 2007.

  1. Heavy Flavor Dynamics in Relativistic Heavy-ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan

    Heavy flavor hadrons serve as valuable probes of the transport properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this dissertation, we introduce a comprehensive framework that describes the full-time evolution of heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions, including its initial production, in-medium evolution inside the QGP matter, hadronization process from heavy quarks to their respective mesonic bound states and the subsequent interactions between heavy mesons and the hadron gas. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is studied within the framework of a Langevin equation coupled to hydrodynamic models that simulate the space-time evolution of the hot and dense QGP matter. We improve the classical Langevin approach such that, apart from quasi-elastic scatterings between heavy quarks and the medium background, radiative energy loss is incorporated as well by treating gluon radiation as a recoil force term. The subsequent hadronization of emitted heavy quarks is simulated via a hybrid fragmentation plus recombination model. The propagation of produced heavy mesons in the hadronic phase is described using the ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. Our calculation shows that while collisional energy loss dominates the heavy quark motion inside the QGP in the low transverse momentum (p T) regime, contributions from gluon radiation are found to be significant at high pT. The recombination mechanism is important for the heavy flavor meson production at intermediate energies. The hadronic final state interactions further enhance the suppression and the collective flow of heavy mesons we observe. Within our newly developed framework, we present numerical results for the nuclear modification and the elliptic flow of D mesons, which are consistent with measurements at both the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC); predictions for B mesons are also provided. In

  2. Time-of-flight direct recoil ion scattering spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Lamich, G.J.

    1994-09-13

    A time-of-flight direct recoil and ion scattering spectrometer beam line is disclosed. The beam line includes an ion source which injects ions into pulse deflection regions and separated by a drift space. A final optics stage includes an ion lens and deflection plate assembly. The ion pulse length and pulse interval are determined by computerized adjustment of the timing between the voltage pulses applied to the pulsed deflection regions. 23 figs.

  3. Time-of-flight direct recoil ion scattering spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Lamich, George J.

    1994-01-01

    A time of flight direct recoil and ion scattering spectrometer beam line (10). The beam line (10) includes an ion source (12) which injects ions into pulse deflection regions (14) and (16) separated by a drift space (18). A final optics stage includes an ion lens and deflection plate assembly (22). The ion pulse length and pulse interval are determined by computerized adjustment of the timing between the voltage pulses applied to the pulsed deflection regions (14) and (16).

  4. Heavy Ion Physics in eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal

    2005-10-06

    We review the physics of gluon saturation in heavy ions at small x and consider the applications of Color Glass Condensate formalism to Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) of leptons on nuclei and discuss the overlapping physics between high energy heavy ion collisions at RHIC and DIS in eRHIC.

  5. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  6. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  7. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C{sub s}+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac.

  8. Heavy ion program at BNL: AGS, RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    With the recent commissioning of fixed target, heavy ion physics at the AGS, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has embarked on a long range program in support of relativistic heavy ion research. Acceleration of low mass heavy ions (up to sulfur) to an energy of about 14.5 GeV/nucleon is possible with the direct connection of the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff and AGS accelerators. When completed, the new booster accelerator will provide heavy ions over the full mass range for injection and subsequent acceleration in the AGS. BNL is now engaged in an active R and D program directed toward the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The results of the first operation of the low mass heavy ion program will be reviewed, and future expectations discussed. The expected performance for the heavy ion operation of the booster will be described and finally, the current status and outlook for the RHIC facility will be presented.

  9. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  10. Future Heavy-Ion Program at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Hiroyuki

    Recently, a heavy ion program as a future J-PARC project has been discussed among nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists. The overview of the heavy-ion program with physics goals, the design and physics feasibility of the spectrometer, and preliminary accelerator schemes are presented. The main goal of the program is to explore the QCD phase diagram in baryon densities 8-10 times as high as the normal nucleus density with heavy ion beams up to uranium at 1-10 AGeV, as well as research of unstable nuclei up to 10 AMeV. In this work, we focus on the former. One of the most important measurements which could signal the phase transition in high baryon densities is a dilepton. We study in-medium modifications of ρ , ω , and φ mesons decaying into dileptons, measure rare particles such as multi-strangeness hadrons, exotic hadrons, and hypernuclei utilizing high rate beams at J-PARC. We have been designing a spectrometer with a solenoid and a dipole magnets, which covers almost 4π acceptance, and has capability of identifying charged hadrons as well as electrons and muons. In one-month running of the experiment at the beam rate of 1011 Hz, we expect to measure ρ , ω , and φ dielectron decays of the order of 107. Heavy-ion acceleration schemes have been studied with a new heavy-ion linac and a new booster ring as an injector to RCS. The beams will be accelerated in RCS and MR. The goal beam rate is around 1010-1011/MR cycle.

  11. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, M.G.

    1997-07-22

    A mass spectrometer and methods are disclosed for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector. 7 figs.

  12. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, Michel G.

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector.

  13. Comet Encke: Meteor metallic ion identification by mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Aikin, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    Positive metallic ions have been measured in the earth's atmosphere between 85 and 120 km, during the period of the beta Taurids meteor shower, which is associated with Comet Encke. The ions originate during and following ablation of extraterrestrial debris by the earth's atmosphere. The enhancement of metal ion density during meteor showers is primary evidence for their extraterrestrial origin. The present results were obtained from a rocket-borne ion mass spectrometer.

  14. INELASTIC DIFFRACTION AT HEAVY ION COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, S.

    2005-01-01

    The heavy ion physics approach to global event characterization has led us to instrument the forward region in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. In heavy ion collisions this coverage yields a measurement of the ''spectator'' energy and its distribution about the beam direction. This energy flow is the basis of event-by-event determination of the centrality and reaction plane which are key to analyzing particle production in heavy ion collisions. These same tools have also enabled a unique set of measurements on inelastic diffraction with proton, deuteron and gold ion beams in the PHENIX experiment. We present first new results on this topic and discuss briefly the opportunity for diffractive physics with Heavy Ion beams at the LHC.

  15. Research relative to the heavy isotope spectrometer telescope experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    The Heavy Isotope Spectrometer Telescope (HIST) was launched during August 1978 on ISEE-3 (ICE). HIST was designed to measure the isotopic composition of solar, galactic, and interplanetary cosmic ray nuclei for the elements from H to Ni (1 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28) in the energy range from approximately 5 to approximately 200 MeV/nucleon. The results of these measurements have been used in studies of the composition of solar matter and galactic cosmic ray sources, the study of nucleosynthesis processes, studies of particle acceleration and propagation, and studies of the life-history of cosmic rays in the heliosphere and in the galaxy. On December 1, 1978, after 110 days in orbit, HIST suffered an electronic failure in its readout system. After that point, only one-half of the telemetry bits associated with the pulse heights measured by HIST were transmitted to Earth. As a result, the resolution of HIST was significantly degraded, and it served as an element rather than an isotope spectrometer. Fortunately, HIST was able to measure the isotopic composition of heavy nuclei in the 9/23/78 solar event (the largest solar energetic particle event since 1972) during the brief period that it operated at full resolution. This grant funded the analysis of data from the HIST instrument over the period from 12/1/85 to 11/30/92. In section 2 of this final report, we summarize the scientific accomplishments that have resulted from HIST measurements during this time period. A bibliography of tasks and papers that resulted is attached.

  16. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanesue, T.; Kumaki, M.; Ikeda, S.; Okamura, M.

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is 96Ru + 96Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  17. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment.

    PubMed

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is (96)Ru + (96)Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions. PMID:26931981

  18. Ion mobility spectrometer for online monitoring of trace compounds1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Xie, Z.; Schmidt, H.; Sielemann, S.; Baumbach, J. I.

    2002-10-01

    The principle, character and developments of the instrumentation of ion mobility spectrometry are reviewed. The application of ion mobility spectrometers in monitoring chemical warfare agents, explosives, drugs, environmental hazardous compounds and industrial process control are discussed. Process applications with respect to miniaturization of the instrument are presented.

  19. Electromagnetic processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Baur, G.

    1986-10-01

    Electromagnetic effects in relativistic heavy ion collisions with impact parameter larger than the sum of the nuclear radii are studied using the virtual photon method. With increasing value of the relativistic parameter γ the hardness of the virtual photon spectrum increases. This leads to interesting new effects which will also have to be considered in the design of future relativistic heavy ion machines and experiments. The excitation of high-lying giant E1 and E2 multipole resonances is calculated as well as electromagnetic pion production. Coulomb bremsstrahlung is calculated and compared to the bremsstrahlung emitted in the more violent central nuclear collisions. K-shell ionization and electron-positron pair production is studied. The latter process has a very large cross section for heavy ions and contributes significantly to the stopping power of relativistic heavy ions in a dense medium.

  20. Solenoid transport for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Edward

    2004-06-15

    Solenoid transport of high current, heavy ion beams is considered for several stages of a heavy ion fusion driver. In general this option is more efficient than magnetic quadrupole transport at sufficiently low kinetic energy and/or large e/m, and for this reason it has been employed in electron induction linacs. Ideally an ion beam would be transported in a state of Brillouin flow, i.e. cold in the transverse plane and spinning at one half the cyclotron frequency. The design of appropriate solenoids and the equilibrium and stability of transported ion beams are discussed. An outline of application to a fusion driver is also presented.

  1. Beam dynamics in heavy ion induction LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.

    1981-10-01

    Interest in the use of an induction linac to accelerate heavy ions for the purpose of providing the energy required to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated a theoretical effort to investigate various beam dynamical effects associated with high intensity heavy ion beams. This paper presents a summary of the work that has been done so far; transverse, longitudinal and coupled longitudinal transverse effects are discussed.

  2. Heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1983-12-01

    The advantages of heavy ion beams as a way of delivering the needed energy and power to an inertial fusion target are surveyed. The existing broad technology base of particle accelerators provides an important foundation for designing, costing, and evaluating proposed systems. The sequence of steps needed for the verification of the heavy ion approach is described; recent research results are even more encouraging than had been assumed hitherto.

  3. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  4. A magnetic-bottle multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Akitaka; Fushitani, Mizuho; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Eland, John H. D.; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-10-01

    A novel multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer developed on the basis of a 1.5 m-long magnetic-bottle electron spectrometer is presented. Electrons are guided by an inhomogeneous magnetic field to a detector at the end of the flight tube, while a set of optics is used to extract counterpart ions to the same detector, by a pulsed inhomogeneous electric field. This setup allows ion detection with high mass resolution, without impairing the high collection efficiency for electrons. The performance of the coincidence spectrometer was tested with double ionization of carbon disulfide, CS2 → CS_2^{2+} + e- + e-, in ultrashort intense laser fields (2.8 × 1013 W/cm2, 280 fs, 1030 nm) to clarify the electron correlation below the rescattering threshold.

  5. A magnetic-bottle multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Akitaka; Fushitani, Mizuho; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Eland, John H D; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-10-01

    A novel multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer developed on the basis of a 1.5 m-long magnetic-bottle electron spectrometer is presented. Electrons are guided by an inhomogeneous magnetic field to a detector at the end of the flight tube, while a set of optics is used to extract counterpart ions to the same detector, by a pulsed inhomogeneous electric field. This setup allows ion detection with high mass resolution, without impairing the high collection efficiency for electrons. The performance of the coincidence spectrometer was tested with double ionization of carbon disulfide, CS(2) → CS(2)(2+) + e(-) + e(-), in ultrashort intense laser fields (2.8 × 10(13) W/cm(2), 280 fs, 1030 nm) to clarify the electron correlation below the rescattering threshold. PMID:22047278

  6. A magnetic-bottle multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Akitaka; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi; Fushitani, Mizuho; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Eland, John H. D.

    2011-10-15

    A novel multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer developed on the basis of a 1.5 m-long magnetic-bottle electron spectrometer is presented. Electrons are guided by an inhomogeneous magnetic field to a detector at the end of the flight tube, while a set of optics is used to extract counterpart ions to the same detector, by a pulsed inhomogeneous electric field. This setup allows ion detection with high mass resolution, without impairing the high collection efficiency for electrons. The performance of the coincidence spectrometer was tested with double ionization of carbon disulfide, CS{sub 2} {yields} CS{sub 2}{sup 2+} + e{sup -} + e{sup -}, in ultrashort intense laser fields (2.8 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, 280 fs, 1030 nm) to clarify the electron correlation below the rescattering threshold.

  7. Simulating data processing for an Advanced Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Clowers, Brian H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2007-11-03

    We have designed and implemented a Cray XD-1-based sim- ulation of data capture and signal processing for an ad- vanced Ion Mobility mass spectrometer (Hadamard trans- form Ion Mobility). Our simulation is a hybrid application that uses both an FPGA component and a CPU-based soft- ware component to simulate Ion Mobility mass spectrome- try data processing. The FPGA component includes data capture and accumulation, as well as a more sophisticated deconvolution algorithm based on a PNNL-developed en- hancement to standard Hadamard transform Ion Mobility spectrometry. The software portion is in charge of stream- ing data to the FPGA and collecting results. We expect the computational and memory addressing logic of the FPGA component to be portable to an instrument-attached FPGA board that can be interfaced with a Hadamard transform Ion Mobility mass spectrometer.

  8. Vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Qi, N.; Gensler, S.; Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Brown, I.G.

    1998-02-01

    Heavy ion fusion is one approach to the problem of controlled thermonuclear power production, in which a small DT target is bombarded by an intense flux of heavy ions and compressed to fusion temperatures. There is a need in present HIF research and development for a reliable ion source for the production of heavy ion beams with low emittance, low beam noise, ion charge states Q=1+ to 3+, beam current {approximately}0.5A, pulse width {approximately}5{endash}20 {mu}s, and repetition rate {approximately}10 pulses per second. We have explored the suitability of a vacuum arc ion source for this application. Energetic, high current, gadolinium ion beams were produced with parameters as required or close to those required. The performance parameters can all be improved yet further in an optimized ion source design. Here we describe the ion source configuration used, the experiments conducted, and the results obtained. We conclude that a vacuum arc based metal ion source of this kind could be an excellent candidate for heavy ion fusion research application. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. A retarding ion mass spectrometer for the Dynamics Explorer-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) for Dynamics Explorer-1 is an instrument designed to measure the details of the thermal plasma distribution. It combines the ion temperature determining capability of the retarding potential analyzer with the compositional capabilities of the mass spectrometer and adds multiple sensor heads to sample all directions relative to the spacecraft ram direction. This manual provides a functional description of the RIMS, the instrument calibration, and a description of the commands which can be stored in the instrument logic to control its operation.

  10. Acceleration of heavy ions in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.Q.

    1983-01-01

    It is possible to use the Brookhaven AGS as a heavy ion machine by adding a cyclotron to the Tandem and using this combination as injector. An intermediate step for lighter ions might consist of injecting the Tandem beam directly into the AGS. In either case, quite high intensities should be possible.

  11. Heavy ion beams for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Godlove, T.F.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1980-05-01

    The United States' program in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is described in this paper, with emphasis on the studies of the use of intense high energy beams of heavy ions to provide the power and energy needed to initiate thermonuclear burn. Preliminary calculations of the transport of intense ion beams in an electrostatic quadrupole focussing structure are discussed.

  12. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Butler, Michael A.; Frye, Gregory C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method is provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine).

  13. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOEpatents

    Martin, S.J.; Butler, M.A.; Frye, G.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1998-08-04

    An apparatus and method are provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine). 6 figs.

  14. Linear electronic field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.

    2010-08-24

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprising a first drift region and a second drift region enclosed within an evacuation chamber; a means of introducing an analyte of interest into the first drift region; a pulsed ionization source which produces molecular ions from said analyte of interest; a first foil positioned between the first drift region and the second drift region, which dissociates said molecular ions into constituent atomic ions and emits secondary electrons; an electrode which produces secondary electrons upon contact with a constituent atomic ion in second drift region; a stop detector comprising a first ion detection region and a second ion detection region; and a timing means connected to the pulsed ionization source, to the first ion detection region, and to the second ion detection region.

  15. Design and development of a fast ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Two Fast Ion Mass Spectrometers (FIMS A and FIMS B) were developed. The design, development, construction, calibration, integration, and flight of these instruments, along with early results from the data analysis efforts are summarized. A medium energy ion mass spectrometer that covers mass velocity space with significantly higher time resolution, improved mass resolution, (particularly for heavier ions), and wider energy range than existing instruments had achieved was completed. The initial design consisted of a dual channel cylindrical electrostatic analyzer followed by a dual channel cylindrical velocity filter. The gain versus count rate characteristics of the high current channel electron multipliers (CEM's), which were chosen for ion detection, revealed a systematic behavior that can be used as a criterion for selection of CEM's for long counting lifetimes.

  16. LEICA - A low energy ion composition analyzer for the study of solar and magnetospheric heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Glenn M.; Hamilton, Douglas C.; Walpole, Peter H.; Heuerman, Karl F.; James, Tommy L.; Lennard, Michael H.; Mazur, Joseph E.

    1993-01-01

    The SAMPEX LEICA instrument is designed to measure about 0.5-5 MeV/nucleon solar and magnetospheric ions over the range from He to Ni. The instrument is a time-of-flight mass spectrometer which measures particle time-of-flight over an about 0.5 m path, and the residual energy deposited in an array of Si solid state detectors. Large area microchannel plates are used, resulting in a large geometrical factor for the instrument (0.6 sq cm sr) which is essential for accurate compositional measurements in small solar flares, and in studies of precipitating magnetospheric heavy ions.

  17. HEAVY-ION IMAGING APPLIED TO MEDICINE

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Benton, E.V.; Holley, W.R.

    1980-02-01

    Heavy particle radiography is a newly developed noninvasive low dose imaging procedure with increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the BEVALAC accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program applied to medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures and brain and spinal neoplasms. The presentation will be illustrated with clinical cases under study. Discussion will include the potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, as an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for the applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, but also for the early detection of small soft tissue tumors at low radiation dose.

  18. Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation of Cobalt Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprouster, D. J.; Giulian, R.; Schnohr, C. S.; Kluth, P.; Araujo, L. L.; Byrne, A. P.; Foran, G. J.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the electronic energy loss released by swift heavy ions can cause considerable atomic movement in various solids. Here, we present a study of the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on Co nanoparticles embedded within a silica host matrix. The evolution of the Co nanoparticle crystal phase, structural properties, shape and size has been characterized using a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. An FCC-to-HCP phase transformation is observed at low fluences, while higher fluences result in significant changes in the short range order and NP shape. After an incubation fluence the nanoparticles deform into ellipsoids, preferentially aligned parallel to the incident beam direction. The threshold diameter for elongation was comparable to the saturation value of the ellipsoid width. We correlate this saturation value with the diameter of the molten track induced in amorphous silica by swift heavy ion irradiation.

  19. Pair creation in heavy ion channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Harman, Z.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy ions channeled through crystals with multi-GeV kinetic energies can create electron-positron pairs. In the framework of the ion, the energy of virtual photons arising from the periodic crystal potential may exceed the threshold 2mec2. The repeated periodic collisions with the crystal ions yield high pair production rates. When the virtual photon frequency matches a nuclear transition in the ion, the production rate can be resonantly increased. In this two-step excitation-pair conversion scheme, the excitation rates are coherently enhanced, and scale approximately quadratically with the number of crystal sites along the channel.

  20. Signal processing for ION mobility spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, S.; Hinton, M.; Turner, R.

    1995-01-01

    Signal processing techniques for systems based upon Ion Mobility Spectrometry will be discussed in the light of 10 years of experience in the design of real-time IMS. Among the topics to be covered are compensation techniques for variations in the number density of the gas - the use of an internal standard (a reference peak) or pressure and temperature sensors. Sources of noise and methods for noise reduction will be discussed together with resolution limitations and the ability of deconvolution techniques to improve resolving power. The use of neural networks (either by themselves or as a component part of a processing system) will be reviewed.

  1. A simple photoionization scheme for characterizing electron and ion spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wituschek, A.; von Vangerow, J.; Grzesiak, J.; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present a simple diode laser-based photoionization scheme for generating electrons and ions with well-defined spatial and energetic (≲2 eV) structures. This scheme can easily be implemented in ion or electron imaging spectrometers for the purpose of off-line characterization and calibration. The low laser power ˜1 mW needed from a passively stabilized diode laser and the low flux of potassium atoms in an effusive beam make our scheme a versatile source of ions and electrons for applications in research and education.

  2. Ion mass spectrometer experiment for ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, John H.

    1987-07-01

    The International Satellite for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program of NASA was the longest duration program in NASA history. A number of satellites were flown under this program, the last being called ISIS-2, which was launched on April 1, 1971 and operated successfully for over 13 years. An experiment called the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) was flown on the ISIS-2 spacecraft. It operated for 10 years providing a large data base of positive ion composition and ion flow velocities along the orbit of the satellite, the latter being circular at 1400 km with a 90 degree inclination. The data were processed and reside in the National Space Sciences Data Center.

  3. Ion mass spectrometer experiment for ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The International Satellite for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program of NASA was the longest duration program in NASA history. A number of satellites were flown under this program, the last being called ISIS-2, which was launched on April 1, 1971 and operated successfully for over 13 years. An experiment called the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) was flown on the ISIS-2 spacecraft. It operated for 10 years providing a large data base of positive ion composition and ion flow velocities along the orbit of the satellite, the latter being circular at 1400 km with a 90 degree inclination. The data were processed and reside in the National Space Sciences Data Center.

  4. A simple photoionization scheme for characterizing electron and ion spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Wituschek, A; von Vangerow, J; Grzesiak, J; Stienkemeier, F; Mudrich, M

    2016-08-01

    We present a simple diode laser-based photoionization scheme for generating electrons and ions with well-defined spatial and energetic (≲2 eV) structures. This scheme can easily be implemented in ion or electron imaging spectrometers for the purpose of off-line characterization and calibration. The low laser power ∼1 mW needed from a passively stabilized diode laser and the low flux of potassium atoms in an effusive beam make our scheme a versatile source of ions and electrons for applications in research and education. PMID:27587098

  5. Cataracts Heavy Ions and Individual Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E.; Worgul, B.; Brenner, D.; Smilenov, L.

    Ocular cataracts represents one of the few legacies of space flight evident in a significant proportion of astronauts X-rays are known to induce cataracts Heavy ions are known to be much more effective per unit dose than gamma -rays The object of this present study was to identify genes that confer individual susceptibility and to estimate RBE values Wild type mice were compared with animals heterozygous for Atm Mrad9 or BRCA1 or animals that were double heterozygotes for pairs of genes Mice were irradiated with x-rays at Columbia University in New York City or with heavy ions 1GeV amu 56 Fe ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory Haploinsufficiency for either Atm or mRAD9 resulted in cataracts appearing earlier than in wild type animals whether exposed to gamma -rays or heavy ions Double heterozygotes were more radiosensitive than animals haploinsufficient for either gene alone Heavy ions were much more effective than x-rays in inducing cataracts of all grades in animals of all genotypes A detailed analysis suggest that the RBE varies to some extent with the genotype of the animal and the cataract grade

  6. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2015-01-19

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass accuracy and resolving power.[1],[2] With electrospray ionization (ESI), ions are typically transferred into the mass spectrometer through a skimmer, which serves as a conductance-limiting orifice. However, the skimmer allows only a small fraction of incoming ions to enter the mass spectrometer. An ion funnel, originally developed by Smith and coworkers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)[3-5] provides much more efficient ion focusing and transfer. The large entrance aperture of the ion funnel allows almost all ions emanating from a heated capillary to be efficiently captured and transferred, resulting in nearly lossless transmission.

  7. High current vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, N.; Schein, J.; Gensler, S.; Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Brown, I.

    1999-07-01

    Heavy Ion fusion (HIF) is one of the approaches for the controlled thermonuclear power production. A source of heavy ions with charge states 1+ to 2+, in {approximately}0.5 A current beams with {approximately}20 {micro}s pulse widths and {approximately}10 Hz repetition rates are required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the HIF program to date, but suffer from sloe turn-on, heating problems for large areas, are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states, in short and long pulse bursts, with low emittance and high beam currents. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications is investigated. An existing ion source at LBNL was modified to produce {approximately}0.5 A, {approximately}60 keV Gd (A{approximately}158) ion beams. The experimental effort concentrated on beam noise reduction, pulse-to-pulse reproducibility and achieving low beam emittance at 0.5 A ion current level. Details of the source development will be reported.

  8. An ion mobility mass spectrometer for investigating photoisomerization and photodissociation of molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, B. D.; Coughlan, N. J. A.; Markworth, P. B.; Bieske, E. J.; Continetti, R. E.

    2014-12-15

    An ion mobility mass spectrometry apparatus for investigating the photoisomerization and photodissociation of electrosprayed molecular ions in the gas phase is described. The device consists of a drift tube mobility spectrometer, with access for a laser beam that intercepts the drifting ion packet either coaxially or transversely, followed by a quadrupole mass filter. An ion gate halfway along the drift region allows the instrument to be used as a tandem ion mobility spectrometer, enabling mobility selection of ions prior to irradiation, with the photoisomer ions being separated over the second half of the drift tube. The utility of the device is illustrated with photoisomerization and photodissociation action spectra of carbocyanine molecular cations. The mobility resolution of the device for singly charged ions is typically 80 and it has a mass range of 100-440 Da, with the lower limit determined by the drive frequency for the ion funnels, and the upper limit by the quadrupole mass filter.

  9. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. P.

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report.

  10. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.

    1991-08-01

    The USA Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report.

  11. Ion mobility spectrometer, spectrometer analyte detection and identification verification system, and method

    DOEpatents

    Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for ion mobility spectrometry and analyte detection and identification verification system are disclosed. The apparatus is configured to be used in an ion mobility spectrometer and includes a plurality of reactant reservoirs configured to contain a plurality of reactants which can be reacted with the sample to form adducts having varying ion mobilities. A carrier fluid, such as air or nitrogen, is used to carry the sample into the spectrometer. The plurality of reactants are configured to be selectively added to the carrier stream by use inlet and outlet manifolds in communication with the reagent reservoirs, the reservoirs being selectively isolatable by valves. The invention further includes a spectrometer having the reagent system described. In the method, a first reactant is used with the sample. Following a positive result, a second reactant is used to determine whether a predicted response occurs. The occurrence of the second predicted response tends to verify the existence of a component of interest within the sample. A third reactant can also be used to provide further verification of the existence of a component of interest. A library can be established of known responses of compounds of interest with various reactants and the results of a specific multi-reactant survey of a sample can be compared against the library to determine whether a component detected in the sample is likely to be a specific component of interest.

  12. Ion Mobility Spectrometry of Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Ilbeigi, Vahideh; Valadbeigi, Younes; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud

    2016-07-19

    A simple, fast, and inexpensive method was developed for detecting heavy metals via the ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) in the negative mode. In this method, Cl(-) ion produced by the thermal ionization of NaCl is employed as the dopant or the ionizing reagent to ionize heavy metals. In practice, a solution of mixed heavy metals and NaCl salts was directly deposited on a Nichrome filament and electrically heated to vaporize the salts. This produced the IMS spectra of several heavy-metal salts, including CdCl2, ZnSO4, NiCl2, HgSO4, HgCl2, PbI2, and Pb(Ac)2. For each heavy metal (M), one or two major peaks were observed, which were attributed to M·Cl(-) or [M·NaCl]Cl(-)complexes. The method proved to be useful for the analysis of mixed heavy metals. The absolute detection limits measured for ZnSO4 and HgSO4 were 0.1 and 0.05 μg, respectively. PMID:27321408

  13. Laser desorption in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Eiden, G.C.; Cisper, M.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Hemberger, P.H.; Nogar, N.S.

    1993-02-01

    Laser desorption in a ion-trap mass spectrometer shows significant promise for both qualitative and trace analysis. Several aspects of this methodology are discussed in this work. We previously demonstrated the generation of both negative and positive ions by laser desorption directly within a quadrupole ion trap. In the present work, we explore various combinations of d.c., r.f., and time-varying fields in order to optimize laser generated signals. In addition, we report on the application of this method to analyze samples containing compounds such as amines, metal complexes, carbon clusters, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In some cases the ability to rapidly switch between positive and negative ion modes provides sufficient specificity to distinguish different compounds of a mixture with a single stage of mass spectrometry. In other experiments, we combined intensity variation studies with tandem mass spectrometry experiments and positive and negative ion detection to further enhance specificity.

  14. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  15. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  16. Pions from and about heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.

    1982-09-01

    A review is presented of the possibilities of pion production with heavy ion reactions. Major headings include: pion thermometry; hills and valleys in pion spectra; pionic orbits of nuclear size; pion confinement in the fireball; anomalons; and Schroedinger equation solutions for pionic atoms. 47 references, 9 figures. (GHT)

  17. Heavy ion pion production: spectral irregularities

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.

    1982-09-01

    Data on ..pi../sup -//..pi../sup +/ ratios and on hills and valleys in spectra from heavy ion collisions are reviewed. Theoretical studies to handle Coulomb effects on pion spectra are examined. The possible role of strongly-bound pion orbitals of nuclear size is discussed.

  18. Resonant structures in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, S.J.; Henning, W.; Ernst, H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Jachcinski, C.; Kovar, D.G.; Paul, M.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of heavy-ion resonance structures using the /sup 24/Mg(/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C)/sup 28/Si reaction is presented. The data are analyzed in the context of Breit-Wigner resonances added to a direct-reaction background.

  19. Metastable states of highly excited heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, D. J.; Griffin, P. M.; Sellin, I. A.; Smith, W. W.; Donnally, B.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the method used and results obtained in an experimental study of the metastable states of highly stripped heavy ions, aimed at determining the lifetimes of such states by the rates of autoionization and radiation. The significance and limitations of the results presented are discussed.

  20. Reaction parameters for heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcke, W.W.; Birkelund, J.R.; Wollersheim, H.J.; Hoover, A.D.; Huizenga, J.R.; Schroeder, W.U.; Tubbs, L.E.

    1980-09-01

    These tables present reaction parameters for all combinations of 27 projectile and 16 target nuclei in a laboratory bombarding energy range of 1--50 MeV/u. The reaction parameters are derived from the Fresnel model of heavy-ion scattering, the droplet model, and the rotating liquid-drop model, or from systematics of experimental data.

  1. Initial conditions in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopalan, Raju

    2001-10-01

    At very high energies, partons in nuclei form a color glass condensate (CGC). In a nuclear collision, the color glass shatters, producing a high multiplicity of gluons. We discuss the results of numerical simulations which describe the real time evolution of the CGC in a heavy ion collision.

  2. Heavy Ion Fragmentation Experiments at the Bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using the heavy-ion capability of the Bevatron were studied. The purpose was to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Attempts were also made to: (1) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (2) test the applicability of high-energy multi-particle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (3) apply the cross-section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (4) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross sections.

  3. "Fast Excitation" CID in Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Murrell, J.; Despeyroux, D.; Lammert, Stephen {Steve} A; Stephenson Jr, James {Jim} L; Goeringer, Doug

    2003-01-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer is usually performed by applying a small amplitude excitation voltage at the same secular frequency as the ion of interest. Here we disclose studies examining the use of large amplitude voltage excitations (applied for short periods of time) to cause fragmentation of the ions of interest. This process has been examined using leucine enkephalin as the model compound and the motion of the ions within the ion trap simulated using ITSIM. The resulting fragmentation information obtained is identical with that observed by conventional resonance excitation CID. ''Fast excitation'' CID deposits (as determined by the intensity ratio of the a{sub 4}/b{sub 4} ion of leucine enkephalin) approximately the same amount of internal energy into an ion as conventional resonance excitation CID where the excitation signal is applied for much longer periods of time. The major difference between the two excitation techniques is the higher rate of excitation (gain in kinetic energy) between successive collisions with helium atoms with ''fast excitation'' CID as opposed to the conventional resonance excitation CID. With conventional resonance excitation CID ions fragment while the excitation voltage is still being applied whereas for ''fast excitation'' CID a higher proportion of the ions fragment in the ion cooling time following the excitation pulse. The fragmentation of the (M + 17H){sup 17+} of horse heart myoglobin is also shown to illustrate the application of ''fast excitation'' CID to proteins.

  4. Dual mode ion mobility spectrometer and method for ion mobility spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Carla J [Idaho Falls, ID; Tremblay, Paul L [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-08-21

    Ion mobility spectrometer apparatus may include an ion interface that is operable to hold positive and negative ions and to simultaneously release positive and negative ions through respective positive and negative ion ports. A first drift chamber is operatively associated with the positive ion port of the ion interface and encloses an electric field therein. A first ion detector operatively associated with the first drift chamber detects positive ions from the first drift chamber. A second drift chamber is operatively associated with the negative ion port of the ion interface and encloses an electric field therein. A second ion detector operatively associated with the second drift chamber detects negative ions from said second drift chamber.

  5. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; L. Grisham; I. Kaganovich; R. L. Watson; V. Horvat; K. E. Zaharakis; Y. Peng

    2002-06-25

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters.

  6. Thermoacoustic imaging using heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Tesmer, J.R.; Deemer, B.C.; Murphy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Ion beams have been used for surface modification, semiconductor device fabrication and for material analysis, which makes ion-material interactions of significant importance. Ion implantation will produce new compositions near the surface by ion mixing or directly by implanting desired ions. Ions exchange their energy to the host material as they travel into the material by several different processes. High energy ions ionize the host atoms before atomic collisions transfer the remaining momentum and stop the incident ion. As they penetrate the surface, the low energy ions ionize the host atoms, but also have a significantly large momentum transfer mechanism near the surface of the material. This leads to atoms, groups of atoms and electrons being ejected from the surface, which is the momentum transfer process of sputtering. This talk addresses the acoustic waves generated during ion implantation using modulated heavy ion beams. The mechanisms for elastic wave generation during ion implantation, in the regimes where sputtering is significant and where implantation is dominant and sputtering is negligible, has been studied. The role of momentum transfer and thermal energy production during ion implantation was compared to laser generated elastic waves in an opaque solid as a reference, since laser generated ultrasound has been extensively studied and is fairly well understood. The thermoelastic response dominated in both high and low ion energy regimes since, apparently, more energy is lost to thermal heat producing mechanisms than momentum transfer processes. The signal magnitude was found to vary almost linearly with incident energy as in the laser thermoelastic regime. The time delays for longitudinal and shear waves-were characteristic of those expected for a purely thermal heating source. The ion beams are intrinsically less sensitive to the albedo of the surface.

  7. Titan's Topside Ionospheric Composition: Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Ion Mass spectrometer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Ali, A.; Cooper, J. F.; Lipatov, A. S.; Simpson, D. G.; Sarantos, M.; Chornay, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    In [1] the first quantitative evidence of ionospheric outflows (r > 10,000 km) coming from Titan was given using the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) data for the T9 flyby. Later in [2] similar outflows were shown for T63 and T75. In [3] evidence for ionospheric outflows for T15 was given and [4] showed evidence of outflows for T41. Normally, the CAPS IMS cannot be used to measure Titan's relatively dense ionosphere because the IMS has high sensitivity to measure the more tenuous plasmas of Saturn's magnetosphere and its detectors will experience count rates beyond their maximum allowed rates, therefore the IMS is configured not to measure the ionospheric plasma. But, whenever there are high altitude Titan wake flybys the ion densities are low enough so the CAPS IMS can measure these ionospheric outflows and their corresponding composition characteristic of the topside ionosphere (i.e., composition freezes in above the exobase) using its unique compositional capabilities. For example, the IMS can distinguish against specific ion types such as hydrocarbon, nitrile and water group ions due fragmentation of molecular ions within the instrument (i.e., incident ions strikes ultra-thin carbon foils at 14.6 kV or higher with exiting fragments such C+,0,-, N+,0, O+,0,-1). The other ionospheric instruments only measure the ion mass-per-charge (M/Q), while the CAPS IMS measures both the ion M/Q and its fragments. Specific attention will be given to such ions as NH4+, N+, O+, CH4+, C2H5+, HCNH+ and C3H7+. These results may impose important constraints upon Titan's ionospheric water group, hydrocarbon and nitrile ion chemistry. Are NH4+ ions present as indicated by INMS at 1100 km altitude and/or water group ions? Our work has concentrated on the T15 flyby. Estimates of the NH4+, N+ and O+ abundances presently have upper values < 20% of the total ion density with actual abundances and their uncertainties to be given. [1] Sittler, E.C. Jr., et al

  8. Heavy ions, targets, and research at HHIRF

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, J.L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) typifies a new generation of heavy ion accelerators capable of producing high resolution beams with sufficient energy to study nuclear reactions across the periodic table. Exploiting the capabilities of the machine depends on the availability of thin foils at each stage of the experimental process. Rugged carbon foils are needed in the tandem and cyclotron to strip injected ions up to high charge states. Experimental success largely depends on the availability of a suitable target for bombardment which imposes new demands on the target maker. Many experiments use large solid angle gaseous counters with very thin foils as windows. The accelerators, experimental apparatus, and beam characteristics will be described. Target requirements demanded by different types of experiments will be discussed. These requirements have lead to the construction of specialized apparatus such as the supersonic gas jet target and the single crystal goniometer for blocking measurements.

  9. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  10. Nonresonant interaction of heavy ions with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berchem, J.; Gendrin, R.

    1985-01-01

    The motion of a heavy ion in the presence of an intense ultralow-frequency electromagnetic wave propagating along the dc magnetic field is analyzed. Starting from the basic equations of motion and from their associated two invariants, the heavy ion velocity-space trajectories are drawn. It is shown that after a certain time, particles whose initial phase angles are randomly distributed tend to bunch together, provided that the wave intensity b-sub-1 is sufficiently large. The importance of these results for the interpretation of the recently observed acceleration of singly charged He ions in conjunction with the occurrence of large-amplitude ion cyclotron waves in the equatorial magnetosphere is discussed.

  11. Ion and electron detector for use in an ICR spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, W. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A detector for detecting ions and/or electrons present in a resonance cell of an ICR spectrometer is disclosed. The detector which operates on the Q-meter principle is driven by an external rf oscillator capable of providing rf frequencies up to about 15MHz at an adjustable low rf signal level, e.g., below 20mV. The detector is connected across the resonance of the cell to detect ions by detecting their cyclotron frequency. Electrons are detectable by connecting the detector across the cell's trapping plates and thereby detect the electrons' trapping motion, the frequency of which is in the megahertz range.

  12. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Feldman, William C.

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  13. Dynamics Explorer 1: Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer (EICS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Peterson, W. K.; Collin, H. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer (EICS) experiment was selected as part of the Dynamics Explorer (DE) Program. One of the primary goals of the DE program was to investigate in detail the plasma physics processes responsible for energizing thermal (approximately 1 eV) ionospheric ions and transporting them to the earth's plasma sheet and distant polar cap. The results of the EICS data analysis (including support of other investigators) and of the archiving efforts supported by this contract are summarized in this document. Also reported are some aspects of our operational support activities.

  14. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety.

  15. Science and art in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, M.S.

    1982-08-09

    One of the more intriguing phenomena discovered in heavy-ion physics is the seeming appearance of high energy structure in the excitation spectra of inelastically scattered heavy ions. For reasons illustrated, these may well be a phenomena unique to heavy ions and their explanation perhaps unique to TDHF.

  16. Light particle emissions in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Petitt, G.A.; Liu, Xin-Tao; Smathers, J.; Zhang, Ziang.

    1991-03-01

    We are completing another successful year of experimental work at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF), the Los Alamos white neutron source facility, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Georgia State University (GSU). A paper on energy division between the two heavy fragments in deep inelastic reactions between {sup 58}Ni + {sup 165}Ho was published in Physical Review C during the year. We have partially completed analysis of the data on the {sup 32}S + {sup 93}Nb system taken with the HILI detector system at the HHIRF. This paper discusses work on these topics and discusses the setup of a neutron detector for a neutron reaction experiment.

  17. Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, W. J.

    1995-05-31

    This report describes an on-going research initiative for the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR): investigating the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ions, i.e. collisions between massive nuclei which have been accelerated to kinetic energies so large that the rest mass of the ions is a negligible fraction of their total mass-energy. This progress report is being submitted in conjunction with a 3-year grant-renewal proposal, containing additional materials. Three main categories drive the UALRGultra-relativistic heavy ion research. (1) investigations of multi-particle Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) correlations in the CERN and RHIC energy domains strongly influence the URHI experimental effort, (2) participation in the NA49 Experiment to study 33 TeV (160 GeV/nucleon) Pb on Pb collisions using the SPS facili& at CERN, and (3) participation in the STAR collaboration which is developing a major detector for use with the STAR Experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), being built at BNL.

  18. Spectroscopic investigations of highly charged ions using x-ray calorimeter spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorn, Daniel Bristol

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogenlike uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogenlike iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogenlike through carbonlike praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in heliumlike xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of the effect of the

  19. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Ions using X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, Daniel Bristol

    2008-11-19

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogen-like uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogen-like iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogen-like through carbon-like praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in helium-like xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of the effect of the

  20. High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2005-02-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

  1. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-10-01

    Various mutagenic effects by heavy ions were studied in bacteria, irradiated at accelerators in Dubna, Prague, Berkeley or Darmstadt. Endpoints investigated are histidine reversion (B. subtilis, S. typhimurium), azide resistance (B. subtilis), mutation in the lactose operon (E. coli), SOS chromotest (E. coli) and λ-prophage induction (E. coli). It was found that the cross sections of the different endpoints show a similar dependence on energy. For light ions (Z <= 4) the cross section decreases with increasing energy. For ions of Z = 10, it is nearly independent of energy. For heavier ions (Z >= 26) it increases with energy up to a maximum or saturation. The increment becomes steeper with increasing Z. This dependence on energy suggests a ``mutagenic belt'' inside the track that is restricted to an area where the density of departed energy is low enough not to kill the cell, but high enough to induce mutations.

  2. Neoplastic cell transformation by heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Watanabe, M; Suzuki, K; Nakano, K; Kaneko, I

    1989-12-01

    We have studied the induction of morphological transformation by heavy ions. Golden hamster embryo cells were irradiated with 95 MeV 14N ions (530 keV/microns), 22 MeV 4He ions (36 keV/microns), and 22 MeV 4He ions with a 100-microns Al absorber (77 keV/microns) which were generated by a cyclotron at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Japan. Colonies were considered to contain neoplastically transformed cells when the cells were densely stacked and made a crisscross pattern. It was shown that the induction of transformation was much more effective with 14N and 4He ions than with gamma or X rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) relative to 60Co gamma rays was 3.3 for 14N ions, 2.4 for 4He ions, and 3.3 for 4He ions with a 100-microns Al absorber. The relationship between RBE and linear energy transfer was qualitatively similar for both cell death and transformation. PMID:2594968

  3. Optical Faraday Cup for Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, Frank; Bieniosek, F.M.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-06-25

    We have been using alumina scintillators for imaging beams in heavy-ion beam fusion experiments in 2 to 4 transverse dimensions [1]. The scintillator has a limited lifetime under bombardment by the heavy ion beams. As a possible replacement for the scintillator, we are studying the technique of imaging the beam on a gas cloud. A gas cloud for imaging the beam may be created on a solid hole plate placed in the path of the beam, or by a localized gas jet. It is possible to image the beam using certain fast-quenching optical lines that closely follow beam current density and are independent of gas density. We describe this technique and show preliminary experimental data. This approach has promise to be a new fast beam current diagnostic on a nanosecond time scale.

  4. Classical chromodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappi, T.

    2005-05-01

    This paper is a slightly modified version of the introductory part of a doctoral dissertation also containing the articles hep-ph/0303076, hep-ph/0409328 and hep-ph/0409058. The paper focuses on the calculation of particle production in a relativistic heavy ion collision using the McLerran-Venugopalan model. The main part of the paper summarizes the background of these numerical calculations. First we relate this calculation of the initial stage af a heavy ion collision to our understanding of the whole collision process. Then we discuss the saturation physics of the small x wavefunction of a hadron or a nucleus. The classical field model of Kovner, McLerran and Weigert is then introduced before moving to discuss the numerical algorithms used to compute gluon and quark pair production in this model. Finally we shortly review the results on gluon and quark-antiquark production obtained in the three articles mentioned above.

  5. Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.; Tylka, Allan J.

    1992-01-01

    The Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment has two primary objectives: (1) to measure the elemental composition of ultraheavy Galactic cosmic rays, beginning in the tin-barium region of the periodic table; and (2) to study heavy ions which arrive at LDEF below the geomagnetic cutoff, either because they are not fully stripped of electrons or because their source is within the magnetosphere. Both have practical as well as astrophysical consequences. The HIIS experiment used eight thick stacks of plastic track detectors mounted in two trays on the space facing end of LDEF. Since the last LDEF symposium, the statistics were increased of the observations and have extended the analysis to a second stack and to detector sheets near the top of a stack. New results are reported on the detector resolution and on the observations of both stopping and relativistic particles.

  6. Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, Maxime; Paquet, Jean-François; Schenke, Björn; Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical studies of the production of real thermal photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are performed. The space-time evolution of the colliding system is modelled using music, a 3+1D relativistic hydrodynamic simulation, using both its ideal and viscous versions. The inclusive spectrum and its azimuthal angular anisotropy are studied separately, and the relative contributions of the different photon sources are highlighted. It is shown that the photon v2 coefficient is especially sensitive to the details of the microscopic dynamics like the equation of state, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, η/s, and to the morphology of the initial state.

  7. Dynamical processes in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1988-07-25

    In this report I review the physical assumptions of the Boltzmann Master Equation (BME). Comparisons of the model with experimental neutron spectra gated on evaporation residues for a range of incident projectile energies and masses are presented; next, I compare n spectra gated on projectile-like fragments, followed by comparisons with ungated, inclusive proton spectra. I will then consider secondary effects from the nucleon-nucleon processes involved in the heavy ion relaxation processes, specifically the high energy ..gamma..-rays which have been observed at energies up to 140 MeV in collisions of heavy ions of 20/endash/84 MeV/..mu... Another secondary effect, subthreshold pion production, was covered in the XVII School and will not be repeated. 39 refs., 16 figs.

  8. Faster Heavy Ion Transport for HZETRN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.

    2013-01-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN was developed to enable fast and accurate space radiation transport through materials. As more complex transport solutions are implemented for neutrons, light ions (Z < 2), mesons, and leptons, it is important to maintain overall computational efficiency. In this work, the heavy ion (Z > 2) transport algorithm in HZETRN is reviewed, and a simple modification is shown to provide an approximate 5x decrease in execution time for galactic cosmic ray transport. Convergence tests and other comparisons are carried out to verify that numerical accuracy is maintained in the new algorithm.

  9. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RACK) to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 5 /times/ 10/sup 26/cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ at an energy of 100 GeV/u in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The collider consists of two interlaced, but otherwise separate, superconducting magnet rings. The 9.7 m long dipoles will operate at 3.5 T. Their 8 cm aperture was determined by the dimensions of gold ion beams taking into account diffusion due to intrabeam scattering. Heavy ion beams will be available from the Tandem Van de Graaff/Booster/AGS complex. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 24 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Chromosomal instability induced by heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limoli, C. L.; Ponnaiya, B.; Corcoran, J. J.; Giedzinski, E.; Morgan, W. F.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish the dose-response relationship for the induction of chromosomal instability in GM10115 cells exposed to high-energy iron ions (1 GeV/nucleon, mean LET 146 keV/microm) and gold ions (11 GeV/nucleon, mean LET 1450 keV/microm). Past work has established that sparsely ionizing X-rays can induce a long-lived destabilization of chromosomes in a dose-dependent manner at an incidence of approximately 3% per gray. The present investigation assesses the capacity of High-Z and High-energy (HZE) particles to elicit this same endpoint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clonal populations derived from single progenitor cells surviving heavy-ion irradiation were analyzed cytogenetically to identify those clones showing a persistent destablization of chromosomes. RESULTS: Dose-response data, with a particular emphasis at low dose (< 1.0 Gy), indicate a frequency of approximately 4% per gray for the induction of chromosomal instability in clones derived from single progenitor cells surviving exposure to iron ions. The induction of chromosomal instability by gold ions was, however, less responsive to applied dose, as the observed incidence of this phenotype varied from 0 to 10% over 1-8 Gy. Both iron and gold ions gave dose-dependent increases in the yield of chromosomal aberrations (both chromosome- and chromatid-type) measured at the first mitosis following irradiation, as well as shoulderless survival curves having D0=0.87 and 1.1 Gy respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present dose-response data, the relative biological effectiveness of iron ions is 1.3 for the induction of chromosomal instability, and this indicates that heavy ions are only slightly more efficient than X-rays at eliciting this delayed phenotype.

  11. Heavy ion fragmentation experiments at the bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1976-01-01

    Collaborative research efforts to study the fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using heavy ion beams of the Bevatron/Bevalac are described. The goal of the program is to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Effects were also made to: (a) study processes of heavy nuclei in matter, (b) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (c) test the applicability of high energy multiparticle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (d) apply the cross section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (e) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross-sections.

  12. Heavy ions in space (M0001)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Slberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    The ojectives are to investigate three components of heavy nuclei in space: (1) a recently observed anomalous component of low-energy nuclei of N, O, and Ne; (2) the heavy nuclei in the Van Allen radiation belts; and (3) the UH nuclei (Z 30) of the galactic radiation. The study of the anomalous flux of N, O, and Ne nuclei in the unexplored energy region above 100 MeV/u is expected to provide new insights into the source of this component. Its observation in this experiment will confirm that these ions are singly charged. Knowledge of the energy spectra of the heavy nuclei observed in the Van Allen belts is expected to enhance the understanding of the origin of the belts (e.g., injection and local acceleration pocesses). The observation of these heavy ions could show, for the first time, that low-energy particles of extraterrestrial origin can diffuse to the innermost parts of the magnetosphere. Measurements of the UH component are expected to contribute information concerning its source, interstellar propagation, and the galactic storage time.

  13. Femtoscopy in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa, M; Pratt, S; Soltz, R A; Wiedemann, U

    2005-07-29

    Analyses of two-particle correlations have provided the chief means for determining spatio-temporal characteristics of relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss the theoretical formalism behind these studies and the experimental methods used in carrying them out. Recent results from RHIC are put into context in a systematic review of correlation measurements performed over the past two decades. The current understanding of these results are discussed in terms of model comparisons and overall trends.

  14. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility: Users handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Auble, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this handbook is to provide information for those who plan to carry out research programs at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator systems and experimental apparatus available are described. The mechanism for obtaining accelerator time and the responsibilities of those users who are granted accelerator time are described. The names and phone numbers of ORNL personnel to call for information about specific areas are given. (LEW)

  15. Dispersed fluorescence spectrometry from the VIS to VUV spectral range for experiments at heavy-ion storage facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiß, Philipp; Schmidt, Philipp; Ozga, Christian; Knie, André; Ehresmann, Arno

    2015-11-01

    For the electronic- and charge-state specific determination of VUV-VIS fluorescence emission cross sections after collisions between heavy ions and neutral gases or electrons a fluorescence spectrometer for the VUV-VIS spectral range is planned. Tentative experiments showed that signal rates after collisions between Xe atoms and {{Xe}}54+ ions are high enough to allow efficient experiments.

  16. Dynamic multiplexed analysis method using ion mobility spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, Mikhail E

    2010-05-18

    A method for multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer in which the effectiveness and efficiency of the multiplexed method is optimized by automatically adjusting rates of passage of analyte materials through an IMS drift tube during operation of the system. This automatic adjustment is performed by the IMS instrument itself after determining the appropriate levels of adjustment according to the method of the present invention. In one example, the adjustment of the rates of passage for these materials is determined by quantifying the total number of analyte molecules delivered to the ion trap in a preselected period of time, comparing this number to the charge capacity of the ion trap, selecting a gate opening sequence; and implementing the selected gate opening sequence to obtain a preselected rate of analytes within said IMS drift tube.

  17. Loss of atomic oxygen in mass spectrometer ion sources.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, L. R.; Nier, A. O.

    1973-01-01

    A gas beam consisting of a mixture of atomic and molecular oxygen has been directed at the ion source of a mass spectrometer like those used in sounding rockets for determining the neutral composition of the lower thermosphere. The loss of atomic oxygen on mass spectrometer surfaces was evaluated by flagging the beam in several ways and comparing the experimental results with predicted values. The results obtained suggest that in rocket flights using similar instruments the atomic oxygen densities computed assuming no-loss conditions may be low by a factor of 2.5. Studies made using a beam containing tracer O-18 indicate that carbon dioxide observed when atomic oxygen enters the source is formed in a reaction involving atomic oxygen from the beam and carbon monoxide from the surfaces bombarded.

  18. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.

    2005-06-23

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  19. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P; Covo, Kireeff M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.; Prost, L.

    2004-11-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  20. Miniature Ion Optics Towards a Micro Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Ashish

    This PhD dissertation reports the development of miniature ion optics components of a mass spectrometer (MS) with the ultimate goal to lay the foundation for a compact low-power micromachined MS (microMS) for broad-range chemical analysis. Miniaturization of two specific components a) RF ion traps and b) an ion funnel have been investigated and miniature low-power versions of these components have been developed and demonstrated successfully in lab experiments. Power savings, simpler electronics and packaging schemes required to operate the micro-scale RF cylindrical ion traps have been the key motivation driving this research. Microfabricated cylindrical ion traps (microCITs) and arrays in silicon, silicon-on-insulator and stainless steel substrates have been demonstrated and average power of as low as 55 mW for a low mass range (28 to 136 amu) and mass spectra with better than a unit-mass-resolution have been recorded. For the ion funnel miniaturization effort, simple assembly, small form factor and ease of integration have been emphasized. A simplification of the conventional 3D ion funnel design, called the planar ion funnel, has been developed in a single plate and has been tested to demonstrate ion funneling at medium vacuum levels (1E-5 Torr) using DC voltages and power less than 0.5 W. Miniaturization of these components also enables use of other novel ion optics components, packaging and integration, which will allow a new class of microMS architectures amenable for radical miniaturization.

  1. Genetic effects on heavy ions in drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kale, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal mutation test was used to study the dose response relation and relative biological effectiveness of heavy ions. The experiments were performed using the heavy ion beams at BEVALAC of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. These experiments were undertaken according to the proposed milestones and included Ne-20, A-40 and Fe-65 ions with respective energies of 600 MeV, 840 MeV and 850 MeV. At these energies several doses of these radiations ranging from 20 to 1280 R were used. Space radiation exposure to astronauts is supposed to be quite low and therefore very low dose experiments i.e., 20 R, were also performed for the three ions. The mutation response was measured in all germ cell types i.e., spermatozoa, spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatogonia of treated Drosophila males. A linear dose frequency relation was observed for most of the range except at high doses where the saturation effect was observed. Also, a very significant difference was observed among the sensitivity of the four germ cell stages where spermatozoa and spermatids were more sensitive. At the higher doses of this range, most of the spermatogonia and spermatocytes were killed. Although comparative and identical experiments with X-rays or neutrons have not been performed, the compassion of our data with the ones available in literature suggest that the heavy ions have a high rbe and that they are several times more effective than low LET X-rays. The rbe compared to neutrons however appears to be only slightly higher.

  2. Charge state and stopping dynamics of fast heavy ions in dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Rosmej, O. N.; Blazevic, A.; Korostiy, S.; Bock, R.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Pikuz, S. A. Jr.; Efremov, V. P.; Fortov, V. E.; Fertman, A.; Mutin, T.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.

    2005-11-15

    K-shell radiation of fast heavy ions penetrating solid matter was used to analyze the stopping dynamics of ions over more than 80% of the stopping path. The most important advantage of this method is that the data is obtained with a high spatial resolution directly from the interaction volume. In experiments 11.4 MeV/u Ca projectile were slowed down in solid quartz and low-density SiO{sub 2} aerogel targets. Characteristic projectile and target spectra in the photon energy range of 1.5-4 keV were registered by means of spherically bent crystal spectrometers with high spectral and spatial resolution in the direction of the ion beam propagation. K-shell spectra of heavy ions induced by close collisions with target atoms provided information about the projectile charge state and velocity dynamics. The line intensity distribution of the K-shell transitions arising from ions with different ion charges represents the charge state distribution along the ion beam track. The variation of the line Doppler shift due to the ion deceleration in the target material was used to determine the ion velocity dynamics. The spectroscopic analysis of the stopping process was complemented by measurements of the energy loss and ion charge state distribution after the ion beam emerged from the target using a standard time-of-flight method and magnet spectrometer.

  3. Heavy Flavor Physics in Heavy-Ion Collisions with STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yifei

    2010-02-01

    Heavy quarks are a unique tool to probe the strongly interacting matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. Due to their large mass, energetic heavy quarks are predicted to lose less energy than light quarks by gluon radiation when they traverse a Quark-Gluon Plasma. In contrast, recent measurements of non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays at high transverse momentum (pT) show a jet quenching level similar to that of the light hadrons. Heavy quark are produced mainly at early stage in heavy-ion collisions, thus they are proposed to probe the QCD medium and to be sensitive to bulk medium properties. Ultimately, their flow behavior may help establish whether light quarks thermalize. Therefore, topological reconstruction of D-mesons and identification of electrons from charm and bottom decays are crucial to understand the heavy flavor production and their in medium properties. The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a micro-vertex detector utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precise measurement of charmed and bottom hadrons. We present a performance study with full detector on the open charm nuclear modification factor, elliptic flow v2 and λc measurement as well as the measurement of bottom mesons via a semi-leptonic decay. )

  4. Solar Wind Compositional Variability and the Need for an Ultra-High Temporal Resolution Mass Spectrometer: Introduction to the Helical Ion Path Spectrometer (HIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Sheldon, R. D.; Hamilton, D. C.

    2005-05-01

    Solar wind composition measurements serve as an indicator of the sub-coronal and coronal processes responsible for the formation of these heliospheric features. While current state-of-the-art instrumentation have identified temporal variations in solar wind/CME composition on the order of 10's of minutes, these detections have occurred during relatively quiescent periods when temporal variations of the collective solar wind (including magnetic field variations) occur over periods in excess of the current minimum instrumental duty cycle of 5-minutes. Consequently, the compositional markers of the microphysics responsible for the formation of highly variable solar wind flows and for CME/prominence formation remain overlooked. The development of a novel ultra-high temporal resolution ion mass spectrometer utilizing a helical ion path time-of-flight (TOF) system within a compact, low-mass, low-power instrument has been undertaken in order to address the need for temporally enhanced solar wind composition measurements. The Helical Ion Path Spectrometer (HIPS) is designed specifically to measure solar wind heavy ion plasma from 3He+2 ≤ M/q ≤ Fe+6 and 0.6-20.0 keV/q with an order of magnitude greater geometric factor than current solar wind ion mass spectrometers, and produce 1-10 ms mass spectra with a mass resolution of M/ΔM ~ 200 or greater, all within a duty cycle of ≤ 90-s. The temporal resolution of HIPS is sufficient to probe solar wind and CME spatial/temporal dimensions down to an ion gyroradius in solar wind flow boundaries at 1 AU. We present evidence supporting the need for greater temporal resolution solar wind composition measurement through an overview of solar wind mass spectroscopy results to date, and an introduction to the HIPS mass spectrometer instrument concept.

  5. Observations of solar wind stream with high abundance of heavy ions and relation with coronal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastenker, G. N.; Yermolaev, Yu. I.

    1981-11-01

    Long intervals, during which heavy ions were detected in the high energy tail of the energy spectra of solar wind ions, were recorded by the plasma spectrometer SCS onboard the Prognoz-7 satellite. In particular, such a region with unusual features - low velocity, high density, low temperature of protons and, especially, low temperature of alpha-particles - was observed during 10-13 December 1978. The time dependence of these parameters makes it possible to recognize this event as 'noncompressive density enhancement'. In this region heavy ions such as O(6+), O(7+), Si(7+), Si(8+), Si(9+) and a group of iron from Fe(6+) to Fe(13+) were identified by the electrostatic analyzer. The abundance of these ions relative to protons was about ten times higher than had previously been observed. The coronal temperature, estimated from the ratios of the ion fluxes with different ionization states, is higher than that estimated earlier for the oxygen ions.

  6. Continuous time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Feldman, William C.

    2004-10-19

    A continuous time-of-flight mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating an electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the electric field. A source of continuous ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between arrival of a secondary electron out of said ionized atoms or molecules at a first predetermined location and arrival of a sample ion out of said ionized atoms or molecules at a second predetermined location.

  7. Calibrating the DARHT Electron Spectrometer with Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect

    R. Trainham , A. P. Tipton , and R. R. Bartech

    2005-11-01

    Negative ions of hydrogen and oxygen have been used to calibrate the DARHT electron spectrometer over the momentum range of 2 to 20 MeV/c. The calibration was performed on September 1, 3, and 8, 2004, and it is good to 0.5% absolute, provided that instrument alignment is carefully controlled. The momentum in MeV/c as a function of magnetic field (B in Gauss) and position in the detector plane (X in mm) is: P = (B-6.28)/(108.404-0.1935*X)

  8. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design of a collider capable of accelerating and colliding heavy ions and to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 2 /times/ 10/sup 26/ cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ at an energy per nucleon of 100 GeV in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Heavy ion physics at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.

    2004-08-15

    The ion-ion center of mass energies at the LHC will exceed that at RHIC by nearly a factor of 30, providing exciting opportunities for addressing unique physics issues in a completely new energy domain. Some highlights of this new physics domain are presented here. We briefly describe how these collisions will provide new insights into the high density, low momentum gluon content of the nucleus expected to dominate the dynamics of the early state of the system. We then discuss how the dense initial state of the nucleus affects the lifetime and temperature of the produced system. Finally, we explain how the high energy domain of the LHC allows abundant production of ''rare'' processes, hard probes calculable in perturbative quantum chromodynamics, QCD. At the LHC, high momentum jets and b{bar b} bound states, the {Upsilon} family, will be produced with high statistics for the first time in heavy ion collisions.

  10. HISTRAP proposal: heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Hudson, E.D.; Johnson, J.W.; Lee, I.Y.; Lord, R.S.

    1986-11-01

    HISTRAP, Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics, is a proposed 46.8-m-circumference synchrotron-cooling-storage ring optimized to accelerate, decelerate, and store beams of highly charged very-heavy ions at energies appropriate for advanced atomic physics research. The ring is designed to allow studies of electron-ion, photon-ion, ion-atom, and ion-ion interactions. An electron cooling system will provide ion beams with small angular divergence and energy spread for precision spectroscopic studies and also is necessary to allow the deceleration of heavy ions to low energies. HISTRAP will have a maximum bending power of 2.0 Tm and will be injected with ions from either the existing Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility 25-MV tandem accelerator or from a dedicated ECR source and 250 keV/nucleon RFQ linac.

  11. A novel electrospray-based ion mobility spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathgate, Ben; Cheong, Eric C. S.; Backhouse, Christopher J.

    2004-08-01

    We present a design for a low-cost ion mobility spectrometer that can be built using the equipment on hand in many electronics-oriented undergraduate laboratories. The construction of this system is based upon the use of printed circuit boards and does not require the specialized drift and sheath gases, vacuum pumps, heater assemblies, high voltage pulsers, or precision pumps that are characteristic of the systems generally reported in the literature. We demonstrate the system in the separation of ions of methanol and water in air. Despite the low cost of this system it has a performance comparable to more complex systems, with a sensitivity of approximately 100 ppm for the protein cytochrome c. This system is suitable for use as an electronics or signal-processing project, or even a biotechnology demonstration.

  12. Identifying Multiquark Hadrons from Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Yazaki, Koichi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Akira; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2011-05-27

    Identifying hadronic molecular states and/or hadrons with multiquark components either with or without exotic quantum numbers is a long-standing challenge in hadronic physics. We suggest that studying the production of these hadrons in relativistic heavy ion collisions offers a promising resolution to this problem as yields of exotic hadrons are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model for hadron production, we find that, compared to the case of a nonexotic hadron with normal quark numbers, the yield of an exotic hadron is typically an order of magnitude smaller when it is a compact multiquark state and a factor of 2 or more larger when it is a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured in these experiments.

  13. Composition Of The Inner Source Measured With The Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer On Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.; Geiss, J.

    2010-03-25

    To explain the unexpected discovery of C{sup +}, the existence of an inner source of pickup ions close to the Sun was proposed. We report on detailed analyses of the composition and the radial and latitudinal variations of inner source pickup ions measured with the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on Ulysses from 1991 to 1998, approaching and during solar minimum. We find that the C{sup +} intensity drops off with radial distance R as R{sup -1.53}, peaks at mid latitudes and drops to its lowest value in the ecliptic. In addition to C{sup +}, N{sup +}, O{sup +}, Ne{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, S{sup +}, K{sup +}, CH{sup +}, NH{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, MgH{sup +}, HCN{sup +}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup +}, SO{sup +} and many other heavy ions and molecular ions are observed. Possible causes for the unexpected latitudinal variations and the neutral source(s) producing the inner source pickup ions are discussed.

  14. Heavy flavor in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Song, T.; Berrehrah, H.; Cabrera, D.; Torres-Rincon, J. M.; Tolos, L.; Cassing, W.

    2016-01-01

    We study charm production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions by using the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach. The initial charm quarks are produced by the PYTHIA event generator tuned to fit the transverse momentum spectrum and rapidity distribution of charm quarks from Fixed-Order Next-to-Leading Logarithm (FONLL) calculations. The produced charm quarks scatter in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with the off-shell partons whose masses and widths are given by the Dynamical Quasi-Particle Model (DQPM), which reproduces the lattice QCD equation-of-state in thermal equilibrium. The relevant cross sections are calculated in a consistent way by employing the effective propagators and couplings from the DQPM. Close to the critical energy density of the phase transition, the charm quarks are hadronized into D mesons through coalescence and/or fragmentation. The hadronized D mesons then interact with the various hadrons in the hadronic phase with cross sections calculated in an effective lagrangian approach with heavy-quark spin symmetry. The nuclear modification factor Raa and the elliptic flow v2 of D0 mesons from PHSD are compared with the experimental data from the STAR Collaboration for Au+Au collisions at √sNN =200 GeV and to the ALICE data, for Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN =2.76 TeV. We find that in the PHSD the energy loss of D mesons at high pT can be dominantly attributed to partonic scattering while the actual shape of RAA versus pT reflects the heavy-quark hadronization scenario, i.e. coalescence versus fragmentation. Also the hadronic rescattering is important for the Raa at low pT and enhances the D-meson elliptic flow v2.

  15. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2015-01-19

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass accuracy and resolving power.[1],[2] With electrospray ionization (ESI), ions are typically transferred into the mass spectrometer through a skimmer, which serves as a conductance-limiting orifice. However, the skimmer allows only a small fraction of incoming ions to enter the mass spectrometer. An ion funnel, originally developed by Smith and coworkers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)[3-5] provides much more efficient ion focusing and transfer. The large entrance aperture of the ion funnel allows almost all ions emanating from a heated capillary to be efficiently captured and transferred, resulting inmore » nearly lossless transmission.« less

  16. Positron production in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ATLAS Positron Experiment APEX was built to study positron emission in collisions between very heavy ions. Narrow peaks were observed in such collisions at GSI, Darmstadt in the spectra of positrons and in the sum-energy spectra of electron-positron coincidences. APEX is a second-generation experiment which was specifically designed to look for the coincidence events and measure the opening angle between electrons and positrons. The first beam-induced positrons were detected using APEX in March 1993, and since then three additional runs were carried out. The first results for the collision system {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta show no evidence for sharp peaks in the electron-positron sum-energy spectrum. The current emphasis in this work is to obtain a complete understanding of the APEX apparatus. The atomic group is studying events involving coincidences between heavy ions and electrons. Since APEX measures the laboratory angles and energies of both electrons and heavy ions, it is possible to make an event-by-event Doppler correction of the electron spectra. These Doppler-corrected spectra show a number of lines which are attributed to conversion electrons which are emitted when a nuclear excited state decays by ejecting an inner-shell electron. The study of these spectra provide an important confirmation of the proper functioning of APEX. We are particularly concerned with the atomic physics aspects of this process. In order to understand the electron spectra, it is necessary to account for the change in binding energy of the inner-shell electrons as a function of ionic charge. We are utilizing the GRASP relativistic atomic structure program to calculate the binding energies. This information, together with the measured gamma-ray energies, allows us to calculate the expected energies of the conversion electrons which we can then compare with the observed Doppler-corrected conversion electron energies.

  17. Economic aspects of heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The usual parameter space for examining scenarios for heavy ion fusion power plants has generally been based on large, slow cycling, reactor chambers which are only marginally different from chambers proposed for laser drivers. This paper will examine the economic implications of assuming that an inexpensive, low gain pellet is available and that a suitable high-repetition rate reactor has been devised. Interesting scenarios are found that generate economically feasible power from a system with a minimum net capacity of approx. 1 GWe compared to the larger approx. 4 GWe required in previous studies.

  18. Vorticity in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei-Tian; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-06-01

    We study the event-by-event generation of flow vorticity in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Au +Au collisions and CERN Large Hadron Collider Pb +Pb collisions by using the hijing model. Different definitions of the vorticity field and velocity field are considered. A variety of properties of the vorticity are explored, including the impact parameter dependence, the collision energy dependence, the spatial distribution, the event-by-event fluctuation of the magnitude and azimuthal direction, and the time evolution. In addition, the spatial distribution of the flow helicity is also studied.

  19. Nonrelativistic theory of heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsch, G.

    1984-07-17

    A wide range of phenomena is observed in heavy-ion collisions, calling for a comprehensive theory based on fundamental principles of many-particle quantum mechanics. At low energies, the nuclear dynamics is controlled by the mean field, as we know from spectroscopic nuclear physics. We therefore expect the comprehensive theory of collisions to contain mean-field theory at low energies. The mean-field theory is the subject of the first lectures in this chapter. This theory can be studied quantum mechanically, in which form it is called TDHF (time-dependent Hartree-Fock), or classically, where the equation is called the Vlasov equation. 25 references, 14 figures.

  20. Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetta, E.

    2014-01-14

    The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.

  1. Heavy Ion Radiation Effects Studies With Ion Photon Emission Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Branson, J. V.; Hattar, K.; Vizkelethy, G.; Powell, C. J.; Doyle, B. L.; Rossi, P.

    2011-06-01

    The development of a new radiation effects microscopy (REM) technique is crucial as emerging semiconductor technologies demonstrate smaller feature sizes and thicker back end of line (BEOL) layers. To penetrate these materials and still deposit sufficient energy into the device to induce single event effects, high energy heavy ions are required. Ion photon emission microscopy (IPEM) is a technique that utilizes coincident photons, which are emitted from the location of each ion impact to map out regions of radiation sensitivity in integrated circuits and devices, circumventing the obstacle of focusing high-energy heavy ions. Several versions of the IPEM have been developed and implemented at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). One such instrument has been utilized on the microbeam line of the 6 MV tandem accelerator at SNL. Another IPEM was designed for ex-vacu use at the 88'' cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Extensive engineering is involved in the development of these IPEM systems, including resolving issues with electronics, event timing, optics, phosphor selection, and mechanics. The various versions of the IPEM and the obstacles, as well as benefits associated with each will be presented. In addition, the current stage of IPEM development as a user instrument will be discussed in the context of recent results.

  2. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E; Kaiser, Nathan K; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Norheim, Randolph V; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Marshall, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Enhancements to the ion source and transfer optics of our 9.4 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometer have resulted in improved ion transmission efficiency for more sensitive mass measurement of complex mixtures at the MS and MS/MS levels. The tube lens/skimmer has been replaced by a dual ion funnel and the following octopole by a quadrupole for reduced ion cloud radial expansion before transmission into a mass-selective quadrupole. The number of ions that reach the ICR cell is increased by an order of magnitude for the funnel/quadrupole relative to the tube lens/skimmer/octopole. PMID:25601704

  3. Focal-surface detector for heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, John R.; Braid, Thomas H.; Stoltzfus, Joseph C.

    1979-01-01

    A detector of the properties of individual charged particles in a beam includes a gridded ionization chamber, a cathode, a plurality of resistive-wire proportional counters, a plurality of anode sections, and means for controlling the composition and pressure of gas in the chamber. Signals generated in response to the passage of charged particles can be processed to identify the energy of the particles, their loss of energy per unit distance in an absorber, and their angle of incidence. In conjunction with a magnetic spectrograph, the signals can be used to identify particles and their state of charge. The detector is especially useful for analyzing beams of heavy ions, defined as ions of atomic mass greater than 10 atomic mass units.

  4. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  5. Heavy Ion Reaction Modeling for Hadrontherapy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Enghardt, W.; Gadioli, E.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.; Sommerer, F.

    2007-10-26

    A comprehensive and reliable description of nucleus-nucleus interactions represents a crucial need in different interdisciplinary fields. In particular, hadrontherapy monitoring by means of in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) requires, in addition to measuring, the capability of calculating the activity of {beta}{sup +}-decaying nuclei produced in the irradiated tissue. For this purpose, in view of treatment monitoring at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy (HIT) facility, the transport and interaction Monte Carlo code FLUKA is a promising candidate. It is provided with the description of heavy ion reactions at intermediate and low energies by two specific event generators. In-beam PET experiments performed at GSI for a few beam-target combinations have been simulated and first comparisons between the measured and calculated {beta}{sup +}-activity are available.

  6. Theoretical overview: Light ion lessons, heavy ion hopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments using light ion beams of atomic masses A [approximately] 30 have been underway since 1986 at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS at the respective energies [radical]s [approximately] 5 A GeV and 20 A GeV. The first truly heavy ion runs with a gold beam began this spring at the AGS. In this talk I will survey our progress towards an understanding of nuclear collision dynamics, focusing on those issues that are relevant to Au+Au at the AGS. In view of what we have already learned from the light ion data, I will argue that the prospects for producing matter at extreme density in these experiments are excellent.

  7. Theoretical overview: Light ion lessons, heavy ion hopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.

    1992-12-31

    Experiments using light ion beams of atomic masses A {approximately} 30 have been underway since 1986 at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS at the respective energies {radical}s {approximately} 5 A GeV and 20 A GeV. The first truly heavy ion runs with a gold beam began this spring at the AGS. In this talk I will survey our progress towards an understanding of nuclear collision dynamics, focusing on those issues that are relevant to Au+Au at the AGS. In view of what we have already learned from the light ion data, I will argue that the prospects for producing matter at extreme density in these experiments are excellent.

  8. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    SciTech Connect

    Soerensen, Allan H.

    2010-02-15

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact ('ultraperipheral collisions'). Requirement of coherent action of the nucleons in order to keep the penetrating projectile intact limits bremsstrahlung to relatively soft photons. The spectrum shows a resonance structure with peak position near 2{gamma} times the position of the giant dipole resonance, that is, near 25{gamma} MeV for a lead ion ({gamma}{identical_to}E/Mc{sup 2} is the Lorentz factor of the projectile of energy E and mass M). The maximum exceeds the bremsstrahlung from a hypothetical structureless, pointlike particle of the same charge and mass as the incoming nucleus, but rapid depletion follows on the high-energy side of the peak. As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions. In collisions with nuclear contact, though, substantial radiation is emitted. It overshoots the bremsstrahlung. However, despite the violence of contact events, the associated photon emission only exceeds the radiation from a hypothetical structureless pointlike nucleus [emitted energy per unit photon-energy interval essentially constant up to ({gamma}-1)Mc{sup 2}] at relatively low photon energies (for lead roughly below 0.2{gamma} GeV, a limit which is about an order of magnitude above the position of the bremsstrahlung peak). Results are presented for bare lead ions penetrating a solid lead target at energies of 158 GeV/n ({gamma}=170) and beyond.

  9. Experimental atomic physics in heavy-ion storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.; Andersen, L.H.; Briand, J.P.; Liesen, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines the discussion which took place at the ''round table'' on experimental atomic physics in heavy-ion storage rings. Areas of discussion are: electron-ion interactions, ion-ion collisions, precision spectroscopy of highly charged ions, beta decay into bound final states, and atomic binding energies from spectroscopy of conversion elections. 18 refs., 1 tab. (LSP)

  10. Heavy Ion Formation in Titan's Ionosphere: Magnetospheric Introduction of Free Oxygen and Source of Titan's Aerosols?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Johnson, R. E.; Coates, A.; dePater, imke; Strom, Daphne; Simoes, F.; Steele, A.; Robb, F.

    2007-01-01

    With the recent discovery of heavy ions, positive and negative, by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument in Titan's ionosphere, it reveals new possibilities for aerosol formation at Titan and the introduction of free oxygen to the aerosol chemistry from Saturn's magnetosphere with Enceladus as the primary oxygen source. One can estimate whether the heavy ions in the ionosphere are of sufficient number to account for all the aerosols, under what conditions are favorable for heavy ion formation and how they are introduced as seed particles deeper in Titan's atmosphere where the aerosols form and eventually find themselves on Titan's surface where unknown chemical processes can take place. Finally, what are the possibilities with regard to their chemistry on the surface with some free oxygen present in their seed particles?

  11. Quantum Electrodynamics Effects in Heavy Ions and Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Shabaev, V. M.; Andreev, O. V.; Bondarev, A. I.; Glazov, D. A.; Kozhedub, Y. S.; Maiorova, A. V.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Plunien, G.; Volotka, A. V.

    2011-05-11

    Quantum electrodynamics theory of heavy ions and atoms is considered. The current status of calculations of the binding energies, the hyperfine splitting and g factor values in heavy few-electron ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions are compared with available experimental data. A special attention is focused on tests of quantum electrodynamics in strong electromagnetic fields and on determination of the fundamental constants. Recent progress in calculations of the parity nonconservation effects with heavy atoms and ions is also reported.

  12. SCAPS, a two-dimensional ion detector for mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2014-05-01

    Faraday Cup (FC) and electron multiplier (EM) are of the most popular ion detector for mass spectrometer. FC is used for high-count-rate ion measurements and EM can detect from single ion. However, FC is difficult to detect lower intensities less than kilo-cps, and EM loses ion counts higher than Mega-cps. Thus, FC and EM are used complementary each other, but they both belong to zero-dimensional detector. On the other hand, micro channel plate (MCP) is a popular ion signal amplifier with two-dimensional capability, but additional detection system must be attached to detect the amplified signals. Two-dimensional readout for the MCP signals, however, have not achieve the level of FC and EM systems. A stacked CMOS active pixel sensor (SCAPS) has been developed to detect two-dimensional ion variations for a spatial area using semiconductor technology [1-8]. The SCAPS is an integrated type multi-detector, which is different from EM and FC, and is composed of more than 500×500 pixels (micro-detectors) for imaging of cm-area with a pixel of less than 20 µm in square. The SCAPS can be detected from single ion to 100 kilo-count ions per one pixel. Thus, SCAPS can be accumulated up to several giga-count ions for total pixels, i.e. for total imaging area. The SCAPS has been applied to stigmatic ion optics of secondary ion mass spectrometer, as a detector of isotope microscope [9]. The isotope microscope has capabilities of quantitative isotope images of hundred-micrometer area on a sample with sub-micrometer resolution and permil precision, and of two-dimensional mass spectrum on cm-scale of mass dispersion plane of a sector magnet with ten-micrometer resolution. The performance has been applied to two-dimensional isotope spatial distribution for mainly hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen of natural (extra-terrestrial and terrestrial) samples and samples simulated natural processes [e.g. 10-17]. References: [1] Matsumoto, K., et al. (1993) IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40

  13. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.; Amirtayev, K. G.; Tokarova, B.; Bonev, M.

    The peculiarities and mechanisms of the mutagenic action of γ-rays and heavy ions on bacterial cells have been investigated. Direct mutations in the lac-operon of E. coli in wild type cells and repair deficient strains have been detected. Furthermore, the induction of revertants in Salmonella tester strains was measured. It was found that the mutation rate was a linear-quadratic function of dose in the case of both γ-rays and heavy ions with LET up to 200 keV/μm. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) increased with LET up to 20 keV/μm. Low mutation rates were observed in repair deficient mutants with a block of SOS-induction. The induction of SOS-repair by ionizing radiation has been investigated by means of the ``SOS-chromotest'' and λ-prophage induction. It was shown that the intensity of the SOS-induction in E. coli increased with increasing LET up to 40-60 keV/μm.

  14. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  15. Hydrodynamic approaches in relativistic heavy ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derradi de Souza, R.; Koide, T.; Kodama, T.

    2016-01-01

    We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation to the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to be answered to clarify the physics of collective phenomena in the relativistic heavy ion collisions are pointed out.

  16. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-α) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  17. Constraining relativistic models through heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, D. P.; Providencia, C.; Chiapparini, M.; Bracco, M. E.; Delfino, A.; Malheiro, M.

    2007-12-15

    Relativistic models can be successfully applied to the description of compact star properties in nuclear astrophysics as well as to nuclear matter and finite nuclei properties, these studies taking place at low and moderate temperatures. Nevertheless, all results are model dependent, and so far it is unclear whether some of them should be discarded. Moreover, in the regime of hot hadronic matter, very few calculations exist using these relativistic models, in particular when applied to particle yields in heavy ion collisions. A very important investigation is the simulation of a supernova explosion that is based on the construction of an adequate equation of state that needs to be valid within very large ranges of temperatures (0 to 100 MeV at least) and densities (very low to ten times the nuclear saturation density at least). In the present work, we comment on the known constraints that can help the selection of adequate models in this wide regime and investigate the main differences that arise when the particle production during a Au+Au collision at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is calculated with different relativistic models. We conclude that most of the models investigated in the present work give a very good overall description of the data and make predictions for not yet measured particle ratios.

  18. Characterization of the Ion Beam Focusing in a Mass Spectrometer using an IonCCD™ Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Grant E.; Hadjar, Omar; Laskin, Julia

    2011-07-26

    A position sensitive pixel-based detector array, referred to as the IonCCDTM, has been employed to characterize the ion optics and ion beam focusing in a custom built mass spectrometer designed for soft and reactive landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces. The IonCCDTM was placed at several stages along the path of the ion beam to determine the focusing capabilities of the various ion optics which include an electrodynamic ion funnel, two radiofrequency (RF) only collision quadrupoles, a mass resolving quadrupole, a quadrupole bender, and two Einzel lens assemblies. The focusing capabilities of the RF-only collision quadrupoles and Einzel lenses are demonstrated by large decreases in the diameter of the ion beam. In contrast, the mass resolving quadrupole is shown to significantly defocus the mass-selected ion beam resulting in an expansion of the measured ion beam diameter. Combined with SIMION simulations we demonstrate that the IonCCDTM can identify minor errors in the alignment of charged-particle optics that result in erratic trajectories and significant deflections of the ion beam.. This information can be used to improve the design assembly and maintenance of custom-built mass spectrometry instrumentation.

  19. Characterization of the ion beam focusing in a mass spectrometer using an IonCCD™ detector.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Grant E; Hadjar, Omar; Laskin, Julia

    2011-08-01

    A position sensitive pixel-based detector array, referred to as the IonCCD, has been employed to characterize the ion optics and ion beam focusing in a custom built mass spectrometer designed for soft and reactive landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces. The IonCCD was placed at several stages along the path of the ion beam to determine the focusing capabilities of the various ion optics, which include an electrodynamic ion funnel, two radiofrequency (rf)-only collision quadrupoles, a mass resolving quadrupole, a quadrupole bender, and two einzel lens assemblies. The focusing capabilities of the rf-only collision quadrupoles and einzel lenses are demonstrated by large decreases in the diameter of the ion beam. In contrast, the mass resolving quadrupole is shown to significantly defocus the mass-selected ion beam resulting in an expansion of the measured ion beam diameter. Combined with SIMION simulations, we demonstrate that the IonCCD can identify minor errors in the alignment of charged-particle optics that result in erratic trajectories and significant deflections of the ion beam. This information may be used to facilitate the design, assembly, and maintenance of custom-built mass spectrometry instrumentation. PMID:21953193

  20. Deep Space 1 Encounter With Comet Borrelly: Composition Measurements By The Pepe Ion Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Nordholt, J. E.; Wiens, R. C.; Gary, S. P.; Steinberg, J. T.; Pepe Ion Mass Spectrometer Team

    On 22 September 2001 Deep Space One (DS1) successfully encountered Comet Bor- relly at a distance of closest approach of 2171 km. DS1 is, after Giotto, the second spacecraft bearing an ion-mass-resolving instrument to explore the plasma environ- ment of a comet. This mass spectrometer, called the Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE), is capable of resolving the energy, angle of incidence, and mass composition of a wide range of solar system plasmas. Our preliminary analysis indi- cates that the predominant heavy ions observed during the seven minute interval about closest approach included approximately 63% OH+, 25% H2O+, and 8% CH3+. The ions O+, H3O+, and CH+ are likely present, but at abundances below clear detection. Because H3O+ is collisionally produced from H2O+, the relative absence of H3O+ measured by PEPE is consistent with the much lower activity of Borrelly compared with Halley, where H3O+ was the dominant ion at closest approach. Preliminary anal- ysis also shows a surprisingly high nitrogen to carbon ratio in this cometary plasma. Another new PEPE observation at Borrelly was the non-symmetric character of the water-group ion count rate, which varied approximately as r-3 over much of the /2 inbound approach, but scaled as r-1 on the outbound leg.

  1. The Compact Muon Solenoid Heavy Ion program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Pablo Yepes

    2005-12-15

    The Pb-Pb center of mass energy at the LHC will exceed that of Au-Au collisions at RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) by nearly a factor of 30, providing exciting opportunities for addressing unique physics issues in a completely new energy domain. The interest of the Heavy Ion (HI) Physics at LHC is discussed in more detail in the LHC-USA white paper and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Heavy Ion proposal. A few highlights are presented in this document. Heavy ion collisions at LHC energies will explore regions of energy and particle density significantly beyond those reachable at RHIC. The energy density of the thermalized matter created at the LHC is estimated to be 20 times higher than at RHIC, implying an initial temperature, which is greater than at RHIC by more than a factor of two. The higher density of produced partons also allows a faster thermalization. As a consequence, the ratio of the quark-gluon plasma lifetime to the thermalization time increases by a factor of 10 over RHIC. Thus the hot, dense systems created in HI collisions at the LHC spend most of the time in a purely partonic state. The longer lifetime of the quark-gluon plasma state widens significantly the time window available to probe it experimentally. RHIC experiments have reported evidence for jet production in HI collisions and for suppression of high p{sub T} particle production. Those results open a new field of exploration of hot and dense nuclear matter. Even though RHIC has already broken ground, the production rates for jets with p{sub T} > 30 GeV are several orders of magnitude larger at the LHC than at RHIC, allowing for systematic studies with high statistics in a clean kinematic region. High p{sub T} quark and gluon jets can be used to study the hot hadronic medium produced in HI interactions. The larger Q{sup 2} causes jets to materialize very soon after the collision. They are thus embedded in and propagate through the dense environment as it forms and evolves. Through

  2. Laser-based studies with an ion-trap mass spectrometer: Ion tomography and analytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. L.; Cisper, M. E.; Hemberger, P. H.; Nogar, N. S.; Williams, J. D.; Syka, J. E. P.

    The iron trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) is an ion storage device which consists of two hyperbolic endcaps and a hyperbolic ring electrode. This forms a trapping cavity having a volume of several cm(sup 3). An RF potential applied to the ring electrode produces a time-varying potential which can be used to trap and/or manipulate ions under controlled conditions. This device has been used in ion trapping studies for a number of years. More recently, a commercial version has been produced and sold which allows for mass-selective ejection of trapped ions, with subsequent detection by an electron multiplier. In this mode, it operates as a compact, high efficiency, high resolution mass spectrometer. The instrument has found applications in GC/MS, in tandem mass spectroscopy and in portable mass spectral analysis. In this manuscript, we present a survey of recent results incorporating laser desorption, ionization, or photodissociation with ITMS. In one instance, we describe the use of laser photodissociation to map the spatial distribution of trapped ions in the ITMS. In this tomographic study, we have parameterized the effects of trapping potential, buffer gas pressure, supplementary RF-potential, and laser intensity. In separate studies, laser desorption was used to generate gas phase ions in the ITMS from a solid probe, by irradiation of both neat and matrix-dissolved samples. The latter experiment produced both high molecular weight ions and significant numbers of negative ions.

  3. Method for selective detection of explosives in mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at parts-per-quadrillion level

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Clowers, Brian H.

    2015-09-01

    A method for selective detection of volatile and non-volatile explosives in a mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at a parts-per-quadrillion level without preconcentration is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of ionizing a carrier gas with an ionization source to form reactant ions or reactant adduct ions comprising nitrate ions (NO.sub.3.sup.-); selectively reacting the reactant ions or reactant adduct ions with at least one volatile or non-volatile explosive analyte at a carrier gas pressure of at least about 100 Ton in a reaction region disposed between the ionization source and an ion detector, the reaction region having a length which provides a residence time (tr) for reactant ions therein of at least about 0.10 seconds, wherein the selective reaction yields product ions comprising reactant ions or reactant adduct ions that are selectively bound to the at least one explosive analyte when present therein; and detecting product ions with the ion detector to determine presence or absence of the at least one explosive analyte.

  4. Development of a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Joseph Ellis

    Because of its potential to be made portable the quadrupole ion trap (QPIT) is a prime candidate for specialized applications such as atmospheric studies, other field measurements, or measurements anywhere a laboratory instrument would be prohibitively inconvenient. To utilize the QPIT in such ways it is necessary to design and construct custom built instruments. A QPIT mass spectrometer was constructed as the foundation for such future development. Two ionization schemes were employed. Direct electron bombardment was used for in situ ion production, and UV photoionization was used to produce ions external to the trap. Calibration measurements determined that the system performed as theory dictated. It was also demonstrated that the system was capable of sampling the atmosphere and detecting the presence of an atmospheric contaminant. Finally, DC bias foils were invented as a novel approach to mass isolation in the trap. The use of DC bias foils was demonstrated to be an exceptionally easy and inexpensive method of controlling the contents of the QPIT.

  5. A compact high resolution electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, T; Kirk, A T; Ahrens, A; Raddatz, C-R; Thoben, C; Zimmermann, S

    2016-04-01

    Electrospray is a commonly used ionization method for the analysis of liquids. An electrospray is a dispersed nebular of charged droplets produced under the influence of a strong electrical field. Subsequently, ions are produced in a complex process initiated by evaporation of neutral solvent molecules from these droplets. We coupled an electrospray ionization source to our previously described high resolution ion mobility spectrometer with 75mm drift tube length and a drift voltage of 5kV. When using a tritium source for chemical gas phase ionization, a resolving power of R=100 was reported for this setup. We replaced the tritium source and the field switching shutter by an electrospray needle, a desolvation region with variable length and a three-grid shutter for injecting ions into the drift region. Preliminary measurements with tetraalkylammonium halides show that the current configuration with the electrospray ionization source maintains the resolving power of R=100. In this work, we present the characterization of our setup. One major advantage of our setup is that the desolvation region can be heated separately from the drift region so that the temperature in the drift region stays at room temperature even up to desolvation region temperatures of 100°C. We perform parametric studies for the investigation of the influence of temperature on solvent evaporation with different ratios of water and methanol in the solvent for different analyte substances. Furthermore, the setup is operated in negative mode and spectra of bentazon with different solvents are presented. PMID:26838374

  6. Ion Mass Spectrometer for Sporadic-E Rocket Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.; Earle, G. D.; Pfaff, Robert

    2000-01-01

    NASA grant NAG5-5086 provided funding for the William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) to design, fabricate, calibrate, and ultimately fly two ion mass spectrometer instruments on a pair of sounding rocket payloads. Drs. R.A. Heelis and G.D. Earle from UTD were co-investigators on the project. The principal investigator for both rocket experiments was Dr. Robert Pfaff of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The overall project title was "Rocket/Radar Investigation of Lower Ionospheric Electrodynamics Associated with Intense Mid-Latitude Sporadic-E Layers". This report describes the overall objectives of the project, summarizes the instrument design and flight experiment details, and presents representative data obtained during the flights.

  7. Light ion mass spectrometer for space-plasma investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Fields, S. A.; Lewter, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Direct satellite measurements and ground-based techniques have given a comprehensive view of the density distribution of the cold plasma population in the earth's magnetosphere. There were, however, no direct measurements of the low-energy plasma mass composition, temperature, density, pitch-angle distribution, or plasma flow velocity. A description is presented of the evolution and development of an instrument, the Light Ion Mass Spectrometer (LIMS), designed to make these low-energy plasma measurements. The instrument was developed for flight on the spacecraft SCA-THA, a satellite to study satellite charging at high altitudes. This satellite, whose primary mission was to study spacecraft-plasma interactions and electrostatic charging, was launched into a near-geosynchronous orbit. The design requirements regarding the instrument are discussed, and attention is given to the calibration procedures, the flight configuration, and some examples of flight data.

  8. Fluorescence imaging for visualization of the ion cloud in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Francis O; Sciuto, Stephen V; Jockusch, Rebecca A

    2013-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used to visualize populations of gaseous ions stored in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Presented images include the first fluorescence image of molecular ions collected under conditions typically used in mass spectrometry experiments. Under these "normal" mass spectrometry conditions, the radial (r) and axial (z) full-width at half maxima (FWHM) of the detected ion cloud are 615 and 214 μm, respectively, corresponding to ~6% of r0 and ~3% of z0 for the QIT used. The effects on the shape and size of the ion cloud caused by varying the pressure of helium bath gas, the number of trapped ions, and the Mathieu parameter q z are visualized and discussed. When a "tickle voltage" is applied to the exit end-cap electrode, as is done in collisionally activated dissociation, a significant elongation in the axial, but not the radial, dimension of the ion cloud is apparent. Finally, using spectroscopically distinguishable fluorophores of two different m/z values, images are presented that illustrate stratification of the ion cloud; ions of lower m/z (higher qz) are located in the center of the trapping region, effectively excluding higher m/z (lower qz) ions, which form a surrounding layer. Fluorescence images such as those presented here provide a useful reference for better understanding the collective behavior of ions in radio frequency (rf) trapping devices and how phenomena such as collisions and space-charge affect ion distribution. PMID:24092629

  9. Fluorescence Imaging for Visualization of the Ion Cloud in a Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Francis O.; Sciuto, Stephen V.; Jockusch, Rebecca A.

    2013-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used to visualize populations of gaseous ions stored in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Presented images include the first fluorescence image of molecular ions collected under conditions typically used in mass spectrometry experiments. Under these "normal" mass spectrometry conditions, the radial ( r) and axial ( z) full-width at half maxima (FWHM) of the detected ion cloud are 615 and 214 μm, respectively, corresponding to ~6 % of r 0 and ~3 % of z 0 for the QIT used. The effects on the shape and size of the ion cloud caused by varying the pressure of helium bath gas, the number of trapped ions, and the Mathieu parameter q z are visualized and discussed. When a "tickle voltage" is applied to the exit end-cap electrode, as is done in collisionally activated dissociation, a significant elongation in the axial, but not the radial, dimension of the ion cloud is apparent. Finally, using spectroscopically distinguishable fluorophores of two different m/ z values, images are presented that illustrate stratification of the ion cloud; ions of lower m/ z (higher q z ) are located in the center of the trapping region, effectively excluding higher m/ z (lower q z ) ions, which form a surrounding layer. Fluorescence images such as those presented here provide a useful reference for better understanding the collective behavior of ions in radio frequency (rf) trapping devices and how phenomena such as collisions and space-charge affect ion distribution.

  10. Improved Ion Optics for Introduction of Ions into a 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancements to the ion source and transfer optics of our 9.4 T FT-ICR mass spectrometer have resulted in improved ion transmission efficiency for more sensitive mass measurement of complex mixtures at the MS and MS/MS levels. The tube lens/skimmer has been replaced by a dual ion funnel and the following octopole by a quadrupole for reduced ion cloud radial expansion before transmission into a mass-selective quadrupole. The number of ions that reach the ICR cell is increased by an order of magnitude for the funnel/quadrupole relative to the tube lens/skimmer/octopole. PMID:25601704

  11. Differential Mobility Spectrometer with Spatial Ion Detector and Methods Related Thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Kanik, Isik (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Differential mobility spectrometer with spatial ion detector and methods related thereto are disclosed. The use of one or more spatial detector within differential mobility spectrometry can provide for the identification and separation of ions with similar mobility and mass.

  12. Development and evaluation of the Combined Ion and Neutron Spectrometer (CINS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Maurer, R.; Roth, D.; Goldsten, J.; Grey, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Combined Ion and Neutron Spectrometer, CINS, is designed to measure the charged and neutral particles that contribute to the radiation dose and dose equivalent received by humans in spaceflight. As the depth of shielding increases, either onboard a spacecraft or in a surface habitat, the relative contribution of neutrons increases significantly, so that obtaining accurate neutron spectra becomes a critical part of any dosimetric measurements. The spectrometer system consists of high- and medium-energy neutron detectors along with a charged-particle detector telescope based on a standard silicon stack concept. The present version of the design is intended for ground-based use at particle accelerators; future iterations of the design can easily be streamlined to reduce volume, mass, and power consumption to create an instrument package suitable for spaceflight. The detector components have been tested separately using high-energy heavy ion beams at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and neutron beams at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility operated by Columbia University. Here, we review the progress made in fabricating the hardware, report the results of several test runs, and discuss the remaining steps necessary to combine the separate components into an integrated system. A custom data acquisition system built for CINS is described in an accompanying article.

  13. A Distributed Radiator, Heavy Ion Target with Realistic Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Debra A.; Tabak, Max

    1997-11-01

    Recent efforts in heavy ion target design have centered around the distributed radiator design of Tabak(M. Tabak, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., Vol 41, No 7, 1996.). The initial distributed radiator target assumed beams with a uniform radial density distribution aimed directly along the z axis. Chamber propagation simulations indicate that the beam distribution is more nearly Gaussian at best focus. In addition, more than two beams will be necessary to carry the required current; this means that the beams must be angled to allow space for the final focusing systems upstream. We will describe our modifications to the distributed radiator target to allow realistic beams and realistic beam angles.

  14. HISTRAP proposal: heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Hudson, E.D.; Johnson, J.W.; Lee, I.Y.; Lord, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    HISTRAP is a proposed synchrotron-cooling-storage ring optimized to accelerate, decelerate, and store beams of highly charged very-heavy ions at energies appropriate for advanced atomic physics research. The ring is designed to allow studies of electron-ion, photon-ion, ion-atom, and ion-ion interactions. An electron cooling system will provide ion beams with small angular divergence and energy spread for precision spectroscopic studies and also is necessary to allow the deceleration of heavy ions to low energies. HISTRAP will be injected with ions from either the existing Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility 25-MV tandem accelerator or from a dedicated ECR source and 250 keV/nucleon RFQ linac. The ring will have a maximum bending power of 2.0 T.m and have a circumference of 46.8 m.

  15. Mass spectra of heavy ions near comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korth, A.; Richter, A. K.; Loidl, A.; Anderson, K. A.; Carlson, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    The heavy-ion analyzer, RPA2-PICCA, aboard the Giotto spacecraft, detected the first cometary ions at a distance of about 1.05 million km from the nucleus of comet Halley. In the inner coma the major ions identified are associated with the H2O, CO and CO2 groups. Ions of larger atomic mass unit are also present, corresponding possibly to various hydrocarbons, heavy metals of the iron-group or to sulphur compounds.

  16. Heavy-ion induced electronic desorption of gas from metals

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Kollmus, H; Mahner, E; Covo, M K; Bellachioma, M C; Bender, M; Bieniosek, F M; Hedlund, E; Kramer, A; Kwan, J; Malyshev, O B; Prost, L; Seidl, P A; Westenskow, G; Westerberg, L

    2006-12-19

    During heavy ion operation in several particle accelerators world-wide, dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were triggered by lost beam ions that bombarded the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced molecular desorption, observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion beam lifetime and intensity of the accelerator. From dedicated test stand experiments we have discovered that heavy-ion induced gas desorption scales with the electronic energy loss (dE{sub e}/d/dx) of the ions slowing down in matter; but it varies only little with the ion impact angle, unlike electronic sputtering.

  17. A synchronous beam sweeper for heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaty, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility at Argonne National Laboratory provides a wide range of accelerated heavy ions from the periodic table. Frequently, the beam delivery rate of 12 MHz is too fast for the type of experiment on line. Reaction by-products from a target bombardment may have a decay interval much longer than the dead time between beam bunches. To prevent data from being corrupted by incoming ions a beam sweeper was developed which synchronously eliminates selected beam bunches to suit experimental needs. As the SWEEPER is broad band (DC to 6 MHz) beam delivery rates can be instantaneously changed. Ion beam bunches are selectively kicked out by an electrostatic dipole electrode pulsed to 2 kVDC. The system has been used for almost three years with several hundred hours of operating time logged to date. Beam bunch delivery rates of 6 MHz down to 25 kHz have been provided. Since this is a non-resonant system any beam delivery rate from 6 MHz down to zero can be set. In addition, burst modes have been used where beam is supplied in 12 MHz bursts and then shut down for a period of time set by the user. 3 figs.

  18. Miniature GC: Minicell ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for astrobiology planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or longer mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. We describe here the development of a miniature GC - Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) under development through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA's Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  19. Jet Structure in Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, J.-P.; Mehtar-Tani, Y.

    We review recent theoretical developments in the study of the structure of jets that are produced in ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions. The core of the review focusses on the dynamics of the parton cascade that is induced by the interactions of a fast parton crossing a quark-gluon plasma. We recall the basic mechanisms responsible for medium induced radiation, underline the rapid disappearance of coherence effects, and the ensuing probabilistic nature of the medium induced cascade. We discuss how large radiative corrections modify the classical picture of the gluon cascade, and how these can be absorbed in a renormalization of the jet quenching parameter hat q. Then, we analyze the (wave)-turbulent transport of energy along the medium induced cascade, and point out the main characteristics of the angular structure of such a cascade. Finally, color decoherence of the incone jet structure is discussed. Modest contact with phenomenology is presented towards the end of the review.

  20. Production of charge in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Scott; McCormack, William Patrick; Ratti, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    By analyzing preliminary experimental measurements of charge-balance functions from the STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), it is found that scenarios in which balancing charges are produced in a single surge, and therefore separated by a single length scale, are inconsistent with data. In contrast, a model that assumes two surges, one associated with the formation of a thermalized quark-gluon plasma and a second associated with hadronization, provides a far superior reproduction of the data. A statistical analysis of the model comparison finds that the two-surge model best reproduces the data if the charge production from the first surge is similar to expectations for equilibrated matter taken from lattice gauge theory. The charges created in the first surge appear to separate by approximately one unit of spatial rapidity before emission, while charges from the second wave appear to have separated by approximately a half unit or less.

  1. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapiditymore » spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.« less

  2. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapidity spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.

  3. Nuclei at HERA and heavy ion physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.; Strikman, M.

    1995-12-31

    Copies of 16 viewgraph sets from a workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, 17-18 November, 1995. Titles of talks: HERA: The Present; HERA: Potential with Nuclei; Review of Hadron-Lepton Nucleus Data; Fermilab E665: results in muon scattering; Interactions of Quarks and Gluons with Nuclear Matter; Rescattering in Nuclear Targets for Photoproduction and DIS; Structure Functions and Nuclear Effect at PHENIX; Probing Spin-Averaged and Spin-Dependent Parton Distributions Using the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR); Jet Quenching in eA, pA, AA; Nuclear Gluon Shadowing via Continuum Lepton Pairs; What can we learn from HERA with a colliding heavy ion beam? The limiting curve of leading particles at infinite A; Coherent Production of Vector Mesons off Light Nuclei in DIS; A Model of High Parton Densities in PQCD; Gluon Production for Weizaecker-Williams Field in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions; Summary Talk.

  4. Latchup in CMOS devices from heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, K.; Nichols, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microcircuits are inherently latchup prone. The four-layer n-p-n-p structures formed from the parasitic pnp and npn transistors make up a silicon controlled rectifier. If properly biased, this rectifier may be triggered 'ON' by electrical transients, ionizing radiation, or a single heavy ion. This latchup phenomenon might lead to a loss of functionality or device burnout. Results are presented from tests on 19 different device types from six manufacturers which investigate their latchup sensitivity with argon and krypton beams. The parasitic npnp paths are identified in general, and a qualitative rationale is given for latchup susceptibility, along with a latchup cross section for each type of device. Also presented is the correlation between bit-flip sensitivity and latchup susceptibility.

  5. Prompt processes in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1987-12-01

    We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann Master Equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons partition the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho and from reactions of /sup 40/Ar or /sup 40/Ca. We point out ambiguities in deducing angle-integrated energy spectra from double differential spectra. With no additional free parameters, our model successfully reproduces a large body of high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra by assuming an incoherent n-p-bremsstrahlung mechanism. 45 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.

    1995-04-01

    A standard design for heavy ion fusion drivers under study in the US is an induction linac with electrostatic focusing at low energy and magnetic focusing at higher energy. The need to focus the intense beam to a few-millimeter size spot at the deuterium-tritium target establishes the emittance budget for the accelerator. Economic and technological considerations favor a larger number of beams in the low-energy, electrostatic-focusing section than in the high-energy, magnetic-focusing section. Combining four beams into a single focusing channel is a viable option, depending on the growth in emittance due to the combining process. Several significant beam dynamics issues that are, or have been, under active study are discussed: large space charge and image forces, beam wall clearances, halos, alignment, longitudinal instability, and bunch length control.

  7. Observations of heavy energetic ions far upstream from Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Daly, P. W.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Hynds, R. J.; Richardson, I. G.; Smith, E. J.; Bame, S. J.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    On March 25, 1986, when the ICE spacecraft came within 28 million km of the nucleus of comet Halley, and for several days around this time, bursts of heavy ions were observed by the ICE energetic ion experiment. The bursts were observed only during periods when the solar wind velocity was considerably higher than its nominal value. The characteristics of these ions, in particular their anisotropies, were examined. Using the well known formulae for transformation of distributions from the solar wind frame of reference to the spacecraft frame, the angular distributions expected from either protons, or heavy ions from the water group, were studied, showing that the measurements are consistent with heavy ions, and not with protons. Other sources of heavy ions are considered, and the most likely source of these ions is comet Halley.

  8. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The National Energy Strategy calls for a demonstration IFE power plant by the year 2025. The cornerstone of the plan to meet this ambitious goal is research and development for heavy-ion driver technology. A series of successes indicates that the technology being studied by the HIFAR Group -- the induction accelerator -- is a prime candidate for further technology development toward this long-range goal. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions; the understanding of the scaling laws that apply in this hitherto little-explored physics regime; and the validation of new, potentially more economical accelerator strategies. Key specific elements to be addressed include: fundamental physical limits of transverse and longitudinal beam quality; development of induction modules for accelerators, along with multiple-beam hardware, at reasonable cost; acceleration of multiple beams, merging of the beams, and amplification of current without significant dilution of beam quality; final bunching, transport, and focusing onto a small target. In 1992, the HIFAR Program was concerned principally with the next step toward a driver: the design of ILSE, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments. ILSE will address most of the remaining beam-control and beam-manipulation issues at partial driver scale. A few parameters -- most importantly, the line charge density and consequently the size of the ILSE beams -- will be at full driver scale. A theory group closely integrated with the experimental groups continues supporting present-day work and looking ahead toward larger experiments and the eventual driver. Highlights of this long-range, driver-oriented research included continued investigations of longitudinal instability and some new insights into scaled experiments with which the authors might examine hard-to-calculate beam-dynamics phenomena.

  9. Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. The most favorable conditions of high densities and low temperatures are usually associated with astrophysical processes and may be difficult to achieve in heavy ion collisions. Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made.

  10. Theoretical Concepts for Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2009-07-27

    Various forms of matter may be produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. These are the Quark GluonPlasma, the Color Glass Condensate , the Glasma and Quarkyoninc Matter. A novel effect that may beassociated with topological charge fluctuations is the Chiral Magnetic Effect. I explain these concepts andexplain how they may be seen in ultra-relatvistic heavy ion collisions

  11. NSAC Recommends a Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes the plan submitted by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee to the Department of Energy and National Science Foundation urging construction of an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collider designed to accelerate nucleon beams of ions as heavy as uranium. Discusses the process of selecting the type of facility as well as siting. (JM)

  12. Recent Progress in Isospin Physics with Heavy-Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liewen; Ko, Che Ming; Li Baoan

    2008-11-11

    We review recent progress in the determination of the subsaturation density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy from heavy-ion collisions as well as the theoretical progress in probing the high density behavior of the symmetry energy in heavy-ion reactions induced by future high energy radioactive beams. Implications of these results for the nuclear effective interactions are also discussed.

  13. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, N.C.; Limbach, P.A.; Shomo, R.E. II; Marshall, A.G. ); Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E. )

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF{sup {minus}}{sub 6} fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H){sup +} ions) of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with {ital tetra}-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol{sup ( )} sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon{sup ( )}. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  14. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Nicholas C.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Shomo, Ronald E., II; Marshall, Alan G.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Delmore, James E.

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF-6 fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis [e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H)+ ions] of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with tetra-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol■ sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon■. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  15. EVIDENCE FOR LOCAL ACCELERATION OF SUPRATHERMAL HEAVY ION OBSERVATIONS DURING INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gruesbeck, Jacob R.; Lepri, Susan T.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Christian, Eric R.

    2015-01-20

    Suprathermal particles are an important seed population for a variety of energetic particles found throughout the heliosphere, but their origin is in debate. We present, for the first time, high-cadence observations of suprathermal heavy ions during interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), from the Suprathermal Ion Composition Spectrometer on board the Wind spacecraft, and investigate their ionic composition and compare it to the bulk solar wind plasma composition, observed from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board the Advanced Composition Explorer. We find that the composition of the suprathermal plasma is related to the local bulk solar wind plasma and not to the plasma upstream of the ICME. This implies that the suprathermal plasma is accelerated from the local bulk solar wind plasma and not the upstream solar wind plasma.

  16. Giotto-IMS observations of ion flow velocities and temperatures outside the contact surface of Comet Halley. [Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Balsiger, H.; Drake, J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Goldstein, R.; Ip, WING-H.; Rettenmund, U.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid parameters for He(++) ions obtained from the Giotto ion mass spectrometer are presented. Proton densities and velocities and thermal speeds of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions in the hour before closest approach are discussed. A region of enhanced He(++) ion densities, and velocity, and decreased temperature is observed from 20:26 to 21:45. Sharp decreases in the proton density are observed at 23:30 and at 23:41. There is a relative flow velocity between alpha particles and oxygen ions of 30 km/sec during a period from 22:55 to 23:30; the difference in flow velocity is less than the experimental uncertainities. The flow properties of protons observed during this period are also discussed.

  17. Charged Particle Multiplicity and Open Heavy Flavor Physics in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yujiao

    In this thesis, two independent measurements are presented: the measurements of centrality dependence and pseudo-rapidity dependence of charged particle multiplicities, and the measurements of centrality dependence of open heavy flavor suppression. These measurements are carried out with the Pb+Pb collisions data at the LHC energy sNN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector. For the charged particle measurements, charged particles are reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point "tracklet" and full tracking) from the pixel detector only. Measurements are presented of the per-event charged particle density distribution, dNch /deta and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudo-rapidity interval |eta| <0.5 in several intervals of collision centrality. The results are compared to previous mid-rapidity measurements at the LHC and RHIC. The variation of the mid-rapidity charged particle yield per colliding nucleon pair with the number of participants is consistent with the lower sNN results measured at RHIC. The shape of the dNch/deta distribution is found to be independent of centrality within the systematic uncertainties of the measurement. For the open heavy flavor suppression measurements, muons identified by the muon spectrometer are classified as heavy flavor decays and background contributions by using a fitting procedure with templates from Monte Carlo samples. Results are presented for the per-event muon yield as a function of muon transverse momentum, p T, over the range of 4 < pT < 14 GeV. Over that momentum range single muon production results largely from heavy quark decays. The centrality dependence of the muon yields is characterized by the "central to peripheral" ratio, RCP. Using this measure, muon production from heavy quark decays is found to be suppressed by a centrality-dependent factor that increases smoothly from peripheral to central collisions. Muon production is suppressed by approximately a factor of two in central collisions relative to

  18. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY2nd QUARTER 2010 MILESTONE REPORTDevelop the theory connecting pyrometer and streak camera spectrometer data to the material properties of beam heatedtargets and compare to the data

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.; Barnard, J. J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.

    2010-04-01

    This milestone has been accomplished. We have extended the theory that connects pyrometer and streak spectrometer data to material temperature on several fronts and have compared theory to NDCX-I experiments. For the case of NDCX-I, the data suggests that as the metallic foils are heated they break into droplets (cf. HIFS VNL Milestone Report FY 2009 Q4). Evaporation of the metallic surface will occur, but optical emission should be directly observable from the solid or liquid surface of the foil or from droplets. However, the emissivity of hot material may be changed from the cold material and interference effects will alter the spectrum emitted from small droplets. These effects have been incorporated into a theory of emission from droplets. We have measured emission using streaked spectrometry and together with theory of emission from heated droplets have inferred the temperature of a gold foil heated by the NDCX-I experiment. The intensity measured by the spectrometer is proportional to the emissivity times the blackbody intensity at the temperature of the foil or droplets. Traditionally, a functional form for the emissivity as a function of wavelength (such as a quadratic) is assumed and the three unknown emissivity parameters (for the case of a quadratic) and the temperature are obtained by minimizing the deviations from the fit. In the case of the NDCX-I experiment, two minima were obtained: at 7200 K and 2400 K. The best fit was at 7200 K. However, when the actual measured emissivity of gold was used and when the theoretical corrections for droplet interference effects were made for emission from droplets having radii in the range 0.2 to 2.0 microns, the corrected emissivity was consistent with the 2400 K value, whereas the fit emissivity at 7200 K shows no similarity to the corrected emissivity curves. Further, an estimate of the temperature obtained from beam heating is consistent with the lower value. This exercise proved to be a warning to be skeptical

  19. Fundamental studies of ion injection and trapping of electrosprayed ions on a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarmby, Scott Thomas

    The quadrupole ion trap is a highly versatile and sensitive analytical mass spectrometer. Because of the advantages offered by the ion trap, there has been intense interest in coupling it to ionization techniques such as electrospray which form ions externally to the ion trap. In this work, experiments and computer simulations were employed to study the injection of electrosprayed ions into the ion trap of a Finnigan MAT LCQ LC/MS n mass spectrometer. The kinetic energy distribution of the ion beam was characterized and found to be relatively wide, a result of the high pressures from the atmospheric pressure source. One of the most important experimental parameters which affects ion injection efficiency is the RF voltage applied to the ring electrode. A theoretical model was fit to experimental data allowing the optimum RF voltage for trapping a given m/z ion to be predicted. Computer simulations of ion motion were performed to study the effect of various instrumental parameters on trapping efficiency. A commercially available ion optics program, SIMION v6.0, was chosen because it allowed the actual ion trap electrode geometry including endcap holes to be simulated. In contrast to previous computer simulations, SIMION provided the ability to start ions outside the ion trap and to simulate more accurately the injection of externally formed ions. The endcap holes were found to allow the RF field to penetrate out of the ion trap and affect ions as they approached the ion trap. From these simulations, a model for the process by which injected ions are trapped was developed. Using these computer simulations, techniques of improving trapping efficiency were investigated. Most previous techniques perturb ions which are already in the ion trap and therefore cannot be used to accumulate ions; the ability to accumulate ions is a necessity with ionization sources such as electrospray which form ions continuously. One such novel technique for improving trapping efficiency

  20. Heavy ion tracks in polycarbonate. Comparison with a heavy ion irradiated model compound (diphenyl carbonate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferain, E.; Legras, R.

    1993-09-01

    The chemical modifications induced by energetic heavy ion irradiation of polycarbonate (PC) film are determined by GPC, HPLC, ESR, TGA, IR and UV spectrophotometry. The main results of the irradiation are creation of radicals, chain scission, cross-linking and appearance of new chemical groups in the main polymer chain. As far as the creation of new groups is concerned, they are determined by means of a model compound of PC: the diphenyl carbonate (DPC). The following compounds are identified after energetic heavy ion irradiation of DPC: salicylic acid, phenol, 4,4'-biphenol, 2,4'-biphenol, 2,2'-biphenol, 4-phenoxyphenol, 2-phenoxyphenol, phenyl ether, phenyl benzoate, phenyl salicylate, 2-phenylphenol and 2-phenoxyphenyl benzoate. A similarity between the heavy ion irradiation and a heat treatment has also been established with DPC. On the basis of these results, we try to give an explanation of the preferential attack along the tracks of the irradiated film. Also, an explanation of the well-known beneficial effect of an UV exposition of the irradiated film on the selectivity of this preferential chemical attack is suggested.

  1. Heavy ion fusion experiments at LBNL and LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L

    1998-08-19

    The long-range goal of the US Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program is to develop heavy ion accelerators capable of igniting inertial fusion targets to generate fusion energy for electrical power production. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion consist of several subsystems: ion sources, injectors, matching sections, combiners, induction acceleration sections with electric and magnetic focusing, beam compression and bending sections, and a final-focus system to focus the beams onto the target. We are currently assembling or performing experiments to address the physics of all these subsystems. This paper will discuss some of these experiments.

  2. High Intensity heavy ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. C.; Xia, J. W.; Xiao, G. Q.; Xu, H. S.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhou, X. H.; Ma, X. W.; He, Y.; Ma, L. Z.; Gao, D. Q.; Meng, J.; Xu, Z.; Mao, R. S.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Y. Y.; Sun, L. T.; Yuan, Y. J.; Yuan, P.; Zhan, W. L.; Shi, J.; Chai, W. P.; Yin, D. Y.; Li, P.; Li, J.; Mao, L. J.; Zhang, J. Q.; Sheng, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    HIAF (High Intensity heavy ion Accelerator Facility), a new facility planned in China for heavy ion related researches, consists of two ion sources, a high intensity Heavy Ion Superconducting Linac (HISCL), a 45 Tm Accumulation and Booster Ring (ABR-45) and a multifunction storage ring system. The key features of HIAF are unprecedented high pulse beam intensity and versatile operation mode. The HIAF project aims to expand nuclear and related researches into presently unreachable region and give scientists possibilities to conduct cutting-edge researches in these fields. The general description of the facility is given in this article with a focus on the accelerator design.

  3. Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2010-11-01

    A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007). The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density) that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.

  4. Heavy ion fusion systems assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudziak, Donald J.; Herrmannsfeldt, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) study was conducted with the specific objective of evaluating the prospects of using induction linac drivers to generate economical electrical power from inertial confinement fusion. The study used algorithmic models of representative components of fusion system to identify favored areas in the multidimensional parameter space. The results show that cost-of-electricity (COE) projections are comparable to those from other (magnetic) fusion scenarios, at a plant size of 1000 MWe. These results hold over a large area of parameter space, but depend especially on effecting savings in the cost of the accelerator by using ions with a charge-to-mass ratio about three times higher than has been usually assumed. The feasibility of actually realizing such savings has been shown: (1) by experiments showing better-than-previously-assumed transport stability for space charge dominated beams, and (2) by theoretical predictions that the final transport and compression of the pulse to the target pellet, in the expected environment of a reactor chamber, may be sufficiently resistant to instabilities, in particular to streaming instabilities, to enable neutralized beams to successfully propagate to the target. Neutralization is assumed to be required for the higher current pulses that result from the use of the higher charge-to-mass ratio beams jointly by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and also by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute.

  5. Progress in heavy ion fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celata, C. M.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Logan, G.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P. A.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Yu, S. S.; Barnard, J. J.; Callahan, D. A.; Cohen, R. H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Lund, S. M.; Molvik, A.; Sharp, W. M.; Westenskow, G.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, L. R.; Kaganovich, Igor; Qin, Hong; Startsev, Edward A.; Bernal, S.; Cui, Y.; Feldman, D.; Godlove, T. F.; Haber, I.; Harris, J.; Kishek, R. A.; Li, H.; O'Shea, P. G.; Quinn, B.; Reiser, M.; Valfells, A.; Walter, M.; Zou, Y.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2003-05-01

    The U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion program has recently commissioned several new experiments. In the High Current Experiment [P. A. Seidl et al., Laser Part. Beams 20, 435 (2003)], a single low-energy beam with driver-scale charge-per-unit-length and space-charge potential is being used to study the limits to transportable current posed by nonlinear fields and secondary atoms, ions, and electrons. The Neutralized Transport Experiment similarly employs a low-energy beam with driver-scale perveance to study final focus of high perveance beams and neutralization for transport in the target chamber. Other scaled experiments—the University of Maryland Electron Ring [P. G. O'Shea et al., accepted for publication in Laser Part. Beams] and the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment [R. C. Davidson, H. Qin, and G. Shvets, Phys. Plasmas 7, 1020 (2000)]—will provide fundamental physics results on processes with longer scale lengths. An experiment to test a new injector concept is also in the design stage. This paper will describe the goals and status of these experiments, as well as progress in theory and simulation. A proposed future proof-of-principle experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment, will also be described.

  6. Time-of-flight secondary neutral & ion mass spectrometry using swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, L.; Meinerzhagen, F.; Bender, M.; Severin, D.; Wucher, A.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a new time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer designed to investigate sputtering phenomena induced by swift heavy ions in the electronic stopping regime. In this experiment, particular emphasis is put on the detection of secondary ions along with their emitted neutral counterparts in order to examine the ionization efficiency of the sputtered material. For the detection of neutral species, the system is equipped with a pulsed VUV laser for post-ionization of sputtered neutral atoms and molecules via single photon ionization at a wavelength of 157 nm (corresponding to 7.9 eV photon energy). For alignment purposes and in order to facilitate comparison to nuclear sputtering conditions, the system also includes a 5 keV Ar+ ion beam directed to the same sample area. The instrument has been added to the M1-branch beam line at the German accelerator facility in Darmstadt (GSI) and was tested with 4.8 MeV/u Au26+ ions impinging onto various samples including metals, salts and organic films. It is found that secondary ion and neutral spectra obtained under both bombardment conditions can be acquired in an interleaved manner throughout a single accelerator pulse cycle, thus making efficient use of valuable beam time. In addition, the keV ion beam can be intermittently switched to dc mode between subsequent data acquisition windows and accelerator pulses in order to ensure reproducible surface conditions. For the case of a dynamically sputter cleaned metal surface, comparison of secondary ion and neutral signals obtained under otherwise identical instrumental conditions reveals a nearly identical ionization probability of atoms emitted under electronic and nuclear sputtering conditions.

  7. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  8. Skyrme tensor force in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. D.; Suckling, E. B.; Fracasso, S.; Barton, M. C.; Umar, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Background: It is generally acknowledged that the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method provides a useful foundation for a fully microscopic many-body theory of low-energy heavy ion reactions. The TDHF method is also known in nuclear physics in the small-amplitude domain, where it provides a useful description of collective states, and is based on the mean-field formalism, which has been a relatively successful approximation to the nuclear many-body problem. Currently, the TDHF theory is being widely used in the study of fusion excitation functions, fission, and deep-inelastic scattering of heavy mass systems, while providing a natural foundation for many other studies. Purpose: With the advancement of computational power it is now possible to undertake TDHF calculations without any symmetry assumptions and incorporate the major strides made by the nuclear structure community in improving the energy density functionals used in these calculations. In particular, time-odd and tensor terms in these functionals are naturally present during the dynamical evolution, while being absent or minimally important for most static calculations. The parameters of these terms are determined by the requirement of Galilean invariance or local gauge invariance but their significance for the reaction dynamics have not been fully studied. This work addresses this question with emphasis on the tensor force. Method: The full version of the Skyrme force, including terms arising only from the Skyrme tensor force, is applied to the study of collisions within a completely symmetry-unrestricted TDHF implementation. Results: We examine the effect on upper fusion thresholds with and without the tensor force terms and find an effect on the fusion threshold energy of the order several MeV. Details of the distribution of the energy within terms in the energy density functional are also discussed. Conclusions: Terms in the energy density functional linked to the tensor force can play a non

  9. Compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer with Ion Drifts, Temperatures and Neutral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos

    2016-07-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric neutral and ion composition and density, temperatures, ion drifts and neutral winds, are in high demand to study the dynamics of the ionosphere-theremosphere-mesosphere system. This paper presents a compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) with impended ion drifts and temperature, and neutral winds capability for in situ measurements of ions and neutrals H, He, N, O, N2, O2. The mass resolution M/dM is approximately 10 at an incoming energy range of 0-20eV. The goal is to resolve ion drifts in the range 0 to 3000m/sec with a resolution better than 50m/sec, and neutral winds in the range of 0 to 1000m/sec with similar resolution. For temperatures the goal is to cover a dynamic range of 0 to 5000K. The INMS is based on front end optics for ions and neutrals, pre acceleration, gated time of flight, top hat ESA, MCP detectors and compact electronics. The instrument is redundant for ions and neutrals with the ion and neutral sensor heads on opposite sides and with full electronics in the middle. The ion front end includes RPA for temperature scanning and neutral front end includes angular modulation and thermionic ionization and ion blocking grids. The electronics include fast electric gating, TOF electronics, TOF binning and C&DH digital electronics. The data package includes 400 mass bins each for ions and neutrals and key housekeeping data for instrument health and calibration. The data sampling can be commanded from 0.1 to 10 sec with 1sec nominal setting. The instrument has significant onboard storage capability and a data compression scheme. The mass spectrometer version of the instrument has been flown on the Exocube mission. The instrument occupied 1.5U volume, weighed only 560 g and required nominal power of 1.6W The ExoCube mission was designed to acquire global knowledge of in-situ densities of [H], [He], [O] and H+, He+, O+ in the upper ionosphere and lower exosphere in combination with incoherent scatter radar and

  10. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented. PMID:20192366

  11. Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.

    2004-06-16

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  12. Benchmarking of Neutron Production of Heavy-Ion Transport Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Remec, Igor; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prediction of radiation fields generated by heavy ion interactions is important in medical applications, space missions, and in design and operation of rare isotope research facilities. In recent years, several well-established computer codes in widespread use for particle and radiation transport calculations have been equipped with the capability to simulate heavy ion transport and interactions. To assess and validate these capabilities, we performed simulations of a series of benchmark-quality heavy ion experiments with the computer codes FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS. We focus on the comparisons of secondary neutron production. Results are encouraging; however, further improvements in models and codes and additional benchmarking are required.

  13. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  14. Pre-equilibrium decay processes in energetic heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.

    1986-04-15

    The Boltzmann master equation (BME) is defined for application to precompound decay in heavy ion reactions in the 10 100 MeV/nucleon regime. Predicted neutron spectra are compared with measured results for central collisions of /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C with /sup 165/Ho target nuclei. Comparisons are made with subthreshold ..pi../sup 0/ yields in heavy ion reactions between 35 and 84 MeV/nucleon, and with the ..pi../sup 0/ spectra. The BME is found to be an excellent tool for investigating these experimentally observed aspects of non-equilibrium heavy ion reactions. 18 refs., 8 figs.

  15. High resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer for full spectral capture of multi-species ion beams.

    PubMed

    Alejo, A; Kar, S; Tebartz, A; Ahmed, H; Astbury, S; Carroll, D C; Ding, J; Doria, D; Higginson, A; McKenna, P; Neumann, N; Scott, G G; Wagner, F; Roth, M; Borghesi, M

    2016-08-01

    We report on the experimental characterisation of laser-driven ion beams using a Thomson Parabola Spectrometer (TPS) equipped with trapezoidally shaped electric plates, proposed by Gwynne et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033304 (2014)]. While a pair of extended (30 cm long) electric plates was able to produce a significant increase in the separation between neighbouring ion species at high energies, deploying a trapezoidal design circumvented the spectral clipping at the low energy end of the ion spectra. The shape of the electric plate was chosen carefully considering, for the given spectrometer configuration, the range of detectable ion energies and species. Analytical tracing of the ion parabolas matches closely with the experimental data, which suggests a minimal effect of fringe fields on the escaping ions close to the wedged edge of the electrode. The analytical formulae were derived considering the relativistic correction required for the high energy ions to be characterised using such spectrometer. PMID:27587110

  16. Residual activity induced by heavy ions and beam-loss criteria for heavy-ion accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strašík, I.; Mustafin, E.; Pavlovič, M.

    2010-07-01

    The paper presents results of FLUKA simulations of the residual activity induced by heavy ions in two target configurations representing: (1) a beam pipe of an accelerator and (2) a bulky accelerator structure like a magnet yoke or a coil. The target materials were stainless steel and copper representing the most common construction materials used for basic accelerator components. For these two materials, the inventory of the induced isotopes depends mainly on the target material and much less on the projectile species. Time evolution of the induced activity can be described by means of a generic curve that is independent from the projectile mass. Dependence of the induced residual activity on selected ion beam parameters was studied. The main goal of the study was establishing a scaling law expanding the existing proton beam-loss tolerance to heavy-ion beams. This scaling law enables specifying beam-loss criteria for projectile species from proton up to uranium at energies from 200MeV/u up to 1GeV/u.

  17. Observables in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, J.R.; Schlei, B.R.; Strottman, D.D.; Sullivan, J.P.; Hecke, H.W. van

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors used several complimentary models of high-energy nuclear collisions to systematically study the large body of available data from high energy (p{sub beam}/A > 10 GeV/c) heavy ion experiments at BNL and CERN and to prepare for the data that will come from RHIC. One major goal of this project was to better understand the space-time history of the excited hadronic matter formed in these collisions and to use this understanding to improve models of this process. The space-time structure of the system can be extracted from measurements of single-particle p{sub T} distributions and multiparticle correlations. They looked for experimental effects of the formation of the quark-gluon plasma. Understanding the hadronic phase of the interaction determines the sensitivity of experimental measurements to the presence of this exotic state of matter.

  18. Modeling the heavy ion upset cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, L. W.; McDaniel, P. J.; Prinja, A. K.; Sexton, F. W.

    1995-04-01

    The standard Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) construct is used to derive a closed form expression for, sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) the directional-spectral heavy ion upset cross section. This is an expected value model obtained by integrating the point-value cross section model, sigma (theta, phi, L, E), also developed here, with the Weibull density function, f(E), assumed to govern the stochastic behavior of the upset threshold energy, E. A comparison of sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) with experimental data show good agreement, lending strong credibility to the hypothesis that E-randomness is responsible for the shape of the upset cross section curve. The expected value model is used as the basis for a new, rigorous mathematical formulation of the effective cross section concept. The generalized formulation unifies previous corrections to the inverse cosine scaling, collapsing to Petersen's correction, (cos theta - (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near threshold and Sexton's, (cos theta + (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near saturation. The expected value cross section model therefore has useful applications in both upset rate prediction and test data analysis.

  19. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  20. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. ); Bangerter, R.O. ); Bock, R. ); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. )

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  1. Observations of plasma dynamics in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Neugebauer, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Shelley, E. G.; Balsiger, H.; Kettmann, G.; Ip, W.-H.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.

    1991-01-01

    Observations in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) are reported. The High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) of the IMS obtained measurements of protons and alpha particles from the far upstream region to the near ionopause region and of ions from mass 12 to 32 at distances of about 250,000 to 40,000 km from the nucleus. Plasma parameters from the High Intensity Spectrometer (HIS) of the IMS obtained between 150,000 to 5000 km from the nucleus are also discussed. The distribution functions of water group ions (water group will be used to refer to ions of 16 to 18 m/q, where m is in AMU and q is in unit charges) are observed to be spherically symmetric in velocity space, indicating strong pitch angle scattering. The discontinuity known as the magnetic pile-up boundary (MPB) is apparent only in proton, alpha, and magnetometer data, indicating that it is a tangential discontinuity of solar wind origin. HERS observations show no significant change in the properties of the heavy ions across the MPB. A comparison of the observations to an MHD model is made. The plasma flow directions at all distances greater than 30,000 km from the nucleus are in agreement with MHD calculations. However, despite the agreement in flow direction, within 200,000 km of the nucleus the magnitude of the velocity is lower than predicted by the MHD model and the density is much larger (a factor of 4). Within 30,000 km of the nucleus there are large theoretical differences between the MHD model flow calculations for the plane containing the magnetic field and for the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The observations agreed much better with the pattern calculated for the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The data obtained by the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) of the IMS that are published herein were provided to the International Halley Watch archive.

  2. Mass- and energy-analyses of ions from plasma by means of a miniature Thomson spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, M. J.; Czaus, K.; Malinowski, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Zebrowski, J.

    2009-05-15

    The paper presents an improved version of a miniature mass-spectrometer of the Thomson-type, which has been adopted for ion analysis near the dense plasma region inside a vacuum chamber. Problems connected with the separation of ions from plasma streams are considered. Input diaphragms and pumping systems, needed to ensure good vacuum inside the analyzing region, are described. The application of the miniature Thomson-type analyzer is illustrated by ion parabolas recorded in plasma-focus facility and rod plasma injector experiment. A quantitative analysis of the recorded ion parabolas is presented. Factors influencing accuracy of the ion analysis are discussed and methods of the spectrometer calibration are described.

  3. Mass- and energy-analyses of ions from plasma by means of a miniature Thomson spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, M. J.; Czaus, K.; Malinowski, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Zebrowski, J.

    2009-05-01

    The paper presents an improved version of a miniature mass-spectrometer of the Thomson-type, which has been adopted for ion analysis near the dense plasma region inside a vacuum chamber. Problems connected with the separation of ions from plasma streams are considered. Input diaphragms and pumping systems, needed to ensure good vacuum inside the analyzing region, are described. The application of the miniature Thomson-type analyzer is illustrated by ion parabolas recorded in plasma-focus facility and rod plasma injector experiment. A quantitative analysis of the recorded ion parabolas is presented. Factors influencing accuracy of the ion analysis are discussed and methods of the spectrometer calibration are described.

  4. Heavy ion action on single cells: Cellular inactivation capability of single accelerated heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kost, M.; Pross, H.-D.; Russmann, C.; Schneider, E.; Kiefer, J.; Kraft, G.; Lenz, G.; Becher, W.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ions (HZE-particles) constitute an important part of radiation in space. Although their number is small the high amount of energy transferred by individual particles may cause severe biological effects. Their investigation requires special techniques which were tested by experiments performed at the UNILAC at the GSI (Darmstadt). Diploid yeast was used which is a suitable eucaryotic test system because of its resistance to extreme conditions like dryness and vacuum. Cells were placed on nuclear track detector foils and exposed to ions of different atomic number and energy. To assess the action of one single ion on an individual cell, track parameters and the respective colony forming abilities (CFA) were determined with the help of computer aided image analysis. There is mounting evidence that not only the amount of energy deposited along the particle path, commonly given by the LET, is of importance but also the spatial problem of energy deposition at a submicroscopical scale. It is virtually impossible to investigate track structure effects in detail with whole cell populations and (globally applied) high particle fluences. It is, therefore, necessary to detect the action of simple ions in individual cells. The results show that the biological action depends on atomic number and specific energy of the impinging ions, which can be compared with model calculations of recent track structure models.

  5. RHIC UPGRADES FOR HEAVY IONS AND POLARIZED PROTONS.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER, W.; ALESSI, J.; BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.; ROSER, T.

    2005-10-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), in operation since 2000, has exceeded its design parameters. The Enhanced Design parameters, expected to be reached in 2009, call for a 4-fold increase over the heavy ion design luminosity, and a 15-fold increase over the proton design luminosity, the latter with an average polarization of 70%. Also in 2009, it is planned to commission a new Electron Beam Ion Source, offering increased reliability and ion species that cannot be supplied currently. The upgrade to RHIC 11, based on electron cooling of the beams, aims to increase the average heavy ion luminosity by an order of magnitude, and the polarized proton luminosity by a factor 2-5. Plans for an electron-ion collider eRHIC is covered in another article in these proceedings.

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-07-01

    Interest in energetic heavy ions is rapidly increasing in the field of biomedicine. Heavy ions are normally excluded from radiation protection, because they are not normally experienced by humans on Earth. However, knowledge of heavy ion biophysics is necessary in two fields: charged particle cancer therapy (hadrontherapy), and radiation protection in space missions. The possibility to cure tumours using accelerated heavy charged particles was first tested in Berkeley in the sixties, but results were not satisfactory. However, about 15 years ago therapy with carbon ions was resumed first in Japan and then in Europe. Heavy ions are preferable to photons for both physical and biological characteristics: the Bragg peak and limited lateral diffusion ensure a conformal dose distribution, while the high relative biological effectiveness and low oxygen enhancement ration in the Bragg peak region make the beam very effective in treating radioresistant and hypoxic tumours. Recent results coming from the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba (see the paper by Dr Tsujii and co-workers in this issue) and GSI (Germany) provide strong clinical evidence that heavy ions are indeed an extremely effective weapon in the fight against cancer. However, more research is needed in the field, especially on optimization of the treatment planning and risk of late effects in normal tissue, including secondary cancers. On the other hand, high-energy heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic radiation and, although they are rare as compared to protons, they give a major contribution in terms of equivalent dose to the crews of manned space exploratory-class missions. Exploration of the Solar System is now the main goal of the space program, and the risk caused by exposure to galactic cosmic radiation is considered a serious hindrance toward this goal, because of the high uncertainty on late effects of energetic heavy nuclei, and the lack of effective countermeasures. Risks

  7. Double focusing ion mass spectrometer of cylindrical symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coplan, M. A.; Moore, J. H.; Hoffman, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    A mass spectrometer consisting of an electric sector followed by a magnetic sector is described. The geometry is a cylindrically symmetric generalization of the Mattauch-Herzog spectrometer (1934). With its large annular entrance aperture and a position-sensitive detector, the instrument provides a large geometric factor and 100-percent duty factor, making it appropriate for spacecraft experiments.

  8. Report of the heavy-ion fusion task group

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, G.A.; Booth, L.A.; Henderson, D.B.; Jameson, R.A.; Kindel, J.M.; Knapp, E.A.; Pollock, R.; Talbert, W.L.; Thode, L.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An assessment of heavy-ion fusion has been completed. Energetic heavy ions, for example 10-GeV uranium, provided by an rf linac or an induction linac, are used as alternatives to laser light to drive inertial confinement fusion pellets. The assessment has covered accelerator technology, transport of heavy-ion beams, target interaction physics, civilian power issues, and military applications. It is concluded that particle accelerators promise to be efficient pellet drivers, but that there are formidable technical problems to be solved. It is recommended that a moderate level research program on heavy-ion fusion be pursued and that LASL should continue to work on critical issues in accelerator development, beam transport, reactor systems studies, and target physics over the next few years.

  9. Silicon Carbide Power Device Performance Under Heavy-Ion Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Topper, Alyson; Wilcox, Edward; Phan, Anthony; Ikpe, Stanley; LaBel, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-ion induced degradation and catastrophic failure data for SiC power MOSFETs and Schottky diodes are examined to provide insight into the challenge of single-event effect hardening of SiC power devices.

  10. Recent trends in parts SEU susceptibility from heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, D.K.; Smith, L.S.; Price, W.E.; Koga, R.; Kolasinski, W.A.

    1987-12-01

    JPL and Aerospace have collected an extensive set of heavy ion single event upset (SEU) test data since their last joint publication in December, 1985. Trends in SEU susceptibility for state-of-the-art parts are presented.

  11. Heavy Ion Current Transients in SiGe HBTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Reed, Robert A.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; McMorrow, Dale; Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique; Baggio, Jacques; Paillet, Philipe; Duhanel, Olivier; Phillips, Stanley D.; Sutton, Akil K.; Diestelhorst, Ryan M.; Cressler, John D.; Dodd, Paul E.; Alles, Michael L.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Marshall, Paul W.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Time-resolved ion beam induced charge reveals heavy ion response of IBM 5AM SiGe HBT: a) Position correlation[ b) Unique response for different bias schemes; c) Similarities to TPA pulsed-laser data. Heavy ion broad-beam transients provide more realistic device response: a) Feedback using microbeam data; b) Overcome issues of LET and ion range with microbeam. Both micro- and broad-beam data sets yield valuable input for TCAD simulations. Uncover detailed mechanisms for SiGe HBTs and other devices fabricated on lightly-doped substrates.

  12. 10 K Ring Electrode Trap—Tandem Mass Spectrometer for Infrared Spectroscopy of Mass Selected Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebbert, Daniel J.; Meijer, Gerard; Asmis, Knut R.

    2009-03-01

    A novel instrumental setup for measuring infrared photodissociation spectra of buffer gas cooled, mass-selected ions is described and tested. It combines a cryogenically cooled, linear radio frequency ion trap with a tandem mass spectrometer, optimally coupling continuous ion sources to pulsed laser experiments. The use of six independently adjustable DC potentials superimposed over the trapping radio frequency field provides control over the ion distribution within, as well as the kinetic energy distribution of the ions extracted from the ion trap. The scheme allows focusing the ions in space and time, such that they can be optimally irradiated by a pulsed, widely tunable infrared photodissociation laser. Ion intensities are monitored with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer mounted orthogonally to the ion trap axis.

  13. Laser cooling of relativistic heavy-ion beams for FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, D.; Beck, T.; Birkl, G.; Dimopoulou, C.; Hannen, V.; Kühl, Th; Lochmann, M.; Loeser, M.; Ma, X.; Nolden, F.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Rein, B.; Sánchez, R.; Schramm, U.; Siebold, M.; Spiller, P.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, Th; Ullmann, J.; Walther, Th; Wen, W.; Yang, J.; Zhang, D.; Bussmann, M.

    2015-11-01

    Laser cooling is a powerful technique to reduce the longitudinal momentum spread of stored relativistic ion beams. Based on successful experiments at the experimental storage ring at GSI in Darmstadt, of which we show some important results in this paper, we present our plans for laser cooling of relativistic ion beams in the future heavy-ion synchrotron SIS100 at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Darmstadt.

  14. Heavy Ion Effects on Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability: Hybrid Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, D.; Lin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) is a candidate mechanism for solar wind tansportation into the magnetosphere. The statistical study of Bouhram et al. 2005 has shown that heavy ions could dominate the magnetopause for as much as 30% of the time on the dusk side. Thus the influence of heavy ions in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling should not be neglected. However, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) linear theory for KHI does not include any ion effects, and people working on the heavy ion effects have not come to an agreement either. Whether the heavy ions promote or inhibit the KHI still remains not well addressed. With a two-dimensional hybrid model, we investigated the effects of ion mass number on the KHI growth rate, starting from the simplest case of uniform density and uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the shear flow. It is shown that the growth rate of the KHI is lower with a heavier mass number. We try to to derive the linear theory for the kinetic KHI and compare it with the hybrid simulation results. The linear theory with ion effects considered is going to be further verified with varying heavy ion fractions and finite magnetic shear. More implications for the dawn-dusk asymmetry of KHI on planetary magnetopause are desirable when comparing the results of opposite magnetic field directions relative to the flow vorticity.

  15. Heavy ion physics at CERN: present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Alessandro, Bruno; Chiesa, Alberta Marzari

    1998-10-05

    After a general introduction on the very high energy heavy ion interactions, the CERN heavy ion program is presented. Three CERN experiments are described in details: NA38/50 (J/{psi} suppression), NA45/CERES (e{sup +}e{sup -} production) and WA85/97 (multi-strange particle production). The ALICE experiment, to be built in the next years and foreseen at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is also extensively described.

  16. Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R K; Townsend, L W

    1994-07-01

    Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. The most favorable conditions of high densities and low temperatures are usually associated with astrophysical processes and may be difficult to achieve in heavy ion collisions. Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made. PMID:9969695

  17. An optical dosimeter for monitoring heavy metal ions in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Regan, Fiona; Leamy, D.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Ciaccheri, L.

    2005-05-01

    This work presents an optochemical dosimeter for determining and discriminating nickel, copper, and cobalt ions in water that can be used as an early warning system for water pollution. An inexpensive fiber optic spectrophotometer monitors the sensor's spectral behavior under exposure to water solutions of heavy metal ions in the 1-10 mg/l concentration range. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method quantitatively determines the heavy metals and discriminates their type and combination.

  18. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, T.S.; Barton, D.S.; Oerter, B.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system has been used in the commissioning of the AGS to RHIC transfer line and in the first RHIC sextant test. Much of the controls infrastructure for networks and links has been installed throughout the collider. All of the controls hardware modules needed to be built for early RHIC operations have been designed and tested. Many of these VME modules are already being used in normal AGS operations. Over 150 VME based front end computers and device controllers will be installed by the Summer of 1998 in order to be ready for Fall of 1998. A few features are being added to the front end computer core software. The bulk of the Accelerator Device Objects (ADOs) which are instantiated in the FECs, have been written and tested in the early commissioning. A configuration database has been designed. Generic control and display of ADO parameters via a spreadsheet like program on the console level computers was provided early on in the control system development. User interface tools that were developed for the AGS control system have been used in RHIC applications. Some of the basic operations programs, like alarm display and save/restore, that are used in the AGS operations have been or will be expanded to support RHIC operations. A model for application programs which involves a console level manager servicing ADOs have been verified with a few RHIC applications. More applications need to be written for the Fall of 1998 commissioning effort. A sequencer for automatic control of the fill is being written with the expectation that it will be useful in early commissioning.

  19. Intensity-sensitive and position-resolving cavity for heavy-ion storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Sanjari, M. S.; Hülsmann, P.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Nolden, F.; Piotrowski, J.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, Th.; Walker, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    A heavy-ion storage ring can be adapted for use as an isochronous mass spectrometer if the ion velocity matches the transition energy of the ring. Due to the variety of stored ion species, the isochronous condition cannot be fulfilled for all the ions. In order to eliminate the measurement uncertainty stemming from the velocity spread, an intensity-sensitive and position-resolving cavity is proposed. In this paper we first briefly discuss the correction method for the anisochronism effect in the measurement with the cavity. Then we introduce a novel design, which is operated in the monopole mode and offset from the central beam orbit to one side. The geometrical parameters were optimized by analytic and numerical means in accordance with the beam dynamics of the future collector ring at FAIR. Afterwards, the electromagnetic properties of scaled prototypes were measured on a test bench. The results were in good agreement with the predictions.

  20. Ion/molecule reactions performed in a miniature cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Riter, Leah S; Meurer, Eduardo C; Handberg, Eric S; Laughlin, Brian C; Chen, Hao; Patterson, Garth E; Eberlin, Marcos N; Cooks, R Graham

    2003-09-01

    A recently constructed miniature mass spectrometer, based on a cylindrical ion trap (CIT) mass analyzer, is used to perform ion/molecule reactions in order to improve selectivity for in situ analysis of explosives and chemical warfare agent simulants. Six different reactions are explored, including several of the Eberlin reaction type (M. N. Eberlin and R. G. Cooks, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1993, 28, 679-687) as well as novel gas-phase Meerwein reactions. The reactions include (1) Eberlin transacetalization of the benzoyl, 2,2-dimethyloximinium, and 2,2-dimethylthiooximinium cations with 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane to form 2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolanylium cations, 2,2-dimethylamine-1,3-dioxolanylium cations and the 2,2-dimethylamin-1,3-oxathiolanylium cations, respectively; (2) Eberlin reaction of the phosphonium ion CH3P(O)OCH3+, formed from the chemical warfare agent simulant dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), with 1,4-dioxane to yield the 1,3,2-dioxaphospholanium ion, a new characteristic reaction for phosphate ester detection; (3) the novel Meerwein reaction of the ion CH3P(O)OCH3+ with propylene sulfide forming 1,3,2-oxathionylphospholanium ion; (4) the Meerwein reaction of the benzoyl cation with propylene oxide and propylene sulfide to form 4-methyl-2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane and its thio analog, respectively; (5) ketalization of the benzoyl cation with ethylene glycol to form the 2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolanylium cation; (6) addition/NO2 elimination involving benzonitrile radical cation in reaction with nitrobenzene to form an arylated nitrile, a diagnostic reaction for explosives detection and (7) simple methanol addition to the C7H7+ ion, formed by NO2 loss from the molecular ion of p-nitrotoluene to form an intact adduct. Evidence is provided that these reactions occur to give the products described and their potential analytical utility is discussed. PMID:14529016

  1. Depth-dose relations for heavy ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation transport of heavy ions in matter is of interest to radiological protection in space and high-altitude aircraft. In addition, heavy ion beams are expected to be of advantage in radiotherapy since their characteristic Bragg curve allows a relative reduction of the dose in reaching a tumor site and the near elimination of exposure beyond the tumor region as the beam exits the body. Furthermore, the radioresistance of tumorous cells due to their hypoxic state may be reduced or eliminated by the high specific ionization of heavy ion beams. The depth-dose distribution of heavy ion beams consists of energy deposited by the attenuated primary beam with its characteristic Bragg curve and a relatively unstructured background due to secondary radiations produced in nuclear reactions. As the ion mass increases, the secondary contribution becomes more structured and may add significantly to the Bragg peak of the primary ions. The result for heavy ions (z greater than 20) is a greatly broadened Bragg peak region, especially in comparison to straggling effects, which may prove to be of importance in radiotherapy and biomedical research.

  2. Operation of an E parallel B end-loss ion spectrometer on the Tara tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, J.A.; Horne, S.F.; Irby, J.H.; Post, R.S.; Sevillano, E.; Foote, J.H.

    1988-08-01

    An E parallel B end-loss ion spectrometer from the Livermore TMX-U tandem mirror experiment was installed on Tara for high-resolution ion spectroscopy. This diagnostic contains parallel electric and magnetic fields, separating the masses and energies of the ions over 128 collector plates. The ion energy distribution nominally yields confining potentials and parallel ion temperatures. Additional experiments have diagnosed the resonance position of the central cell ion cyclotron heating, rf enhanced losses of high-energy sloshing ions in the axicell (''plug''), and observation of MHD instabilities at higher time resolution (20 kHz).

  3. Data for Users of Handheld Ion Mobility Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Keith A. Daum; Sandra L. Fox

    2008-05-01

    Chemical detection technology end-user surveys conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in 2005 and 2007 indicated that first responders believed manufacturers’ claims for instruments sometimes were not supported in field applications, and instruments sometimes did not meet their actual needs. Based on these findings, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) asked INL to conduct a similar survey for handheld ion mobility spectrometers (IMS), which are used by a broad community of first responders as well as for other applications. To better access this broad community, the INL used the Center for Technology Commercialization, Inc. (CTC), Public Safety Technology Center (PSTC) to set up an online framework to gather information from users of handheld IMS units. This framework (Survey Monkey) was then used to perform an online Internet survey, augmented by e-mail prompts, to get information from first responders and personnel from various agencies about their direct experience with handheld IMS units. Overall, 478 individuals responded to the survey. Of these, 174 respondents actually owned a handheld IMS. Performance and satisfaction data from these 174 respondents are captured in this report. The survey identified the following observations: • The most common IMS unit used by respondents was the Advanced Portable Detector (APD 2000), followed by ChemRae, Sabre 4000, Sabre 2000, Draeger Multi IMS, Chemical Agent Monitor-2, Chemical Agent Monitor, Vapor Tracer, and Vapor Tracer 2. • The primary owners were HazMat teams (20%), fire services (14%), local police (12%), and sheriffs’ departments (9%). • IMS units are seldom used as part of an integrated system for detecting and identifying chemicals but instead are used independently. • Respondents are generally confused about the capabilities of their IMS unit. This is probably a result of lack of training. • Respondents who had no training or fewer than 8 hours were not satisfied with the overall

  4. Dynamical Aspects of Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier

    1995-01-01

    Two independent studies on heavy-ion collisions are presented. In the first part, the charge and mass of the projectile-like fragments produced in the 15-MeV per nucleon ^{40}Ca+^{209 } Bi reaction were determined for products detected near the grazing angle. Neutron number-charge (N-Z) distributions were generated as a function of the total kinetic energy loss and parameterized by their centroids, variances and correlation coefficients. After the interaction, a drift of the charge and mass centroids towards asymmetry is observed. The production of projectile -like fragments is consistent with a tendency of the projectile -like fragments to retain the projectile neutron-to-proton ratio < N > / < Z > = 1. The correlation coefficient remains well below 1.0 for the entire range of total kinetic energy lost. Predictions of two nucleon exchange models, Randrup's and Tassan-Got's, are compared to the experimental results. The models are not able to reproduce the evolution of the experimental distributions, especially the fact that the variances reach a maximum and then decrease as function of the energy loss. This behavior supports the hypothesis that some form of projectile -like fragmentation or cluster emission is perturbing the product distribution from that expected from a damped mechanism. In the second part of the thesis a clustering model that allows the recognition of mass fragments from dynamical simulations has been developed. Studying the evolution of a microscopic computation based on the nuclear -Boltzman transport equation, a suitable time is chosen to identify the bound clusters. At this time the number of binding surfaces for each test nucleon is found. Based on the number of nucleon bindings the interior nucleons are identified, and the cluster kernels are formed. An iterative routine is then applied to determine the coalescence of the surrounding free nucleons. Once the fragment formation has been established, a statistical decay code is used to

  5. Novel laser atomic fluorescence spectrometer for environmental and biomedical analyses of heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergachev, Alex Y.; Mirov, Sergey B.; Pitt, Robert E.; Parmer, Keith D.

    1997-05-01

    We report on the development of a novel experimental set-up using laser atomic fluorescence for detection and concentration measurements of heavy metal atoms for environmental and biomedical analyses. This spectrometer is based on the application of tunable LiF:F2+** and LiF:F2- color center and alexandrite lasers with nonlinear converters for narrowband excitation of atomic fluorescence and the use of gated multichannel CCD detectors for fluorescence measurements. A standard graphite furnace module was used for sample atomization. The laser sources used provide narrowband selective laser excitation continuously tunable in the 200 - 400 nm range and are therefore suitable for resonant excitation of atomic transitions in practically all known heavy metal atoms. In the first experiments, water samples containing Cu, Pb and Fe impurities were studied and detection levels of less than 1 ppb were observed. Comparison of the results of atomic laser fluorescence analysis and traditional atomic absorption spectrometry showed good qualitative agreement between these two methods. It is projected that full optimization of our experimental set up will allow for improved detection levels of several orders of magnitude. Possible optimization and simplification of the spectrometer are discussed in the context of developing a portable instrument for field use.

  6. Energy loss, hadronization, and hadronic interactions of heavy flavors in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Bass, Steffen A.

    2015-08-01

    We construct a theoretical framework to describe the evolution of heavy flavors produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is described using our modified Langevin equation that incorporates both quasielastic scatterings and the medium-induced gluon radiation. The space-time profiles of the fireball are described by a (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics simulation. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is utilized for heavy quark hadronization, after which the produced heavy mesons together with the soft hadrons produced from the bulk quark-gluon plasma (QGP) are fed into the hadron cascade ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model to simulate the subsequent hadronic interactions. We find that the medium-induced gluon radiation contributes significantly to heavy quark energy loss at high pT; heavy-light quark coalescence enhances heavy meson production at intermediate pT; and scatterings inside the hadron gas further suppress the D meson RAA at large pT and enhance its v2. Our calculations provide good descriptions of heavy meson suppression and elliptic flow observed at both the Large Hadron Collider and the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

  7. Neoplastic transformation of hamster embyro cells by heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Han, Z; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, F; Suzuki, M; Furusawa, Y; Kato, T; Ikenaga, M

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the induction of morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET), ranging from 13 to 400 keV/micrometer. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with 12C or 28Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), inoculated to culture dishes, and transformed colonies were identified when the cells were densely stacked and showed a crisscross pattern. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to 250 kVp X-rays showed an initial increase with LET, reaching a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/micrometer, and then decreased with the further increase in LET. Thus, we confirmed that high LET heavy ions are significantly more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation. PMID:11542417

  8. Heavy ion beam transport and interaction with ICF targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, G.; Aragonés, J. M.; Gago, J. A.; Gámez, L.; González, M. C.; Honrubia, J. J.; Martínez-Val, J. M.; Mínguez, E.; Ocaña, J. L.; Otero, R.; Perlado, J. M.; Santolaya, J. M.; Serrano, J. F.; Velarde, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical simulation codes provide an essential tool for analyzing the very broad range of concepts and variables considered in ICF targets. In this paper, the relevant processes embodied in the NORCLA code, needed to simulate ICF targets driven by heavy ion beams will be presented. Atomic physic models developed at DENIM to improve the atomic data needed for ion beam plasma interaction will be explained. Concerning the stopping power, the average ionization potential following a Thomas-Fermi model has been calculated, and results are compared with full quantum calculations. Finally, a parametric study of multilayered single shell targets driven by heavy ion beams will be shown.

  9. Operational experience with heavy ions at BNL: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Cardner, C.; Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Barton, D.S.; Beavis, D.; Benjamin, J.; Foelsche, H.; Gill, E.; Raka, E.; Sidhu, S.

    1989-01-01

    Since May 1986, the heavy ion transfer line (HITL) which joins the Tandem Van de Graaff facility and the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory has permitted the acceleration of heavy ions (up to sulfur) to 14.5 GeV/nucleon. The Tandem, operating with a pulsed ion source, supplies a fully stripped ion beam at about 7 MeV/nucleon which is transported via the HITL to the AGS. A low frequency rf system accelerates the beam in the AGS to about 200 MeV/nucleon and the high frequency rf system, normally used for proton acceleration, completes the acceleration to 14.5 GeV/nucleon. The high energy ion beams are delivered to four experimental beam lines using standard resonant extraction. Following is an update of the performance and operational characteristics associated with the production, transport, and acceleration of these ion beams. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. High latitude minor ion enhancements: A clue for studies of magnetosphere-atmosphere coupling. [using OGO 6 ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Unexpectedly abrupt and pronounced distributions of the thermal molecular ions NO(+), O2(+) and N2(+) were observed at mid and high latitudes by the OGO-6 ion mass spectrometer. These minor ions may reach concentration levels exceeding 1000 ions/cu cm at altitudes as great as 1000 km, suggestive of scale heights well in excess of those inferred from low and mid-latitude measurements, under relatively undisturbed conditions. The high latitude ion enhancements were observed to be narrowly defined in time and space, with molecular ion concentrations changing by as much as an order of magnitude between successive orbits.

  11. [Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions]. Annual progress report, [January 1992--February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    Completed work is summarized on the topics of excitation energy division in deep-inelastic reactions and the onset of multifragmentation in La-induced reactions at E/A = 45 MeV. Magnetic fields are being calculated for the PHOBOS detector system, a two-arm multiparticle spectrometer for studying low-transverse-momentum particles produced at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The Maryland Forward Array is being developed for detection of the reaction products from very peripheral collisions; it consists of two individual units of detectors: the annular silicon detector in front and the plastic phoswich detector at back.

  12. Proceedings of the third workshop on experiments and detectors for a relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Shivakumar, B.; Vincent, P.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: the RHIC Project; summary of the working group on calorimetry; J//Psi/ measurements in heavy ion collisions at CERN; QCD jets at RHIC; tracking and particle identification; a 4..pi.. tracking spectrometer for RHIC; Bose-Einstein measurements at RHIC in light of new data; summary of working group on read-out electronics; data acquisition for RHIC; summary of the working group on detector simulation; B-physics at RHIC; and CP violation revisited at BNL, B-physics at RHIC.

  13. Characterizing the Energetic Heavy Ion Environment Inside 4 Jovian Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, C. M.; Stone, E. C.

    2004-05-01

    On 21 September 2003 Galileo impacted Jupiter to end its 8-year tour of the Jovian magentosphere. During this last phase data was collected in the very inner part of the magnetosphere at distances < 4 Rj. The region from 2 to 4 Rj was previously explored by Galileo during its 34th orbit around Jupiter. We present the combined data from these two passes obtained by the Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) for heavy ions at energies above 2 MeV/nucleon. In particular we discuss the significant ion absorption near the moons Thebe and Amalthea, the anisotropic pitch angle distribution and the dramatic increase in heavy ion intensity with decreasing radius seen in this region

  14. Heavy Ion Heating at Shocks in the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, M. L.; Lepri, S. T.; Kasper, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Ions heavier than protons can be used as tracers for heating mechamisms in solar wind plasma. Measurments by the ACE and WIND satellites provide information on the relative heating of the heavy ions versus the protons. Greater than mass proportional heating has been seen at coronal mass ejections (CME) shock fronts. Using ACE SWICS heavy ions data from CME associated shocks, heavy ion heating and the non-thermal nature of helium and oxygen distributions at 1AU is examined. The WIND SWE data set is used to examine the helium distributions at the shock fronts observed at the spacecraft. Understanding the heating and source of energetic particles and their evolution through the heliosphere is relevant to predicting space weather events and the evolution of the solar wind.

  15. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  16. Heavy ion beams in extended materials - Computational methods and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Townsend, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    The transport of heavy ion beams in extended materials is a problem of interest in accelerator and space shielding, radiation therapy, and astrophysical and radiobiological studies. The beam particles change their energy and direction of motion through atomic/molecular collisions and undergo occasional radical transformation in nuclear collision. In health physics applications, a heavy ion beam of initially well defined radiation quality is transformed into a complex mixture of diverse quality components after passing through a modest amount of material. This transformation of radiation quality must be understood to adequately explain the biological response of tissue to heavy ion radiation. A theoretical/experimental program to define an ion beam and its products in extended matter is described.

  17. Final Report - Ion Production and Transport in Atmospheric Pressure Ion Source Mass Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, Paul B.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2014-05-14

    This document is the final report on a project that focused in the general theme of atmospheric-pressure ion production and transport for mass spectrometry. Within that general theme there were two main projects: the fundamental study of the transport of elemental ions through the vacuum interface of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS), and fundamental studies of the ionization mechanisms in ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources for molecular mass spectrometry. In both cases the goal was to generate fundamental understanding of key instrumental processes that would lead to the development of instruments that were more sensitive and more consistent in their performance. The emphasis on consistency derives from the need for instruments that have the same sensitivity, regardless of sample type. In the jargon of analytical chemistry, such instruments are said to be free from matrix effects. In the ICPMS work each stage of ion production and of ion transport from the atmospheric pressure to the high-vacuum mass analyzer was studied. Factors controlling ion transport efficiency and consistency were identified at each stage of pressure reduction. In the ADI work the interactions between an electrospray plume and a fluorescent sample on a surface were examined microscopically. A new mechanism for analyte ion production in desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) was proposed. Optical spectroscopy was used to track the production of reactive species in plasmas used as ADI sources. Experiments with mixed-gas plasmas demonstrated that the addition of a small amount of hydrogen to a helium ADI plasma could boost the sensitivity for some analytes by over an order of magnitude.

  18. Miniature GC-Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) for In Situ Measurements in Astrobiology Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or ionger mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. The miniCometary Ice and Dust Experiment (miniCIDEX), which combined Gas Chromatography (GC) with helium Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), was capable of providing the wide range of analytical information required for Astrobiology missions. The IMS used here was based on the PCP model 111 IMS. A similar system, the Titan Ice and Dust Experiment (TIDE), was proposed as part of the Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission (TOAM). Newer GC systems employing Micro Electro- Mechanical System (MEMS) based technology have greatly reduced both the size and resource requirements for space GCs. These smaller GCs, as well as the continuing miniaturization of Astrobiology analytical instruments in general, has highlighted the need for smaller, dry helium IMS systems. We describe here the development of a miniature, MEMS GC-IMS system (MEMS GC developed by Thorleaf Research Inc.), employing the MiniCell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS), from Ion Applications Inc., developed through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  19. ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion sources and applications with heavy-ion linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed in the last few years into a reliable source of high charge-state heavy ions. The availability of heavy ions with relatively large charge-to-mass ratios (0.1--0.5) has made it possible to contemplate essentially new classes of heavy-ion linear accelerators. In this talk, I shall review the state-of-the-art in ECR source performance and describe some of the implications this performance level has for heavy-ion linear accelerator design. The present linear accelerator projects using ECR ion sources will be noted and the performance requirements of the ECR source for these projects will be reviewed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  20. DETERMINING ION COMPOSITIONS USING AN ACCURATE MASS, TRIPLE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the past decade, we have used double focusing mass spectrometers to determine
    compositions of ions observed in mass spectra produced from compounds introduced by GC
    based on measured exact masses of the ions and their +1 and +2 isotopic profiles arising from atoms of ...

  1. Continuation of data analysis from the ion mass spectrometer on the ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The spectrometer measures the composition and number density of the positive ion species in the ionosphere as well as the ion flux normal to the spacecraft trajectory. The measurement of high latitude ionospheric dynamics is reported. Plans for an empirical composition model of the polar ionosphere at 1400 km altitude consisting of maps of the major constituent are also reported.

  2. L X-ray emission induced by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajek, M.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Semaniak, J.; Fijał-Kirejczyk, I.; Jaskóła, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Korman, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Mukoyama, T.; Trautmann, D.

    2015-11-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is usually applied using typically 1 MeV to 3 MeV protons or helium ions, for which the ion-atom interaction is dominated by the single ionization process. For heavier ions the multiple ionization plays an increasingly important role and this process can influence substantially both the X-ray spectra and atomic decay rates. Additionally, the subshell coupling effects are important for the L- and M-shells ionized by heavy ions. Here we discuss the main features of the X-ray emission induced by heavy ions which are important for PIXE applications, namely, the effects of X-ray line shifts and broadening, vacancy rearrangement and change of the fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields in multiple ionized atoms. These effects are illustrated here by the results of the measurements of L X-ray emission from heavy atoms bombarded by 6 MeV to 36 MeV Si ions, which were reported earlier. The strong L-subshell coupling effects are observed, in particular L2-subshell, which can be accounted for within the coupling subshell model (CSM) developed within the semiclassical approximation. Finally, the prospects to use heavy ions in PIXE analysis are discussed.

  3. Clinical trial of cancer therapy with heavy ions at heavy ion research facility in lanzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong

    With collaborative efforts of scientists from the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences and hospitals in Gansu, initial clinical trial on cancer therapy with heavy ions has been successfully carried out in China. From November 2006 to December 2007, 51 patients with superficially-placed tumors were treated with carbon ions at Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) within four beam time blocks of 6-11 days, collaborating with the General Hospital of Lanzhou Command and the Tumor Hospital of Gansu Province. Patients and Methods: There were 51 patients (31 males and 20 females) with superficially-placed tumors (squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma of the skin, malignant skin melanoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, breast cancer, metastatic lymph nodes of carcinomas and other skin lesions). The tumors were less than 2.1 cm deep to the skin surface. All patients had histological confirmation of their tumors. Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) of all patients was more than 70. The majority of patients were with failures or recurrences of conventional therapies. Median age at the time of radiotherapy (RT) was 55.5 years (range 5-85 years). Patients were immobilized with a vacuum cushion or a head mask and irradiated by carbon ion beams with energy 80-100 MeV/u at spread-out Bragg peak field generated from HIRFL, with two and three-dimensional conformal irradiation methods. Target volume was defined by physical palpation [ultrasonography and Computerized tomography (CT), for some cases]. The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as the gross total volume GTV with a 0.5-1.0cm margin axially. Field placement for radiation treatment planning was done based on the surface markings. RBE of 2.5-3 within the target volume, and 40-75 GyE with a weekly fractionation of 7 × 3-15 GyE/fraction were used in the trial. Patients had follow-up examinations performed 1 month after treatment, in 1 or 2 months for the first 6 months, and 3

  4. A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for ion source characterization.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Wan, X; Jin, D Z; Tan, X H; Huang, Z X; Tan, G B

    2015-03-01

    A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer with overall dimension of about 413 × 250 × 414 mm based on orthogonal injection and angle reflection has been developed for ion source characterization. Configuration and principle of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer are introduced in this paper. The mass resolution is optimized to be about 1690 (FWHM), and the ion energy detection range is tested to be between about 3 and 163 eV with the help of electron impact ion source. High mass resolution and compact configuration make this spectrometer useful to provide a valuable diagnostic for ion spectra fundamental research and study the mass to charge composition of plasma with wide range of parameters. PMID:25832275

  5. A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for ion source characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. Wan, X.; Jin, D. Z.; Tan, X. H.; Huang, Z. X.; Tan, G. B.

    2015-03-15

    A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer with overall dimension of about 413 × 250 × 414 mm based on orthogonal injection and angle reflection has been developed for ion source characterization. Configuration and principle of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer are introduced in this paper. The mass resolution is optimized to be about 1690 (FWHM), and the ion energy detection range is tested to be between about 3 and 163 eV with the help of electron impact ion source. High mass resolution and compact configuration make this spectrometer useful to provide a valuable diagnostic for ion spectra fundamental research and study the mass to charge composition of plasma with wide range of parameters.

  6. Composition measurements of the topside ionosphere using a magnetic mass spectrometer, ion mass spectrometer on ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The ion mass spectrometer (IMS) on the ISIS-II satellite is described; it measures the composition and distribution of positive ions in the earth's ionosphere in the mass range of 1 to 64 atomic mass units. Significant data were received which show a wide variation in ion composition at night near the equator and in the daytime poleward of the plasmapause. It was found that these data enable further study of the polar wind and that the experiment produced timely data during the August, 1972 magnetic storm to show the development of a unique ionosphere above the plasmapause during the period of the storm. The scientific objectives and results of the experiment, the technical description of the instrument, a bibliography with sample papers attached, and a summary of recommendations for further study are presented.

  7. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsässer, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  8. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsaesser, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-15

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  9. Possibilities for relativistic heavy ion collisions at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.O.; Hahn, H.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1980 there has been considerable interest at Brookhaven in exploiting the existence of the Colliding Beam Accelerator, CBA, earlier referred to as Isabelle, for the generation of heavy ion collisions at very high energies. The only requirement for a heavy ion collider would have been for an energy booster for the Tandem accelerator and a tunnel and magnet transport system to the AGS. For a few million dollars heavy ions up to nearly 200 GeV/amu could be collided with luminosities of 10/sup 27/ to 10/sup 28//cm/sup 2/ sec in experimental halls with ideal facilities for heavy ion physics studies. Although the CBA project has been stopped, it is still true that Brookhaven has in place enormous advantages for constructing a heavy ion collider. This paper describes a design that exploits those advantages. It uses the tunnel and other civil construction, the refrigerator, vacuum equipment, injection line components, and the magnet design for which there is expertise and a production facility in place. The result is a machine that appears quite different than would a machine designed from first principles without access to these resources but one which is of high performance and of very attractive cost.

  10. Microirradiation of cells with energetic heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollinger, G.; Hable, V.; Hauptner, A.; Krücken, R.; Reichart, P.; Friedl, A. A.; Drexler, G.; Cremer, T.; Dietzel, S.

    2005-04-01

    The ion microprobe SNAKE (superconducting nanoscope for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments) at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator achieves beam focusing by a superconducting quadrupole doublet and can make use of a broad range of ions and ion energies, from 20 MeV protons to 200 MeV gold ions. This allows to adjust the number of DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) per ion and per cell nucleus from about 0.1 DSBs per ion to several 100 DSBs per ion. When irradiating with single 100 MeV 16O ions, the adapted setup permits a fwhm irradiation accuracy of 0.55 μm in x-direction and 0.4 μm in y-direction, as demonstrated by retrospective track etching of polycarbonate foils. The experiments point to investigate protein dynamics after targeted irradiation. As an example for such experiments we show a kind of three dimensional representation of foci of γ-H2AX which are visible 0.5 h after the irradiation with 100 MeV 16O ions took place. It shows the gross correlation with the irradiation pattern but also distinct deviations which are attributed to protein dynamics in the cell.

  11. Geometrical methods in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taliotis, Anastasios

    Currently there exists no known way to construct the Stress-Energy tensor (Tmunu) of the medium produced in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling from purely theoretical grounds. In this work, some steps are taken in that direction. In particular, the evolution of Tmunu at strong coupling and at high energies is being studied for early proper times (tau). This is achieved in the context of the AdS/CFT duality by constructing the evolution of the dual geometry in an AdS5 background. We consider high energy collisions of two shock waves in AdS5 as a model of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in the boundary theory. We first calculate the graviton field produced in the collisions in the LO, NLO and NNLO approximations, corresponding to two, three and four-graviton exchanges with the shock waves. We use this model to study Tmunu and in particular the energy density of the strongly-coupled matter created immediately after the collision because as we argue, the expansion of the energy density (epsilon) in the powers of proper time tau squared corresponds on the gravity side to a perturbative expansion of the metric in graviton exchanges. We point out that shock waves corresponding to physical energy-momentum tensors of the nuclei is likely to completely stop after the collision; on the field theory side, this corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. This motivates a more detailed investigation. For this reason we consider the asymmetric limit where the energy density in one shock wave is much higher than in the other one. In the boundary theory this setup corresponds to proton-nucleus collisions. Employing the eikonal approximation we find the exact high energy analytic solution for the metric in AdS5 for the asymmetric collision of two delta-function shock waves. The solution resums all-order graviton exchanges with the nucleus-shock wave and a single-graviton exchange with the proton

  12. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L. J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-01

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  13. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, JJ; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L.J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-03

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Variable-Temperature Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkits, David; Wiseman, Alex; Snead, Russell F.; Dows, Martina; Harge, Jasmine; Lamp, Jared A.; Gronert, Scott

    2016-02-01

    A new, variable-temperature mass spectrometer system is described. By applying polyimide heating tape to the end-cap electrodes of a Bruker (Bremen, Germany) Esquire ion trap, it is possible to vary the effective temperature of the system between 40 and 100°C. The modification does not impact the operation of the ion trap and the heater can be used for extended periods without degradation of the system. The accuracy of the ion trap temperatures was assessed by examining two gas-phase equilibrium processes with known thermochemistry. In each case, the variable-temperature ion trap provided data that were in good accord with literature data, indicating the effective temperature in the ion trap environment was being successfully modulated by the changes in the set-point temperatures on the end-cap electrodes. The new design offers a convenient and effective way to convert commercial ion trap mass spectrometers into variable-temperature instruments.

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Variable-Temperature Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Derkits, David; Wiseman, Alex; Snead, Russell F; Dows, Martina; Harge, Jasmine; Lamp, Jared A; Gronert, Scott

    2016-02-01

    A new, variable-temperature mass spectrometer system is described. By applying polyimide heating tape to the end-cap electrodes of a Bruker (Bremen, Germany) Esquire ion trap, it is possible to vary the effective temperature of the system between 40 and 100°C. The modification does not impact the operation of the ion trap and the heater can be used for extended periods without degradation of the system. The accuracy of the ion trap temperatures was assessed by examining two gas-phase equilibrium processes with known thermochemistry. In each case, the variable-temperature ion trap provided data that were in good accord with literature data, indicating the effective temperature in the ion trap environment was being successfully modulated by the changes in the set-point temperatures on the end-cap electrodes. The new design offers a convenient and effective way to convert commercial ion trap mass spectrometers into variable-temperature instruments. PMID:26483183

  16. Pulsed discharge ionization source for miniature ion mobility spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jun; Ramsey, J. Michael; Whitten, William B.

    2004-11-23

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for flowing a sample gas and a reactant gas (38, 43) past a corona discharge electrode (26) situated at a first location in an ion drift chamber (24), applying a pulsed voltage waveform comprising a varying pulse component and a dc bias component to the corona discharge electrode (26) to cause a corona which in turn produces ions from the sample gas and the reactant gas, applying a dc bias to the ion drift chamber (24) to cause the ions to drift to a second location (25) in the ion drift chamber (24), detecting the ions at the second location (25) in the drift chamber (24), and timing the period for the ions to drift from the corona discharge electrode to the selected location in the drift chamber.

  17. A tandem time-of-flight spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence measurements with soft x-ray excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strâhlman, Christian; Sankari, Rami; Kivimäki, Antti; Richter, Robert; Coreno, Marcello; Nyholm, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We present a newly constructed spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence spectroscopy of gaseous samples. The instrument consists of two time-of-flight ion spectrometers and a magnetic momentum filter for deflection of electrons. The instrument can measure double and triple coincidences between mass-resolved negative and positive ions with high detection efficiency. First results include identification of several negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence channels following inner-shell photoexcitation of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).

  18. A tandem time-of-flight spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence measurements with soft x-ray excitation.

    PubMed

    Stråhlman, Christian; Sankari, Rami; Kivimäki, Antti; Richter, Robert; Coreno, Marcello; Nyholm, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We present a newly constructed spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence spectroscopy of gaseous samples. The instrument consists of two time-of-flight ion spectrometers and a magnetic momentum filter for deflection of electrons. The instrument can measure double and triple coincidences between mass-resolved negative and positive ions with high detection efficiency. First results include identification of several negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence channels following inner-shell photoexcitation of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). PMID:26827311

  19. Development and Deployment of Retrofit PolarisQ Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Isotope Ratio Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Whitten, William B.

    2015-11-01

    This report describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) FY15 progress in support of National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Portable Mass Spectrometer project. A retrofit PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometer (RPMS) has been assembled from components of two PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometers used in previous isotope ratio programs. The retrofit mass spectrometer includes a custom Hastelloy vacuum chamber which is about ¼ the size of the standard aluminum vacuum chamber and reduces the instrument weight from the original by nine pounds. In addition, the new vacuum chamber can be independently heated to reduce impurities such as water, which reacts with UF6 to produce HF in the vacuum chamber. The analyzer and all components requiring service are mounted on the chamber lid, facilitating quick and easy replacement of consumable components such as the filament and electron multiplier.

  20. Inferring Magnetospheric Heavy Ion Density using EMIC Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from EMIC wave observations that result from ionion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. This mode converted wave is localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this letter, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and field-aligned wave numbers using a dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentrations, it only occurs for a limited range of field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  1. Direct-driven target implosion in heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, the driver beam illumination non-uniformity leads a degradation of fusion energy output. A fuel target alignment error would happen in a fusion reactor; the target alignment error induces heavy ion beam illumination non-uniformity on a target. On the other hand, heavy ion beam accelerator provides a capability to oscillate a beam axis with a high frequency. The wobbling beams may provide a new method to reduce or smooth the beam illumination non-uniformity. First we study the effect of driver irradiation non-uniformity induced by the target alignment error (dz) on the target implosion. We found that dz should be less than about 130 μm for a sufficient fusion energy output. We also optimize the wobbling scheme. The spiral wobbling heavy ion beams would provide a promissing scheme to the uniform beam illumination.

  2. Energy levels of a heavy ion moving in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hongwei; Chen, Wencong; Zhao, Yongtao; Li, Fuli; Dong, Chenzhong

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, the potential of a slowly moving test particle moving in collisional dense plasmas is studied. It is composed of the Debye-shielding potential, wake potential, and collision term. The Ritz variational-perturbational method is developed for calculating relativistic binding energy levels of a heavy ion moving in dense plasmas. Binding energy levels of a heavy ion moving in plasmas are calculated. The results show that both non-relativistic energy levels and relativistic energy levels become more negative as the temperature becomes high. They also become more negative as the number density decreasing. Relativistic correction is important for calculating binding energy levels. Both relativistic energy levels and non-relativistic energy levels vary minutely as the speed of heavy ion varies.

  3. The Path to Heavy Ions at LHC and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutbrod, Hans H.

    My appreciation of Rolf Hagedorn motivates me to look back at my more than 40 years of trial and error in relativistic heavy ion physics. More than once, wise colleagues helped me move forward to new and better understandings. Rolf Hagedorn was one of these important people. At first, I met him anonymously in the mid 1970s when reading his 1971 Cargèse Lectures in Physics, and later in person for many years in and around CERN. I wonder what this modest person would say about his impact on physics in this millennium. As he is not here to answer, I and others give our answers in this book. I focus my report on the beginning of the research program with relativistic heavy ions, the move to CERN-SPS and the development of the heavy ion collaboration at the CERN-LHC.

  4. Thermal, chemical and spectral equilibration in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almási, Gábor András; Wolf, György

    2015-11-01

    We have considered the equilibration in relativistic heavy ion collisions at energies 1-7 A GeV using our transport model. We applied periodic boundary conditions to close the system in a box. We found that the thermal equilibration takes place in the first 20-40 fm/c whose time is comparable to the duration of a heavy ion collision. The chemical equilibration is a much slower process and the system does not equilibrate in a heavy ion collision. We have shown that in the testparticle simulation of the Boltzmann equation the mass spectra of broad resonances follow instantaneously their in-medium spectral functions as expected from the Markovian approximation to the Kadanoff-Baym equations employed via the (local) gradient expansion.

  5. Sputtering Threshold Energies of Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, Maris A.

    1999-01-01

    Sputter erosion in ion thrusters has been measured in lifetests at discharge voltages as low as 25 V. Thruster operation at this discharge voltage results in component erosion rates sufficiently low to satisfy most mission requirements. It has been recognized that most of the internal sputtering in ion thrusters is done by doubly charged ions. Knowledge of the sputtering threshold voltage of a xenon molybdenum system would be beneficial in understanding the sputtering process as well as making more accurate calculations of the sputtering rates of ion thruster components. Sputtering threshold energies calculated from various formulations found in the literature results in values ranging from 28 to 200 eV. It is evident that some of these formulations cannot be relied upon to provide sputtering thresholds with any degree of accuracy. This paper re-examines the threshold energies measurements made in the early sixties by Askerov and Sena, and Stuart and Wehner. The threshold voltages as derived by Askerov and au have been reevaluated by using a different extrapolation method of sputter yields at low ion energies. The resulting threshold energies are in general similar to those measured by Stuart and Wehner. An empirical relationship is derived,for mercury and xenon ions for the ratio of the sputtering threshold energy to the sublimation energy as a function of the ratio of target to ion atomic mass.

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-07-01

    Interest in energetic heavy ions is rapidly increasing in the field of biomedicine. Heavy ions are normally excluded from radiation protection, because they are not normally experienced by humans on Earth. However, knowledge of heavy ion biophysics is necessary in two fields: charged particle cancer therapy (hadrontherapy), and radiation protection in space missions. The possibility to cure tumours using accelerated heavy charged particles was first tested in Berkeley in the sixties, but results were not satisfactory. However, about 15 years ago therapy with carbon ions was resumed first in Japan and then in Europe. Heavy ions are preferable to photons for both physical and biological characteristics: the Bragg peak and limited lateral diffusion ensure a conformal dose distribution, while the high relative biological effectiveness and low oxygen enhancement ration in the Bragg peak region make the beam very effective in treating radioresistant and hypoxic tumours. Recent results coming from the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba (see the paper by Dr Tsujii and co-workers in this issue) and GSI (Germany) provide strong clinical evidence that heavy ions are indeed an extremely effective weapon in the fight against cancer. However, more research is needed in the field, especially on optimization of the treatment planning and risk of late effects in normal tissue, including secondary cancers. On the other hand, high-energy heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic radiation and, although they are rare as compared to protons, they give a major contribution in terms of equivalent dose to the crews of manned space exploratory-class missions. Exploration of the Solar System is now the main goal of the space program, and the risk caused by exposure to galactic cosmic radiation is considered a serious hindrance toward this goal, because of the high uncertainty on late effects of energetic heavy nuclei, and the lack of effective countermeasures. Risks

  7. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-10-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high-LET heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. RFLP analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

  8. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

  9. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants.

    PubMed

    Mei, M; Deng, H; Lu, Y; Zhuang, C; Liu, Z; Qiu, Q; Qiu, Y; Yang, T C

    1994-10-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high-LET heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. RFLP analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants. PMID:11539972

  10. Heating of heavy ions on auroral field lines

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, K.I.; Okuda, H., Hasegawa, A.

    1983-01-01

    Heating of heavy ions is studied in the presence of large amplitude hydrogen cyclotron waves. A three wave decay process, in which a large amplitude pump hydrogen cyclotron wave decays into a daughter hydrogen cyclotron wave and a low frequency oxygen cyclotron wave, is studied theoretically and by numerical simulations. The numerical simulations show a decay instability resulting in strong heating of both the oxygen ions and the hydrogen ions. In particular, the high energy tail of the oxygen ions is observed in the perpendicular distribution.

  11. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    PubMed

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater. PMID:27179811

  12. Heavy ions at steamboat: summary of parallel sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    The interest in heavy ions at the intersection between particle and nuclear physics is motivated by the opportunity for an entirely new approach to the understanding of fundamental interactions by studying extreme states of nuclear matter. At this conference we have seen important new results on some of the central issues including: (1) how well can we predict the landscape of the extremes - that is, the phase structure of QCD and nuclear matter; (2) can we explore it with heavy ion collisions; and (3) can we recognize the appearance of new terrain. Our present understanding of the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditions is briefly discussed. 16 references. (WHK)

  13. Charge Strippers of Heavy Ions for High Intensity Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolen, Jerry A.; Marti, Felix

    2014-02-01

    Charge strippers play a critical role in many high intensity heavy ion accelerators. Here we present some history of recent stripper technology development and indicate the capabilities and limitations of the various approaches. The properties of solid, gaseous, and liquid strippers are covered. In particular, the limitations of solid strippers for high intensity, high atomic number heavy ions and the unique features of helium gas and liquid lithium for high intensity applications are covered. The need for high quality simulation of stripper performance as important input for system optimization is explained and examples of the current simulation codes are given.

  14. Development of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for Heavy Ion Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N; Manahan, R; Lietzke, A F

    2001-09-10

    Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is exploring a promising path to a practical inertial-confinement fusion reactor. The associated heavy ion driver will require a large number of focusing quadrupole magnets. A concept for a superconducting quadrupole array, using many simple racetrack coils, was developed at LLNL. Two, single-bore quadrupole prototypes of the same design, with distinctly different conductor, were designed, built, and tested. Both prototypes reached their short sample currents with little or no training. Magnet design, and test results, are presented and discussed.

  15. Complexified boost invariance and holographic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubser, Steven S.; van der Schee, Wilke

    2015-01-01

    At strong coupling holographic studies have shown that heavy ion collisions do not obey normal boost invariance. Here we study a modified boost invariance through a complex shift in time, and show that this leads to surprisingly good agreement with numerical holographic computations. When including perturbations the agreement becomes even better, both in the hydrodynamic and the far-from-equilibrium regime. One of the main advantages is an analytic formulation of the stress-energy tensor of the longitudinal dynamics of holographic heavy ion collisions.

  16. Solar wind heavy ions from flare-heated coronal plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bame, S. J.; Asbridge, J. R.; Feldman, W. C.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gosling, J. T.

    1979-01-01

    Information concerning the coronal expansion is carried by solar-wind heavy ions. Distinctly different energy-per-charge ion spectra are found in two classes of solar wind having the low kinetic temperatures necessary for E/q resolution of the ion species. Heavy-ion spectra which can be resolved are most frequently observed in the low-speed interstream (IS) plasma found between high speed streams; the streams are thought to originate from coronal holes. Although the sources of the IS plasma are uncertain, the heavy-ion spectra found there contain identifiable peaks of O, Si, and Fe ions. Such spectra indicate that the IS ionization state of O is established in coronal gas at a temperature of approximately 1.6 million K, while that of Fe is frozen in farther out at about 1.5 million K. On occasion anomalous spectra are found outside IS flows in solar wind with abnormally depressed local kinetic temperatures. The anomalous spectra contain Fe(16+) ions, not usually found in IS flows, and the derived coronal freezing-in temperatures are significantly higher. The coronal sources of some of these ionizationally hot flows are identified as solar flares.

  17. Residual gas fluorescence monitor for relativistic heavy ions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, T.; Gassner, D.; Minty, M.

    2013-10-01

    A residual gas fluorescence beam profile monitor at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has successfully recorded beam images of various species of relativistic heavy ions during FY2012 operations. These fully striped ions include gold, copper, and uranium at 100, 99.9, and 96.4GeV/n, respectively. Their beam profiles give an independent measurement of the RHIC beam size and emittance. We estimated their corresponding fluorescence cross sections to be 2.1×10-16, 1.8×10-17, and 2.6×10-16cm2, and obtained their rms transverse beam sizes of 0.36, 0.37, 0.24 mm for gold, copper, and uranium ions, respectively. They are the smallest ion beam width, thus lowest beam emittance, ever produced at RHIC or any other high-energy heavy ion colliders. These extremely small beam sizes may have reached a fundamental limit to residual gas fluorescence based beam profile monitor. Nevertheless, this beam diagnostic technique, utilizing the beam-induced fluorescence from residual gas where hydrogen is still the dominant constituent in nearly all vacuum systems, represents a passive, robust, truly noninvasive, monitor for high-energy ion beams.

  18. Imaging mass-spectrometer of ions for studying near-planetary plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisberg, O. L.; Leibov, A. V.; Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Bertelier, J.-J.; Torcar, K.; Leblan, F.; Babkin, V. F.; Grishin, V. A.; Baumjohann, V.; Escoubet, F.

    2006-05-01

    A numerical model of an ion mass-spectrometer is developed based on the new type of charged-particle analyzer CAMERA suggested previously [1 3]. The spectrometer provides for complete instantaneous imaging of the flux distribution of various ions in a hemisphere. Such a type of the mass-spectrometer is chosen, which allows one to analyze a conelike beam of ions at the exit of the CAMERA. The mathematical model of the CAMERA with this time-of-flight mass-analyzer ensures sufficiently high mass resolution (M/ΔM > 100) at conserved imaging capabilities of the CAMERA. Such an instrument can find a wide application both in magnetospheric studies and in studying various objects of the solar system.

  19. Electrospray Ionization/Ion Mobility Spectrometer/Cylindrical Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer System for In-Situ Detection of Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, I.; Johnson, P. V.; Beegle, L. W.; Cooks, R. G.; Laughlin, B. C.; Hill, H. H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of an Electrospray Ionization/Ion Mobility Spectrometer/Cylindrical Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (ESI/IMS/CIT-MS) as an analytical instrument for analyzing material extracted from rock and soil samples as part of a suite of instruments on the proposed 2009 Mars Science Lander (MSL) will be demonstrated. This instrument will be able to identify volatile compounds as well as resident organic molecules on the parts-per-billion (ppb) level. Also, it will be able to obtain an inventory of chemical species on the surface of Mars which will result in a better understanding of ongoing surface chemistry. Finally, questions relevant to biological processes will be answered with the complete inventory of surface and near surface organic molecules that the ESI/IMS/CIT is capable of performing.

  20. Properties of the suprathermal heavy ion population near 1 AU during solar cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayeh, Maher A.; Desai, Mihir I.; Ebert, Robert W.; Mason, Glenn M.

    2016-03-01

    Using measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer/Ultra-Low Energy Isotope Spectrometer (ACE/ULEIS) near 1 AU, we surveyed the composition and spectra of heavy ions (He-through-Fe) during interplanetary quiet times from 1998 January 1 to 2014 December 31 at suprathermal energies between ˜0.11 and ˜1.28 MeV nucleon-1. The selected time period covers the maxima of solar cycles 23 and 24 and the extended solar minimum in between. We find the following: (1) The number of quiet-hours in each year correlates well with the sunspot number, year 2009 was the quietest for about 90% of the time; (2) The composition of the quiet-time suprathermal heavy ion population (3He, C-through-O, and Fe) correlates well with the level of solar activity, exhibiting SEP-like composition signatures during solar maximum, and CIR- or solar wind-like composition during solar minimum; (3) The heavy ion spectra at ˜0.11-0.32 MeV nucleon-1 exhibit suprathermal tails with power-law spectral indices ranging from 1.4 to 2.7. (4) Fe spectral indices get softer (steeper) from solar minimum of cycle 23 to solar cycle 24 maximum. These results imply that during IP quiet times and at energies above ˜0.1 MeV nucleon-1, the IP medium is dominated by material from prior solar and interplanetary events.

  1. Single event upsets caused by solar energetic heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Tylka, A.J.; Adams, J.H. Jr.; Boberg, P.R.; Dietrich, W.F.; Smith, E.C.

    1996-12-01

    The authors calculate single event upset (SEU) rates due to protons, alphas, and heavier ions in two satellite systems for the major solar particle events of 1989--92, using a new and complete analysis of GOES proton data and high-energy heavy-ion fluences from the University of Chicago Cosmic Ray Telescope on IMP-8. These measurements cover the entire range of energies relevant to SEU studies and therefore overcome shortcomings of previous studies, which relied upon theoretical or semi-empirical estimates of high-energy heavy-ion spectra. They compare the results to the observed SEU rates in these events. The SEU rates in one device were overwhelmingly dominated by protons. However, even after taking into account uncertainties in the ground-test cross-section data, the authors find that at least {approximately}45% of the SEUs in the other device must have been caused by heavy ions. The results demonstrate that both protons and heavy ions must be considered in order to make a reliable assessment of SEU vulnerabilities. Furthermore, the GOES/Chicago database of solar particle events provides a basis for making accurate solar particle SEU calculations and credible worst-case estimates. In particular, measurements of the historic solar particle events of October 1989 are used in worst week and worst day environment models in CREME96, a revision of NRL`s Cosmic Ray Effects on MicroElectronics code.

  2. Heavy ion acceleration at the AGS: Present and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is alternating gradient synchrotron, 807 meters in circumference, which was originally designed for only protons. Using the 15 MV Brookhaven Tandem Van de Graaff as an injector, the AGS started to accelerate heavy ions of mass lighter than sulfur. Because of the relatively poor vacuum (/approximately/10/sup /minus/8/ Torr), the AGS is not able to accelerate heavier ions which could not be fully stripped of electrons at the Tandem energy. When the AGS Booster, which is under construction, is completed the operation will be extended to all species of heavy ions including gold and uranium. Because ultra-high vacuum (/approximately/10/sup /minus/11/ Torr) is planned, the Booster can accelerate partially stripped elements. The operational experience, the parameters, and scheme of heavy ion acceleration will be presented in detail from injection to extraction, as well as future injection into the new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A future plan to improve intensity of the accelerator will also be presented. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. High precision electric gate for time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer having a chamber with electrodes to generate an electric field in the chamber and electric gating for allowing ions with a predetermined mass and velocity into the electric field. The design uses a row of very thin parallel aligned wires that are pulsed in sequence so the ion can pass through the gap of two parallel plates, which are biased to prevent passage of the ion. This design by itself can provide a high mass resolution capability and a very precise start pulse for an ion mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the ion will only pass through the chamber if it is within a wire diameter of the first wire when it is pulsed and has the right speed so it is near all other wires when they are pulsed.

  4. Fourth workshop on experiments and detectors for a relativistic heavy ion collider

    SciTech Connect

    Fatyga, M.; Moskowitz, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: physics at RHIC; flavor flow from quark-gluon plasma; space-time quark-gluon cascade; jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions; parton distributions in hard nuclear collisions; experimental working groups, two-arm electron/photon spectrometer collaboration; total and elastic pp cross sections; a 4{pi} tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer; hadron spectroscopy; efficiency and background simulations for J/{psi} detection in the RHIC dimuon experiment; the collision regions beam crossing geometries; Monte Carlo simulations of interactions and detectors; proton-nucleus interactions; the physics of strong electromagnetic fields in collisions of relativistic heavy ions; a real time expert system for experimental high energy/nuclear physics; the development of silicon multiplicity detectors; a pad readout detector for CRID/tracking; RHIC TPC R D progress and goals; development of analog memories for RHIC detector front-end electronic systems; calorimeter/absorber optimization for a RHIC dimuon experiment; construction of a highly segmented high resolution TOF system; progress report on a fast, particle-identifying trigger based on ring-imaging and highly integrated electronics for a TPC detector.

  5. Hadron production in relativistic heavy ion interactions and the search for the quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1989-12-01

    The course starts with an introduction, from the experimentalist's point of view, of the challenge of measuring Relativistic Heavy Ion interactions. A review of some theoretical predictions for the expected signatures of the quark gluon plasma will be made, with a purpose to understand how they relate to quantities which may be experimentally measured. A short exposition of experimental techniques and details is given including charged particles in matter, momentum resolution, kinematics and Lorentz Transformations, calorimetry. Principles of particle identification including magnetic spectrometers, time of flight measurement. Illustrations using the E802 spectrometer and other measured results. Resolution smearing of spectra, and binning effects. Parent to daughter effects in decay, with {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma} {gamma} as an example. The experimental situation from the known data in p -- p collisions and proton-nucleus reactions is reviewed and used as a basis for further discussions. The Cronin Effect'' and the Seagull Effect'' being two arcana worth noting. Then, selected experiments from the BNL and CERN heavy ion programs are discussed in detail. 118 refs., 45 figs.

  6. Laser-driven multicharged heavy ion beam acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Nishio, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Y.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Imai, K.; Nagamiya, S.

    2015-05-01

    Experimental demonstration of multi-charged heavy ion acceleration from the interaction between the ultra-intense short pulse laser system and the metal target is presented. The laser pulse of <10 J laser energy, 36 fs pulse width, and the contrast level of ~1010 from 200 TW class Ti:sapphire J-KAREN laser system at JAEA is used in the experiment. Almost fully stripped Fe ions accelerated up to 0.9 GeV are demonstrated. This is achieved by the high intensity laser field of ˜ 1021Wcm-2 interacting with the solid density target. The demonstrated iron ions with high charge to mass ratio (Q/M) is difficult to be achieved by the conventional heavy ion source technique in the accelerators.

  7. A feasibility study of ion implantation techniques for mass spectrometer calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koslin, M. E.; Krycuk, G. A.; Schatz, J. G., Jr.; White, F. A.; Wood, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of using ion-implanted filaments doped with either an alkali metal or noble gas for in situ recalibration of onboard mass spectrometers during extended space missions. Implants of rubidium and krypton in rhenium ribbon filaments were subsequently tested in a bakeable 60 deg sector mass spectrometer operating in the static mode. Surface ionization and electron impact ion sources were both used, each yielding satisfactory results. The metallic implant with subsequent ionization provided a means of mass scale calibration and determination of system operating parameters, whereas the noble gas thermally desorbed into the system was more suited for partial pressure and sensitivity determinations.

  8. Instrument manual for the retarding ion mass spectrometer on Dynamics Explorer-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, S. A.; Baugher, C. R.; Chappell, C. R.; Reasoner, D. L.; Hammack, H. D.; Wright, W. W.; Hoffman, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) for Dynamics Explorer-1 is an instrument designed to measure the details of the thermal plasma distribution. It combines the ion temperature determining capability of the retarding potential analyzer with the compositional capabilities of the mass spectrometer and adds multiple sensor heads to sample all directions relative to the spacecraft ram direction. This manual provides a functional description of the RIMS, the instrument calibration, and a description of the commands which can be stored in the instrument logic to control its operation.

  9. Simulation of Chamber Transport for Heavy-Ion-Fusion Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W M; Callahan, D A; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Welch, D R

    2003-09-25

    The heavy-ion fusion (HIF) community recently developed a power-plant design that meets the various requirements of accelerators, final focus, chamber transport, and targets. The point design is intended to minimize physics risk and is certainly not optimal for the cost of electricity. Recent chamber-transport simulations, however, indicate that changes in the beam ion species, the convergence angle, and the emittance might allow more-economical designs.

  10. Calculations of heavy ion charge state distributions for nonequilibrium conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhn, A.; Hovestadt, D.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical calculations of the charge state distributions of test ions in a hot plasma under nonequilibrium conditions are presented. The mean ionic charges of heavy ions for finite residence times in an instantaneously heated plasma and for a non-Maxwellian electron distribution function are derived. The results are compared with measurements of the charge states of solar energetic particles, and it is found that neither of the two simple cases considered can explain the observations.

  11. Possible detection of energetic Jovian heavy ions at Skylab orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of sodium ions at a concentration about 10% that of oxygen among the particles with energies 10 to 20 MeV/nucleon seen with a detector on Skylab suggests that Jupiter is a significant source of energetic heavy particles inside the earth's magnetosphere. A numerical estimate based on the density of energetic sodium ions at 50 Jupiter radii measured on Voyager 1 indicates that the source strength is adequate.

  12. Preliminary result of rapid solenoid for controlling heavy-ion beam parameters of laser ion source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Okamura, M.; Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Kanesue, T.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.

    2015-03-13

    To realize a heavy ion inertial fusion driver, we have studied a possibility of laser ion source (LIS). A LIS can provide high current high brightness heavy ion beams, however it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters. To overcome the issue, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The rapid ramping magnetic field could enhance limited time slice of the current and simultaneously the beam emittance changed accordingly. This approach may also useful to realize an ion source for HIF power plant.

  13. Inferring magnetospheric heavy ion density using EMIC waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2015-08-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave observations that result from ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the IIH resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. These mode-converted waves at the IIH resonance are localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this paper, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and wave frequencies using a dipole magnetic field model. We find that the resonance only occurs over a limited range of wave frequency such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and EMIC waves observed from the GOES 12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate the He+ concentration of around 4% near L = 6.6 assuming electron-H+-He+ plasma.

  14. Progress report on the Heavy Ions in Space (HIIS) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.; Boberg, Paul R.; Tylka, Allan J.

    1993-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment is to investigate heavy ions which appear at Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) below the geomagnetic cutoff for fully-ionized galactic cosmic rays. Possible sources of such 'below-cutoff' particles are partially-ionized solar energetic particles, the anomalous component of cosmic rays, and magnetospherically-trapped particles. In recent years, there have also been reports of below-cutoff ions which do not appear to be from any known source. Although most of these observations are based on only a handful of ions, they have led to speculation about 'partially-ionized galactic cosmic rays' and 'near-by cosmic ray sources'. The collecting power of HIIS is order of magnitude larger than that of the instruments which reported these results, so HIIS should be able to confirm these observations and perhaps discover the source of these particles. Preliminary results on below-cutoff heavy-ions are reported. Observations to possible known sources of such ions are compared. A second objective of the HIIS experiment is to measure the elemental composition of ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays, beginning in the tin-barium region of the periodic table. A report on the status of this analysis is presented.

  15. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. PMID:20656104

  16. An electrodynamic ion funnel interface for greater sensitivity and higher throughput with linear ion trap mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Jason S.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-09-01

    An electrospray ionization interface incorporating an electrodynamic ion funnel has been designed and implemented on a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, LTQ). We found ion transmission to be greatly improved by replacing the standard capillary-skimmer interface with the capillary-ion funnel interface. An infusion study using a serial dilution of a reserpine solution showed that ion injection (accumulation) times to fill the ion trap at a given automatic gain control (AGC) target value were reduced by ~90% which resulted in an ~10-fold increase in peak intensities. In liquid chromatography tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) experiments performed using a global protein digest sample from the bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis, more peptides and proteins were identified when the ion funnel interface was used in place of the standard interface. This improvement was most pronounced at lower sample concentrations, where extended ion accumulation times are required, resulting in an ~2-fold increase in the number of protein identifications. Implementation of the ion funnel interface on a LTQ Fourier transform (FT) mass spectrometer showed a ~25-50% reduction in spectrum acquisition time. The duty cycle improvement in this case was due to the ion accumulation event contributing a larger portion to the total spectrum acquisition time.

  17. Frequency-swept detector for ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronka, J.; Ridge, D. P.

    1982-04-01

    Design, construction, performance, and use of a frequency-swept bridge detector for ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry are described. Special features include characterization and simple automatic correction of phase shift to allow broadband detection. The result is a detection system that may be used either at constant field or constant frequency. Drift-mode operation is simplified in that it may be satisfactorily used without the various signal modulation schemes used in previous detectors. In the trapped mode the detector may be pulsed to control the timing of ion detection. This detector makes it possible to do frequency-swept double resonance experiments which provide spectra of all the product ions of a given reactant ion. Circuit schematics and typical frequency- and field-swept spectra are shown.

  18. Heavy Ion Carcinogenesis and Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Durante, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Prior to the human exploration of Mars or long duration stays on the Earth s moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been show to produce distinct biological damage compared to radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer and other health risks, while obscuring evaluation of the effectiveness of possible countermeasures. Here, we describe how research in cancer radiobiology can support human missions to Mars and other planets.

  19. Comet Encke: Meteor metallic ion identification by mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Aikin, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Metal ions including Na-40(+), Mg-24(+), Si-28(+), K-39(+), Ca-40(+), Sc-45(+), Cr-52(+), Fe-56(+), and Ni-58(+) were detected in the upper atmosphere during the beta Taurids meteor shower. Abundances of these ions relative to Si(+) show agreement in most instances with chondrites. A notable exception is 45(+), which is Sc(+), is 100 times more abundant than neutral scandium found in chondrites.

  20. Comet encke: meteor metallic ion identification by mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, R A; Aikin, A C

    1973-04-20

    Metal ions including 23(+) (Na(+)), 24(+) (Mg(+)) 28(+) (Si(+)), 39(+) (K(+)), 40(+) (Ca(+)), 45(+) (Sc(+)), 52(+) Cr(+)). 56(+) (Fe(+)), and 58(+) (Ni(+)) have been detected in the upper atmosphere during the period of the Beta Taurids meteor shower. The abundances of these ions relative to Si(+) show, agreement in most instances with abundances in chondrites. A notable exception is 45(+), which, if it is Sc(+), is 100 times more abundant than neutral scandium found in chondrites. PMID:17816288

  1. Accelerator mass spectrometry with heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberstock, Günther; Heinzl, Johann; Korschinek, Gunther; Morinaga, Haruhiko; Nolte, Eckehart; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Kato, Kazuo; Wolf, Manfred

    1986-11-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry measurements with fully stripped 36Cl ions have been performed at the Munich accelerator laboratory in order to date groundwaters and palaeontological samples, to study anthropogenic 36Cl produced through nuclear tests and to determine the fast neutron flux of the Hiroshima A-bomb.

  2. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.; Fowler, M.M.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S.; Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50--100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components--intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: the reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicity of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Role of giant resonances in heavy-ion radiative capture

    SciTech Connect

    Sandorfi, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The main features and physics of the radiative capture of heavy ions are reviewed. Data are discussed from three reactions: /sup 12/C(/sup 12/C,..gamma..)/sup 24/Mg, /sup 14/C(/sup 12/C,..gamma..)/sup 26/Mg, /sup 12/C(/sup 16/O,..gamma..)/sup 28/Si. Excitation functions are given and discussed. 17 references.

  4. (Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions)

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following research projects; decay of excited nuclei formed in La-induced reactions at E/A = 45 MeV; mass and charge distributions in Cl-induced heavy ion reactions; and mass and charge distributions in {sup 56}Fe + {sup 165}Ho at E/A = 12 MeV.

  5. Photon and dilepton production in high energy heavy ion collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sakaguchi, Takao

    2015-05-07

    The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high energy heavy ion collisions, obtained particularly at RHIC and LHC are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the physics learned from the results.

  6. The chromatic correction in RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Dell, G.F.; Hahn, H.; Parzen, G.

    1987-01-01

    The scheme for the correction of chromatic effects in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL is discussed. This scheme uses six families of sextupoles excited by four independent power supplies, and provides adequate control of linear and quadratic terms in the tune vs momentum dependence and reduces the variation of the betatron amplitude, vs momentum.

  7. Heavy ion collisions and the pre-equilibrium exciton model

    SciTech Connect

    Betak, E.

    2012-10-20

    We present a feasible way to apply the pre-equilibrium exciton model in its masterequation formulation to heavy-ion induced reactions including spin variables. Emission of nucleons, {gamma}'s and also light clusters is included in our model.

  8. Overview of Device SEE Susceptibility from Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Coss, J. R.; McCarthy, K. P.; Schwartz, H. R.; Smith, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    A fifth set of heavy ion single event effects (SEE) test data have been collected since the last IEEE publications (1,2,3,4) in December issues for 1985, 1987, 1989, and 1991. Trends in SEE susceptibility (including soft errors and latchup) for state-of-the-art parts are evaluated.

  9. Electromagnetic dissociation effects in galactic heavy-ion fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for calculating cross sections for the breakup of galactic heavy ions by the Coulomb fields of the interacting nuclei are presented. By using the Weizsacker-Williams method of virtual quanta, estimates of electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for a variety of reactions applicable to galactic cosmic ray shielding studies are presented and compared with other predictions and with available experimental data.

  10. Three-dimensional Model of Tissue and Heavy Ions Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Huff, Janice L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional tissue model was incorporated into a new Monte Carlo algorithm that simulates passage of heavy ions in a tissue box . The tissue box was given as a realistic model of tissue based on confocal microscopy images. The action of heavy ions on the cellular matrix for 2- or 3-dimensional cases was simulated. Cells were modeled as a cell culture monolayer in one example, where the data were taken directly from microscopy (2-d cell matrix), and as a multi-layer obtained from confocal microscopy (3-d case). Image segmentation was used to identify cells with precise areas/volumes in an irradiated cell culture monolayer, and slices of tissue with many cell layers. The cells were then inserted into the model box of the simulated physical space pixel by pixel. In the case of modeled tissues (3-d), the tissue box had periodic boundary conditions imposed, which extrapolates the technique to macroscopic volumes of tissue. For the real tissue (3-d), specific spatial patterns for cell apoptosis and necrosis are expected. The cell patterns were modeled based on action cross sections for apoptosis and necrosis estimated from current experimental data. A spatial correlation function indicating a higher spatial concentration of damaged cells from heavy ions relative to the low-LET radiation cell damage pattern is presented. The spatial correlation effects among necrotic cells can help studying microlesions in organs, and probable effects of directionality of heavy ion radiation on epithelium and endothelium.

  11. Trends in Device SEE Susceptibility from Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Coss, J. R.; McCarty, K. P.; Schwartz, H. R.; Swift, G. M.; Watson, R. K.; Koga, R.; Crain, W. R.; Crawford, K. B.; Hansel, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The sixth set of heavy ion single event effects (SEE) test data have been collected since the last IEEE publications in December issues of IEEE - Nuclear Science Transactions for 1985, 1987, 1989, 1991, and the IEEE Workshop Record, 1993. Trends in SEE susceptibility (including soft errors and latchup) for state-of- are evaluated.

  12. Probing the nuclear structure with heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Broglia, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclei display distortions in both ordinary space and in gauge space. It is suggested that it is possible to learn about the spatial distribution of the Nilsson orbitals and about the change of the pairing gap with the rotational frequency through the analysis of one- and two-nucleon transfer reactions induced in heavy-ion collisions.

  13. Mechanism of dissipation in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss a new surface-plus-window mechanism for the conversion of nuclear collective energy into internal degrees of freedom at intermediate excitation energies. This novel dissipation mechanism, which results from the long mean free path of nucleons inside a nucleus, involves interactions of either one or two nucleons with the moving nuclear surface and also, for dumbbell-like shapes encountered in heavy-ion reactions and fission, the transfer of nucleons through the window separating the two portions of the system. To illustrate the effect of surface-plus-window dissipation on heavy-ion-fusion reactions we present dynamical calculations for values of the dissipation strength corresponding to 27% and 100% of the Swiatecki wall-formula value, as well as for no dissipation. In addition to dynamical thresholds for compound-nucleus formation in heavy-ion reactions, our new picture describes such other phenomena as experimental mean fission-fragment kinetic energies for the fission of nuclei throughout the periodic system, enhancement in neutron emission prior to fission, short scission-to-scission times in sequential ternary fission, widths of mass and charge distributions in deep-inelastic heavy-ion reactions, and widths of isoscalar giant quadrupole and giant octupole resonances. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Overview of US heavy-ion fusion progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    2004-06-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators seek to provide the scientific and technical basis for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX), an integrated source-to-target physics experiment recently included in the list of future facilities planned by the U.S. Department of Energy. To optimize the design of IBX and future inertial fusion energy drivers, current HIF-VNL research is addressing several key issues (representative, not inclusive): gas and electron cloud effects which can exacerbate beam loss at high beam perveance and magnet aperture fill factors; ballistic neutralized and assisted-pinch focusing of neutralized heavy ion beams; limits on longitudinal compression of both neutralized and un-neutralized heavy ion bunches; and tailoring heavy ion beams for uniform target energy deposition for high energy density physics (HEDP) studies.

  15. Rocket-borne Ion Mass Spectrometer for the Mesosphere That is Pumped by Rocket Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Smith, Steven; Robertson, Scott

    The mesospheric region close to the mesopause is populated by electrons, ions and aerosol particles. The number density of aerosol particles may exceed that of the background plasma creating conditions where the free electron density is reduced. Understanding the full charge balance of the region requires the simultaneous detection of electrons, charged aerosol particles and ions. Rocket borne instruments for the measurement of electrons and aerosols are readily available. Mass spectrometers for ions have been flown that were evacuated by cryogenic vacuum pumps with liquid helium or neon. There have not been flights since 1993 because these instruments required expensive deliveries of cryogens and frequent refilling. Advances in (1) aerodynamic modeling, (2) mass spectrometer design, and (3) ion detection technology make possible a new approach to mass spectrometry in the mesosphere in which the spectrometer is pumped by the flow around the rocket. A miniature Rotating Field Mass Analyzer (RFMS) is presented that is suitable for the measurement of ions in from 70 km upward. RFMS has a 2 x 2 x 20 mm3 velocity selection cell and utilizes and advanced ion detector that is capable of single ions operation mode at these altitudes. The instrument is pumped by the aerodynamic effect of the supersonic payload. A prototype version of RFMS is under laboratory testing.

  16. Development of a sensitive mid-infrared spectrometer for the study of cooled molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porambo, Michael W.

    The study of molecular ions is relevant to many areas of scientific interest. Mid-infrared laser spectroscopy functions as a useful tool for understanding the role of molecular ions in these areas. To this end, a broadly tunable mid-infrared difference frequency generation noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) system has been developed and characterized through rovibrational spectroscopy of methane. In addition, an attempt was made to use this spectrometer to probe molecular ions focused into an ion beam. Challenges inherent to laboratory molecular ion spectroscopy, such as quantum dilution at high internal temperatures and low ion number density, have been addressed through the development of an instrument that produces rotationally cooled molecular ions coupled to the highly sensitive spectroscopic technique NICE-OHMS. The instrument was first explored as an extension of an ion beam spectrometer by the integration of a continuous supersonic expansion discharge source for the production of the cooled molecular ions. Issues with the implementation led to the re- design of the instrument for spectroscopically probing a supersonic expansion discharge directly with NICE-OHMS. After implementing discharge modulation of the supersonic expansion source, spectra of rotationally cooled H(3/+) and HN(+/2) were acquired. This instrumental development and preliminary spectroscopy has paved the way for a new method for the sensitive spectroscopic study of cooled molecular ions that will aid further insight into these chemical species in many fields.

  17. On the analysis of inhomogeneous magnetic field spectrometer for laser-driven ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, D.; Senje, L.; McCormack, O.; Dromey, B.; Zepf, M.; Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Letzring, S.; Gautier, D. C.; Fernandez, J. C.; Toncian, T.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2015-03-15

    We present a detailed study of the use of a non-parallel, inhomogeneous magnetic field spectrometer for the investigation of laser-accelerated ion beams. Employing a wedged yoke design, we demonstrate the feasibility of an in-situ self-calibration technique of the non-uniform magnetic field and show that high-precision measurements of ion energies are possible in a wide-angle configuration. We also discuss the implications of a stacked detector system for unambiguous identification of different ion species present in the ion beam and explore the feasibility of detection of high energy particles beyond 100 MeV/amu in radiation harsh environments.

  18. Means for obtaining a metal ion beam from a heavy-ion cyclotron source

    DOEpatents

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-08-01

    A description is given of a modification to a cyclotron ion source used in producing a high intensity metal ion beam. A small amount of an inert support gas maintains the usual plasma arc, except that it is necessary for the support gas to have a heavy mass, e.g., xenon or krypton as opposed to neon. A plate, fabricated from the metal (or anything that can be sputtered) to be ionized, is mounted on the back wall of the ion source arc chamber and is bombarded by returning energetic low-charged gas ions that fail to cross the initial accelerating gap between the ion source and the accelerating electrode. Some of the atoms that are dislodged from the plate by the returning gas ions become ionized and are extracted as a useful beam of heavy ions. (auth)

  19. Heavy-ion radiation induced bystander effect in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Changna

    2012-07-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect is defined as the induction of damage in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. Recently, Low dose of high LET radiation induced bystander effects in vivo have been reported more and more. It has been indicated that radiation induced bystander effect was localized not only in bystander tissues but also in distant organs. Genomic, epigenetic, metabolomics and proteomics play significant roles in regulating heavy-ion radiation stress responses in mice. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male mice head were exposed to 2000mGy dose of 12C heavy-ion radiation and the distant organ liver was detected on 1h, 6h, 12h and 24h after radiation, respectively. MSAP was used to monitor the level of polymorphic DNA methylation changes. The results show that heavy-ion irradiate mouse head can induce liver DNA methylation changes significantly. The percent of DNA methylation changes are time-dependent and highest at 6h after radiation. We also prove that the hypo-methylation changes on 1h and 6h after irradiation. But the expression level of DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is not changed. UPLC/Synapt HDMS G2 was employed to detect the proteomics of bystander liver 1h after irradiation. 64 proteins are found significantly different between treatment and control group. GO process show that six of 64 which were unique in irradiation group are associated with apoptosis and DNA damage response. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of radiation induced bystander effects in vivo.

  20. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Facius, R.

    1994-01-01

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on 'HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight', it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to 'large' fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too ('The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research'), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions' trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series. Since biological investigations and physical measurements of particle tracks had to be performed in laboratories widely separated, the preferred fixed contact between biological test objects and the particle detectors

  1. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    SciTech Connect

    Facius, R.

    1994-12-31

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on `HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight`, it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to `large` fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too (`The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research`), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions` trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series.

  2. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laksman, J.; Céolin, D.; Mânsson, E. P.; Sorensen, S. L.; Gisselbrecht, M.

    2013-12-01

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer.

  3. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Laksman, J; Céolin, D; Månsson, E P; Sorensen, S L; Gisselbrecht, M

    2013-12-01

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer. PMID:24387426

  4. Very high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer for an electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Foerster, E.; Mahiri, J. |; Widmann, K.

    1997-01-01

    A very high resolution vacuum flat-crystal spectrometer was constructed for analyzing soft x rays emitted by an electron beam ion trap. The spectrometer was designed to operate at large Bragg angles ({theta}{le}85{degree}) in order to maximize the spectral dispersion and thus the resolving power. Using a quartz (100) crystal at a Bragg angle of 82{degree}, a measurement of the 2p{sub 1/2}, 2p{sub 3/2}{r_arrow}1s{sub 1/2} transitions in hydrogenic Mg{sup 11+} situated near 8.42 {Angstrom} was made. The nominal resolving power of the instrument was better than 30000 allowing us to infer the ion temperature (246{plus_minus}20 eV) from the observed line widths. A comparison with an existing flat-crystal spectrometer demonstrates the great improvement in resolving power achieved. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Laksman, J.; Céolin, D.; Månsson, E. P.; Sorensen, S. L.; Gisselbrecht, M.

    2013-12-15

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer.

  6. Progress in target physics and design for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan-Miller, Debra A.; Tabak, Max

    2000-05-01

    Two-dimensional, integrated calculations of a close-coupled version of the distributed radiator, heavy ion target predict gain 130 from 3.3 MJ of beam energy. To achieve these results, the case-to-capsule ratio was decreased by about 25% from the previous heavy ion targets [M. Tabak and D. Callahan-Miller, Phys. Plasmas 5, 1895 (1998)]. These targets are robust to changes in the ion stopping model because changes in the ion stopping model can be accommodated by changes to the target. The capsule is also insensitive to changes in the deuterium-tritium (DT) gas fill in the center of the capsule over the range that is of interest for target fabrication and target injection. Single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor growth rates for this capsule are smaller than those for at least one National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)] design. As a result, stability issues for the heavy ion capsule can be settled on NIF. The close-coupled target also opens up the possibility of a high gain engineering test facility from a 1.5-2 MJ driver; calculations predict that gain 90 is achievable from 1.75 MJ of beam energy. Finally, the choice of hohlraum wall material, which must satisfy constraints from target physics, environment and safety, chamber design, and target fabrication, is discussed.

  7. Research needed for improving heavy-ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, G; Kraft, S D

    2009-02-01

    The large interest in heavy-ion therapy is stimulated from its excellent clinical results. The bases of this success are the radiobiological and physical advantages of heavy-ion beams and the active beam delivery used for an intensity-modulated particle radiotherapy (IMPT). Although heavy-ion therapy has reached a high degree of perfection for clinical use there is still large progress possible to improve this novel technique: in order to extend IMPT to more tumor entities and to tailor the planning more individually for each patient in an adaptive way, radiobiological work is required both experimentally and theoretically. It is also not clear whether the neighboring ions to carbon could have a clinical application as well. For this extension basic biological studies as well as physics experiments have to be performed. On the technical side, many improvements of the equipment used seem to be possible. Two major topics are the extension of IMPT to moving organs and the transition to more compact and therefore cheaper particle accelerators. In the present paper, these topics are treated to some extent in order to give an outline of the great future potential of ion-beam therapy.

  8. Parabolic heavy ion flow in the polar magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations by the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite over the dayside polar cap magnetosphere have indicated downward flows of heavy ions such as O(+), O(2+), N(+), and N(2+) with flow velocities of the order 1 km/s (Lockwood et al., 1985). These downward flows were interpreted as the result of 'parabolic' flow of these heavy ionospheric ions from a source region associated with the polar cleft topside ionosphere. Here, a two-dimensional kinetic model is utilized to elicit features of the transport of very low energy O(+) ions from the cleft ionosphere. Bulk parameter (density, flux, thermal energies, etc.) distributions in the noon-midnight meridian plane illustrate the effects of varying convection electric fields and source energies. The results illustrate that, particularly under conditions of weak convection electric fields and weak ion heating in the cleft region, much of the intermediate altitude polar cap magnetosphere may be populated by downward flowing heavy ions. It is further shown how two-dimensional transport effects may alter the characteristic vertical profiles of densities and fluxes from ordinary profiles computed in one-dimensional steady-state models.

  9. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  10. Multiple beam induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Barnard, John J.; Faltens, Andris; Friedman, Alex; Waldron, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Induction accelerators are appealing for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy (HIF) because of their high efficiency and their demonstrated capability to accelerate high beam current (≥10 kA in some applications). For the HIF application, accomplishments and challenges are summarized. HIF research and development has demonstrated the production of single ion beams with the required emittance, current, and energy suitable for injection into an induction linear accelerator. Driver scale beams have been transported in quadrupole channels of the order of 10% of the number of quadrupoles of a driver. We review the design and operation of induction accelerators and the relevant aspects of their use as drivers for HIF. We describe intermediate research steps that would provide the basis for a heavy-ion research facility capable of heating matter to fusion relevant temperatures and densities, and also to test and demonstrate an accelerator architecture that scales well to a fusion power plant.

  11. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katrík, P.; Mustafin, E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Pavlovič, M.; Strašík, I.

    2015-12-01

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u 238U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  12. Electron-Cloud Effects on Heavy-Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, T; Friedman, A; Cohen, R; Vay, J

    2004-03-29

    Stray electrons can be introduced in positive-charge accelerators for heavy ion fusion (or other applications) as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary-electron emission. We are developing a capability for self-consistent simulation of ion beams with the electron clouds they produce. We report on an ingredient in this capability, the effect of specified electron cloud distributions on the dynamics of a coasting ion beam. We consider here electron distributions with axially varying density, centroid location, or radial shape, and examine both random and sinusoidally varying perturbations. We find that amplitude variations are most effective in spoiling ion beam quality, though for sinusoidal variations which match the natural ion beam centroid oscillation or breathing mode frequencies, the centroid and shape perturbations can also be effective. We identify a possible instability associated with resonance with the beam-envelope ''breathing'' mode. One conclusion from this study is that heavy-ion beams are surprisingly robust to electron clouds, compared to a priori expectations.

  13. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Yablinsky, Clarissa; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, T. R.

    2015-05-14

    We have examined microstructural evolution in irradiated ceria (CeO2) using swift heavy ion irradiation, electron microscopy, and atomistic simulation. CeO2, a UO2 fuel surrogate, was irradiated with gold ions at an energy of 1 GeV to fluences up to 1x1014 ions/cm2. Transmission electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showed that the ion tracks were of similar size at all fluences, and that there was no chemical change in the ion track core. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at the lower energy and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  14. DIRECT TRACE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR USING ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETERS WITH FILTERED NOISE FIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two ion trap mass spectrometers and direct air sampling interfaces are being evaluated in the laboratory for monitoring toxic air pollutants in real time. he mass spectrometers are the large, laboratory-based Finnigan MAT ion trap (ITMS) and the compact, field-deployable Teledyne...

  15. Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Armesto, N; Borghini, N; Jeon, S; Wiedemann, U A; Abreu, S; Akkelin, V; Alam, J; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonuv, D; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Arsene, I C; Barnafoldi, G G; Barrette, J; Bauchle, B; Becattini, F; Betz, B; Bleicher, M; Bluhm, M; Boer, D; Bopp, F W; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Busza, W; Cacciari, M; Capella, A; Casalderrey-Solana, J; Chatterjee, R; Chen, L; Cleymans, J; Cole, B A; delValle, Z C; Csernai, L P; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; de Deus, J D; Ding, H; Djordjevic, M; Drescher, H; Dremin, I M; Dumitru, A; El, A; Engel, R; d'Enterria, D; Eskola, K J; Fai, G; Ferreiro, E G; Fries, R J; Frodermann, E; Fujii, H; Gale, C; Gelis, F; Goncalves, V P; Greco, V; Gyulassy, M; van Hees, H; Heinz, U; Honkanen, H; Horowitz, W A; Iancu, E; Ingelman, G; Jalilian-Marian, J; Jeon, S; Kaidalov, A B; Kampfer, B; Kang, Z; Karpenko, I A; Kestin, G; Kharzeev, D; Ko, C M; Koch, B; Kopeliovich, B; Kozlov, M; Kraus, I; Kuznetsova, I; Lee, S H; Lednicky, R; Letessier, J; Levin, E; Li, B; Lin, Z; Liu, H; Liu, W; Loizides, C; Lokhtin, I P; Machado, M T; Malinina, L V; Managadze, A M; Mangano, M L; Mannarelli, M; Manuel, C; Martinez, G; Milhano, J G; Mocsy, A; Molnar, D; Nardi, M; Nayak, J K; Niemi, H; Oeschler, H; Ollitrault, J; Paic, G; Pajares, C; Pantuev, V S; Papp, G; Peressounko, D; Petreczky, P; Petrushanko, S V; Piccinini, F; Pierog, T; Pirner, H J; Porteboeuf, S; Potashnikova, I; Qin, G Y; Qiu, J; Rafelski, J; Rajagopal, K; Ranft, J; Rapp, R; Rasanen, S S; Rathsman, J; Rau, P; Redlich, K; Renk, T; Rezaeian, A H; Rischke, D; Roesler, S; Ruppert, J; Ruuskanen, P V; Salgado, C A; Sapeta, S; Sarcevic, I; Sarkar, S; Sarycheva, L I; Schmidt, I; Shoski, A I; Sinha, B; Sinyukov, Y M; Snigirev, A M; Srivastava, D K; Stachel, J; Stasto, A; Stocker, H; Teplov, C Y; Thews, R L; Torrieri, G; Pop, V T; Triantafyllopoulos, D N; Tuchin, K L; Turbide, S; Tywoniuk, K; Utermann, A; Venugopalan, R; Vitev, I; Vogt, R; Wang, E; Wang, X N; Werner, K; Wessels, E; Wheaton, S; Wicks, S; Wiedemann, U A; Wolschin, G; Xiao, B; Xu, Z; Yasui, S; Zabrodin, E; Zapp, K; Zhang, B

    2008-02-25

    In August 2006, the CERN Theory Unit announced to restructure its visitor program and to create a 'CERN Theory Institute', where 1-3 month long specific programs can take place. The first such Institute was held from 14 May to 10 June 2007, focusing on 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions'. It brought together close to 100 scientists working on the theory of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The aim of this workshop was to review and document the status of expectations and predictions for the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider LHC before its start. LHC will explore heavy ion collisions at {approx} 30 times higher center of mass energy than explored previously at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC. So, on the one hand, the charge of this workshop provided a natural forum for the exchange of the most recent ideas, and allowed to monitor how the understanding of heavy ion collisions has evolved in recent years with the data from RHIC, and with the preparation of the LHC experimental program. On the other hand, the workshop aimed at a documentation which helps to distinguish pre- from post-dictions. An analogous documentation of the 'Last Call for Predictions' [1] was prepared prior to the start of the heavy-ion program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC, and it proved useful in the subsequent discussion and interpretation of RHIC data. The present write-up is the documentation of predictions for the LHC heavy ion program, received or presented during the CERN TH Institute. The set-up of the CERN TH Institute allowed us to aim for the wide-most coverage of predictions. There were more than 100 presentations and discussions during the workshop. Moreover, those unable to attend could still participate by submitting predictions in written form during the workshop. This followed the spirit that everybody interested in making a prediction had the right to be heard. To arrive at a concise document, we required that

  16. Bennett ion mass spectrometers on the Pioneer Venus Bus and Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Brinton, H. C.; Wagner, T. C. G.; Blackwell, B. H.; Cordier, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Identical Bennett radio-frequency ion mass spectrometer instruments on the Pioneer Venus Bus and Orbiter have provided the first in-situ measurements of the detailed composition of the planet's ionosphere. The sensitivity, resolution, and dynamic range are sufficient to provide measurements of the solar-wind-induced bow-shock, the ionopause, and highly structured distributions of up to 16 thermal ion species within the ionosphere. The use of adaptive scan and detection circuits and servo-controlled logic for ion mass and energy analysis permits detection of ion concentrations as low as 5 ions/cu cm and ion flow velocities as large as 9 km/sec for O(+). A variety of commandable modes provides ion sampling rates ranging from 0.1 to 1.6 sec between measurements of a single constituent. A lightweight sensor and electronics housing are features of a compact instrument package.

  17. Ion-retarding lens improves the abundance sensitivity of tandem mass spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, K. A.; Stevens, C. M.

    1969-01-01

    Ion-retarding lens which increases the abundance sensitivity of tandem magnetic-analyzer mass spectrometers measures isotopes of low abundance in mass positions adjacent to isotopes of high abundance. The lens increases the abundance sensitivity for isotopes lying farther from high abundance isotopes than the energy cutoff of the lens.

  18. Elliptic and triangular flow of heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahrgang, Marlene; Aichelin, Jörg; Bass, Steffen; Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Werner, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the elliptic and the triangular flow of heavy mesons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . The dynamics of heavy quarks is coupled to the locally thermalized and fluid dynamically evolving quark-gluon plasma. The elliptic flow of D mesons and the centrality dependence measured at the LHC is well reproduced for purely collisional and bremsstrahlung interactions. Due to the event-by-event fluctuating initial conditions from the EPOS2 model, the D meson triangular flow is predicted to be nonzero at √{s }=200 GeV and √{s }=2.76 TeV. We study the centrality dependence and quantify the contributions stemming from flow of the light bulk event and the hadronization process. The flow coefficients as responses to the initial eccentricities behave differently for heavy mesons than for light hadrons due to their inertia. Higher-order flow coefficients of heavy flavor become important in order to quantify the degree of thermalization.

  19. ON THE FEASIBILITY OF POLARIZED HEAVY IONS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    MACKAY, W.W.

    2006-06-23

    Heavy nonspherical ions such as uranium have been proposed for collisions in RHIC[1]. When two such ions collide with their long axes aligned parallel to the beams (large helicities), then the plasma density might be as much as 60% higher. Since the collisions might have any orientation of the two nuclei, the alignment of the nuclei must be inferred from a complicated unfolding of multiplicity distributions. Instead, if it would be possible to polarize the ions and control the orientation in RHIC, then a much better sensitivity might be obtained. This paper investigates the manipulation of such polarized ions with highly distorted shapes in RHIC. A number of ion species are considered as possibilities with either full or partial Siberian snakes in RHIC.

  20. Mutation induction in bacteria after heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horneck, G.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-01-01

    From a compilation of experimental data on the mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria, main conclusions have been drawn as follows: (1) The mutagenic efficacy of heavy ions in bacteria depends on physical and biological variables. Physical variables are the radiation dose, energy and charge of the ion; the biological variables are the bacterial strain, the repair genotype of bacteria, and the endpoint investigated (type of mutation, induction of enzymes related to mutagenesis); (2) The responses on dose or fluence are mainly linear or linear quadratic. The quadratic component, if found for low LET radiation, is gradually reduced with increasing LET; (3) At low values of Z and LET the cross section of mutation induction sigma m (as well as SOS response, sigma sos. and lambda phage induction, sigma lambda versus LET curves can be quite consistently described by a common function which increases up to approximately 100 keV/mu m. For higher LET values, the sigma(m) versus LET curves show the so-called 'hooks' observed also for other endpoints; (4) For light ions (Z is less than or equal to 4), the cross sections mostly decrease with increasing ion energy, which is probably related to the decrease of the specific energy departed by the ion inside the sensitive volume (cell). For ions in the range of Z = 10, sigma(m) is nearly independent on the ion energy. For heavier ions (Z is greater than or equal to 16), sigma(m) increases with the energy up to a maximum or saturation around 10 MeV/u. The increment becomes steeper with increasing atomic number of the ion. It correlates with the increasing track radius of the heavy ion; (5) The mutagenic efficiency per lethal event changes slightly with ion energy, if Z is small indicating a rough correlation between cellular lethality and mutation induction, only. For ions of higher Z this relation increases with energy, indicating a change in the 'mode' of radiation action from 'killing-prone' to 'mutation-prone'; and (6

  1. AOTF-echelle spectrometer for air-ICP-AES continuous emission monitoring of heavy metals and actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, David P.; Zamzow, Daniel S.; Eckels, David E.; Miller, George P.

    1999-02-01

    A spectrometer system consisting of a quartz acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and an echelle grating has been assembled and tested for ICP-AES continuous emission monitoring of heavy metal and actinide elements in stack exhaust offgases introduced into an air plasma. The AOTF is a rapidly tunable bandpass filter that is used to select a small wavelength range (0.1 to 0.6 nm) of optical emission from the air plasma; the echelle grating provides high dispersion, yielding a spectral resolution of approximately 0.004 to 0.008 nm from 200 to 425 nm. The AOTF-echelle spectrometer, equipped with a photodiode array or CCD, provides rapid sequential multielement analysis capabilities. It is much more compact and portable than commercial ICP-AES echelle spectrometers, allowing use of the system in field and on-line process monitoring applications. Data will be presented that detail the resolution, detection limits, capabilities, and performance of the AOTF-echelle spectrometer for continuous emission monitoring of heavy metals (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb) and actinides (including U isotopes). The potential use of the AOTF-echelle spectrometer with other emission sources and for other monitoring applications will be discussed.

  2. Collisional electrostatic ion cyclotron waves as a possible source of energetic heavy ions in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Providakes, Jason; Seyler, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed for the source of energetic heavy ions (NO/+/, O2/+/, and O/+/) found in the magnetosphere. Simulations using a multispecies particle simulation code for resistive current-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron waves show transverse and parallel bulk heating of bottomside ionospheric heavy ion populations. The dominant mechanism for the transverse bulk heating is resonant ion heating by wave-particle ion trapping. Using a linear kinetic dispersion relation for a magnetized, collisional, homogenous, and multiion plasma, it is found that collisional electrostatic ion cyclotron waves near the NO(+), O2(+), and O(+) gyrofrequencies are unstable to field-aligned currents of 50 microA/sq m for a typical bottomside ionosphere.

  3. Heavy ion passive dosimetry with silver halide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, C. B.; Parnell, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    A method of detecting radiation damage tracks due to heavy particles in large single crystals of the silver halides is described. The tracks, when made visible with a simple electrical apparatus, appear similar to tracks in emulsions. The properties of the crystals, the technique of printing out the tracks, and evidence concerning the threshold energy for registering particles indicates that this method may find application in heavy ion dosimetry. The method has been found to be sensitive to stopping He nuclei and relativistic M group cosmic rays. Some impurities strongly influence the printout of the tracks, and the effects of these impurities are discussed.

  4. DNA damage in mammalian cells following heavy-ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosander, K.; Frankel, K.A.; Cerda, H.; Phillips, M.H.; Lo, E.H.; Fabrikant, I.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Levy, R.P.

    1989-09-01

    In our laboratory we have been investigating DNA damage and repair in the endothelial and oligodendroglial cells of the mouse brain after irradiation using two different types of heavy ions, helium and neon. The method used, the unwinding technique with subsequent staining of the DNA with acridine orange, has been proven to be useful for nondividing cells and analysis using a microscope photometric technique. Our primary goal has been to obtain a measure of RBE, in the dose range used in clinical treatment of various brain disorders using heavy charged particle radiosurgery. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Mechanism of heavy ion fusion to superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamian, Gurgen G.; Antonenko, Nikolai V.; Scheid, Werner

    2011-10-01

    This article reviews different models for the description of fusion of heavy ions to superheavy nuclei by using adiabatic and diabatic potentials. The dynamics of fusion is basically different in the two types of models for fusion: In the adiabatic models the nuclei melt together, whereas in the diabatic models the nuclei transfer nucleons between each other up to the instant when the compound nucleus is formed. As final result we state that diabatic potentials seem more appropriate for the description of fusion of heavy nuclei than adiabatic potentials.

  6. An electrodynamic ion funnel interface for greater sensitivity and higher throughput with linear ion trap mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Jason S.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-09-01

    An electrospray ionization interface incorporating an electrodynamic ion funnel has been designed and implemented in conjunction with a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, LTQ). We found ion transmission to be greatly improved by replacing the standard capillary-skimmer interface with the capillary-ion funnel interface. An infusion study using a serial dilution of a reserpine solution showed that ion injection times to fill the ion trap were reduced by ~90% which resulted in an ~10-fold increase in reported peak intensities. In liquid chromatography (LC)-MS and LC tandem MS (MS/MS) experiments performed using a proteomic sample from the bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis, the ion funnel interface provided an ~7-fold reduction in ion injection (accumulation) times. In a series of LC-MS/MS experiments we found that more dilute S. oneidensis samples provided more peptide and protein identifications when the ion funnel interface was used in place of the standard interface. This improvement was most pronounced at lower sample concentrations, where extended ion accumulation times are required, resulting in an ~2-fold increase in the number of protein identifications. Implementation of the ion funnel interface with a LTQ Fourier transform (FT) MS requiring much greater ion populations resulted in spectrum acquisition times reduced by ~25 to 50%.

  7. Development of an ion time-of-flight spectrometer for neutron depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit

    signal. Without loss of generality, the secondary signal is obtained by the passage of the ion through a thin carbon foil, which produces ion-induced secondary electron emission (IISEE). The time-of-flight spectrometer physically acts as an ion/electron separator. The electrons that enter the active volume of the spectrometer are transported onto the microchannel plate detector to generate the secondary signal. The electron optics can be designed in variety of ways depending on the nature of the measurement and physical requirements. Two ion time-of-flight spectrometer designs are introduced: the parallel electric and magnetic (PEM) field spectrometer and the cross electric and magnetic (CEM) field spectrometer. The CEM field spectrometers have been extensively used in a wide range of applications where precise mass differentiation is required. The PEM field spectrometers have lately found interest in mass spectroscopy applications. The application of the PEM field spectrometer for energy measurements is a novel approach. The PEM field spectrometer used in the measurements employs axial electric and magnetic fields along the nominal direction of the incident ion. The secondary electrons are created by a thin carbon foil on the entrance disk and transported on the microchannel plate that faces the carbon foil. The initial angular distribution of the secondary electrons has virtually no effect on the transport time of the secondary electrons from the surface of the carbon foil to the electron microchannel plate detector. Therefore, the PEM field spectrometer can offer high-resolution energy measurement for relatively lower electric fields. The measurements with the PEM field spectrometer were made with the Tandem linear particle accelerator at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center at Yorktown Heights, NY. The CEM field spectrometer developed for the thesis employs axial electric field along the nominal direction of the ion, and has perpendicular magnetic field. As the

  8. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Furthermore, inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  9. Energy loss of heavy ions at high velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. U.; Ball, G. C.; Davies, J. A.; Davies, W. G.; Forster, J. S.; Geiger, J. S.; Geissel, H.; Ryabov, V. A.

    1994-05-01

    The slowing down of heavy ions by electronic stopping at high velocity is discussed. The ions are nearly fully stripped and have a well defined charge with relatively small fluctuations. Owing to the large charge of the ions, the classical Bohr formula applies instead of the Bethe formula, which is based on a quantum perturbation calculation. It is essential to include the Barkas effect in the description since it becomes quite large for heavy ions, especially in high-Z materials. In Lindhard's treatment [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 132 (1976) l], the Barkas correction is viewed as an effect of dynamic screening of the ion potential in the initial phase of a collision with an electron, which reduces the relative velocity and therefore enhances the cross section. With inclusion of this enhancement factor for all impact parameters, as evaluated by Jackson and McCarthy for distant collisions [Phys. Rev. B 6 (1972) 4131], the description reproduces within a few percent measurements for 15 MeV/u Br on Si, Ni, and Au and for 10 MeV/u Kr on Al, Ni, and Au. The procedure is shown also to apply at lower velocities near the stopping maximum, albeit with less accuracy. The straggling in energy loss has been analyzed for a measurement on Si and it is well described by a combination of about equal contributions from fluctuations in the number of violent collisions with single electrons (Bohr straggling) and from fluctuations in ion charge state.

  10. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  11. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolatedmore » point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Furthermore, inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.« less

  12. Transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, T.; Eylon, S.; Fessenden, T.J.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.

    1991-04-01

    Current amplification of heavy ion beams is an integral feature of the induction linac approach to heavy ion fusion. As part of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research program at LBL we have been studying the evolution of the transverse emittance of ion beams while they are undergoing current amplification, achieved by longitudinal bunch compression and acceleration. Experiments are conducted on MBE-4, a four beam Cs{sup +} induction linac. The space-charge dominated beams of MBE-4 are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles while they are accelerated from nominally 200 keV up to {approximately} 1 MeV by 24 accelerating gaps. Initially the beams have currents of typically 4 mA to 10 mA per beam. Early experimental results showed a growth of the normalized emittance by a factor of 2 while the beam current was amplified by up to 9 times its initial value. We will discuss the results of recent experiments in which a mild bunch length compression rate, more typical of that required by a fusion driver, has shown that the normalized emittance can be maintained at its injection value (0.03 mm-mr) during acceleration. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Validation of Heavy Ion Transport Capabilities in PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronningen, Reginald M.

    2007-03-01

    The performance of the Monte Carlo code system PHITS is validated for heavy ion transport capabilities by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data from heavy ion reactions of benchmark quality. These data are from measurements of secondary neutron production cross sections in reactions of Xe at 400 MeV/u with lithium and lead targets, measurements of neutrons outside of thick concrete and iron shields, and measurements of isotope yields produced in the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u 48Ca beam on a beryllium target and on a tantalum target. A practical example that tests magnetic field capabilities is shown for a simulated 48Ca beam at 500 MeV/u striking a lithium target to produce the rare isotope 44Si, with ion transport through a fragmentation-reaction magnetic pre-separator. The results of this study show that PHITS performs reliably for the simulation of radiation fields that is necessary for designing safe, reliable and cost effective future high-powered heavy-ion accelerators in rare isotope beam facilities.

  14. Validation of Heavy Ion Transport Capabilities in PHITS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronningen, Reginald M.

    2007-03-19

    The performance of the Monte Carlo code system PHITS is validated for heavy ion transport capabilities by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data from heavy ion reactions of benchmark quality. These data are from measurements of secondary neutron production cross sections in reactions of Xe at 400 MeV/u with lithium and lead targets, measurements of neutrons outside of thick concrete and iron shields, and measurements of isotope yields produced in the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u 48Ca beam on a beryllium target and on a tantalum target. A practical example that tests magnetic field capabilities is shown for a simulated 48Ca beam at 500 MeV/u striking a lithium target to produce the rare isotope 44Si, with ion transport through a fragmentation-reaction magnetic pre-separator. The results of this study show that PHITS performs reliably for the simulation of radiation fields that is necessary for designing safe, reliable and cost effective future high-powered heavy-ion accelerators in rare isotope beam facilities.

  15. Mutation Induction in Mammalian Cells by Accelerated Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, I. M.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Rink, H.

    The deleterious effects of accelerated heavy ions on living cells are of increasing importance for long duration human space flight activities. An important aspect of this field is attributed to the type and quality of biological damage induced by these densely ionizing particles. To address this aspect, cell inactivation and mutation induction at the hprt locus (coding for hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase) was investigated in cultured V79 Chinese Hamster Cells irradiated with accelerated heavy ions (8-O, 20-Ca, 79-Au, and 92-U) and X-rays. Specific energies of the ions ranged from 1.9 to 69.7 MeV/u and corresponding LET values were between 62 band 15,580 keV/μ m. 30 spontaneous and 196 heavy-ion induced 6-thioguanine resistant hprt mutant colonies were characterized by Southern technique using the restriction enzymes EcoRI, PstI and BglII and a full length hprt cDNA probe isolated from the plasmid pHpt12 (kindly provided by Dr. J. Thacker). While inactivation cross sections (σ i) rise over the whole LET range, mutation induction cross sections (σ m) increase up to approximately 300 keV/μ m (O-ions) but decline with heavier ions and more extreme LET values. A similar behaviour is seen with mutation frequency dependent on particle fluence. After irradiation with accelerated uranium ions (8.8 MeV/u, 15,580 keV/μ m) a significant decrease of mutation frequency was found with higher particle fluences (3× 106 particles cm-2). Nearly no mutants were recovered with 8× 106 particles cm-2. All restriction patterns of the spontaneous hprt mutants were indistinguishable from the wild type pattern. These mutants probably contain small deletions or point mutations in the hprt locus. In contrast, the overall spectrum of heavy ion induced mutations revealed a majority (67%) of partial or complete deletions of the hprt gene. With constant particle fluence (3× 106 particles cm-2) the quality of heavy ion induced mutations in the hprt locus depends on physical

  16. HIBRA: A computer code for heavy ion binary reaction analysis employing ion track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Khalid; Ahmad, Siraj-ul-Islam; Manzoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Collisions of heavy ions many times result in production of only two reaction products. Study of heavy ions using ion track detectors allows experimentalists to observe the track length in the plane of the detector, depth of the tracks in the volume of the detector and angles between the tracks on the detector surface, all known as track parameters. How to convert these into useful physics parameters such as masses, energies, momenta of the reaction products and the Q-values of the reaction? This paper describes the (a) model used to analyze binary reactions in terms of measured etched track parameters of the reaction products recorded in ion track detectors, and (b) the code developed for computing useful physics parameters for fast and accurate analysis of a large number of binary events. A computer code, HIBRA (Heavy Ion Binary Reaction Analysis) has been developed both in C++ and FORTRAN programming languages. It has been tested on the binary reactions from 12.5 MeV/u 84Kr ions incident upon U (natural) target deposited on mica ion track detector. The HIBRA code can be employed with any ion track detector for which range-velocity relation is available including the widely used CR-39 ion track detectors. This paper provides the source code of HIBRA in C++ language along with input and output data to test the program.

  17. Identification of Ions Generated by Ultrashort Laser Pulses using Thomson Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Yuji; Nayuki, Takuya; Fujii, Takashi; Nemoto, Koshichi; Kayoiji, Tsutomu; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Okano, Yasuaki; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Kondo, Ken-ichi

    2002-10-01

    Fast ions generated by irradiation of laser pulses of width 55 fs, intensity 8.6 × 1018 W/cm2 on 5 μ m thickness copper film were measured by use of a Thomson mass spectrometer. From the spectgram, ions ejected from the target surface which was opposite side of the laser irradiation were determined to be protons. Copper ions were not observed. From the enegy measurements using Mylar filter method, the maximum proton energy was estimated more than 650 keV.

  18. Quadrupole Ion Mass Spectrometer for Masses of 2 to 50 Da

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, William; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew; Harrison, Willard

    2005-01-01

    A customized quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer (QITMS) has been built to satisfy a need for a compact, rugged instrument for measuring small concentrations of hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and argon in a nitrogen atmosphere. This QITMS can also be used to perform quantitative analyses of other gases within its molecular-mass range, which is 2 to 50 daltons (Da). (More precisely, it can be used to perform quantitative analysis of gases that, when ionized, are characterized by m/Z ratios between 2 and 50, where m is the mass of an ion in daltons and Z is the number of fundamental electric charges on the ion.

  19. Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation of Peptide Cations in a Dual Pressure Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Myles W.; Smith, Suncerae I.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; Madsen, James A.; Coon, Joshua J.; Schwartz, Jae C.; Stafford, George C.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    A dual pressure linear ion trap mass spectrometer was modified to permit infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) in each of the two cells - the first a high pressure cell operated at nominally 5 × 10-3 Torr and the second a low pressure cell operated at nominally 3 × 10-4 Torr. When IRMPD was performed in the high pressure cell, most peptide ions did not undergo significant photodissociation; however, in the low pressure cell peptide cations were efficiently dissociated with less than 25 ms of IR irradiation regardless of charge state. IRMPD of peptide cations allowed the detection of low m/z product ions including the y1 fragments and immonium ions which are not typically observed by ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID). Photodissociation efficiencies of ~100% and MS/MS (tandem mass spectrometry) efficiencies of greater than 60% were observed for both multiply and singly protonated peptides. In general, higher sequence coverage of peptides was obtained using IRMPD over CID. Further, greater than 90% of the product ion current in the IRMPD mass spectra of doubly charged peptide ions was composed of singly charged product ions compared to the CID mass spectra in which the abundances of the multiply and singly charged product ions were equally divided. Highly charged primary product ions also underwent efficient photodissociation to yield singly charged secondary product ions, thus simplifying the IRMPD product ion mass spectra. PMID:19739654

  20. High-time resolution measurements of solar wind heavy ions with SOHO/CELIAS/CTOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janitzek, N. P.; Taut, A.; Berger, L.; Bochsler, P.; Drews, C.; Klecker, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2016-03-01

    The Charge Time-Of-Flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer as part of the Charge, ELement and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) onboard the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is designed to measure the kinetic properties and elemental/ionic composition of solar wind ions heavier than protons, which we refer to as heavy ions. This is achieved by the combined measurements of the energy-per-charge, the time-of-flight and the energy of incident ions. The CTOF instrument combines a remarkable time-of-flight resolution with a large effective area and a high measurement cadence. This allows to determine the Velocity Distribution Functions (VDFs) of a wide range of heavy ions with 5-minute time resolution which ensures that the complete VDF is measured under nearly identical solar wind and magnetic field conditions. For the measurement period between Day Of Year (DOY) 150 and 220 in 1996, which covers a large part of the instrument's short life time, we analyzed VDFs of solar wind iron Fe8+, Fe9+ and Fe10+ for differential streaming relative to the solar wind proton speed measured simultaneously with the CELIAS Proton Monitor (PM). We find an increasing differential streaming with increasing solar wind proton speed for all investigated ions up to ion-proton velocity differences of 30 - 50 km s-1 at proton velocities of 500 km s-1, which is contradictory to an earlier CTOF study by [7]. We believe this difference is because in this study we used raw Pulse Height Analysis (PHA) data with a significantly increased mass and mass-per-charge resolution compared to the earlier used onboard preprocessed data.

  1. Evaluation of the ion trap mass spectrometer for potential application in the space station

    SciTech Connect

    Glish, G.L.; McLuckey, S.A.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes preliminary experiments with an ion trap mass spectrometer, which were done to evaluate its potential for use in the environmental monitoring system of the proposed space station. The first section of the report describes various modes of operation of the instrument, discusses some of the present limitations, and discusses some of the potential solutions to these limitations. The next section discusses the experimental results obtained on sixteen compounds with particular emphasis on comparing these data to that expected from a standard mass spectrometer. The last section consists of a conclusion and comments on suggested future work. 16 figs.

  2. Measurements of fission yields in the heavy region at the recoil ass spectrometer lohengrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bail, A.; Serot, O.; Mathieu, L.; Litaize, O.; Materna, T.; Köster, U.; Faust, H.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Dupont, E.; Michel-Sendis, F.

    2009-10-01

    In spite of the huge amount of fission yield data available in different libraries, more accurate values are still needed for nuclear energy applications and to improve our understanding of the fission process. Thus measurements of fission yields were performed at the mass spectrometer Lohengrin at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France. The mass separator Lohengrin is situated at the research reactor of the institute and permits the placement of an actinide layer in a high thermal neutron flux. It separates fragments according to their atomic mass, kinetic energy and ionic charge state by the action of magnetic and electric fields. Coupled to a high resolution ionization chamber the experiment was used to investigate the mass and isotopic yields in the light mass region. Almost all fission yields of isotopes from Th to Cf have been measured at Lohengrin with this method. It has been extended in this work to the heavy mass region for the reactions 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f), and 241Pu(nth,f). For these higher masses an isotopic separation is no longer possible. So, a new method was undertaken with the reaction 239Pu(nth,f) to determine the isotopic yields by γ spectrometry. The results are presented in this paper.

  3. Inner magnetospheric heavy ion composition during high-speed stream-driven storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, D. R.; Denton, M. H.; Grande, M.; Perry, C. H.

    2013-07-01

    composition data, taken by the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite Magnetospheric Ion Composition Spectrometer instrument, are investigated across eight high-speed solar wind-stream-driven storms (HSSs) during 1991. The HSSs are identified using solar wind data from OMNI alongside geomagnetic indices, and the behavior of ions in the energy range 31.2-426.0 keV is investigated. A case study of the single HSS event that occurred on 30 July 1991 is performed, and superposed epoch analyses of five events are conducted. The data show evidence of a local minimum (dropout) in the flux and partial number density of ionic species H+, He+, He++, and O+ close to the onset of magnetospheric convection. The flux and number density rapidly fall and then recover over a period of hours. The initial rapid recovery in number density is observed to consist primarily of lower-energy ions. As the number density reaches its maximum, the ions show evidence of energization. Heavy ion-to-proton ratios are observed to decrease substantially during these HSS events.

  4. Performance of a Bragg curve detector for heavy ion identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselineau, J. M.; Duchon, J.; L'Haridon, M.; Mosrin, P.; Regimbart, R.; Tamain, B.

    1982-12-01

    By using Bragg curve spectroscopy, one can measure atomic number and energy of high energy heavy ions stopping in a gas-filled ionization chamber with longitudinal electric field. In this paper, we report on the results obtained with an isobutane filled detector. An energy resolution of 0.8% fwhm and a Z resolution of 2.7% fwhm were achieved for elastically scattered 300 MeV 40Ar ions. We study the Bragg peak amplitude dependence on the energy of the incoming ions, a dependence presumably due to the Frisch grid screening inefficiency. The corrected Bragg peak spectrum of inelastically scattered 300 MeV 40Ar ions exhibits a satisfactory Z separation around Z=18.

  5. Heavy Ion High Intensity Upgrade of the GSI UNILAC

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, W.; Dahl, L.; Galonska, M.; Glatz, J.; Groening, L.; Hollinger, R.; Richter, S.; Yaramyshev, S.

    2005-06-08

    For the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt the present GSI-accelerator complex, consisting of the linear accelerator UNILAC and the heavy ion synchrotron SIS 18, is foreseen to serve as U28+-injector for up to 1012 particles/s. After a new High Current Injector (HSI) was installed, many different ion species were accelerated in the UNILAC for physics experiments. In 2001 a high energy physics experiment used up to 2{center_dot}109 uranium ions per SIS 18-spill (U73+) while a MEVVA ion source was in routine operation for the first time. In the past two years, different hardware measures and careful fine tuning in all sections of the UNILAC resulted in an increase of the beam intensity to 9.5{center_dot}1010 U27+-ions per 100 {mu}s or 1.5{center_dot}1010 U73+-ions per 100 {mu}s. The contribution reports results of beam measurements during the high current operation with argon and uranium beams (pulse beam power up to 0.5 MW). One of the major tasks was to optimize the beam matching to the Alvarez-DTL. In addition further upgrades, including improved beam diagnostics, are described, which allow to fill the SIS 18 up to its space charge limit (SCL) of 2.7{center_dot}1011 U28+-ions per cycle.

  6. Uniform fuel target implosion in heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Karino, T.; Kondo, S.; Iinuma, T.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    For a steady operation of a fusion power plant the target implosion should be robust against the implosion non-uniformities. In this paper the non-uniformity mitigation mechanisms in the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination are discussed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to the radiation energy smoothing for the HIB illumination non-uniformity. The large density-gradient scale, which is typically ∼500μm in HIF targets, also contributes to a reduction of the Rayleigh- Taylor instability growth rate. In HIF a wobbling HIBs illumination would also reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth and to realize a uniform implosion.

  7. How to Deal with Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Rolf

    A qualitative review is given of the theoretical problems and possibilities arising when one tries to understand what happens in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The striking similarity between these and pp collisions suggests the use of techniques similar to those used 5-12 years ago in pp collisions to disentangle collective motions from thermodynamics. A very heuristic and qualitative sketch of statistical bootstrap thermodynamics concludes an idealized picture in which a relativistic heavy ion collision appears as a superposition of moving `fireballs' with equilibrium thermodynamics in the rest frames of these fireballs. The interesting problems arise where this theoretician's picture deviates from reality: non-equilibrium, more complicated motion (shock waves, turbulence, spin) and the collision history. Only if these problems have been solved or shown to be irrelevant can we safely identify signatures of unusual states of hadronic matter as, for example, a quark-gluon plasma or density isomers.

  8. Dosimetry of heavy ions by use of CCD detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schott, J. U.

    1994-01-01

    The design and the atomic composition of Charge Coupled Devices (CCD's) make them unique for investigations of single energetic particle events. As detector system for ionizing particles they detect single particles with local resolution and near real time particle tracking. In combination with its properties as optical sensor, particle transversals of single particles are to be correlated to any objects attached to the light sensitive surface of the sensor by simple imaging of their shadow and subsequent image analysis of both, optical image and particle effects, observed in affected pixels. With biological objects it is possible for the first time to investigate effects of single heavy ions in tissue or extinguished organs of metabolizing (i.e. moving) systems with a local resolution better than 15 microns. Calibration data for particle detection in CCD's are presented for low energetic protons and heavy ions.

  9. Factorization, the Glasma and the Ridge in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Venugopalan, Raju

    2008-10-13

    High energy heavy ion collisions can be efficiently described as the collision of two sheets of Color Glass Condensate. The dynamics of the collision can be studied ab initio in a systematic effective field theory approach. This requires factorization theorems that separate the initial state evolution of the wave functions with energy from the final state interactions that produce matter with high energy densities called the Glasma. We discuss how this matter is formed, its remarkable properties and its relevance for understanding thermalization of the Quark Gluon Plasma in heavy ion collisions. Long range rapidity correlations in the collision that have a remarkable ridge like structure may allow us to probe early times in the collision and infer directly the properties of the Glasma.

  10. Selected experimental results from heavy-ion collisions at LHC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Singh, Ranbir; Kumar, Lokesh; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2013-01-01

    We reviewmore » a subset of experimental results from the heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facility at CERN. Excellent consistency is observed across all the experiments at the LHC (at center of mass energysNN=2.76 TeV) for the measurements such as charged particle multiplicity density, azimuthal anisotropy coefficients, and nuclear modification factor of charged hadrons. Comparison to similar measurements from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at lower energy (sNN=200 GeV) suggests that the system formed at LHC has a higher energy density and larger system size and lives for a longer time. These measurements are compared to model calculations to obtain physical insights on the properties of matter created at the RHIC and LHC.« less

  11. Longitudinal beam dynamics for heavy ion fusion using WARPrz

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, D.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Friedman, A.; Haber, I.

    1993-02-22

    WARPrz is a 2.5 dimensional, cylindrically symmetric, electrostatic, particle-in-cell code. It is part of the WARP family of codes which has been developed to study heavy ion fusion driver issues. WARPrz is being used to study the longitudinal dynamics of heavy ion beams including a longitudinal instability that is driven by the impedance of the LINAC accelerating modules. This instability is of concern because it can enhance longitudinal momentum spread; chromatic abhoration in the lens system restricts the amount of momentum spread allowed in the beam in the final focusing system. The impedance of the modules is modeled by a continuum of resistors and capacitors in parallel in WARPrz. We discuss simulations of this instability including the effect of finite temperature and reflection of perturbations off the beam ends. We also discuss intermittency of axial confining fields (``ears`` fields) as a seed for this instability.

  12. Solutions to heavy ion induced avalanche burnout in power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, Theodore F.; Beutler, David E.

    1992-12-01

    A review of normal breakdown and current induced avalanche (CIA) breakdown mechanisms in silicon power transistors is presented. The applicability of the CIA model to heavy ion induced burnout is shown, and solutions to CIA in silicon power semiconductors are given. It is noted that solving the problem of CIA burnout in npn bipolar and n-channel DMOS devices is, at best, difficult. Several techniques of hardening these devices to the effects of heavy ion, dose-rate induced failure, and any other condition producing CIA are discussed. The most effective techniques are those that minimize the emitter current injection by reducing the emitter injection efficiency or making the parasitic bipolar more difficult to turn on. However, it is believed that the simplest solution to the problem is to use pnp bipolar and p-channel DMOS devices whenever possible.

  13. Pseudorapidity correlations in heavy ion collisions from viscous fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnai, Akihiko; Schenke, Björn

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate by explicit calculations in 3+1 dimensional viscous relativistic fluid dynamics how two-particle pseudorapidity correlation functions in heavy ion collisions at the LHC and RHIC depend on the number of particle producing sources and the transport properties of the produced medium. In particular, we present results for the Legendre coefficients of the two-particle pseudorapidity correlation function, an,m, in Pb+Pb collisions at 2760 GeV and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV from viscous hydrodynamics with three dimensionally fluctuating initial conditions. Our results suggest that the an,m provide important constraints on initial state fluctuations in heavy ion collisions.

  14. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.A.FOR THE PHOBOS COLLABORATION

    2002-07-24

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two observations indicate universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/{bar p}p and e{sup +}e{sup -} data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with {radical}s in a similar way as N{sub ch} in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. These features may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  15. Compact High-Current Heavy-Ion Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G.A.; Grote, D.P.; Kwan, J.W.; Bieniosek, F.

    2005-10-05

    To provide a compact high-brightness heavy-ion beam source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. An array of converging beamlets was used to produce a beam with the envelope radius, convergence, and ellipticity matched to an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) channel. Experimental results were in good quantitative agreement with simulation and have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. The size of a driver-scale injector system using this approach will be several times smaller than one designed using traditional single large-aperture beams. The success of this experiment has possible significant economical and technical impacts on the architecture of HIF drivers.

  16. On compositional variations of heavy ions during solar particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Fan, C. Y.; Fisk, L. A.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Intensity-time profiles of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions (C, O, Fe) in the MeV/nucleon energy range have been analyzed for one solar particle event following the solar flare on September 23, 1978. The data have been obtained with the wide angle double dE/dx-E sensor of the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland experiment onboard ISEE-3. Time variations in the iron to helium ratio of up to 2 orders of magnitude and a significant variation of the O/He ratio during this event have been found, whereas the C/O-ratio at the same energy/nucleon appears to be time independent. The influence of a rigidity dependent mean free path in interplanetary space and of rigidity dependent coronal propagation on heavy ion ratios during solar particle events was investigated.

  17. Compact High-Current Heavy-Ion Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Kwan, J W; Bieniosek, F

    2006-04-13

    To provide a compact high-brightness heavy-ion beam source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. An array of converging beamlets was use to produce a beam with the envelope radius, convergence, and ellipticity matched to an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) channel. Experimental results were in good quantitative agreement with simulation and have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. The size of a driver-scale injector system using this approach will be several times smaller than one designed using traditional single large-aperture beams. The success of this experiment has possible significant economical and technical impacts on the architecture of HIF drivers.

  18. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phobos Collaboration; Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/pbar-p and e+e- data. N_tot/(N_part/2) in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with sqrt(s) in a similar way as N_tot in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  19. Quasimolecular single-nucleon effects in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Erb, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Several experimental examples are discussed to illustrate that single-particle molecular orbital behavior has become an established reality in nuclear physics over the last several years. Measurements and analyses of inelastic scattering in the /sup 13/C + /sup 12/C and /sup 17/O + /sup 12/C systems, and of neutron transfer in the /sup 13/C(/sup 13/C, /sup 12/C)/sup 14/C reaction, show that the motion of valence nucleons can be strongly and simultaneously influenced by both collision partners in heavy-ion collisions. This bvehavior is characteristic of a molecular (single-particle) rather than a direct (DWBA) mechanism: it demonstrates that the single-particle analog of atomic molecular motion plays an important role in nuclear reactions at bombarding energies near the Coulomb barrier. Such behavior may be even more pronounced in the collisions of massive nuclei that will be studied with the new generation of heavy-ion accelerators. 19 references.

  20. The magnet system of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, A.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.

    1995-07-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a colliding ring accelerator to be completed in 1999. Through collisions of heavy ions it is hoped to observe the creation of matter at extremely high temperatures and densities, similar to what may have occurred in the original ``Big Bang.`` The collider rings will consist of 1740 superconducting magnet elements. Some of elements are being manufactured by industrial partners (Northrop Grumman and Everson Electric). Others are being constructed or assembled at BNL. A description is given of the magnet designs, the plan for manufacturing and test results. In the manufacturing of the magnets, emphasis has been placed on uniformity of their performance and on quality. Results so far indicate that this emphasis has been very successful.

  1. Proximity potential for heavy ion reactions on deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, A. J.; Bayman, B. F.

    1982-01-01

    The usual treatment of the deformed optical model for analysis of heavy ion induced inelastic scattering data involves a deformed (target) radius, a spherical (projectile) radius and a potential strength dependent on the surface separation along the line between the two centers. Several authors using various approaches have shown that this center line potential is geometrically inadequate especially for description of higher L deformation parameters probed in heavy ion induced inelastic scattering experiments. A quantitatively adequate form of the deformed proximity potential suitable for use with a coupled channels reaction code in the analysis of inelastic scattering data above the Coulomb barrier is described. A major objective is to be able to extract reliably higher deformed multipole moments from such data. The deformed potential calculated in the folding model will serve as a geometrically exact benchmark to evaluate the accuracy of the proximity potential prescriptions. (WHK)

  2. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md. Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4–5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper. PMID:26819896

  3. Theory of nuclear excitation by electron capture for heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Palffy, Adriana; Scheid, Werner; Harman, Zoltan

    2006-01-15

    We investigate the resonant process of nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC), in which a continuum electron is captured into a bound state of an ion with the simultaneous excitation of the nucleus. In order to derive the cross section a Feshbach projection operator formalism is introduced. Nuclear states and transitions are described by a nuclear collective model and making use of experimental data. Transition rates and total cross sections for NEEC followed by the radiative decay of the excited nucleus are calculated for various heavy-ion collision systems.

  4. HEAVY ION DRIVER WITH NON-SCALING FFAG.

    SciTech Connect

    RUGGIERO,A.G.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE, E.; PIKIN, A.; ROSER, T.; TRBOJEVIC

    2007-06-25

    We explore the possibility of using two non-scaling FFAG accelerators for a high power heavy-ion driver as an alternative to a superconducting Linac. Ions of Uranium 238 are accelerated to a kinetic energy of 400 MeVIu and a total power of 400 kWatt. Different modes of acceleration have been studied: at 1 and 10 kHz repetition rate, and for Continuous Wave production. The following is a summary of the study. More details of the study can be found in reference 2.

  5. The potential of He stripping in heavy ion AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Alfimov, V.; Christl, M.; Lachner, J.; Schulze-König, T.; Suter, M.; Synal, H.-A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of helium as a stripper gas for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of heavy ions is presented. At ion stripping energies of about 500 keV and below we observe a significant increase of the mean charge state when using helium instead of other gases. Moreover, scattering losses are reduced with helium because of its lower mass compared to other commonly used stripper gases. Thus, highly efficient AMS measurements for 41Ca, 129I and 236U with transmissions through the accelerator in the range of 40-50% are now possible.

  6. Chamber transport of ''foot'' pulses for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan-Miller, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.

    2002-02-20

    Indirect-drive targets for heavy-ion fusion must initially be heated by ''foot'' pulses that precede the main heating pulses by tens of nanoseconds. These pulses typically have a lower energy and perveance than the main pulses, and the fusion-chamber environment is different from that seen by later pulses. The preliminary particle-in-cell simulations of foot pulses here examine the sensitivity of the beam focusing to ion-beam perveance, background-gas density, and pre-neutralization by a plasma near the chamber entry port.

  7. Self-aligned nanostructures created by swift heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, Hans-Gregor; Nix, Anne-Katrin; Hofsaess, Hans; Krauser, Johann; Trautmann, Christina; Weidinger, Alois

    2010-05-15

    In tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) swift heavy ions create conducting tracks of about 8 nm in diameter. To apply these nanowires and implement them into nanodevices, they have to be contacted and gated. In the present work, we demonstrate the fabrication of conducting vertical nanostructures in ta-C together with self-aligned gate electrodes. A multilayer assembly is irradiated with GeV heavy ions and subsequently exposed to several selective etching processes. The samples consist of a Si wafer as substrate covered by a thin ta-C layer. On top is deposited a SiN{sub x} film for insulation, a Cr layer as electrode, and finally a polycarbonate film as ion track template. Chemical track etching opens nanochannels in the polymer which are self-aligned with the conducting tracks in ta-C because they are produced by the same ions. Through the pores in the polymer template, the Cr and SiN{sub x} layers are opened by ion beam sputtering and plasma etching, respectively. The resulting structure consists of nanowires embedded in the insulating carbon matrix with a built in gate electrode and has potential application as gated field emission cathode.

  8. Calculation of cross sections for binary reactions between heavy ion projectiles and heavy actinide targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.; Hoffman, M.M.

    1990-11-01

    The computer program, described in this report, is identified as PWAVED5. It was developed to calculate cross sections for nucleon transfer reactions in low energy heavy ion bombardments. The objective was to calculate cross sections that agree with experimental results for ions of different charge and mass and to develop a predictive capability. It was undertaken because previous heavy ion calculations, for which programs were readily available, appeared to focus primarily on reactions resulting in compound nucleus formation and were not particularly applicable to calculations of binary reaction cross sections at low interaction energies. There are to principal areas in which this computation differs from several other partial wave calculations of heavy-ion reaction cross sections. First, this program is designed specifically to calculate cross sections for nucleon exchange interactions and to exclude interactions that are expected to result in fusion of the two nuclei. A second major difference in this calculation is the use of a statistical distribution to assign the total interaction cross section to individual final mass states.

  9. Quarkonium formation time in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Taesoo; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng

    2015-04-01

    We calculate the quarkonium formation time in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the space-time correlator of heavy quark vector currents in a hydrodynamic background with the initial nonequilibrium stage expanding only in the longitudinal direction. Using in-medium quarkonia properties determined with the heavy quark potential taken to be the free energy from lattice calculations and the fact that quarkonia can only be formed below their dissociation temperatures due to color screening, we find that Υ (1S), Υ (2S), Υ (3S), J /ψ , and ψ' are formed, respectively, at 1.2, 6.6, 8.8, 5.8, and 11.0 fm/c after the quark pair are produced in central Au+Au collisions at the top energy of the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and these times become shorter in semicentral collisions. We further show, as an example, that including the effect of formation time enhances appreciably the survivability of Υ (1S) in the produced hot dense matter.

  10. Longitudinal instability in heavy-ion-fusion induction linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.

    1993-05-01

    A induction linac accelerating a high-current pulse of heavy ions at subrelativistic velocities is predicted to exhibit unstable growth of current fluctuations. An overview is given of the mode character, estimates of growth rates, and their application to an IFE driver. The present and projected effort to understand and ameliorate the instability is described. This includes particle-in-cell simulations, calculation and measurements of impedance, and design of feedback controls.

  11. Production of 14 MeV neutrons by heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Brugger, Robert M.; Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a neutron generator and a method for the production of 14 MeV neutrons. Heavy ions are accelerated to impinge upon a target mixture of deuterium and tritium to produce recoil atoms of deuterium and tritium. These recoil atoms have a sufficient energy such that they interact with other atoms of tritium or deuterium in the target mixture to produce approximately 14 MeV neutrons.

  12. Dynamical description of heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitani, P.; Colonna, M.

    2016-05-01

    Descriptions of heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies require to take into account in-medium dissipation and phase-space fluctuations. The interplay of these correlations with the one-body collective behaviour determines the properties (kinematics and fragment production) and the variety of mechanisms (from fusion to neck formation and multifragmentation) of the exit channel. Starting from fundamental concepts tested on nuclear matter, we build up a microscopic description which addresses finite systems and applies to experimental observables.

  13. Chiral phase transition in peripheral heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Raya, Alfredo; Sanchez, Angel

    2009-04-20

    It has been recently realized that in peripheral heavy-ion collisions at high energies, a sizable magnetic field is produced in the interaction region. Although this field becomes weak at the proper times when the chiral phase transition is believed to occur, it is still significant so as to ask whether it influences such transition. We use the linear sigma model to study the chiral phase transition in the presence of weak magnetic fields.

  14. Momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions yield fragments (Delta-Z = + 1) whose longitudinal momentum distributions are downshifted by larger values than those associated with the remaining fragments (Delta-Z = 1, -2,...). Kinematics alone cannot account for the observed downshifts; therefore, an additional contribution from collision dynamics must be included. In this work, an optical model description of collision momentum transfer is used to estimate the additional dynamical momentum downshift. Good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data is obtained.

  15. THE GEOMETRICAL ASPECT OF HIGH-ENERGY HEAVY ION COLLISIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamiya, S.; Morrissey, D.J.

    1980-02-01

    The total yields of nuclear charge or mass from projectile and target fragments and the fragments from the overlapping region between projectile and target were evaluated based on existing data. These values are compared with simple formulas expected from the participant-spectator model. Agreement is reasonably good, suggesting that the major part of the integrated yields for all reaction products from high-energy heavy-ion collisions are geometrical.

  16. Aspects of heavy-ion collisions at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Wolschin, G.

    2014-01-14

    Three aspects of relativistic heavy-ion collisions are considered in this article: (1) Stopping and baryon transport in a QCD-based approach, (2) charged-hadron production in a nonequilibrium-statistical relativistic diffusion model (RDM), and (3) quarkonia suppression and in particular, Υ suppression in PbPb at the current LHC energy of √(s{sub NN}) = 2.76TeV.

  17. Risk assessment for heavy ions of parts tested with protons

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, P.M.; Badhwar, G.D.; Culpepper, W.X.

    1997-12-01

    An internuclear cascade-evaporation code is used to model energy deposition in thin slabs of silicon. This model shows that protons produce a significant number of events with effective Linear Energy Transfer (LET) greater than 8 MeV cm{sup 2}/mg and demonstrates that proton testing of microelectronic components can be an effective way to screen devices for low earth orbit susceptibility to heavy ions.

  18. A high current vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, N.; Gensler, S.W.; Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Liu, F.; Brown, I.G.

    1997-12-31

    AASC is presently developing a vacuum arc ion source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) and other commercial applications. Induction linear accelerators that produce energetic heavy ions beams are a prime candidate for power-producing fusion reactors. A source of heavy ions with low emittance and low beam noise, 1+ to 3+ charge states, {approx}0.5 A current, 5--20 {micro}s pulse widths and {approximately}10 Hz repetition rates is required. A gadolinium (A {approx} 158) ion beam with {approx}0.12 A beam current, 120 keV beam energy, {approx}2.5 cm diameter extraction aperture and 20 {micro}s pulse width has been produced for HIF studies. The authors have measured that >80% Gd ions were in the 2+ charge state, the beam current fluctuation level (rms) was {approx}1.5% and the beam emittance was {approx}0.3 {pi} mm mrad (normalized). With {approx}8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} torr background gas pressure, the beam was well space-charge neutralized and good propagation of the 20 {micro}s long Gd ion beams was observed. Details of the work will be presented. The results of the experiment imply that the vacuum arc ion source is a highly promising candidate for HIF applications.

  19. NOTE: The relevance of very low energy ions for heavy-ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, T.; Gemmel, A.; Scholz, M.; Schardt, D.; Krämer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Heavy-ion radiotherapy exploits the high biological effectiveness of localized energy deposition delivered by so-called Bragg-peak particles. Recent publications have challenged the established procedures to calculate biological effective dose distributions in treatment planning. They emphasize the importance of very low energy (<500 keV amu-1) ions, either as primary particles or originating from molecular and nuclear fragmentations. We show, however, that slow heavy ions with energies below 500 keV amu-1 only play a negligible role in cancer treatments for several reasons. Their residual range is very small compared to the relevant length scale of treatment planning. Moreover, their relative frequency and also their relative dose distribution are insignificant, since energy loss and range straggling in ion slowing down processes as well as the necessary superposition of Bragg peaks wash out small-scale special effects. Additionally, we show that even a 1000 times larger biological damage of such slow ions would not result in a clinically relevant increase of the photon-equivalent dose. Therefore, neither a more precise physical description of ions in the very distal part of the Bragg peak nor the consideration of radiation damage induced by hyperthermal ions would result in a meaningful improvement of current models for heavy-ion treatment planning.

  20. Experimental evaluation of a negative ion source for a heavy ionfusion negative ion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leung, K.N.

    2005-01-18

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photodetached to neutrals [1,2,3]. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that is used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  1. Superhydrogels of nanotubes capable of capturing heavy-metal ions.

    PubMed

    Song, Shasha; Wang, Haiqiao; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembly regulated by hydrogen bonds was successfully achieved in the system of lithocholic acid (LCA) mixed with three organic amines, ethanolamine (EA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA), in aqueous solutions. The mixtures of DEA/LCA exhibit supergelation capability and the hydrogels consist of plenty of network nanotubes with uniform diameters of about 60 nm determined by cryogenic TEM. Interestingly, the sample with the same concentration in a system of EA and LCA is a birefringent solution, in which spherical vesicles and can be transformed into nanotubes as the amount of LCA increases. The formation of hydrogels could be driven by the delicate balance of diverse noncovalent interactions, including electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, steric effects, van der Waals forces, and mainly hydrogen bonds. The mechanism of self-assembly from spherical bilayer vesicles into nanotubes was proposed. The dried hydrogels with nanotubes were explored to exhibit the excellent capability for capturing heavy-metal ions, for example, Cu(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), and Hg(2+). The superhydrogels of nanotubes from the self-assembly of low-molecular-weight gelators mainly regulated by hydrogen bonds used for the removal of heavy-metal ions is simple, green, and high efficiency, and provide a strategic approach to removing heavy-metal ions from industrial sewage. PMID:24136830

  2. Preliminary results from the heavy ions in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.; Tylka, Allan J.

    1992-01-01

    The Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment has two primary objectives: (1) to measure the elemental composition of ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays, beginning in the tin-barium region of the periodic table; and (2) to study heavy ions which arrive at LDEF below the geomagnetic cutoff, either because they are not fully stripped of electrons or because their source is within the magnetosphere. Both of these objectives have practical as well as astrophysical consequences. In particular, the high atomic number of the ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays puts them among the most intensely ionizing particles in Nature. They are therefore capable of upsetting electronic components normally considered immune to such effects. The below cutoff heavy ions are intensely ionizing because of their low velocity. They can be a significant source of microelectronic anomalies in low inclination orbits, where Earth's magnetic field protects satellites from most particles from interplanetary space. The HIIS results will lead to significantly improved estimates of the intensely ionizing radiation environment.

  3. Observations of plasma dynamics in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Neugebauer, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Shelley, E. G.; Balsiger, H.; Kettmann, G.; Ip, W.-H.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports observations of plasma dynamics in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer. Measurements of protons and alpha particles from the far upstream region to the near ionopause region and of ions of mass 12-32 at distances of about 250,000 to 40,000 km from the nucleus are presented. The discontinuity known as the magnetic pileup boundary (MPB) is apparent only in proton, alpha particle, and magnetometer data, indicating that it is a tangential discontinuity of solar wind origin. No significant change is found in the properties of the heavy ions across the MPB. The issue of whether a cometopause was unambiguously observed at Comet Halley is discussed; it is concluded that the observations do not convincingly support the idea of a boundary due to internal cometary processes. A comparison of the observations to MHD models is made. The plasma flow directions at all distances greater than 30,000 km from the nucleus are in agreement with MHD calculations.

  4. Design of An Improved Miniature Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaminathan, Viji K.; Alig, Roger C.

    1997-01-01

    The ion optics of NASA's Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) sensor was simulated with three dimensional models of the open source, the quadrupole deflector, the exit lens system and the quadrupole mass analyzer to design more compact models with lower weight. Comparison of calculated transmission with experimental results shows good agreement. Transmission analyses with varying geometrical parameters and voltages throw light on possible ways of reducing the size of the sensor. Trajectories of ions of mass 1-99 amu were simulated to analyze and optimize transmission. Analysis of open source transmission with varying angle of attack shows that the angular acceptance can be considerably increased by programming the voltages on the ion trap/ collimator. Analysis of transmission sensitivity to voltages and misalignments of the quadrupole deflector rods indicate that increased transmission is possible with a geometrically asymmetrical deflector and a deflector can be designed with much lower sensitivities of transmission. Bringing the disks closer together can decrease the size of the quadrupole deflector and also increase transmission. The exit lens system can be redesigned to be smaller by eliminating at least one electrode entirely without loss of transmission. Ceramic materials were investigated to find suitable candidates for use in the construction of lighter weight mass spectrometer. A high-sensitivity, high-resolution portable gas chromatograph mass spectrometer with a mass range of 2-700 amu has been built and will be commercialized in Phase 3.

  5. A quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer for in-situ UHV analyses on Earth and other planetary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. E.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Simcic, J.; Farley, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer presents an exceptional opportunity for combining cutting edge terrestrial geochemical research with the next generation of extraterrestrial science. The QIT is a small mass spectrometer that filters particles of different mass by electron ionization and subsequent separation with a quadrupole RF field. The latest version is capable of achieving very high resolution (R > 1000) without an increase in power consumption through the addition of a dipole RF to augment the primary quadrupole field. Crucially, we demonstrate the ability to achieve this resolution with high sensitivity (> 1014 cps/Torr), and at UHV without the addition of a cooling gas. In this mode, the high sensitivity and extremely low background allow the measurement of a large number of species in very small samples. Most laboratory instruments are too heavy, large, and energy-intensive to fly on spacecraft in their optimal forms. As a result, instruments for spaceflight have traditionally been heavily-modified versions of terrestrial instruments, designed to be lighter, smaller, and more efficient than their terrestrial counterparts, at the expense of analytical capabilities. The JPL QIT, in contrast, weighs less than 1 kg, is only a few cm in size, and consumes less than 30W. Only the accompanying UHV system and supporting electronics must be extensively redesigned for spaceflight, and NASA already possesses pumps capable of fulfilling this need. The opportunity for parallel development for terrestrial and extraterrestrial labs and the capability of direct comparison between planetary science and terrestrial geochemistry will benefit both fields.

  6. Chitosan removes toxic heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Shilu

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan. Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages. The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad, digested by a microwave digestor, and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions, including As(III/V), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II). Of these, the percent removal of Ni(II) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan. Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), though with poor efficiency for Pb(II). Except As(III/V), all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Nonetheless, the percent removal of Cr(III/VI) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa, followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Generally, chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions, and the percent removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II) was approximately 55%, 45%, 50%, and 16%, respectively. In a word, chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke, improve cigarette safety, and reduce the harm to smokers.

  7. Conceptual design of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider: RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Samios, Nicholas P.

    1986-05-01

    The complete Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility will be a complex set of accelerators and beam transfer equipment connecting them. A significant portion of the total facility either exists or is under construction. Two existing Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators will serve for the initial ion acceleration. Ions with a charge of -1 would be accelerated from ground to +15 MV potential, pass through a stripping foil, and accelerate back to ground potential, where they would pass through a second stripping foil. From there the ions will traverse a long transfer line to the AGS tunnel and be injected into the Booster accelerator. The Booster accelerates the ion bunch, and then the ions pass through one more stripper and then enter the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), where they are accelerated to the top AGS energy and transferred to the collider. Bending and focusing of ion beams is to be achieved by superconducting magnets. The physics goals behind the RHIC are enumerated, particularly as regards the study of quark matter and the characteristics of high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The design of the collider and all its components is described, including the injector, the lattice, magnet system, cryogenic and vacuum systems, beam transfer, injection, and dump, rf system, and beam instrumentation and control system. Also given are cost estimates, construction schedules, and a management plan. (LEW)

  8. Determination of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene by means of an ion mobility spectrometer device using photoionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonhardt, J. W.; Bensch, H.; Berger, D.; Nolting, M.; Baumbach, J. I.

    1995-01-01

    The continuous monitoring of changes on the quality of ambient air is a field of advantage of ion mobility spectrometry. Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene are substances of special interest because of their toxicity. We present an optimized drift tube for ion mobility spectrometers, which uses photo-ionization tubes to produce the ions to be analyzed. The actual version of this drift tube has a length of 45 mm, an electric field strength established within the drift tube of about 180 V/cm and a shutter-opening-time of 400 mus. With the hydrogen tube used for ionisation a mean flux of 10(exp 12) photons/sq cm s was established for the experiments described. We discuss the results of investigations on Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene in normal used gasoline SUPER. The detection limits obtained with the ion mobility spectrometer developed in co-operation are in the range of 10 ppbv in this case. Normally, charge transfer from Benzene ions to Toluene takes place. Nevertheless the simultaneous determination in mixtures is possible by a data evaluation procedure developed for this case. The interferences found between Xylene and others are rather weak. The ion mobility spectra of different concentrations of gasoline SUPER are attached as an example for the resolution and the detection limit of the instrument developed. Resolution and sensitivity of the system are well demonstrated. A hand-held portable device produced just now is to be tested for special environmental analytical problems in some industrial and scientific laboratories in Germany.

  9. Ion Mobility Drift Spectrometer (IMDS) as a flight analytical instrument technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, D. R.; Carle, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the history and abundances of the biogenic elements and their compounds throughout the solar system can provide the exobiologists with a basis for understanding the conditions necessary for chemical evolution and the origin of life. The Ion Mobility Drift Spectrometer is an ion molecule reactor coupled with an ion drift spectrometer. Sample molecules are ionized to form product ions in the reactant region. An electric field moves the ions through a drift region against the flow of a drift gas where they are separated according to their size and structure producing an ion mobility spectrum. These spectra provide the IMDS with virtually universal sample identification capability. To conform to the rigid limits of weight, volume and consumables placed on flight instrumentation, several aspects of the IMDS must be studied and redesigned for flight use. In addition to miniaturization of the instrument, a reduction in the high flow rates used for the drift gas is an obvious necessary consideration. The effect of drastically reduced drift flow rates on IMDS spectra was investigated by lowering flow rates from 500ml/min to 50ml/min. Changes in peak shape, drift time and total spectra were studied at each flow rate.

  10. Electromagnetic heavy-lepton pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengül, M. Y.; Güçlü, M. C.; Mercan, Ö.; Karakuş, N. G.

    2016-08-01

    We calculate the cross sections of electromagnetic productions of muon- and tauon-pair productions from the ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Since the Compton wavelengths of muon and tauon are comparable to the radius of the colliding ions, nuclear form factors play important roles for calculating the cross sections. Recent measurement (Abrahamyan et al., Phys Rev Lett 108:112502, 2012) indicates that the neutrons are differently distributed from the protons; therefore this affects the cross section of the heavy-lepton pair production. In order to see the effects of the neutron distributions in the nucleus, we used analytical expression of the Fourier transforms of the Wood-Saxon distribution. Cross section calculations show that the Wood-Saxon distribution function is more sensitive to the parameter R compared to the parameter a.

  11. MEMS Fabrication of Micro Cylindrical Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for CubeSats Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology is used to fabricate arrays of micro Cylindrical Ion Traps (μCIT) which are integrated into a miniaturized mass spectrometer (MS). The micro μCITs are built from silicon wafers and requires high machining precision, smooth surface, and high dimensional uniformity across the array for optimum mass spectrometer performance. In order to build these 3D miniature structures several MEMS processing techniques were explored and a process was developed and tested. By using the developed MEMS process, the required μCIT 4 x 4 arrays were fabricated. This included a chip design variation in which mechanical locking pits and posts were machined in the Ring Electrode (RE) chip and End Plate (EP) chips respectively, for self-assembly. The size of the assembled μCIT is only 12 mm x 12 mm x 1.5 mm. It is a key component for the miniature mass spectrometer. The micro cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometer has the advantages of low-power operation, simpler electronics and less-stringent vacuum system requirements. The MEMS batch production capabilities will also greatly lower the cost. It is a promising candidate for CubeSat and nanoSats applications for exploration of chemical distributions in space.

  12. The composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in determining the elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of or approximate to 1 to or approximate to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events and outline our current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events were found to be roughly energy independent in the approx. 1 to approx. 20 MeV per nucleon range, and showed a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ion with typically coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events showed these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP(22)Ne/(20)Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of (3)He rich, heavy ion rich and carbon poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provided essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production.

  13. Modeling Chamber Transport for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W M; Niller, D A C; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Welch, D R; Rose, D V; Olson, C L

    2002-08-02

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  14. Modeling chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2002-10-01

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  15. The composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances in determining the elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of or approximate to 1 to or approximate to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events and outline our current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events were found to be roughly energy independent in the approx. 1 to approx. 20 MeV per nucleon range, and showed a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ion with typically coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events showed these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP(22)Ne/(20)Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of (3)He rich, heavy ion rich and carbon poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provided essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production. Previously announced in STAR as N83-20886

  16. Late degeneration in rabbit tissues after irradiation by heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lett, J. T.; Cox, A. B.; Keng, P. C.; Lee, A. C.; Su, C. M.; Bergtold, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for investigations of the late effects of heavy-ion irradiation on rabbit tissues which were undertaken to assess the hazards associated with the long-term exposure of humans to heavy ions in space during such activities as the construction of solar power stations or voyages to Mars. White rabbits approximately six weeks old were exposed to various doses of collimated beams of 400-MeV/n Ne ions, 570 MeV/n Ar ions and Co-60 gamma rays directed through both eyes, and the responses of the various tissues (hair follicles, skin, cornea, lens, retina, Harderian glands, bone and forebrain) were examined. Proliferating tissues are found to exhibit high damage levels in the early and late periods following irradiation, while terminally differentiating tissues repond to radiation most intensely in the late period, years after irradiation, with no intermediate recovery. The results obtained from rabbits are used to predict the occurrence of late tissue degeneration in the central nervous system, terminally differentiating systems and stem cells of humans one or more decades following exposure to radiation levels anticipated during long-duration space flights. The studies also indicate that tissues may be prematurely aged in the sense that tissue life spans may be shortened without the development of malignancies.

  17. Study of heavy-ion induced fission for heavy-element synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Hofmann, S.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Antalic, S.; Aritomo, Y.; Comas, V. F.; Düllman, Ch. E.; Gorshkov, A.; Graeger, R.; Heinz, S.; Heredia, J. A.; Hirose, K.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lommel, B.; Makii, H.; Mann, R.; Mitsuoka, S.; Nagame, Y.; Nishinaka, I.; Ohtsuki, T.; Popeko, A. G.; Saro, S.; Schädel, M.; Türler, A.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Yakushev, A.; Yeremin, A. V.

    2014-03-01

    Fission fragment mass distributions were measured in heavy-ion induced fissions using 238U target nucleus. The measured mass distributions changed drastically with incident energy. The results are explained by a change of the ratio between fusion and qasifission with nuclear orientation. A calculation based on a fluctuation dissipation model reproduced the mass distributions and their incident energy dependence. Fusion probability was determined in the analysis, and the values were consistent with those determined from the evaporation residue cross sections.

  18. Preferential acceleration of heavy ions in the reconnection outflow region. Drift and surfatron ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Zimbardo, G.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Fujimoto, M.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Many observations show that heating in the solar corona should be more effective for heavy ions than for protons. Moreover, the efficiency of particle heating also seems to be larger for a larger particle electric charge. The transient magnetic reconnection is one of the most natural mechanisms of charged particle acceleration in the solar corona. However, the role of this process in preferential acceleration of heavy ions has still yet to be investigated. Aims: In this paper, we consider charged particle acceleration in the reconnection outflow region. We investigate the dependence of efficiency of various mechanisms of particle acceleration on particle charge and mass. Methods: We take into account recent in situ spacecraft observations of the nonlinear magnetic waves that have originated in the magnetic reconnection. We use analytical estimates and test-particle trajectories to study resonant and nonresonant particle acceleration by these nonlinear waves. Results: We show that resonant acceleration of heavy ions by nonlinear magnetic waves in the reconnection outflow region is more effective for heavy ions and/or for ions with a larger electric charge. Nonresonant acceleration can be considered as a combination of particle reflections from the front of the nonlinear waves. Energy gain for a single reflection is proportional to the particle mass, while the maximum possible gain of energy corresponds to the classical betatron heating. Conclusions: Small-scale transient magnetic reconnections produce nonlinear magnetic waves propagating away from the reconnection region. These waves can effectively accelerate heavy ions in the solar corona via resonant and nonresonnat regimes of interactions. This mechanism of acceleration is more effective for ions with a larger mass and/or with a larger electric charge.

  19. Characteristics of low energy ions in the Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, Thomas; Tylka, Allan J.; Boberg, Paul R.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.

    1995-01-01

    We present preliminary data on heavy ions (Z greater than or equal to 10) detected in the topmost Lexan sheets of the track detector stacks of the Heavy Ions in space (HIIS) experiment (M0001) on LDEF. The energy interval covered by these observations varies with the element, with (for example) Ne observable at 18-100 MeV nuc and Fe at 45-200 MeV/nuc. All of the observed ions are at energies far below the geomagnetic cutoff for fully-ionized particles at the LDEF orbit. Above 50 MeV/nuc (where most of our observed particles are Fe), the ions arrive primarily from the direction of lowest geomagnetic cutoff. This suggests that these particles originate outside the magnetosphere from a source with a steeply-falling spectrum and may therefore be associated with solar energetic particle (SEP) events. Below 50 MeV/nuc, the distribution of arrival directions suggests that most of the observed heavy ions are trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. Preliminary analysis, however, shows that these trapped heavy ions have a very surprising composition: they include not only Ne and Ar, which are expected from the trapping of anomalous cosmic rays (ACR's), but also Mg and Si, which are not part of the anomalous component. Our preliminary analysis shows that trapped heavy ions at 12 less than or equal to Zeta less than or equal to 14 have a steeply-falling spectrum, similar to that reported by the Kiel experiment (exp 1,2,3) on LDEF (M0002) for trapped Ar and Fe at E less than 50 MeV/nuc. The trapped Mg, Si, and Fe may also be associated with SEP events, but the mechanism by which they have appeared to deep in the inner magnetosphere requires further theoretical investigation.

  20. Heavy ion physics at BNL, the AGS and RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, D.I.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of heavy ion acceleration with the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1986 and the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) for 1990 brings us into a temperature and density regime well above anything yet produced and into a time domain of the early universe of 10/sup -13/-10/sup -6/ seconds. The physics of high energy heavy ions range from the more traditional nuclear physics to the formation of new forms of matter. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the latest, and as of yet, the most successful theory to describe the interaction of quarks and gluons. The nature of the confinement of the quarks and gluons under extremes of temperature and density is one of the compelling reasons for this new physics program at BNL. There are reasons to believe that with collisions of heavy nuclei at energies in the 10 to 100 GeV/amu range a very large volume of approx. 10 fm/sup 3/ would be heated to 200-300 MeV and/or acquire a sufficient quark density (5-10 times normal baryon density) so that the entire contents of the volume would be deconfined and the quarks and gluons would form a plasma. The kinematic region for the extant machines and the proposed RHIC are shown. At AGS energies the baryons in colliding nuclei bring each other to rest, yielding fragmentation regions of high baryon density. These are the regions in which supernorvae and neutrons stars exist. For energies much higher, such as in RHIC, nuclei are transparent to each other and one can form a central region of almost zero baryon density, mostly pions, and very high temperature. This is the region of the early universe and the quark-gluon plasma. Design parameters and cost of the RHIC are discussed.